Garmin | G1000 NXI: Socata TBM 910 | Garmin G1000 NXI: Socata TBM 910 G1000 NXI Pilot's Guide for Socata TBM 910 - SSV 2883.01

Garmin G1000 NXI: Socata TBM 910 G1000 NXI Pilot's Guide for Socata TBM 910 - SSV 2883.01
®
Pilot’s Guide
Daher TBM 910
System Software Version 2883.01 or later
Copyright © 2019 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 2883.01 or later for the G1000 NXi Daher TBM 910. Some differences in
operation may be observed when comparing the information in this manual to earlier or later software versions.
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Garmin®, G1000® NXi, WATCH®, FliteCharts®, Connext®and SafeTaxi® are registered trademarks of Garmin International, Inc. or its
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or alleged inaccuracies in the information. Some jurisdictions do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for
incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you.
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
AC-U-KWIK and its related organizations (hereafter collectively “AC-U-KWIK Organizations”) expressly disclaim all warranties with
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do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations
or exclusions may not apply to licensee.
Printed in the U.S.A.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
190-02218-01 Rev. B
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for maintaining separation
from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data from third party sources and cannot
independently verify the accuracy of the information.
WARNING: Always refer to current aeronautical charts and NOTAMs for verification of displayed aeronautical
information. Displayed aeronautical data may not incorporate the latest NOTAM information.
WARNING: Do not use geometric altitude for compliance with air traffic control altitude requirements. The
primary barometric altimeter must be used for compliance with all air traffic control altitude regulations,
requirements, instructions, and clearances.
WARNING: Do not use basemap information (land and water data) as the sole means of navigation. Basemap
data is intended only to supplement other approved navigation data sources and should be considered only
an aid to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate information
from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be older than the indicated weather product age.
WARNING: Do not rely on the displayed minimum safe altitude (MSAs) as the sole source of obstacle
and terrain avoidance information. Always refer to current aeronautical charts for appropriate minimum
clearance altitudes.
WARNING: Do not operate this equipment without first obtaining qualified instruction.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not operate properly
with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height above mean sea level, or the
standard pressure setting, as applicable.
WARNING: Do not use GPS to navigate to any active waypoint identified as a ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ by a
system message. ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ waypoints are derived from an unknown map reference datum that
may be incompatible with the map reference datum used by GPS (known as WGS84) and may be positioned
in error as displayed.
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not rely on the autopilot to level the aircraft at the MDA/DH when flying an approach with
vertical guidance. The autopilot will not level the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the
altitude preselect.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely on the accuracy of attitude and heading indications in the following geographic
areas (due to variations in the earth’s magnetic field): North of 72° North latitude at all longitudes; South
of 70° South latitude at all longitudes; North of 65° North latitude between longitude 75° W and 120° W.
(Northern Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 70° W and 128° W. (Northern Canada);
North of 70° North latitude between longitude 85° E and 114° E. (Northern Russia); South of 55° South
latitude between longitude 120° E and 165° E. (Region south of Australia and New Zealand).
WARNING: Do not rely on information from a lightning detection system display as the sole basis for hazardous
weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate or
incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
Garmin SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or
reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
WARNING: Do not use the Garmin SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of
the aircraft to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the Garmin SVT display or may
appear as a partial symbol.
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
the MPEL boundary.
WARNING: Always position the weather radar gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the actual intensity of
precipitation. Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity.
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain or obstacle avoidance. TAWS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
190-02218-01 Rev. B
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use SurfaceWatch™ information as the primary method of flight guidance during airborne
or ground operations. SurfaceWatch does not have NOTAM or ATIS information regarding the current active
runway, condition, or information about the position of hold lines.
CAUTION: Do not clean display surfaces with abrasive cloths or cleaners containing ammonia. They will
harm the anti-reflective coating.
CAUTION: Do not allow repairs to be made by anyone other than an authorized Garmin service center.
Unauthorized repairs or modifications could void both the warranty and affect the airworthiness of the
aircraft.
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen images of the system panel
and displays, are subject to change and may not reflect the most current system and aviation databases.
Depictions of equipment may differ slightly from the actual equipment.
NOTE: The United States government operates the Global Positioning System and is solely responsible for
its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy and
performance of all GPS equipment. Portions of the system utilize GPS as a precision electronic NAVigation
AID (NAVAID). Therefore, as with all NAVAIDs, information presented by the system can be misused or
misinterpreted and, therefore, become unsafe.
NOTE: This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
(1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received,
including interference that may cause undesired operation.
NOTE: Interference from GPS repeaters operating inside nearby hangars can cause an intermittent loss of
attitude and heading displays while the aircraft is on the ground. Moving the aircraft more than 100 yards
away from the source of the interference should alleviate the condition.
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the flight displays to appear dim or blank.
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals known to the State of California
to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This notice is being provided in accordance with
California’s Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would like additional information, please refer to
our web site at www.garmin.com/prop65.
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
iii
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: Operating the system in the vicinity of metal buildings, metal structures, or electromagnetic fields
can cause sensor differences that may result in nuisance miscompare annunciations during start up, shut
down, or while taxiing. If one or more of the sensed values are unavailable, the annunciation indicates no
comparison is possible.
NOTE: The system responds to a terminal procedure based on data coded within that procedure in the
Navigation Database. Differences in system operation may be observed among similar types of procedures
due to differences in the Navigation Database coding specific to each procedure.
NOTE: The FAA has asked Garmin to remind pilots who fly with Garmin database-dependent avionics of the
following:
• It is the pilot’s responsibility to remain familiar with all FAA regulatory and advisory guidance and information
related to the use of databases in the National Airspace System.
• Garmin equipment will only recognize and use databases that are obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen. Databases
obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen that have a Type 2 Letter of Authorization (LOA) from the FAA are assured
compliance with all data quality requirements (DQRs). A copy of the Type 2 LOA is available for each applicable
database and can be viewed at http://fly.garmin.com by selecting ‘Aviation Database Declarations.’
• Use of a current Garmin or Jeppesen database in your Garmin equipment is required for compliance with
established FAA regulatory guidance, but does not constitute authorization to fly any and all terminal procedures
that may be presented by the system. It is the pilot’s responsibility to operate in accordance with established
AFM(S) and regulatory guidance or limitations as applicable to the pilot, the aircraft, and installed equipment.
NOTE: The pilot/operator must review and be familiar with Garmin’s database exclusion list as discussed in
SAIB CE-14-04 to determine what data may be incomplete. The database exclusion list can be viewed at
www.flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Database Exclusions List.’
NOTE: The pilot/operator must have access to Garmin and Jeppesen database alerts and consider their
impact on the intended aircraft operation. The database alerts can be viewed at www.flygarmin.com by
selecting ‘Aviation Database Alerts.’
NOTE: If the pilot/operator wants or needs to adjust the database, contact Garmin Product Support.
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information.
These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles
and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go
to FlyGarmin.com and select ‘Aviation Data Error Report’.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: Electronic aeronautical charts displayed on this system have been shown to meet the guidance in AC
120-76D as a Type B Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) for FlightCharts and ChartView. The accuracy of the charts
is subject to the chart data provider. Own-ship position on airport surface charts cannot be guaranteed to
meet the accuracy specified in AC 120-76D. Possible additional requirements may make a secondary source
of aeronautical charts, such as traditional paper charts or an additional electronic display, necessary on the
aircraft and available to the pilot. If the secondary source of aeronautical charts is a Portable Electronic
Device (PED), its use must be consistent with the guidance in AC 120-76D.
NOTE: The navigation databases used in Garmin navigation systems contain Special Procedures. Prior
to flying these procedures, pilots must have specific FAA authorization, training, and possession of the
corresponding current, and legitimately-sourced chart (approach plate, etc.). Inclusion of the Special
Procedure in the navigation database DOES NOT imply specific FAA authorization to fly the procedure.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South
latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s ability to process
the data representing the affected areas.
NOTE: The nose of the ‘own ship’ symbol represents the location of the aircraft. The center of any traffic
symbol represents the location of that traffic. The traffic and own ship symbols are an abstract representation
and do not reflect the physical extent of the aircraft/traffic, and should not replace other methods for
identifying traffic.
NOTE: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the Garmin SVT display or may appear as
a partial symbol.
NOTE: When using Stormscope, there are several atmospheric phenomena in addition to nearby thunderstorms
that can cause isolated discharge points in the strike display mode. However, clusters of two or more
discharge points in the strike display mode do indicate thunderstorm activity if these points reappear after
the screen has been cleared.
NOTE: Operate G1000 NXi system power through at least one cycle in a period of four days of continuous
operation to avoid an autonomous system reboot.
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
190-02218-01 Rev. B
SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
BY USING THE DEVICE, COMPONENT OR SYSTEM MANUFACTURED OR SOLD BY GARMIN (“THE GARMIN PRODUCT”), YOU AGREE TO
BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THE FOLLOWING SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT. PLEASE READ THIS AGREEMENT
CAREFULLY. Garmin Ltd. and its subsidiaries (“Garmin”) grants you a limited license to use the software embedded in the Garmin Product
(the “Software”) in binary executable form in the normal operation of the Garmin Product. Title, ownership rights, and intellectual property
rights in and to the Software remain with Garmin and/or its third-party providers. You acknowledge that the Software is the property of
Garmin and/or its third-party providers and is protected under the United States of America copyright laws and international copyright
treaties. You further acknowledge that the structure, organization, and code of the Software are valuable trade secrets of Garmin and/or its
third-party providers and that the Software in source code form remains a valuable trade secret of Garmin and/or its third-party providers.
You agree not to reproduce, decompile, disassemble, modify, reverse assemble, reverse engineer, or reduce to human readable form the
Software or any part thereof or create any derivative works based on the Software. You agree not to export or re-export the Software to
any country in violation of the export control laws of the United States of America.
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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REVISION INFORMATION
Record of Revisions
Part Number
190-02218-00
Revision
A
B
Date
3/27/17
4/6/17
190-02218-01
A
12/18/18
B
8/22/19
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Page Range
Description
i – I-6
Initial Release for GDU 20.51
i – I-6
Revision
Added support for Split Screen Mode
Updated CAS Messages
Added Voice Message Alerts
Updated ESP Information
Added support for Electronic Checklists
i – I-6
Updated CAS Messages
Updated System Messages
Added SurfaceWatch
Edited Database Management section
Revised FMS section format and content
Added Flight Plan Progress, Visual Approach, and Flight Plan
altitude auto-designation
Added other GDU 20.87 parameters
Revision
i – I-6
Clerical update
Updated system messages
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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REVISION INFORMATION
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190-02218-01 Rev. B
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Description.................................................... 1
Line Replaceable Units (LRU).......................................... 1
System Controls......................................................... 4
PFD Controls................................................................. 4
Controls Associated With the MFD.................................. 6
Secure Digital Cards....................................................... 8
System Operation...................................................... 9
System Power-up........................................................... 9
Normal Operation........................................................ 10
Reversionary Mode...................................................... 11
System Annunciations.................................................. 12
System Status.............................................................. 14
AHRS Operation.......................................................... 15
GPS Receiver Operation............................................... 16
Accessing System Functionality............................. 21
Softkey Function.......................................................... 21
Menus........................................................................ 27
MFD Page Groups........................................................ 28
System Settings........................................................... 31
System Utilities............................................................ 41
Display Backlighting................................................ 46
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 Flight Instruments.................................................... 50
Airspeed Indicator....................................................... 50
Attitude Indicator........................................................ 53
Altimeter.................................................................... 54
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)........................................ 57
Vertical Deviation........................................................ 57
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............................... 60
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)................................... 65
Angle of Attack (AOA) Indicator.................................... 72
Radar Altimeter........................................................... 73
2.2 Supplemental Flight Data....................................... 75
Temperature Displays................................................... 75
Wind Data.................................................................. 76
Vertical Navigation (VNV) Indications............................ 77
2.3 PFD Annunciations and Alerting Functions........... 78
Marker Beacon Annunciations...................................... 78
Altitude Alerting.......................................................... 78
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Low Altitude Annunciation........................................... 79
Minimum Altitude Alerting........................................... 79
2.4 Garmin SVT (Synthetic Vision Technology)............ 81
SVT Operation............................................................. 82
SVT Features............................................................... 84
Field of View............................................................... 93
2.5 Abnormal Operations.............................................. 94
Abnormal GPS Conditions............................................ 94
Comparator Annunciations........................................... 95
Reversionary Sensor Annunciations............................... 96
Unusual Attitudes........................................................ 97
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
EIS Display.............................................................. 100
Landing Field Elevation......................................... 103
Aircraft Systems .................................................... 104
Electrical................................................................... 104
Fuel.......................................................................... 107
General System......................................................... 108
EIS Display (Reversionary Mode)......................... 110
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Overview................................................................. 111
PFD Controls and Frequency Display............................ 112
Audio Panel Controls................................................. 114
COM Operation...................................................... 117
COM Transceiver Manual Tuning................................. 118
Auto-Tuning the COM Frequency................................. 118
Frequency Spacing..................................................... 121
NAV Operation....................................................... 122
NAV Tuning Boxes..................................................... 122
NAV Radio Selection and Activation............................ 123
NAV Receiver Manual Tuning...................................... 123
Auto-Tuning a NAV Frequency from the MFD............... 124
Marker Beacon Receiver............................................. 126
ADF/DME Tuning....................................................... 127
Mode S Transponders............................................ 130
Transponder Controls................................................. 130
Transponder Mode Selection....................................... 131
Entering a Transponder Code...................................... 133
IDENT Function......................................................... 134
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
4.5 Additional Audio Panel Functions........................ 135
Power-Up.................................................................. 135
Mono/Stereo Headsets............................................... 135
Speaker.................................................................... 135
Ambient Noise Compensation..................................... 135
Intercom System (ICS)................................................ 135
Passenger Address (PA) System................................... 137
Simultaneous COM Operation..................................... 137
Clearance Recorder and Player.................................... 138
Telephone/Entertainment Inputs.................................. 138
3D Audio.................................................................. 139
Blue-Select Mode...................................................... 139
Bluetooth Setup........................................................ 140
4.6 Audio Panels Preflight Procedure........................ 141
4.7 Abnormal Operation.............................................. 142
Stuck Microphone...................................................... 142
COM Tuning Failure.................................................... 142
PFD Failure, Dual System............................................ 142
Audio Panel Fail-Safe Operation.................................. 142
Reversionary Mode.................................................... 142
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
xiv
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Introduction............................................................ 143
Navigation Status Box and Data Bar............................ 145
Using Map Displays............................................... 147
Map Orientation........................................................ 147
Map Range............................................................... 149
Map Panning............................................................. 151
Measuring Bearing and Distance................................. 153
Topography............................................................... 154
Map Symbols............................................................ 157
Airways.................................................................... 161
Additional Navigation Map Items................................ 163
IFR/VFR Charts.......................................................... 166
Waypoints............................................................... 169
Airports.................................................................... 170
Non-Airport Waypoints............................................... 176
Airspaces................................................................. 184
Nearest Airspace....................................................... 185
Smart Airspace.......................................................... 188
Direct-to-Navigation ............................................ 189
Flight Planning....................................................... 194
Flight Plan Views....................................................... 197
Creating a Flight Plan................................................ 200
Flight Plan Waypoint and Airway Modifications............ 201
Flight Plan Operations................................................ 209
User-Defined Holding Patterns.................................... 214
Managing Flight Plans............................................... 218
5.7 Vertical Navigation................................................ 228
Constraints............................................................... 229
Vertical Situation Display (VSD)................................... 232
5.8 Procedures.............................................................. 238
Departures................................................................ 239
Arrivals .................................................................... 242
Approaches .............................................................. 246
5.9 Weight Planning..................................................... 256
Weight Caution And Warning Conditions..................... 258
5.10 Trip Planning........................................................... 259
Trip Planning............................................................. 259
5.11 Abnormal Operation.............................................. 263
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 Data Link Weather................................................. 266
Activating Data Link Weather Services......................... 267
Weather Product Age................................................. 270
Displaying Data Link Weather Products........................ 275
Connext Data Requests.............................................. 284
Weather Product Overview......................................... 288
FIS-B Weather Status................................................. 326
Abnormal Operations for Garmin Connext Weather...... 328
6.2 Stormscope Lightning Detection System............ 330
Using the Stormscope Page........................................ 331
Additional Stormscope Displays.................................. 332
Stormscope Abnormal Operations............................... 334
6.3 Airborne Color Weather Radar............................. 335
System Description.................................................... 335
Principles of Airborne Weather Radar........................... 335
NEXRAD and Airborne Weather Radar ........................ 336
Antenna Beam Illumination........................................ 337
Safe Operating Distance............................................. 342
Basic Antenna Tilt and Range Setup............................ 343
Weather Mapping and Interpretation.......................... 346
Ground Mapping and Interpretation............................ 357
Additional Radar Displays........................................... 358
System Status............................................................ 361
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
6.4 Terrain Displays...................................................... 363
Relative Terrain Symbology......................................... 364
Terrain Page.............................................................. 368
Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Terrain........................ 369
Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B Alerting Displays.................... 373
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance............................. 376
Additional TAWS-B Alerting........................................ 378
System Status............................................................ 380
6.5 Traffic Information Service (TIS)........................... 382
Displaying Traffic Data............................................... 383
Traffic Map Page........................................................ 384
TIS Alerts.................................................................. 385
System Status............................................................ 387
6.6 TAS Traffic................................................................ 389
TAS Theory of Operation............................................. 390
TAS Alerts................................................................. 393
System Test............................................................... 394
Operation................................................................. 395
6.7 ADS-B Traffic........................................................... 402
ADS-B System Overview............................................. 402
Conflict Situational Awareness & Alerting (CSA)........... 404
Airborne and Surface Applications............................... 405
Traffic Description...................................................... 406
Operation................................................................. 407
ADS-B System Status................................................. 413
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 AFCS Overview....................................................... 417
Basic Autopilot Operation........................................... 417
AFCS Controls .......................................................... 418
7.2 Flight Director Operation...................................... 421
Activating the Flight Director...................................... 421
AFCS Status Box........................................................ 422
Flight Director Modes................................................. 422
Switching Flight Directors........................................... 423
Command Bars.......................................................... 423
7.3 AFCS Modes............................................................ 424
Vertical Modes.......................................................... 424
Lateral Modes........................................................... 430
Combination Modes (VNV, APR, NAV, BC, GA, LVL)........ 435
Level Mode............................................................... 446
7.4 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Operation................ 447
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Flight Control............................................................ 447
Engagement.............................................................. 448
Control Wheel Steering.............................................. 448
Disengagement......................................................... 448
Emergency Descent Mode.......................................... 449
7.5 AFCS Annunciations and Alerts............................ 451
AFCS Status Alerts..................................................... 451
Underspeed Protection............................................... 452
Overspeed Protection................................................. 453
7.6 Abnormal Operation.............................................. 454
Suspected Autopilot Malfunction................................ 454
Overpowering Autopilot Servos................................... 454
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SafeTaxi................................................................... 456
Charts...................................................................... 458
Split View................................................................. 459
FliteCharts................................................................ 467
Satellite Phone and SMS Messaging................... 473
Registering with Garmin Connext ............................... 473
Disable/Enable Iridium Transceiver.............................. 473
Telephone Communication......................................... 474
Text Messaging (SMS)................................................ 481
SurfaceWatch.......................................................... 491
Information Box........................................................ 491
Alerts....................................................................... 493
SurfaceWatch Setup................................................... 495
Database Cycle Numbers and Revisions............. 497
Cycle Number and Revision........................................ 497
Connext Setup........................................................ 499
SiriusXM Radio Entertainment............................. 502
Activating SiriusXM Satellite Radio Services................. 502
Using SiriusXM Radio................................................. 503
Flight Data Logging............................................... 507
Electronic Checklists.............................................. 509
Electronic Stability & Protection (ESP™)............. 511
Roll Engagement....................................................... 512
Pitch Engagement..................................................... 513
Angle of Attack Protection.......................................... 515
High Airspeed Protection............................................ 515
Abnormal Operation.............................................. 516
SiriusXM Datalink Receiver Troubleshooting................. 516
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
APPENDICES
Annunciations and Alerts................................................ 519
CAS Message Prioritization......................................... 520
CAS Messages........................................................... 522
Audio Alerts.............................................................. 524
System Message Advisories........................................ 525
Database Management................................................... 539
Loading Updated Databases....................................... 539
Database Deletion Feature ........................................ 549
Magnetic Field Variation Database Update................... 550
Aviation Terms and Acronyms......................................... 553
Frequently Asked Questions........................................... 563
Miscellaneous Map Symbols.......................................... 567
INDEX
Index ................................................................................... I-1
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
This section provides an overview of the G1000 NXi Integrated Avionics System as installed in the Daher TBM
910. The system is an integrated avionics system that presents flight instrumentation, position, navigation,
communication, and identification information to the pilot through large-format displays.
The system is comprised of several Line Replaceable Units along with an optional Flight Stream 510 device.
The Flight Stream 510 provides a Bluetooth® connection between the system and a mobile device. GPS, AHRS,
ADS-B, traffic, SiriusXM audio, and weather data can then be shared with the mobile device, and flight plans can
be transferred to or from the mobile device. Also, database updates may be performed using the Flight Stream
510 WiFi link.
LINE REPLACEABLE UNITS (LRU)
• GDU 1050A (2) – Each unit is configured as a PFD that features a 10.5-inch LCD display. The unit installed
on the left/pilot side is designated as PFD1, and the one installed on the right/copilot side is designated
as PFD2. These units communicate with each other, the MFD, and with the on-side GIA 64W Integrated
Avionics Unit through a High-Speed Data Bus (HSDB) connection.
• GDU 1550 (1) – This unit features a 15-inch LCD display and is configured as an MFD. This unit is linked
to both PFDs via HSDB connection.
• GIA 64W (2) – Functions as the main communication hub, linking all LRUs with the PFD and MFD. Each
GIA 64W contains a GPS SBAS receiver, VHF COM/NAV/GS receivers, a flight director (FD) and system
integration microprocessors. Each GIA 64W is paired with the PFD and MFD via High Speed Database
connection. The GIA 64Ws are not paired together and do not communicate with each other directly.
• GDC 72B (2) – Processes data from the pitot/static system as well as the OAT probe. This unit provides
pressure altitude, airspeed, vertical speed and OAT information to the system, and it communicates with the
GIA 64Ws, the displays, and the GRS 79, using an ARINC 429 digital interface. The GDC 72B is designed to
operate in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) airspace.
• GRS 79 (2) – Provides aircraft attitude and heading information via ARINC 429 to both displays and both
GIA 64Ws. The GRS 79 contains advanced sensors (including accelerometers and rate sensors) and interfaces
with the GMU 44 to obtain magnetic field information, with the GDC 72B to obtain air data, and with both
GIA 64Ws to obtain GPS information. AHRS modes of operation are discussed later in this document.
• GMU 44 (2) – Measures local magnetic field. Data is sent to the GRS 79 unit for processing to determine
aircraft magnetic heading. The GMU 44 receives power directly from the GRS unit, and communicates with
the GRS 79 unit using an RS-485 digital interface.
• GMA 1360D (2) – Integrates NAV/COM digital audio, intercom system and marker beacon controls, and is
installed in dual configuration on the outboard side of PFD1 and PFD2. This unit also enables the manual
control of the display reversionary mode (red DISPLAY BACKUP button) and communicates with the on-side
GIA 64W, using an RS-232 digital interface.
• GMC 710 (1) – Provides the controls for the Garmin AFCS through an RS-232 digital interface allowing
communication with both PFDs.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• GCU 475 – Provides the Flight Management System (FMS) controls for the MFD through an RS-232 digital
interface.
• GTX 345R (1) or GTX 33D ES (optional) (1) or GTX 345R (optional) (2) – Solid state transponders that
provide Mode A, C, S capability. The standard GTX 345R provides ADS-B In/Out. The optional GTX 33D
ES includes Mode S with diversity and Extended Squitter Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS-B out)
transmission, and is indicated as ‘XPDR1’. The optional GTX 33D ES may be installed in addition to the GTX
345R, in which case, it is indicated as ‘XPDR2’. The system may instead accommodate an optional dual set of
GTX 345R transponders as well, occupying ‘XPDR1’ and ‘XPDR2’. Only one transponder can be active at a
time. Each transponder communicates with the on-side GIA 64W through an RS-232 digital interface. The
(#1) GTX 345R communicates with the PFD via High Speed Database connection.
• GEA 71B (2) – Receives and processes signals from the engine and airframe sensors. This unit communicates
with both GIA 64Ws using an RS-485 digital interface.
• GSA 81 (4) and GSM 86 (4) – The GSA 81 servos are used for the automatic control of roll, yaw, pitch, and
pitch trim. These units interface with each GIA 64W.
The GSM 86 servo gearbox is responsible for transferring the output torque of the GSA 81 servo actuator to
the mechanical flight-control surface linkage.
• GTA 82 (1) – The GTA 82 Trim Adapter is a remote mounted device that is used to allow the AFCS to drive
the yaw trim actuator.
• GRA 55 (1) (Optional) – The optional Radar Altimeter provides altitude above the ground information and
rate of change of radar altitude information.
• GDL 69A SXM (1) (Optional) – A satellite radio receiver that provides data link weather information to the
MFD (and, indirectly, to the inset map of the PFD) as well as digital audio entertainment. The GDL 69A
SXM communicates with the MFD via HSDB connection. Subscriptions to the SiriusXM Weather or SiriusXM
Satellite Radio services are required to enable the GDL 69A SXM capability.
• GTS 820 (1) (Optional) – The GTS 820 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) uses active interrogations of Mode
S and Mode C transponders to provide traffic information to the pilot independent of the air traffic control
system.
• GWX 70 (1) (Optional) – Provides airborne weather and ground mapped radar data to the MFD via HSDB
connection.
Figure 1-1 shows interactions between the LRUs. Additional/optional equipment are also shown in Figure
1-1. The system is capable of interfacing with the following optional equipment:
• WX 500 Stormscope Lightning Sensor
• Becker ADF 3502
• KN 63 DME
NOTE: For information on non-Garmin equipment, consult the applicable optional interface user’s guide.
This document assumes that the reader is already familiar with the operation of this additional equipment.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GMC 710
(AFCS
Controller)
#1
GDU 1050A
(PFD1)
GCU 475
(Display
Controller)
#1 GIA 64W
(Integrated
Avionics Unit)
#3
GDU 1550
(MFD)
GDL 69A SXM
(SiriusXM
Weather Datalink/
Datalink)
FS 510
(SD Card
Wireless
Transceiver)
GWX 70
(Weather Radar)
GTS 820
(TAS)
#1 GMA 1360D
(Audio Panel)
#2 GMA 1360D
(Audio Panel)
#1 GMU 44
(Magnetometer)
#2 GMU 44
(Magnetometer)
#1 GRS 79
(Attitude & Heading)
#2
GDU 1050A
(PFD2)
#2 GIA 64W
(Integrated
Avionics Unit)
#2 GRS 79
(Attitude & Heading)
VHF COM
VHF COM
GPS/SBAS
VOR/LOC
G/S
GPS/SBAS
#2 GDC 72B
(Air Data
Computer)
#1 GDC 72B
(Air Data
Computer)
VOR/LOC
G/S
AFCS Mode
Logic
#1 GTA 82
(Trim Adapter)
AFCS Mode
Logic
Flight
Director
#1 GSA 81 (Pitch)
Flight
Director
#2 GSA 81 (Yaw)
Servo
Management
Servo
Management
#3 GSA 81 (Roll)
#4 GSA 81
(Pitch Trim)
GEA 71B
(Engine & Airframe 1/2)
#1 GTX 345R
(Transponder)
or
#2 GTX 345R
(Transponder)
ADF
3502
#2 GTX 33D ES
(Transponder)
Stormscope
WX 500
Flight
Data
Recorder
KN 63
DME
GRA 55
(Radar
Altimiter)
Garmin Equipment
AOA
Sensor
Non-Garmin
Equipment
Optional
Garmin Equipment
Optional
Non-Garmin Equipment
Figure 1-1 System (LRU Configuration)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.2 SYSTEM CONTROLS
NOTE: The Audio Panel (GMA 1360D) and AFCS controls (GMC 710) are described in the Audio & CNS and
AFCS sections respectively.
The system controls are located on the PFD and MFD bezels, MFD Control Unit, AFCS Control Unit and audio
panel. The controls for the PFD and MFD are discussed within the following pages of this section.
PFD CONTROLS
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
8
Figure 1-2 PFD Controls
9
13
10
14
11
15
12
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
The following list provides an overview of the controls located on the PFD bezel (see Figure 1-2).
1
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to toggle the Morse code identifier audio ON
and OFF. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Toggles the standby and active NAV frequencies.
3
Dual NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Press to switch the tuning box (cyan box) between NAV1 and NAV2.
4
Joystick – Changes the map range when rotated. Activates the map pointer when pressed.
5
BARO Knob – Sets the altimeter barometric pressure. Press to enter standard pressure (29.92).
6
Dual COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small
knob for kHz). Press to switch the tuning box (cyan box) between COM1 and COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Toggles the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this
key for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency
field as a percentage. Press to turn the COM automatic squelch ON and OFF.
9
Direct-to Key ( ) – Allows the user to enter a destination waypoint and establish a direct course to the
selected destination (the destination is either specified by the identifier, chosen from the active route, or
taken from the map pointer position).
10
FPL Key – Displays the active Flight Plan Page for creating and editing the active flight plan.
11
CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes page menus.
12
Dual FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob. Press the FMS Knob to turn the selection cursor
ON and OFF. When the cursor is ON, data may be entered in the applicable window by turning the small
and large knobs. The large knob moves the cursor on the page, while the small knob selects individual
characters for the highlighted cursor location.
13
MENU Key – Displays a context-sensitive list of options. This list allows the user to access additional
features or make setting changes that relate to particular pages.
14
PROC Key – Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs) and approach
procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan. If a flight plan is used, available procedures for the departure and/or
arrival airport are automatically suggested. These procedures can then be loaded into the active flight plan.
If a flight plan is not used, both the desired airport and the desired procedure may be selected.
15
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
CONTROLS ASSOCIATED WITH THE MFD
The controls for the MFD (GDU 1550) are located on both the MFD bezel and the MFD Control Unit (GCU
475). The bottom portion of the MFD bezel features 12 softkeys that are designed to perform various functions
depending upon the control display mode and the specific page being displayed. These softkeys are discussed
throughout this documentation.
The following list provides an overview of the controls located on the MFD Control Unit:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
14
13
12
11
10
Figure 1-3 MFD Control Unit (GCU 475)
6
1
Dual FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob. This knob selects the MFD page to be viewed; the large
knob selects a page group (MAP, WPT, Aux, RPL, Sys, NRST), while the small knob selects a specific page
within the page group. Pressing the FMS Knob turns the selection cursor ON and OFF. When the cursor
is ON, data may be entered in the applicable window by turning the small and large knobs. In this case,
the large knob moves the cursor on the page, while the small knob selects individual characters for the
highlighted cursor location.
2
FPL Key – Displays the active Flight Plan Page for creating and editing the active flight plan, or for
accessing stored flight plans.
3
Direct-to Key ( ) – Allows the user to enter a destination waypoint and establish a direct course to the
selected destination (the destination is either specified by the identifier, chosen from the active route, or
taken from the map pointer position).
4
MENU Key – Displays a context-sensitive list of options. This list allows the user to access additional
features or make setting changes that relate to particular pages.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
5
PROC Key – Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs) and approach
procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan. If a flight plan is used, available procedures for the departure and/or
arrival airport are automatically suggested. Theses procedures can then be loaded into the active flight
plan. If a flight plan is not used, both the desired airport and the desired procedure may be selected.
6
Joystick – Changes the map range when rotated. Activates the map pointer when pressed.
7
Alphanumeric Keys – Allow the user to enter data quickly, without having to select individual characters
with the FMS Knob.
8
Plus (+) Minus (-) Key – Switches between a (+) or (-) character.
9
Decimal Key – Enters a decimal point.
10
SEL Key – The center of this key activates the selected softkey, while the right and left arrows move the
softkey selection box to the right and left, respectively.
11
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
12
CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes page menus. Pressing and holding this key
displays the Navigation Map Page automatically.
13
SPC Key – Adds a space character.
14
BKSP Key – Moves the cursor back one character space.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SECURE DIGITAL CARDS
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for instructions on updating the aviation databases.
NOTE: Ensure that the system is powered off before inserting the SD card.
The GDU 1050A/1550 data card slots use Secure Digital (SD) cards and are located on the top right portion
of the display bezels. Each display bezel is equipped with two SD card slots. SD cards are used optionally for
aviation database and system software updates; terrain database storage; and flight plan import and export from
an SD card in the MFD.
Inserting and Removing an SD card:
Insert the SD card in the SD card slot, pushing the card in until the spring latch engages. The front of the card
should remain flush with the face of the display bezel. To remove, gently press on the SD card to release the
spring latch and eject the card.
SD Card Slots
Figure 1-4 PFD/MFD Display Bezel SD Card Slots
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.3 SYSTEM OPERATION
This section discusses powering up the system, normal and reversionary display operation, system status, AHRS
modes of operation, and GPS receiver operation.
SYSTEM POWER-UP
NOTE: See the Appendices for additional information regarding system-specific annunciations and alerts.
NOTE: See the current version of the pertinent flight manual for specific procedures concerning avionics
power application and emergency power supply operation.
The system is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical busses.
The PFD, MFD, and supporting sub-systems include both power-on and continuous built-in test features that
exercise the processor, RAM, ROM, external inputs and outputs to provide safe operation.
When powering up the system, test annunciations are displayed and key annunciator lights also become
momentarily illuminated on the audio panel and the display bezels. On the PFD, the AHRS begins to initialize
and displays ‘AHRS/DG ALIGN: Remain Stationary’. All system annunciations should disappear typically
within one minute of power-up.
When the MFD powers up, the MFD Power-up Page displays the following information:
• System version
• Land database name and version
• Safe Taxi database name and effective dates
• Terrain database name and version
• Obstacle database name and effective dates
• Navigation database name and effective dates
• Airport Directory name and effective dates
• FliteCharts/ChartView database information
• IFR/VFR charts database information
• Crew Profile
• Copyright
Current database information includes the valid operating dates, cycle number and database type. When this
information has been reviewed for currency (to ensure that no databases have expired), the pilot is prompted to
continue. Pressing the ENT Key acknowledges this information and displays the ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
NORMAL OPERATION
NOTE: In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be adjusted from the PFD (see Section 1.5). In
reversionary mode, it can be adjusted from the remaining display.
In normal operating mode, the PFD presents graphical flight instrumentation (attitude, heading, airspeed,
altitude, vertical speed), replacing the traditional flight instrument cluster (see the Flight Instruments Section
for more information). The MFD normally displays a full-color moving map with navigation information (see
the Flight Management Section), while the left portion of the MFD is dedicated to the Engine Indication System
(see the EIS Section). Both displays offer control for COM and NAV frequency selection.
PFD1
PFD2
MFD
Figure 1-5 Normal Operation
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
REVERSIONARY MODE
NOTE: The system alerts the pilot when backup paths are utilized by the LRUs. Refer to the Appendices for
further information regarding system-specific alerts.
Reversionary mode is a mode of operation in which all important flight information is presented identically
on at least one of the remaining displays. Transition to reversionary mode should be straightforward for the
pilot, for flight parameters are presented in the same format as in normal mode.
Figure 1-6 Reversionary Mode
Reversionary mode can be activated manually by pressing the dedicated DISPLAY BACKUP button at the
bottom of the audio panel (refer to the Audio Panel section for further details). Pressing this button again
deactivates reversionary mode.
Pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP
button activates/deactivates
reversionary mode for both the
on-side PFD and the MFD.
Figure 1-7 DISPLAY BACKUP Button
Each display can be configured to operate in reversionary mode, as follows:
• PFD1 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the left audio panel.
• MFD – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the left or the right audio panel.
• PFD2 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the right audio panel.
Should the connection between a PFD and the on-side IAUs become inoperative, the on-side IAUs can no
longer communicate with the remaining PFD (refer to Figure 1-1). As a result, the NAV and COM functions
provided to the failed PFD by the on-side IAUs are flagged as invalid (red “X”) on the remaining PFD.
Figure 1-8 Inoperative Input (NAV1 Shown)
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
NOTE: Upon power-up, certain windows remain invalid as system equipment begins to initialize. All windows
should be operational within one minute of power-up. If any window continues to remain flagged, the
system should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized repair facility.
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red ‘X’ is typically displayed on windows associated with the
failed data (refer to Table 1-1 for all possible flags and the responsible LRUs). Refer to the current version of the
pertinent flight manual for additional information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
The status of detected LRUs can be checked on the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page. Active LRUs are indicated by
green check marks; failed LRUs are indicated by red ‘X’s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center or
Garmin-authorized dealer informed.
Viewing LRU information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page.
2) To place the cursor in the ‘LRU Information’ Box,
Select the LRU Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) With ‘Select LRU Window’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to scroll through the box to view LRU status information.
NOTE: Refer to the current version of the pertinent flight manual for additional information regarding pilot
responses to these annunciations.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Annunciation
Comment
System Annunciation
Air Data, Attitude and Heading
Reference System is aligning.
Comment
Display system is not receiving
airspeed input from the air
data computer.
Display system is not receiving
attitude information from the
AHRS.
Display system is not receiving
vertical speed input from the
air data computer.
Display system is not receiving
valid heading input from the
AHRS or magnetometer.
AHRS calibration incomplete or
configuration module failure.
Display system is not receiving
altitude input from the air data
computer.
GPS information is either
not present or is invalid for
navigation use. Note that
AHRS utilizes GPS inputs
during normal operation.
AHRS operation may be
degraded if GPS signals are
not present (see the current
version of the pertinent flight
manual).
Other Various Red X
Indications
Display system is not receiving
valid OAT information from the
air data computer.
Display system is not receiving
valid transponder information.
A red ‘X’ through any other
display field (such as engine
instrumentation fields)
indicates that the field is not
receiving valid data.
Table 1-1 System Annunciations
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM STATUS
The System Status Page displays the status and software version numbers for all detected system LRUs.
Pertinent information on all system databases is also displayed. Active LRUs are indicated by green check marks
and failed LRUs are indicated by red “X”s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center or Garmin dealer
informed.
Figure 1-9 Example System Status Page
The LRU and ARFRM Softkeys on the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page select the applicable list (LRU Information
or Airframe window) through which the FMS Knob can be used to scroll information within the selected
window.
Selecting the MFD1 DB Softkey (label annunciator turns green indicting the softkey is selected) places
the cursor in the database window. Use the FMS Knob to scroll through database information for the MFD.
Selecting the softkey again will change the softkey label to PFD1 DB. PFD 1 database information is now
displayed in the database window. Selecting the softkey a third time will change the softkey label to PFD2
DB. PFD 2 database information is now displayed in the database window.
The ANN Test Softkey, when selected, causes an annunciation test tone to be played.
The RA Test Softkey, when selected, initiates the Radar Altimeter test mode. For more information, see the
Flight Instruments section.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AHRS OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for specific AHRS alert information.
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering while AHRS is not operating normally may degrade AHRS accuracy.
In addition to using internal sensors, the AHRS uses GPS information, magnetic field data and air data
to assist in attitude/heading calculations. In normal mode, the AHRS relies upon GPS and magnetic field
measurements. If either of these external measurements is unavailable or invalid, the AHRS uses air data
information for attitude determination. Four AHRS modes of operation are available and depend upon the
combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of air data, GPS, or magnetometer sensor inputs is communicated
to the pilot by message advisory alerts.
The AHRS corrects for shifts and variations in the Earth’s magnetic field by applying the Magnetic Field
Variation Database. The Magnetic Field Variation Database is derived from the International Geomagnetic
Reference Field (IGRF). The IGRF is a mathematical model that describes the Earth’s main magnetic field and its
annual rate of change. The database is updated approximately every 5 years. See the Appendices for information
on updating the Magnetic Field Variation Database. The system will prompt you on startup when an update is
available. Failure to update this database could lead to erroneous heading information being displayed to the
pilot.
YES
NO
Mag Data AND Air Data
Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
Mag Data Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
GPS Data Available and Reliable?
AHRS Normal
Mode
NO
YES
Air Data Available and Reliable?
AHRS no-Mag
Mode
AHRS no-Mag/
no-Air Mode
Heading Invalid
Heading Invalid
AHRS no-GPS
Mode
AHRS coast-on-gyros
until invalid
Attitude/Heading Invalid
Figure 1-10 AHRS Operation
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GPS INPUT FAILURE
NOTE: In-flight initialization of AHRS, when operating without any valid source of GPS data and at true
air speed values greater than approximately 200 knots, is not guaranteed. Under these rare conditions, it
is possible for in-flight AHRS initialization to take an indefinite amount of time which would result in an
extended period of time where valid AHRS outputs are unavailable.
The system provides two sources of GPS information. If a single GPS receiver fails, or if the information
provided from one of the GPS receivers is unreliable, the AHRS seamlessly transitions to using the other GPS
receiver. An alert message informs the pilot of the use of the backup GPS path. If both GPS inputs fail, the
AHRS continues to operate in reversionary No-GPS mode so long as the air data and magnetometer inputs
are available and valid.
AIR DATA INPUT FAILURE
A failure of the air data input has no effect on AHRS output while AHRS is operating in normal mode. A
failure of the air data input while the AHRS is operating in reversionary No-GPS mode results in invalid
attitude and heading information on the PFD (as indicated by red “X” flags).
MAGNETOMETER FAILURE
If the magnetometer input fails, the AHRS transitions to one of the reversionary No-Magnetometer modes
and continues to output valid attitude information. However, if the aircraft is airborne, the heading output
on the PFD does become invalid (as indicated by a red “X”).
GPS RECEIVER OPERATION
Each GIA 64W Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU) contains a GPS receiver. Information collected by the specified
receiver (GPS1 for the #1 IAU or GPS2 for the #2 IAU) may be viewed on the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
These GPS sensor annunciations are most often seen after system power-up when one GPS receiver has
acquired satellites before the other, or one of the GPS receivers has not yet acquired a SBAS signal. While
the aircraft is on the ground, the SBAS signal may be blocked by obstructions causing one GPS receiver to
have difficulty acquiring a good signal. Also, while airborne, turning the aircraft may result in one of the GPS
receivers temporarily losing the SBAS signal.
If the sensor annunciation persists, check for a system failure message in the Messages Window on the PFD.
If no failure message exists, check the ‘GPS Status’ Page and compare the information for GPS1 and GPS2.
Discrepancies may indicate a problem.
The ‘GPS Status’ Page provides the following information:
• Constellation
Satellites currently in view are shown at their respective positions on a sky view diagram. The sky view is
always in a north-up orientation, with the outer circle representing the horizon, the inner circle representing
45° above the horizon, and the center point showing the position directly overhead.
Each satellite is represented by an oval containing the Pseudo-random noise (PRN) number (i.e., satellite
identification number). Satellites whose signals are currently being used are represented by solid ovals.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• Satellite Status
This box provides information regarding signal status. The accuracy of the aircraft’s GPS fix is calculated
using Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU), Dilution of Precision (DOP), and horizontal and vertical figures
of merit (HFOM and VFOM). EPU is the radius of a circle centered on an estimated horizontal position in
which actual position has 95% probability of laying. EPU is a statistical error indication and not an actual
error measurement.
DOP measures satellite geometry quality (i.e., number of satellites received and where they are relative to
each other) on a range from 0.0 to 9.9, with lower numbers denoting better accuracy. HFOM and VFOM,
measures of horizontal and vertical position uncertainty, are the current 95% confidence horizontal and
vertical accuracy values reported by the GPS receiver.
The current calculated GPS position, time, altitude, ground speed, and track for the aircraft are displayed
below the satellite signal accuracy measurements.
• RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) Prediction (RAIM Softkey is selected)
In most cases performing a RAIM prediction is not necessary. However, in some cases, the selected approach
may be outside the SBAS coverage area and it may be necessary to perform a RAIM prediction for the intended
approach.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to
calculate a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nautical miles for oceanic and enroute, 1.0
nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of
flight, RAIM is available nearly 100% of the time.
The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a specified date and time. RAIM
computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival date and time.
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not available. The
system automatically monitors RAIM and warns with an alert message when it is not available. If RAIM is not
predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become active, as indicated by
the messages “Approach is not active” and “RAIM not available from FAF to MAP”. If RAIM is not available
when crossing the FAF, the missed approach procedure must be flown.
• GPS Status
The GPS solution type (ACQUIRING, 2D NAV, 2D DIFF NAV, 3D NAV, 3D DIFF NAV) for the active GPS
receiver (GPS1 or GPS2) is shown in the upper right of the GPS Status Page. When the receiver is in the
process of acquiring enough satellite signals for navigation, the receiver uses satellite orbital data (collected
continuously from the satellites) and last known position to determine the satellites that should be in view.
‘Acquiring’ is indicated as the solution until a sufficient number of satellites have been acquired for computing
a solution.
When the receiver is in the process of acquiring a 3D differential GPS solution, 3D NAV is indicated as the
solution until the 3D differential fix has finished acquisition. SBAS (Satellite-Based Augmentation System)
indicates ‘Inactive’. When acquisition is complete, the solution status indicates 3D DIFF NAV and SBAS
indicates ‘Active’.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Satellite Constellation
Diagram
Satellite Signal
Information Status
GPS Receiver
Status
RAIM
Availability
Prediction
EGNOS, MSAS
and WAAS
Selected
Satellite Signal
Strength Bars
GPS Selection
Softkeys
RAIM Softkey
Selected
SBAS Softkey
Selected
Figure 1-11 GPS Status Page (RAIM or SBAS Selected)
Viewing GPS receiver status information:
1) Use the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group (‘Aux’) (see Section 1.4 for information on navigating
MFD page groups).
2) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
Selecting the GPS receiver for which data may be reviewed:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) To change the selected GPS receiver:
Press the desired GPS Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the receiver which is not selected and press the ENT Key.
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
3) Push the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ Field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window.
5) Enter the desired waypoint:
Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired waypoint by identifier, facility, or city name and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
b) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan, Nearest, Recent, or User waypoints, if
required.
c) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint. The system automatically fills in the
identifier, facility, and city fields with the information for the selected waypoint.
d) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
8) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one of
the following is displayed:
• ‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination.
• ‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress.
• ‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date.
• ‘RAIM not Available’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date.
Predicting RAIM availability at present position:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Push the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ Field is highlighted.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) With ‘Set WPT to Present Position’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
9) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one of
the following is displayed:
• ‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination.
• ‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress.
• ‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date.
• ‘RAIM not Available’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SBAS Selection (SBAS Softkey is selected)
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of the SBAS coverage area, it may
be desirable to disable EGNOS, WAAS or MSAS (although it is not recommended). When disabled, the SBAS
field in the ‘GPS Status’ Box indicates Disabled. There may be a small delay for the ‘GPS Status’ Box to be
updated upon WAAS and MSAS enabling/disabling.
Disabling SBAS:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the SBAS Softkey.
3) Push the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘EGNOS’, ‘MSAS’ or ‘WAAS’.
4) Press the ENT Key to uncheck the box.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
• GPS Satellite Signal Strengths
The GPS Status Page can be helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due to poor satellite
coverage or installation problems. As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength bar is displayed
for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite PRN number (01-32 or 120-138 for WAAS) below
each bar. The progress of satellite acquisition is shown in three stages, as indicated by signal bar appearance:
- No bar—Receiver is looking for the indicated satellite
- Hollow bar—Receiver has found the satellite and is collecting data
- Cyan bar—Receiver has collected the necessary data and the satellite signal can be used
- Green bar—Satellite is being used for the GPS solution
- Checkered bar—Receiver has excluded the satellite (Fault Detection and Exclusion)
- “D” indication—Denotes the satellite is being used as part of the differential computations
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission that must be collected (signal strength bar is hollow) before
the satellite may be used for navigation (signal strength bar becomes solid).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.4 ACCESSING SYSTEM FUNCTIONALITY
SOFTKEY FUNCTION
Selection softkeys are located along the bottom of the displays. The softkeys shown depend on the softkey
level previously selected. The bezel keys below the softkey labels can be used to press the appropriate softkey.
There are three types of softkeys. One selects a simple on/off state, indicated by an annunciator on the softkey
label displayed as green (on) or gray (off). The next type of softkey selects among several options, indicated by
the softkey label changing (with the exception of the Map Range keys) to reflect the name of the chosen option.
The last type of softkey, when pressed displays another set of softkeys available for the selected function. Also,
these softkeys revert to the previous level after 45 seconds of inactivity. When a softkey function is disabled,
the softkey label is subdued (dimmed)
Softkey On Softkey Subdued
Softkey Names
(displayed)
Bezel-Mounted
Softkeys (press)
Figure 1-12 Softkeys (First-Level PFD Configuration)
PFD SOFTKEYS
The PFD softkeys provide control over the PFD display and some flight management functions, including
GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic, and weather (optional). Each softkey sublevel has a Back Softkey which can be
pressed to return to the previous level. If messages remain after acknowledgement, the Alerts Softkey is black
on white. The Alerts Softkey is visible in all softkey levels. For the top level softkeys and the transponder
(XPDR) levels, the Ident Softkey remains visible.
The following table describes PFD Softkey functions. Softkeys which display another set of softkeys are
indicated in the table by showing the given set as an increased level. For example, the Map/HSI softkey is
shown in the Level 1 column. When pressed, the Map/HSI Softkey will display another set of softkeys and
these softkeys are explained in the Level 2 column. If a softkey on Level 2 provides yet another set of softkey
functions, those new available softkeys are then explained in the Level 3 column, etc.
Level 1
Map/HSI
Level 2
Level 3
Layout
Map Off
Inset Map
HSI Map
Inset Trfc
HSI Trfc
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Level 4
Description
Displays the PFD Map display settings softkeys.
Displays the PFD Map selection softkeys.
Removes the PFD map from display (Inset or Traffic).
Displays the Inset Map.
Displays the HSI Map.
Replaces the Inset Map with a dedicated traffic display.
Replaces the HSI Map with a dedicated traffic display.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
Detail
Traffic
TER
WX LGND
PRECIP
or
NEXRAD
Level 3
Level 4
Description
Selects desired amount of map detail:
All (No Declutter): All map features visible
Detail 3: Declutters land data
Detail 2: Declutters land and SUA data
Detail 1: Removes everything except for the active flight plan
Displays traffic information on PFD Map.
Displays terrain on the PFD map; cycles through the following:
Off: No terrain information shown on PFD Map.
Topo: Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain,
rivers, lakes).
REL: Displays relative terrain information on the PFD Map.
Displays/removes the name of the selected data link weather provider
(SiriusXM) and the weather product icon and age box (for enabled
weather products).
Displays Connext weather and coverage on PFD Map.
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and coverage on PFD Map (subscription
optional).
METAR
Displays METAR information on Inset Map (subscription optional).
Lightning
Adds/removes the display of SiriusXM lightning information on PFD
Map.
LTNG Off
Disables lightning function on PFD Map. The softkey annunciator is
green when the lightning function is off.
Datalink
Selects the data link weather source for the PFD Map.
STRMSCP
Adds or removes the display of Stormscope information on the PFD
Map. The softkey annunciator is green when the function is on. When
the function is off, the annunciator is gray (optional).
Wx Radar
When enabled, displays the airborne weather radar overlay on HSI Map
(GWX 70 only).
RDR Opt
Displays softkeys for airborne weather radar options (GWX 70 only).
Mode SEL
Displays softkeys for weather radar mode selection (GWX 70 only).
Standby Selects Standby weather radar mode (GWX 70 only).
Weather Activates Weather radar mode (GWX 70 only).
Ground Activates Ground Map weather radar mode (GWX 70 only).
Gain Decreases weather radar gain setting (GWX 70 only).
Gain +
Increases weather radar gain setting (GWX 70 only).
WX ALRT
When enables, displays weather alerts as system messages. (GWX 70
only)
STAB
Activates antenna stabilization feature (GWX 70 only).
ACT
Activates Altitude Compensated Tilt feature (GWX 70 only).
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
TFC Map
PFD Opt
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
SVT
Pathways
Terrain
HDG LBL
APT Sign
AOA
Wind
Off
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
DME
Bearing 1
Sensors
AHRS
AHRS 1
AHRS 2
Bearing 2
ALT Units
Meters
IN
HPA
STD Baro
OBS
CDI
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Description
Replaces the PFD Map with a dedicated traffic display.
Displays second-level softkeys for additional PFD options.
Displays additional SVT overlay softkeys.
Displays Pathway Boxes on the Synthetic Vision Display.
Enables synthetic terrain depiction.
Displays compass heading along the Zero-Pitch line.
Displays position markers for airports within approximately 15 nm of
the current aircraft position. Airport identifiers are displayed when the
airport is within approximately 9 nm.
Selects the display mode for the Angle of Attack (AOA) indicator on the
PFD:
On: Displays AOA indicator on the PFD.
Off: Removes AOA indicator from the PFD.
Displays the wind option softkeys.
Wind information not displayed.
Headwind/Tailwind and crosswind components.
Wind direction arrow and speed.
Wind direction arrow with direction and speed.
Displays DME Information Window (optional).
Cycles the Bearing 1 Information Window through NAV1, NAV2,
GPS/waypoint identifier and GPS-derived distance information, ADF/
frequency, and Off.
Displays the sensor selection softkeys.
Displays the AHRS selection softkeys.
Selects the #1 AHRS.
Selects the #2 AHRS.
Cycles the Bearing 2 Information Window through NAV1, NAV2, GPS/
waypoint identifier and GPS-derived distance information, ADF/frequency,
and Off.
Displays softkeys to select altitude unit parameters.
When enabled, displays altimeter in meters.
Press to display the BARO setting as inches of mercury.
Press to display the BARO setting as hectopascals.
Sets barometric pressure to 29.92 in Hg (1013 hPa if metric units are
selected).
Selects OBS mode on the CDI when navigating by GPS (only available
with active leg). When OBS is on, the softkey annunciator is green.
Cycles through FMS, NAV1, and NAV2 navigation modes on the CDI.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
DME
Level 2
Level 3
XPDR 1
Description
Displays the ADF/DME Tuning Window, allowing tuning and selection of
the ADF/DME (optional).
Displays the transponder selection softkeys.
Selects the #1 transponder as active (optional).
XPDR 2
Selects the #2 transponder as active (optional).
Standby
Selects transponder Standby Mode (transponder does not reply to any
interrogations).
Activates transponder (transponder replies to identification
interrogations).
Altitude Reporting Mode (transponder replies to identification and
altitude interrogations).
Automatically enters the VFR code (1200 in the U.S.A. only).
Displays transponder code selection softkeys 0-7.
Use numbers to enter code.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Removes numbers entered, one at a time.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Displays ‘Timer/References’ Window.
Displays ‘Nearest Airports’ Window.
Displays the ‘Alerts’ Window when pressed. System generated messages
cause the Alerts Softkey label to change to a flashing ‘Message’
label. Pressing the Message Softkey opens the ‘Alerts’ Window,
acknowledges the message, and the softkey reverts to the ‘Alerts’ label.
XPDR
On
ALT
VFR
Code
0-7
Ident
BKSP
Ident
Ident
TMR/REF
Nearest
Alerts
or
Message
Level 4
Table 1-2 PFD Softkeys
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD SOFTKEYS
The MFD softkeys provide control over flight management functions, including GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic,
and weather (optional). There are many softkey functions available on the MFD depending on the page group
and screen selected.
The following table provides an example of the MFD Softkey functions accessed from the Navigation Map
screen. Further information concerning softkeys providing more navigation and flight planning functions
may be found in the Flight Management Section. Terrain, traffic, and weather softkey descriptions may
be found in the Hazard Avoidance section. Further description of optional equipment and corresponding
softkey functions may be found in the Additional Features Section.
Level 1
System
Level 2
CAS
CAS ↑
and
CAS ↓
LFE MAN
FMS LFE
ELEC
Fuel
GEN
Map Opt
Traffic
Inset
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Level 3
Description
Accesses the Synoptics page softkeys and the Landing Field Elevation
softkeys.
Scroll up or down (displayed only when a sufficient number of items are
displayed in the Crew Alerting System display to warrant scrolling).
Displays the manual landing field elevation softkeys.
+ 250 FT Adds 250 feet to the previously selected or default LFE value.
- 250 FT Subtracts 250 feet to the previously selected or default LFE value.
+ 25 FT Adds 25 feet to the previously selected or default LFE value.
- 25 FT Subtracts 25 feet to the previously selected or default LFE value.
Accept Press to accept the adjustments to the LFE value.
Sets the landing field elevation to the destination airport elevation.
Displays the electrical synoptics page.
Displays the fuel synoptics page.
Displays the general synoptics page for the anti-ice system and doors.
Displays system oil pressure and temperature, fuel calculations, and
electrical system information.
Displays traffic information on Navigation Map Page.
Displays inset window second level softkeys.
Off
Removes VSD inset from Navigation Map Page.
FPL PROG Displays Flight Plan Progress inset.
VSD
Displays VSD profile information of terrain/obstacles along the current
track, vertical track vector, and selected altitude.
Auto: Automatically displays either VSD profile information for
active flight plan information or along current track with no
active flight plan.
FPL: Displays VSD profile information for active flight plan.
TRK: Displays VSD profile information along current track.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
TER
AWY
STRMSCP
NEXRAD
XM LTNG
METAR
Legend
Wx Radar
Detail
Charts
CHRT Opt
AUTO
Info
DP
STAR
APR
NOTAM
Checklist
Level 3
Description
Displays terrain on the map; cycles through the following:
Off: No terrain information shown on MFD Map.
Topo: Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain,
rivers, lakes) and elevation scale on MFD Map.
REL: Displays relative terrain information on the MFD Map.
Displays airways on the map; cycles through the following:
Off: No airways are displayed.
On: All airways are displayed.
LO: Only low altitude airways are displayed.
HI: Only high altitude airways are displayed.
Displays Stormscope information on Navigation Map (optional).
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and coverage on Navigation Map Page
(optional).
Displays XM lightning information on Navigation Map Page (optional).
Displays METAR information on Inset Map (subscription optional).
Displays legends for the displayed XM Weather products (optional).
Displays weather information.
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through the following
levels:
Detail All: All map features visible.
Detail-3: Declutters land data.
Detail-2: Declutters land and SUA data.
Detail-1: Removes everything except for the active flight plan.
When available, displays optional airport and terminal procedure charts.
Displays chart display settings softkeys (if available).
Displays the most pertinent chart based on the phase of flight and
loaded procedures in the active flight plan.
Pressing the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram
when the view is on a different chart.
Displays departure procedure chart.
Displays standard terminal arrival procedure chart.
Displays approach procedure chart.
Displays NOTAM information for selected airport, when available.
When available, displays optional checklists
Table 1-3 MFD Navigation Map Page Softkeys
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MENUS
The system has a MENU Key that, when pressed, displays a context-sensitive list of options. This options list
allows the user to access additional features or make settings changes which specifically relate to the currently
displayed window/page. There is no all-encompassing menu. Some menus provide access to additional
submenus that are used to view, edit, select, and review options. Menus display ‘No Options’ when there are
no options for the window/page selected. The main controls used in association with all window/page group
operations are described in Section 1.2. Softkey selection does not display menus or submenus.
Navigating the Page Menu Window:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through a list of available options (a scroll bar appears to the right of the window
when the option list is longer than the window).
3) Press the ENT Key to select the desired option.
4) The CLR Key may be pressed to remove the menu and cancel the operation. Pressing the FMS Knob also
removes the displayed menu.
No Options with
NRST Window
Displayed on PFD
Options with
FPL Window
Displayed on MFD
Figure 1-13 Page Menu Examples
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD PAGE GROUPS
NOTE: Refer to other supporting sections in this Pilot’s Guide for details on specific pages.
Information on the MFD is presented on pages grouped according to function. The page group and active
page title are displayed in the upper center of the screen, below the ‘Navigation Status’ Box. In the bottom right
corner of the screen, a page group window is displayed by turning either FMS Knob. The page group tabs are
displayed along the bottom of the window. The page titles are displayed in a list above the page group tabs. The
current page group and current page within the group are shown in cyan. For some of these pages (Airport/
Procedures/Weather Information, XM, Procedure Loading), the active title of the page changes while the page
name in the list remains the same.
Page Group Active Page Title
MFD
Pages in
Current
Group
Page Groups
Figure 1-14 Page Title and Page Groups
The main page groups are navigated using the FMS Knob; specific pages within each group can vary depending
on the configuration of optional equipment.
Selecting a page using the FMS Knob:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to display the list of page groups; continue turning the large FMS Knob until the
desired page group is selected
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired page within a specific page group.
There are also several pages (Airport Information/Procedures/Weather Information and XM pages) selected
first from within a main page group with the FMS Knob, then with the appropriate softkey at the bottom of
the page (or from the page menu). In this case, the page remains set to the selected page until a different page
softkey is pressed, even if a different page group is selected.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Page Group
MAP (Map Page Group)
Pages within Page Group
• Navigation Map
• IFR/VFR Charts
• Traffic Map
• Weather Radar (optional)
• Stormscope (optional)
• Weather Data Link (service optional)
WPT (Waypoint Page Group)
• Terrain/ TAWS-B
• Airport/Procedures/Weather Information Pages
- Airport Information (Info 1 Softkey)
- Airport Directory Information (Info 2 Softkey)
- Departure Information (DP Softkey)
- Arrival Information (STAR Softkey)
- Approach Information (APR Softkey)
- Weather Information (optional) (WX Softkey)
• Intersection Information
• NDB Information
• VOR Information
• VRP Information
• User Waypoint Information
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Page Group
Aux (Auxiliary Page Group)
Pages within Page Group
• Weight Planning
• Trip Planning
• Utility
• GPS Status
• System Setup 1/2
• XM Radio Pages
- XM Information (Info Softkey)
- XM Radio (Radio Softkey)
• Satellite Phone pages
- Telephone (Phone Softkey)
- Text Messaging (SMS Softkey)
• Maintenance Logs
• System Status
• ADS-B Status
• Connext Setup
FPL (Flight Plan Page Group)
• Databases
• Active Flight Plan
- Wide View, Narrow View (View Softkey)
• Flight Plan Catalog
Sys (Synoptics Page Group)
- Stored Flight Plan (via New Softkey)
• Electrical
• Fuel
NRST (Nearest Page Group)
• General
• Nearest Airports
• Nearest Intersections
• Nearest NDB
• Nearest VOR
• Nearest VRP
• Nearest User WPTS
• Nearest Frequencies
• Nearest Airspaces
Table 1-4 Page Group and Pages
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
PROCEDURE PAGES (PROC)
The Procedure Pages may be accessed at any time on the MFD by pressing the PROC Key. A menu is
initialized, and when a departure, approach, or arrival is selected, the appropriate Procedure Loading Page is
opened. Turning the FMS Knob does not scroll through the Procedure pages
• Departure Loading
• Arrival Loading
• Approach Loading
SYSTEM SETTINGS
System settings are managed from the ‘System Setup’ Pages. The ‘System Setup’ Pages allow management of
the crew profiles. Also, fields shown in cyan text may be edited for following system parameters:
• Time display format (local or UTC )
• Displayed measurement units
• GPS Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) range
(see the Flight Instruments Section)
• Barometric Transition Alert (see the Flight Instruments Section)
• COM transceiver channel spacing (see the Audio Panel and CNS Section)
• Airspace Alerts (see the Flight Management Section)
• Displayed nearest airports (see the Flight Management Section)
• Arrival Alert
• Electronic Stability and Protection
(see the Additional Features Section)
• Flight Director Format
(Single Cue Only - can not edit) (see the Flight Instruments Section)
• MFD Data Bar (Navigation Status Box) fields
(see the Flight Management Section)
190-02218-01 Rev. B
• Audio Voice Format
• Chart selection for Auto Taxi Chart
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Restoring system setup defaults:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup’ 1 or 2 Page.
2) Press the Defaults Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Restore Page Defaults’, and press the ENT Key.
The message ‘Restore Setup X Page Defaults?’ is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Fields shown in Cyan may
be edited
Configure System
Time
Change Display
Unit Settings
Configure arrival alert
settings
- Enable / disable alert
- Set arrival alert trigger
distance
Restore System Defaults
Crew Profile
- Choose active profile
- Create new profile
- Edit, rename, and delete
existing profile (other than
default profile)
- Import / Export profile to
SD Card
Enable/Disable
ESP
Change Page
Navigation
Change audio
alert voice setting
Select System Setup Page
- Setup 1
- Setup 2
Figure 1-15 System Setup 1/2 Pages
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
DATE/TIME
The system obtains the current Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) date and time directly from the GPS
satellite signals (shown on the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page). System time (displayed in the lower right corner of
the PFD) can be displayed in three formats: local 12-hr, local 24-hr, or UTC. Local time is set by adding/
subtracting an offset (hours:minutes) to/from UTC.
Figure 1-16 System Time (UTC Format)
Configuring the system time:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Time Format’ Field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired format and press the ENT Key to confirm selection. If local time
format is selected, the ‘Time Offset’ Field is highlighted.
5) If necessary, use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time offset (±HH:MM) and press the ENT Key to confirm
selection.
Figure 1-17 Date/Time Settings (System Setup 1 Page)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
CREW PROFILES
System settings may be saved under a crew profile. When the system is powered on, the last selected crew
profile is shown on the MFD Power-up Splash Screen (Figure 1-8). The system can store up to 25 profiles;
the currently active profile, the amount of memory used, and the amount of memory available are shown at
the top of the System Setup Page in the box labeled ‘Crew Profile’. From here, crew profiles may be created,
selected, renamed, or deleted. Crew profiles may also be exported from the system to an SD card, or imported
from an SD card into the system.
Creating a profile:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (X)’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Create’ in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Create Profile’ Window is displayed.
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter a profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key. Crew profile names
cannot begin with a blank as the first letter.
6) In the next field, use the small FMS Knob to select the desired settings upon which to base the new profile.
Profiles can be created based on Garmin factory defaults, default profile settings (initially based on Garmin
factory defaults unless edited by the pilot), or other previously created profile settings.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘Create’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to create the profile
Or:
Use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Create & Activate’ and press the ENT Key to activate the new profile.
9) To cancel the process, select ‘Cancel’ with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key.
Selecting an active profile:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (X)’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the active profile field in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the crew profile list and highlight the desired profile.
5) Press the ENT Key. The system loads and displays the system settings for the selected profile.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Renaming a profile:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (X)’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Rename’ in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Rename Profile’ Window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to rename.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter a new profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘Rename’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
9) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting a profile:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (X)’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete’ in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Delete Profile’ Window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to delete.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) With ‘Delete’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
8) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Importing a profile from an SD card:
1) Insert an SD card containing the crew profile(s) into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup (X)’ Page.
3) Press the Import Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Import Crew Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
4) The system displays the ‘Crew Profile Importing’ Window with ‘Import’ highlighted. Turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight the ‘Profile Name’ Field, then scroll to the desired profile name with the large and small FMS Knobs,
then press the ENT Key. Then press the ENT Key with ‘Import’ highlighted.
5) If the imported profile name is the same as an existing profile on the system, the system displays an ‘Overwrite
existing profile? OK or Cancel’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to replace profile on the system with the profile
imported from the SD card, or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key to return to the
‘Crew Profile Importing’ Window.
6) If successful, the system displays ‘Crew profile import succeeded.’ in the window below. With ‘OK’ highlighted,
press the ENT or CLR Keys or press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Aux - System Setup (X)’ Page. The imported
profile becomes the active profile.
Crew Profile Importing and Import
Results Window
Crew Profiles Available for Import
from SD Card
Import Successful
Figure 1-18 Pilot Profile Import (‘Aux - System Setup’ Page)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Exporting a profile to an SD card:
1) Insert the SD card for storing the Crew Profile into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup (X)’ Page.
3) Press the Export Softkey. The system displays the ‘Crew Profile Exporting’ Window.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Export Crew Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
4) To export the crew profile using the current selected profile, press the ENT Key with ‘Export’ highlighted. To
change the selected profile, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Profile Name’ Field, then scroll to the
desired profile name with the large and small FMS Knobs, then press the ENT Key. Then press the ENT Key
with ‘Export’ highlighted.
5) If the selected profile to be exported is the same as an existing profile file name on the SD card, the system
displays an ‘Overwrite existing profile? OK or Cancel’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to replace the profile on the
SD card with the profile to be exported, or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key to
return to the ‘Pilot Profile Exporting’ Window without exporting the profile.
6) If successful, the window displays ‘Crew profile export succeeded.’ With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT or
CLR Keys, or press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Aux - System Setup (X)’ Page.
Crew Profile Exporting Window, Enter
a Name to Use for Exported Profile
Export Successful
Figure 1-19 Pilot Profile Export on the ‘Aux - System Setup’ Page
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
DISPLAY UNITS
Units in which various quantities are displayed on the system screens are listed on the System Setup Page.
Units can be changed if the Category text is cyan as with Navigation Angle, Distance/Speed, Temperature,
Fuel/Fuel Flow, and Weight.
Category
Navigation Angle
Magnetic Variance
Distance and Speed
Altitude and Vertical
Speed
Temperature
Fuel and Fuel Flow
Weight
Position
Settings
Affected Quantities
Magnetic (North)* Heading
True (North)
Course
Bearing
Track
Desired Track
Wind direction (Trip Planning Page)
Degrees (East/
Heading
West)
Course
Bearing
Track
Desired Track
Wind direction (Trip Planning Page)
Metric
Crosstrack error (HSI)
Nautical*
Bearing distances (information windows)
DME distance (information window)
Flight plan distances
Map ranges
DIS, GS, TAS, XTK fields (Navigation Status Box)
All distances on MFD
Altitude buffer distance (System Setup)
Arrival Alert trigger distance (System Setup)
All speeds on MFD
Feet
All altitudes on MFD
All elevations on MFD
Celsius*
Fahrenheit
Gallons
IMP GALS
Kilograms
Liters
Pounds*
Pounds*
Kilograms
HDDD°MM.MM’
All temperatures on PFD
Total Air Temperature (Trip Planning Page)
Fuel parameters (Trip Planning Page)
Exceptions
Airspeed Indicator
True Airspeed (PFD)
Wind speed vector
Map range (Traffic Page, Terrain
Proximity/TAWS Page)
CDI scaling (System Setup)
Fuel range calculation (EIS)
Altimeter
Vertical Speed Indicator
VNV altitudes (Active Flight Plan)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
N/A
N/A
All positions
N/A
* Default setting
Table 1-5 Display Units Settings (System Setup Page)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Changing a display unit setting:
1) While on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Display Units’ Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired units.
4) Press the ENT Key. Press the CLR Key to cancel the action without changing the units.
ARRIVAL ALERTS
The ‘Arrival Alert’ Box on the ‘System Setup 1’ Page allows the ‘Alerts’ Window arrival alerts to be turned
‘On/Off’ and the alert trigger distance (up to 99.9 units) set for alerts in the ‘Alerts’ Window and the PFD
‘Navigation Status’ Box. An arrival alert can be set to notify the pilot with a message upon reaching a
user-specified distance from the final destination (the direct-to waypoint or the last waypoint in a flight
plan). When Arrival Alerts is set to ‘On’, and the set distance is reached, an “Arrival at waypoint” message
is displayed in the PFD ‘Navigation Status’ Box, and a “WPT ARRIVAL - Arriving at waypoint - [xxxx]” is
displayed in the ‘Alerts’ Window. When Arrival Alerts is set to ‘Off’, only the PFD Navigation Status Box
message “Arriving at waypoint” is displayed, and it is displayed when the time to the final destination is
approximately ten seconds.
Figure 1-20 Arrival Alert Settings (System Setup 1 Page)
Enabling/disabling the Alerts Window arrival alert:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘On/Off’ Field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to turn the alert Off.
Changing the arrival alert trigger distance:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the distance field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
ELECTRONIC STABILITY AND PROTECTION
Garmin Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) is an optional feature intended to discourage the
exceedance of attitude, airspeed, and angle of attack (AOA) parameters. This feature will only operate when
the aircraft is above 200 feet AGL and the autopilot is not engaged. The pilot can enable/disable ESP on the
‘System Setup’ Pages on the MFD.
Enabling/disabling ESP:
1) While on the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the status field of the ‘Stability & Protection’ Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’ and press the ENT Key when the desired selection is
highlighted.
PAGE NAVIGATION
The large FMS Knob displays the ‘Page Group’ Tabs and navigates through the tabs. The small FMS Knob
navigates through the pages listed within a specific group. The number of clicks it takes to display the Page
Group Tabs and change to the next tab can be controlled from the ‘Page Navigation’ Box on the ‘Aux - System
Setup 2’ Page.
Off – Displays the ‘Page Group’ Window with one click of either FMS Knob.
On – Displays the ‘Page Group’ Window and navigates to the next page group with one click of either FMS
Knob.
The pilot can select, from the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page, the amount of time the ‘Page Group’ Window is
displayed (in the lower right corner of the MFD). The timeout can range from two to ten seconds.
Selecting page navigation settings:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Change On 1st Click’ Field in the ‘Page Navigation’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Timeout Seconds’ Field in the ‘Page Navigation’ Box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired number of seconds
7) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to remove the flashing cursor.
AUDIO ALERTS
The Audio Box on the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page allows the audio alert voice setting (male or female).
Changing the audio alert voice:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the voice field in the ‘Audio’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select the desired voice setting and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM UTILITIES
For flight planning purposes, timers, trip statistics, and a scheduler feature are provided on the ‘Aux - Utility’
Page. The timers available include a stopwatch-like generic timer, a total time in flight timer, and a record of the
time of departure. Trip statistics—odometer, trip odometer, and average trip and maximum groundspeeds—are
displayed from the time of the last reset.
Figure 1-21 ‘Aux - Utility’ Page
TIMERS
The system timers available on the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page include:
• Stopwatch-like generic timers
• Total-time-in-flight timer
• Time since departure
The generic timer can be set to count up or down from a specified time (HH:MM:SS). When the countdown
on the timer reaches zero the digits begin to count up from zero. If the timer is reset before reaching zero on
a countdown, the digits are reset to the initial value. If the timer is counting up when reset, the digits return
to zero.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Setting the generic timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (Up/Dn) and press the ENT Key.
4) If a desired starting time is desired:
a) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the HH:MM:SS field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Start?’ and press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to
‘Stop?’.
6) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘Reset?’.
7) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘Start?’ and the digits
are reset.
The flight timer can be set to count up from zero starting at system power-up or from the time that the
aircraft lifts off; the timer can also be reset to zero at any time.
Setting the flight timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the flight timer.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (Pwr-On or In-Air) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the flight timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Reset Flight Timer’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
The system records the time at which departure occurs, depending on whether the pilot prefers the time
to be recorded from system power-up or from aircraft lift off. The displayed departure time can also be reset
to display the current time at the point of reset. The format in which the time is displayed is controlled from
the ‘Aux - System Setup’ Page.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Setting the departure timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the departure time.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (Pwr-On or In-Air) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the departure time:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Reset Departure Time’ and press the ENT Key.
TRIP STATISTICS
The odometer and trip odometer record the total mileage traveled from the last reset; these odometers can
be reset independently. Resetting the trip odometer also resets the average trip groundspeed. Maximum
groundspeed for the period of time since the last reset is also displayed.
Resetting trip statistics readouts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key. The following reset options for trip statistics are displayed:
• Reset Trip ODOM/AVG GS—Resets trip average ground speed readout and odometer
• Reset Odometer—Resets odometer readout only
• Reset Maximum Speed—Resets maximum speed readout only
• Reset All—Resets flight timer, departure timer, odometers, and groundspeed readouts
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired reset option and press the ENT Key. The selected parameters are
reset to zero and begin to display data from the point of reset.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SCHEDULER
The system’s Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., “Change oil”,
“Switch fuel tanks”, “Overhaul”) in the ‘Alerts’ Window on the PFD. Messages can be set to display based on a
specific date and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero (one-time; default setting), or recurrently
whenever the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set to periodic alerting automatically
reset to the original timer value once the message is displayed. When power is cycled, messages are retained
until deleted, and message timer countdown is restarted.
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty scheduler message naming field.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the message text to be displayed in the PFD ‘Alerts’ Window and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the field next to ‘Type’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select set the message alert type:
• Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
• One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
• Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HHH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MM-YYYY) and press the ENT Key.
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the name field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
5) Press the ENT Key to confirm message deletion.
Scheduler messages appear in the ‘Alerts’ Window on the PFD and cause the Alerts Softkey label to change
to a flashing ‘Message’ label. Pressing the Message Softkey opens the ‘Alerts’ Window and acknowledges the
scheduler message. The softkey reverts to the ‘Alerts’ label. Pressing the Alerts Softkey again removes the
‘Alerts’ Window from the display and the scheduler message is deleted from the message queue.
Figure 1-22 PFD Alerts Window
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.5 DISPLAY BACKLIGHTING
The PFD and MFD display backlighting, the PFD and MFD bezel, and the Audio Panel keys can be adjusted
manually in one of two ways:
• Using the individual dimmer bus control for the desired display, or
• Using the PFD Setup Menu and the following procedures. In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be
adjusted from the PFDs. In reversionary mode, adjustments can be made from any remaining displays.
NOTE: Backlighting may be manually adjusted as low as 0.01%. Manually adjusting the backlighting to a
low setting may result in an illegible (too dim) display.
Adjusting display backlighting:
1) Press either PFD MENU Key to display the ‘PFD Setup Menu’ Window. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD1
Display’. If desired, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Auto’ next to ‘MFD Display’ or ‘PFD2 Display’.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting then press the ENT Key.
4) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Adjusting key backlighting:
1) Press either PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD1 Display’.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘PFD1 Display’, ‘MFD Display’, or ‘PFD2 Display’, as desired.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘PFD1 Key’, ‘MFD Key’, or ‘PFD2 Key’.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Auto’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Figure 1-23 PFD Setup Menu
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) provides additional readouts and bugs on selected flight
instruments. Refer to the AFCS Section for details on these bugs and readouts, as they appear on the display
during certain AFCS modes.
The system increases pilot situational awareness by providing easy-to-scan Primary Flight Displays (PFDs)
featuring a large horizon, airspeed, attitude, vertical speed, and course deviation information. In addition to the
flight instruments, navigation, communication, terrain, traffic, and weather information are also presented on the
PFDs and explained in other sections of this Pilot’s Guide.
The following flight instruments and supplemental flight data are displayed on the PFDs:
• Airspeed Indicator, showing
– Indicated Airspeed
• Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
• Horizontal Situation Indicator, showing
– Airspeed awareness ranges
– Turn Rate Indicator
– Mach number
– Bearing pointers and information windows
– Vspeed Reference Bugs
– DME Information Window (optional)
• Attitude Indicator with slip/skid indication
• Altimeter, showing
– Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
• DME Tuning Window
– Indicated Altitude
• Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
– Trend vector
• System time
– Barometric setting
• Wind data
– Selected Altitude
• Vertical Navigation indications
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope, and
Glidepath Indicators
• Radar altimeter (optional)
• Angle of Attack (AOA) Indicator
The PFDs also display various alerts and annunciations discussed throughout this Pilot’s Guide.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
21
20
19
18
17
1
16
15
2
14
13
3
12
4
11
5
10
9
8
6
7
1
NAV Frequency Box
12
Altimeter Barometric Setting
2
Airspeed Indicator
13
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
3
Mach Number
14
Selected Altitude Bug
4
Current Heading
15
Altimeter
5
Selected Heading Bug
16
Selected Altitude
6
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
17
COM Frequency Box
7
Softkeys
18
AFCS Status Box
8
System Time
19
Navigation Status Box
9
Transponder Data Box
20
Slip/Skid Indicator
10
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
21
Attitude Indicator
11
Turn Rate Indicator
Figure 2-1 Primary Flight Display (Default)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
13
12
1
11
10
2
9
3
8
4
6
5
7
1
Vspeed Reference Bug
8
Flight Plan Window
2
Selected Heading
9
Selected Course
3
Wind Data
10
Radar Altimeter (optional)
4
Inset Map
11
Current Vertical Speed
5
DME Information Window (optional)
12
Glideslope Indicator
6
Bearing Information
13
Reversionary Sensor Annunciations
7
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision
Height
Figure 2-2 Additional PFD Information
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
NOTE: Refer to the pertinent flight manual for speed criteria and Vspeed values.
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The numeric labels and
major tick marks on the moving tape are shown at intervals of 10 knots. The minor tick marks on the moving
tape are marked at intervals of five knots. Speed indication starts at 20 knots, with 60 knots of airspeed
viewable at any time. The indicated airspeed is displayed inside the black pointer. The pointer remains black
until reaching maximum operating speed (VMO), at which point it becomes red. The Mach number appears
below the Airspeed Indictor at or above Mach 0.3. The Mach number appears white within a red background
when the airspeed enters VMO.
Approach
Reference
Airspeed
Ranges
Indicated Airspeed
during overspeed
Airspeed Trend
Vector
Indicated
Airspeed
Vspeed
Reference
Bugs
Mach Number
during overspeed
Mach Number
Figure 2-3 Airspeed Indicator
A color-coded (white, green, and red/white barber pole) speed range strip is located on the moving tape. The
colors denote flaps operating range, normal operating range, and maximum operating speed (VMO). A red range
is also present for low speed awareness.
The Approach Reference is a hollow green circle controlled by the AOA computer. It indicates an approximate
airspeed of 1.3 times the stall speed for the current weight, g loading and aircraft configuration. The Approach
Reference may be used as a general reference for Vref. It is not actually Vref, but rather an approximation of
Vref. It is most accurate when the airplane is near approach speed. The Approach Reference will move based
on aircraft attitude and flap position. When the aircraft turns, it indicates a speed that provides a safety margin
over stall speed, as approach speed provides in level flight.
The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical magenta line that appears to the right of the color-coded speed range
strip when airspeed is either accelerating or decelerating. One end of the magenta line is anchored to the
tip of the airspeed pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down corresponding to the rate of
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
acceleration or deceleration. For any constant rate of acceleration or deceleration, the moving end of the line
shows approximately what the indicated airspeed value will be in six seconds. If the trend vector crosses VMO/
MMO, the text of the actual airspeed readout changes to amber while the pointer remains black. The trend
vector is absent if the speed remains constant or if any data needed to calculate airspeed is not available due to
a system failure.
Vspeeds can be changed and their bugs enabled/disabled from the References Window. When enabled (on),
the Vspeeds are displayed at their respective locations to the right of the airspeed scale. On the next avionics
power cycle, all Vspeed Reference Bugs are in a disabled state with their default values.
Landing
Takeoff
Below 20 knots, Vspeed Reference Bugs and their numeric values appear toward the bottom of the airspeed
tape arranged from highest to lowest values.
Vspeed
Bug
Vr
R
Vx
X
Vy
Y
Vapp
AP
Table 2-1 Vspeed Bug Labels
Enabling/disabling individual Vspeed Reference Bugs:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field of the desired Vspeed to be changed.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to change the Vspeed in 1-kt increments. When a speed is changed from a default
value, an asterisk appears next to the speed.
4) Press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘On/Off’ field
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to ‘On’ to enable or counterclockwise to ‘Off’ to disable selected Vspeed bug.
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
Figure 2-4 Vspeed Reference Bugs Settings on the References Window
The pilot can also enable/disable all Vspeed Reference Bugs as a group.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Enabling/disabling all Vspeed Reference Bugs as a group:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) To activate all Vspeed bugs, press the ENT Key with ‘All References On’ highlighted.
4) To remove all Vspeed bugs, turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘All References Off’ and press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the ‘References’ Window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
Restoring all Vspeeds defaults:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Restore Defaults’ and press the ENT Key.
Figure 2-5 Page Menu for the References Window
GENERIC TIMER
The generic timer can be accessed via softkeys on the PFD and allows for quick access for timing functions
(either counting up or down) for the pilot.
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Timer field (HH:MM:SS).
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time.
4) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Up/Dn’ Field is now highlighted.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Up/Dn Window.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Up’ or ‘Dn’.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Start?’ is now highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to ‘Stop?’. If the timer is counting down, it will start
counting up after reaching zero.
9) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘Reset?’.
10) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘Start?’ and the digits
are reset.
11) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ATTITUDE INDICATOR
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a white horizon line. The
Attitude Indicator displays the pitch, roll, and slip/skid information.
9
1
2
8
7
6
3
4
5
1
Roll Pointer
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
Aircraft Symbol
5
Land Representation
6
Pitch Scale
7
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
Figure 2-6 Attitude Indicator
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Above and below the horizon line, major pitch marks and numeric
labels are shown for every 10˚, up to 90˚. Minor pitch marks are shown for intervening 5˚ increments, up to
25˚ below and 45˚ above the horizon line. Between 20˚ below to 20˚ above the horizon line, minor pitch marks
occur every 2.5˚. When Synthetic Vision Technology (Garmin SVT™) is activated, the pitch scale is reduced to
10˚ up and 7.5˚ down; refer to the SVT discussion later in this section for more information about SVT.
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚ and 60˚ and minor tick
marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the zero. Angle of bank is indicated by the position
of the pointer on the roll scale.
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the bar beneath the roll pointer. The indicator bar moves with the roll pointer and
moves laterally away from the pointer to indicate uncoordinated flight. Slip (inside the turn) or skid (outside
the turn) is indicated by the location of the bar relative to the pointer.
Figure 2-7 Slip/Skid Indication
When the optional Garmin Electronic Stability and Protection (Garmin ESP™) system is available, additional
indications may appear on the pitch and roll scales; refer to the Additional Features Section for more information
about Garmin ESP.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ALTIMETER
The Altimeter displays barometric altitude values on a moving tape rolling number gauge.
The Altimeter displays 1,000 feet of barometric altitude values at a time on a moving tape rolling number
gauge Numeric labels and major tick marks are shown at intervals of 100 feet. Minor tick marks are at intervals
of 20 feet.
The Indicated Altitude is displayed in the black pointer.
The pilot can choose to display overlays for the indicated altitude and Selected Altitude using alternate
display units. For example, if the Altimeter is displaying feet, the system can show a metric overlay for the
indicated and selected altitudes without changing the scale or display units of the Altimeter.
Enabling altitude units overlays:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
3) Press the Meters or Feet Softkey to enable/disable the altitude overlays.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
The Selected Altitude is displayed above the Altimeter in the box indicated by a selection bug symbol. A bug
corresponding to this altitude is shown on the tape; if the Selected Altitude exceeds the range shown on the
tape, the bug appears at the upper or lower edge of the tape. See the AFCS Section for more information about
the Selected Altitude.
Setting the Selected Altitude:
Turn the ALT SEL Knob to set the Selected Altitude.
If the Altimeter display units are set to feet, the Selected Altitude increments are 100 feet.
When the altitude units overlays are enabled, the increments alternate between a rounded value of feet or
meters while turning the ALT SEL Knob.
If set, the Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height (MDA/DH) value is also available for the Selected Altitude.
Selected Altitude
Selected Altitude in
Meters Overlay
Indicated Altitude in
Meters Overlay
Altitude Trend Vector
Selected Altitude Bug
MDA/DH Altitude Bug
Barometric Setting
(in. HG)
54
Barometric
Setting
(Hectopascals)
Figure 2-8 Altimeter (Standard and Metric)
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
The Altimeter also displays a reference to the height above the ground; refer to Radar Altimeter discussion
later in this section for more information.
The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury (in Hg) or hectopascals
(hPa). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNV vertical deviation, moving the
descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to re-establish on the descent
path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target Altitude, the aircraft may not reestablish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
NOTE: Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNV vertical deviation, moving
the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to re-establish on the
descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target Altitude, the aircraft may
not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not operate properly
with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QFE altimeter setting for height above mean sea level, or the
standard pressure setting, as applicable.
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
Turn the BARO Knob to select the desired setting.
Selecting standard barometric pressure:
Push the BARO Knob to select standard pressure; ‘STD BARO’ appears in the barometric setting box.
Or:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the STD Baro Softkey; ‘STD BARO’ is displayed in barometric setting box.
Figure 2-9 Standard Barometric Altimeter Setting
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
3) Press the IN Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in inches of mercury (in Hg).
Or:
Press the HPA Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in hectopascals (hPa).
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
If the barometric altimeter settings differ between PFDs by more than 0.02 Hg, the readouts become amber
(Figure 2-10). The settings can be synchronized from the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD. Once the
settings are synchronized, the readouts change from amber to cyan.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Barometric Settings
not Synchronized on PFDs
Displayed in Amber
Figure 2-10 Barometric Setting on PFDs not Synchronized
Synchronizing the altimeter barometric pressure settings:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘BARO’ in the ‘Synchronization’ Box.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ‘On’ or counterclockwise to ‘Off’.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to change the altitude.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) To cancel the selection, push the FMS Knob.
BAROMETRIC TRANSITION ALTITUDE ALERTS
The Baro Transition Alerts flash the barometric pressure setting to remind the pilot to change the barometric
pressure setting to or from standard. Two alerts are available. The altitude Baro Transition Alert occurs when
climbing through the transition altitude beginning at 200 feet below this altitude. The flight level Baro Transition
Alert occurs when descending through the transition flight level beginning at 200 feet above this flight level.
The barometric pressure setting stops flashing after the pilot changes the barometric pressure setting. The pilot
can enable/disable either Baro Transition Alerts, and choose the altitude or flight level used to trigger the alerts.
Setting the Baro Transition Alerts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) To enable/disable the Baro Transition Alert based on altitude, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘On’ or
‘Off’ field for the BARO Transition Alert Altitude in the ‘BARO Transition Alert’ Box.
4) If desired, turn the small FMS Knob to set the BARO Transition Alert Altitude ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Altitude’ Field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to change the altitude and press the ENT Key to accept or press the CLR Key to return to
the previous altitude selection.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘On’ or ‘Off’ Field for the BARO Transition Alert Level.
8) If desired, turn the small FMS Knob to set the BARO Transition Alert Flight Level ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
9) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Flight Level’ Field.
10) Use the FMS Knobs to change the Flight Level for the alert and press the ENT Key to accept or press the CLR
Key to return to the previous altitude selection.
11) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator is only available on FMS approaches supporting SBAS vertical guidance when
SBAS is available.
The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) displays the aircraft vertical speed using a non-moving tape. The current
vertical speed is displayed in the pointer along the tape.
The VSI is displayed in feet, numeric labels with major tick marks appear at 2000 and 4000 feet per minute.
Minor tick marks appear for every 1000 fpm. If the current vertical speed is greater than 100 fpm, digits appear
in the pointer. If the rate of ascent/descent exceeds 4000 fpm, the pointer appears at the corresponding edge of
the tape while displaying the current vertical speed numerically.
A magenta chevron bug is displayed as the Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) for reaching a VNV
Target Altitude once the “TOD [Top of Descent] within 1 minute” alert has been generated. See the Flight
Management Section for details on VNV features, and refer to Section 2.2, Supplemental Flight Data, for more
information about VNV indications on the PFD.
VERTICAL DEVIATION
When Vertical Navigation (VNV) is being used, the Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) appears to the left of
the altimeter and is displayed with a magenta ‘V’ at the top of the scale and a magenta chevron indicating the
baro-VNAV vertical deviation. The VDI appears in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” alert. The VDI
is removed from the display if vertical deviation becomes invalid. See the Flight Management Section for details
on VNV features, and refer to the Supplemental Flight Data discussion later in this section for more information
about VNV indications on the PFD.
The Glideslope Indicator appears to the left of the Altimeter whenever an ILS frequency is tuned in the active
NAV field and the aircraft heading and selected course are within 107°. A green diamond acts as the Glideslope
Indicator, like a glideslope needle on a conventional indicator. The Glideslope Preview, a hollow gray diamond,
is displayed when the navigation source is set to GPS, in addition to a localizer frequency being tuned on the
navigation receiver and receiving glideslope information. When the system auto-switches the active navigation
source to the localizer frequency the Glideslope Indicator is displayed as a solid green diamond. If a localizer
frequency is tuned and there is no glideslope, “NO GS” is displayed in place of the diamond.
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator appears on the display as soon as the Final Approach Fix (FAF) becomes the
active waypoint. Depending on procedure design, pilot action, and/or ATC clearance, the aircraft may be
centered on or above the glidepath when the Glidepath Indicator appears.
NOTE: When the temperature is warmer than a standard day, the system-generated glidepath guidance for
a non-precision approach may cross below the FAF minimum altitude restriction.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Vertical
Speed
Pointer
Glideslope
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Figure 2-11 Vertical Speed and
Deviation Indicator (VSI and VDI)
Figure 2-12 Glideslope Indicator
The glidepath is analogous to the glideslope for RNAV approach service levels supporting SBAS vertical
guidance (L/VNAV, LPV) or advisory vertical guidance (LNAV+V, LP+V, Visual). When one of these RNAV
approaches is loaded into the flight plan, GPS is the selected navigation source, and SBAS is used for vertical
approach guidance, the Glidepath Indicator appears as a magenta diamond. Full-scale deflection (two dots), is
angular with upper and lower limits. The upper limit is +/-492 feet (150 meters) and lower limits depend on
approach service level.
• LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V, Visual, and LP+V, is +/- 148 feet (45 meters).
• LPV is +/- 49 feet (15 meters).
If the approach service level downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of
the diamond.
While executing an SBAS approach with an LNAV/VNAV approach service level, and between the FAF and MAP,
the Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators appear as vertical white lines indicating the area where deviation exceeds
allowable limits for the glidepath. The Vertical Deviation Limit Indicator provides a scaled representation of +/75 feet of the calculated glidepath. The “window” between the lines represents the area of acceptable deviation.
The length of the lines change while progressing through the final approach. When the Glidepath Indicator
enters an excessive deviation area, the Glidepath and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators become amber.
Glidepath
Preview
Excessive
vertical
deviation
limit
indicators
Glidepath
Indicator
showing
excessive
vertical
deviation
Figure 2-13 Glidepath Indicator (LNAV/VNAV) and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
While executing an LNAV/VNAV approach and SBAS is unavailable, baro-VNAV (barometric vertical
navigation) is used for vertical guidance. This occurs due to any of the following conditions:
• SBAS fails or becomes unavailable prior to the FAF
• The aircraft is outside of SBAS coverage
• SBAS is manually disabled on the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page
Baro-VNAV is also the source of vertical approach guidance if the LNAV/VNAV procedure does not support
SBAS vertical guidance.
While Baro-VNAV is active, the Glidepath Indicator is labeled with a magenta ‘V’ and appears as a magenta
pentagon. The system automatically applies temperature compensation to this displayed glidepath using data
from the aircraft’s temperature probe. This compensation occurs without any action from the flight crew.
NOTE: For information about manually applying temperature compensation to waypoints prior to the Baro-
VNAV approach glidepath becoming active, refer to the Flight Management Section.
If the Baro-VNAV approach downgrades past the FAF, ‘NO GP’ appears instead of the magenta pentagon.
While executing an LNAV/VNAV approach or RNP approach, and between the FAF and MAP, the Vertical
Deviation Limit Indicators appear as vertical white lines indicating the area where deviation exceeds allowable
limits for the glidepath. The Vertical Deviation Limit Indicator provides a scaled representation of +/- 75 feet
of the calculated glidepath. The “window” between the lines represents the area of acceptable deviation. The
length of the lines will change while progressing through the final approach. When the Glidepath Indicator
enters an excessive deviation area, the Glidepath and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators turn amber.
Vertical
Deviation
Limit
Indicator
Glidepath
Indicator
Vertical
Deviation
Limit
Indicator
(excessive
deviation)
Figure 2-14 Glidepath Indicator (Baro-VNAV) and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) displays a rotating compass card in a heading-up orientation. Letters
indicate the cardinal points with numeric labels every 30˚. Major tick marks are at 10˚ intervals and minor tick
marks are at 5˚ intervals. A digital reading of the current heading appears on top of the HSI, and the current
track is represented on the HSI by a magenta diamond. The HSI also presents turn rate, course deviation,
bearing, and navigation source information.
The HSI with the HSI Map disabled contains a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI), with a Course Pointer, To/
From Indicator, and a sliding deviation bar and scale. The course pointer is a single line arrow (FMS, VOR1,
and LOC1) or a double line arrow (VOR2 and LOC2) which points in the direction of the set course. The To/
From arrow rotates with the course pointer and is displayed when the active NAVAID is received.
16
15
14
13
12
1
11
2
3
10
4
5
9
6
8
7
1
Current Track Indicator
9
Lateral Deviation Scale
2
Selected Heading Bug
10
Flight Phase
3
11
Course Pointer
4
Course Deviation Indicator
(CDI)
Navigation Source
12
Selected Course
5
Aircraft Symbol
13
Lubber Line
6
To/From Indicator
14
Current Heading
7
Rotating Compass Card
15
8
OBS Mode Active
Turn Rate and Heading
Trend Vector
16 Selected Heading
Figure 2-15 Horizontal Situation Indicator
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
The HSI Map is a 210 ˚ expanded compass rose which also includes a navigation map with overlay capabilities
such as topographical, weather, and land information. The HSI Map contains a Course Pointer, a combined To/
From Indicator with a sliding deviation indicator, and a lateral deviation scale. Upon passing a station, the To/
From Indicator points to the tail of the aircraft. Depending on the navigation source, the CDI on the HSI Map
can appear either as an arrowhead (FMS, VOR, OBS) as a diamond (LOC). Refer to the Flight Management
Section for information about using HSI Map overlays.
Lateral Deviation Scale
Flight Phase
Annunciation
Navigation Source
Course Deviation
Indicator and To/
From Indicator
Course Pointer
Figure 2-16 HSI Map
A digital reading of the current heading appears above the rotating compass card. A magenta diamond on
the HSI represents the current track over the ground the aircraft is flying. To the upper left of the HSI, the
Selected Heading is shown in cyan for three seconds after it is adjusted, which corresponds to the cyan heading
bug on the compass rose. The Desired Track (DTK) is shown in magenta to the upper right of the HSI when
the selected navigation source is FMS and OBS Mode is not active. The Selected Course (CRS) is shown to the
upper right of the HSI when the selected navigation source is VOR or LOC and in magenta when the selected
navigation source is FMS with OBS Mode active. Upon station passage, the To/From Indicator flips and points
to the tail of the aircraft, just like a conventional To/From flag. Depending on the navigation source, the CDI on
the can appear in two different ways: an arrowhead (FMS, VOR, OBS) or a diamond (LOC).
When the pilot enables the HSI Map, the HSI is formatted to show a navigation map on the rotating compass
card. The following information appears above the Current Heading when the HSI Map is enabled:
• A sliding deviation indicator (the To/From and
deviation indicators are combined)
• Flight Phase
• Deviation scale
• Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode Annunciation
• Navigation Source
• Crosstrack Error (XTK)
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• OBS Mode/Suspect Mode Status
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Enabling/disabling the HSI Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the HSI Map Softkey to display the HSI Map.
Or:
Press the Map Off Softkey to disable the HSI Map.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
Upon station passage, the To/From Indicator flips and points to the tail of the aircraft, just like a conventional
To/From flag. Depending on the navigation source, the CDI on the can appear in two different ways: an
arrowhead (FMS, VOR, OBS) or a diamond (LOC).
The Selected Heading is shown to the upper left of the HSI for three seconds after being adjusted. The cyan
bug on the compass rose corresponds to the Selected Heading.
Adjusting the Selected Heading:
Turn the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading.
Push the HDG Knob to synchronize the bug to the current heading.
The Selected Course is shown to the upper right of the HSI for three seconds after being adjusted.
Adjusting the Selected Course:
Turn the CRS Knob to set the Selected Course.
Push the CRS Knob to re-center the CDI and return the course pointer to the bearing of the active waypoint or
navigation station (see OBS Mode for adjusting an FMS course).
Current Track Indicator
Current Heading
Selected Heading
Selected Course
Selected Heading Bug
Figure 2-17 Heading and Course Indications
The Current Track Indicator, represented by a magenta diamond on the HSI, is the current over the ground
track the aircraft is flying.
Navigation angles (track, heading, course, bearing) are corrected to the computed magnetic variation (‘Mag
Var’) or referenced to true north (denoted ‘T’), set on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page. When an approach
referenced to true north has been loaded into the flight plan, the system generates a message to change the
navigation angle setting to ‘True’ at the appropriate time.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Figure 2-18 Heading and Course Indications (True)
Changing the navigation angle setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight NAV Angle setting in the ‘Display Units’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
• Magnetic - Angles corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag Var)
• True - References angles to true north (T)
TURN RATE INDICATOR
The Turn Rate Indicator is located directly above the rotating compass card. Tick marks to the left and
right of the lubber line denote half-standard and standard turn rates. A magenta Turn Rate Trend Vector
shows the current turn rate. The end of the trend vector gives the heading predicted in six seconds, based
on the present turn rate. A standard-rate turn is shown on the indicator by the trend vector stopping at the
standard turn rate tick mark, corresponding to a predicted heading of 18˚ from the current heading. At rates
greater than four deg/sec, an arrowhead appears at the end of the magenta trend vector and the prediction is
no longer valid.
Arrow Shown
for Turn Rate
> 4 Degrees
per Second
Standard
Turn Rate
Half Standard
Turn Rate
Figure 2-19 Turn Rate Indicator and Trend Vector
BEARING POINTERS AND INFORMATION WINDOWS
Two bearing pointers and associated information can be displayed on the HSI for NAV and FMS sources.
The pointers are cyan and are single- (BRG1) or double-lined (BRG2); an icon is shown in the respective
information window to indicate the pointer type. The bearing pointers never override the CDI and are
visually separated from the CDI by a white ring (shown when bearing pointers are selected but not necessarily
visible due to data unavailability).
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Bearing 1
Pointer
Bearing 2
Pointer
Tuning Mode
Frequency
Distance
DME Information Window
(optional)
Distance to
Bearing Source
Bearing Pointer
Icon
Source
Bearing 2
Information
Window
Bearing 1 Information Window
Figure 2-20 HSI with Bearing and DME Information
When a bearing pointer is displayed, its associated information window is also displayed. The Bearing
Information windows are displayed to the lower sides of the HSI and show the following information:
• Bearing source (NAV, FMS, ADF)
• Station/waypoint identifier (NAV, FMS)
• Pointer icon (BRG1 = single line, BRG2 = double line)
• Frequency (NAV)
• FMS-derived great circle distance to bearing
source
If the NAV radio is the bearing source and is tuned to an ILS frequency (refer to the Audio Panel and CNS
Section for information on tuning the radios), the bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and the frequency
is replaced with “ILS”. When NAV1 or NAV2 is the selected bearing source, the frequency is replaced by the
station identifier when the station is within range. If FMS is the bearing source, the active waypoint identifier
is displayed in lieu of a frequency.
The bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and “NO DATA” is displayed in the information window if:
• The NAV radio is not receiving the tuned VOR
station
• FMS is the bearing source and an active waypoint
is not selected
Selecting bearing display and changing sources:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey to display the desired bearing pointer and information window
with a NAV source.
3) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey again to change the bearing source to FMS.
4) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey a third time to change the bearing source to ADF (note: ADF radio
installation is optional).
5) To remove the bearing pointer and information window, press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey again.
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DME INFORMATION WINDOW
NOTE: DME radio installation is optional.
The ‘DME Information’ Window is displayed above the ‘BRG1 Information’ Window and shows the DME
label, tuning mode (NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD), frequency, and distance. When a signal is invalid, the distance
is replaced by “–.– – NM”. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for information on tuning the radios.
Displaying the DME Information Window:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the DME Softkey to display the ‘DME Information’ Window above the ‘BRG1 Information’ Window.
3) To remove the ‘DME Information’ Window, press the DME Softkey again.
COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer along a lateral deviation
scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data is not valid, the CDI is not
displayed.
Flight Phase
To/From
Indicator
CDI
Navigation
Source
Scale
Crosstrack
Error
Figure 2-21 Course Deviation Indicator
The CDI can display two sources of navigation: FMS or NAV (VOR, localizer). Color indicates the current
navigation source: magenta (for FMS) or green (for VOR and LOC); the Selected Course readout also follows
these color indications. When coupled to FMS, the full scale limits for the CDI are defined by a GPS-derived
distance. When coupled to a VOR or localizer (LOC), the CDI has the same angular limits as a mechanical CDI.
If the CDI exceeds the maximum deviation on the scale (two dots) while coupled to FMS, the crosstrack error
(XTK) is displayed below the white aircraft symbol.
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Figure 2-22 Navigation Sources
Changing navigation sources:
1) Press the CDI Softkey to change from FMS to VOR1 or LOC1. This places the cyan tuning box over the NAV1
standby frequency in the upper left corner of the PFD.
2) Press the CDI Softkey again to change from VOR1 or LOC1 to VOR2 or LOC2. This places the cyan tuning box
over the NAV2 standby frequency.
3) Press the CDI Softkey a third time to return to FMS.
NAV1 Selected for Tuning
FMS
Selected
LOC1
Selected
NAV2 Selected for Tuning
VOR2
Selected
Pressing the CDI Softkey
Cycles through
Navigation Sources
Figure 2-23 Selecting a Navigation Source
If the same VOR/LOC navigation source is selected on both PFDs, the navigation source annunciation turns
amber on both displays (unless synchronized). Once the CDIs are synchronized (CDI SYNC turned on), they
remain synchronized until the setting is turned off.
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Synchronizing the CDIs:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the CDI On/Off datafield in the ‘Synchronization’ box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ‘On’ or counterclockwise to ‘Off’.
The system automatically switches from FMS to LOC navigation source and changes the CDI scaling
accordingly when all of the following occur:
• A localizer or ILS approach has been loaded into the active flight plan
• The final approach fix (FAF) is the active leg, the FAF is less than 15 nm away, and the aircraft is moving
toward the FAF
• A valid localizer frequency has been tuned
• The FMS CDI deviation is less than 1.2 times full-scale deflection
FMS steering guidance is still provided after the CDI automatically switches to LOC until LOC capture, up
to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) for an ILS approach, or until FMS information becomes invalid. Activating
a Vector-to-Final (VTF; see the Flight Management Section) also causes the CDI to switch to LOC navigation
source; FMS steering guidance is not provided after this switch.
On some ILS approaches where the glideslope intercept point is at or in close proximity to the fix prior to
the FAF (see Figure 2-24), it is possible to be above the glideslope when the navigation source automatically
switches from FMS to LOC. The probability of this occurring varies based on air temperature.
Fix Prior to the FAF
Glideslope Intercept Point
Figure 2-24 ILS Approach with Glideslope Intercept Point at Fix Prior to the FAF
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FMS CDI SCALING
When FMS is the selected navigation source, the flight plan legs are sequenced automatically and
annunciations appear on the HSI for the flight phase. Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in
magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the color changes to amber. If the current leg in the flight plan
is a heading leg, ‘HDG LEG’ is annunciated in magenta beneath the aircraft symbol.
The current FMS CDI scale setting is displayed as ‘System CDI’ on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page and
the full-scale deflection setting may also be changed (2.0 nm, 1.0 nm, 0.3 nm, or Auto) from this page. If
the selected scaling is smaller than the automatic setting for enroute and terminal phases, the CDI is scaled
accordingly and the selected setting is be displayed rather than the flight phase annunciation.
Changing the selected GPS CDI setting:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Format Allowed’ in the ‘GPS CDI’ box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
5) To cancel the selection, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Terminal
Refer to accompanying
approach CDI scaling figures
Approach
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
1.0 nm
0.3 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
When set to ‘Auto’ (default), the FMS CDI scale automatically adjusts to the desired limits based upon the
current phase of flight.
Missed
Approach
Figure 2-25 Automatic CDI Scaling
• Once a departure procedure is active, the CDI is scaled for departure (0.3 nm).
• The system switches from departure to terminal CDI scaling (1.0 nm) under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the procedure is not aligned with the departure runway
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF (see
Glossary for leg type definitions)
- After any leg in the departure procedure that is not CA or FA
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• At 30 nm from the departure airport the enroute phase of flight is automatically entered and CDI scaling
changes to 2.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
- When navigating with an active departure procedure, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change
until the aircraft arrives at the last departure waypoint (if more than 30 nm from the departure airport)
or the leg after the last departure waypoint has been activated or a direct-to waypoint is activated.
• If after completing the departure procedure the nearest airport is more than 200 nm away from the aircraft
and the approach procedure has not yet commenced, the CDI is scaled for oceanic flight (4.0 nm).
• Within 31 nm of the destination airport (terminal area), the CDI scale gradually ramps down from 2.0 nm
to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm; except under the following conditions:
- Upon reaching the first waypoint of an arrival route that is more than 31 nm from the destination airport,
the flight phase changes to terminal and the CDI scale begins to transition down from 2.0 nm to 1.0 nm
over a distance of 1.0 nm.
• During approach, the CDI scale ramps down even further (see Figure 2-26 and Figure 2-27). This transition
normally occurs within 2.0 nm of the final approach fix (FAF). The CDI switches to approach scaling
automatically once the approach procedure is activated or if Vector-to-Final (VTF) is selected.
- If the active waypoint is the FAF, the ground track and the bearing to the FAF must be within 45° of the
final approach segment course.
2 nm
FAF
Landing
Threshold
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
Figure 2-26 Typical LNAV, LNAV+V, and Visual
Approach CDI Scaling
190-02218-01 Rev. B
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2 nm
FAF
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
angle based
on database
information
course width
angle set
by system
350 ft
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
CDI scale is set to the smaller of 0.3 nm
or an angle set by the system
CDI Full-scale Deflection
- If the active waypoint is part of the missed approach procedure, the active leg and preceding missed
approach legs must be aligned with the final approach segment course and the aircraft must not have
passed the turn initiation point.
Figure 2-27 Typical LNAV/VNAV, LP, and LPV
Approach CDI Scaling
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
• When a missed approach is activated, the CDI scale changes to 0.3 nm.
• The system automatically switches back to terminal scaling under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not aligned with the final approach path
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF
- After any leg in the missed approach procedure that is not CA or FA
Flight Phase
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Approach
(Non-precision)
Annunciation
DPRT
TERM
ENR
OCN
Automatic CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
LNAV
Approach
(Non-precision with Advisory
Vertical Guidance)
Approach
(Non-precision with Advisory
Vertical Guidance)
Approach
(LNAV/VNAV)
Approach
(LP)
Approach
(Non-precision with Advisory
Vertical Guidance))
Approach
(LPV)
Missed Approach
LNAV + V
1.0 nm decreasing to 350 feet depending on
variables (see Figure 2-26)
VISUAL
L/VNAV
LP
LP+V
1.0 nm decreasing to a specified course width, then
0.3 nm, depending on variables (see Figure 2-27)
LPV
MAPR
0.3 nm
* Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist
the color changes to amber.
Table 2-2 Automatic FMS CDI Scaling
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OBS MODE
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
Enabling Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode suspends the automatic sequencing of waypoints in a FMS
flight plan (FMS must be the selected navigation source), but retains the current “active-to” waypoint as the
navigation reference even after passing the waypoint. ‘OBS’ is annunciated to the lower right of the aircraft
symbol when OBS Mode is selected.
FMS
Selected
Extended
Course
Line
OBS Mode
Enabled
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Enables
OBS Mode
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Again
Disables OBS Mode
Figure 2-28 Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode
While OBS Mode is enabled, a course line is drawn through the “active-to” waypoint on the moving map.
If desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled, the FMS flight
plan returns to normal operation with automatic sequencing of waypoints, following the course set in OBS
Mode. The flight path on the moving map retains the modified course line.
NOTE: When OBS mode is active to a VOR waypoint, the course pointer and current track indicator are
relative to the published magnetic variation of the VOR which can be outdated with respect to the current
magnetic variation. Consequently, in OBS mode a slight offset may exist between indicated heading and
selected course and track indicator even when there is no crosswind.
Enabling/disabling OBS Mode while navigating an FMS flight plan:
1) Press the OBS Softkey to select OBS Mode.
2) Turn the CRS Knob to select the desired course to/from the waypoint. Push the CRS Knob to synchronize the
Selected Course with the bearing to the next waypoint.
3) Press the OBS Softkey again to return to automatic waypoint sequencing.
As the aircraft crosses the missed approach point (MAP), automatic approach waypoint sequencing is
suspended. SUSP appears on the HSI at the lower right of the aircraft symbol. The OBS Softkey label changes
to indicate the suspension is active as shown in the following figure. Pressing the SUSP Softkey deactivates
the suspension and resumes automatic sequencing of approach waypoints.
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SUSP
Softkey
SUSP
Annunciation
Figure 2-29 Suspending Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
ANGLE OF ATTACK (AOA) INDICATOR
The Angle of Attack (AOA) Indicator appears on the PFD below the airspeed indicator and displays the
normalized angle of attack. White and red arc indicate AOA ranges. The pointer color matches the color of the
arc associated with the current AOA value.
The pilot can enable/disable the display of the AOA Indicator on the PFD, or select the auto mode.
Figure 2-30 Angle of Attack (AOA) Indicator
Selecting the AOA Indicator display mode:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) The AOA Softkey displays the currently selected mode in cyan. Press the AOA Softkey to choose either Off or
Auto Mode.
NOTE: If the Garmin ESP option is installed, refer to the Additional Features section for information about
Angle of Attack Protection and indications.
When certain Angle of Attack conditions are met, a Pitch Limit Indicator will appear on the Attitude Indicator
,and is removed when these conditions no longer exist. Refer to the Additional Features Section for more
information about Garmin ESP.
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RADAR ALTIMETER
When the radar height (the aircraft altitude above ground level detected by the radar altimeter) is between
zero and 2500 feet, the current value is displayed in white to the right of the current aircraft heading. Display
of radar height becomes more sensitive as the height above ground decreases (Table 2-3).
Radar Altimeter
Figure 2-31 Current Radar Height
Radar Height Range
Shown to Nearest
0 to 200 feet
5 feet
200 to 1500 feet
10 feet
1500 to 2500 feet
50 feet
Table 2-3 Radar Altimeter Sensitivity
When the radar altimeter is selected as the altitude source for the minimum descent altitude alerting function,
the color of the radar height changes to amber upon reaching at or below the MDA/DH.
Figure 2-32 RAD ALT Setting(Timer/References Window)
Figure 2-33 RA as Altitude Source for MDA/DH
A ground line is shown on the Altimeter to display the aircraft’s height relative to the ground. If the data
becomes invalid, the message “RA FAIL” is displayed in amber in the RA box. The Radar Altimeter test is done
on the MFD but is displayed on the PFDs to the right of the current heading.
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Ground Line
Radar Altimeter
Radar Altimeter
Minimums Box
Figure 2-34 Altimeter Displaying the Ground Line (RAD ALT)
Figure 2-35 Radar Altimeter with Invalid Data
Testing the Radar Altimeter:
1) Turn the FMS Knobs to select the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page.
2) Press the RA Test Softkey to enable or disable the test.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Enable RA Test Mode’ or ‘Disable RA Test Mode’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
When test mode is active, ‘RA TEST’ is annunciated above the RA box and 40 feet will be displayed in the
RA box. To cancel the test, press the RA TEST Softkey again, or turn the FMS Knob to exit the ‘Aux - System
Status’ Page.
Figure 2-36 Radar Altimeter with Test Annunciation
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2.2 SUPPLEMENTAL FLIGHT DATA
In addition to the flight instruments, the PFD also displays various supplemental information, including
temperatures, wind data, and Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications.
TEMPERATURE DISPLAYS
The Outside Air Temperature display (OAT) appears in the lower left corner of the PFD under normal display
conditions and in reversionary mode.
Figure 2-37 Outside Air Temperature
The pilot can choose to display the temperature in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit.
Changing temperature display units:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD using the FMS Knob.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Temperature’ datafield in the ‘Display Units’ box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight either ‘Celsius’ or ‘Fahrenheit’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the
selection.
5) To cancel the selection, push the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
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WIND DATA
Wind direction and speed in knots can be displayed in a window to the upper left of the HSI. When the
window is selected for display, but wind information is invalid or unavailable, the window shows “NO WIND
DATA”. Wind data can be displayed in three different ways:
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
No Data
Figure 2-38 Wind Data
NOTE: The Wind Indicator is hidden by the AOA Indicator whenever one or both PFD’s enter Reversionary
mode.
Displaying wind data:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Wind Softkey to display wind data below the Selected Heading.
3) Press one of the Option softkeys to change how wind data is displayed:
• Option 1: Wind direction arrows with numeric headwind/tailwind and crosswind components
• Option 2: Wind direction arrow with numeric speed
• Option 3: Wind direction arrow with numeric direction and speed
4) To remove the window, press the Off Softkey.
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VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNV) INDICATIONS
When a VNV flight plan has been activated, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, RVSI, VDI) appear on the
PFD in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” message and “Vertical track” voice alert. See the Flight
Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features and additional indications. VNV indications are
removed from the PFD according to the criteria listed in Table 2-4.
Top of Descent Annunciation
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
FMS is
selected
navigation
source
Figure 2-39 Vertical Navigation Indications (PFD)
VNV Indication Removed
Required Vertical
Vertical
VNV Target
Speed (RVSI)
Deviation (VDI)
Altitude
Aircraft > 1 min before the next TOD due to flight plan change
X
X
X
VNV cancelled (CNCL VNV Softkey selected on MFD)
X
X
X
Distance to active waypoint cannot be computed due to
unsupported flight plan leg type (see Flight Management
X
X
X
Section)
Aircraft > 250 feet below active VNV Target Altitude
X
X
X
Current crosstrack or track angle error has exceeded limit
X
X
X
Active altitude-constrained waypoint cannot be reached within
X
X
maximum allowed flight path angle and vertical speed
X
Last altitude-constrained waypoint in active flight plan reached
X
X
(30 sec before)
Criteria
Table 2-4 VNV Indication Removal Criteria
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2.3 PFD ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTING FUNCTIONS
The following annunciations and alerting functions pertaining to flight instruments are displayed on the PFD.
Refer to Appendix A for more information on alerts and annunciations.
MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATIONS
Marker Beacon Annunciations are displayed on the PFD to the left of the Selected Altitude. Outer marker
reception is indicated in cyan, middle in amber, and inner in white. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section
for more information on Marker Beacon Annunciations.
Outer Marker
Middle Marker
Inner Marker
Altimeter
Figure 2-40 Marker Beacon Annunciations
ALTITUDE ALERTING
The Altitude Alerting function provides the pilot with visual and aural alerts when approaching the Selected
Altitude. Whenever the Selected Altitude is changed, the Altitude Alerter is reset. The Altitude Alerter is
independent of the Garmin AFCS, but aural and visual alerts are generated only when the Garmin AFCS is
installed. The following occur when approaching the Selected Altitude:
• Upon passing through 1000 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter)
changes to black text on a cyan background, flashes for five seconds, and an aural tone is generated.
• When the aircraft passes within 200 ft of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude changes to cyan text on
a black background and flashes for five seconds.
• After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the altitude is outside the deviation band (±200 feet of the Selected
Altitude), the Selected Altitude changes to amber text on a black background, flashes for five seconds, and an
aural tone is generated.
Within 1000 ft
Within 200 ft
Deviation of ±200 ft
Figure 2-41 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
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LOW ALTITUDE ANNUNCIATION
NOTE: A Low Altitude Annunciation is available only when SBAS is available. This annunciation is only
available when TAWS-B alerting has been inhibited.
When the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach using vertical guidance,
a Low Altitude Annunciation may appear if the current aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed
altitude at the FAF. A black-on-amber LOW ALT annunciation appears to the left of the Altimeter, flashes for
several seconds, then remains displayed until the condition is resolved.
Figure 2-42 Low Altitude Annunciation on PFD
MINIMUM ALTITUDE ALERTING
For altitude awareness, a barometric Minimum Altitude Alert can be set in the ‘References’ Window and is
reset if the current approach is deleted, another approach is loaded, or the system power is operated off then
on. For example, when enroute, the crew may choose to set the MEA. When a procedure is loaded, the set
minimum altitude alert is removed, and the crew may enter approach minimums. When active, the altitude
setting is displayed to the bottom left of the Altimeter. Once the altitude is within the range of the tape, a bug
appears at the reference altitude on the Altimeter. The following visual annunciations occur when approaching
the minimum altitude alert:
• When the aircraft altitude is over 100 ft above the minimum altitude alert setting, the BARO MIN or COMP
MIN box appears with the altitude in cyan text. The bug appears on the altitude tape in cyan (or magenta for
COMP MIN) once in range.
• When the aircraft passes through 100 feet of the MDA/DH, the bug and text turn white.
• Once the aircraft reaches MDA/DH, the bug and text turn amber and the aural alert, “Minimums. Minimums”,
is heard. When the radar altimeter is selected as the altitude source for the Minimum Descent Altitude
alerting function, the color of the current radar height changes to amber.
Within 2500 ft
Within 100 ft
Altitude Reached
Barometric
Minimum
Bug
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Barometric
Minimum
Box
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Figure 2-43 Barometric MDA/DH Alerting Visual Annunciations
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Alerting is inhibited while the aircraft is on the ground and until the aircraft reaches 150 feet above the set
value. If the aircraft proceeds to climb after having reached the alerting altitude, once it reaches 50 feet above
the value, alerting is disabled. The function is reset when the power is cycled or a new approach is activated.
Setting the barometric Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height and bug:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘MINS’ datafield.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘TEMP COMP’, or ‘RAD ALT’. ‘OFF’ is selected by default. Press the
ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired altitude (from zero to 16,000 feet when ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’
is selected, or up to 2,500 feet when ‘RAD ALT’ is selected).
5) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field and
then enter the temperature (-59˚C to 59˚C).
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
Figure 2-44 BARO and TEMP COMP MDA/DH
NOTE: For temperature compensated minimums to be displayed on the PFDs, the active flight plan must
contain an airport.
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2.4 GARMIN SVT (SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY)
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or reliability
upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
NOTE: Do not use the flight path marker as a flight director.
NOTE: Terrain alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South latitude. This is due
to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s ability to process the data representing
the affected areas.
Garmin SVT™ (Synthetic Vision Technology) is an optional visual enhancement to the system. SVT depicts a
forward-looking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The field of view is 29
degrees to the left and 35.5 degrees to the right. In Reversionary Mode, the field of view is 21.5 degrees to the
left and 35.5 degrees to the right. SVT information is shown on the Primary Flight Displays (PFDs), or on the
Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. The depicted imagery is derived from the aircraft attitude,
heading, GPS three-dimensional position, and a 4.9 arc-second database of terrain, obstacles, and other relevant
features. The terrain data resolution is 4.9 arc-seconds, meaning that the terrain elevation contours are stored in
squares measuring 4.9 arc-seconds on each side, is required for the operation of SVT. Loss of any of the required
data, including temporary loss of the GPS signal, will cause SVT to be disabled (although the softkeys will still
appear functional) until the required data is restored.
The SVT terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical map display),
large water features, towers, wind turbines, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are included in the obstacle
database. Cultural features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad tracks, cities, and state boundaries are
not displayed even if those features are found on the navigation maps. The terrain display includes a north–south
east–west grid with lines oriented with true north and spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation
relative to the terrain.
The optional Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS-B) or standard Terrain-SVT is integrated within
Garmin-SVT to provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the presence of terrain and obstacle threats relevant
to the projected flight path. Terrain alerts are displayed in red and yellow shading on the PFD.
Garmin-SVT can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If SVT is enabled
when switching to Reversionary Mode, it will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The standard, non-SVT PFD
display will be shown in the interim.
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or fidelity on
which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must not be predicated
solely upon the use of the Garmin-SVT or TAWS-B terrain or obstacle data displayed by the SVT.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
The following SVT enhancements appear on the PFD:
• Flight Path Marker
• Terrain Alerting
• Horizon Heading Marks
• Obstacle Alerting
• Airport Signs
• Pathways
• Runway Display
• Traffic Display
Figure 2-45 Synthetic Vision Imagery
SVT OPERATION
SVT is activated from the PFD using the softkeys located along the bottom edge of the display. Pressing the
softkeys turns the related function on or off. When SVT is enabled, the pitch attitude scale is reduced from 20
degrees up and down to 10 degrees up to 7.5 degrees down.
SVT functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. The PFD Opt Softkey leads into the PFD function
Softkeys, including synthetic vision. Pressing the SVT Softkey displays the SVT feature softkeys. The softkeys
are labeled Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, and APT Sign. The Back Softkey returns to the previous level of
softkeys. Synthetic Terrain must be active before any other SVT feature may be activated.
Pathways, HDG LBL, and APT Sign Softkeys are only available when the Terrain Softkey is activated (gray
with black characters). After activating the Terrain Softkey, the Pathways, HDG LBL, and APT Sign softkeys
may be activated in any combination to display desired features. On the next avionics power cycle, the system
recalls the last selected state (on or off) of the Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, and APT Sign Softkeys.
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• Pathways Softkey enables display of rectangular boxes that represent course guidance.
• Terrain Softkey enables synthetic terrain depiction.
• HDG LBL Softkey enables horizon heading marks and digits.
• APT Sign Softkey enables airport signposts.
Activating and deactivating SVT:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Terrain Softkey. The SVT display will cycle on or off with the Terrain Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Pathways:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Terrain Softkey.
4) Press the Pathways Softkey. The Pathway feature will cycle on or off with the Pathways Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Horizon Headings:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Terrain Softkey.
4) Press the HDG LBL Softkey. The horizon heading display will cycle on or off with the HDG LBL Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Airport Signs:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Terrain Softkey.
4) Press the APT Sign Softkey. Display of airport signs will cycle on or off with the APT Sign Softkey.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SVT FEATURES
Selected
Altitude
Airport
Runway
Zero
Pitch Line
(ZPL) with
Horizon
Heading
Marks
Pathways Color
Matches CDI
Indicating Nav
Source
Flight
Path
Marker
Airplane
Symbol
Synthetic
Terrain
Figure 2-46 SVT on the Primary Flight Display
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude deviation
information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
PATHWAYS
Pathways provide a three-dimensional perspective view of the selected route of flight shown as colored
rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active flight plan. The box
size represents 700 feet wide by 200 feet tall during enroute, oceanic, and terminal flight phases. During
an approach, the box width is 700 feet or one half full scale deviation on the HSI, whichever is less. The
height is 200 feet or one half full scale deviation on the VDI, whichever is less. The altitude at which the
pathway boxes are displayed is determined by the higher of either the selected altitude or the VNV altitude
programmed for the active leg in the flight plan.
The color of the rectangular boxes may be magenta, green, or white depending on the route of flight and
navigation source selected. The active FMS or FMS overlay flight plan leg is represented by magenta boxes
that correspond to the magenta CDI. A localizer course is represented by green boxes that correspond to a
green CDI. An inactive leg of an active flight plan is represented by gray boxes corresponding to a white line
drawn on the Inset map or MFD map indicating an inactive leg.
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Selected
Altitude
Programmed
Altitudes
Figure 2-47 Programmed and Selected Altitude
Pathways provide supplemental glidepath/glideslope information on an active ILS, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, and
some LNAV and visual approaches. Pathways are intended as an aid to situational awareness and should not
be used independent of the CDI, VDI, glide path indicator, and glideslope indicator. They are removed from
the display when the selected navigation information is not available. Pathways are not displayed beyond the
active leg when leg sequencing is suspended and are not displayed on any portion of the flight plan leg that
would lead to intercepting a leg in the wrong direction.
DEPARTURE AND ENROUTE
Prior to intercepting an active flight plan leg, pathways are displayed as a series of boxes with pointers at
each corner that point in the direction of the active waypoint. Pathways are not displayed for the first leg of
the flight plan if that segment is a Heading-to-Altitude leg. The first segment displaying pathways is the first
active FMS leg or active leg with a FMS overlay. If this leg of the flight plan route is outside the SVT field of
view, pathways will not be visible until the aircraft has turned toward this leg. While approaching the center
of the active leg and prescribed altitude, the number of pathway boxes decreases to a minimum of four.
Climb profiles cannot be displayed due to the variables associated with aircraft performance. Flight plan
legs requiring a climb are indicated by pathways displayed at a level above the aircraft at the altitude selected
or programmed.
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DESCENT AND APPROACH
Pathways are shown descending only for a programmed descent. When the flight plan includes programmed
descent segments, pathways are displayed along the descent path provided that the selected altitude is lower
than the programmed altitude.
When an approach providing vertical guidance is activated, pathways are shown level at the selected altitude
up to the point along the final approach course where the altitude intercepts the extended vertical descent
path, glidepath, or glideslope. From the vertical path descent, glidepath, or glideslope intercept point, the
pathways are shown inbound to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) along the published lateral and vertical
descent path, or at the selected altitude, whichever is lower.
During an ILS approach, the initial approach segment is displayed in magenta at the segment altitudes if
FMS is selected as the navigation source on the CDI. When switching to localizer inbound with LOC selected
as the navigation source on the CDI, pathways are displayed in green along the localizer and glide slope.
VOR, LOC BC approach segments that are approved to be flown using FMS are displayed in magenta boxes.
Segments that are flown using other than FMS or ILS, such as heading legs or VOR final approach courses
are not displayed.
Selected Altitude
set for Enroute
Selected Altitude
set for Departure
Climbs NOT
displayed
by pathway
Non-programmed descents NOT displayed by pathway
TOD
Selected Altitude
for Step Down
Programmed descent
displayed by pathway
Selected Altitude or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
Figure 2-48 SVT Pathways, Enroute and Descent
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
MISSED APPROACH
Upon activating the missed approach, pathways lead to the Missed Approach Holding Point (MAHP) and
are displayed as a level path at the published altitude for the MAHP, or the selected altitude, whichever is
the highest. If the initial missed approach leg is a Course-to-Altitude (CA) leg, the pathways boxes will
be displayed level at the altitude published for the MAHP. If the initial missed approach leg is defined by
a course using other than FMS, pathways are not displayed for that segment. In this case, the pathways
displayed for the next leg may be outside the field of view and will be visible when the aircraft has turned in
the direction of that leg.
Pathways are displayed along each segment including the path required to track course reversals that are
part of a procedure, such as holding patterns. Pathways boxes will not indicate a turn to a MAHP unless a
defined geographical waypoint exists between the MAP and MAHP.
FAF
Descent displayed
by pathway
Selected Altitude
or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
MAP Climbs NOT displayed
by pathway
Turn Segment
NOT displayed
by pathway
MAHP
Figure 2-49 SVT Pathways, Approach, Missed Approach, and Holding
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FLIGHT PATH MARKER
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at groundspeeds
above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft accounting for wind speed
and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM appears when the Synthetic Terrain feature is enabled. The FPM represents the direction of the
flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display, while the airplane symbol represents the
aircraft heading.
The FPM works in conjunction with the pathways feature to assist the pilot in maintaining desired altitudes
and direction when navigating a flight plan. When on course and altitude the FPM is aligned inside the
pathway boxes as shown.
The FPM may also be used to identify a possible conflict with the aircraft flight path and distant terrain or
obstacles. Displayed terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s flight path extending above the FPM could indicate
a potential conflict, even before an alert is issued by either the TAWS-B or Terrain-SVT system. However,
decisions regarding terrain and/or obstacle avoidance should not be made using only the FPM.
Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
Wind
Vector
Figure 2-50 Flight Path Marker and Pathways
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ZERO PITCH LINE
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the horizon when the terrain
horizon is difficult to distinguish from other terrain being displayed. It may not align with the terrain
horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or when the aircraft is flown at high altitudes.
HORIZON HEADING
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows approximately 60 degrees of compass
heading in 30‑degree increments on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and digits appearing
on the zero pitch line are not visible behind either the airspeed or altitude display. Horizon Heading is used
for general heading awareness, and is activated and deactivated by pressing the HDG LBL Softkey.
TRAFFIC
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the SVT display or may appear as a
partial symbol.
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic systems.
Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting closer, and smaller
when they are further away. Traffic within 250 feet laterally of the aircraft will not be displayed on the SVT
display. Traffic symbols and coloring are consistent with the non-directional symbols shown on navigation
maps and traffic maps. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not be displayed on the SVT display.
For more details refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard Avoidance section.
AIRPORT SIGNS
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic terrain
display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately 15 nm from
an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the identifier until
the aircraft is approximately eight nautical miles from the airport. Airport signs are not shown behind the
airspeed or altitude display. Airport signs are activated and deactivated by pressing the APT Sign Softkey.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Airport
Sign
without
Identifier
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
Airport
Sign with
Identifier
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
Figure 2-51 Airport Signs
RUNWAYS
WARNING: Do not use SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of the aircraft
to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these runways are not
displayed.
Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding terrain. All
runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database. In some situations,
where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be layered. As runways are
displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are displayed in white. Other runways will be gray
in color. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that runway will appear brighter and be outlined
with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft gets closer
to the runway, more detail such as runway numbers and centerlines will be displayed.
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Airport
Runway
within 45
degrees
of aircraft
heading
Other
Airport
Runways
Figure 2-52 Airport Runways
TERRAIN ALERTING
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward-looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA)
alerts, and corresponds to the yellow terrain shading for a caution alert and the red shading for a warning alert
on the Inset Map and MFD Map displays. For more detailed information regarding Terrain-SVT and TAWS
refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section.
In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on the
synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVT field of view to the left or right of the aircraft.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Terrain
Annunciation
Potential
Impact
Area
Warning
Potential
Impact
Area
Caution
Figure 2-53 Terrain Alert
Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower symbols or
wind turbine symbols found on the maps. Obstacle symbols appear in the perspective view with relative
height above terrain and distance from the aircraft. When employing a TAWS system, unlike the Inset map
and MFD moving map display, obstacles on the synthetic terrain display do not change colors to warn of
potential conflict with the aircraft’s flight path until the obstacle is associated with an actual FLTA alert.
Obstacles greater than 1000 feet below the aircraft altitude are not shown. Obstacles are shown behind the
airspeed and altitude displays.
PULL UP
Annunciation
Obstacle
Warning
Figure 2-54 SVT Obstacle Warning
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FIELD OF VIEW
The PFD field of view can be represented on the MFD Navigation Map Page. Two dashed lines forming a
V‑shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map, represent the forward viewing area shown on the PFD.
Enabling/Disabling SVT Field of View on the Navigation Map:
1) While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Map Settings’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Map’ Group options to ‘Field of View’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
6) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
The following figure compares the PFD forward looking depiction with the MFD plan view and Field of View.
Lines
Depict
PFD Field
of View
SVT View on the PFD
Field of View on the MFD
Figure 2-55 PFD and MFD Field of View Comparison
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.5 ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
ABNORMAL GPS CONDITIONS
The annunciations listed in Table 2-5 can appear on the HSI when abnormal GPS conditions occur; see Figure
2-56 for examples. Refer to the Flight Management Section for more information on Dead Reckoning (DR)
Mode.
Annunciation
Location
Description
Right of HSI
Loss of Integrity Monitoring–GPS integrity is insufficient for the current phase of flight.
Right of HSI
Integrity OK–GPS integrity has been restored to within normal limits (annunciation
displayed for 5 seconds).
Lower left of Dead Reckoning–System is using projected position rather than GPS position to compute
aircraft symbol navigation data and sequence active flight plan waypoints.
Table 2-5 Abnormal GPS Conditions Annunciated on HSI
Figure 2-56 Example HSI Annunciations
DR Mode causes the following items on the PFD to be shown in amber:
• CDI (when FMS is the selected navigation source; removed after 20 minutes in DR mode operation)
• Current Track Indicator
• Wind data and pointers in the Wind Data Box on the PFD
• FMS bearing pointers
• Distances in the Bearing Information windows
• Active Flight Plan distances, bearings, and ETE values
The accuracy items should be verified when operating in DR Mode.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
COMPARATOR ANNUNCIATIONS
The Comparator monitors critical values generated by redundant sensors. If differences in the sensors exceed
a specified amount, a comparator annunciation is displayed in black text on an amber background. If one or
both of the sensed values are unavailable, the comparator annunciation is black text on a white background.
Refer to the Appendix A Section for more information about Comparator Annunciations.
Comparator
Annunciation
Figure 2-57 Sensor Comparator Annunciations on the PFD
The following is a list of the possible annunciations:
Comparator
Annunciation
ALT
Comparator
Type
MISCOMPARE
IAS
MISCOMPARE
HDG
PIT
ROL
VDI
ALT
IAS
HDG
PIT
ROL
VDI
MISCOMPARE
MISCOMPARE
MISCOMPARE
MISCOMPARE
NO COMP
NO COMP
NO COMP
NO COMP
NO COMP
NO COMP
Condition
Difference in altitude sensors is > 200 ft.
If both airspeed sensors detect < 35 knots, this is inhibited.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 35 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 10
knots.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 80 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 7 knots.
Difference in heading sensors is > 6 degrees.
Difference in pitch sensors is > 5 degrees.
Difference in roll sensors is > 6 degrees.
Difference in temperature compensated altitudes is > 50 ft.
No data from one or both altitude sensors.
No data from one or both airspeed sensors.
No data from one or both heading sensors.
No data from one or both pitch sensors.
No data from one or both roll sensors.
No temperature compensated altitude data available.
Table 2-6 Comparator Annunciations
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
REVERSIONARY SENSOR ANNUNCIATIONS
Reversionary sensor selection is annunciated on the upper left center of the PFD. These annunciations
reflect reversionary sensors selected on one or both PFDs. Pressing the PFD Opt Softkey accesses the Sensors
Softkey. Pressing the Sensors Softkey accesses the ADC and AHRS softkeys These softkeys allow switching of
the sensors being viewed on each PFD. With certain types of sensor failures, the system may make some sensor
selections automatically. The FMS sensor cannot be switched manually.
Figure 2-58 Reversionary Sensor Annunciation
Reversionary Sensor
Annunciation
BOTH ON ADC1
BOTH ON ADC2
BOTH ON AHRS1
BOTH ON AHRS2
BOTH ON GPS1
BOTH ON GPS2
USING ADC1
USING ADC2
USING AHRS1
USING AHRS2
USING GPS1
USING GPS2
Condition
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number one Air Data Computer.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number two Air Data Computer.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number one Attitude & Heading Reference System.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number two Attitude & Heading Reference System.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number one GPS receiver.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number two GPS receiver.
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 Air Data Computer.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 Air Data Computer.
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 AHRS.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 AHRS.
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 GPS.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 GPS.
Table 2-7 Reversionary Sensor Annunciations
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
When the aircraft enters an unusual pitch attitude, red extreme pitch warning chevrons pointing toward the
horizon are displayed on the Attitude Indicator, starting at 50˚ above and 30˚ below the horizon line.
Nose High
Nose Low
Figure 2-59 Pitch Attitude Warnings
If pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚, some information displayed on the PFD is removed. The
Altimeter and Airspeed, Attitude, Vertical Speed, and Horizontal Situation indicators remain on the display
and the Bearing Information, Alerts, and Annunciation windows can be displayed during such situations. The
following information is removed from the PFD (and corresponding softkeys are disabled) when the aircraft
experiences unusual attitudes:
• Traffic Annunciations
• Transponder Status Box
• AFCS Annunciations
• PFD Setup Menu
• Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height readout
• Flight Director Command Bars
• Windows displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD:
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope,
and Glidepath Indicators
• Inset Map
• Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
– Timer/References
• Altimeter Barometric Setting
• International Standard
Atmosphere Temperature (ISA)
– Nearest Airports
• Selected Altitude
– Flight Plan
• VNV Target Altitude
• DME Information Window
(optional)
– Alerts
• System Time
• Wind data
– DME Tuning (optional)
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
NOTE: Refer to the current version of the pertinent flight manual for limitations.
The system offers improved flight operations and reduces crew workload by automatically monitoring critical
system parameters and providing system alerts during all phases of flight. The Engine Indication System (EIS)
displays electrical, fuel, and engine information on the left side of the Multi Function Display (MFD).
EIS Display
Figure 3-1 MFD Normal Mode
Green bands on the instruments indicate normal ranges of operation; amber and red bands indicate caution
and warning, respectively. White or uncolored bands indicate areas outside of normal operation not yet in the
caution or warning ranges. When unsafe operating conditions occur, the corresponding displays flash to indicate
cautions and warnings. If sensory data to an instrument becomes invalid or unavailable, a red “X” is displayed
across the instrument.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.1 EIS DISPLAY
Normal Mode
Reversionary Mode
1
1
8
2
2
3
9
3
4
10
4
5
5
6
7
6
11
8
10
12
12
11
Figure 3-2 EIS Display
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
1 Torque
The Torque Gauge displays values from 0 to 130% of maximum safe torque.
If the torque remains above 100% for more than 5 seconds or exceeds the value
indicated by the red tick mark, a warning condition occurs.
The maximum climb torque is displayed as a white triangle (bug).
Maximum Climb Torque
The optimum cruise range is displayed as a white band.
Optimum Cruise Range
When bleed pressure reaches its upper limit, ‘BLEED HI’ is annunciated above the
Torque Gauge.
2 Propeller Speed
Displays propeller speed in revolutions per minute (rpm) from zero to 2200.
If propeller speed slows so that the gauge pointer enters the amber range, a
caution is issued.
If propeller speed exceeds the maximum safe operating speed, a warning is
indicated.
3 Generator Speed
Generator speed is displayed as a percentage of maximum safe operating speed
(rpm), from 0 to 120%.
If generator speed exceeds 104% a warning condition occurs.
4 Interturbine Temperature
The Interturbine Temperature (ITT) Gauge ranges differ for engine off/start
and running conditions. Engine starting temperature range: Between 200
and 1200 degrees Celsius (°C), and ‘STRT’ annunciation is shown above the
ITT indication. Engine normal operating temperature range: Between 200 to
900 Celsius (°C) with no annunciation shown above the ITT indication.
When the engine is not running: ‘OFF’ annunciation above the ITT
displayed.
Red tick marking along the ITT gauge, indicate ITT exceedance limits.
5 Oil Pressure
Displays engine oil pressure in pounds per square inch (psi)
6 Oil Temperature
Displays oil temperature in degrees Celsius (°C)
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
7 Crew Alerting System
(CAS)
8 Cabin Pressure
Displays CAS messages. (Refer to the Appendices section for information on
the CAS display).
Cabin pressurization information (cabin altitude, rate of change, differential
cabin pressure, and landing field elevation) is shown. Only displays for cabin
altitude and pressure differential are shown during Reversionary Mode.
Cabin altitude (ALT FT) is shown on a color-coded scale labeled 0, 10, and
15 in 1,000 of feet, with numerical digital values in feet displayed below.
Cabin altitude change rate (RATE FPM) is displayed on a scale of 1,000ft from plus (+) 2 to minus (-) 2 fpm with numerical digital values in feet
displayed below. (Only displayed in normal mode).
Cabin pressure differential (DIFF PSI), is displayed in pounds per square inch
(psi) on a color-coded scale, with numerical digits in psi.
9 Oxygen Pressure
Crew oxygen system is displayed in pounds per square inch (psi) in
numerical digital readout. (Only displayed in normal mode).
10 Fuel Quantity
Fuel quantity is displayed in United States gallons (USG).
In normal mode, fuel quantity for each tank is normally shown along a colorcoded scale with numerical digits. In reversionary mode, it is only displayed
in numerical digits.
Fuel flow usage is listed in gallons per hour (gph) in numerical digits.
11 Electrical
Electrical amps and volts are displayed with indications for battery and the
electrical generating system.
In normal mode, amps and volts are displayed along a color-coded scale,
with numerical digits. In reversionary mode, only the numerical digits are
displayed.
AMPS displays the battery (pointers labeled “B”) and generators (pointer
labeled “G” for primary generator, “S” for standby generator when primary
generator is offline) (normal mode only)
VOLTS displays the battery (pointers labeled “B”) and essential bus (pointer
labeled “E”) (normal mode only).
12 Trims and Flaps Position
Elevator (ELEV), rudder (RUD), and aileron (AIL) trim indications are shown
along slide bar scales (normal mode). Rudder and aileron trim indications are
not displayed in reversionary mode.
Flap trim indication is displayed using a rotating pointer, with positions for
takeoff, landing, and up (normal mode). Flap indications are only displayed
as UP, T/O, and LDG in reversionary mode. The elevator display does not
change in reversionary mode.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.2 LANDING FIELD ELEVATION
Landing Field Elevation (LFE FT) is displayed in numerical digits in feet and is set two ways. The first is
automatically, based on the destination in the active flight plan by selecting the FMS LFE Softkey. The other is
set by selecting the LFE MAN Softkey on the MFD and selecting one of four softkeys: +250 FT, -250 FT, +25
FT, or -25 FT.
Landing Field Elevation/
Destination Airport Identifier
Landing Field Elevation
Figure 3-3 Manual LFE on the Cabin Pressure Display
Figure 3-4 FMS LFE on the Cabin Pressure Display
Set the displayed landing field elevation to the value for the destination airport:
1) Select the System Softkey.
2) Select the FMS LFE Softkey to set the LFE to the value for the destination airport in the current flight plan.
Manually adjust the displayed landing field elevation:
1) Select the System Softkey.
2) Select the LFE MAN Softkey.
3) Use the +250, -250, +25, or -25 FT softkeys to set the desired elevation.
4) To confirm the new LFE value, select the Accept Softkey.
NOTE: Manual adjustments to the landing field elevation are done from the previously selected or default
LFE value.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.3 AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS
The Systems pages show current conditions of certain aircraft functionality on aviation system diagrams, reducing
workload by allowing the flight crew to rapidly analyze the situation. Aircraft systems graphically depicted in the
synoptic diagrams include:
• Electrical System
• De-Ice System
• Fuel System
• Status/Doors
LEVEL 1
System
LEVEL 2
DESCRIPTION
Accesses the Systems softkeys and LFE Softkeys
Displays the ‘Sys - Electrical’ Page
Displays the ‘Sys - Fuel’ Page
Displays the ‘Sys - General’ Page for the de-ice system and doors
ELEC
Fuel
GEN
ELECTRICAL
The ‘Sys - Electrical’ Page uses a diagram of the aircraft’s electrical system to display the system status. The
generators, ground power supply (GPU), batteries, and buses are shown in green to denote normal operation.
Color of the units change depending on the condition. A red “X” over a component indicates invalid data or
failed unit.
Access the ‘Sys - Electrical’ Page:
1) Select the System Softkey.
2) Select the ELEC Softkey.
1
2
3
4
9
5
6
7
8
Figure 3-5 ‘Sys - Electrical’ Page
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
1 Standby Generator
6 DC Buses 1 through 4
2 Main Generator
7 Essential Bus Voltage
3 Ground Power Unit Door
8 Battery Bus Voltage
4 Battery
9 Amperage
5 Main Bus
Unit
Description
Main
Generator
Connected
Disconnected
Connected
Disconnected
Standby
Generator
Door Closed
(No Indication)
GPU
Door Open Selected
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Door Open Not Selected
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
Unit
Description
Battery
Ess Bus/Batt
Bus
Connected
Current Flow from Battery
Disconnected
Current Flow from Battery
Connected
Current Flow to Battery
Normal
Caution - Low Voltage
Warning - Low Voltage
Bus Energized
Bus not Energized
Switch Down - Essential Bus
connected to Main Bus
Switch Up - Essential Bus connected
to Battery Bus
DC Buses
Ess Bus
Connections
al
Table 3-1 Electrical System Synoptics
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
FUEL
The ‘Sys - Fuel’ Page displays the status of the fuel tanks and feed system. Fuel quantity is depicted
graphically; the color changes to amber if the fuel quantity drops below the threshold level.
Access the ‘Sys - Fuel’ Page:
1) Select the System Softkey.
2) Select the FUEL Softkey.
5
1
6
2
7
3
8
4
Figure 3-6 ‘Sys - Fuel’ Page
1 Auxiliary Boost Pump
5 Engine Driven Boost Pump
2 Left Fuel Tank
6 Right Fuel Tank
3 Left Fuel Line
7 Right Fuel Line
4 Fuel Flow Data
8 Fuel Selector
Unit
Fuel
Selector
Auxiliary
Boost
Pump
Description
Left Fuel Tank
Selected
Switching Fuel Tank
Selection
Right Fuel Tank
Selected
On
Off (Auto)
Off (Manual)
Manual or Unknown
Fuel Tank Selection
Fuel Selector Off
Table 3-2 Fuel System Synoptics
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
GENERAL SYSTEM
The ‘Sys - General’ Page displays open doors in red (CAS messages also generated).
Statuses of stall sensor, propeller, pitot probes, and windshield heat are also indicated on the diagram:
• White indicates that heat is off (propeller and windshield)
• Cyan indicates heat has been selected (windshield)
• Green indicates heat is on
• Amber indicates heat has failed (stall sensor, propeller and pitot tube).
• Invalid sensor information is indicated with a red ‘X’.
Access the ‘Sys - General’ Page status:
1) Select the System Softkey.
2) Select the GEN Softkey.
8
1
7
2
6
3
5
4
Figure 3-7 ‘Sys - General’ Page
108
1 Forward Cargo Door Open
5 Stall Warning Sensor
2 Pitot Probe 1
6 Pitot Probe 2
3 Pilot Door Open
7 Windshield Heat On
4 Cabin Door Open
8 Propeller Heater
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
Unit
Windshield
Heat
Description
Off
On
Table 3-3 Windshield Heat Synoptics
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.4 EIS DISPLAY (REVERSIONARY MODE)
In the event of a PFD or MFD display failure, the display(s) operating in Reversionary Mode are configured to
present PFD symbology together with the EIS Display (refer to the System Overview for information about display
reversionary mode).
EIS Display
Figure 3-8 Reversionary Mode (EIS Shown)
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 OVERVIEW
The Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) system includes the Audio Panels, communication radios,
navigation radios, and Mode S transponders. The System Overview Section provides a block diagram description
of the Audio Panels and CNS system interconnection.
CNS operation is performed by the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• Primary Flight Display (PFD) (2)
• Audio Panel (2)
• Multi Function Display (MFD)
• Mode S Transponder (2)
• Integrated Avionics Unit (2)
• MFD Controller
The PFD and MFD Controller controls are used to tune the communication transceivers and navigation radios.
The two Audio Panels provide the traditional audio selector functions of microphone and receiver audio
selection. Each Audio Panel includes a two position intercom system (ICS) between the pilot and copilot, a
marker beacon system, and a COM clearance recorder. Ambient noise from the aircraft radios is reduced by a
feature called Master Avionics Squelch (MASQ). When no audio is detected, MASQ processing further reduces
the amount of background noise from the radios.
The Mode S Transponders are controlled with softkeys and the FMS Knobs. The Transponder Data Box is
located to the left of the System Time Box. The data box displays the selected transponder, the active four-digit
code, mode, and a reply status.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
PFD CONTROLS AND FREQUENCY DISPLAY
1
2
3
5
4
6
7
8
9
10
11
13
12
Figure 4-1 PFD Controls, NAV/COM Frequency Tuning Boxes, and DME Tuning Window
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
1
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to turn the Morse code identifier audio on
and off. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
3
NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Press to move the frequency selected for tuning (cyan numbers) and the Frequency Transfer Arrow
between NAV1 and NAV2.
4
NAV Frequency Box – Displays NAV standby and active frequency fields, volume, and station ID. The
frequency of the NAV radio selected for navigation and the station ID are displayed in green.
5
COM Frequency Box and Decoded COM Frequency Identifier – Displays COM standby and active
frequency fields and volume. The selected and decoded COM transceiver frequency is displayed in green.
6
COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Press to move the frequency selected for tuning (cyan numbers) and the Frequency Transfer Arrow
between COM1 and COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this key
for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Press to turn the COM automatic squelch on
and off. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency field as a percentage.
9
ADF/DME Tuning Window – Displays ADF frequencies, volume setting, and modes, and DME tuning
selection. Display by pressing the ADF/DME Softkey.
10
ENT Key – Validates or confirms DME pairing mode and Auto-tune selection.
11
FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob, used to enter transponder codes, select DME modes, and
Auto-tune entries when DME Tuning Window or NRST Window is present. Press the FMS Knob to turn
the selection cursor on and off. The large knob moves the cursor in the window. The small knob selects
individual characters for the highlighted cursor location.
12
Transponder Data Box – Indicates the selected transponder code, operating mode, reply, and ident status
for the applicable transponder.
13
ADF/DME Softkey – Displays the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
Volume/Squelch
Annunciations
24
23
25
26
Figure 4-2 Audio Panel Controls
NOTE: When a Key is selected, the in-key annunciation is illuminated.
114
Control Name
Description
1
COM1 MIC
Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously selected when this key is
pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM receiver to be heard. COM2 receiver audio can be
added by pressing the COM2 Key. When the PTT is active the annunciation will be flashing.
2
COM1
3
COM2 MIC
4
COM2
5
AUX MIC
When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard.
Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously selected when this key is
pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM receiver to be heard. COM1 receive can be added
by pressing the COM1 Key. When the PTT is active the annunciation will be flashing.
When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard.
Reserved for optional COM radio
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Control Name
Description
6
AUX
Reserved for optional COM radio
7
DME
Turns optional DME audio on or off.
8
NAV1
When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
9
ADF
Turns optional ADF receiver audio on or off.
10
NAV2
When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
11
PA
12
TEL
13
CREW ICS
14
MUS1
15
PASS ICS
16
MUS2
17
SPKR
18
MKR/MUTE
19
HI SENS
20
PLAY
21
MAN SQ
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Selects the passenger address system. The selected COM transmitter is deselected when the PA Key
is pressed. A solid annunciation indicates PA mode is active, while a flashing annunciation indicates
PTT has been keyed.
Selects/Deselects the TEL audio source and assigns the Bluetooth device to the TEL audio. Press the
TEL key until the annunciator turns blue. The in-key annunciator will cycle from OFF to WHITE to
BLUE. WHITE selects the wired audio source and BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source. NOTE: The
Bluetooth audio can only be assigned to one source at a time. Once the Bluetooth audio is assigned
to an audio source, the remaining entertainment audio sources will only cycle between OFF and
WHITE.
Controls the crew intercom system. Press and hold to enable/disable onside Bluetooth recording
mode.
Selects/Deselects the MUS1 audio source and assigns the Bluetooth device to the MUS1 audio. Press
the MUS1 key until the annunciator turns blue. The in-key annunciator will cycle from OFF to WHITE
to BLUE. WHITE selects the wired audio source and BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source. NOTE:
The Bluetooth audio can only be assigned to one source at a time for each audio panel. Once the
Bluetooth audio is assigned to an audio source, the remaining entertainment audio sources will only
cycle between OFF and WHITE.
Controls the passenger intercom system.
Selects/Deselects the MUS2 audio source and can assign the Bluetooth device to the MUS2 audio.
Press the MUS2 key until the annunciator turns blue. The in-key annunciator will cycle from OFF to
WHITE to BLUE. WHITE selects the wired audio source and BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source.
NOTE: The Bluetooth audio can only be assigned to one source at a time for each audio panel. Once
the Bluetooth audio is assigned to an audio source, the remaining entertainment audio sources will
only cycle between OFF and WHITE.
Selects and deselects the on-side flight deck speaker. COM, NAV, AUX, PA, and MKR receiver audio
can be heard on the speaker.
Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker beacon receiver audio.
Unmutes automatically when new marker beacon audio is received.
Press to increase marker beacon receiver sensitivity. Press again to return to low sensitivity.
Press once to play the last recorded COM audio. Press again while audio is playing and the previous
block of recorded audio is played. Each subsequent press plays each previously recorded block.
Enables manual squelch for the intercom. When the intercom is active, press the VOL/SQ Knob to
illuminate the squelch annunciation. Turn the VOL/SQ Knob to adjust squelch.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Control Name
22
23
24
25
26
116
Description
Indicates volume/squelch setting relative to full scale.
Volume/Squelch The volume for each audio input into the audio panels can be controlled independently. Use the
Indicator
CRSR knob to select the desired source and then use the VOL/SQ Knob to adjust the volume for
that source.
Turn the smaller knob to control volume or squelch of the selected source (indicated by the flashing
white or blue annunciator). When the volume control cursor is not active press to switch to BlueVolume/Squelch Select mode. If the volume control cursor is active, press twice (once to cancel the cursor, twice to
(VOL/SQ) Control activate Blue-Select mode). Press and hold for 2 seconds to enable the audio panel as discoverable
Knob
for pairing. The Bluetooth Annunciator will flash to indicate that the unit is discoverable. The unit will
remain discoverable for 60 seconds or until a successful pair is established. Once a successful pair is
established, the Bluetooth Annunciator will quit flashing and be a solid blue.
Cursor (CRSR)
Turn to move the cursor (flashing white or blue annunciator) to the desired source.
Control Knob
Bluetooth®
A flashing blue annunciator indicates the unit is discoverable. A solid blue annunciator indicates an
Connection
active Bluetooth connection.
Annunciator
DISPLAY
Manually selects PFD/MFD Reversionary Mode.
BACKUP Button
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.2 COM OPERATION
1
2
3
5
7
4
6
8
Figure 4-3 COM Tuning Box Indications
NOTE: When turning on the system for use, the system remembers the last frequencies used and the active
COM transceiver state prior to shutdown.
1
Active Fields – The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the
left. An active COM frequency is displayed in green and indicates that the COM transceiver is selected
on the Audio Panel (COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key). Both active COM frequencies appearing in white
indicate that no COM radio is selected for transmitting (PA Key is selected on the Audio Panel).
2
Frequency Transfer Arrow – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields with the Frequency
Tuning Box. Indicates which COM transciever is selected for frequency transfer between the Standby and
Active fields.
3
Standby Fields – The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two standby frequencies are on
the right. Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency in
the tuning box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
4
Frequency Tuning Box – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields with the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. Indicates which COM transceiver is to be tuned in the Standby Field.
5
Automatic Squelch Indication – Indicates that Automatic Squelch is disabled. Automatic Squelch quiets
unwanted static noise when no audio signal is received, while still providing good sensitivity to weak COM
signals. When Automatic Squelch is disabled, COM audio reception is always on. Continuous static noise
is heard over the headsets and speaker, if selected.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
6
Transmit and Receive Indications – During COM transmission, a white TX appears by the active COM
frequency replacing the Frequency Transfer Arrow. During COM signal reception, a white RX appears by
the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency Transfer Arrow.
7
Frequency Spacing – The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or
8.33-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When
8.33-kHz channel spacing is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in
the complete 3040-channel list.
8
COM Volume – COM radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob.
Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume.
When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication
remains for two seconds after the change.
COM TRANSCEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The COM frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the right side of each PFD.
Manually tuning a COM frequency:
1) Turn the COM Knob to tune the desired frequency (large knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the COM VOL/SQ Knob.
4) Press the COM VOL/SQ Knob to turn automatic squelch on and off.
AUTO-TUNING THE COM FREQUENCY
COM frequencies can be automatically tuned from the following:
• Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies Page (ARTCC, FSS, WX)
• WPT – Airport Information Page
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces Page
• NRST – Nearest Airports Page
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE PFD
COM frequencies for the nearest airports can be automatically tuned from the Nearest Airports Window on
the PFD. When the desired frequency is entered, it becomes a standby frequency. Pressing the Frequency
Transfer Key places this frequency into the COM Active Frequency Field.
Auto-tuning a COM frequency for a nearby airport from the PFD:
1) Select the Nearest Softkey on the PFD to open the Nearest Airports Window. A list of 25 nearest airport
identifiers and COM frequencies is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the list and highlight the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the COM Standby Frequency Field.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Select the Nearest Softkey to Open
the Nearest Airports Window
Figure 4-4 Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE MFD
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the COM Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT
page group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
Auto-tuning a COM frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the COM frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob or
pressing the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency field.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the selected COM frequency field.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the page menu .
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor on the desired selection.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency field.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the selected COM frequency field.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-5 Nearest Pages Menus
On the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page, the cursor can be placed on the frequency field by pressing the
FMS Knob and scrolling through the list. With the desired frequency highlighted, press the ENT Key to
bring up the ‘Load Frequency’ Window. Use the FMS Knobs to select the desired COM radio field and press
the ENT Key to load it.
Selected Airport
Identifier and
Information
Runway
Information
Press ENT Key to
display the ‘Load
Frequency’ Window.
Select Info 1 Softkey
for Airport, Runways,
and Frequencies
Windows
Turn the FMS Knob to select
the desired COM field location.
Press the ENT Key again to load
the frequency into the selected
location.
Figure 4-6 ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page
COM frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the ‘NRST – Nearest Airspaces’ Page, ‘NRST – Nearest
Frequencies’ Page, and ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’ Page on the MFD in a similar manner using the appropriate
softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
FREQUENCY SPACING
The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing (118.000
to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel spacing is selected,
all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in the complete 3040-channel list.
COM channel spacing is set on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page..
Changing COM frequency channel spacing:
1) Select the ‘AUX – System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Channel Spacing Field in the COM Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired channel spacing.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the channel spacing selection.
While the COM CONFIG Window is selected, the softkeys are blank.
Select 8.33-kHz
or 25.0-kHz
COM Frequency
Channel Spacing
Figure 4-7 ‘Aux – System Setup 1’ Page
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.3 NAV OPERATION
NAV TUNING BOXES
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
Figure 4-8 NAV Tuning Box Indications
122
1
Standby Fields – The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two standby frequencies are on
the left. Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency in
the tuning box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
2
Frequency Transfer Arrow – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields with the Frequency
Tuning Box. Indicates which NAV transciever is selected for frequency transfer between the Standby and
Active fields.
3
Active Fields – The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the
right. An active NAV frequency is displayed in green. The active NAV radio is selected by pressing the
CDI softkey on the PFD. Both active NAV frequencies appearing in white indicate that no NAV radio is
selected.
4
NAV Tuning Box – Moves between the upper and lower radio standby frequency fields with the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. Indicates which NAV transceiver is to be tuned in the Standby Field. Moving the Frequency
Tuning Box is accomplished by pressing the NAV knob on the PFD.
5
VOR/LOC Morse Code Audio Indication – When the Morse code Identifier audio is on for a NAV radio,
a white ID replaces the Frequency Transfer Arrow to the left of the active NAV frequency. In order to
listen to either station identifier, press the NAV1 or NAV2 Key on the Audio Panel. Pressing the VOL/ID
Knob turns on/off the Morse code audio only in the radio with the NAV Tuning Box. To turn on/off both
NAV IDs, transfer the NAV Tuning Box between NAV1 and NAV2 by pressing the small NAV Knob and
pressing the VOL/ID Knob again to turn the Morse code off in the other radio.
6
Decoded Morse Code Station Identifier – The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code
station identifier that is received from the navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station
identifier is still required, and can be accomplished by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio
panel and pressing the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
7
NAV VOLUME – NAV radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/ID Knob.
Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume.
When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication
remains for two seconds after the change.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
NAV RADIO SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; two standby fields and two active fields. The active
frequencies are on the right side and the standby frequencies are on the left.
A NAV radio is selected for navigation by selecting the CDI Softkey located on the PFD. The active NAV
frequency selected for navigation is displayed in green. Selecting the CDI Softkey once selects NAV1 as the
navigation radio. Selecting the CDI Softkey a second time selects NAV2 as the navigation radio. Selecting the
CDI Softkey a third time activates GPS mode. Selecting the CDI Softkey again cycles back to NAV1.
While cycling through the CDI Softkey selections, the selected NAV standby frequency is selected for tuning,
the Frequency Transfer Arrow is placed in the selected NAV Frequency Field, and the active NAV frequency
color changes to green.
The three navigation modes that can be cycled through are:
• VOR1 (or LOC1) – If NAV1 is selected, a green single line arrow (not shown) labeled either VOR1 or LOC1
is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV1 frequency is displayed in green.
• VOR2 (or LOC2) – If NAV2 is selected, a green double line arrow (shown) labeled either VOR2 or LOC2 is
displayed on the HSI and the active NAV2 frequency is displayed in green.
• GPS – If GPS Mode is selected, a magenta single line arrow (not shown) appears on the HSI and neither NAV
radio is selected. Both active NAV frequencies are then displayed in white and the previously selected NAV
standby frequency remains selected for tuning.
See the Flight Instruments Section for selecting the DME and Bearing Information windows and using VOR
or ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code station identifier that is received from the
navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station identifier is still required, and can be accomplished
by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pressing the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
NAV radios are selected for listening by pressing the corresponding keys on the Audio Panel. Pressing the
NAV1, NAV2, ADF, or DME Key selects and deselects the navigation radio source. Selected audio can be heard over
the headset and the speakers (if selected). All radios can be selected individually or simultaneously.
NAV RECEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The NAV frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the left side of the PFDs.
Manually tuning a NAV frequency:
1) Turn the NAV Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box.
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
4) Press the NAV VOL/ID Knob to turn the Morse code identifier audio on and off.
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AUTO-TUNING A NAV FREQUENCY FROM THE MFD
NAV frequencies can be selected and loaded from the following MFD pages:
• WPT – Airport Information
• NRST – Nearest VOR
• WPT – VOR Information
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies (FSS, WX)
• NRST – Nearest Airports
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces
The MFD provides auto-tuning of NAV frequencies from waypoint and nearest pages. During enroute
navigation, the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV standby frequency field. During approach
activation the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV active frequency field.
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT page
group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
Auto-tuning a NAV frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the NAV frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob, or the
appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV identifier or NAV frequency.
3) On the Nearest VOR and Nearest Airports pages, press the FREQ Softkey to place the cursor on the NAV
frequency.
4) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV frequency field.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the selected NAV frequency field.
Or:
1) When on the NRST pages, press the MENU Key on the MFD Controller to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor in the desired window.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV frequency field.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the selected NAV frequency field.
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Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest VOR Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-9 Nearest Pages Menus
In the example shown, the VOR list is selected with the VOR Softkey or from the page menu. The FMS Knob
or ENT Key is used to scroll through the list. The cursor is placed on the frequency with the FREQ Softkey and
loaded into the desired NAV Tuning Field with the FMS Knobs and the ENT Key.
Press ENT Key to
display the ‘Load
Frequency’ Window.
Press the VOR or FREQ Softkey
to place the cursor in the
respective window
Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired
NAV field location. Press the ENT Key
again to load the frequency into the
selected location.
Figure 4-10 Loading the NAV Frequency from the ‘NRST – Nearest VOR’ Page
While enroute, NAV frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’,
‘WPT – Airport Information’, ‘WPT – VOR Information’, and ‘NRST – Nearest Frequencies’ Pages on the MFD
in a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
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AUTO-TUNING NAV FREQUENCIES ON APPROACH ACTIVATION
NOTE: The primary NAV frequency is auto-tuned upon loading a VOR or ILS/Localizer approach.
NOTE: When an ILS/LOC approach has been activated in GPS Mode, the system switches to NAV Mode as
the final approach course is intercepted (within 15 nm of the FAF). See the Flight Management Section for
details.
NAV frequencies are automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency field on approach activation, on both
PFD1 and PFD2.
When loading or activating a VOR or ILS/LOC approach, the approach frequency is automatically transferred
to a NAV frequency field as follows:
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, the approach frequency is transferred to the NAV1 or NAV2
active frequency fields. The frequency that was previously in the NAV1 or NAV2 active frequency fields are
transferred to standby.
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, and if the approach frequency is already loaded into the NAV1
or NAV2 standby frequency field, the standby frequency is transferred to active.
• If the current CDI navigation source is NAV1 or NAV2, the approach frequency is transferred to the standby
frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
MARKER BEACON RECEIVER
NOTE: The marker beacon indicators operate independently of marker beacon audio and cannot be turned
off.
The marker beacon receiver is used as part of an ILS. The marker beacon receiver is always on and detects
any marker beacon signals within the reception range of the aircraft.
The receiver detects the three marker tones – outer, middle, and inner – and provides the marker beacon
annunciations located to the left of the Altimeter on the PFD.
The Audio Panels provide three different states of marker beacon operation; On, Muted, and Deselected.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key selects and deselects marker beacon audio. The key annunciator indicates when
marker beacon audio is selected.
During marker beacon audio reception, pressing the MKR/MUTE Key mutes the audio but does not affect the
marker annunciations. The marker tone is silenced, then waits for the next marker tone. The MKR/MUTE Key
Annunciator is illuminated, indicating audio muting. The audio returns when the next marker beacon signal
is received. If the MKR/MUTE Key is pressed during signal reception (O, M, I indication) while marker beacon
audio is muted, the audio is deselected and the MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is extinguished.
Pressing the HI SENS Key switches between high and low marker beacon receiver sensitivity. The HI SENS
function (annunciator illuminated) is used to provide an earlier indication when nearing a marker during an
approach. The LO SENS function (annunciator extinguished) results in a narrower marker dwell while over a
station.
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ADF/DME TUNING
NOTE: When another auxiliary window is turned on, the ‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window is replaced on the PFD.
See the Flight Instruments Section for displaying the DME and bearing information windows (ADF) and
using the ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
The system tunes the ADF receiver (optional) and DME transceiver (optional). The ADF is tuned by entering
the frequency in the ADF standby frequency field of the ‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window. (The softkey may be
labeled ADF/DME, ADF, or DME, depending on installed equipment.)
The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a VHF NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is automatic
and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
The following ADF/DME information is displayed in the ADF/DME Tuning Window:
• Active and standby ADF frequencies
• ADF receiver mode
• ADF receiver volume
• DME tuning mode (DME transceiver pairing)
When the ADF/DME Tuning Window is displayed, the selection cursor is placed over the standby ADF
frequency field.
Turning the large FMS Knob moves the selection cursor through the various fields (standby ADF frequency,
ADF receiver mode, ADF radio volume, and DME tuning mode). Pressing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates
the selection cursor in the ADF/DME Tuning Window. The ADF frequency is entered using the FMS Knob and
the ENT Key.
Active ADF Frequency
Standby ADF Frequency
ADF
Mode
ADF
Volume
DME
Tuning
Mode
Figure 4-11 ADF/DME Tuning Window
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ADF TUNING
ADF frequencies in the 190.0-kHz to 1799.5-kHz range are entered in the standby ADF frequency field
of the ‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window. The system does not tune the ADF emergency frequency, 2182.0‑kHz.
Tuning an ADF frequency:
1) Press the ADF/DME Softkey to display the ‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the standby ADF frequency field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to begin data entry and change each digit.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next digit position.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete data entry for the standby frequency.
Pressing the CLR Key before completing frequency entry cancels the frequency change and reverts back to
the previously entered frequency.
Pressing the CLR Key when the cursor is flashing, clears the frequency and replaces the standby field with
‘0000.0’.
Transferring the active and standby ADF frequencies:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the standby ADF frequency field.
2) Press the ENT Key to complete the frequency transfer.
SELECTING ADF RECEIVER MODE
The following modes can be selected: (In all modes NDB audio can be heard by pressing the ADF Key on
the Audio Panel.)
• ANT (Antenna) – The ADF bearing pointer parks on the HSI at 90 degrees. Best mode for listening to NDB
audio.
• ADF (Automatic Direction Finder) – The ADF pointer points to the relative bearing of the NDB station.
• ADF/BFO (ADF/Beat Frequency Oscillator) – The ADF pointer points to the relative bearing of the NDB
station and an audible tone confirms signal reception. This mode allows identification of the interrupted
carrier beacon stations used in various parts of the world.
• ANT/BFO (Antenna/Beat Frequency Oscillator) – The ADF bearing pointer parks on the HSI at 90 degrees
while an audible tone is provided when a signal is received. This mode also allows identification of the
interrupted carrier beacon stations and confirms signal reception.
Selecting an ADF receiver mode:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the ADF mode field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired ADF receiver mode.
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ADF receiver volume level can be adjusted in the tuning window from 0 to 100%. The default volume level
is set to 50%. The ADF volume level is the same for both Audio Panels.
Adjusting ADF receiver volume:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the ADF volume field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust volume as desired.
DME TUNING
NOTE: When turning on the system for use, it will remember the last frequency used for DME tuning and
the NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD state prior to shutdown.
The DME transceiver is tuned by selecting NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD in the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
DME
Modes
Figure 4-12 ADF/DME Tuning Window, DME Modes
The following DME transceiver pairings can be selected:
• NAV1 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV1 frequency.
• NAV2 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV2 frequency.
• HOLD – When in the HOLD position, the DME frequency remains paired with the last selected NAV
frequency.
Selecting DME transceiver pairing:
1) Press the ADF/DME Softkey to display the ‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the DME tuning mode.
3) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
Pressing the CLR Key or FMS Knob while in the process of DME pairing cancels the data entry and reverts
back to the previously selected DME tuning state. Pressing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates the cursor in
the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
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4.4 MODE S TRANSPONDERS
Mode S Transponders provide Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S interrogation and reply capabilities. The Diversity
option incorporates antennas mounted on the top and bottom of the aircraft for dependable operation while
maneuvering. Selective addressing or Mode Select (Mode S) capability includes the following features:
• Level-2 reply data link capability (used to exchange information between aircraft and ATC facilities)
• Surveillance identifier capability
• Flight ID (Flight Identification) reporting – The Mode S Transponder reports aircraft identification as either the
aircraft registration or a unique Flight ID.
• Altitude reporting
• Airborne status determination
• Transponder capability reporting
• Mode S Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) requirements
• Acquisition squitter – Acquisition squitter, or short squitter, is the transponder 24-bit identification address.
The transmission is sent periodically, regardless of the presence of interrogations. The purpose of acquisition
squitter is to enable Mode S ground stations and aircraft equipped with a Traffic Avoidance System (TAS) to
recognize the presence of Mode S-equipped aircraft for selective interrogation.
• Extended squitter – The extended squitter is transmitted periodically and contains information such as altitude
(barometric and GPS), GPS position, and aircraft identification. The purpose of extended squitter is to provide
aircraft position and identification to ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and other aircraft.
The Hazard Avoidance Section provides more details on traffic avoidance systems.
TRANSPONDER CONTROLS
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Mode Selection, and Code
Selection. When the top-level XPDR Softkey is selected, the Mode Selection softkeys appear: Standby, On,
ALT, VFR, Code, Ident, Back. If equipped with optional second transponder, XPDR1 and XPDR2 selection
softkeys will also appear with the Mode Selection softkeys.
When the Code Softkey is pressed, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, Ident, BKSP, Back. The
digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Pressing the numbered softkeys in sequence enters the transponder
code. If an error is made, pressing the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the previous digit.
Pressing the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous digit.
Pressing the Back Softkey during code selection reverts to the Mode Selection Softkeys. Pressing the Back
Softkey during mode selection reverts to the top-level softkeys.
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on either PFD. Code entry must be completed with either
the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
Pressing the Ident Softkey while in Mode or Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to the
top-level softkeys.
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
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Figure 4-13 XPDR Softkeys (PFD)
Selecting and activating Transponder 1 or Transponder 2:
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the XPDR1 or XPDR2 Softkey to select and activate the desired transponder.
If the aircraft contains optional dual transponders, on power up the system activates Transponder 1 as
the default unit, regardless of which transponder was active prior to shutdown. When switching between
Transponder 1 and Transponder 2, the code and mode remain the same. If a new code is entered in the active
transponder, switching transponders does not bring back the previous code.
TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTION
Mode selection can be automatic (Altitude Mode) or manual (Standby, ON, and Altitude Modes). The
Standby, On, and ALT Softkeys can be accessed by selecting the XPDR Softkey.
Selecting a transponder mode:
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the XPDR1 or XPDR2 Softkey to select the active transponder.
3) Press the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode.
STANDBY MODE (MANUAL)
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited.
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the Standby Softkey. In Standby, the transponder
is powered and new codes can be entered, but no replies or squitters are transmitted.. When Standby is
selected, a white STBY indication and transponder code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data
Box.
STBY Mode (White Code
Number and Mode)
Figure 4-14 Standby Mode
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MANUAL ON MODE
On Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the On Softkey. An On indication will appear in the
mode field of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting On mode enables transmission of transponder replies and
squitters, but transmissions will not include altitude information. The On indication and transponder code
in the Transponder Data Box will appear green while airborne and white while on the ground. When the
transponder is operating with an air state of on-ground it will disable replies to Mode A, Mode C, and Mode
S all-call interrogations so the aircraft will not show up on the traffic systems of other aircraft.
On-Ground On Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
Airborne On Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
Figure 4-15 On Mode
ALTITUDE MODE
ALT Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the ALT Softkey. When ALT mode is selected,
an ALT indication will appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting ALT mode enables
transmission of transponder replies and squitters. Transmissions will include pressure altitude information.
The ALT indication and transponder code in the Transponder Data Box will appear green while airborne and
white while on the ground. When the transponder is operating with an air state of on-ground it will disable
replies to Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call interrogations so the aircraft will not show up on the traffic
systems of other aircraft.
On-Ground ALT Mode
Airborne ALT Mode
Figure 4-16 Altitude Mode
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REPLY STATUS
When the transponder sends replies to interrogations, a white R indication appears momentarily in the
reply status field of the Transponder Data Box.
Reply to Interrogation
Figure 4-17 Reply Indication
ENTERING A TRANSPONDER CODE
Entering a transponder code with softkeys:
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the Code Softkey to display the Transponder Code Selection Softkeys, for digit entry.
3) Press the digit softkeys to enter the code in the code field. When entering the code, the next softkey in sequence
must be pressed within 10 seconds, or the entry is cancelled and restored to the previous code. Press the BKSP
Softkey to move the code selection cursor to the previous digit. Five seconds after the fourth digit has been
entered, the transponder code becomes active.
Entering a transponder code with the PFD FMS Knob:
1) Press the XPDR and the Code Softkeys as in the previous procedure to enable code entry.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob on the PFD to enter the first two code digits.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
Pressing the CLR Key or small FMS Knob before code entry is complete cancels code entry and restores the
previous code. Waiting for 10 seconds after code entry is finished activates the code automatically.
VFR CODE
The VFR code can be entered either manually or by selecting the XPDR Softkey, then the VFR Softkey.
When the VFR Softkey is selected, the pre-programmed VFR code is automatically displayed in the code field
of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting the VFR Softkey again restores the previous identification code.
The pre-programmed VFR Code is set at the factory to 1200. If a VFR code change is required, contact a
Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
VFR Code
Figure 4-18 VFR Code
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IDENT FUNCTION
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the Ident Softkey is inoperative.
Selecting the Ident Softkey sends a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The indication
distinguishes the identing transponder from all the others on the air traffic controller’s screen. The Ident Softkey
appears on all levels of transponder softkeys. When the Ident Softkey is selected, a green Ident indication is
displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for a duration of 18 seconds.
After the Ident Softkey is selected while in Mode or Code Selection, the system reverts to the top-level
softkeys.
Ident Indication
Select the Ident Softkey
to Initiate the ID Function
Figure 4-19 Ident Softkey and Indication
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4.5 ADDITIONAL AUDIO PANEL FUNCTIONS
POWER-UP
The Audio Panels perform a self-test during power-up. During the self-test all Audio Panel annunciator lights
illuminate for approximately two seconds. Once the self-test is completed, most of the settings are restored to
those in use before the unit was last turned off. The exceptions are the speaker and intercom, which are always
selected during power up.
MONO/STEREO HEADSETS
Stereo headsets are recommended for use in this aircraft.
Using a monaural headset in a stereo jack shorts the right headset channel output to ground. While this does
not damage the Audio Panel, a person listening on a monaural headset hears only the left channel in both ears.
If a monaural headset is used at one of the passenger positions, any other passenger using a stereo headset hears
audio in the left ear only.
SPEAKER
Each Audio Panel controls a separate cabin speaker. Pressing the SPKR Key selects and deselects the on-side
speaker.
All of the radios can be heard over the cabin speakers. Speaker audio is muted when the PTT is pressed.
The speaker volume is adjustable within a nominal range. Contact a Garmin-authorized service center for
volume adjustment.
AMBIENT NOISE COMPENSATION
An internal mic is used to gauge ambient noise level. The system will then automatically adjust the audio
volume to an appropriate level to compensate for the current environment.
INTERCOM SYSTEM (ICS)
The audio panel includes an intercom system, two MUSIC inputs, and one telephone/entertainment input for
the pilot, copilot and passengers. The intercom provides Crew and Passenger audio isolation.
Pilot (Audio Panel #1)
Copilot (Audio Panel #2)
Figure 4-20 Intercom Controls
Press the CREW ICS Key and/or the PASS ICS Key to enable intercom audio for the selected position. If
the annunciators are lit, those positions will share intercom audio. If an annunciator is NOT lit that position
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is isolated from the others. The CREW ICS Key is shared between the Audio Panels for ICS distribution. The
PASS ICS Key is not shared between the Audio Panels for ICS distribution.
INTERCOM MODES
Audio Panel
#1
Audio Panel
#2
Pilot Hears
Copilot Hears
Passenger Hears
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Copilot MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Pilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Pilot MIC
Pilot Selected COM Radios
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Passenger MIC
Copilot MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Copilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Pilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Pilot MIC
Pilot Selected COM Radios
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Copilot MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Pilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Pilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Passenger MIC
Pilot MIC
Pilot Selected COM Radios
Copilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Copilot MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Copilot MIC
Passenger MIC
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Passenger MIC
Pilot MIC
Pilot Selected COM Radios
Copilot MIC
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INTERCOM VOLUME AND SQUELCH
The VOL/CRSR Knob controls selection and volume or manual squelch adjustment for audio sources that
may not be adjustable anywhere else in the system. The small knob controls the volume or squelch. Turning
the large knob activates and/or moves the cursor (flashing white annunciator or flashing blue annunciator in
Blue-Select Mode) to select the audio source to adjust. The cursor will time-out after a few seconds and the
position of the cursor will always default back to the CREW Key. Pressing the small knob cancels the cursor.
Manual Squelch Key
Off for Automatic Squelch,
On for Manual Squelch
Volume Annunciation
Manual Squelch Annunciator
Off for Automatic Squelch, On for
Manual Squelch
Volume/Squelch Indicator
Indicates volume/squelch setting
relative to full scale
Squelch Annunciation
VOL/SQ Control Knob
Turn to adjust Squelch when
SQ Annunciation is lit, Volume
when VOL Annunciation is lit.
CRSR Control Knob
Turn to move the cursor (flashing
annunciator) to the desired
source
Figure 4-21 Volume/Squelch Control (GMA 1360)
PASSENGER ADDRESS (PA) SYSTEM
A passenger address system is provided by pressing the PA Key to deliver messages to the passengers. The
message is heard by the other pilot on the headset only if the CREW ICS Key is enabled and PA is enabled on
both audio panels. PA messages are one way from the flight deck to the passengers.
A Push-to-talk (PTT) must be pressed to deliver PA announcements to the passengers over their headphones.
When PA is selected on the Audio Panel, the annunciator flashes about once per second while pressing the
PTT, the COM MIC annunciators are no longer lit, and the active COM frequency for that Audio Panel changes
to white, indicating that there is no COM selected.
PA Key is Selected on
the Audio Panel
Figure 4-22 PA Key Selected for Cabin Announcements
SIMULTANEOUS COM OPERATION
Both the pilot and copilot can transmit and receive on the same radio. The selected COM MIC Annunciator
flashes when either pilot’s microphone PTT is pressed.
If the pilot and copilot are transmitting on separate radios, whichever mic began transmitting first will have
the priority. If the pilot and copilot have selected the same COM radio for transmission, the pilot will have
priority if COM1 is selected and the copilot will have priority if COM2 is selected.
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CLEARANCE RECORDER AND PLAYER
NOTE: Pressing the Play Key on the pilot’s Audio Panel plays recorded audio to the Pilot. Pressing the Play
Key on the Copilot’s Audio Panel plays recorded audio to the Copilot.
The Audio Panel contains a digital clearance recorder that continually records up to 2.5 minutes of the
selected COM radio signal. Recorded COM audio is stored in separate memory blocks. Once 2.5 minutes of
recording time have been reached, the recorder begins recording over the stored memory blocks, starting from
the oldest block.
The PLAY Key controls the play function. The PLAY annunciator remains lit to indicate when play is in
progress. The PLAY annunciator turns off after playback is finished.
Pressing the PLAY Key once plays the latest recorded memory block and then returns to normal operation.
Pressing the PLAY Key again during play of a memory block stops play. If a COM input signal is detected
during play of a recorded memory block, play is halted.
Pressing the PLAY Key twice within one-half second while audio is playing plays the previous block of
recorded audio. Each subsequent two presses of the PLAY Key within one-half second backtracks through the
recorded memory blocks to reach and play any recorded block.
Powering off the unit automatically clears all recorded blocks.
PLAY Key Controls
the Play Function
Figure 4-23 PLAY Key
TELEPHONE/ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS
The audio panel provides three stereo telephone/entertainment inputs:
• The TEL Key controls the Bluetooth or Iridium telephone connection.
• The MUS1 Key controls the Auxiliary Input, SiriusXM Radio Entertainment, or a Bluetooth audio connection.
If a device is plugged into the Auxiliary Jack, that device will have priority over the Sirius XM radio.
• The MUS2 Key control an additional Bluetooth Audio connection.
Distribution of the entertainment inputs are configured in Blue-Select Mode.
Iridium phone distribution for passengers can be controlled by either audio panel, but the volume adjustment
is controlled only by the on-side audio panel, even if TEL has been deselected.
TELEPHONE AND ENTERTAINMENT MUTING
Telephone and entertainment muting is configured at installation. Regardless of configuration, telephone
and entertainment audio is always muted during alerts.
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SIRIUSXM RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
SiriusXM Radio audio from the Data Link Receiver may be heard by the pilot and passengers simultaneously
(optional: requires subscription to SiriusXM Radio Service). Refer to the Additional Features Section for more
details on the Data Link Receiver.
3D AUDIO
3D Audio is useful when multiple COM audio sources are present. By using different responses in each ear,
3D audio processing creates the illusion that each COM audio source is coming from a unique location on the
horizontal plane.
Because this feature uses different signals for left and right channels, it requires wiring for stereo intercom
and stereo headsets. If 3D audio is activated when mono headsets are in use, the listener will still hear all audio
sources; however, there is no benefit from location separation.
With a single COM selected and 3D Audio enabled, the listener hears the audio source at the 12 o’clock
position. If both COMs are selected, the listener hears COM1 at 11 o’clock and COM2 at the 1 o’clock position.
All other audio inputs are processed so that the listener hears the audio source at the 12 o’clock position. By
default, the system assumes the pilot sits in the left seat. A Garmin authorized service center can make changes
to the default configuration.
BLUE-SELECT MODE
The music (MUS) and telephone (TEL) audio are distributed using the Blue-Select Mode. The following
example indicates that the pilot will hear the telephone, and all passengers will hear the Music 2 audio.
Pilot (Audio Panel #1)
Copilot (Audio Panel #2)
Figure 4-24 Blue-Select Mode (Telephone/Entertainment Distribution)
NOTE: Bluetooth Telephone is not available to the passengers.
The Blue-Select Mode is entered by pressing the small knob when the volume control cursor (flashing white
annunciator) is not active. If the volume control cursor is active, press the small knob twice. The first press
will cancel the volume control cursor, the second will activate Blue-Select Mode.
The annunciator over the TEL Button will be flashing blue. Any combination of the annunciators over
the CREW ICS Button and the PASS ICS Button may be blue. Select the desired button to turn the blue
annunciator on or off to distribute the telephone audio to selected crew/passenger positions. Turn the large
knob to select MUS1 or MUS2, and select the crew/passenger positions to receive the music audio. The CREW
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ICS Key is not shared between the Audio Panels for Blue-Select Mode. The PASS ICS Key is shared between
the Audio Panels for Blue-Select Mode.
Selecting any button other than CREW ICS, PASS ICS, TEL, MUS1, or MUS2 will cancel Blue-Select
Mode. Pressing the VOL/SQ Knob will also cancel Blue-Select Mode. After approximately ten seconds with no
input, the Blue-Select Mode will automatically cancel.
BLUETOOTH SETUP
NOTE: Pairing is only necessary during the first attempt to connect a Bluetooth device. Once paired, the
Audio Panel and the device will connect automatically.
PAIRING A BLUETOOTH DEVICE WITH AN AUDIO PANEL
Press and hold the VOL/SQ Knob for two seconds. The Bluetooth Annunciator flashes to indicate the
unit is discoverable and the aural message “Bluetooth discoverable” is heard. The Audio Panel will remain
discoverable for 60 seconds or until a successful pair is established. Once paired, the Bluetooth Annunciator
will quit flashing and turn a steady blue.
ASSIGNING AN AUDIO SOURCE TO THE BLUETOOTH DEVICE
Press the TEL Key, the MUS1 Key, or the MUS2 Key until the annunciator turns blue (the audio from
the Bluetooth source will not be heard until this step is complete). The annunciator cycles OFF-WHITEBLUE. WHITE selects the wired audio source. BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source. The BLUE source
assignment will persist through Bluetooth audio connection disruptions.
Bluetooth audio will maintain a separate volume level and Blue Select distribution from the wired audio
source. If the intercom between the Pilot and Copilot is enabled and the Bluetooth connection is supporting a
phone call, the Pilot and Copilot intercom positions listening to that source can also speak on the call through
the headset MICs.
ADDITIONAL BLUETOOTH CONTROL FUNCTIONS
When the Audio Panel detects a recording device as the Bluetooth connected device, the CREW ICS
Annunciator will turn BLUE. All audio heard by the Pilot will be recorded. Press and hold the CREW ICS
Button to enable/disable Bluetooth Recording mode.
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4.6 AUDIO PANELS PREFLIGHT PROCEDURE
NOTE: If the pilot and/or copilot are using headsets that have a high/low switch or volume control knob,
verify that the switch is in the high position and the volume control on the headsets are at maximum volume
setting. On single‑pilot flights, verify that all other headsets are not connected to avoid excess noise in the
audio system.
NOTE: Adjusting the PILOT volume control affects ICS audio that is heard in the headset for the flight crew
member that is performing the adjustment. Keep in mind that the intercom volumes on the Audio Panels
are independent of one another, but the radio volumes are not.
NOTE: When the MAN SQ Key is pressed, the ICS squelch can be set manually by the pilot and copilot. If
manual squelch is set to full open (SQ annunciated and the knobs turned counterclockwise) background
noise is heard in the ICS system as well as during COM transmissions.
After powering up the System, the following steps aid in maximizing the use of the Audio Panel as well as
prevent pilot and copilot induced issues. These preflight procedures should be performed each time a pilot
boards the aircraft to ensure awareness of all audio levels in the Audio Panel and radios.
Setting the Audio Panels during preflight:
1) Verify that the CREW ICS, PASS ICS, and SPKR Annunciators are lit.
2) Adjust radio volume levels (COM, NAV, etc.) to a suitable level.
3) Use the Blue-Select Mode to distribute TEL, MUS1, and MUS2 appropriately.
4) Use the VOL/SQ Knob to adjust the intercom volumes to the desired level.
Once this procedure has been completed, the pilot and copilot can change settings, keeping in mind the notes
above.
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4.7 ABNORMAL OPERATION
Abnormal operation of the system includes equipment failures of the system components and failure of
associated equipment, including switches and external devices.
STUCK MICROPHONE
If the push-to-talk (PTT) Key becomes stuck, the COM transmitter stops transmitting after 35 seconds of
continuous operation. An alert appears in the ‘Alerts’ Window on the PFD to advise the crew of a stuck
microphone.
The COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key Annunciator on the Audio Panel flashes as long as the PTT Key remains
stuck.
COM TUNING FAILURE
In case of a COM system tuning failure, the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) is automatically tuned in
the radio in which the tuning failure occurred. Depending on the failure mode, a red X may appear on the
frequency display.
PFD FAILURE, DUAL SYSTEM
If PFD1 fails, COM1 and NAV1 display a red X on both remaining displays. NAV1 is unavailable. COM1
automatically tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM1 emergency frequency is available
to both the copilot and pilot.
AUDIO PANEL FAIL-SAFE OPERATION
If there is a failure of both Audio Panels, a fail-safe circuit connects the pilot’s headset and microphone directly
to the COM1 transceiver and the copilot’s headset directly to the COM2 transceiver. Audio is not available on
the speakers.
If there is a failure of one audio panel, a fail-safe circuit connects the failed side headset and microphone to
the appropriate COM transceiver (COM1 for pilot side, COM2 for copilot side). The working audio panel will
have full access to all COM/NAV radios, alerts, and any equipment connected to the working side.
REVERSIONARY MODE
The red DISPLAY BACKUP Button selects the Reversionary Mode. See the System Overview Section for
more information on Reversionary Mode.
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SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The system is an integrated flight, engine, communication, navigation and surveillance system. This section of
the Pilot’s Guide explains flight management using the system.
The most prominent part of the system are the three full color displays: two Primary Flight Displays (PFD) and
a Multi Function Display (MFD). The information to successfully navigate the aircraft using the GPS sensors is
displayed on the PFD and the MFD.
Navigation mode indicates which sensor is providing the course data (e.g., GPS, VOR) and the flight plan phase
(e.g., Terminal (TERM), Enroute (ENR), Oceanic (OCN), RNAV Approach (LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V,
LPV), or Missed Approach (MAPR)).
The Inset Map and HSI Map are small versions of the Navigation Map. The Inset Map is displayed in the lower
left corner of the PFD (lower right during reversionary mode), and the HSI Map is displayed in the center of
the HSI. The Inset Map and the HSI Map may each be referred to as the PFD Map. A PFD Map is displayed by
pressing the Map/HSI Softkey, pressing the Layout Softkey, then pressing either the Inset Map or HSI Map
Softkey. Pressing the Map Off Softkey removes the PFD Map.
The Navigation Map displays aviation data (e.g., airports, VORs, airways, airspaces), geographic data (e.g.,
cities, lakes, highways, borders), topographic data (map shading indicating elevation), and hazard data (e.g.,
traffic, terrain, weather). The amount of displayed data for the Inset Map can be reduced by pressing the Map/
HSI Softkey on the PFD, then pressing the Detail Softkey. The amount of displayed data for the Navigation Map
can be reduced by pressing the Detail Softkey on the MFD. The Navigation Map can be oriented three different
ways: North Up (NORTH UP), Track Up (TRK UP), or Heading Up (HDG UP).
An aircraft icon is placed on the Navigation Map at the location corresponding to the calculated present position.
The aircraft position and the flight plan legs are accurately based on GPS calculations. The basemap upon which
these are placed are from a source with less resolution, therefore the relative position of the aircraft to map features
is not exact. The leg of the active flight plan currently being flown is shown as a magenta line on the navigation
map. The other legs are shown in white.
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. Range is indicated in the upper left
quadrant of the range ring shown around the aircraft icon. This indicated range is the range from the aircraft
icon to the range ring, and roughly half the range to the top edge of the displayed map. To change the map
range on any map, turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to zoom in ( -, decreasing), or clockwise to zoom out (+,
increasing).
The ‘Direct To’ Window, the ‘Flight Plan’ Window, the ‘Procedures’ Window, and the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window
can be displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Details of these windows are discussed in detail later in
the section.
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Navigation Status Box
Current Track Indicator
Navigation Mode
Inset Map
Location of:
- Direct To Window
- Flight Plan Window
- Procedures Window
- Nearest Airports Window
- References Window
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD (Inset Map)
Navigation Mode
Current Track
Indicator
HSI Map
Figure 5-2 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD HSI Map
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Navigation Data
Bar
Map Orientation
Display
Title
Navigation Map
- Aviation Data
- Geographic Data
- Topographic Data
- Hazard Data
Map Range
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at
Present Position
Figure 5-3 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Page
NAVIGATION STATUS BOX AND DATA BAR
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the PFD contains two fields displaying the following
information:
Figure 5-4 PFD Navigation Status Box
• Active flight plan leg (e.g., ‘D-> KICT’ or ‘KIXD -> KCOS’) or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘Turn right to
021˚ in 8 seconds’)
• Distance (DIS) and Bearing (BRG) to the next waypoint or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘TOD within 1 minute’)
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The symbols used in the PFD status box are:
Symbol
Description
Symbol
Description
Active Leg
Left Holding Pattern
Direct-to
Vector to Final
Right Procedure Turn
Right DME Arc/Radius to Fix Leg
Left Procedure Turn
Left DME Arc/Radius to Fix Leg
Right Holding Pattern
Table 5-1 PFD Status Box Symbols
The Navigation Data Bar located at the top of the MFD contains four data fields, each displaying one of the
following items:
• BRG
(Bearing)
• FOB
• DEST
(Destination airport identifier)
• FOD (Fuel over destination)
• DIS
(Distance)
• GS
(Groundspeed)
• DTG
(Distance to go to destination)
• ISA
(Temperature at standard pressure)
• DTK
(Desired tack)
• LDG (ETA at final destination)
• END
(Endurance)
• MSA (Minimum safe altitude)
• ENR
(ETE to final destination)
• TAS
(True airspeed)
• ESA
(Enroute safe altitude)
• TKE
(Track angle error)
• ETA
(Estimated time of arrival)
• TRK
(Track)
• ETE
(Estimated time enroute)
• VSR
(Vertical speed required)
• FLT
(Flight timer)
• XTK
(Cross-track error
(Fuel on board)
Figure 5-5 MFD Navigation Data Bar
The navigation information displayed in the four data fields can be selected on the MFD Data Bar Fields Box
on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page. The default selections (in order left to right) are GS, DTK, TRK, and ETE.
Changing a field in the MFD Navigation Data Bar:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the ‘MFD Data Bar Fields’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the data options list to select the desired data.
5) Press the ENT Key. Pressing the Defaults Softkey returns all fields on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page to the
default settings.
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5.2 USING MAP DISPLAYS
Map displays are used extensively in the system to provide situational awareness in flight. Most system maps
can display the following information:
• Airports, NAVAIDs, airspaces, airways, land data
(highways, cities, lakes, rivers, borders, etc.)
with names
• Map range
• Wind direction and speed
• Map orientation
• Icons for enabled map features
• Aircraft icon (representing present position)
• Obstacle data
• Topography scale
• Map Pointer information (distance and bearing
to pointer, location of pointer, name, and other
pertinent information)
• Fuel range ring
• Flight plan legs
• User waypoints
• Track vector
• Terrain
• Topography data
The information in this section applies to the following maps unless otherwise noted:
• All Map Group Pages (‘Map’)
• All Nearest Group Pages (‘NRST’)
• All Waypoint Group Pages (‘WPT’)
• Direct To Window
• ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page (‘Aux’)
• PFD Maps
• Flight Plan Pages (‘FPL’)
• Procedure Loading Pages
MAP ORIENTATION
Maps are shown in one of three different orientation options, allowing flexibility in determining aircraft
position relative to other items on the map (north up) or for determining where map items are relative to where
the aircraft is going (track up or heading up). The map orientation is shown in the upper left corner of the map.
Figure 5-6 Map Orientation
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• North up (NORTH UP) aligns the top of the map display to north (default setting).
• Track up (TRK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current ground track.
• Heading up (HDG UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current aircraft heading.
The Auto North Up setting configures the map to switch automatically to a north up orientation when the
map range reaches a minimum range.
NOTE: When panning or reviewing active flight plan legs in a non-North Up orientation, the map does not
show the map orientation nor the wind direction and speed.
NOTE: Map orientation can only be changed on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. Any other displays that
show navigation data reflect the orientation selected for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Map Settings
Selection
Figure 5-7 Navigation Map Page Menu
Map Group Selection
Orientation Field
North Up Above Field
Figure 5-8 Map Settings Menu - Map Group
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Changing the Navigation Map orientation:
1) With the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Map Settings’ Window.
3) Select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now highlighting the ‘Orientation’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired orientation.
6) Press the ENT Key to select the new orientation.
7) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Enabling/disabling Auto North Up and selecting the minimum switching range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘North Up Above’ Field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’ using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the range field.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select the desired range.
9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option.
10) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page
MAP RANGE
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. Range is indicated in the upper left
quadrant of the range ring shown around the aircraft icon. This indicated range is the range from the aircraft
icon to the range ring, and roughly half the range to the top edge of the displayed map. When the map range
is decreased to a point that exceeds the capability of the system to accurately represent the map, a magnifying
glass icon is shown to the left of the map range. To change the map range turn the Joystick counter-clockwise
to decrease the range, or clockwise to increase the range.
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Auto Zoom On
Figure 5-9 Map Range
AUTO ZOOM
Auto zoom allows the system to change the map display range to the smallest range clearly showing the
active waypoint. Auto zoom can be overridden by adjusting the range with the Joystick, and remains until
the active waypoint changes, a terrain or traffic alert occurs, the aircraft takes off, or the manual override times
out (timer set on ‘Map Settings’ Window). Auto zoom is suspended while the map pointer is active.
If a terrain caution or warning occurs, all navigation maps automatically adjust to the smallest map range
clearly showing the potential impact areas. If a new traffic advisory alert occurs, any navigation map displaying
traffic advisory alerts automatically adjusts to the smallest map range clearly showing the traffic advisory. When
terrain or traffic alerts clear, the map returns to the previous auto zoom range based on the active waypoint.
The auto zoom function can be turned on or off independently for the PFD and MFD. Control of the ranges
at which the auto zoom occurs is done by setting the minimum and maximum ‘look forward’ times (set on the
‘Map Settings’ Window for the ‘Map’ Group). These settings determine the minimum and maximum distance
to display based upon the aircraft’s ground speed.
• Waypoints that are long distances apart cause the map range to increase to a point where many details on
the map are decluttered. If this is not acceptable, lower the maximum look ahead time to a value that limits
the auto zoom to an acceptable range.
• Waypoints that are very short distances apart cause the map range to decrease to a point where situational
awareness may not be what is desired. Increase the minimum look ahead time to a value that limits the auto
zoom to a minimum range that provides acceptable situational awareness.
• Flight plans that have a combination of long and short legs cause the range to increase and decrease as
waypoints sequence. To avoid this, auto zoom can be disabled or the maximum/ minimum times can be
adjusted.
• The ‘time out’ time (configurable on the ‘Map Settings’ Window for the Map Group) determines how long
auto zoom is overridden by a manual adjustment of the range knob. At the expiration of this time, the auto
zoom range is restored. Setting the ‘time out’ value to zero causes the manual override to never time out.
• When the maximum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the upper limit becomes the maximum range
available (1000 nm).
• When the minimum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the lower limit becomes 1.5 nm.
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Configuring automatic zoom:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) If necessary, turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Auto Zoom’ On/Off Field, and select ‘Off’ or ‘On’ using the small FMS
Knob.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘Auto Zoom’ display selection
Field.
7) Select ‘MFD’, ‘PFD’, or ‘All’ using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘Max Look FWD’ Field.
Times are from zero to 999 minutes.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to set the time. Press the ENT Key.
10) Repeat step 9 for ‘Min Look FWD’ (zero to 99 minutes) and ‘Time Out’ (zero to 99 minutes).
11) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
MAP PANNING
Map panning allows the pilot to:
• View parts of the map outside the displayed range without adjusting the map range
• Highlight and select locations on the map
• Review information for a selected airport, NAVAID or user waypoint
• Designate locations for use in flight planning
• Graphically create user waypoints
• Measure the bearing and distance from the aircraft present position to any location on the navigation map, or
between any two points on the navigation map
• View obstacle, airspace, and airway information
When the panning function is selected by pushing the Joystick, the Map Pointer flashes on the map display.
A window also appears at the top of the map display showing the latitude/longitude position of the pointer,
the bearing and distance to the pointer from the aircraft’s present position, and the elevation of the land at the
position of the pointer.
NOTE: The map is normally centered on the aircraft’s position. If the map has been panned and there has
been no pointer movement for about 60 seconds, the map reverts back to centered on the aircraft position
and the flashing pointer is removed.
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Map Pointer Information
Map Pointer
Figure 5-10 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
When the Map Pointer is placed on an object, the name of the object is highlighted (even if the name was
not originally displayed on the map). When any map feature or object is selected on the map display, pertinent
information is displayed.
Information about Point
of Interest
Map Pointer on
POI
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
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When the Map Pointer crosses an airspace boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace information
is shown. The information includes the name and class of airspace, the ceiling in feet above Mean Sea Level
(MSL), and the floor in feet MSL.
Panning the map:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to move the Map Pointer around the map.
3) Push the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and recenter the map on the aircraft’s current position.
Reviewing information for an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer and place the
Map Pointer on a waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Information Page for the selected waypoint.
3) Press the Go Back Softkey, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the Information Page and return to the ‘Map Navigation Map’ Page.
Viewing information for a special-use or controlled airspace:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer. Place the
Map Pointer on the boundary of an airspace. Information about the airspace is displayed on the map next to
the map pointer.
2) Push the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and center the map on the aircraft.
Or:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer. Place the Map
Pointer on an open area within the boundaries of an airspace.
2) Press the ENT Key to display an options menu.
3) ‘Review Airspaces’ should already be highlighted, if not select it. Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Information’
Window for the selected airspace.
4) Press the CLR or ENT Key to exit the ‘Information’ Window.
MEASURING BEARING AND DISTANCE
Distance and bearing from the aircraft’s present position to any point on the viewable navigation map may be
calculated using the ‘Measure Bearing and Distance’ selection from Navigation Map page menu. The bearing
and distance tool displays a dashed Measurement Line and a Measure Pointer to aid in graphically identifying
points with which to measure. Lat/Long, distance and elevation data for the Measure Pointer is provided in a
window at the top of the navigation map.
Measuring bearing and distance between any two points:
1) Press the MENU Key (with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed).
2) Highlight the ‘Measure Bearing/Distance’ Field.
3) Press the ENT Key. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present position.
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4) Move the Joystick to place the reference pointer at the desired location. The bearing and distance are displayed
at the top of the map. Elevation at the current pointer position is also displayed. Pressing the ENT Key changes
the starting point for measuring.
5) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance option, push the Joystick; or select ‘Stop Measuring’ from the Page Menu
and press the ENT Key.
Measurement
Information
Pointer Lat/Long
Measurement Line
Figure 5-12 Navigation Map - Measuring Bearing and Distance
TOPOGRAPHY
All navigation maps can display various shades of topography colors representing land elevation, similar
to aviation sectional charts. Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following
procedures. Topographic data can also be displayed on the selectable profile map at the bottom of the navigation
map.
Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following procedures. Topographic data
can also be displayed on the selectable VSD Inset at the bottom of the navigation map. In addition, the
Navigation Map can display a topographic scale (located in the lower right hand side of the map) showing a
scale of the terrain elevation and minimum/maximum displayed elevations.
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Navigation Map
Topographic Data
Navigation Map
Black Background
TER SoftkeyOff Selected
Topographic Data
on Profile Map
TOPO Off
TER SoftkeyTopo Selected
TOPO On
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Topographic Data
Absolute Terrain On
Terrain Off
Figure 5-14 PFD Inset Map - Absolute Terrain Data
Absolute Terrain On
Terrain Off
Figure 5-15 HSI Map - Absolute Terrain Data
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Maximum Displayed Elevation
Minimum Displayed Elevation
Figure 5-16 Navigation Map - Topo Scale
Displaying/removing topographic data on all MFD pages displaying navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Topo’ is shown on the softkey to display topographic data.
3) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Off’ is shown on the softkey to remove topographic data from the navigation map.
When topographic data is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data on the PFD Inset Map or the HSI Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Topo’ is displayed.
3) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Off’ is shown on the softkey to remove topographic data from the navigation map.
When topographic data is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data using the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ ‘Page Menu’ Window:
1) Press the MFD MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map
Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ Field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Topo’ or ‘Off’. Press the ENT Key.
7) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Selecting a topographical data range (Terrain Display):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ range field. Ranges are from 1 nm to 1000 nm.
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6) To change the Terrain Display range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
7) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Displaying/removing the topographic scale (Topo Scale):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Topo Scale’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’. Press the ENT Key.
6) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
MAP SYMBOLS
This section discusses the types of land, aviation, and airspace symbols that can be displayed. Each listed type
of symbol can be turned on or off, and the maximum range to display each symbol can be set. The decluttering
of the symbols from the map using the Detail Softkey is also discussed.
LAND SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the land menu:
Land Symbols
Symbol
User Waypoint
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
25
1000
Highways and Roads
Interstate Highway (Freeway)
50
400
International Highway (Freeway)
50
400
US Highway (National Highway)
15
150
State Highway (Local Highway)
2.5
100
4
25
Railroads
7.5
25
Large City (> 200,000)
100
1000
Medium City (> 50,000)
Small City (> 5,000)
50
25
400
100
Local Road (Local Road)
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Land Symbols
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
State/Province
400
1000
River/Lake
75
100
Latitude/Longitude (LAT/LON)
1
1000
Table 5-2 Land Symbol Information
AVIATION SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the aviation menu:
Aviation Symbols
Symbol
Large Airport (Longest Runway ≥ 8100 ft)
Medium Airport (8100 ft > Longest Runway ≥ 5000 ft, or
Longest Runway < 5000 ft with control tower)
Small Airport (Longest Runway < 5000 ft without a control
tower)
Taxiways (SafeTaxi)
Default
Range
(nm)
100
Maximum
Range (nm)
1000
50
400
25
150
1.5
5
Runway Extension
7.5
150
Intersection (INT)
25
40
Non-directional Beacon (NDB)
25
50
VOR
50
250
Visual Reporting Point (VRP)
25
40
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
250
1000
VNAV Constraints
1000
1000
See Additional Features
Table 5-3 Aviation Symbol Information
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AIRSPACE SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the airspace menu:
Airspace Symbols
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Class B Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling/floor)
*
*
Class C Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling/floor)
*
*
Class D Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling)
*
*
Class B/Terminal Manoeuvring Area** and surrounding
Airways** (CL B/TMA/AWY)
50
150
Class C Airspace/Control Area
(CL C/CTA)
50
100
Class D Airspace/ Class A Airspace
(CL A/D)
10
100
Restricted and Prohibited Areas
(Restricted)
50
100
Military Operations Areas
(MOA (Military))
50
250
50
250
ADIZ, Alert, Danger, and Warning
(Other)
(see below)
ADIZ
Alert
Danger/Warning
* Label placement and range is determined by the system for best display and minimal clutter
** Applies to European airspace only
Table 5-4 Airspace Symbol Information
SYMBOL SETUP
All navigation maps can display land, aviation and airspace symbols. Symbol types (e.g. runway extensions,
railroads) can be removed individually. The range sets the maximum range at which items appear on the
display. For example, enabling “Runway Extension” displays a dashed line on the map extending from each
runway of an airport in the flight plan when the range is set at or below the value of the map settings option.
Setting up the ‘Land’, ‘Aviation’ or ‘Airspace’ group items:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
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3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired setting (e.g. On/Off or maximum range).
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
8) Repeat steps 5-7 as necessary.
9) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
MAP DECLUTTER
The declutter feature allows the pilot to progressively step through four levels of removing map information.
The declutter level is displayed in the Detail Softkey and next to the Declutter Menu Option.
The following table lists the items that are decluttered at each map detail level. The ‘X’ represents map items
decluttered for each level of detail.
Item
Data Link Radar Precipitation
Data Link Lightning
Graphical METARs
Airports
Safe Taxi
Runway Labels
TFRs
Restricted
MOA (Military)
User Waypoints
Latitude/Longitude Grid
NAVAIDs (does not declutter if used to define airway)
VRPs
Intersections (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Class B Airspaces/TMA/AWY
Class C Airspaces/CTA
Class A/D Airspaces
Other Airspaces/ADIZ
Obstacles
Cities
Roads
Railroads
State/Province Boundaries
Detail 3
Detail 2
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Detail 1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Table 5-5 Navigation Map Items Decluttered for each Detail Level
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Decluttering the MFD navigation map:
Press the Detail Softkey with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The current declutter level is shown.
With each softkey press, another level of map information is removed.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Declutter’. The current declutter level is shown.
3) Press the ENT Key to apply the next declutter level and return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Decluttering the PFD Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Detail Softkey. The current declutter level is shown. With each selection, another level of map
information is removed.
AIRWAYS
This airways discussion is based upon the North American airway structure. The airway structure in places
other than North America vary by location, etc. and are not discussed in this book. Low Altitude Airways
(Victor Airways or T-Routes) start 1,200 feet above ground level (AGL) and extend up to 18,000 feet mean sea
level (MSL). Low Altitude Airways are designated with a “V” or a “T” before the airway number.
High Altitude Airways (Jet Routes or Q-Routes) start at 18,000 feet MSL and extend upward to 45,000 feet
MSL. High Altitude Airways are designated with a “J” or a “Q” before the airway number.
Low Altitude Airways are drawn in gray (the same shade used for roads). High Altitude Airways are drawn
in green. When both types of airways are displayed, High Altitude Airways are drawn on top of Low Altitude
Airways.
When airways are selected for display on the map, the airway waypoints (VORs, NDBs and Intersections) are
also displayed.
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High Altitude
Airway
(Jet Route)
Low Altitude
Airway
(Victor Airway)
Low Altitude
Airway
(T-Route)
High Altitude
Airway
(Q-Route)
Figure 5-17 Airways on MFD Navigation Page
Airways may be displayed on the map at the pilot’s discretion using either a combination of AWY Softkey
selections, or menu selections using the MENU Key from the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. The Airway range
can also be programmed to only display Airways on the MFD when the map range is at or below a specific
number.
The following items are configured on the airways menu:
Airways Symbols
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Low Altitude Airways (V Routes and T Routes)
50
100
High Altitude Airways (J Routes and Q Routes)
50
100
Table 5-6 Airways Symbol Information
Displaying/removing airways:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the AWY Softkey. Both High and Low Altitude Airways are displayed (AWY On).
3) Press the softkey again to display Low Altitude Airways only (‘AWY LO’).
4) Press the softkey again to display High Altitude Airways only (‘AWY HI’).
5) Press the softkey again to remove High Altitude Airways. No airways are displayed (‘AWY Off’).
Or:
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1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ Group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ or the ‘High ALT Airways’ On/Off Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’. Press the ENT Key.
6) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Selecting an airway range (Low ALT Airways or High ALT Airways):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ Group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ or ‘High ALT Airways’ range field.
5) To change the range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
6) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
ADDITIONAL NAVIGATION MAP ITEMS
Navigation maps can display some additional items. These items (e.g. Track Vector, Selected Altitude Intercept
Arc, Wind Vector, Fuel Range Ring, and SVT Field of View) can be displayed/removed individually.
See the Hazard Avoidance Section for information on displaying obstacles (Point and Wire Obstacles) on the
map.
Setting up additional ‘Map’ Group items:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
Or:
If it is a data field, use the FMS Knob to select the range or time value.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
8) Repeat steps 5-7 as necessary.
9) Push the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map.
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TRACK VECTOR
The Navigation Map can display a track vector that is useful in minimizing track angle error. The track
vector is a solid cyan line segment extended to a predicted location. The track vector look-ahead time is
selectable (30 sec, 60 sec (default), 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min) and determines the length of the track
vector. The track vector shows up to 90 degrees of a turn for the 30 and 60 second time settings. It is always
a straight line for the 2 min, 5 min, 10 min and 20 min settings.
Track Vector
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map -Track Vector
SELECTED ALTITUDE INTERCEPT ARC
The map can display the location along the current track where the aircraft will intercept the selected
altitude. The location will be shown as a cyan arc when the aircraft is actually climbing or descending.
NOTE: Selected Altitude Intercept Arc is not displayed on any Waypoint Page Group maps, Procedure Page
maps, or the Stored Flight Plan Page map.
Selected
Altitude
Intercept Arc
Figure 5-19 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
WIND VECTOR ON MFD
The map displays a wind vector arrow in the upper right-hand portion of the MFD. Wind vector information
is displayed as a white arrow pointing in the direction in which the wind is moving for wind speeds greater
than or equal to 1 kt.
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
Figure 5-20 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
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NOTE: The wind vector is not displayed until the aircraft is moving. It is not displayed on the Waypoint
Information pages.
FUEL RANGE RING
The map can display a fuel range ring which shows the remaining flight distance. A dashed green circle
indicates the selected range to reserve fuel. A solid green circle indicates the total endurance range. If only
reserve fuel remains, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle.
Total Endurance Range
Time to Reserve Fuel
Range to Reserve Fuel
Figure 5-21 Navigation Map - Fuel Range Ring
FIELD OF VIEW (SVT)
The map can display the boundaries of the PFD Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) lateral field of view. The
field of view is shown as two dashed lines forming a V shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map. This
is only available if SVT is installed on the aircraft.
NOTE: Field of View will not be depicted on the NRST Page Group maps.
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Lateral Field
of View
Boundaries
Figure 5-22 Navigation Map - Field of View
IFR/VFR CHARTS
The system can display GPS navigation information on a VFR chart, a low altitude IFR chart, or a high altitude
IFR chart, if installed. The information overlaid on the IFR/VFR Charts is selected and setup on the Navigation
Map, but the IFR/VFR charts will not display some of the selected items. Only the following items will be
overlaid on the chart:
• Map Pointer (distance and bearing to pointer, location of pointer, name, and other pertinent information)
• Map Range (17 range choices from 1 nm to 150 nm)
• Map Orientation (always North Up for IFR/VFR Charts)
• Aircraft Icon (representing present position)
• Wind Direction and Speed
• Icons for enabled map features (Traffic only)
• Flight Plan Legs
• Track Vector
• Runway Extension
• Missed Approach Preview
• Intersections (only as part of active flight plan)
• Visual Reporting Points
• VNAV Constraints
• Selected Altitude Intercept Arc
Map panning on the IFR/VFR Charts works the same as on the Navigation Map. Map range selected on either
the Navigation Map or the IFR/VFR Charts applies to both. However, if the range selected on the Navigation
Map it is not a valid chart range, the chart is shown with a range of 7.5 nm.
When different VFR charts exist for the same area the chart type will automatically display according to the
range chosen. For example, in an area where both a Sectional and a Terminal Area Chart (TAC) are available,
a range of 10 nm or more will show the Sectional chart. Once the range is decreased below 10 nm, the system
will automatically change the displayed chart from the Sectional to the TAC.
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Due to the potential error involved with the electronic depiction of maps, charts will display a gray ‘circle of
uncertainty’ centered upon the aircraft icon. The aircraft’s actual position can be anywhere within the range of
the gray circle. The range of the circle will change based on the chart displayed and current zoom range.
Map Orientation
VFR Chart
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Circle of Uncertainty
Figure 5-23 GPS Navigation Information on the VFR Chart
Selecting the chart to display:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Map - IFR/VFR Charts Page.
2) Press the VFR Softkey, IFR Low Softkey, or IFR High Softkey to display the desired chart.
Or:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Map - IFR/VFR Charts Page. Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob and highlight the ‘Display VFR’, ‘Display IFR Low’, or ‘Display IFR High’ Field.
3) Press the ENT Key. The selected chart is displayed.
Modifying IFR chart settings:
1) Press the MENU Key with the IFR Low / IFR High Chart displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the ‘Color Scheme’ setting.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Day’, ‘Auto’, or ‘Night’. The IFR/VFR Chart display changes to reflect the
setting.
4) If ‘Auto’ was selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the backlight threshold field (sets value for automatic
day/night switching).
Or:
1) Press the Charts Softkey with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed.
2) Press the Menu Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ Field and press the ENT Key.
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4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Day’, ‘Auto’, or ‘Night’. The IFR/VFR Chart display changes to reflect the
setting.
5) If ‘Auto’ was selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the backlight threshold field (sets value for automatic
day/night switching).
Navigation Data Bar
Display Title
Map Orientation
IFR Low Altitude
Chart
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Circle of Uncertainty
Figure 5-24 GPS Navigation Information on the IFR Low Altitude Chart
Map Orientation
IFR High Altitude
Chart
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Circle of Uncertainty
Figure 5-25 GPS Navigation Information on the IFR High Altitude Chart
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5.3 WAYPOINTS
Waypoints are predetermined geographical positions (internal database) or pilot-entered positions, and are
used for all phases of flight planning and navigation.
Communication and navigation frequencies can be tuned “automatically” from various Waypoint Information
(WPT) pages, Nearest (NRST) pages, and the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window (on PFD). This auto-tuning feature
simplifies frequency entry over manual tuning. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS section for details on auto-tuning.
Waypoints can be selected by entering the ICAO identifier, entering the name of the facility, or by entering
the city name. See the System Overview Section for detailed instructions on entering data in the system. As
a waypoint identifier, facility name, or location is entered, the system scrolls through the database, displaying
those waypoints matching the characters which have been entered to that point. A direct-to navigation leg to the
selected waypoint can be initiated by pressing the ¯ Key on any of the waypoint pages.
Identifier Entry Field
Facility Entry Field
City Entry Field
Map Area Showing
Entered Waypoint
Waypoint Identifier Symbol
Entered Waypoint on Map
Waypoint Location
Figure 5-26 Waypoint Information Window
If duplicate entries exist for the entered facility name or location, additional entries may be viewed by continuing
to turn the small FMS Knob during the selection process. If duplicate entries exist for an identifier, a ‘Duplicate
Waypoints’ Window is displayed when the ENT Key is pressed.
Identifier with
Duplicates
Duplicate
Waypoints
Duplicate Message
Figure 5-27 Waypoint Information Window - Duplicate Identifier
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AIRPORTS
NOTE: ‘North Up’ orientation on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page cannot be changed; the pilot needs
to be aware of proper orientation if the Navigation Map orientation is different from the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page Map.
The ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page is the first page in WPT group and allows the pilot to view airport
information, load frequencies (COM, NAV, and lighting), review runways, and review instrument procedures
that may be involved in the flight plan. See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information on loading
frequencies (auto-tuning). After engine startup, the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page defaults to the airport
where the aircraft is located. After a flight plan has been loaded, it defaults to the destination airport. On a
flight plan with multiple airports, it defaults to the airport which is the current active waypoint.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page displays airport information in three boxes labeled ‘Airport’, ‘Runways’, and ‘Frequencies’.
For airports with multiple runways, information for each runway is available. This information is viewed on
the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page by pressing the Info Softkey until ‘Info 1’ is displayed.
Airport Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
- Lat/Long/Elev
- Fuel Available
- Time Zone (UTC Offset)
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Airport
Runway Information
- Designation
- Length/Width/Surface
- Lighting Available
Airport/Runway
Diagram
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
- Availability
- Additional Information
Figure 5-28 Airport Information Page
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page:
• Usage type: Public, Military, Private, or Heliport
• Runway surface type: Hard, Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft, Unknown, or Water
• Runway lighting type: No Lights, Part Time, Full Time, Unknown, or PCL Freq (for pilot-controlled lighting)
• COM Availability: TX (transmit only), RX (receive only), PT (part time), i (additional information available)
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Airport Information
Airport Directory
Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
Figure 5-29 Airport Directory Page Example
The airport directory information is viewed on the ‘WPT - Airport Directory’ Page by pressing the Info
Softkey until ‘Info 2’ is displayed. The following are types of airport directory information shown (if available)
on the ‘WPT - Airport Directory’ Page:
Airport: Identifier, Type, Name,
City, State, Map
Facility Lighting and Beacon:
Hours operating, Type and Location,
CTAF, beacon colors
Control Tower: Full/Part-time
Hours, Days Open
Noise Abatement: Flying
Procedures
Attendance: Annual, weekly, daily,
hours
Pattern Altitudes: Aircraft Class/
Altitude
Runways: Headings, Length,
Width, Facility Obstructions, Surface,
Condition, Clearance Slope
FBO: Name/Type, Frequencies,
Services, Fees, Fuel, Credit Cards,
Phone/Fax, Hours Internet, Courtesy
Car
Weather Contacts: Service Type
and Frequencies/Phone (AWOS/
ASOS)
Approaches: Types
Aircraft Businesses/Clubs:
Name, Type (sales, training,
servicing), Frequencies/Phone/Fax,
Credit Cards, Internet, Services
Obstructions: General Airport
Obstructions
Frequencies: Type/Frequency
Flight Service Station (FSS):
FSS Name, Phone Numbers
Special Operations at Airport:
Helicopters, etc.
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Restaurants: On the Field and
Nearby
General Information and/or
Notes: Fees, Airport Notes, local
area information
Transportation: Taxi Services, Car
Rentals, Type and Availability (public,
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Attractions: Hotels, Museums,
Raceways, Golfing, etc.
Elevation: Airfield Elev (ft)
NAVAIDS: Type, Identifier,
Frequency, Radial, Distance
Mag Var: Airfield Mag Var
(degrees)
Charts: VFR Sectional
Airport Manager: Phone
The ‘Frequencies’ Box uses the descriptions and abbreviations listed in the following table:
Communication Frequencies
Approach * Control
Pre-Taxi
Arrival *
CTA *
Radar
ASOS
Departure * Ramp
ATIS
FSS
Terminal *
AWOS
Gate
TMA *
Center
Ground
Tower
Class B *
Helicopter
TRSA *
Class C *
Multicom
Unicom
Clearance
Other
Navigation Frequencies
ILS
LOC
* May include Additional Information
Table 5-7 Airport Frequency Abbreviations
A departure, arrival, or approach can be loaded using the softkeys on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page.
See the Procedures section for details. METARs or TAFs applicable to the selected airport can be selected for
display (see the Hazard Avoidance section for details about weather).
Selecting an airport for review by identifier, facility name, or location:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey), push the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location within the ‘Airport’ Box.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Selecting a runway:
1) With the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey) displayed, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Runways’ Box, on the runway designator.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired runway (if more than one) for the selected airport.
4) To remove the flashing cursor, push the FMS Knob.
Viewing a destination airport:
From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey) press the MENU Key. Select ‘View Destination
Airport’. The Destination Airport is displayed.
The system provides a Nearest Softkey on the PFD, which gives the pilot quick access to nearest airport
information (very useful if an immediate landing is required). The ‘Nearest Airports’ Window displays a list of
up to 25 of the nearest airports. If there are more than three, they are displayed in a scrollable list. If there are
no airports within 200 NM available, “None Within 200nm” is displayed.
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Bearing/Distance to Airport
Airport Identifier/
Type
Approach Available
Length of Longest
Runway
COM Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Additional Airports
(within 200 nm)
Nearest Softkey
Figure 5-30 ‘Nearest Airports’ Window on PFD
Pressing the ENT Key displays the PFD ‘Airport Information’ Window for the highlighted airport. Pressing
the ENT Key again returns to the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window with the cursor on the next airport in the list.
Continued presses of the ENT Key sequences through the information pages for all airports in the Nearest
Airports list.
Airport Information
- ID/Type/City
- Facility
Airport Information
- Usage/Time/Elev
- Region
Airport Information
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-31 ‘Airport Information’ Window on PFD
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the PFD:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey to display the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window. Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the airport identifier with the FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to display the ‘Airport Information’
Window.
3) To return to the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window press the ENT Key (with the cursor on ‘Back’) or press the CLR
Key. The cursor is now on the next airport in the nearest airports list. (Repeatedly pressing the ENT Key
moves through the airport list, alternating between the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window and the ‘Airport Information’
Window.)
4) Press the CLR Key or the Nearest Softkey to close the PFD ‘Nearest Airports’ Window.
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The ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page on the MFD is first in the group of NRST pages because of its potential use
in the event of an in-flight emergency. The selected airport is indicated by a white arrow, and a dashed white
line is drawn on the navigation map from the aircraft position to the nearest airport. The currently selected
airport remains in the list until it is unselected.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the page displays
nearest airport information in five boxes labeled ‘Nearest Airports’, ‘Information’, ‘Runways’, ‘Frequencies’, and
‘Approaches’. If there are more than can be shown in the given box, each list can be scrolled. If there are no
items for display in a boxed area, text indicating that fact is displayed.
See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for frequency selection and the Procedures section for approaches.
Nearest Airports
- ID/Type
- Bearing/Distance
Airport Information
- Facility/City/Elevation
Runway Information
- Designation/Surface
- Length/Width
Nearest
Airport
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Navigation
Map
Showing
Nearest
Airport
Approaches
Available
LD APR Softkey
(only available if
an approach is
highlighted)
Window
Selection
Softkeys
Figure 5-32 Nearest Airport Page
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Viewing information for a nearest airport on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST’ Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page (it is the first page of the group, so it may
already be selected). If there are no Nearest Airports available, “None within 200NM” is displayed.
3) Press the APT Softkey; or push the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Airport Window’ and
press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Nearest Airports’ Box. The first airport in the nearest airports list
is highlighted.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport. (Pressing the ENT Key also moves to the next airport).
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Viewing runway information for a specific airport:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page displayed, press the RNWY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight
‘Select Runway Window’; and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Runways’ Box.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway.
3) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The ‘Nearest Airports’ Box on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page defines the minimum runway length and
surface type used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on the MFD ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’
Page. A minimum runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways or
runways that are not appropriately surfaced from being displayed. Default settings are 3000 feet (or meters) for
runway length and “Hard Only” for runway surface type.
Selecting nearest airport surface and minimum runway length matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Runway Surface’ Field in the ‘Nearest Airport’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (Any, Hard Only, or Hard/ Soft).
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Minimum Length’ Field in the ‘Nearest Airport’ Box.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the minimum runway length (zero to 25,000 feet) and press the ENT Key.
7) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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NON-AIRPORT WAYPOINTS
WAYPOINT INFORMATION
Non-Airport Waypoints are considered to be Intersections, VORs, NDBs, VRPs, and User Waypoints. For
each of these waypoints, their respective information pages will show a map of the currently selected waypoint,
the waypoint identifier, and location. Additionally, intersections will show the nearest VOR while both the
VOR and NDB waypoints will show their frequency and the nearest airport. User Waypoint information also
provides the waypoint type (radial/radial, radial/DME, or latitude/longitude), temporary status, comments,
and a User Waypoint list.
The ‘VOR Information’ Page can be used to view information about VOR and ILS signals (since ILS signals
can be received on a NAV receiver), or to quickly tune a VOR or ILS frequency. If a VOR station is combined
with a TACAN station it is listed as a VOR-TACAN on the ‘VOR Information’ Page and if it includes only DME,
it is displayed as VOR-DME. Also, the VOR class (Low Altitude, High Altitude, and Terminal) will be shown
in the VOR ‘Information’ Box.
The system can create and store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. User waypoints can be created from
any map page (except PFD Inset Map, ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, or Procedure Pages) by selecting a position
on the map using the Joystick, or from the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page by referencing a bearing/
distance from an existing waypoint, bearings from two existing waypoints, or a latitude and longitude. Once
a waypoint has been created, it can be renamed, deleted, or moved. Temporary user waypoints are erased
upon system power down.
NOTE: The VOR displayed on the ‘WPT - Intersection Information’ Page is the nearest VOR, not necessarily
the VOR used to define the intersection.
Intersection Identifier
Intersection Info
- Region
- Lat/Long
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Intersection
Nearest VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
Selected Waypoint:
Intersection
(as seen here)
NDB
VOR
VRP, or
User Waypoint
Figure 5-33 Non-Airport Waypoint Information Page (Intersection Example)
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NDB Identifier/Type
VOR Identifier/Type
NDB Information
VOR Information
NDB Frequency
VOR Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
Nearest Airport Info
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
- Type
- Region
- Lat/Long
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
VRP Identifier/Symbol
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Region
- Lat/Long
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
User Waypoint Info
- VRP Name
- Identifier
- Temporary/Normal
- Waypoint Type
VRP Information
User Waypoint Comment
- Country
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
- Lat/Long
Reference Waypoint Info
- Identifier/Rad/Dist or
- Identifiers/Radials or
- Region/Lat/Long
User Waypoint List
- Identifier/ Comment
Figure 5-34 Non-Airport Waypoint Information Pages (NDB, VOR, VRP, and User Waypoint)
Viewing Non-Airport Waypoints:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT’ Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT - (Intersection, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User WPT) Information’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to display the flashing cursor in the Intersection, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User Waypoint Box.
4) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location.
5) Press the ENT Key, if needed.
6) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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NEAREST NON-AIRPORT WAYPOINTS
The Nearest pages can be used to quickly find waypoints close to the aircraft. The system will display
a scrollable list of up to 25 nearest waypoints with bearing and distance from the aircraft, a map of the
surrounding area, and additional information particular to the type of waypoint chosen. A white arrow before
the waypoint identifier/name indicates the currently selected waypoint shown on the map, with its associated
information in the lower box or boxes:
- The ‘NRST - Nearest Intersection’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest INT’, ‘Information’, and a
‘Reference VOR’.
- The ‘NRST - Nearest NDB’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest NDB’, ‘Information’, and ‘Frequency’.
The NDB ‘Information’ Box will show a Compass Locator if the NDB is associated with either a Locator
Outer Marker (LOM) or Locator Middle Marker (LMM).
- The ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest VOR’, ‘Information’, and ‘Frequency’.
The NAV frequency from a selected VOR station can be loaded from the ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ Page via the
FREQ Softkey. See the Audio & CNS Section for more information.
- The ‘NRST - Nearest VRP’ Page will show two boxes labeled ‘Nearest VRP’ and ‘Information’. Information
will contain the VRP Name, Country and latitude/longitude.
- The ‘NRST - Nearest User WPTS’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest User’, ‘Information’, and
‘Reference Waypoints’. Information will include any Comments and the latitude/longitude. The ‘Reference
Waypoints’ Box will provide a reference NAVAID with a radial/DME that coincides with the User Waypoint.
The nearest waypoint list will only include waypoints within 200nm. If there are no waypoints in the list,
text indicating that there are no nearest waypoints will be displayed, and the information and frequency fields
(if applicable) will be dashed.
Nearest Intersections
- White arrow indicates
the selected waypoint
shown.
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Intersection
Nearest Non-Airport
Waypoint:
Intersection NDB VOR VRP User Waypoint -
Intersection Info
- Lat/Long
Reference VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
Figure 5-35 Nearest Intersection Page
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Nearest NDB
- NDB Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to NDB
from aircraft position
NDB Information
- Facility Name/City
- Type
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR
- VOR Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
from aircraft position
VOR Information
- Facility Name/City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
VOR Frequency
Nearest VRP
- VRP Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
VRP Information
- VRP Name
- Country
- Lat/Long
Nearest User Wpt List
- Identifier
- Bearing/Distance from
aircraft position
User Waypoint Info
- Comment
- Lat/Long
Reference Wpt Info
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
Figure 5-36 Nearest Non-Airport Waypoints (NDB, VOR, VRP, and User WPTS)
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Viewing Nearest Non-Airport Waypoints:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST’ Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST - Nearest Intersections, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User WPTS’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to display the flashing cursor in the ‘Nearest INT, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User’ Box,
Or:
If the ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ Page is displayed, to display the flashing cursor:
Press the VOR Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key
b) Highlight ‘Select VOR Window’, and press the ENT Key.
4) If needed, press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob as needed to select an identifier.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
CREATING USER WAYPOINTS
User waypoints can be created from the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page in the following ways:
Creating user waypoints from the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page:
1) Press the New Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Create New User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The current aircraft position is the default location of the new waypoint.
4) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the ‘Information’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
6) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary or normal by moving the cursor to
“Temporary” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
7) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
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1) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Are you sure you want to create the new User Waypoint AAAAAA?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the ‘Information’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary or normal by moving the cursor to
“Temporary” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Creating user waypoints from map pages:
1) Push the Joystick to activate the panning function and pan to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page is displayed with the captured position.
NOTE: If the pointer has highlighted a map database feature, one of three things happens upon pressing
the ENT Key: 1) information about the selected feature is displayed instead of initiating a new waypoint,
2) a menu pops up allowing a choice between ‘Review Airspaces’ or ‘Create User Waypoint’, or 3) a new
waypoint is initiated with the default name being the selected map item.
3) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected name.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the ‘Information’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
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6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary or normal by moving the cursor to
“Temporary” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
9) Press the Go Back Softkey to return to the map page.
EDITING USER WAYPOINTS
Once a user waypoint has been created, it may be edited, renamed, or deleted. A system generated
comment for a user waypoint incorporates the reference waypoint identifier, bearing, and distance. If a
system generated comment has been edited, a new comment can be generated.
The default type of user waypoint (normal or temporary) can be changed using the ‘WPT — User Waypoint
Information’ ‘Page Menu’ Window. Temporary user waypoints are automatically deleted upon the next power
cycle.
Editing a user waypoint comment or location:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Select a user waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box, if required, and press the ENT Key.
3) Move the cursor to the desired field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to make any changes.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
6) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing the user waypoint storage duration default setting:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Move the cursor to select ‘Waypoint Setup’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Select ‘Normal’ or ‘Temporary’ as desired, and press the ENT Key.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor and return to the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page.
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DELETING USER WAYPOINTS
Deleting a single user waypoint:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, highlight a User Waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’
Box, or enter a waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Press the Delete Softkey or press the CLR Key. ‘YES’ is highlighted in the confirmation window.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, highlight a User Waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’
Box, or enter a waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete User Waypoint’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
NOTE: The option to ‘Delete All User Waypoints’ is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all user waypoints:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, highlight a User Waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete All User Waypoints.’
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.4 AIRSPACES
The system can display the following types of airspaces: Class B, TMA, and Airways surrounding TMA, Class
C, CTA, Class A, Class D, Restricted (Prohibited), MOA (Military), and other airspace provided by the navigation
database. Some examples of typical airspaces are depicted below. See Table 5-3 for the maximum ranges for
each type of airspace and the symbol used to define the airspace area. Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) are
discussed in the Hazard Avoidance Section.
Class B Airspace
Restricted Area
Class D Airspace
Airspace Altitude
Label
Class C Airspace
Alert Area
(Other)
MOA (Military)
ADIZ
(Other)
Warning Area
(Other)
Figure 5-37 Airspaces
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Displaying and removing airspace altitude labels:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airspace’ Group, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Airspace ALT LBL’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ to display labels and ‘Off’ to remove labels.
6) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
NEAREST AIRSPACE
SETTING AIRSPACE ALERTS
The ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box (‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page) on the MFD allows the pilot to turn the controlled/
special-use airspace message alerts on or off. This does not affect the alerts listed on the ‘NRST - Nearest
Airspaces ‘ Page or the airspace boundaries depicted on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. It simply turns on/
off the message provided in the ‘Messages’ Window on the PFD when the aircraft is approaching or near an
airspace.
Pressing the PFD Message Softkey displays the ‘Messages’ Window on the PFD. The following airspace
alerts may be displayed in the ‘Messages’ Window:
Message
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead – less than
10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and ahead.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less than 2 nm.
Comments
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft penetrates the airspace
within 10 minutes.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
Table 5-8 PFD Airspace Alert Messages
An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below an airspace. For
example, if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/below an airspace, an
alert message is not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below an airspace and projected
to enter it, the pilot is notified with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
Enabling/disabling airspace alerts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to turn the alert Off.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Altitude Buffer’ Field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The ‘Arrival Alert’ Box on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page allows the ‘Messages’ Window arrival alerts to be
turned ‘On/Off’ and the alert trigger distance (up to 99.9 units) set for alerts in the ‘Messages’ Window and
the PFD Navigation Status Box. An arrival alert can be set to notify the pilot with a message upon reaching
a user-specified distance from the final destination (the direct-to waypoint or the last waypoint in a flight
plan). When Arrival Alerts is set to ‘On’, and the set distance is reached, an “Arrival at waypoint” message
is displayed in the PFD Navigation Status Box, and a “WPT ARRIVAL - Arriving at waypoint - [xxxx]” is
displayed in the ‘Messages’ Window. When Arrival Alerts is set to ‘Off’, only the PFD Navigation Status Box
message “Arriving at waypoint” is displayed, and it is displayed when the time to the final destination is
approximately ten seconds.
Figure 5-38 Arrival Alert Settings (System Setup 1 Page)
Enabling/disabling the Arrival Alert:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘On/Off’ Field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to turn the alert Off.
Changing the arrival alert trigger distance:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Distance’ Field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
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VIEWING NEAREST AIRSPACE INFORMATION
The ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’ Page can be used to quickly find airspaces close to the flight path. In
addition, a selected frequency associated with the airspace can be loaded from the ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’
Page. In addition to displaying a map of airspace boundaries and surrounding area, the ‘NRST - Nearest
Airspaces’ Page displays airspace information in four boxes labelled ‘Airspace Alerts’, ‘Airspace Agency’,
‘Vertical Limits’, and ‘Frequencies’.
Airspace alerts and associated frequencies are shown in scrollable lists on the ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’
Page. The Alerts and FREQ Softkeys place the cursor in the respective list. The FREQ Softkey is enabled
only if one or more frequencies exist for a selected airspace.
Airspace Alerts Info
- Name
- Proximity (Ahead, Inside,
Ahead < 2nm, Within 2nm)
- Time till Intercept (only if
Ahead or Ahead < 2nm)
Nearest Airspace
Information
Airspace Alert 1
Inside of Airspace
Airspace/Agency Info
- Airspace Type
- Controlling Agency
Airspace Vertical Limits
Airspace Alert 2
- Ceiling
- Floor
Airspace within 2nm
Associated Frequencies
- Type
- Availability/Info
- Frequency
Figure 5-39 Nearest Airspaces Page
Selecting and viewing an airspace alert with its associated information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’ Page.
2) Press the Alerts Softkey on the MFD; or push the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Alerts
Window’, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
3) Select the desired airspace.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SMART AIRSPACE
The Smart Airspace function de-emphasizes airspaces above or below the current aircraft altitude. The
function does not require the aircraft present position or flight path to enter the lateral boundaries of the
airspace. If the current aircraft altitude is within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace, the airspace
boundary is shown normally. If the current aircraft altitude is not within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of
the airspace, the airspace boundary is shown subdued.
NOTE: Smart Airspace function will not de-emphasize airspaces on the HSI Map when the MFD is in reversionary mode.
Smart Airspace Off
Smart Airspace On
Figure 5-40 Smart Airspace
Turning smart airspace on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key, and press the ENT Key. The ’Map Settings’ Window is displayed
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Airspace’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Smart Airspace’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn smart airspace On or counterclockwise to turn smart airspace Off.
6) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.5 DIRECT-TO-NAVIGATION
The Direct-to method of navigation, initiated by pressing the ¯ Key on either the MFD Controller or the
PFD, is quicker to use than a flight plan when the desire is to navigate to a single point such as a nearby airport.
Once a direct-to is activated, the system establishes a point-to-point course line from the present position to the
selected direct-to destination. Course guidance is provided until the direct-to is replaced with a new direct-to or
flight plan, or cancelled.
NOTE: When flying Direct-to the Final Approach Fix (FAF), the system will suspend (SUSP) leg sequencing if
the approach intercept angle exceeds 45 degrees.
A vertical navigation (VNV) direct-to creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the current altitude to a selected altitude at the direct-to waypoint. Vertical navigation is based on barometric
altitudes, not on GPS altitude, and is used for cruise and descent phases of flight.
The ‘Direct To’ Window allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation. The ‘Direct To’ Window displays
selected direct-to waypoint data on the PFD and the MFD.
Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/Region
- Facility Name
- City
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Map of Selected Point
Location of Destination
- Bearing/Distance
Desired Course
Figure 5-41 ‘Direct-To’ Window - MFD
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Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/City
- Facility Name
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Direct-to Point Info
- Bearing/Distance
- Desired Course
Activation Command
Figure 5-42 ‘Direct To’ Window - PFD
Any waypoint can be entered as a direct-to destination from the ‘Direct To’ Window. Also, any waypoint
contained in the active flight plan can be selected as a direct-to waypoint from the ‘Direct To’ Window, the ‘FPL Active Flight Plan’ Page, or the active ‘Flight Plan’ Window.
NOTE: In some cases, Origin and Destination airports may not be displayed in the PFD “Flight Plan” or
“Recent” submenu or the MFD ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page until the airport waypoint is loaded into
the flight plan.
Waypoint Submenu
- Flight Plan Waypoints
- Nearest Airports
- Recent Waypoints
- User Waypoints
Figure 5-43 Waypoint Submenu
The ‘Direct To’ Window can be displayed from any page and allows selection and activation of direct-to
navigation. If the direct-to is initiated from any page except the WPT pages, the default waypoint is the active
flight plan waypoint (if a flight plan is active) or a blank waypoint field. Direct-to requests on any WPT page
defaults to the displayed waypoint.
When navigating a direct-to, the system sets a direct great circle course to the selected destination. The course
to a destination can also be manually selected using the ‘CRS’ or ‘Course’ Field on the ‘Direct To’ Window.
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Entering a waypoint identifier, facility name, or city as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed (with the active flight plan waypoint as the default
selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it counter-clockwise brings
up the waypoint selection submenu - press the CLR Key to remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the
facility name, or city field and turn the small FMS Knob to begin entering a facility name or city. If duplicate
entries exist for the entered facility or city name, additional entries can be viewed by turning the small FMS
Knob during the selection process.
3) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate?’ is highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the direct-to.
Selecting an active flight plan waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) While navigating an active flight plan, press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed with the active
flight plan waypoint as the default selection.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display the waypoint submenu window with a list of flight plan
waypoints.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired waypoint.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Or:
1) Select the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD, or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window on the PFD.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on PFD), and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the
desired waypoint.
3) Press the ¯ Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a Nearest, Recent or User waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed (with the active flight plan destination as the default
selection or a blank destination if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display the waypoint submenu window.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Nearest, Recent or User waypoints.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
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Selecting any waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Select the page or window containing the desired waypoint type and select the desired waypoint.
2) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window with the selected waypoint as the direct-to destination.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
4) Press ENT again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey on the PFD; or turn the FMS Knob to display the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports ‘Page on
the MFD and push the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knob to select the desired airport (the nearest one is already selected).
3) Press the ¯ Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a manual direct-to course:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘CRS’ or ‘Course’ Field.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired course.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Reselecting the direct course from the current position:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
3) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
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Direct-to destinations may also be selected by using the pointer on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. If no
airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint exists at the desired location, a temporary waypoint named ‘MAPWPT’ is
automatically created at the location of the map arrow.
Selecting a waypoint as a direct-to destination using the pointer:
1) From a navigation map page, push the Joystick to display the pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to place the pointer at the desired destination location.
3) If the pointer is placed on an existing airport, NAVAID, VRP, or user waypoint, the waypoint name is highlighted.
4) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window with the selected point entered as the direct-to destination.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Cancelling a Direct-to:
1) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. If a flight plan is still active, the system resumes
navigating the flight plan along the closest leg.
A direct-to with altitude constraints creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from the
aircraft’s current altitude to the altitude of the direct-to waypoint. The altitude is reached at the waypoint, or at the
specified distance along the flight path if VNV offset distance has been entered. Direct-to navigation is discussed
in the Vertical Navigation portion of Flight Management. Offset distances (along track offsets) are discussed in the
Flight Planning portion of Flight Management. .
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5.6 FLIGHT PLANNING
Flight planning on the system consists of building a flight plan by entering waypoints one at a time, adding
waypoints along airways, and inserting departures, airways, arrivals, or approaches as needed. The system allows
flight planning information to be entered from either the MFD or PFD. The flight plan is displayed on maps using
different line widths, colors, and types, based on the type of leg and the segment of the flight plan currently being
flown (departure, enroute, arrival, approach, or missed approach).
Flight Plan Leg Type
Symbol
Active Course Leg*
Active Heading Leg*
Active Roll Steering Path*†
Course Leg in the current flight segment
Course Leg not in the current flight segment
Heading Leg
Roll Steering Path †
Future Roll Steering Path ‡
Turn Anticipation Arc
* The active leg or path is the one currently being flown, and is shown in magenta.
† A Roll Steering Path is displayed for: transitions between two disconnected legs (i.e. holding), some procedure turn
segments, parallel track segments, or transitions after some fly-over waypoints (discussed later in this section).
‡ A Roll Steering Path that is beyond the next leg will appear as a Future Roll Steering Path. When a Future Roll Steering Path
becomes the next leg, it appears as a Roll Steering Path.
Table 5-9 Flight Plan Leg Symbols
Up to 99 flight plans with up to 100 waypoints each can be created and stored in memory. Upon power up, the
previously active flight plan is retained and automatically repopulated if the aircraft position is at the origin airport
and the aircraft is on the ground. If, however, the aircraft is not within 5 nm of the origin airport, on the ground,
or if more than 12 hours have passed since the last active flight plan modification, the previously active flight plan
is not retained. One flight plan can be activated at a time and becomes the active flight plan. The active flight
plan is overwritten when another flight plan is activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, departure,
or arrival, the system uses the waypoint information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the
database is changed or updated, the system automatically updates the information if the procedure has not been
modified. If an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is no longer available, the procedure is deleted from the
affected stored flight plan(s), and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A) advising that
one or more stored flight plans need to be edited.
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Whenever an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach,
departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan along with a header line describing the instrument
procedure the pilot selected. The original enroute portion of the flight plan remains active (unless an instrument
procedure is activated) when the procedure is loaded.
When the database is updated, the airways need to be reloaded also. Each airway segment is reloaded from
the database given the entry waypoint, the airway identifier and the exit waypoint. This reloads the sequence of
waypoints between the entry and exit waypoints (the sequence may change when the database is updated). The
update of an airway can fail during this process. If that happens, the airway waypoints are changed to regular
(non-airway) flight plan waypoints, and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A).
The following could cause the airway update to fail:
• Airway identifier, entry waypoint or exit waypoint not found in the new database.
• Airway entry/exit waypoint is not an acceptable waypoint for the airway – either the waypoint is no longer on
the airway, or there is a new directional restriction that prevents it being used.
• Loading the new airway sequence would exceed the capacity of the flight plan.
There are three methods to create or modify a flight plan:
• ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• ‘Flight Plan’ Window on the PFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page on the MFD (create/modify a stored flight plan)
Active FPL Waypoint List
- Comment
- Procedure Header
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Vertical Navigation Profile
- Active Vertical WPT Alt/ID
- Time to Top of Descent
- Vertical Speed Target
- Flight Path Angle
- Vertical Speed Required
- Vertical Deviation
Turn Anticipation
Arc
Non-Active,
Flight Plan Leg
Figure 5-44 Active Flight Plan Page
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Active Flight Plan Comment
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan
Waypoint List
- Waypoint ID
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Airway Identifier
Figure 5-45 Active ‘Flight Plan’ Window on PFD
Catalog Contents
- # Used
- # Empty
Flight Plan List
- Comment
Selected
Flight Plan
Map
Selected FPL Info
- Departure Waypoint
- Destination Waypoint
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Softkeys
Figure 5-46 Flight Plan Catalog Page
NOTE: The system supports AFCS lateral guidance for all leg types (using NAV or FMS APPR mode). The
system does not support course deviation for any heading leg types (VA, VD, VI, VM, or VR).
Auto-designation will determine the most likely airport of origin and auto-populate the Active Flight Plan.
Once determined, the airfield identifier automatically appears in the ‘Origin’ Field and the line immediately below
‘Origin’ while keeping the runway (‘RW’) Field empty. The line below the Origin line serves as the first point in
the flight plan.
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Auto-designation occurs between 15 and 60 seconds after display power-up under the following conditions:
• Aircraft position is known
• Aircraft is on the ground
• Nearest airport is within 200NM
• Flight plan is empty
If the pilot manually enters the origin, or any other leg of the flight plan before auto-designation occurs, nothing
gets inserted automatically. The automatic insertion logic only runs once, so the pilot can edit the origin if the
nearest airport is not the desired origin.
If the pilot enters a different airport into the first point of the flight plan, the Origin will change to this entry,
and the pilot will be prompted to enter the departure runway.
Both the Origin airport/runway and the first point of the flight plan will be the same unless a departure is
entered and a manual leg is inserted at the beginning of the loaded departure. Loading a departure locks in the
origin information.
NOTE: In some cases, Origin and Destination airports may not be displayed in the PFD“Flight Plan” or
“Recent” submenu or the MFD ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page until the airport waypoint is loaded into
the flight plan.
FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
Flight plan information can be viewed in different locations and formats. The Flight Plan Progress inset may
be displayed on ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. The ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page format can be modified in
several ways; and the MFD Split Screen feature can provide different display configurations of the flight plan,
navigation map and charts. For flight plan profile information see the Flight Management, Vertical Situation
Display section.
NOTE: ETE can be displayed as either HH+MM (ETE greater than 60 minutes) or MM:SS (ETE less than 60
minutes).
FLIGHT PLAN PROGRESS INSET
Active flight plan progress can be displayed on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Displaying/removing the active flight plan progress on the navigation map:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the FPL PROG Softkey to display the active flight plan progress.
5) To remove the active flight plan progress from the navigation map, press the Off softkey.
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ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
The ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page can be configured to show cumulative distance over the length of the
flight plan or the distance for each leg of the flight plan; and it can be viewed in a narrow or wide view. In
the wide view, additional information is displayed: Fuel Remaining (‘Fuel REM’), Estimated Time Enroute
(‘ETE’), Estimated Time of Arrival (‘ETA’), and Bearing to the waypoint (‘BRG’).
Changing the flight plan view:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the View Softkey to display the Wide, Narrow, Leg-Leg, and CUM Softkeys.
3) Press the CUM Softkey to view cumulative waypoint distance, or press the Leg-Leg Softkey to view leg-to-leg
waypoint distance.
4) Press the Wide Softkey to display the wide view, or press the Narrow Softkey to display the narrow view.
5) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys..
SPLIT SCREEN
Charts may be viewed alongside the active flight plan in split screen mode. The chart will coincide with
the active flight plan leg. Pressing the Charts Softkey from the ‘FPL- Active Flight Plan’ Page will remove
the active flight plan map to display a Charts Pane alongside the ‘Active Flight Plan’ Pane. The Display Title
will change to ‘FPL - Chart + Active Flight Plan’. The active flight plan map can be re-displayed. However,
displaying the map in split screen on the ‘Active Flight Plan’ Pane limits the flight plan content which can be
displayed. For example, displaying the Flight Plan Map while in split screen narrow view removes the ‘Active
VNV Profile’ Box. See the following figures depicting the different split screen displays with the active flight
plan.
For more information on Charts, see the Additional Features Section.
Display Title shows ‘Chart + Active Flight Plan’
Split Screen Narrow View
Split Screen Wide View
Figure 5-47 Split Screen Mode Narrow and Wide View
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Split Screen Narrow View with Flight Plan Map
Split Screen Wide View with Flight Plan Map
Figure 5-48 Split Screen Mode with Flight Plan Map
Viewing charts and ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page in split screen mode:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the Charts Softkey. If necessary, press the CHRT Opt Softkey and press the Full SCN Softkey to disable
full screen mode. Split screen mode is now enabled showing two display panes. The Chart Pane is highlighted
by a cyan box indicating it is the active pane.
3) To quickly view the chart corresponding to the active flight plan leg, press the SYNC Softkey.
Displaying the flight plan map on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page in split screen mode:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the CHRT Opt Softkey and press the Full SCN Softkey to disable full screen mode. Split
screen mode is now enabled showing two display panes. The Chart Pane is highlighted by a cyan box indicating
it is the active pane.
3) Move the Joystick to select the ‘Active Flight Plan’ Pane as the active display pane.
4) Press the MENU Key. ‘Show Flight Plan Map’ is highlighted. Press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the Flight Plan Map, press the MENU Key and select ‘Hide Flight Plan Map’. Press the ENT Key.
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CREATING A FLIGHT PLAN
The active flight plan is listed on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD, and in the ‘Flight Plan’
Window on the PFD. It is the flight plan to which the system is currently providing guidance, and is shown on
the navigation maps. Stored flight plans are listed on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page, and are available for
activation (becomes the active flight plan).
The following procedure is intended to provide an overview of basic flight plan creation. It will create a flight
plan from the origin runway to the destination runway, and includes enroute waypoint selection. The following
procedure does not include airways or terminal procedures. For instructions on how to add airways to a flight
plan, see the Flight Plan Waypoint and Airway Modifications discussion later in this Flight Planning Section.
For information on departures, arrivals, approaches, and missed approaches see the Procedures Section.
Creating an active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key. Press the small FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on PFD).
2) If the system correctly auto-designated (populated) the Origin, proceed to Step 3.
Or:
Select the origin airport and runway as follows:
a) Highlight the field below the Origin header to enter the origin airport identifier using the FMS Knob.
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the origin
waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Set Runway’ Window is displayed with the ‘Runway’ Field highlighted.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway, and press the ENT Key.
e) Press the ENT Key again to add the origin airport/runway to the flight plan.
3) Select the destination airport and runway by highlighting the field below the Destination header and completing
steps 2b - 2e.
4) Select the enroute waypoints.
a) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute header is selected, the
new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new
waypoint will be placed ahead of the selected item).
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint.
The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
5) Repeat step number 4 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
6) When all waypoints have been entered, push the FMS Knob to remove to deactivate the cursor.
Creating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the New Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create New Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key to
display a blank flight plan for the first empty storage location.
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4) Select the origin airport and runway.
a) Highlight the field below the Origin header to enter the origin airport identifier using the FMS Knob.
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the origin
waypoint.
c)
Press the ENT Key. The ‘Set Runway’ Window is displayed with the ‘Runway’ Field highlighted.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway.
e) Press the ENT Key to add the origin airport/runway to the flight plan.
5) Select the destination airport and runway by highlighting the field below the Destination header and completing
steps 4b - 4e.
6) Select the enroute waypoints.
a) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute header is selected, the
new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new
waypoint will be placed ahead of the selected item.)
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key. The stored flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
7) Repeat step number 6 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
8) When all waypoints have been entered, push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
FLIGHT PLAN WAYPOINT AND AIRWAY MODIFICATIONS
Active and stored flight plans can be edited at any time. Waypoints and airways can be added, modified, or
removed from any flight plan. Edits made to an active flight plan affect navigation as soon as they are entered.
Modifications to flight planned departures, arrivals, approaches, and missed approaches are discussed later in
the Procedures portion of Flight Management.
FLIGHT PLAN WAYPOINTS
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose the flight plan, select
the desired point of insertion, enter the waypoint, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. Flight
plans are limited to 100 waypoints (including waypoints within airways and procedures). If the number of
waypoints in the flight plan exceeds 100, the message “Flight plan is full. Remove unnecessary waypoints.”
appears and the new waypoint(s) are not added to the flight plan.
Adding Waypoints
NOTE: Manually adding waypoints to a flight plan after a MANSEQ leg creates a lateral gap in the flight
plan. Time, fuel, and distance values for legs beyond the gap do not include the distance across the gap.
NOTE: If the identifier entered in the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window has duplicates, a ‘Duplicate Waypoint’
Window is displayed. Use the FMS Knob to select the correct waypoint.
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NOTE: If the flight plan is successfully edited in the ‘Flight Plan’ Window from PFD while the MFD ‘FPL - Active
Flight Plan’ Page is in the process of being edited, the ‘Flight Plan Modified By Other User’ Window will appear
on the MFD. Press the ENT key to return to the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page with the accepted changes.
Origin Header
Enroute Header
Enroute Waypoints
Destination Header
Figure 5-49 Active Flight Plan Waypoints
Adding a waypoint to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Select the point in the flight plan before which to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly
in front of the highlighted waypoint.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
‘Waypoint Information’ Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window with
a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
Creating and adding user waypoints to the active flight plan using the map pointer:
1) Press the FPL Key
2) Push the FMS Knob for the MFD to activate the cursor.
3) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint.
4) Push the Joystick for the MFD to activate the panning function on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page and pan
to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
5) Press the LD WPT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The user waypoint
is created with a name of USRxxx (using the next available in sequence) and is added to the active flight plan.
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Adding a waypoint to an existing stored flight plan:
1) On the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select “EDIT” and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
4) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly in front of the
highlighted waypoint.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
‘Waypoint Information’ Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window with
a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
6) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The new waypoint now exists in the flight plan.
Removing Waypoints
Individual waypoints can be removed from a flight plan. Some waypoints in the final approach segment
(such as the FAF or MAP) can not be removed individually. Attempting to remove a waypoint that is not
allowed results in a window displaying ‘Invalid flight plan modification’.
NOTE: If removal of a flight plan item (waypoint, procedure, etc.) results in deletion of the end waypoint of
the active leg, an off-route direct-to to the deleted waypoint is created and activated.
Removing an individual waypoint from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint to be removed.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Removing an individual waypoint from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be removed.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Fly-Over Waypoint Designation
Waypoints entered in the enroute segment of the flight plan may be treated as either fly-by or fly-over
waypoints. A fly-by waypoint is a waypoint that marks the intersection of two straight paths, with the
transition from one path to another being made by the aircraft using a precisely calculated turn that “flies
by” but does not vertically cross the waypoint.
Enroute Segment
- TOP as Fly-By Waypoint
Figure 5-50 TOP Fly-By Waypoint
Fly-Over
Waypoint Symbol
Enroute Segment
- TOP as Fly-Over
Waypoint
Fly-Over
Waypoint Symbol
Figure 5-51 TOP Fly-Over Waypoint
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A fly-over waypoint is a waypoint that must be crossed vertically by the aircraft. If the system determines
that the flight plan leg geometry cannot support fly-by navigation for a waypoint sequence in the current
flight plan, it will change a fly-by waypoint to a fly-over waypoint automatically. A roll steering path or
future roll steering path may be displayed after the fly-over waypoint until the roll steering path aligns with
the course leg connecting the fly-over waypoint and the following waypoint in the flight plan. This system
generated fly-over waypoint will not display the fly-over symbol.
Fly-Over Waypoint
- No fly-over symbol
Roll Steering to next leg
- Roll Steering until path aligns
with course leg (PNH to ILOZA)
Figure 5-52 PNH Fly-Over Waypoint
Active Leg to PNH
- Geometry cannot support fly-by
to the following leg (PNH to ILOZA)
A fly-over waypoint may also be manually designated by the pilot, in which case, the fly-over waypoint
symbol is displayed.
Designating a fly-over waypoint:
1) For the active flight plan, press the FPL Key and push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
Or:
For a stored flight plan, highlight the desired flight plan on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page and press the
Edit Softkey.
2) Highlight the desired waypoint.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Fly-Over Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Set <waypoint> to be a
fly-over waypoint?’ Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) To change the waypoint back to a fly-by waypoint, highlight the desired waypoint. Press the MENU Key,
highlight ‘Set Fly-By Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Set <waypoint> to be a fly-by waypoint?’ Window
is displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
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FLIGHT PLAN AIRWAYS
Within flight plans, airways can be added, removed and collapsed/expanded.
Adding Airways
Airways can be added to any flight plan. An airway can only be added if there is an existing entry
waypoint in the flight plan that is part of the desired airway and is not part of an arrival or approach
procedure. The system anticipates the desired airway based on the selected waypoint and the flight plan.
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Airways Available at TOP
Airway Waypoint
Sequence
Preview of
Selected Airway
Figure 5-53 Select Airway Page - Selecting Airway
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Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Selected Exit Point
Preview of
Selected Airway
Airway Exit Points
Available
Selected Airway Exit
Point
Figure 5-54 Select Airway Page - Selecting Exit Point
Adding an airway to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor below the airway entry waypoint for the insertion point. If there
is no valid airway entry waypoint in the flight plan, one must be entered first.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and press the LD AIRWY Softkey (MFD only), or press the MENU
Key for the and select “Load Airway”(PFD or MFD). The LD AIRWY Softkey or the “Load Airway” menu item is
available only when a valid airway entry waypoint has already been entered in the flight plan.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways
are shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is
highlighted.
7) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted.
Adding an airway to a stored flight plan:
1) On the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight “EDIT” and press
the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
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4) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor below the airway entry waypoint for the insertion point. If there
is no valid airway entry waypoint in the flight plan, one must be entered first.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and press the LD AIRWY Softkey (MFD only), or press the MENU
Key and select “Load Airway”. The LD AIRWY Softkey or the “Load Airway” menu item is available only when
a valid airway entry waypoint has already been entered in the flight plan.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways
are shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
7) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is
highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted
Some airways have directional restrictions on all or part of the route. Airway “A2” in Europe has a
directional restriction over the whole route such that it can be flown only one direction.
For example, airway “UR975” in North Africa has more complicated directional restrictions within the
list of airway waypoints. That is, each waypoint may have its own conditional route in relation to another
waypoint.
In the US, airways that are “one-way” for specified hours of operation are not uncommon. These airways
are always bidirectional in the system database.
The system only allows correct airway sequences to be inserted. If the pilot subsequently inverts the
flight plan, the system inverts the airway waypoint sequence and removes the airway header.
Removing Airways
Removing an entire airway from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the header of the airway to be removed.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Removing an entire airway from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the airway to be removed.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
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7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Collapsing Airways
The system allows airways on the active flight plan to be collapsed or expanded. When airways have
been collapsed, it is indicated on the airway heading.
When airways are collapsed, leg-to-leg computed values such as DIS or ETE shown for the exit waypoint
reflect the total of all the legs on the airway that have been hidden in the collapsed display. The DTK value
is inhibited because it is not usable in this context.
The active flight plan will always keep the following three waypoints visible: “From” waypoint, “To”
waypoint, and “Next” waypoint. To prevent one or more of these waypoints from being hidden in a
collapsed airway segment, the airway segment that contains either the “To” or the “Next” waypoint is
automatically expanded. When an airway is loaded, airways are automatically expanded to facilitate flight
plan review.
All Airways
Collapsed View
V4.SLN Airway
Expanded View
Figure 5-55 Expanded/Collapsed Airways
Collapsing/expanding the airways in the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Collapse Airways’ or ‘Expand Airways’, and press the ENT Key. The airways are
collapsed/expanded.
FLIGHT PLAN OPERATIONS
This section will discuss activating a flight plan leg and conducting enroute operations such as creating an
along track offset, parallel track, closest point from a reference point and user defined holding. For information
on departures, arrivals, and approaches refer to the Procedures portion later in the Flight Management Section.
ACTIVATING A FLIGHT PLAN LEG
The flight plan leg which is currently being used for navigation guidance is referred to as the ‘active leg’.
The system automatically sequences from one active leg to the next as defined by the active flight plan.
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Activating a flight plan leg:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the end waypoint for the desired leg.
3) Press the ACT Leg Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Leg’, and press the ENT Key.
A confirmation window is displayed with ‘Activate’ highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan leg. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press
the ENT Key.
5) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor.
ALONG TRACK OFFSETS
A waypoint having an “along track offset” distance from an existing waypoint can be entered into a flight
plan. Along track offset waypoints lie along the path of the existing flight plan, and can be used to make the
system reach a specified altitude before or after reaching the specified flight plan waypoint. Offset distances
can be entered from 1 to 999 nm in increments of 1 nm. Entering a negative offset distance results in an along
track offset waypoint inserted before the selected waypoint, whereas entering a positive offset distance results
in an along track offset waypoint inserted after the selected waypoint. Multiple offset waypoints are allowed.
A waypoint must be adjacent to its parent waypoint in the flight plan, so the system limits the along-track
distance to less than the length of the leg before or after the selected waypoint. If the selected waypoint is the
active waypoint, the distance is limited to less than the distance to go to the active waypoint. Assigning an
along track offset to a leg with indeterminate length is not permitted. An along track offset is not allowed at
or after the final approach fix of an approach.
An along track offset distance cannot be modified once entered. If the along track offset distance must be
changed, the existing along track offset waypoint must be removed and a new one created with the new offset
distance.
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Along Track Offset
Waypoint and Distance
from Flight Plan Waypoint
Along Track
Offset Waypoint
and Distance
Figure 5-56 Along Track Offset
Entering an along track offset distance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the along track offset.
3) Press the ATK OFS Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create ATK Offset Waypoint’, and
press the ENT Key.
4) Enter a positive or negative offset distance in the range of +/- 1 to 999 nm (limited by leg distances).
5) Press the ENT Key to create the offset waypoint.
6) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor.
Entering a VNV altitude and along-track offset for the waypoint:
1) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the altitude field (‘VNV’ or ‘ALT’).
3) Enter the desired altitude.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport, an additional choice
is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
If ‘AGL’ is selected, confirm the converted AGL to MSL altitude.
5) The cursor is now flashing in offset distance field.
6) Enter the desired along-track distance before the waypoint.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to activate.
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CLOSEST POINT OF FPL
‘Closest Point of FPL’ calculates the bearing and closest distance at which a flight plan passes a reference
waypoint, and creates a new user waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to a chosen reference
waypoint.
Determining the closest point along the active flight plan to a selected waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the Active ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Closest Point Of FPL’’, and press the ENT Key. A window appears with the
reference waypoint field highlighted.
3) Enter the identifier of the reference waypoint and press the ENT Key. The system displays the bearing (BRG) and
distance (DIS) to the closest point along the flight plan to the selected reference waypoint and creates a user waypoint
at this location. The name for the new user waypoint is derived from the identifier of the reference waypoint.
PARALLEL TRACK
The Parallel Track feature allows creation of a parallel course offset of 1 to 50 nm left or right of the current
flight plan. When Parallel Track is activated, the course line drawn on the map pages shows the parallel
course, and waypoint names have a lower case “p” placed after the identifier. Activation of parallel track will
apply from the current position along the flight plan until a leg that does not meet the criteria for parallel
track. Guidance will be computed to return to the original track at the beginning of that leg.
If the parallel track proposed by the offset direction and distance is not allowed by the system, the activation
prompt is displayed, but disabled.
The following will inhibit activation of a parallel track:
• Initiating a direct-to, to the selected waypoint.
• If an approach leg is active, the status indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track with
the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable Approach Leg Active’.
• If the offset direction and distance results in an unreasonable route geometry (e.g., there is a sharp turn of
more than 120 degrees), the status indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because
of invalid geometry (‘Parallel Track Unavailable Invalid Route Geometry’).
• If the active leg is not a track between two fixes (TF) or a course to a fix (DF) leg, the status indicates that
the system is unable to activate the parallel track because parallel track is not available for the active leg type
(‘Parallel Track Unavailable Not Allowed for Active Leg’).
If there are no legs remaining in the flight plan after the given leg, or OBS mode is active. The following will
cancel the parallel track:
• Initiating a direct-to, to a waypoint.
• Initiating a hold at the present position.
• If a course change occurs greater than 120° or the parallel tracks overlap as a result of the course change.
• No legs are remaining in the flight plan after the given leg, or OBS mode is active. Initiating a hold at
a waypoint will result in the aircraft flying the parallel track until a turn is required to fly to the hold
waypoint. If the hold is removed prior to reaching the hold waypoint, the parallel track will be resumed.
Once the holding pattern is active, the parallel track will not be resumed upon exiting the hold.
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NOTE: Vertical navigation is unavailable while the Parallel Track feature is active.
Parallel Track Waypoints
- TIFTO-p
- TOP-p
- ...
- LAA-p
Parallel Track
Original Track
Figure 5-57 Parallel Track Active
Activating parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Parallel Track’ Window is displayed
with the ‘Direction’ Field highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘LEFT’ or ‘RIGHT’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘Distance’ Field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a distance from 1-99 nm and press the ENT Key. ‘Activate Parallel Track’ is
highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key to activate parallel track. Push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to cancel the parallel track
activation.
Cancelling parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Parallel Track’ Window is displayed
with ‘Cancel Parallel Track?’ highlighted.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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USER-DEFINED HOLDING PATTERNS
A holding pattern can be defined at any active flight plan waypoint, at the aircraft present position, or at a
direct-to waypoint.
Hold At
Waypoint
Menu
Selection
Waypoint
Selected
Hold Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
Inbound or Outbound
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time or Distance)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(Right or Left)
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further Clearance Time
Load Hold in Active Flight Plan
Figure 5-58 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at an Active Flight Plan Waypoint
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Waypoint
Selected
Hold Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
(Inbound or Outbound)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or
Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(Right or Left)
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time or Distance)
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further
Clearance Time
Load Hold and
Activate Direct To
Hold At Direct To
Waypoint selection
Figure 5-59 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at a Direct To Waypoint
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Creating a user-defined hold at an active flight plan waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the hold.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold at’ Window appears with
the course field highlighted.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘Load?’ is highlighted to insert the hold into the flight plan.
Creating a user-defined hold at the aircraft present position:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Present Position’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold at’ Window appears
with the course field highlighted.
3) If desired, use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the ENT Key.
9) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to create an Offroute Direct-to hold waypoint at the aircraft
present position and activate the hold.
Creating a user-defined hold at a direct-to waypoint:
1) Press a ¯ Key and set up the direct-to waypoint as desired, then select ‘Hold?’ when finished.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to activate the direct-to with the user-defined hold defined at
the direct-to waypoint. (If the direct-to waypoint is part of the active flight plan, ‘HOLD’ is inserted into the active
flight plan. If the direct-to waypoint is not part of the active flight plan, an off-route direct-to hold is created.)
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Editing a user-defined hold:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the hold.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Edit Hold’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold at’ Window appears with the
course field highlighted.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘Update?’ is highlighted to update the hold.
Exiting a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
Press the SUSP Softkey. The system will provide guidance to follow the holding pattern to the inbound course
and resume automatic waypoint sequencing.
Removing a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
‘HOLD’ in the flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove Holding Pattern?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed from the active flight plan. Select ‘Cancel’
and press the ENT Key to cancel the removal of the holding pattern.
Removing a user-defined hold at an off-route direct-to:
1) Press a ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window with the cursor on the ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ selection.
3) Press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed.
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MANAGING FLIGHT PLANS
The pilot can manage flight plans by importing/exporting via SD Card or mobile device, and by storing,
copying, inverting, and deleting. Also, the comment field (name) of each flight plan can be changed to
something that is useful for identification and sorting.
IMPORTING AND EXPORTING FLIGHT PLANS
Flight plans can be transferred to or from a mobile device via the Wireless Transceiver. Transfer of a flight
plan to a mobile device is controlled by the mobile device. When a mobile device is attempting to transfer a
flight plan to the system, the pending flight plan may be ignored, previewed, stored, or activated by the pilot.
Pending Connext Action
Annunciator
Pending Flight Plan
Store? or Activate?
Selection
Delete Softkey
Store Softkey
Activate Softkey
Figure 5-60 Preview Flight Plan Page
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Pending Connext Action
Annunciator
Pending Flight Plan
Pending Flight Plan
Pop-Up Alert
Ignore Softkey
Preview Softkey
Figure 5-61 Pending Flight Plan Transfer
Ignoring a pending flight plan transferred from a mobile device:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a ‘PENDING FLIGHT PLAN’ pop-up alert appears
in the lower right corner of the MFD, and an Connext annunciation appears to the right of the Display Title.
2) Press the CLR Key to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan will
still be available on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Or:
Press the Ignore Softkey to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan
will still be available on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Previewing a pending flight plan transferred from a mobile device:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a ‘PENDING FLIGHT PLAN’ pop-up alert appears
in the lower right corner of the MFD, and an Connext annunciation appears to the right of the Display Title.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Or:
Press the Preview Softkey to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key,
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Preview Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
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Storing a pending flight plan transferred from a mobile device:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
5) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
6) Press the Store Softkey to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation
is removed.
Or:
a) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store?’.
c) Press the ENT Key to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation
is removed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key,
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation
is removed.
Activating a pending flight plan transferred from a mobile device:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
4) Press the Activate Softkey. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate?’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
5) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to activate the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan becomes
the active flight plan and is removed from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page. To cancel the request, press the
CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
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Deleting a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired pending flight plan.
5) Press the Delete Softkey. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
Or:
Press the CLR Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan is removed
from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
Deleting all pending flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete All Pending’.
5) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all pending flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
6)
With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all pending flight plans. To cancel the request, press the
CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Alternatively, flight plans may be imported from an SD Card or exported to an SD Card from the ‘FPL Stored Flight Plan’ Page.
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Under certain conditions, some messages may appear when a flight plan is imported or exported.
Flight Plan Import/Export Results
‘Flight plan successfully imported.’
‘File contained user waypoints only. User
waypoints imported successfully. No
stored flight plan data was modified.’
‘No flight plan files found to import.’
‘Flight plan import failed.’
‘Flight plan partially imported.’
‘File contained user waypoints only.’
‘Too many points. Flight plan truncated.’
‘Some waypoints not loaded. Waypoints
locked.’
‘User waypoint database full. Not all
loaded.’
‘One or more user waypoints renamed.’
‘Flight plan successfully exported.’
‘Flight plan export failed.’
Description
A flight plan file stored on the SD card was successfully imported as a stored flight
plan.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints.
These waypoints have been saved to the system user waypoints. No flight plans
stored in the system have been modified.
The SD card contains no flight plan data.
Flight plan data was not successfully imported from the SD card.
Some flight plan waypoints were successfully imported from the SD card, however
others had errors and were not imported. A partial stored flight plan now exists in
the system.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints.
One or more of these waypoints did not import successfully.
The flight plan on the SD card contains more waypoints than the system can
support. The flight plan was imported with as many waypoints as possible.
The flight plan on the SD card contains one or more waypoints that the system
cannot find in the navigation database. The flight plan has been imported, but
must be edited within the system before it can be activated for use.
The flight plan file on the SD card contains user waypoints. The quantity of stored
user waypoints has exceeded system capacity, therefore not all the user waypoints
on the SD card have been imported. Any flight plan user waypoints that were not
imported are locked in the flight plan. The flight plan must be edited within the
system before it can be activated for use.
One or more imported user waypoints were renamed when imported due to
naming conflicts with waypoints already existing in the system.
The stored flight plan was successfully exported to the SD card.
The stored flight plan was not successfully exported to the SD card. The SD card
may not have sufficient available memory or the card may have been removed
prematurely.
Table 5-10 Flight Plan Import/Export Messages
NOTE: If the imported flight plan contains a waypoint with a name that duplicates the name of a waypoint
already stored on the system, the system compares the coordinates of the imported waypoint with those of
the existing waypoint. If the coordinates are different, the imported waypoint is automatically renamed by
adding characters to the end of the name.
NOTE: The exported flight plan will not contain any procedures or airways.
Importing a Flight Plan from an SD Card:
1) Insert the SD card containing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
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3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
4) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight an empty or existing flight plan.
6) Press the Import Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Import Flight Plan”, and press the ENT Key.
If an empty slot is selected, a list of the available flight plans on the SD card will be displayed.
Or:
If an existing flight plan is selected, an “Overwrite existing flight plan? OK or Cancel” prompt is displayed.
Press the ENT Key to choose to overwrite the selected flight plan and see the list of available flight plans on the
SD card. If overwriting the existing flight plan is not desired, select “Cancel” using the FMS Knob, press the
ENT Key, select another flight plan slot, and press the Import Softkey again.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan for importing.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the import.
9) Press the ENT Key again to confirm the import.
Exporting a flight plan to an SD Card:
1) Insert the SD card into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
4) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be exported.
6) Press the Export Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Export Flight Plan”.
7) If desired, change the name for the exported file by turning the large FMS Knob to the left to highlight the
name, then use the small and large FMS knobs to enter the new name, and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the export.
9) Press the ENT Key to confirm the export.
INVERTING THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
A flight plan may be inverted (reversed) for navigation back to the original departure point. Inverting and
activating stored flight plans is discussed within the Stored Flight Plan Functions portion of this section.
Inverting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. An ‘Invert Active Flight Plan?’
confirmation window is displayed.
3) Highlight ‘OK’.
4) Press the ENT Key to invert and activate the active flight plan. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’
and press the ENT Key.
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DELETING THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
The active flight plan is overwritten when another flight plan is activated. Additionally, the system allows
the pilot to delete the active flight plan, which suspends navigation by the system.
Deleting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the Active ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete all waypoints in flight
plan?’ window is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the active flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
STORED FLIGHT PLAN FUNCTIONS
The system can store up to 99 flight plans, numbered 1 through 99. Details about each stored flight plan
can be viewed on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page and on the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page.
A stored flight plan may be viewed or edited. The system also allows copying a flight plan into a new
flight plan memory slot, allowing editing, etc., without affecting the original flight plan. This can be used to
duplicate an existing stored flight plan for use in creating a modified version of the original stored flight plan.
Activating a stored flight plan erases the active flight plan and replaces it with the flight plan being activated.
Inverting a stored flight plan reverses the waypoint order, erases the active flight plan, and replaces it with the
flight plan being activated (the stored flight plan is not changed).
Lastly, individual or all stored flight plans can be deleted from the system memory.
Stored Flight Plan Selected
- Memory Slot
- Comment
- Procedure Identifier
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Softkeys
Figure 5-62 Stored Flight Plan Page
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Viewing information about a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
4) Information is displayed in the ‘Flight Plan Info’ Box showing departure, destination, total distance, and enroute
safe altitude information for the selected flight plan.
5) Press the Edit Softkey to open the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page and view the waypoints in the flight plan.
6) Push the FMS Knob to exit the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page.
Storing an active flight plan from the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. The flight plan is stored in the next available position in the flight
plan list on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Activate Softkey; or press the ENT Key twice; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’,
and press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Invert Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key. The
‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
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Copying a stored flight plan to another flight plan memory slot, on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Copy Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Copy Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Copy
to Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to copy the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Delete Softkey; press the CLR Key; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan #?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
NOTE: The option to delete all stored flight plans is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all stored flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Delete All’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all flight plans. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
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CHANGING A FLIGHT PLAN COMMENT (NAME)
Changing the active flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the comment field.
3) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
5) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor.
Changing a stored flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
8) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.7 VERTICAL NAVIGATION
NOTE: The system supports vertical guidance and altitude constraints for the following leg types: AF, CD, CF,
CI, CR, DF, FC, FD, PI, RF, and TF. Altitude constraints are not retained in stored flight plans.
The system Vertical Navigation (VNV) feature provides vertical profile guidance during the enroute and terminal
phases of flight. Guidance based on specified altitudes at waypoints in the active flight plan or to a direct-to
waypoint is provided. It includes vertical path guidance to a descending path, which is provided as a linear
deviation from the desired path. The desired path is defined by a line joining two waypoints with specified
altitudes or as a vertical angle from a specified waypoint/altitude. The vertical waypoints are integrated into the
active flight plan. Both manual and autopilot-coupled guidance are supported.
Vertical navigation is available for flight control operations when valid VNV data is entered in flight plan, and
the ENBL VNV Softkey is pressed (softkey label changes to ‘Cncl VNV’ once enabled) on the ‘FPL - Active Flight
Plan’ Page. Refer to the AFCS Section for more information on utilizing vertical navigation for aircraft control.
The system allows a vertical navigation direct-to for any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV ¯ Softkey on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page
allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV direct-to
waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan from current
position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with
altitude constraint activated by pressing the ¯ Key also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass flight plan
waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent (TOD)
point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached
Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ), and
time to top of descent/bottom of descent (TOD/BOD) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) and
Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) on the PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ, and TOD items
displayed in the Active VNV Profile box are dashed. VNV remains disabled until manually enabled. Vertical
guidance in reversionary mode can only be enabled for a direct-to waypoint.
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
Enabling and Disabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL- Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the ENBL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Enable VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is enabled, and vertical guidance begins with the waypoint shown in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box
(defaults first waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude enabled for vertical navigation (e.g., FALUR)).
3) To Disable VNV guidance, press the Cncl VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Cancel VNV’, and
press the ENT Key. Vertical navigation is disabled.
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Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Disabled (fields dashed)
ENBL VNV Softkey
Enabled (valid data)
Cncl VNV Softkey
Figure 5-63 Enabling/Disabling Vertical Navigation
CONSTRAINTS
NOTE: Initiating the VNV direct-to function to the FAF, manually specifying an FPA to the FAF, or manually
creating an altitude constraint at the FAF will disrupt the VNV function from creating a lateral offset. Thus,
the baro-VNV path may not intersect the approach descent path.
ALTITUDE CONSTRAINTS
The system can use altitude constraints associated with lateral waypoints to give guidance for vertical
navigation. These altitudes are, depending on the specific instance, manually entered or retrieved from the
published altitudes in the navigation database.
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Altitude Constraint
Examples
System Calculated
Advisory Altitude (White Text)
Cross AT or ABOVE
5,000 ft
Edited Altitude Constraint
(Cyan Text with Pencil Icon)
Designated Altitude Constraint
(Cyan Text)
Cross AT 2,300 ft
White Text with
Altitude Restriction Bar
Cross AT or BELOW
3,000 ft
Temperature
Compensated
Figure 5-64 Waypoint Altitude Constraints
White Text
Cyan Text
5OOOFT
Advisory altitude calculated by the system estimating the
altitude of the aircraft as it passes over the navigation point.
5OOOFT
Altitude is designated for vertical guidance. A pencil icon
indicates manual designation or manually modified data entry.
Altitude retrieved from the navigation database. White line
above or below indicates the type of constraint.
These altitudes are provided as a reference, and are not
designated for vertical guidance.
The system cannot use this altitude in determining vertical
guidance because of an invalid constraint condition.
Table 5-11 Altitude Constraint Color Coding
When a procedure is loaded, the system will auto-designate (automatically enter and enable) altitude
constraints to be used for vertical guidance. An altitude constraint which has been auto-designated by the
system will be displayed as cyan text.
An altitude constraint may be manually designated for procedure waypoints and enroute waypoints by
activating and moving the cursor to the desired altitude in the active flight plan, turning the small FMS
Knob and pressing the ENT Key. An altitude constraint may be manually designated only if it is available for
vertical guidance. Altitudes that are not available for vertical guidance are shown in white text and cannot be
selected by the cursor.
NOTE: If the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is available for vertical guidance, the FAF altitude constraint may be
modified and set above or below the published FAF altitude.
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For all designated altitudes, the system will automatically calculate advisory altitudes prior to the designated
altitude constraint. These advisory altitudes are not auto-designated and are displayed as white text.
Altitudes that have been designated for use in vertical guidance can be “un-designated”. Pressing the CLR
Key with the altitude constraint highlighted on the ‘Active Flight Plan’ Page removes the altitude constraint
designation. The altitude will not be used for vertical guidance and the text displayed will be shown in
white. The system will recalculate advisory altitudes (white text) when any altitude constraint is designated,
modified, or un-designated.
An altitude constraint may be entered as a flight level (FL), height above mean sea level (MSL), or height
above ground level (AGL). AGL format is only available for airport waypoints.
NOTE: All designated altitudes (cyan text) will be displayed in the active flight plan without restriction bars
regardless of what is shown on the published procedure.
A designated altitude constraint may be rendered invalid if any of the following are true:
• Meeting the constraint requires the maximum flight path angle or maximum vertical speed to be exceeded
• Meeting the constraint requires the aircraft to climb
• The descent constraints are not sequentially descending.
Altitude constraints can be modified or deleted after having been added to the flight plan. If an altitude
constraint is removed and the navigation database contains an altitude restriction for the lateral waypoint, the
system will display that altitude restriction in white text. The system also provides a way to revert a published
altitude constraint that has been modified.
Entering or modifying an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Enter an altitude constraint value using the FMS Knobs. To enter altitudes as a flight level, turn the small
FMS Knob counter-clockwise past zero or clockwise past 9 on the first character, and the system automatically
changes to show units of Flight Level. Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight the first zero and enter
the three digit flight level.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport, an additional choice
is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
Removing/undesignating an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint (‘ALT’).
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove VNV altitude?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key.
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Reverting a manually entered altitude constraint back to the navigation database value:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘Revert’ and press the ENT Key. The altitude is changed to the navigation database value.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
VERTICAL SPEED AND FLIGHT PATH ANGLE CONSTRAINTS
The vertical navigation profile can be modified by directly entering a vertical speed target (‘VS TGT’) and/or
flight path angle (‘FPA’) in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box.
Modifying the VS TGT and FPA:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the VNV Prof Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select VNV Profile Window’, and press the ENT
Key. The cursor is now located in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs as needed to edit the values.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY (VSD)
A Vertical Situation Display (VSD) can be shown on the bottom of the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. The
terrain, obstacles, vertical track vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information (active flight plan
information consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current VNV profile, TOD/BOD, and
destination runway) can be displayed on the VSD, depending on the selected mode. See the Hazard Avoidance
section for information about winds aloft, obstacles, and relative terrain on the VSD.
The VSD horizontal range is equal to the navigation map indicated range when the VSD is in Track mode.
When the VSD is in Flight Plan mode, the horizontal range is the lower of twice the navigation map indicated
range or the lowest range the displays all of the remaining active flight plan. The VSD altitude range automatically
changes when the navigation map range is changed to keep a constant ratio of altitude range to horizontal
range, until both minimum and maximum display limits have been met. At ranges above the maximum, the
altitude range remains constant at the maximum.
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The aircraft symbol is displayed on the left side of the VSD. The position of the aircraft symbol on the vertical
scale is close to the top for a descent phase and in the middle for a cruise phase or if the phase is unknown.
If two waypoints are close together, and their labels or constraint values overlap enough to obscure any text,
one waypoint label/constraint value is removed and the vertical dashed line for that waypoint is displayed as
darker gray. The priority for which waypoint remains displayed is: (1) the current TO waypoint, (2) waypoint
with an altitude constraint, and (3) waypoint closer to the aircraft.
Terrain/obstacles are available on the VSD, and will be shown if the aircraft altitude is low enough for the
terrain/obstacles to be in view (terrain will be shown subdued if the terrain is selected Off on the Navigation Map).
See the Hazard Avoidance Section for symbol information and display of point obstacles on the Navigation Map.
The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of the terrain based upon the
highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the terrain database resolution, within a
predefined width along the active flight plan between the aircraft present position and the end of the map range
or active flight plan. The predefined widt h is determined by the flight phase.
The numeric constraint values are displayed below the waypoint label, using the same color and format as on
the Active Flight Plan Screen. Database derived altitude restrictions are shown in white. Any altitude constraint
that has been designated for use in vertical navigation is shown in cyan. The following table shows the numeric
representation and the graphical representation of the constraints. The tip of each constraint symbol triangle is
placed at the corresponding constraint barometric altitude.
Constraint Type
Numeric Representation
AT
(Designated Altitude Constraint)
3OOOFT
AT or ABOVE
(Un-designated Altitude Constraint
derived from the database)
AT or BELOW
(Un-designated Altitude Constraint
derived from the database)
Altitude Constraint Icon
5OOOFT
3OOOFT
Table 5-12 Altitude Constraint Icons
NOTE: Certain leg types (e.g. holds, heading legs) do not support VNV descents because the lateral distance of
those legs in unknown. The VSD will not show a VNV profile for any legs that have no vertical path guidance.
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Active FPL Waypoints
VSD Mode (FPL)
Selected Alt. (10,000ft)
Altitude Constraints
Vertical Situation
Display (VSD)
Destination Runway
Absolute Terrain
Current VNAV Profile
Obstacle
VSD Mode Button
- FPL
- TRK
- Auto
VSD Mode Displayed
Button
Mode
AUTO FPL
Auto
AUTO TRK
Figure 5-65 Vertical Situation Display (VSD)
FPL Criteria
Items available on VSD
Available active FPL & aircraft
within FPL swath
(1) Active FPL available &
aircraft not within FPL swath,
or (2) Active FPL not available
Terrain/obstacles along the active flight plan route, vertical track
vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information
Terrain/obstacles along the current track, vertical track vector, and
selected altitude
Terrain/obstacles along the active flight plan route, vertical track
vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information
Active FPL not available
Only shows message 'Flight Plan Not Available'
Terrain/obstacles along the current track, vertical track vector, and
Track
TRK
NA
selected altitude
Active flight plan information consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current VNV profile, TOD/BOD, and
destination runway
Flight Plan
FPL
Active FPL available
Table 5-13 VSD Modes
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VSD MESSAGES
Under certain conditions, some messages may appear in conjunction with others.
Message
‘Loading...’
‘Flight Plan Not Available’
‘Flight Plan mode unavailable because aircraft off
course and active leg over 200 NM’
‘Aircraft Beyond Active Leg’
‘VSD Not Available’
‘VSD Data Old. Deselect and Reselect VSD’
Description
VSD is loading data due to a range change, full/half switch, or first being
selected for display.
Flight Plan mode is selected and there is not a flight plan loaded with at
least one leg.
All of the following are true:
- Flight Plan mode is selected
- The active leg is greater than 200 nm
- The aircraft is outside the swath
Flight Plan mode is selected and the aircraft’s position, as projected on
the flight plan, is past the end of the active leg.
At least one of the following is true:
- Valid terrain database not available
- GPS MSL altitude not available
- Current barometric altitude not available
- Neither current track nor current heading available
- GPS position not available
- Map range setting is less than 1 nm
VSD data has failed to update for 2 seconds or more.
Table 5-14 VSD System Messages
Flight Phase
Approach, Departure
Terminal
En Route, Oceanic
Width of Swath
0.6 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
Table 5-15 Swath Width
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Enabling the Vertical Situation Display:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable the Vertical Situation Display.
5) Press the VSD Mode softkey to choose between Auto, FPL, or TRK.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the Map Opt Softkey
5) Press the Inset Softkey
6) Press the VSD Mode softkey to choose between Auto, FPL, or TRK.
Disabling the Vertical Situation Display:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey
4) Press the Off Softkey.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
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VERTICAL NAVIGATION DIRECT TO
The system allows a vertical navigation direct-to for any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV ¯ Softkey on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’
Page allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV
direct-to waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan
from current position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint.
A direct-to with altitude constraint activated by pressing the ¯ Key also provides vertical guidance, but
would bypass flight plan waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint.
A top of descent (TOD) point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the
TOD is reached. All VNV altitudes prior to the direct-to destination are removed from the active flight plan
upon successful activation of a direct-to destination that is part of the active flight plan. All VNV altitudes
following the direct-to waypoint are retained.
Activating a vertical navigation direct-to:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint.
NOTE: The selected waypoint must have a designated altitude constraint (cyan number) to be used, not
to include ‘BETWEEN’ altitude constraints. If not, the first waypoint in the flight plan with a designated
altitude constraint is selected.
3) Press the VNV ¯ Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘VNV Direct-To’, and press the ENT Key. An
‘Activate vertical Direct-to to: NNNNNFT at XXXXXX?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. Vertical guidance begins to the altitude constraint for the selected waypoint.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Removing a VNV direct-to altitude constraint:
1) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Clear Vertical Constraints’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
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5.8 PROCEDURES
The system can access the whole range of instrument procedures available. Departures (DPs), arrivals (STARs),
and non-precision and precision approaches (APRs) are stored within the navigation database and can be loaded
using any Procedures (PROC) Key.
NOTE: The charts database may contain Special Procedures. Prior to flying these procedures, pilots must
have specific FAA authorization, training, and possession of the corresponding current, and legitimatelysourced chart (approach plate, etc.). Inclusion of the Special Procedure in the charts database DOES NOT
imply specific FAA authorization to fly the procedure.
NOTE: Some airports may have published instrument approach procedures not contained within the navigation
database. These procedures may be available for preview from the charts database, but are not available for
navigation guidance. See the Additional Features Section for more information on previewing Charts.
The selected procedure for the departure or arrival airport is added to the active flight plan. No waypoints are
required to be in the active flight plan to load procedures; however, if the origin and destination airport are already
loaded, the procedure loading window defaults to the appropriate airport, saving some time selecting the correct
airport on the ‘Procedure Loading’ Page. Furthermore, only one procedure for each type of procedure (DP, STAR,
APPR) can be loaded at a time in a flight plan.
The system adds terminal procedures to the flight plan based on leg types coded within that procedure in the
navigation database. If the terminal procedure in the flight plan contains an identifier like ‘6368ft’, that indicates
a leg that terminates when the specified altitude (6368 feet) has been exceeded. A heading leg in the flight plan
displays ‘hdg’ preceding the DTK (e.g. ‘hdg 008°’). A flight plan leg requiring the pilot to manually initiate
sequencing to the next leg displays ‘MANSEQ’ as the identifier.
Heading Leg Terminating at the
Specified Altitude
Manually Sequenced Heading Leg
Figure 5-66 Procedure Leg Identifiers
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Viewing available procedures at an airport:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (first page in the ‘WPT’ Page Group):
Press the DP Softkey. The ‘WPT - Departure Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed
on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page.
Or.
Press the STAR Softkey. The ‘WPT - Arrival Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on
the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page.
Or.
Press the APR Softkey. The ‘WPT - Approach Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed
on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor. To select another airport, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired procedure. The procedure is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through the available procedures. Press the ENT Key to select the procedure.
The cursor moves to the next box (runway or transition). The procedure is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs, as required, to highlight a runway or transition. Press the ENT Key to select the runway
or transition. The cursor moves to the next box. The procedure is previewed on the map.
6) Repeat Step 5, until desired information has been viewed for the chosen procedure.
7) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor.
DEPARTURES
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can be
loaded at a time in a flight plan. If a departure is loaded when another departure is already in the active flight
plan, the new departure replaces the previous departure. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
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Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Departure Airport
Departure Preview
Departure Choices
Figure 5-67 Departure Selection
Selected Departure
Loaded Departure
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-68 Departure Loading
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Loading a departure into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Departure Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select a departure from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure.
Loading a departure into the active flight plan from the ‘WPT - Departure Information’ Page:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (first page in the ‘WPT’ Page Group), press the DP Softkey. The ‘WPT Departure Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the ‘WPT - Airport information’ Page.
2) To select another airport, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Select a different departure, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on the map.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The
cursor moves to the ‘Runway’ Box. The departure is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the ‘Transition’ Box (only if there are available transitions). The departure is previewed on the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the ‘Sequence’ Box. The departure is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Departure’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure into the active flight plan.
Loading a departure procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD DP Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Departure”, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC
- Departure Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Select a departure. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a runway served by the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition for the selected departure. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected departure procedure.
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Removing a departure procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Push the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the departure header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Removing a departure from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Highlight and remove the departure:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the departure.
b) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove
Departure’.
b) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
7) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ARRIVALS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available. Only one arrival can
be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an arrival is loaded when another arrival is already in the active flight
plan, the new arrival replaces the previous arrival. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the transition
waypoints, and a runway.
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Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Destination Airport
Arrival Preview
Arrival and Transition
Choices
Figure 5-69 Arrival Selection
Selected Arrival
Loaded Arrival
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-70 Arrival Loading
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Loading an arrival into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Arrival Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select an arrival from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan from the ‘WPT - Arrival Information’ Page:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (first page in the ‘WPT’ Page Group), press the STAR Softkey.
The ‘WPT - Arrival Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page.
2) To select another airport, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Select a different arrival, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the arrival. The arrival is previewed on the map.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor
moves to the ‘Transition’ Box (only if there are available transitions). The arrival is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the ‘Runway’ Box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The
cursor moves to the ‘Sequence’ Box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the Arrival Information ‘Page Menu’ Window.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Arrival’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure into the active flight plan.
Loading an arrival procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD STAR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Arrival”, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC
- Arrival Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Select an arrival. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a transition for the selected arrival. Press the ENT Key.
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6) Select a runway served by the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected arrival procedure.
Removing an arrival from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Push the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the arrival header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT
Key.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Removing an arrival from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Highlight and remove the arrival:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the arrival.
b) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove
Arrival’.
b) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
7) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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APPROACHES
INSTRUMENT APPROACH
NOTE: If certain GPS parameters (SBAS, RAIM, etc.) are not available, some published approach procedures
for the desired airport may not be displayed in the list of available approaches.
An Approach Procedure (APR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available, and provides guidance
for non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach procedures.
Only one approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an approach is loaded when another approach
is already in the active flight plan, the new approach replaces the previous approach. The route is defined by
selection of an approach and the transition waypoints.
When selecting an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure name indicates the procedure
can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures do not have this designation, meaning the GPS
receiver can be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. If the GPS receiver cannot be used for
primary guidance, the appropriate navigation receiver must be used for the selected approach (e.g., VOR or
ILS). The final course segment of ILS approaches, for example, must be flown by tuning the NAV receiver to
the proper frequency and selecting that NAV receiver on the CDI.
The SBAS GPS allows for flying LNAV, LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service levels
according to the published chart. LNAV+V is an LNAV with advisory vertical guidance provided for assistance
in maintaining a constant vertical glidepath similar to an ILS glideslope on approach. This guidance is
displayed on the system PFD in the same location as the ILS glideslope using a magenta diamond. In all cases
where LNAV+V is indicated by the system during an approach, LNAV minima are used.
NOTE: The system requires 30 seconds of valid SBAS integrity monitoring prior to selecting an approach that
SBAS vertical guidance.
NOTE: Approach downgrade may cause the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode (PIT).
The active approach service level is annunciated on the HSI as shown in the following table:
LNAV
LNAV+V
L/VNAV
LP
LP+V
LPV
GPS approach using LNAV MDA. Available only if GPS available.
If GPS unavailable, abort.
GPS approach using LNAV MDA with advisory vertical guidance.
Available only if SBAS or Baro/VNAV available, otherwise
downgrades to LNAV. If GPS unavailable, abort.
GPS approach using LNAV/VNAV DA. Available with Baro/VNAV
or SBAS availability. If both SBAS and Baro/VNAV unavailable,
downgrades to published LNAV MDA.
GPS approach using LP MDA. Available only if SBAS available. If
SBAS unavailable, downgrades to published LNAV MDA.
Approach Service Level
- LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV
GPS approach using LP MDA with advisory vertical guidance.
Available only if SBAS available. If SBAS unavailable,
downgrades to published LNAV MDA.
GPS approach using LPV DA. Available only if SBAS available. If
SBAS unavailable, downgrades to L/VNAV published DA using
Baro/VNAV. If SBAS loss occurs after the FAF, downgrades to
published LNAV MDA.
Table 5-16 Approach Service Levels
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APPROACH SELECTION AND REMOVAL
Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either ‘Load’ or ‘Activate’ is given. ‘Load’ adds the approach
to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This allows continued
navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps the procedure available for
quick activation when needed. ‘Activate’ also adds the procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately
begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in the approach.
In many cases, it may be easiest to load the full approach while still some distance away, enroute to the
destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, use the steps below to select ‘Activate Vector-To- Final’ — which
makes the inbound course to the FAF waypoint active.
NOTE: When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘- NOT APPROVED
FOR GPS -’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV
receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
NOTE: When there is no arrival procedure in the flight plan, loading an approach after a destination airport
has already been entered will result in a duplicate destination airport waypoint being added to the end of
the enroute segment.
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Approach Preview
Figure 5-71 Approach Selection
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Selected Approach
Loaded Approach
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys LOAD or ACTIVATE? Annunciation
Figure 5-72 Approach Loading
Loading an approach into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page is displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the ‘Channel’ Field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
4) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
5) Minimums
a) To set approach minimums, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘TEMP COMP’, or ‘RAD ALT’ and
press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, select ‘OFF’ and press the ENT Key.
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6) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘Activate’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘- NOT APPROVED FOR GPS GPS guidance is for monitoring only. Load approach?’ is displayed. With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
When a visual approach is selected, the message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is
displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Loading an approach into the active flight plan from the ‘NRST - Nearest Airport’ Page:
1) Select the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired nearest airport. The airport is
previewed on the map.
3) Press the APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Approach Window’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired approach.
5) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Load Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The
‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page is displayed with the ‘Transition’ Field highlighted.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired transition, and press the ENT Key.
7) Minimums
a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘TEMP COMP’, or ‘RAD ALT’ and press the
ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key. The ‘Load?’ field is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘Activate?’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘- NOT APPROVED FOR GPS GPS guidance is for monitoring only. Load approach?’ is displayed. With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
When a visual approach is selected, the message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is
displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Loading an approach procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Approach”, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC
- Approach Loading’ Page is displayed.
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4) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the Approach ‘Channel’ Field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
5) Select a transition for the selected approach. Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the selected approach procedure.
Activating a previously loaded approach:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed with ‘Activate Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
Activating a previously loaded approach with vectors to final:
1) Press the PROC Key to display the ‘Procedures’ Window.
2) Highlight ‘Activate Vector-to-Final’ and press the ENT Key.
Loading and activating an approach using the MENU Key:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Select Approach’ and press the ENT Key.
3) From the ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page, press the MENU Key for the MFD. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is
displayed with ‘Load & Activate Approach’ highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key.
When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘- NOT APPROVED FOR GPS GPS guidance is for monitoring only. Load approach?’ is displayed. With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
When a visual approach is selected, the message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is
displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Removing an approach from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn to highlight the approach header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
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4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor.
Removing an approach from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Highlight and remove the approach:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the approach.
b) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
b) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
7) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
MISSED APPROACH
The system is capable of providing guidance for the approach as well as the missed approach. Once the
missed approach is activated, MAPR will be displayed on the HSI next to the CDI. If the missed approach is
activated prior to the Missed Approach Point (MAP), waypoint sequencing will continue along the approach
to the missed approach. If the missed approach is not activated prior to the MAP, the system will enter SUSP
Mode once the aircraft crosses the MAP until the missed approach is activated or SUSP Mode is disabled. See
the Flight Instruments, Course Deviation Indicator section for more information on SUSP Mode.
See the Using Map Displays, Map Symbols discussion previously given in this section for information on
displaying the missed approach preview on the navigation map.
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6600ft’) is
not part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along
the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded.
This altitude is provided by the navigation database, and may be below, equal to, or above the published
minimums for this approach. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,600 feet)
after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of
6,600 feet is reached. After reaching 6,600 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case
ADANE). If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established
to the published fix (ADANE) to begin the missed approach procedure.
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Course to Altitude Leg
Figure 5-73 Course to Altitude
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed Approach
Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if
the aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to Altitude leg
when the missed approach procedure is activated.
Activating a missed approach in the active flight plan:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Missed Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key or the Go-Around Button. Prior to the MAP, the aircraft will continue to laterally navigate to
the MAP before executing the missed approach. Otherwise, the aircraft automatically sequences to the MAHP.
Or:
Fly past the MAP, and press the SUSP Softkey on the PFD.
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VISUAL APPROACH
The system provides a visual approach feature. Unlike instrument approaches, visual approaches are not
defined in the navigation database and do not follow a precise prescribed path. Instead, the system calculates
the lateral and vertical path for the chosen runway and creates visual approach waypoints based on runway
position and course as specified in the navigation database.
Each visual approach will have two transitions, the straight in transition (STRAIGHT) and the Vectors-toFinal transition (VECTORS). The visual approach waypoints (fixes) consist of the initial fix (STRGHT), the
final approach fix (FINAL), and the missed approach point (RWxx). A 3 degree glide path is calculated from
the missed approach point up to each waypoint along the extended straight-in path.
For visual approaches, the pilot is responsible for avoiding terrain, obstacles and traffic. Therefore, when
a visual approach is selected, the message “Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches” is
displayed on the approach selection page and must be acknowledged before the visual approach is loaded
into the flight plan.
Figure 5-74 Loading Visual Approach
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TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED ALTITUDE
If desired, the system can compensate the loaded approach altitudes based on a manual temperature input
at the destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C, the system increases
the approach altitudes accordingly, and the snowflake icon ( ) is displayed next to those altitudes.
Manually inputting the temperature for compensation is explained in the following procedures. However
the system already automatically offsets the lateral position of the baro-VNAV bottom of descent without
manual input. Once calculated, the VNAV function seamlessly applies the lateral adjustment to the baroVNAV descent path so that a smooth transition onto the approach vertical path occurs. For example, on a day
with temperatures colder than ISA, the baro-VNAV path will typically be below the actual approach descent
path. The system will automatically adjust for this by calculating a lateral distance prior to the FAF which is
applied to ensure the baro-VNAV path intersects the approach descent path.
NOTE: Manually specifying temperature compensation for an approach will disrupt the system from
automatically creating a lateral offset of the VNAV function in use.
NOTE: Initiating the VNAV direct-to function or manually specifying an FPA at the FAF will disrupt the VNAV
function from creating a lateral offset. Thus, temperature is not compensated for and the baro-VNAV path
and may not intersect the approach descent path.
Manually setting temperature compensation for approach loaded altitudes:
1) From the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, press the MENU Key. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window is displayed with the temperature highlighted.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to change the ‘Temperature at <airport>’ Field. The compensated altitude is computed
as the temperature is selected.
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered in the ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window on the
MFD, or in the ‘References’ Window on the PFD. There is only one compensation temperature for the system,
therefore, changing the temperature will affect both the loaded approach altitudes and the minimums.
Refer to the Flight Instruments Section for information about applying temperature compensation to the
MDA/DH.
5) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate Compensation?’ is highlighted.
6) Press the ENT Key. The compensated altitudes for the approach are shown in the flight plan.
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Cancelling temperature compensation setting for approach loaded altitudes:
1) From the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, press the MENU Key. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘Cancel Compensation?’ is highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key.
NOTE: Activating/cancelling temperature compensation for the loaded approach altitudes does not select/
deselect temperature compensated minimums (MDA/DH), nor does selecting/deselecting temperature
compensated minimums activate/cancel temperature compensated approach altitudes.
Selected
Temperature
FAF Altitude
Compensated
Altitude
Temperature
Compensation
Selected
Figure 5-75 Manually Setting Temperature Compensation
Uncompensated
Altitudes
Compensated
Altitudes
Figure 5-76 Temperature Compensation set for approach loaded altitudes
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5.9 WEIGHT PLANNING
NOTE: All weight planning page data fields display data rounded to the nearest 10 pounds or 5 kilograms.
A/C Payload Calculator
Fuel Weight Calculator
Basic Empty Weight Entry Pilot and Stores Weight Entry Basic Operating Weight Calc Passenger(s) Weight Entry Cargo Weight Entry Zero Fuel Weight Calculation -
- Zero Fuel Weight Calculation
- Fuel on Board Entry
- Aircraft Weight Calculation
- Estimated Landing Weight Calc
- Estimated Landing Fuel Calc
- Fuel Reserve Entry
- Excess Fuel Calculation
Fuel on Board Synch Softkey
Empty Weight Softkey
(selects Basic Empty Weight)
Figure 5-77 Weight Planning Page
- Places measured fuel amount into
the ‘Fuel on Board’ Field
Entering basic empty weight:
1) Select the Empty WT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Basic Empty Weight’, and press the ENT
Key to select the ‘Basic Empty Weight’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the basic empty weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering a pilot and stores weight:
1) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Pilot & Stores’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the pilot and stores weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The basic operating weight is calculated by adding the basic empty weight and the pilot and stores weight.
Entering the number of passengers:
1) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Passengers #’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the number of passengers.
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3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering the average passenger weight:
1) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the passenger weight (‘at’) field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the average passenger weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The total weight of passengers is calculated by multiplying the number of passengers by the average passenger
weight.
Entering the cargo weight:
1) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Cargo’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the cargo weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The ‘Zero Fuel Weight’ is calculated by adding the basic empty, pilot and stores, passenger, and cargo weights.
Entering a fuel on board weight:
1) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Fuel on Board’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel on board.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering fuel reserve:
1) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Fuel Reserves’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel reserves amount.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor
Synchronizing the fuel on board with the actual measured fuel on board:
Select the FOB Sync Softkey on the ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page; or press the MENU and highlight ‘Synchronize
Fuel on Board’, and press the ENT Key. The actual measured fuel on board is displayed in the ‘FUEL ON BOARD’
Field.
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When the aircraft is in the air and a destination waypoint has been entered, the fuel calculations can be
completed.
• Estimated landing weight = zero fuel weight + estimated landing fuel weight.
• Estimated landing fuel weight = fuel on board weight - (fuel flow x ETE)
• Excess fuel weight = estimated landing fuel weight - fuel reserves weight
If the aircraft is on the ground or a destination waypoint has not been entered, the following fields display
invalid values consisting of six dashes:
• Estimated landing weight
• Estimated landing fuel weight
• Excess fuel weight
WEIGHT CAUTION AND WARNING CONDITIONS
If the zero fuel weight is greater than the maximum allowable zero fuel weight, then the zero fuel weight is
displayed in amber.
If the aircraft weight is greater than the maximum allowable takeoff weight, then the aircraft weight is displayed
in amber.
If the estimated landing weight is greater than the maximum allowable landing weight, then the estimated
landing weight is displayed in amber.
If the estimated landing fuel weight is positive, but less than or equal to the fuel reserves weight, the following
values are displayed in amber:
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
If the estimated landing fuel weight is zero or negative, then the following values are displayed in amber:
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
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5.10 TRIP PLANNING
The system allows the pilot to view trip planning information, fuel information, and other information for
a specified flight plan or flight plan leg based on automatic data, or based on manually entered data. Weight
planning is also available, based on manually entered fuel data and the active flight plan (to estimate remaining
fuel).
TRIP PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the statistics is done on the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’
Page located in the Aux Page Group.
Selected Flight Plan Segment
- FPL Number/Cumulative Legs (CUM or REM) or Leg Number (NN)
- Waypoints Defining Selected Flight Plan/Flight Plan Leg
Trip Planning Page Mode
- Automatic/Manual
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan/
Flight Plan Leg
Trip Input Data (sensor/pilot)
- Departure Time (local)
- Ground Speed
- Fuel Flow
- Fuel On Board Aircraft
- Calibrated Airspeed
- Indicated Altitude
- Barometric Pressure
- Total Air Temperature
Trip Statistics
Desired Track Distance Est. Time Enroute Est. Time of Arrival Enroute Safe Altitude Sunrise Time (local) Sunset Time (local) -
Other Statistics
- Density Altitude
- True Airspeed (TAS)
Fuel Statistics
Efficiency Total Endurance Remaining Fuel Remaining Endurance Fuel Required Total Range -
Softkeys
- Automatic/Manual Page Mode
- Flight Plan/Waypoint Mode
Figure 5-78 Trip Planning Page
The trip planning inputs are based on sensor inputs (automatic page mode) or on pilot inputs (manual page
mode). Some additional explanation of the sources for some of the inputs is as follows:
• Departure Time - This defaults to the current time in automatic page mode. The computations are from the
aircraft present position, so the aircraft is always just departing.
• Calibrated Airspeed - The primary source is from the air data system, and the secondary source of information
is GPS ground speed.
• Indicated Altitude - The primary source is the barometric altitude, and the secondary source of information
is GPS altitude.
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TRIP STATISTICS
The trip statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and the entire flight plan (CUM) selected,
the waypoints are the starting and ending waypoints of the selected flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
waypoints are the endpoints of the selected leg.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and the remaining flight plan (REM)
selected, the ‘from’ waypoint is the present position of the aircraft and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the
active flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
‘from’ waypoint is the current aircraft position and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the selected leg.
In waypoint (WPTs) mode these are manually selected waypoints (if there is an active flight plan, these
default to the endpoints of the active leg).
Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has already
been flown.
• Desired Track - Desired Track is shown as nnn° and is the desired track between the selected waypoints.
It is dashed unless only a single leg is selected.
• Distance - The distance is shown in tenths of units up to 99.9, and in whole units up to 9999.
• Estimated time enroute (ETE) - ETE is shown as hours+minutes until less than an hour, then it is shown
as minutes:seconds.
• Estimated time of arrival (ETA) - ETA is shown as hours:minutes and is the local time at the destination.
- If in waypoint mode then the ETA is the ETE added to the departure time.
- If a flight plan other than the active flight plan is selected it shows the ETA by adding to the departure
time all of the ETEs of the legs up to and including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected,
then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
- If the active flight plan is selected, the ETA reflects the current position of the aircraft and the current
leg being flown. The ETA is calculated by adding to the current time the ETEs of the current leg up to
and including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the
last leg of the flight plan was selected.
• Enroute safe altitude (ESA) - The ESA is shown as nnnnnFT
• Destination sunrise and sunset times (SUNRISE, SUNSET) - These times are shown as hours:minutes of
the time at the destination.
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FUEL STATISTICS
The fuel statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs. Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has
already been flown.
• Fuel efficiency (Efficiency) - This value is calculated by dividing the current ground speed by the current
fuel flow.
• Time of fuel endurance (Total Endurance) - This time is shown as hours+minutes. This value is obtained
by dividing the amount of fuel on board by the current fuel flow.
• Fuel on board upon reaching end of selected leg (Remaining Fuel) - This value is calculated by taking the
amount of fuel onboard and subtracting the fuel required to reach the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel endurance remaining at end of selected leg (Remaining Endurance) - This value is calculated by taking
the time of fuel endurance and subtracting the estimated time enroute to the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel required for trip (Fuel Required) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time to go by the fuel
flow.
• Total range at entered fuel flow (Total Range) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time of fuel
endurance by the ground speed.
OTHER STATISTICS
These statistics are calculated based on the system sensor inputs or the manual trip planning inputs.
• Density Altitude
• True Airspeed
The pilot may select Automatic or Manual page mode, and flight plan (FPL) or waypoint (WPTs) mode. In
automatic page mode, only the FPL, LEG, or waypoint IDs are editable (based on FPL/WPTs selection).
Selected Leg(s)
Selected Flight Plan NN -
00 is Active FPL
01-99 are Stored FPLs
Starting and Ending Waypoint of
Selected Flight Plan Segment
Stored Flight Plan
- CUM: Beginning to End of FPL
- NN: Beginning to End of Selected Leg
Active Flight Plan
- REM: Pres. Pos. to End of FPL
- NN: Pres. Pos. to End of Selected Leg
Figure 5-79 Trip Planning Page - Flight Plan Mode
Selected Flight Plan
Selected Leg(s)
Not Available
Not Available
Selected Starting and Ending Waypoints
Figure 5-80 Trip Planning Page - Waypoint Mode
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Selecting automatic or manual page mode:
Select the Auto Softkey or the Manual Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Auto Mode’ or ‘Manual
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting flight plan or waypoint mode:
Select the FPL Softkey or the WPTs Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Flight Plan Mode’ or ‘Waypoints
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting a flight plan and leg for trip statistics:
1) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the flight plan number field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired flight plan number.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CUM’ or ‘REM’. The statistics for each leg can be viewed by turning the
small FMS Knob to select the desired leg. The Inset Map also displays the selected data.
Selecting waypoints for waypoint mode:
1) Select the WPTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the ENT Key. The
cursor is positioned in the waypoint field directly below the FPL field.
2) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint (or select from the Page Menu ‘Set WPT to Present Position’
if that is what is desired), and press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the second waypoint field.
3) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint, and press the ENT Key. The statistics for the selected leg
are displayed.
In manual page mode, the other eight trip input data fields must be entered by the pilot, in addition to flight
plan and leg selection.
Entering manual data for trip statistics calculations:
1) Select the Manual Softkey or select ‘Manual Mode’ from the Page Menu, and press the ENT Key. The cursor
may now be positioned in any field in the top right two boxes.
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to move the cursor onto the ‘Departure Time’ Field and enter the desired value. Press the
ENT Key. The statistics are calculated using the new value and the cursor moves to the next entry field. Repeat
until all desired values have been entered.
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5.11 ABNORMAL OPERATION
NOTE: The Inset Map is removed from the PFD any time aircraft pitch is greater than +30° or less than –20°,
or when a 65° bank angle is reached.
This section discusses the Dead Reckoning mode of operation and the subsequent indications.
NOTE: Dead Reckoning Mode only functions in Enroute (ENR) or Oceanic (OCN) phase of flight. In all other
phases, an invalid GPS solution produces a “NO GPS POSITION” annunciation on the map and the system
stops using GPS.
While in Enroute or Oceanic phase of flight, if the system detects an invalid GPS solution or is unable to
calculate a GPS position, the system automatically reverts to Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode. In DR Mode, the
system uses its last-known position combined with continuously updated airspeed and heading data (when
available) to calculate and display the aircraft’s current estimated position.
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the system in DR Mode may become increasingly
unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. If while in DR Mode airspeed and/or heading data
is also lost or not available, the DR function may not be capable of accurately tracking estimated position and,
consequently, the system may display a path that is different than the actual movement of the aircraft. Estimated
position information displayed by the system through DR while there is no heading and/or airspeed data available
should not be used for navigation.
DR Mode is inherently less accurate than the standard GPS/SBAS Mode due to the lack of satellite measurements
needed to determine a position. Changes in wind speed and/or wind direction compound the relative inaccuracy
of DR Mode. Because of this degraded accuracy, other navigation equipment must be relied upon for position
awareness until GPS-derived position data is restored.
DR Mode is indicated on the system by the appearance of the letters ‘DR’ superimposed in amber over the ‘own
aircraft’ symbol on the navigation map. In addition, ‘DR’ is prominently displayed in amber on the HSI slightly
above and to the right of t he aircraft symbol on the CDI. The CDI deviation bar remains, but is removed from the
display after 20 minutes in DR Mode. The autopilot will remain coupled in DR mode as long as the deviation info
is available (20 min.). Lastly, but at the same time, a ‘GPS NAV LOST’ alert message appears on the PFD. Normal
navigation using GPS/SBAS source data resumes automatically once a valid GPS solution is restored.
As a result of operating in DR Mode, all GPS-derived data is computed based upon an estimated position and
is displayed as amber text on the display to denote degraded navigation source information as shown in the
following figure. If the VSD Inset is selected for the MFD, ‘VSD Not Available’ will be displayed.
NOTE: GPS derived information will remain displayed in magenta (not amber) on the Flight Plan Progress
inset when operating in Dead Reckoning mode. However, this information shall still be considered as
degraded navigation source information.
While the system is in DR Mode, some terrain functions are not available. Additionally, the accuracy of all
nearest information (airports, airspaces, and waypoints) is questionable. Finally, airspace alerts continue to
function, but with degraded accuracy.
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Distance &
Bearing
Current
Track
Indicator
Course Deviation
Indicator
Wind Data
GPS Navigation
Lost Message
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Bearing
Pointer/
Distance
Wind Data
Nav Data Bar
All data except
Active Leg, TAS,
and DTK are in
amber
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Subdued Aircraft
Symbol
Figure 5-81 Dead Reckoning Mode - GPS Derived Data Shown in Amber
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Hazard avoidance features available for the G1000 NXi are designed to aid situational awareness and provide
advisory information with regard to potential hazards to flight safety associated with weather, terrain, and air
traffic.
Weather
• GDL 69/69A SXM SiriusXM Weather (Subscription Optional)
• GSR 56 Garmin Connext Weather (Optional)
• Flight Information Services-Broadcast (Optional)
• L-3 Stormscope® WX-500 Lightning Detection System (Optional)
• GWX 70 Airborne Color Weather Radar (Optional)
Terrain Avoidance
• Terrain Proximity
• Terrain-SVT (included with Garmin SVT option)
• Terrain Awareness and Warning System Class-B (TAWS-B) (Optional)
Traffic
• Traffic Information Service (TIS)
• Garmin GTS 820 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) (Optional)
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6.1 DATA LINK WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be older than the indicated weather product age.
The Data Link Weather feature enables the system to receive weather information from a variety of weather
sources, depending on the equipment installed in the aircraft. These sources may include SiriusXM Weather,
Garmin Connext Weather, and Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) Weather. For each source, a groundbased system processes the weather information collected from a network of sensors and weather data providers.
The SiriusXM Weather service, available with the optional Garmin GDL 69A or GDL 69 SXM SiriusXM Datalink
Receiver and an active service subscription, updates its weather data periodically and automatically, and transmits
this information to the aircraft’s receiver via satellite on the S-Band frequency. This service provides continuous
reception capabilities at any altitude throughout North America.
The FIS-B Weather service, available when equipped with a capable transponder or data link receiver which
can receive 978 MHz Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) data, delivers subscription-free weather information
periodically and automatically to the aircraft. FIS-B uses a network of FAA-operated Ground-Based Transceivers
(GBTs) to transmit the information to the aircraft’s receiver. Reception is limited to line-of-sight, and is available
below 24,000 feet MSL in the United States. FIS-B broadcasts provide weather data in a repeating cycle which
may take approximately ten minutes to transmit all available weather data. Therefore, not all weather data may
be present immediately upon initial FIS-B signal acquisition. FIS-B is a component of the Automatic Dependent
Surveillance (ADS-B) system, which offers both weather and traffic data; refer to the ADS-B Traffic discussion later
in this section for a more detailed discussion of the ADS-B system and its capabilities.
The Garmin Connext Weather service, available when equipped with the optional Garmin GSR 56 Iridium
Transceiver and an active service subscription, provides data link weather information to the aircraft after the pilot
defines a geographic area and subsequently selects a manual or automatically recurring Connext Data Request.
The transceiver then contacts the Garmin Connext Weather service using the Iridium Satellite telephone system
and retrieves the weather data for the specified area. The Garmin Connext Weather service offers worldwide
weather coverage, but the availability of individual weather products, such as radar precipitation, varies by region.
NOTE: To check the availability of Garmin Connext weather products offered in a particular region, visit
http://sites.garmin.com/connext.
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ACTIVATING DATA LINK WEATHER SERVICES
NOTE: Service activation is not applicable to the FIS-B Weather service.
ACTIVATING THE SIRIUSXM WEATHER SERVICE
Before SiriusXM Weather can be used, the service must be activated by providing SiriusXM’s customer
service the coded ID(s) unique to the installed data link receiver. The Data Radio ID must be provided
to activate the weather service. An Audio Radio ID, if present, enables the receiver to provide SiriusXM
Radio entertainment. If the GDL 69A SXM receiver is installed, these IDs may be identical. To view this
information, refer to the following locations:
• The ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page on the MFD.
• The SiriusXM Activation Instructions included with the Data Link Receiver.
• The label on the back of the Data Link Receiver.
SiriusXM uses the coded IDs to send an activation signal that allows the system to display weather data and/
or provide audio entertainment programming through the data link receiver.
Establishing an account for SiriusXM services:
1) Select the XM Radio Page in the Aux Page Group.
2) If necessary, press the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
3) Note the Data Radio ID (for SiriusXM Weather data) and/or the Audio Radio ID (for SiriusXM Satellite Radio).
4) Contact SiriusXM customer service through the phone number listed on its website, www.siriusxm.com.
5) Provide SiriusXM customer service the Data Radio ID and/or Audio Radio ID, in addition to payment information,
and the desired weather product subscription package.
After SiriusXM has been contacted, it may take approximately 15 minutes until the activation occurs.
Verifying the SiriusXM Weather service activation:
1) Once a SiriusXM Weather account has been established, select the ‘XM Radio’ Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) If necessary, press the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
3) View the list of supported Weather Products. An empty box appears next to an unavailable weather product; a
green filled box appears next to an available weather product. During activation, it may take several minutes
for weather products in the selected subscription package to become available.
NOTE: Not all weather products offered by SiriusXM are supported for display on this system. This pilot’s
guide only discusses supported weather products.
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Audio Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Satellite Radio)
Data Radio ID (for
SiriusXM Weather)
Weather
Products
(Available
Products for
Service Class
Indicated in
Green)
Select INFO
Softkey to
Display XM
Information Page
Figure 6-1 XM Information Page
ACTIVATING GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
The Garmin Connext weather service requires an active Iridium satellite telephone and
weather data subscription. Registration begins by first obtaining the serial number(s) for the
installed Iridium Satellite Transceiver (GSR 1), and the System ID. Then go to the website
www.flygarmin.com and follow the instructions for establishing an account for Garmin Connext data services.
Note additional information about the airframe may be required. After an account has been established,
Garmin provides an access code that must be entered on the system and successfully transmitted to the
Garmin Connext service via the Iridium satellite network.
Obtaining the LRU serial numbers and System ID:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page.
2) Press the LRU Softkey.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll the cursor until ‘GSR 1’ is visible in the ‘LRU Information’ window.
4) Note the serial number displayed for ‘GSR 1’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
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System ID Number
Iridium Transceiver
Serial Number
Figure 6-2 Identification Needed for Iridium Registration
When an account is established, Garmin provides an Access Code which must be entered on the system in
order to complete the registration process.
Registering the system to receive Garmin Connext Weather:
1) Go to www.flygarmin.com. Locate the information for subscribing to Garmin Connext Satellite Services on the
website.
2) Choose a desired service which includes weather data and enter the requested information about the aircraft.
3) Note the Access Code provided during the registration process and any additional instructions received.
4) With the aircraft outside and having a clear view of the sky, turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the
Map page group.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page. If another data link weather
source such as ‘XM’ or ‘FIS-B’ is displayed in the page title, it will be necessary to change the data link weather
source to CNXT before continuing. Refer to ‘Viewing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page’ procedure to change
the data link source to prior to registration.
6) If the system displays the Connext Registration Window, proceed to step 8. Otherwise, press the MENU Key.
The page menu window is now displayed.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Register With Connext’ in the menu list.
8) Press the ENT Key. The Connext Registration Window appears as shown in Figure 6-3.
9) Enter the access code provided by Garmin in the ‘Access Code’ field.
10) Press the ENT Key. ‘Register’ is highlighted.
11) Press the ENT Key. The system contacts Garmin through the Iridium network. System registration is complete
when the Current Registration Window displays the correct information for the Airframe, Tail Number, Airframe
Serial Number, and Iridium Serial Number.
12) When finished, push the FMS Knob to remove the Connext Registration Window.
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Figure 6-3 Enter Access Code
WEATHER PRODUCT AGE
Unlike real-time weather information collected directly from weather sensors on-board an aircraft, such as an
airborne lightning detection system, data link weather by contrast relies on service providers to collect, process,
and transmit weather information to the aircraft. This information can come from a variety of sources such as
government agencies. Due to the time it takes to collect, process, and distribute data link weather information,
it is imperative for pilots to understand that data link weather information is not real-time information and may
not accurately depict the current conditions.
For each data link weather product which can be displayed as a map overlay, such as METAR flags, the system
can also show a weather product age. This age represents the elapsed time, in minutes, since the weather service
provider compiled the weather product and the current time. It does not represent the age of the information
contained within the weather product itself. For example, a single mosaic of radar precipitation is comprised
data from multiple radar sites providing data at differing scan rates or intervals. The weather service provider
periodically compiles this data to create a single composite image, and assigns one time to this image which
becomes the basis of the product age. The service provider then makes this weather product available for data
link transmission at the next scheduled update time. The actual age of the weather data contained within the
mosaic is therefore older than its weather product age and should never be considered current.
SiriusXM and FIS-B weather products are broadcast automatically on a repeating cycle without pilot
intervention. The Garmin Connext weather service requires the pilot to select a manual or automatic (recurring)
weather data request in order to receive weather data updates.
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Each data link weather product age has an expiration time. The weather product age is shown in white if it
is less than half of this expiration time, otherwise it is shown in amber until reaching its expiration time. After
a weather product has expired, the system removes the expired weather product from the displays, and shows
white dashes instead of the age. If the data link receiver has not yet received a weather product ‘N/A’ appears
instead of the age to show the product is currently not available for display. This may occur, for example, after
powering on the system but before the data link receiver has received a complete weather data transmission. It
could also indicate a possible outage of a weather product.
The weather product age is shown automatically for weather products displayed on MFD maps. For PFD
maps, the pilot can manually enable/disable the age information.
Enabling/disabling the weather product age for PFD Maps:
1) With the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map displayed, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the WX LGND to show/remove the weather product age information for PFD maps.
Tables 6-1 and 6-2 show the weather product symbols, the and expiration times for SiriusXM Weather and
FIS-B Weather, respectively. The FIS-B broadcast rate represents the interval at which the FIS-B Weather service
transmits new signals that may or may not contain updated weather product information. It does not represent
the rate at which the weather information is updated or when the Data Link Receiver receives new data. The
service provider and its weather data suppliers define and control the data update intervals, which are subject
to change.
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SiriusXM Weather Product
Symbol
NEXRAD
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
30
Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
60
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
30
SiriusXM Lightning (LTNG)
30
Cell Movement
30
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
METARs
90
City Forecast
90
Surface Analysis
60
Freezing Levels
120
Winds Aloft
90
County Warnings
60
Cyclone Warnings
60
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD)
90
Pilot Weather Report (PIREP)
90
Air Report(AIREP)
90
Turbulence
180
Radar Coverage Not Available
Temporary Flight Restriction
(TFR)
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
(TAF)
No product image
No product image
30
60
No product image
60
Table 6-1 SiriusXM Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
NEXRAD Composite (US)
30
15
NEXRAD Composite (Regional)
30
2.5
METARs
90
5
Pilot Weather Report (PIREP)
90
10
Winds Aloft
90
10
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
5
FIS-B Weather Product
Symbol
No Radar Coverage
no product image
30
2.5
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
(TAF)
no product image
60
10
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
no product image
10
Table 6-2 FIS-B Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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The following table shows the Garmin Connext Weather product symbols, the expiration times and the
refresh rates. The refresh rate represents the interval at which Garmin Connext weather service makes available
the most current known weather data. It does not necessarily represent the rate at which the service receives
new data from various weather sources. The pilot chooses how often to contact the Garmin Connext weather
service in order to retrieve weather data through the Connext Data Request.
Garmin Connext Weather Product
Symbol
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Refresh Rate
(Minutes)
U.S.: 3*
Canada: 3*†
Europe: 15
Australia: 15ˆ
Radar Precipitation
30
Infrared Satellite
60
30
Datalink Lightning
30
Continuous
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
Continuous
METARs
90
Continuous
Winds Aloft
90
Continuous
Pilot Weather Report (PIREPs)
90
Continuous
Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs)
no product image
60
Continuous
Terminal Aerodrome Reports TAFs)
no product image
60
Continuous
* The composite precipitation image is updated every 3 minutes, but individual radar sites may take between 3 and
10 minutes to provide new data.
†
Canadian radar precipitation data provided by Environment Canada.
ˆ Australian radar precipitation data provided by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology.
Table 6-3 Garmin Connext Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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DISPLAYING DATA LINK WEATHER PRODUCTS
WEATHER DATA LINK PAGE
The Weather Data Link Page is the principal map page for viewing data link weather information. This page
provides the capability for displaying the most data link weather products of any map on the system. The
Weather Data Link Page also provides system-wide controls for selecting the data link weather source, if more
than one source has been installed. TThe page title indicates the selected data link weather source (e.g., “XM”,
“FIS-B” or “CNXT”).
NEXRAD
Weather
Product Icon
and Age
(U.S.)
NEXRAD Weather
Product Selected
for Display
Figure 6-4 ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Viewing the Weather Data Link Page and changing the data link weather source, if applicable:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM, CNXT, or FIS-B)’ Page. The currently
selected data link weather source appears in the page title.
3) If the page title does not contain the desired weather source, press the MENU Key.
a) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display XM Weather’, ‘Display Connext Weather’, or ‘Display FIS-B
Weather’ (choices may vary depending on the installed equipment).
b) Press the ENT Key.
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Figure 6-5 Changing the Data Link Weather Source
WEATHER DATA LINK (XM) PAGE SOFTKEYS
NOTE: Only softkeys pertaining to data link weather features are shown in the following tables.
The system presents the softkeys for the selected source on the Weather Data Link Page, and for weather
product map overlays used throughout the system. The following tables show the softkeys for the Weather
Data Link Page based on the selected weather source.
Level 1
NEXRAD
Level 2
Echo Top
CLD Top
XM LTNG
Cell MOV
SIG/AIR
METAR
Legend
More WX
Cyclone
SFC
FRZ LVL
276
Level 3
Description
Enables/disables the NEXRAD weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Echo Tops weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Cloud Tops weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Lightning weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Cell Movement weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the graphical METAR weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Displays second-level SiriusXM Weather product softkeys.
Enables/disables the Cyclone weather product overlay.
Displays third level softkey for enabling/disabling the Surface Analysis and
City Forecast weather product and selecting a forecast period.
Disables the Surface Analysis and City Forecast weather product overlay.
Displays the Surface Analysis for the current time period overlay.
Off
Current
12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, These softkeys display a Surface Analysis and City Forecast overlay for the
selected future time period.
48 HR
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
Legend
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Enables/disables the Freezing Level weather product overlay.
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Level 1
Level 2
Wind
ICNG
Level 3
Description
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/disabling the Winds Aloft weather
product and selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
PREV
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product overlay.
Off
Softkeys available for Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather product for the surface (SFC)
selecting winds from through 15,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of
the Surface to 42,0000 altitude.
feet
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
Next
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
Legend
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Displays altitude softkeys for the Icing weather product overlay.
Shows the previous level of Icing altitude softkeys.
PREV
Disables the Icing weather product.
Off
Softkeys available for
selecting winds from
the Icing altitude from
to 1,000 to 30,000 feet
Next
Legend
TURB
PREV
Off
Softkeys available for
selecting Turbulence
altitude from 21,000
feet to 45,000 feet
Next
Legend
Back
AIREPS
PIREPS
County
Back
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Enables/disables the Icing weather product overlay from 1,000 feet to
30,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of altitude.
Shows the next level of Icing weather product softkeys.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Displays softkeys for enabling/disabling the Turbulence weather product
overlay.
Shows the previous level of Turbulence altitude softkeys.
Disables the Turbulence weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Icing weather product overlay from 21,000 feet to
45,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of altitude.
Shows the next level of Icing weather product softkeys.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Enables/disables the AIREPs weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the County Warnings weather product overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
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WEATHER DATA LINK (CNXT) PAGE SOFTKEYS)
Level 1
PRECIP
Level 2
IR SAT
SIG/AIR
METAR
Legend
More WX
Wind
PIREPs
Back
Level 3
Description
Enables/disables the Precipitation weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Infrared Satellite weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the METAR weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Displays second-level Connext Weather product softkeys.
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/disabling the Winds Aloft weather
product and selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
PREV
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product overlay.
Off
Softkeys available for Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather product for the surface (SFC)
selecting winds from through 15,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of
the Surface to 42,0000 altitude.
feet
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
Next
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
Legend
for selection when at least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
WEATHER DATA LINK (FIS-B) PAGE SOFTKEYS)
Level 1
NEXRAD
or
US
or
RGNL
or
US/RGNL
IR SAT
SIG/AIR
METAR
Legend
More WX
278
Level 2
Level 3
Description
Cycles through NEXRAD display modes with each press:
NEXRAD (with annunciator disabled): No NEXRAD is shown.
US: Displays NEXRAD data for the Continental US (CONUS).
RGNL: Displays regional NEXRAD data.
US/RGNL: Displays regional NEXRAD data where available, and CONUS
NEXRAD data in other coverage areas.
Enables/disables the Infrared Satellite weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the METAR weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Displays second-level Connext Weather product softkeys.
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Level 1
Level 2
Wind
PIREPs
Back
Level 3
Description
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/disabling the Winds Aloft weather
product and selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
PREV
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product overlay.
Off
Softkeys available for Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather product for the surface (SFC)
selecting winds from through 15,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of
the Surface to 42,0000 altitude.
feet
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
Next
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
Legend
for selection when at least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
The Weather Data Link Page can display a legend for each enabled weather product.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products on the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the Legend Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the window.
4) To remove the XM Weather Legends Window, press the Legend Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the
FMS Knob.
Additional information about the following weather products can be displayed by panning the Map Pointer
over the following products on the Weather Data Link Page:
• Echo Tops
• METARs
• Cloud Tops
• County Warnings
• Cell Movement
• TFRs
• SIGMETs
• AIREPs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPs
The map panning feature is enabled by pushing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
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Additional
Information on
Weather Feature
Selected with
Map Pointer
METAR flag
selected with
Map Pointer
Figure 6-6 Panning on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Certain weather products, such as METARs or TFRs have full text associated with a graphic shown on the
map. When a weather product is selected with the Map Pointer, press the ENT Key. The system displays the
full text for the selected weather product in a window. To remove the window, press the FMS Knob or the
CLR Key.
The Weather Data Link Page also has a page menu that can be accessed by pressing the MENU Key. It has
controls for enabling/disabling the weather products as an alternative to using the softkeys.
Customizing the Weather Data Link Page
The Weather Data Link Page includes controls for selecting the maximum map range to display each
weather product on the page. If the pilot increases the map range beyond this selected maximum range,
the system removes the weather product from the map. If more than one data link weather source has been
installed, the system uses the same maximum map range for the comparable weather product of another
source.
NOTE: ‘Product Group 2’ is only applicable to SiriusXM and Garmin Connext Weather.
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Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Product Group 1’ or ‘Product Group 2’, and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page with the changed
settings.
The pilot can select a map orientation for the ‘Weather Data Link’ Page, or choose to synchronize the map
orientation to the same orientation used on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Selecting a map orientation for the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the ‘Weather Data Link’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Group options.
5) If SiriusXM is the selected data link weather source, turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Map’ Group and
press the ENT Key.
Or:
If FIS-B or Garmin Connext is the selected data link weather source, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the
‘Orientation ‘ field at the bottom of the Product Group 1 list.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired map orientation: North up, Track up, HDG up, or SYNC, then
press the ENT Key.
Restoring default Weather Data Link Page settings:
1) Select the ‘Weather Data Link’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Highlight the desired default(s) to restore (all or for selection) and press ENT Key.
6) When finished, press the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
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WEATHER PRODUCT MAP OVERLAYS
Cloud Top
+
Echo Top
+
Infrared Satellite
+
Data Link Lightning
+
Cell Movement
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
+
METARs
+
+
+
Surface Analysis & City Forecast
+
Freezing Levels
+
Winds Aloft
+*
+
+
County Warnings
+
Cyclone Warnings
+
Icing Potential
+
PIREPs
+
+
AIREPs
+
+
Turbulence (TURB)
+
No Radar Coverage
+
+
+
TFRs
+
+
+
+
+
+
TAFs
Flight Plan Pages
+
Nearest Page Group
+
Aux - Trip Planning Page
+
Weather Information Page
Weather Data Link Page
NEXRAD/Radar Precipitation
Navigation Map Page
Data Link Weather Product
PFD Maps
Other PFD and MFD maps and pages can display a smaller set of data link weather products. The following
table shows which data link weather products can be displayed on specific maps, indicated with a ‘+’ symbol.
* Winds Aloft data is available inside the VSD when VSD is enabled on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’
Page.
Table 6-4 Weather Product Display Maps
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Displaying Data Link Weather Products on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the softkey to enable/disable the desired weather product.
The ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page also can display legends for weather products enabled on this map with
the Legend Softkey. This softkey is subdued if no weather products are enabled.
Showing/removing the weather legend on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Legend Softkey to show the weather legends window.
4) When finished, press the Legend Softkey again, or press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the window.
The ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page also allows the pilot to select the maximum map range to display weather
products. If the pilot increases the map range beyond this selected maximum range, the system removes
the weather product from the map. The system uses this setting for all navigation maps, including those
displayed on the PFD.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the navigation maps:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
The system can also display data link weather information on the PFD navigation maps.
Displaying Data Link Weather products on the PFD:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the desired weather product softkey(s) to enable/disable the display of data link products on the PFD map.
3) To enable/disable a data link lightning weather product on a PFD, press the Lightning Softkey.
a) Press the Datalink Softkey to enable data link lightning or press the LTNG Off Softkey.
b) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level PFD Softkeys.
NOTE: Data link lightning is not applicable to the FIS-B Weather service.
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On the MFD maps, the weather product icon and age appear automatically when a weather is enabled and
the range is within the maximum display limits. On PFD maps, this information is available using the PFD
softkeys.
Enabling/disabling the weather product icon and age display (PFD maps):
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the WX LGND Softkey to enable/disable the weather product age, source, and icon box display on PFD
Maps.
The setup menus for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page and the Weather Data Link Page control the map
range settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger
than the weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map.
The page menus also provide an alternative to using the softkeys to enable/disable data link weather product
overlays on maps.
CONNEXT DATA REQUESTS
NOTE: Data requests are not applicable to the SiriusXM Weather or FIS-B Weather services.
The Connext Data Request Menu provides the pilot with the options to define the requested weather coverage
area(s), choose automatic weather update intervals (if desired), and the ability to send or cancel weather data
requests. A Request Status Window inside the menu shows the status of the Connext Data Request.
Before a Connext Data Request can occur, a valid request coverage area must be defined from which all
currently available Garmin Connext Weather products will be retrieved. At a minimum, either the aircraft’s
present position or a waypoint (as part of a flight plan or entered directly in the ‘WAYPOINT’ coverage field)
must be part of the request coverage area, otherwise the request status window indicates ‘INVALID COVERAGE
AREA’ and the system will not allow a request to occur.
It is not necessary for a destination (based on an active flight plan), a flight plan, or waypoint to be specified
prior to enabling these coverage areas; however no weather data will be retrieved for these option(s) until a
flight plan or waypoint is provided, respectively.
Manually Requesting Garmin Connext Weather information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired coverage option(s) and press the ENT Key to show or hide a
green check mark to select one of more of the coverage selections:
• Present Position – Requests data based on current location.
• Destination – Requests data based on the active flight plan destination (Direct-To destinations excluded). See
the Flight Management section for more information about entering and activating flight plans.
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• FPL – Requests data along an active flight plan, if one currently exists. Turn the small FMS Knob to select
the desired flight plan look-ahead distance option (or choose ‘Remaining FPL’ to request weather data for the
remainder of the flight plan), then press the ENT Key.
• Waypoint – Requests data based on a waypoint (which may be off-route). Turn the large and small FMS
Knobs to enter a waypoint, then press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob highlight to the ‘Diameter / Route Width’ distance field and turn the small FMS Knob
to select the desired diameter and route width of the request, then press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob until the ‘Send Request’ field is highlighted. Press the ENT Key to initiate the request
immediately or press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page without requesting
weather data.
Figure 6-7 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Menu
Figure 6-8 Connext Data Request Window
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Present Position Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Destination Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Next 80 nm of Flight Plan
Selected, 200 nm Route
Width Requested
Off-Route Waypoint
Selected, 200 nm Diameter
Requested
Figure 6-9 Garmin Connext Weather Data Request Results with Precipitation Data Displayed
During a Connext Data Request, the Request Status Window initially displays “Contacting Connext...”. Once
a connection is established, the Request Status Window displays “Receiving Wx Data... Time Remaining:” with
an estimated data transfer time (either minutes or seconds). If desired, the ‘Connext Data Request’ Menu may
be removed while the data request is processing by pressing the FMS Knob; the data request will continue
to process in the background. Connext Data Requests typically take between 1 to 4 minutes to complete
depending on the size of the selected weather coverage area, the amounts of weather activity present, and the
Iridium signal strength.
The system retrieves all available Garmin Connext Weather products within the selected coverage area during
an initial Connext Data Request, regardless of which products (if any) are currently enabled for display. On
subsequent requests, the system retains previously retrieved textual data (such as METARs and TAFS) if it has
not expired, while new textual weather data matching the current coverage area and all graphical weather data
is transferred to the aircraft during every data request.
At the completion of a successful weather data request, the Request Status Window indicates ‘OK’ if the
Connext Data Request menu is still within view.
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Cancelling a Connext Data Request in Progress:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Cancel Request’ field and press the ENT Key. The request status box
indicates ‘Request Cancelled’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
The flight crew can schedule Connext Data Requests to recur automatically. Automatic requests remain
enabled until the flight crew them, or the system power is removed. The Request Status Window indicates the
number of minutes or seconds until the next automatic data request occurs.
NOTE: If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to the system entering Reversionary Mode,
the automatic weather data requests will continue in Reversionary Mode, however the Connext Data
Request Window and its associated options will not be available in Reversionary Mode.
Enabling/disabling automatic Connext Data Requests:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Choose the desired weather coverage options.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Update Rate’ field. Then turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the
desired automatic update frequency (Off, 5 Min, 10 Min, 15 Min, 20 Min, 30 Min, 45 Min, or 60 Min), then press
the ENT Key.
6) The ‘Send Request’ field is highlighted and a countdown timer is displayed in the ‘Request Status’ Window
based on the currently selected update rate. Press the ENT Key to immediately send an immediate Connext
Data Request.
Or:
Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
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WEATHER PRODUCT OVERVIEW
The following is an overview of data link weather products the system can display.
NEXRAD (SIRIUSXM)
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be older than the indicated weather product age.
NOTE: Datalink weather radar information cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain, echo tops, icing,
or turbulence data.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider compiles the available
individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time to indicate when
it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual images--gathered from
each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The
data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the SiriusXM Weather service, whose satellites transmit this
information during the next designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current radar synopsis
and may not depict the current weather conditions. The NEXRAD weather product should never be used as a
basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
For radar sites in the United States, the NEXRAD weather product shows a composite reflectivity image.
This shows the highest radar energy received from multiple antenna tilt angles at various altitudes. For radar
sites based in Canada, the NEXRAD weather product shows radar returns from the lowest antenna tilt angle,
known as base reflectivity. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate the intensity of the echoes
and the type of precipitation, if known.
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Figure 6-10 NEXRAD Data on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on PFD maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
A mosaic of data from all the available NEXRAD radar sites is shown for the selected region (US or Canada).
The pilot can change the region on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
Changing the NEXRAD coverage region:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Region datafield.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘US’ or ‘CNDA’ (Canada) and press the ENT Key.
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The display of No Radar Coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is selected. Areas
where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is not being collected
are indicated in gray shade of purple.
The system can animate a loop of NEXRAD information. The animated view is available on the ‘Map Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page, and on navigation maps with the exception of the HSI Map. Animation begins
after the system has received at least two recent NEXRAD images since the avionics power cycle. When
NEXRAD animation is enabled, a timeline appears in the upper-right corner of the map, except for the PFD
Inset Map. A pointer on the timeline indicates the relative position of the displayed frame of animation,
from oldest to newest. The NEXRAD weather product age corresponds to the displayed frame. The system
can show up to six frames of NEXRAD animation when the USA coverage option is selected, and up to three
frames of animation when Canada is selected.
Displaying Time-Lapse NEXRAD Animation on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
3) With ‘Product Group 1’ selected, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Animation On/Off field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’, then press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
The pilot enables/disables the NEXRAD animation feature for navigation maps from the ‘Map - Navigation
Map’ Page.
Displaying Time-Lapse NEXRAD Animation on navigation maps:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Animation On/Off field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ or ‘Off’ and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
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The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-11 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
• Undetermined precipitation types may be displayed as mixed.
• An individual NEXRAD site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information
about storms directly over the site.
• Precipitation may be occurring below the lowest antenna tilt angle (0.5º), and therefore the radar beam
overshoots the precipitation. For example, at a distance of 124 miles from the radar site, the radar beam
is approximately 18,000 feet above the radar site. The radar cannot detect any precipitation occurring
below the beam at this distance and altitude.
• At smaller map ranges, the smallest square block on the display represents an area of approximately
four square kilometers. The intensity level reflected by each square represents the highest level of radar
reflectivity sampled within the area.
• Unknown precipitation below 52ºN is displayed as rain regardless of actual precipitation type.
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
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Block represents
approximately 4 km2
Figure 6-12 NEXRAD Weather Product at a 10 NM Map Range
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NEXRAD Limitations (Canada)
• Radar coverage extends to 55ºN.
• Any precipitation displayed between 52ºN and 55ºN is displayed as mixed precipitation regardless of
actual precipitation type.
• If the precipitation type is unknown, the system displays the precipitation as rain, regardless of actual
precipitation type.
No Coverage
Above 55°N
Precipitation Above
52°N Displays as
Mixed
Figure 6-13 NEXRAD Weather Product - Canada
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NEXRAD (FIS-B)
NOTE: The NEXRAD weather product cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain.
NOTE: Pilots are encouraged to check additional NOTAM sources to supplement FIS-B NOTAMs. NOTAMs
older than 30 minutes will not be displayed by FIS-B. For additional information refer to InFO 18008 and AC
00-63.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider to FIS-B compiles
the available individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time
to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual
images--gathered from each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD
weather product age. The data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the FIS-B GBTs, which transmit this
information during the next designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be older than the current radar synopsis and may not
depict the current weather conditions. NEXRAD information should never be used as a basis for maneuvering
in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
Boundary
of Regional
NEXRAD Data
No radar coverage
within coverage
boundary
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-14 Regional NEXRAD Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page
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The FIS-B NEXRAD weather product may be displayed for a region around the GBT (higher resolution,
updated more frequently) or for across the continental United States (lower resolution, updated less
frequently). A combined version of both weather products is also available for display on the same map.
When the combined NEXRAD is selected, regional NEXRAD takes display precedence where data is available,
and continental US NEXRAD is displayed outside of the regional NEXRAD coverage area.
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page.
2) Select the NEXRAD Softkey. Each selection cycles though a coverage option as the softkey name changes (US,
RGNL, or US/RGNL.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
3) To enable/disable the display of NEXRAD information for the continental United States, turn the small FMS
Knob to highlight the NEXRAD On/Off field.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ to enable the display of NEXRAD for the continental United
States or ‘Off’ to disable.
b) Press the ENT Key.
4) To enable/disable the display of Regional NEXRAD information, turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the
Regional On/Off field.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ to enable the display of Regional NEXRAD or ‘Off’ to disable.
b) Press the ENT Key.
5) When finished, push the FMS Knob.
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Continental
USA NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
No radar coverage
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-15 Continental US (CONUS) NEXRAD Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page
NOTE: When both NEXRAD options are enabled on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page, a combined
version is displayed.
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Enables/disables
regional NEXRAD
data display
Enables/disables
NEXRAD data display for
the continental United
States
Figure 6-16 Weather Data Link
(FIS-B) Page Menu
Figure 6-17 Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page Setup Menu
Displaying the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Select the NEXRAD Softkey.
3) To change the type of NEXRAD displayed, press the MENU Key.
4) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group, then press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Data Region field.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘CONUS’ (continental United States), ‘RGNL’ (regional), or ‘Combined’,
then press the ENT Key. This selection also affects display of NEXRAD on the PFD Maps.
8) When finished, press the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
Displaying the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product on PFD maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey to enable/disable the display of NEXRAD information.
The regional NEXRAD weather product coverage area varies, as it is determined by the data received from
ground-based sources. When the regional NEXRAD weather product is enabled, a white spiked boundary
encloses this area to indicate the geographic limits of the regional NEXRAD coverage being displayed. The
system shows composite radar data from all available NEXRAD sites inside of this boundary area.
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If the continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product is shown (US Softkey enabled), the
coverage boundary is not shown on the map.
This data is composed of the maximum reflectivity from the individual radar sweeps. The display of the
information is color-coded to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can be viewed
on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page. For the NEXRAD legend, select the Legend Softkey when the
NEXRAD weather product is enabled.
No radar coverage
Boundary of radar
coverage area
Figure 6-18 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
The display of no radar coverage is enabled when NEXRAD is selected for display. Areas where radar data
is not currently available, has not yet been received, or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of
purple.
NOTE: If the system has not received all available NEXRAD weather data (such as during initial FIS-B signal
acquisition or in areas of marginal or poor signal reception), the system may display areas of no radar
coverage which are subsequently removed as radar data is received. It may take up to approximately ten
minutes to receive all FIS-B data, when adequate reception is available.
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
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NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
• At smaller map ranges, individual blocks of NEXRAD weather data are viewable. For the regional version
of the NEXRAD weather product, the smallest block represents 1.5 nm wide by 1 nm tall. For the
continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product, each block is 7.5 nm wide by 5 nm
wide. The color of each block represents the highest radar reflectivity detected within that area.
• The continental US version of the NEXRAD weather product is not available above 60º of latitude.
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter.
• Strobes and spurious radar data.
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun).
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows.
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans.
PRECIPITATION (GARMIN CONNEXT)
NOTE: Precipitation data cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain data.
The Precipitation weather product provides radar precipitation information in selected radar coverage areas.
This information comes from individual weather radar sites and weather data sources such as government
agencies. Each radar site or source may provide weather data at differing rates and times. Periodically, the
Garmin Connext Weather service compiles the available information to form a composite image, and assigns
a single time to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the Precipitation weather product.
Individual images--gathered from each radar site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed
Precipitation weather product age.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the Precipitation weather product, the
displayed weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current
radar synopsis and may not depict the current weather conditions. The Precipitation weather product should
never be used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the
information it contains.
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Precipitation
Weather Product
Icon and Age
Boundary of
weather data
request
Precipitation
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-19 Precipitation Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page
Displaying Precipitation weather information:
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey (for PFD maps, press the Map/HSI or Map Opt Softkey). This step is not necessary
on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Select the PRECIP Softkey.
The system displays either base or composite radar imagery, depending on the region.
Region
Radar Reflectivity Type
United States
Composite Reflectivity
Canada, Europe, Australia
Base Reflectivity
The base reflectivity precipitation weather product shows the radar returns from the perspective of a single
antenna tilt angle. The composite reflectivity precipitation weather product shows the highest radar energy
received from multiple antenna tilt angles. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate the
intensity of the echoes and the type of precipitation.
All weather product legends can be viewed on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page. For the
Precipitation legend, press the Legend Softkey when Precipitation is selected for display.
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No radar coverage
Boundary of
weather data
request
Figure 6-20 Precipitation Weather Product Legend
The display of radar coverage is enabled active when Precipitation is selected for display. Areas where
precipitation radar coverage is not currently available or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of
purple. A white boundary line depicting the selected coverage area of the Connext Data Request encloses the
precipitation data when this weather product is displayed.
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the Precipitation
display directly correlate to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous weather
can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different radar echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). Weather
radars measure the reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
Precipitation Limitations
Radar images may have certain limitations:
• Radar composite reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet snow, wet
hail, and rain.
• An individual radar site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information about
storms directly over the site.
• At smaller map ranges, individual blocks of radar data are viewable. Each block of radar information
represents approximately four square kilometers and depicts the highest level of reflectivity detected
within that area.
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Block represents
approximately 4 km2
Figure 6-21 Precipitation Weather Product at 10 NM Map Range
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed radar images:
• Ground clutter.
• Strobes and spurious radar data.
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun).
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows.
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans.
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ECHO TOPS (SIRISUXM)
NOTE: Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time as Cloud Tops or NEXRAD data is displayed.
The Echo Tops weather product shows the location, elevation, and direction of the highest radar echo. The
highest radar echo does not indicate the top of a storm or clouds; rather it indicates the highest altitude at
which precipitation is detected. Information is derived from NEXRAD data.
Altitude for
selected Echo Top
Figure 6-22 Echo Tops Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Displaying Echo Tops information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the Echo Top Softkey.
Since Echo Tops and Cloud Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these weather
products is mutually exclusive. When Echo Tops is activated, NEXRAD and Cloud Tops data are removed.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-23 Echo Tops Legend
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CLOUD TOPS (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Cloud Tops and Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time.
NOTE: The broadcast rate for Cloud Tops is 30 minutes. As with all SiriusXM Weather products, the product
age becomes amber when it reaches half of the expiration time, which is 60 minutes for Cloud Tops.
Therefore, this weather product age may be amber during routine operation.
The Cloud Tops weather product depicts cloud top altitudes as determined from satellite imagery.
Altitude for selected
Cloud Top
Figure 6-24 Cloud Tops Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the CLD Top Softkey.
Since Cloud Tops and Echo Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these weather
products is mutually exclusive. When Cloud Tops is activated, Echo Tops data is removed.
Figure 6-25 Cloud Tops Legend
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DATA LINK LIGHTNING (SIRIUSXM, GARMIN CONNEXT)
NOTE: Lightning from a data link source cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map as information
from an optional on-board lightning detection system.
The Data Link Lighting weather product shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground lightning
strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. The exact location
of the lightning strike is not displayed.
Lightning
Strikes
Figure 6-26 SiriusXM Lightning Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on Weather Data Link Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the XM LTNG or DL LTNG Softkey.
To display the Lightning legend on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT)’ Page, select the Legend
Softkey when SiriusXM Lightning is selected for display.
Figure 6-27 SiriusXM Lightning Legend
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Displaying Data Link Lightning information on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Select the XM LTNG or DL LTNG Softkey.
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on PFD maps:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Lightning Softkey.
3) Press the Datalink Softkey.
4) When finished, press the Back Softkey.
NOTE: The source of the data link lightning weather product for the PFD Maps is determined by which
source is selected on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT)’ Page.
CELL MOVEMENT (SIRIUSXM)
The Cell Movement weather product shows the location and movement of storm cells as identified by the
ground-based system. Cells are represented by yellow squares, with direction of movement indicated with
short, orange arrows.
Storm Cells
Additional
information for
selected Storm Cell
Figure 6-28 Cell Movement Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
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On the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page, the Cell Movement weather product has a dedicated Cel
MOV Softkey for enabling/disabling this weather product on this page.
NOTE: The Storm Cell base height is not available if a GDL 69 SXM or 69A SXM data link receiver is installed.
In this case, the Storm Cell base height is displayed as 0 feet when the map pointer selects a storm cell.
Displaying Cell Movement information on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page using the FMS Knob.
2) Select the Cell MOV Softkey.
Figure 6-29 Cell Movement Legend
For navigation maps, the pilot can enable/disable the Cell Movement weather product using the NEXRAD
Softkey. For this to occur, the pilot must first enable the ‘Cell Movement’ option in the Map Settings menu
of the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Setting up the system to display Cell Movement with NEXRAD on navigation maps:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to ‘On’ or ‘Off’ for the Cell Movement menu option. When set to ‘On’, Cell Movement
is enabled/disabled with the NEXRAD weather product on navigation maps. When set to ‘Off’, Cell Movement
is not displayed on navigation maps.
6) When finished, push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to remove the menu.
After the ‘Cell Movement’ option is set to ‘On’, refer to the previous procedures for enabling/disabling the
NEXRAD weather product to control both products simultaneously on navigation maps using the NEXRAD
Softkey.
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INFRARED SATELLITE (GARMIN CONNEXT)
The Infrared Satellite (IR SAT) weather product depicts cloud top temperatures from satellite imagery.
Brighter cloud top colors indicate cooler temperatures occurring at higher altitudes.
Figure 6-30 Infrared Satellite Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page
Displaying Infrared Satellite information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Select the IR SAT Softkey.
Figure 6-31 Infrared Satellite Legend
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SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
SIGMET (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMET (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET is a significant weather condition
occurring at a localized geographical position.
NOTE: If SiriusXM Weather is the active data link weather source and a GDL 69A SXM receiver installed, the
SIGMET and AIRMET weather products are not available unless at least one SIGMET or AIRMET has been
received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no SIGMET or AIRMET is available.
NOTE: For Garmin Connext Weather only, the entire SIGMET or AIRMET is shown on the map as long as any
portion of it is issued within the selected coverage area of the Connext Data Request.
AIRMET for IFR
Conditions
AIRMET for Icing
AIRMET for
Turbulence
AIRMET for
Mountain
Obscuration
Figure 6-32 SIGMET/AIRMET on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the ‘Map- Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT or FIS-B)’ Page.
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, push the Joystick and move the Map Pointer over the icon.
4) Press the ENT key. The following figure shows sample SIGMET text.
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Sample SIGMET Text
SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
Figure 6-33 SIGMET/AIRMET Text and Legend
METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure as reported for METARs is given in hectopascals (hPa), except for in the United
States, where it is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are reported in Celsius.
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service area.
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or
observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical
data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the report.
METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
Original METAR text
for selected METAR
symbol
Figure 6-34 METAR Flags on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page
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TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR data is displayed first in a
decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information not
found in the decoded version. TAF information is displayed only in its original form when TAFs are available.
Displaying METAR and TAF text on the MFD:
1) On the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT)’ Page, press the METAR Softkey.
2) Push the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Weather Information’ Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link Page.
Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Select the WX Softkey to select the ‘WPT - Weather Information’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that the METAR text must
be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
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METAR Text
TAF Text
Figure 6-35 METAR and TAF Text on the ‘WPT - Weather Information’ Page
To display the METAR legend on the ‘Weather Data Link’ Page, select the Legend Softkey when METARs
are enabled for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. The system displays a gray
METAR flag when the system cannot determine the METAR category based on the information available.
Figure 6-36 METAR Legend
The system also shows METAR flags and their associated text on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the
MF.D. The system shows a METAR flag next to waypoints in the flight plan with an available METAR.
Displaying original METAR text on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page:
1) Select the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight a waypoint with an available METAR (indicated with a METAR flag next
to it). The METAR text will appear in the ‘Selected Waypoint Weather’ Window below.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the ‘FPL - Active Flight
Plan’ Page.
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Original METAR text is also accessible on navigation maps displaying METAR flags. When the map pointer
is panned over a METAR flag, the METAR text is shown in a box near the flag.
Displaying original METAR text information on the PFD Inset Map:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the METAR Softkey.
4) Push the Joystick and pan to the desired METAR flag. Original METAR text appears on the map.
5) When finished, push the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer.
SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CITY FORECAST (SIRIUSXM)
Surface Analysis and City Forecast information is available for current and forecast weather conditions.
Forecasts are available for intervals of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours.
Figure 6-37 Current Surface Analysis Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the SFC Softkey.
4) Press the softkey for the desired forecast time: Current, 12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, or 48 HR. The SFC Softkey
label changes to show the forecast time selected.
Or:
Press the Off Softkey to disable the display of the weather product.
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Figure 6-38 Surface Analysis Legend
FREEZING LEVEL (SIRIUSXM)
The Freezing Level weather product shows the color-coded contour lines for the altitude and location at
which the first isotherm is found. When no data is displayed for a given altitude, the data for that altitude
has not been received, or is out of date and has been removed from the display. New data appears when it
becomes available.
Figure 6-39 Freezing Level Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Displaying Freezing Level information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the FRZ LVL Softkey.
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Figure 6-40 Freezing Levels Legend
WINDS ALOFT
The Winds Aloft weather product shows the forecast wind speed and direction at the surface and at selected
altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3000-foot increments beginning at the surface up to 42,000 feet MSL.
If the FIS-B option is installed and FIS-B is the active data link weather source, the Winds Aloft weather
product also displays temperatures aloft next to the winds aloft arrows on the ‘Map -Weather Data Link
(FIS-B)’ Page.
Displaying the Winds Aloft weather product:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the Wind Softkey.
4) Select a softkey for the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Select the Next or Prev Softkey
to cycle through the altitude softkeys. The Wind Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Figure 6-41 Winds Aloft Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
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Figure 6-42 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Vertical Situation Display (VSD) on the
‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track,
but not to aircraft speed.
Track Mode
Boundary of VSD
Winds Aloft
Information
Figure 6-43 ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with Winds Aloft Data in the VSD
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Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in Table 6-5.
Headwind Symbol
Tailwind Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
5 knots
10 knots
50 knots
Table 6-5 VSD Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
Enabling/disabling the Vertical Situation Display (containing winds aloft data):
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable/disable the Vertical Situation Display.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
Winds Aloft data inside the VSD is enabled by default when the VSD is displayed on the ‘Map - Navigation
Map’ Page. This behavior can be changed on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display for the VSD:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Winds on/off field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with the changed settings.
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COUNTY WARNINGS (SIRIUSXM)
The County Warning weather product provides specific public awareness and protection weather warnings
from the National Weather Service (NWS). This can include information on tornadoes, severe thunderstorms,
and flood conditions.
Additional information
for selected
Thunderstorm Warning
Tornado Warning
Flood Warning
Figure 6-44 County Flood Warning Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Displaying County Warning information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the County Softkey.
Figure 6-45 County Warnings Legend
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CYCLONE (SIRIUSXM)
The Cyclone weather product shows the current location of cyclones (hurricanes), tropical storms,
and their projected tracks. The system displays the projected track information in the form of
DD/HH:MM.
Cyclone
Figure 6-46 Cyclone Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Displaying cyclone (hurricane) track information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the Cyclone Softkey.
Figure 6-47 Cyclone Legend
NOTE: The Cyclone weather product is not available unless at least one cyclone or tropical storm has been
received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no cyclone or tropical storm has been received.
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ICING (CIP & SLD) (SIRIUSXM)
The Current Icing Product (CIP) weather product shows a graphical view of the current icing environment.
Icing severity is displayed in four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extreme (not specific to aircraft
type). The CIP product is not a forecast, but a presentation of the current conditions at the time of the
analysis.
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing conditions are characterized by the presence of relatively large,
super cooled water droplets indicative of freezing drizzle and freezing rain aloft. SLD threat areas are depicted
as magenta dots over the CIP colors.
Displaying Icing data:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the ICNG Softkey.
4) Select a softkey for the desired altitude level: 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet. Select the Next or PREV Softkey to
cycle through the altitude softkeys. The ICNG Softkey label changes to indicate the altitude selected.
Severe Icing Potential
Light Icing Potential
Moderate Icing
Potential
Supercooled Large
Droplet Threat
Figure 6-48 Icing Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Figure 6-49 Icing Potential Legend
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TURBULENCE (SIRIUSXM)
The Turbulence weather product identifies the potential for erratic movement of high-altitude air mass
associated winds. Turbulence is classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme, at altitudes between 21,000
and 45,000 feet. Turbulence information is intended to supplement AIRMETs, SIGMETs, and PIREPs.
Severe Turbulence
Moderate Turbulence
Light Turbulence
Figure 6-50 Turbulence Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Displaying Turbulence data:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the TURB Softkey.
4) Select a softkey for the desired altitude: 21,000 feet up to 45,000 feet. Press the Next or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The TURB Softkey label changes to indicate the altitude selection.
Figure 6-51 Turbulence Legend
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PIREPS AND AIREPS
NOTE: AIREPs are only available with the SiriusXM Weather service.
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) are in-flight weather observations collected from pilots. When significant
weather conditions are reported or forecast, Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities are required to solicit PIREPs.
A PIREP may contain adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions, wind shear,
and turbulence. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Another type of PIREP is an Air Report (AIREP). Commercial airlines typically generate AIREPs.
PIREP selected with
Map Pointer
Urgent PIREP
AIREP
Figure 6-52 AIREPs and PIREPs on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Displaying PIREP and AIREP text:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT)’ Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the PIREPS or AIREPS Softkey. (Note the AIREPS Softkey is only available with the SiriusXM Weather
service.)
4) Push the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather report
when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with PIREP or AIREP text. The data is first displayed
in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information
not present in the decoded version.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP or AIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link Page.
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Decoded PIREP Text
Decoded PIREP Text
Figure 6-53 PIREP Text on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
Figure 6-54 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
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TFRS
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE: Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) data from Garmin Connext is only available in the United States (not
including any U.S. territories.) Refer to http://sites.garmin.com/connext for product coverage information.
In the United States, the FAA issues Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) to designate areas where flight is
restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including national security, law enforcement,
natural disasters, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued at any time, and TFR data displayed on the
system is only intended to supplement official TFR information obtained from Flight Service Stations (FSS),
and air traffic control.
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system displays
‘TFR N/A’ in the upper-left corner of maps on which TFRs can be displayed.
Information for
selected TFR
Figure 6-55 TFR Data on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
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Displaying TFR Data:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT)’ Page or ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Push the Joystick and pan the map pointer over a TFR to highlight it. The system displays TFR summary
information above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Review Airspaces’ and press the ENT Key. The system displays the
TFR Information window.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the TFR Information window.
Figure 6-56 Full Text for Selected TFR
The setup menus for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page control the map range settings above which TFR data
is decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is selected, the
TFR product data is removed from the map.
Maps other than the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page use settings based on those selected for the ‘Map Navigation Map’ Page.
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be displayed:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aviation’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product range settings.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with the changed settings.
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FIS-B WEATHER STATUS
Additional information about the status of FIS-B weather products is available on the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’
Page.
Viewing FIS-B status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page.
On the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page, the pilot can enable/disable the FIS-B weather feature, which
includes all FIS-B weather products and related softkeys on various maps.
Enabling/disabling the FIS-B weather feature:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Enable FIS-B Weather’ or ‘Disable FIS-B Weather’, and press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-57 Viewing FIS-B Weather Status on ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page
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ADS-B Status Page Item
FIS-B Weather Status:
FIS-B Processing
Weather Products:
AIRMET
CONUS NEXRAD
METAR
METAR GRAPHICAL
NOTAM/TFR
PIREP
REGIONAL NEXRAD
SIGMET
TAF
WINDS/TEMPS ALOFT
Status
Message
ENABLED
DISABLED
---------------AVAILABLE
Description
The FIS-B weather feature is enabled to process and display FIS-B weather
products.
The FIS-B weather feature is disabled.
No FIS-B weather data received from the transponder.
FIS-B weather data is available for display for the weather product.
NOT AVAILABLE FIS-B weather data is not available for the weather product, and/or the system is
not receiving the FIS-B weather service.
AWAITING DATA The system is receiving the FIS-B weather service, and is waiting to receive the
weather product from the FIS-B data broadcast.
Table 6-6 Aux-ADS-B Status Page Messages for FIS-B Weather
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ABNORMAL OPERATIONS FOR GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
If the system cannot complete a Connext Data Request, one or more messages will appear in the Request
Status Window.
Weather Request
Status Message
Auto requests inhibited
Send manual request to
reset.
Auto update retry: ##
Seconds
Connext Comm Error [1]
Connext Comm Error [2]
Connext Comm Error [3]
Description
The system has disabled automatic weather data requests due to excessive errors. Automatic
weather data requests have stopped. Send a manual weather data request to resume automatic
updates.
The system will attempt another automatic weather data request after an error occurred during the
previous request. Timer counts down until the next automatic request occurs.
A general error has occurred. If the error persists, the system should be serviced.
A communications error has occurred with the GIA. The system should be serviced.
A general error has occurred. If the error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [4] This occurs if multiple automatic weather data requests have recently failed, or a GIA is off-line.
Connext Comm Error [5] This can occur if the Iridium or Garmin Connext services are not accessible. Check Iridium signal
strength. If this error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [6]
Connext Comm Error [7]
Connext Comm Error [8]
Connext Comm Error [9]
A communications error has occurred. It this error persists, the system should be serviced.
A weather data transfer has timed out. Check Iridium signal strength and re-send the data request.
A server error has occurred or invalid data received.
An error occurred while reading or writing data. If the error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Login Invalid
There is a problem with the Garmin Connext registration. Please contact Garmin Aviation Product
Support through the phone number listed on its website, www.flygarmin.com.
The Garmin Connext Weather data server is temporarily out of service, but is expected to return to
service in less than 30 minutes.
The Garmin Connext Weather data server will be out of service for at least 30 minutes.
Connext Server Temp
Inop
Connext Server Inop
Invalid Coverage Area
No Connext
Subscription
Reduce Request Area
Request Canceled
Request Failed - Try
Again
The weather data request coverage area does not contain at least one of the following: a
waypoint, a flight plan, or a flight plan destination. Verify at least one of the coverage options is
enabled (checked) and contains required criteria, then re-send the data request.
The system is not currently subscribed to the Garmin Connext Weather service, or the access code
is incorrect. Verify the access code. Please contact Garmin Aviation Product Support through the
phone number listed on its website, www.flygarmin.com.
The size of the received weather data has exceeded system memory limits. Reduce the size of the
coverage area and issue another Connext Data Request to ensure all available weather data has
been received.
The user has cancelled a Connext Data Request.
The weather data request timed-out. Re-send data request.
Table 6-7 Abnormal Garmin Connext Data Request Status Messages
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When the system is operating in Reversionary Mode, only those weather products which can be displayed
on the PFD maps will be available for display (see Table 6-4 for a list of weather products and their associated
map availability).
If manual Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to entering Reversionary Mode, no new weather data
will be retrieved while operating in Reversionary Mode. If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled
prior to Reversionary Mode operation, the system will continue the automatic data requests in Reversionary
Mode (provided automatic requests have not been inhibited due to a system error).
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6.2 STORMSCOPE LIGHTNING DETECTION SYSTEM
WARNING: Do not rely on information from the lightning detection system display as the sole basis for
hazardous weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate
or incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
NOTE: Stormscope lightning information cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map as lightning
information from data link lightning sources.
The system can display L-3 WX-500 Stormscope® lightning detection system information on the ‘Map Stormscope®’ Page, and as an overlay on navigation maps. The system uses the symbols shown in the following
table to depict lightning strikes and cells based on the age of the information.
Lightning Age
Symbol
Strike is less than 6 seconds old
Strike is between 6 and 60 seconds old
Strike is between 1 and 2 minutes old
Strike is between 2 and 3 minutes old
Table 6-8 Lightning Age and Symbols
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USING THE STORMSCOPE PAGE
On the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page, lightning information can be displayed at the ranges of 25 nm, 50 nm, 100
nm, and 200 nm.
Stormscope Mode
Lightning Strike
Rate Per Minute
Figure 6-58 ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page with Cell Mode Selected
Adjusting the Stormscope Map Range:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
3) Turn the Joystick clockwise to increase the map range or counter-clockwise to decrease the map range.
Cell mode identifies cells of lightning activity. Stormscope identifies clusters of electrical activity that indicate
cells. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
Selecting ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode: on the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
2) Select the Mode Softkey. The Cell and Strike softkeys are displayed.
3) Press the Cell Softkey to display ‘CELL’ data or select the Strike Softkey to display ‘STRIKE’ data. ‘CELL’ or
‘STRIKE’ is displayed in the mode box in the upper right corner of the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
4) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top level softkeys for the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map- Stormscope®’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page Menu. Either ‘Cell Mode’ or ‘Strike Mode’ is
highlighted in cyan to indicate the mode to be selected.
3) Press the ENT Key to select the highlighted mode and remove the menu. To remove the menu without changing
modes, press the MENU Key or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
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ADDITIONAL STORMSCOPE DISPLAYS
The pilot can overlay Stormscope lightning information on navigation maps. When the overlay is enabled, and
the map range is within the maximum map range setting limits to display Stormscope lightning, a Stormscope
icon appears on the map. On the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, the selected Stormscope mode and strike rate
appear in the upper-right corner of the map. The ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page also has menus for selecting the
Stormscope mode, and for selecting the maximum map range to display lightning symbols for navigation maps.
Stormscope Mode
Lightning Strike
Rate Per Minute
Stormscope Navigation Map
Overlay Enabled Icon
Figure 6-59 ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with Stormscope Lightning Overlay Enabled
Displaying Stormscope information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the STRMSCP Softkey.
Setting up Stormscope options on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) On the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ selected, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the group selection window. Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Weather’,
and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight and move between the product selections.
5) When an item is highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the option.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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The following options are available:
• Stormscope On/Off field – Enables/disables the display of Stormscope lightning symbols.
• Stormscope maximum display range – Selects the maximum map range to display Stormscope symbols.
Stormscope data is removed when a map range greater than the STRMSCP SMBL value is selected.
• Stormscope Mode – Selects the Cell or Strike mode of lightning activity. Cell mode identifies clusters or cells
of electrical activity. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
Selecting the ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ selected, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Stormscope Mode field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to change between ‘Cell’ and ‘Strike’ options. When the desired item is selected, press
the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Displaying Stormscope information on PFD maps:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Lightning Softkey.
3) Press the STRMSCP Softkey.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
ZOOM RANGE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
Stormscope lightning data can be displayed up to 1000 nm zoom range regardless of map orientation on
the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ page.
The maximum zoom range can also be set on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. Note that Stormscope data
above the selected maximum zoom range will not be displayed.
Selecting a Stormscope range on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the select the ‘Weather’ group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Stormscope maximum map display range distance.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Stormscope maximum map display range distance.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
To change the display range on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, turn the Joystick clockwise to increase
the map range or counter-clockwise to decrease the map range.
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STORMSCOPE ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn. This
is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the nose of the aircraft.
Clearing Stormscope lightning on any map clears this information from all displays on the system.
Manually clearing Stormscope cell or strike information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
2) Select the Clear Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Lightning Data’, then press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Stormscope® Lightning’, then press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-60 Navigation Map Page Options Menu
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6.3 AIRBORNE COLOR WEATHER RADAR
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The Garmin GWX 70 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a solid-state pulsed radar with forty watts of output
power. The radar combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with a high-definition target
display. The GWX 70 has an effective pulse length of 27.31 microseconds (µs), and the system optimizes the
pulse length to maximize resolution at each range setting.
This aircraft uses a 10-inch antenna that is fully stabilized to accommodate 30º of pitch and roll.
To focus radar scanning on specific areas, Sector Scanning offers pilot-adjustable horizontal scan angles. A
vertical scanning function helps to analyze storm tops, gradients, and cell buildup activity at various altitudes.
Radar features include:
• Extended Sensitivity Time Constant (STC) logic that automatically correlates distance of the return echo with
intensity, so cells do not suddenly appear to get larger as they get closer.
• WATCH® (Weather ATtenuated Color Highlight) helps identify possible shadowing effects of short-range cell
activity, identifying areas where radar return signals are weakened or attenuated by intense precipitation (or
large areas of lesser precipitation) and may not fully reflect the weather behind a storm.
• Weather Alert that looks ahead for intense cell activity in the 80-320 nm range, even if these ranges are not
being monitored.
• Altitude-Compensated Tilt (ACT) management, which automatically adjusts the antenna tilt angle as the
aircraft altitude changes.
• Independent weather radar scans for each PFD HSI Map while the aircraft is in the air.
NOTE: Garmin recommends the user obtain instruction in the effective operation of airborne weather radar.
PRINCIPLES OF AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
The term RADAR is an acronym for RAdio Detecting And Ranging. Pulsed radar locates targets by transmitting
a microwave pulse beam that, upon encountering a target, is reflected back to the radar receiver as a return echo.
The microwave pulses are focused and radiated by the antenna, with the most intense energy in the center of
the beam and decreasing intensity near the edge. The same antenna is used for both transmitting and receiving.
Radar detection is a two-way process that requires 12.36 µs for the transmitted microwave pulses to travel out
and back for each nautical mile of target range. It takes 123.6 µs for a transmitted pulse to make the round trip
if a target is ten nautical miles away.
The airborne weather radar has the capability to detect the velocity of precipitation moving toward or away
from the radar antenna. As the radar pulse beam strikes a moving object, the frequency of the returned echo
shifts in relation to the speed at which the object is moving. This effect is analogous to the audible pitch change
observed when an emergency vehicle’s siren gets closer or moves away. Doppler radar employs this effect to
detect areas of precipitation moving at a high rate of speed (indicative of turbulence), and to determine when
an object, such as the ground, is stationary. The system can use this information to suppress the display of
ground clutter.
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Airborne weather radar should be used to avoid severe weather. The decision to fly into an area of radar targets
depends on target intensity, spacing between the targets, aircraft capabilities, and crew experience. Airborne
weather radar is efficient at detecting wet precipitation such as rain, wet snow, and water coated hail, however
it will not detect clouds or mist. The display may indicate clear areas between intense returns, but this does not
necessarily mean it is safe to fly between them, as these areas may contain severe turbulence or other hazards
such as hail. In addition, Doppler radar measurement of precipitation velocity only occurs when rain or hail
is moving along the radar beam and either toward or away from the antenna. Airborne weather radar systems
cannot detect Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) as there are no particulate for the radar to detect.
Airborne weather radar has other capabilities beyond weather detection. It also has the ability to detect and
provide distance to cities, mountains, coastlines, rivers, lakes, and oceans.
NEXRAD AND AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
Both Airborne Weather Radar and NEXRAD measure weather reflectivity in decibels (dB). A decibel is a
logarithmic expression of the ratio of two quantities. Airborne Weather Radar measures the ratio of power
against the gain of the antenna, while NEXRAD measures the energy reflected back to the radar, or the radar
reflectivity ratio.
Although both radar systems use colors to identify the different echo intensities, the thresholds and
colors are not interchangeable. Airborne color radar values from the installed weather radar system must not
be confused with NEXRAD radar values. In addition, NEXRAD depicts lower intensity returns than airborne
weather radar. Airborne weather radar return images will not appear the same as NEXRAD return images.
Convective weather activity is known to develop rapidly, with cell growth capable of exceeding several
thousand feet per minute. Airborne weather radar provides the flight crew with real-time weather avoidance
information for precipitation detected within the airborne weather radar’s beam. NEXRAD information is not
real-time. It is intended to assist the flight crew with hazardous weather avoidance planning. NEXRAD images
are comprised of individual radar scans arriving at a network at different rates and times, which are periodically
compiled into a mosaic (the NEXRAD weather product) and transmitted via data link. Due to inherent delays in
this process, it is common for the displayed NEXRAD images to be significantly older than the current weather
situation, and may also differ from information the airborne weather radar presents.
Because NEXRAD operates from an extensive network of ground-based radar antennas performing 360º
scans, it is capable of providing information on large-scale weather patterns such as precipitation associated
with significant frontal activity from multiple radar locations. The airborne weather radar can perform up to
90º scan, but is more affected by distance and precipitation attenuation discussed earlier in this section. Other
factors including curvature of the earth (particularly at map ranges greater than 150 miles), antenna tilt setting,
and aircraft altitude may also cause the airborne weather radar’s antenna beam to miss areas of precipitation
which are detected by NEXRAD. In addition, since the airborne weather radar’s beam often produces ground
returns, it may be difficult to distinguish precipitation from ground returns, especially stratus rain when the
aircraft is above the precipitation.
Both airborne weather radar and the NEXRAD system can detect a radar top of a storm cell. Airborne weather
radar can display this information in vertical scan mode, while NEXRAD radar top information appears in the
Echo Tops SiriusXM Weather Product (Refer to Section 6.1 for more information about SiriusXM Weather).
Because airborne weather radar and NEXRAD use different detection thresholds, a radar top from airborne
weather radar may appear 5,000 feet or more below the NEXRAD-derived Echo Top. Furthermore, radar top
information provided from either source is not the actual or true top of the storm, which is only observable with
the eyes in clear air and may be much higher than the radar top detected by either system.
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Because airborne weather radar and NEXRAD present information using similar (but not interchangeable
colors), only one radar source may be shown on a map Display Pane at a time. Pilots should carefully consider
information from airborne and data link weather sources, in addition to other available resources to avoid flight
into hazardous weather conditions.
ANTENNA BEAM ILLUMINATION
Radar beams are much like the beam of a flashlight, in that they will illuminate targets within the beam. Just
as with a flashlight, the further the beam travels, the wider it becomes and the less effective it is at illuminating
targets. The certified beam width contains 90% of the energy of the radar signal, with the strongest part of
the beam in the center. Pointing the center of the beam at targets to investigate provides the best returns for a
particular target.
The remaining 10% of beam energy (outside the certified beam) has sufficient strength and the antenna has
the sensitivity to display highly reflective targets, including additional weather and ground returns. Weather
returns from this portion of the beam energy will most likely be under representative of the true intensity of
the hazards, because they are so far from the center of the beam (and outside of the certified beam width).
The strong reflective nature of terrain features will cause the display of ground clutter well short of where the
certified beam width intersects the ground. For the 10-inch antenna this additional beam energy represents
approximately four additional degrees at the top and bottom of the certified beam width of 10 degrees.
The following figure depicts the radar beam as seen from the side, with both the certified beam width and the
additional beam energy illustrated. With the aircraft at 30,000 ft. AGL and a radar tilt angle of zero degrees,
ground clutter may be observed starting at approximately 30 NM. The cell located 20 NM from own ship
would be over-scanned by the beam, and as a result would not be represented on the radar display. The cell
located 80 NM from own ship displays radar tops of 22,000 ft. AGL which is relatively close to the beam center,
so this cell would be represented on the display. However, utilizing a lower radar tilt angle would better depict
the precipitation intensities of this cell. The cell located at approximately 190 NM displays radar tops of 28,000
ft. AGL, while the center of the beam is at about 65,500 ft. AGL (due to the Earth’s curvature at that distance).
While this particular cell may appear on the display due to being within the certified beam width, it would most
likely be under-represented due to being so distant from the beam center. The radar tilt angle would need to
be adjusted downwards to properly explore this cell’s precipitation intensity.
Figure 6-61 Radar Beam in Relation to the Curvature of the Earth from a 10 inch Antenna
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RADAR SIGNAL ATTENUATION
The phenomenon of radar signal attenuation affects the operation of weather radar. When the radar signal
is transmitted, it is progressively absorbed and scattered, making the signal weaker. This weakening, or
attenuation, is caused by two primary sources, distance and precipitation.
Distance attenuation occurs due to the fact that the radar energy leaving the antenna is inversely proportional
to the square of the distance. The reflected radar energy from a target 40 miles away that fills the radar beam
is one fourth the energy reflected from an equivalent target 20 miles away. This would appear to the operator
that the storm is gaining intensity as the aircraft gets closer. Internal signal processing within the equipped
weather radar system compensates for much of this distance attenuation.
Attenuation due to precipitation is not as predictable as distance attenuation. It is also more intense. As the
radar signal passes through moisture, a portion of the radar energy is reflected back to the antenna. However,
much of the energy is absorbed. If precipitation is very heavy, or covers a large area, the signal may not
reach completely through the area of precipitation. The weather radar system cannot distinguish between an
attenuated signal and an area of no precipitation. If the signal has been fully attenuated, the radar displays
a radar shadow. This appears as an end to the precipitation when, in fact, the heavy rain may extend much
further. A cell containing heavy precipitation may block another cell located behind the first, preventing it
from being displayed on the radar. Never fly into these shadowed areas and never assume that all of the heavy
precipitation is being displayed unless another cell or a ground target can be seen beyond the heavy cell. The
WATCH® feature of the installed weather radar system can help to identify these shadowed areas. Areas in
question appear as shadowed or gray on the radar display. Proper use of the antenna tilt control can also help
detect radar shadows.
Attenuation can also be due to poor maintenance or degradation of the radome. Even the smallest amount
of wear and scratching, pitting, and pinholes on the radome surface can cause damage and system inefficiency.
RADAR SIGNAL REFLECTIVITY
Precipitation
Precipitation or objects more dense than water, such as the surface of the earth or solid structures, are
detected by the weather radar. The weather radar does not detect clouds, thunderstorms, or turbulence
directly. It detects precipitation associated with clouds, thunderstorms, and turbulence. The best radar
signal reflectors are raindrops, wet snow, or wet hail. The larger the raindrop, the better the reflectivity. The
size of the precipitation droplet is the most important factor in radar reflectivity. Because large drops in a
small concentrated area are characteristic of a severe thunderstorm, the radar displays the storm as a strong
return. Ice crystals, dry snow, and dry hail have low levels of reflectivity as shown in the illustration, and
often are not displayed by the radar. Additionally, a cloud that contains only small raindrops, such as fog
or drizzle, does not reflect enough radar energy to produce a measurable target return.
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Figure 6-63 Precipitation Type and Reflectivity
Figure 6-62 Precipitation Reflectivity by Temperature as Related to Altitude
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When using the airborne weather radar to explore a more intense thunderstorm cell, it is critical to
understand where radar returns can be expected to be intense, and where they can be expected to decrease
to a point where no returns will be displayed. Since wet precipitation reflects radar energy far better than dry
precipitation, strong radar returns can be expected at lower altitudes, with the strongest radar returns found
near the melting level. At higher altitudes, precipitation becomes frozen, and reflectivity is significantly
reduced. At a certain altitude within in a thunderstorm cell, returns will begin to diminish. This is the “echo
top” of a cell, where radar can no longer detect the frozen precipitation, but this is not the actual top of the
cell, which could extend significantly further into the atmosphere. Since it is difficult to detect the actual
tops of a thunderstorm cell with radar, and invisible bow waves may extend beyond visible tops, overflight
of thunderstorms should never be attempted.
Ground Returns
The intensity of ground target returns depends upon the angle at which the radar beam strikes the
ground target (Angle of Incidence) and the reflective properties of that target. The gain can be adjusted so
shorelines, rivers, lakes, and cities are well defined. Increasing the gain too much causes the display to fill
in between targets, thus obscuring some landmarks.
Cities normally provide a strong return signal. While large buildings and structures provide good returns,
small buildings can be shadowed from the radar beam by the taller buildings. As the aircraft approaches
and shorter ranges are selected, details become more noticeable as the highly reflective regular lines and
edges of the city become more defined.
Bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, and oceans are not good reflectors and normally do not provide good
returns. The energy is reflected in a forward scatter angle with inadequate energy being returned. They
can appear as dark areas on the display. However, rough or choppy water is a better reflector and provides
stronger returns from the downwind sides of the waves.
Mountains also provide strong return signals to the antenna, but also block the areas behind. However,
over mountainous terrain, the radar beam can be reflected back and forth in the mountain passes or off
canyon walls, using up all or most of the radar energy. In this case, no return signal is received from this
area, causing the display to show a dark spot which could indicate a pass where no pass exists.
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Angle of Incidence
The angle at which the radar beam strikes the target is called the Angle of Incidence. The figure illustrates
the incident angle (‘A’). This directly affects the detectable range, the area of illumination, and the intensity
of the displayed target returns. A large incident angle gives the radar system a smaller detectable range and
lower display intensity due to minimized reflection of the radar energy.
Figure 6-63 Angle of Incidence
A smaller incident angle gives the radar a larger detectable range of operation and the target display shows
a higher intensity. Since more radar energy is reflected back to the antenna with a low incident angle, the
resulting detectable range is increased for mountainous terrain.
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SAFE OPERATING DISTANCE
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
the MPEL boundary.
The following information establishes a minimum safe distance from the antenna for personnel near
operating weather radar. The minimum safe distance is based on the FCC’s exposure limit at 9.3 to 9.5 GHz for
general population/uncontrolled environments, which is 1 mW/cm2. See Advisory Circular 20-68B for more
information on safe distance determination.
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVEL (MPEL)
The zone in which the radiation level exceeds the US Government standard of 1 mW/cm2 is the semicircular
area of at least 10 feet from the 10-inch antenna. All personnel must remain outside of this zone. This
recommendation slightly exceeds the calculation methods defined in Advisory Circular 20-68B. With a
scanning or rotating beam, the averaged power density at the MPEL boundary is significantly reduced.
MPEL
Boundary
10 ft. for 10”
antenna
Figure 6-64 MPEL Boundary
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BASIC ANTENNA TILT AND RANGE SETUP
Proper antenna tilt management techniques are a major factor for the successful use of any airborne weather
system. If the antenna tilt angle is set too low, the radar display will show excessive ground returns, making it
difficult for the pilot to distinguish adverse weather phenomena from ground clutter. If the antenna tilt angle is
set too high, the radar beam will overscan the top of the adverse weather. In either of these examples, the flight
crew would be unable to adequately recognize critical weather information.
The following discussion is a simple method for setting up the weather radar antenna tilt for most situations.
It is not to be considered an all encompassing setup that works in all situations, but this method does provide
good overall parameters for the monitoring of intense weather threats. Correct application of tilt angle is
directly dependent on the storms height and intensity and its relative distance from own ship. Adjusting the
airborne weather radar tilt angle setting until minimal ground clutter is displayed is the simplest setup method
for general surveillance of precipitation returns. For ranges of up to 80 NM this ground clutter should appear
on the outer portion of the radar display. At ranges greater than 80 NM, the displayed ground clutter will move
lower on the radar display due to the curvature of the earth. By displaying a minimal amount of ground clutter
on the installed weather radar system the flight crew can ensure the system is operating and that the air mass
above the ground clutter is being scanned.
When a strong a weather return is detected within the ground clutter it must be further investigated to
determine the source of this return. Further tilt angle adjustment of the airborne radar may be required to
explore this return. Adjusting the radar tilt angle upwards can reveal the radar tops of this return, while
adjusting the tilt angle downwards may be necessary to investigate the strongest intensity of a particular return.
Effective airborne weather radar range management during all phases of flight should be based on the volume
of air to be scanned for returns ahead of own aircraft, to allow sufficient time needed to investigate, analyze,
decide, and tactically maneuver around these hazardous weather returns. Longer ranges may be used to
tactically identify intense weather returns that may warrant further investigation, and closer ranges may be used
during the investigation process.
There is no one tilt or range setting that works for all situations. It is best to remember that active tilt and
range management is necessary to identify and then investigate returns.
NOTE: When a strong weather return is displayed on the weather radar, the tilt angle may be adjusted to
explore return intensities at various altitudes to aid in determination of radar tops.
NOTE: It is the sole responsibility of the flight crew to avoid areas of hazardous weather by adequate
margins.
CAUTION: Overflight of thunderstorms should not be considered safe, as extreme turbulence and hail may
exist significantly above observed returns.
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MANAGING TILT ANGLE AND RANGE
There are many factors to be considered in order to become proficient at using airborne weather radar in
all situations. The following setup provides a good starting point for the practical application of radar tilt
management.
4000
Change in Antenna Tilt
+4°
+3°
+2°
+1°
0°
-1°
-2°
-3°
-4°
3000
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
10 nm
4000
Vertical Change of Radar Beam (feet)
Radar tilt management can easily be remembered by use of the 1-10-1000 rule. The summary of this rule is
the fact that when the flight crew changes the radar tilt angle by 1 degree the resulting change will displace the
center of the beam 1000 feet vertically at a range of 10 nautical miles. Applying the 1-10-1000 rule to various
distances provides the flight crew with the ability to determine how much a 1-degree change in tilt will
move the beam vertically. The radar tilt angle is capable of being adjusted in one-quarter degree increments,
allowing for greater accuracy in the placement of the beam center at desired altitudes.
Figure 6-65 Vertical Change in Radar Beam per Nautical Mile
The 10-inch phased array antenna has a certified beam width of 10 degrees, which means that the beam
is approximately 10,000 feet in height (and width) at 10 NM and approximately 100,000 feet in height (and
width) at 100 NM.
• At 20 NM range the beam height changes by 2,000 ft. per degree of tilt change.
• At 40 NM range the beam height changes by 4,000 ft. per degree of tilt change.
• At 100 NM range the beam height changes by 10,000 ft. per degree of tilt change.
Additionally, setting the tilt to UP 5.00 degrees places the bottom of the certified beam at the same altitude
as the aircraft, which is a technique used to determine whether radar tops reach your current altitude.
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Phase of Flight
Taxi
Tilt Angle
Up 7.50° to
10.00°
Range Setting
20 NM
Notes
Activate weather mode when clear
of ramp area.
Takeoff / Initial
Climb
Up 7.50° to
10.00°
Altitude
Compensated Tilt
On
Up 3.00 to 5.00°
Altitude
Compensated Tilt
On
Tilt to Minimize
Clutter
Altitude
Compensated Tilt
On
Tilt to Minimize
Clutter
Altitude
Compensated Tilt
On
Up 7.50° to
10.00°
Altitude
Compensated Tilt
On
Up 7.50° to
10.00°
Altitude
Compensated Tilt
On
60 NM
If precipitation is observed in
the departure path, gain can be
reduced to aid in identification of
intense returns.
60 - 80 NM
Range setting is dependent upon
ground speed and time available
for deviations.
60 - 120 NM
Range setting is dependent upon
ground speed and time available
for deviations. Tilt angle set to
show minimal ground clutter.
60 - 120 NM
Range setting is dependent upon
ground speed and time available
for deviation.
40 - 60 NM
Range setting is dependent upon
ground speed and time available
for deviation. Tilt angle set to show
ground clutter in outer 1/3 of radar
display.
20 NM
These settings allow for observation
of the approach area and the
missed approach holding area.
10,000 Ft. AGL
Cruise
Descent To
10,000 FT
Descent Below
10,000 FT
Approach
Table 6-9 Typical Tilt Settings by Phase of Flight
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ALTITUDE COMPENSATED TILT (ACT)
The Altitude Compensated Tilt feature enables the equipped weather radar system to automatically adjust
the antenna beam tilt angle setting based on changes of the aircraft’s altitude.
After the pilot has identified an area of precipitation using manual antenna tilt controls, the Altitude
Compensated Tilt (ACT) feature can help maintain the display of the identified precipitation during climbs
or descents. ACT automatically adjusts the antenna tilt angle setting as the aircraft altitude changes. It keeps
the center of the radar beam at a constant altitude at 75% of the map range.
For example, if the ACT feature is enabled and the aircraft climbs, the system compensates by adjusting
the tilt downward. As the aircraft descends with ACT enabled, the system adjusts the antenna tilt upward.
The system uses the ground as a reference for adjusting the antenna tilt setting with ACT enabled. The ACT
feature is not typically used for an extended period during level flight.
WEATHER MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
WEATHER DISPLAY INTERPRETATION
When evaluating various target returns on the weather radar display, the colors denote precipitation
intensity and rates shown in the table.
Weather Mode Color
Intensity (in dBz)
Black
Green
Yellow
Red
< 23 dBZ
23 dBZ to < 33 dBZ
33 dBZ to < 41 dBZ
41 dBZ and greater
Approximate
Precipitation Rate (in/hr.)
< .01
.01 - 0.1
0.1 - 0.5
greater than 0.5
Table 6-10 Precipitation Intensity Levels in Weather Mode (GWX 70)
Thunderstorms
Updrafts and downdrafts in thunderstorms carry water through the cloud. The more severe the drafts, the
greater the number and size of the precipitation droplets. With this in mind, the following interpretations
can be made from what is displayed on the weather radar. Avoid these areas by an extra wide margin.
• In areas where the displayed target intensity is red or magenta (indicating large amounts of precipitation),
the turbulence (areas of white) is considered severe.
• Areas that show steep color gradients (intense color changes) over thin bands or short distances suggest
irregular rainfall rate and strong turbulence.
• Areas that show red or magenta are associated with hail, as well as heavy precipitation. While areas of
turbulence will be displayed as white. Vertical scanning and antenna tilt management may be necessary
to identify areas of maximum intensity.
• Areas of radar shadowing which can result from an attenuated (weakened) signal from a nearby storm,
hiding a larger and more dangerous storm which may exist in the apparently benign area directly behind
the nearby return.
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Along squall lines (multiple cells or clusters of cells in a line) individual cells may be in different stages
of development. Areas between closely spaced, intense targets may contain developing clouds not having
enough moisture to produce a return. However, these areas could have strong updrafts or downdrafts.
Targets showing wide areas of green are generally precipitation without severe turbulence.
Irregularities in the target return may also indicate turbulence, appearing as hooks, fingers, or scalloped
edges. These irregularities may be present in green areas with no yellow, red, or magenta areas and should
be treated as highly dangerous areas. Avoid these areas as if they are red or magenta.
Squall Line
Steep Gradient
Hook or Finger
Scalloped Edge
Figure 6-66 Cell Irregularities
Thunderstorm development is rapid. A course may become blocked within a short time. When displaying
shorter ranges, periodically select a longer range to see if problems are developing further out. That can
help prevent getting trapped in a blind alley or an area that is closed at one end by convective weather.
Figure 6-67 The Blind Alley - Horizontal Scan
In areas of multiple heavy cells, use the Vertical Scan feature along with antenna tilt management to
examine the areas. Remember to avoid shadowed areas behind targets.
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The Blind Alley at Close Range
The Large Storm Behind
Figure 6-68 The Blind Alley
Tornadoes
There are no conclusive radar target return characteristics which identify a tornado. However, tornadoes
may be present if the following characteristics are observed:
• A narrow, finger-like portion extends and in a short time curls into a hook and closes on itself.
• A hook, which may be in the general shape of the numeral 6 (numeral 9 in the southern hemisphere),
especially if bright and projecting from the southwest quadrant (northeast quadrant in the southern
hemisphere) of a major thunderstorm.
• V-shaped notches.
• Doughnut shapes.
These shapes do not always indicate tornadoes, and tornado returns are not limited to these characteristics.
Confirmed radar observations of tornadoes most often have not shown shapes different from those of a
normal thunderstorm display.
Hail
Hail results from updrafts carrying water high enough to freeze. Therefore, the higher the top of a
thunderstorm, the greater the probability that it contains hail. Frozen hail is a very poor reflector of radar
energy, which makes it difficult to detect. When investigating a thunderstorm for return tops, pilots must
understand that hail and extreme turbulence are likely to exist above the return tops.
Hail can fall below the minimum reflectivity threshold for radar detection. At lower altitudes, hail may
have a film of water on its surface, making its reflective characteristics similar to a very large water droplet.
Because of this film of water, and because hail stones usually are larger than water droplets, thunderstorms
with large amounts of wet hail return stronger signals than those with rain. Some hail shafts are extremely
narrow (100 yards or less) and make poor radar targets. In the upper regions of a cell where ice particles
are dry (no liquid coating), target returns are less intense.
Hail shafts are associated with the same radar target return characteristics as tornados. U-shaped cloud
edges three to seven miles across can also indicate hail. These target returns appear quite suddenly along
any edge of the cell outline. They also change in intensity and shape in a matter of seconds, making vigilant
monitoring essential.
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OPERATION IN WEATHER MODE
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
the MPEL boundary.
NOTE: Garmin recommends the user obtain instruction in the proper operation of airborne weather radar.
When the weather radar system is in the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically switches
to Standby mode on landing.
Antenna Stabilization Status
Weather Radar
Mode
Altitude Compensated
Tilt Status
Antenna Tilt Angle,
Bearing, Sector Scan
and Gain Settings
Figure 6-69 ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page with a Horizontal Scan Selected
Displaying weather on the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page.
2) Select the Mode Softkey.
3) While on the ground, the weather radar will be in ‘Standby’ mode.
a) Select the Weather Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight YES and press the ENT Key to continue radar activation.
Or:
If the aircraft is airborne, select the Weather Softkey.
4) Turn the Joystick to select the desired map range.
5) The horizontal scan is initially displayed. If desired, select the Vertical Softkey to change to vertical scanning.
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Figure 6-70 Confirming Activating Radar
Vertically scanning a storm cell:
NOTE: Vertical scanning of a storm cell should be done with the aircraft wings level to avoid constant
adjustment of the Bearing Line.
1) While in the Horizontal Scan view, select the BRG Softkey. This places the cursor in the Bearing field and
displays the Bearing Line.
If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Show Bearing
Line’. Press the ENT Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line on the desired storm cell or other area to be vertically
scanned.
3) Press the Vertical Softkey. A vertical scan of the selected area is now displayed.
4) The small FMS Knob may be used to move the scanned bearing line a few degrees right or left.
5) Turn the Joystick to adjust the range.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
7) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, select the Horizon Softkey to return to the Horizontal Scan view
and repeat the previous steps.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust bearing from left to right.
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Figure 6-71 Vertical Scan Display
Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle
In order to make an accurate interpretation of a storm cell, the radar beam should be pointed at the wet
part of the weather cell to record the proper rainfall intensity (color level). The ideal aiming point is just
below the freezing level of the storm. The best way to find this point is to use the Vertical Scan feature. The
antenna tilt angle can be centered on the strongest return area in the vertical scan to get a more accurate
view of the coverage and intensity of the target in the horizontal scan.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Horizontal Scan display:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the Tilt field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired antenna tilt angle.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt up and down.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Vertical Scan display:
1) Select the Tilt Softkey to activate the cursor in the Tilt field and display the Tilt Line.
If the Tilt Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Tilt Line. Press
the ENT Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the antenna tilt angle. The selected tilt angle is implemented when Horizontal
Scan is again selected.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt.
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Tilt Line
Scan Line
Figure 6-72 Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle on a Vertical Scan Display
Enabling/disabling manual gain adjustment:
WARNING: Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity. Remember to return the gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the
actual intensity of precipitation.
1) Select the Gain Softkey to activate the cursor in the Gain field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the gain for the desirable level. The gain setting is visible in the Gain field
as a movable horizontal bar in a flashing box. The line pointer is a reference depicting the calibrated position.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
4) Select the Gain Softkey again to return to the calibrated gain setting. ‘Calibrated’ is displayed in the Gain field.
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Calibrated Gain Setting
Manual Gain Set Greater than Calibrated Gain Setting
Figure 6-73 Gain Calibration
Enabling/disabling Sector Scanning:
1) While in horizontal scan mode, press the BRG Softkey to display the Bearing Line and place the cursor in the
Bearing field. If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select
Show Bearing Line. Press the ENT Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line in the desired position. The location of the Bearing Line
becomes the center point of the Sector Scan.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Sector Scan field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired scan. Selecting ‘Full’ enables a 90º scan.
5) If desired, readjust the Bearing Line as discussed previously to change the center of the Sector Scan.
6) Select the BRG Softkey again to remove the Bearing Line and cursor. The bearing reference is reset to 0º.
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Figure 6-74 40° Sector Scan
Weather Attenuated Color Highlight (WATCH™)
While in horizontal scan mode, this feature can be used as a tool to determine areas of possible inaccuracies
in displayed intensity due to weakening of the radar energy. This weakening is known as attenuation. The
radar energy weakens as it passes through areas of intense precipitation, large areas of lesser precipitation,
and distance. Issues with the radome also attenuates the radar energy. All these factors have an effect on the
return intensity. The more energy that dissipates, the lesser the displayed intensity of the return. Accuracy
of the displayed intensity of returns located in the shaded areas are suspect. Make maneuvering decisions
with this information in mind. Proper antenna tilt management should still be employed to determine the
extent of attenuation in a shaded area.
Enabling/disabling the WATCH feature:
1) On the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page, select the Features Softkey.
2) Select the WATCH Softkey to enable/disable the WATCH feature.
3) Select the Back Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
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Areas of Attenuated Signal
Precipitation
intensity is
questionable.
Potentially
stronger than
displayed
Figure 6-75 Horizontal Scan with WATCH Enabled
Weather Alert
The Weather Alert feature indicates the presence of heavy precipitation between the ranges of 80 and 320
nm regardless of the currently displayed range. Weather Alerts are displayed as red bands along the outer
range ring at the approximate azimuth of the detected returns.
If a Weather Alert is detected within ±10° of the aircraft heading, and the WX ALRT Softkey is enabled,
the system also displays an alert on the PFD in the Alerts Window.
If the antenna tilt is adjusted too low, a weather alert can be generated by ground returns. To avoid
unwanted weather alerts, deselect the WX ALRT Softkey.
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Weather Alert Bands
Figure 6-76 Weather Alert Bands on the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page
The pilot can enable or disable the Weather Alert Bands and the Weather Alerts which appear in the Alerts
Window on the PFD.
Enabling/disabling the Weather Alerts Bands and Alerts Window Message:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page.
2) Select the Features Softkey.
3) Select the WX ALRT Softkey to enable/disable the Weather Alert Bands and Alerts Window message for severe
weather head.
4) Select the Back Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
Figure 6-77 Weather Alert on PFD
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GROUND MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
A secondary use of the weather radar system is for the presentation of terrain. This can be a useful tool for
verifying aircraft position. A picture of the ground is represented much like a topographical map that can be
used as a supplement to the navigation map on the MFD.
Ground Map mode uses a different gain range than Weather mode. Different colors are also used to represent
the intensity levels. The displayed intensity of ground target returns are defined in the table below. Use of the
Gain and Tilt Softkeys help improve contrast so that specific ground targets can be recognized more easily.
As previously discussed, the type and orientation of the target in relation to the aircraft affects the intensity
displayed.
When the weather radar system is in either the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby mode upon landing.
Ground Map
Mode Color
Black
Cyan
Yellow
Magenta
Blue
Intensity
0 dB
> 0 dB to < 9 dB
9 dB to < 18 dB
18 dB to < 27 dB
27 dB and greater
Table 6-11 Ground Target Return Intensity Levels
Operation in Ground Map Mode:
1) Select the Mode Softkey.
2) Select the Ground Softkey to place the radar in Ground Map mode.
3) Select the Back Softkey.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Tilt field.
6) Adjust the antenna tilt angle by turning the small FMS Knob to display ground returns at the desired distance.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
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ADDITIONAL RADAR DISPLAYS
NOTE: The NEXRAD weather product cannot be displayed simultaneously on the Navigation Map Page with
weather radar information.
The ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page is the principal map page for viewing airborne weather radar information.
Airborne weather radar information may also be shown as an overlay on the ‘Nap - Navigation Map’ Page. The
airborne weather radar is also available on the HSI Map with independent weather radar controls for each PFD,
allowing for different settings and modes for each display. The radar range increases or decreases automatically
as the map range increases or decreases.
When the airborne weather radar overlay is enabled on a navigation map, a weather radar information box
appears on the map. It indicates the selected radar mode, radar range, antenna tilt angle, and gain setting.
The navigation map overlay uses a horizontal scan. The GWX 70 allows either horizontal or vertical scan to
be selected on the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page, and shows a horizontal scan on the navigation maps with the
weather radar overlay.
The pilot may enable airborne weather radar information with other map overlays on navigation maps, such
as traffic, absolute terrain information, and aviation data. However, relative terrain and data link weather radar
(such as NEXRAD) cannot be enabled simultaneously with airborne weather radar information on the same
navigation map. If relative terrain or data link radar is enabled, the system automatically disables the airborne
weather radar overlay for the selected map.
NOTE: When viewing airborne weather radar information overlay on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page,
selecting a Heading Up navigation map orientation may be desired, since it is identical to the orientation on
the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page.
Weather Radar Mode
Weather Radar Range
Antenna Tilt Angle
Gain Setting
Scan Line
Tilt and
Bearing
Legend
Figure 6-78 Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page
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Enabling/disabling Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map- Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Select the WX Radar Softkey.
Or:
1) On the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the product selections and highlight the ‘Weather Radar’ overlay
selection (‘On’ or ‘Off’). Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired selection.
5) To remove the menu, press the FMS Knob or CLR Key.
Weather radar controls on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page are limited to adjustment of the radar range,
bearing, and antenna tilt angle. The airborne weather radar overlay is viewable at Navigation Map Ranges
between 1.5 and 500 nautical miles. At map ranges beyond these limits, the system removes the weather radar
information from the map. Adjusting the range on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page simultaneously adjusts the
range of the weather radar proportionally. This radar range is annunciated in the weather radar information
box that appears when the overlay is enabled. When the radar range is adjusted on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’
Page, system synchronizes the same range to the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page.
The radar bearing is adjustable in one degree increments on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page using the
Joystick when the overlay is enabled. The bearing line appears on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page as a white
dashed line, and is displayed during and momentarily after adjustment.
Radar antenna tilt angle is adjustable in 0.25 degree increments on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page using
the Joystick. An up or down arrow next to the antenna tilt angle setting indicates the direction of the antenna
tilt angle.
Adjusting the bearing and antenna tilt angle on the Navigation Map Page:
1) With the weather radar overlay enabled, push the Joystick twice. The bearing and tilt legend is displayed in
the lower-left corner of the map.
2) Move the Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward, or move the Joystick up to adjust the
antenna tilt angle upward.
3) Move the Joystick left or right to adjust the bearing line in the desired direction. A dashed bearing line is
displayed during and momentarily after adjustment.
If the aircraft is in the air, PFD softkeys control the airborne weather radar overlay for the HSI Map. These
softkeys are subdued if the aircraft is on the ground. The pilot and copilot can select a weather radar mode
for each PFD (Standby, Weather, Ground), make adjustments to antenna gain, antenna tilt angle, or enable/
disable antenna stabilization or Altitude Compensated Tilt features. Weather radar settings on the HSI Map are
independent for each PFD. For example, the pilot’s PFD may have Weather Mode selected while the copilot’s
PFD may have Standby Mode selected. The GWX 70 weather radar performs multiple scans as necessary to
accommodate displays of weather radar data among the PFDs and MFD.
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NOTE: The aircraft must be in the air in order for HSI Map airborne weather radar softkeys to become
available.
Controlling of weather radar information on the HSI Map:
1) If necessary, enable the HSI Map on the PFD.
2) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
3) Press the WX Radar Softkey to enable/disable the airborne weather radar HSI Map overlay.
4) Press the RDR Opt Softkey.
5) To select a weather radar mode, press the Mode SEL Softkey
a) Press a softkey for the desired mode: Standby, Weather, or Ground. The selected mode only affects the
PFD on which the softkey is selected.
b) When finished, press the Back Softkey.
6) Press the Gain- Softkey to decrease the gain setting or press the Gain+ Softkey to increase the gain setting in
increments of 0.5 with each press, or press and hold the softkey for continuous adjustment. A gain setting of
0.0 is equivalent to the calibrated gain setting.
7) Move the PFD Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward, or move the Joystick down to adjust
the antenna tilt angle upward.
8) Press the ACT Softkey to enable/disable the Altitude Compensated Tilt feature.
9) When finished adjusting the HSI Map display of the airborne weather radar, press the Back Softkey.
Adjusting gain on the HSI Map:
1) If necessary, enable the HSI Map on the PFD.
2) Press the Wx Radar Softkey to enable/disable the airborne weather radar HSI Map overlay.
3) Press the RDR Opt Softkey.
4) Press either the Gain - or Gain + Softkey once to decrease/increase the gain in increments of 0.5, or press and
hold the softkey to continue adjustment while the softkey is held. A manual setting of ‘0.0’ is equivalent to the
calibrated gain setting.
5) When finished adjusting the HSI Map display of the airborne weather radar, press the Back Softkey.
The weather radar overlay uses the same colors as those shown on the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page to indicate
the intensity of radar returns. However, the display of gray WATCH radar attenuation and red weather alert
bands is exclusive to the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page. Because data link radar precipitation and relative terrain
present information using similar colors, enabling the airborne weather radar overlay on the navigation amps
disables the display of the data link radar and relative terrain information for this page.
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Figure 6-79 HSI Map with Airborne Weather Radar Overlay and Softkeys
SYSTEM STATUS
The system displays the radar mode annunciation in the upper left corner of the ‘Map - Weather Radar’
Page. Additional information may be displayed in the center of the Weather Radar Page as a center banner
annunciation. Refer to the following tables for a list of annunciations and their locations for airborne weather
radar.
Radar Mode
Radar Mode Annunciation Box
Center Banner Annunciation
Standby
STANDBY
Weather
WEATHER
None
Ground Mapping
GROUND
None
Radar Failed*
FAIL
RADAR FAIL
STANDBY
STANDBY
* See Table 6-13 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-12 Radar Modes on the Weather Radar Page
The system displays the status of the weather radar features in the upper-right corner of the ‘Map - Weather
Radar’ Page.
Radar Feature Status
STAB INOP
Description
The radar is not receiving pitch and roll information. The antenna
stabilization feature is inoperative.
ALTITUDE COMP TILT ON
The altitude-compensated tilt feature is selected on.
ALTITUDE COMP TILT OFF
The altitude-compensated tilt feature is selected off.
Table 6-13 Radar Feature Status Annunciations on the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page
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If the weather radar unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown as a banner in the center
of the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page.
Weather Radar
Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Description
BAD CONFIG
The radar configuration is invalid. The radar should be serviced.
RDR FAULT
The radar unit is reporting a fault. The radar should be serviced.
RADAR FAIL
The system is not receiving valid data from the radar unit. The system should be serviced.
Table 6-14 Abnormal Radar Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
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6.4 TERRAIN DISPLAYS
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for maintaining separation
from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data from third party sources and cannot
independently verify the accuracy of the information.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain database coverage
area.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South
latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s ability to process
the data representing the affected areas.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle alerting requires the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B option. No terrain or obstacle
alerting occurs for the Terrain Proximity feature.
The terrain system increases situational awareness and aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) and
obstacles.
One of the following terrain systems is installed on this aircraft:
• Terrain Proximity.
• Terrain-SVT (included with the Garmin SVT option when the Terrain Awareness and Warning System Class-B
(TAWS-B) is not installed; refer to the Flight Instruments section for more information about Garmin SVT.).
• TAWS-B (optional).
The installed terrain system provides color indications on map displays when terrain or obstacles are within
a certain altitude threshold from the aircraft. Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B furthermore provide advisory visual
annunciations and voice alerts to indicate the presence of threatening terrain or obstacles relevant to the projected
flight path. This alerting capability is not present in the Terrain Proximity feature. Compared to Terrain-SVT
alerting, TAWS-B uses more sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles. Only
the TAWS-B system complies with TSO-C15b certification standards, and includes additional alerting capabilities
than the Terrain-SVT system.
The terrain system requires the following for proper operation:
• Valid 3-D GPS position.
• Valid terrain and obstacle databases.
The terrain system uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. Terrain information
is based on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may
be shown if available in the database. Garmin verifies the data to confirm accuracy of the content. However, the
displayed information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and data may still contain inaccuracies.
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The terrain system uses information provided from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and
altitude. GPS altitude is derived from satellite measurements. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above
geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above mean sea level (MSL) calculated geometrically. The system
uses GSL altitude to determine alerts for the Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems. GSL altitude accuracy is affected
by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure
altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. It is a widelyused MSL altitude source. Therefore, GSL altitude provides a highly accurate and reliable MSL altitude source to
calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
The terrain and obstacle databases used by the terrain system are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position
and GSL altitude, terrain system displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the
position and altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the system uses the GPS position and GSL altitude to calculate
and “predict” the aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this manner, the
Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems can provide advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain conditions.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
from the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude. This variation results in the aircraft’s GSL altitude differing
from the baro-corrected altitude.
RELATIVE TERRAIN SYMBOLOGY
The terrain system uses colors and symbols to represent terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than 200
feet above ground level, AGL) present in the databases relative to aircraft altitude. The system dynamically
adjusts these colors as the aircraft altitude changes, and after takeoff and landing.
While the aircraft is on the ground, the system displays relative terrain 400 feet or more above the aircraft
altitude using red, and terrain at less than 400 feet above aircraft altitude using black, as shown on the OnGround Legend. When the aircraft is in the air, the system displays relative terrain information using red,
yellow, green, and black, as shown on the In-Air Legend. As the aircraft transitions from on-ground to in-air, or
from in-air to on-ground, the display of relative terrain momentarily fades into the corresponding colors. For
Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems, if an alert occurs, the relative terrain colors transition to the In-Air Legend if
the On-Ground Legend was shown in order to provide the pilot with the most information possible.
On-Ground Legend
In-Air Legend
Figure 6-80 Relative Terrain Legend
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The following figure shows relative terrain coloring for the Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems.
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-81 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B Systems
NOTE: The Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Inset Window shows terrain at least 2000 feet below the aircraft
altitude as gray.
The following tables show the relative obstacle coloring used by the terrain systems.
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below the aircraft
altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below
the aircraft altitude
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below aircraft
altitude
Table 6-15 Relative Obstacle Symbols and Colors
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Unlighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Lighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Wind Turbine Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below aircraft altitude
Table 6-16 Wind Turbine Obstacles and Colors
The Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems show potential impacts areas for terrain and obstacles using yellow and
red as shown in the the following table.
Potential Impact
Area Examples
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
Warning
TERRAIN
Caution
TERRAIN
or
or
Table 6-17 Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B Potential Impact Area with Annunciations
The ‘Map - Terrain Proximity/Terrain-SV/TAWS-B’ Page is the principal map page for viewing terrain
information. Terrain and obstacle information can be displayed on the following maps and pages:
• PFD Maps
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Page
• Terrain Proximity/Terrain-SVT/TAWS-B Page
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (MFD maps other than the terrain page):
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the Map/HSI Softkey).
2) Press the TER Softkey until REL is shown to display terrain and obstacle data.
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When relative terrain is selected on maps other than the terrain page, an icon to indicate the feature is enabled
for display and a legend for the relative terrain colors are shown.
The ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/
disabling display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which
terrain and obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is
selected, the data is removed from the map.
Terrain information can be selected for display independently of obstacle data.
Maps besides the Terrain Page use settings based on those selected for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. The
maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the Navigation
Map.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through selections.
• Terrain Display – Turns the display of relative (‘REL’) terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which
terrain is shown.
• Point Obstacle – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are
shown.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each item (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map- -Navigation Map’ Page with the changed settings.
Additional information about obstacles can be displayed by panning over the display on the map. The map
panning feature is enabled by pushing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the Joystick. If the
map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
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Lighted Obstacle
selected with
Map Pointer
for additional
information
Relative Terrain
Legend
Figure 6-82 Relative Terrain Information on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page
TERRAIN PAGE
The ‘Map - Terrain Proximity/Terrain-SVT/TAWS-B’ Page is specialized to show terrain, and obstacle in
relation to the aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. This page is the principal page for
viewing terrain information. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs) can be enabled for reference.
For Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems, this page also shows potential impact areas. If an obstacle and the
projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the display automatically adjusts to a map range if necessary to
emphasize the display of the potential impact area.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading, in which case the
orientation is track up. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map
range arcs.
Displaying the terrain page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Terrain Proximity/Terrain-SVT/TAWS-B’ Page.
Showing/hiding aviation information on the terrain page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
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GPS-GSL
Altitude
Red Terrain is
above or within
100’ below the
aircraft altitude)
Yellow Lighted
Obstacle is
Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
Aircraft Altitude
Red Lighted
Obstacle is
above or within
100’ below
aircraft altitude
Red Wind Turbine
Obstacle is above
or within 100’
below aircraft
altitude
Yellow Terrain is
between 100’
and 1000’ below
the aircraft
altitude)
Relative Terrain
Legend
TAWS Inhibited
Annunciation
Figure 6-83 ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page
VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY (VSD) TERRAIN
The system offers a Vertical Situation Display (VSD), which includes a profile of terrain and obstacles in an
inset window on the bottom of the Navigation Map Page. Although the VSD does not display Terrain-SVT or
TAWS-B alerts and potential impact areas, the VSD does use many of the same colors and symbols as these
systems to depict relative terrain and obstacles within the VSD.
Enabling/Disabling the Vertical Situation Display (VSD):
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Select the Inset Softkey.
4) Select the VSD Softkey to enable or disable the VSD.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
The same controls which enable/disable the display of relative terrain and obstacles on the ‘Map - Navigation
Map’ Page also control the display of this information in the VSD.
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VSD DISPLAY
When the VSD is enabled, terrain and obstacles in the VSD will be shown if the aircraft altitude is low
enough or the VSD altitude range is high enough for the terrain to be in view (absolute terrain will be shown
in gray if the TER Softkey is selected off on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page).
The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of the terrain based upon
the highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the terrain database resolution,
within a predefined width along the aircraft track between the aircraft present position and the end of the
map range. The predefined width is determined by the flight phase, as annunciated on the HSI, and is widest
during enroute or oceanic phases.
Flight Phase
Approach
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Total VSD Width
0.6 nm
0.6 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
4.0 nm
Table 6-18 VSD Terrain Width Varies with Phase of Flight
The forward looking swath of terrain is based on the selected VSD Mode, annunciated in the top-left corner
of the VSD Inset Window. In Flight Plan Mode, the contour follows the active flight plan, and if no active
flight plan is present, the VSD Inset Window displays ‘Flight Plan Not Available’. In Track Mode, the contour
is based on the aircraft ground track. In Auto Mode, the contour is based on the active flight plan, when
available, otherwise, it is based on the ground track.
Selecting a VSD Mode:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Select the Inset Softkey.
3) Select the VSD Softkey displaying the VSD mode in cyan. Each press of the softkey cycles through a mode
selection: FPL (flight plan), TRK (track), or Auto.
When the Navigation Map range is adjusted with the Joystick, the horizontal distance of the VSD is adjusted
to match the distance shown on the map range arc, down to one nautical mile. If the Navigation Map range is
adjusted below one nautical mile, the VSD range remains at one nautical mile. When Navigation Map range
is adjusted to remove altitude-correlated colored terrain data (as shown in the Terrain Legend) or obstacles
from the Navigation Map, these items are also removed from the VSD; only an outline of the terrain will be
displayed in black in the VSD Inset Window.
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Track Mode
Boundary
Relative Terrain
Legend
VSD Mode
Selected Altitude
from the PFD
Figure 6-84 VSD on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with Relative Terrain Information
Obstacles with heights greater than 200 feet AGL appear relative to aircraft altitude along the altitude scale.
The top of the obstacle symbol on the scale represents the obstacle’s height AGL. If the obstacle’s height AGL
is higher than can be represented by the obstacle symbol itself (e.g. for especially tall obstacles), a vertical
line appears below the obstacle symbol in order to depict the top of the obstacle symbol at its height AGL, as
shown in the following figure.
Figure 6-85 VSD with Tall Obstacles
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TRACK MODE BOUNDARY
The Track Mode Boundary represents the horizontal and lateral boundaries of the VSD. The boundary is
shown as a white rectangle on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page and is only available when the VSD is enabled
in Track Mode. White range markers both edges of the Track Mode Boundary rectangle match the range
markers along the distance scale inside the VSD Inset Window whenever the profile range is at least 2500 feet
(or 500 meters if metric distance units are selected).
The Track Mode Boundary may be enabled/disabled, and the Navigation Map range at which the Profile
Path is removed from map display can be changed.
Customizing the Track Mode Boundary display on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘VSD’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
• TRK Mode BNDRY – Enables/disables the display of the Track Mode Boundary and sets maximum range at
which Track Mode Boundary is shown.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (On/Off range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with the changed settings.
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TERRAIN-SVT AND TAWS-B ALERTING DISPLAYS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B software
algorithms. Terrain alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an
alert is issued, visual annunciations are displayed and voice alerts are simultaneously issued.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFDs and MFD. The terrain alert annunciation appears
to the left of the Selected Altitude box on the PFD, and bottom left on the MFD. If the terrain page is not
displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up alert:
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B Page).
TAWS Terrain
Caution
Annunciation
PFD with TAWS-B Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert (if not viewing Terrain-SVT or
TAWS-B Page
MFD TAWS-B Page with Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-86 Example TAWS-B Annunciations
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The following table lists the Terrain-SVT alerts.
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
MFD
Pop-Up Alert (except
Terrain-SVT Page)
Voice Alert
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
TERRAIN
WARNING - TERRAIN
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
TERRAIN
WARNING - TERRAIN
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
TERRAIN
WARNING - OBSTACLE
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning (IOI)
TERRAIN
WARNING - OBSTACLE
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
TERRAIN
CAUTION - TERRAIN
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
TERRAIN
CAUTION - TERRAIN
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
TERRAIN
CAUTION - OBSTACLE
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution (IOI)
TERRAIN
CAUTION - OBSTACLE
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Alert Type
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-19 Terrain-SVT Alerts Summary
The following table lists the TAWS-B alerts.
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Alert Type
Excessive Descent
Rate Warning (EDR)
Reduced Required
Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
Imminent Terrain
Impact Warning (ITI)
Reduced Required
Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
Imminent Obstacle
Impact Warning (IOI)
Reduced Required
Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
PFD/MFD**
Alert
Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert (except
TAWS-B Page)
Voice Alert
PULL UP
PULL-UP
“Pull Up”
PULL UP
PULL UP
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”
or
or
OBSTACLE AHEAD - PULL-UP * “Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”*
OBSTACLE - PULL-UP
PULL UP
OBSTACLE - PULL-UP
PULL UP
*
or
OBSTACLE AHEAD - PULL-UP
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
CAUTION - TERRAIN
TERRAIN
Reduced Required
Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
TERRAIN
Negative Climb Rate
Caution (NCR)
or
TERRAIN AHEAD - PULL-UP
TERRAIN
Premature Descent
Alert Caution (PDA)
Altitude Voice Callout
(VCO) “500”
Excessive Descent
Rate Caution (EDR)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
TERRAIN - PULL-UP
Imminent Terrain
Impact Caution (ITI)
Imminent Obstacle
Impact Caution (IOI)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”
or
or
TERRAIN AHEAD - PULL-UP * “Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”*
TERRAIN - PULL-UP
or
TERRAIN - AHEAD
*
CAUTION - TERRAIN
*
or
TERRAIN - AHEAD
CAUTION - OBSTACLE
or
OBSTACLE AHEAD
*
CAUTION - OBSTACLE
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”*
OBSTACLE AHEAD
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
TERRAIN
TOO LOW - TERRAIN
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
TERRAIN
SINK RATE
“Sink Rate”
TERRAIN
or
DONT SINK
TERRAIN
*
or
TOO LOW - TERRAIN
“Don’t Sink”*
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
* Alerts with multiple messages are configurable at installation and are installation-dependent. Alerts for the default
configuration when more than one option is available are indicated with asterisks.
** Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-20 TAWS-B Alerts Summary
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EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide suitable notification when the
aircraft is determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain at an excessive speed. Figure 6-87 shows the
parameters for the alert as defined by TSO-C151b.
6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
4000
NK
: “SI
ion
Caut
3500
”
RATE
3000
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
Descent Rate (FPM)
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
500
Figure 6-87 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B compares the projected
flight path as derived from GPS data with terrain features and obstacles from the terrain and obstacle databases.
The system issues FLTA alerts when the projected flight path conflicts with terrain or obstacles.
The projected flight path is a calculated area ahead of, to the sides, and below the aircraft. The size of the
projected flight path varies based on factors including ground speed (the path ahead is larger when the ground
speed is higher), whether the aircraft is level, turning, or descending, and the proximity to the nearest runway
along the current track. As the aircraft approaches the runway, the projected flight path becomes narrower until
the system automatically disables FLTA alerts or the pilot manually inhibits them.
There are two types of FLTA alerts, Reduced Required Terrain/Obstacle Clearance (RTC or ROC respectively)
and Imminent Terrain/Obstacle Impact (ITI or IOI respectively).
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Level (FT)
Descending (FT)
800
Required
Clearance
(FT)
Required Terrain
Clearance (FT)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
Distance From Runway (NM)
25
30
Figure 6-88 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
The system automatically disables FLTA alerts when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination
runway elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends.
When Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B FLTA alerts are manually inhibited, the annunciation is shown on the PFDs
and in the MFD for maps displaying relative terrain
Terrain-SVT System
TAWS-B System
Figure 6-89 FLTA Alerting is Inhibited when Annunciation is displayed
Inhibiting Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B FLTA and PDA Alerting:
1) Select the Terrain Page.
2) Select the Inhibit Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Inhibit Terrain’ or ‘Inhibit TAWS’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
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ADDITIONAL TAWS-B ALERTING
In addition to the FLTA alerting discussed previously, TAWS-B provides the following additional types of
alerts.
PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway.
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
800
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
600
500
400
300
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-90 PDA Alerting Threshold
ALTITUDE VOICE CALLOUT (VCO) ALERT
The system provides a “Five-hundred” voice alert when the aircraft descends to within 500 feet above the
terrain or runway threshold. When the aircraft is within five nautical miles of an airport, the “Five Hundred”
voice alert is based on the nearest runway threshold elevation. When the aircraft is more than five nautical
miles from the nearest airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the height above terrain, by
comparing the aircraft’s GPS-GSL altitude to the terrain database.
There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the VCO alert. This alert cannot be
inhibited.
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NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT (NCR)
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff.
The voice alert “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by visual annunciations. NCR alerting is
only active when departing from an airport and when the following conditions are met:
• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet.
• Distance from the departure airport is 5 nm or less.
• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees.
NCR alerts can be triggered by either altitude loss or sink rate.
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-91 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-92 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
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SYSTEM STATUS
TERRAIN-SVT
During power-up, Terrain-SVT conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts. An voice
alert is issued at test completion.
Terrain-SVT continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status,
and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the system issues the voice alert “Terrain
System Failure” along with the ‘TER FAIL’ alert annunciation.
Terrain-SVT requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums.
Should the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the
annunciation ‘TER N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the Terrain-SVT Page. The voice
alert “Terrain System Not Available” is generated. When sufficient GPS signal is returns and the aircraft is
within the database coverage area, the voice alert “Terrain System Available” is generated.
PFD/MFD† Alert
Annunciation
Terrain-SVT Page Center
Banner Annunciation
Voice Alert
TER TEST
TERRAIN TEST
None
None
None
“Terrain System Test OK”
Terrain Alerting Inhibited
TER INH
None
None
No GPS position
TER N/A
NO GPS POSITION
TER N/A
None
TER FAIL
TERRAIN FAIL
“Terrain System Failure”
None
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
Alert Type
System Test in Progress
System Test Pass
Excessively degraded GPS signal;
or Out of database coverage area
Terrain System Test Fail; Terrain
or Obstacle database unavailable
or invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or invalid,
and Terrain-SVT operating
with PFD Terrain or Obstacle
databases
“Terrain System Not
Available”*
“Terrain System Not
Available”*
† Annunciation is shown on Terrain-SVT Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
* “Terrain System Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database coverage area reentered.
Table 6-21 Terrain-SVT System Status Annunciations
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TAWS-B
During power-up, TAWS-B conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts. An voice alert
is issued at test completion.
TAWS-B continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status,
and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert “TAWS System Failure” is
generated along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
TAWS-B requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should
the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the system
displays the ‘TAWS N/A’ annunciation, and issues the “TAWS Not Available” voice alert. When the GPS
signal integrity returns and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the system issues the voice alert,
“TAWS Available”.
PFD/MFD* Alert
Annunciation
TAWS-B Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Voice Alert
TAWS TEST
TAWS TEST
None
None
None
“TAWS System Test Test OK”
TAWS-B FLTA Alerting Inhibited
TAWS INH
None
None
No GPS position
TAWS N/A
NO GPS POSITION
“TAWS Not Available”
TAWS N/A
None
“TAWS Not Available”
TAWS FAIL
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
None
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
Alert Type
System Test in progress
System Test pass
Excessively degraded GPS signal;
or Out of database coverage
area
TAWS-B System Test Fail; Terrain
or Obstacle database unavailable
or invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or invalid.
TAWS operating with PFD Terrain
or Obstacle databases
† Annunciation is shown on TAWS-B Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
* “TAWS Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database coverage area re-entered.
Table 6-22 TAWS-B System Status Annunciations
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6.5 TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE (TIS)
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
NOTE: TIS is available only when the aircraft is within the service volume of a TIS-capable terminal radar
site. Aircraft without an operating transponder are invisible to both Traffic Advisory Systems (TAS), Traffic
Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS) and TIS. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are
shown without altitude separation data or climb descent indication.
NOTE: Mode S TIS is disabled if another traffic system such as TAS or Automatic Dependent Surveillance-
Broadcast (ADS-B) is installed.
Traffic Information Service (TIS) is designed to help in detection and avoidance of other aircraft. TIS uses
the Mode S transponder for the traffic data link. TIS receives traffic information from ground stations, and is
updated every five seconds. The system displays up to eight traffic symbols within a 7.5-nm radius, from 3000
feet below to 3500 feet above the requesting aircraft. The system displays TIS traffic with the symbology shown
in the following table.
TIS Symbol
Description
Non-Threat Traffic
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-23 TIS Traffic Symbols
Traffic Advisories (TA) alert the crew to intruding aircraft. When traffic meets the advisory criteria for the TA,
a solid amber circle symbol appears. A TA which is detected but is outside the range of the map on which traffic
is displayed are indicated with a message in the lower left corner of the map.
TIS also provides a vector line showing the direction in which the traffic is moving, to the nearest 45°. Traffic
information for which TIS is unable to determine the bearing (non-bearing traffic) is displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map Page or in a banner at the lower left corner of maps other than the Traffic Map Page on which traffic
can be displayed.
The altitude difference between the requesting aircraft and other intruder aircraft is displayed above/below the
traffic symbol in hundreds of feet. If the other aircraft is above the requesting aircraft, the altitude separation
appears above the traffic symbol; if below, the altitude separation appears below. Altitude trend is displayed as
an up/down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in either direction) to the right of the target symbol. Traffic
symbols for aircraft without altitude reporting capability appear without altitude separation or climb/descent
information.
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DISPLAYING TRAFFIC DATA
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Traffic information
can also be displayed on the following other maps for additional reference on the MFD when the traffic TIS is
operating:
• PFD Maps
• Nearest Pages
• Navigation Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
• Traffic Map Page
• Map - IFR/VFR Charts Page
• Trip Planning Page
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Terrain-SVT option is installed and enabled.
See the Additional Features Section for details.
Enabling/disabling traffic overlays (MFD navigation maps):
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Select the Traffic Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the navigation map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, an icon is shown to indicate the
feature is enabled for display.
Traffic Advisory,
1000’ Above,
Climbing
Non-Threat
Traffic, 1200’
Above,
Climbing
TA Off Scale
Banner
Annunciation
Traffic System
Status Banner
Annunciations
Figure 6-93 TIS Traffic on ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of traffic. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which traffic data (symbols and
labels) are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the data is
removed from the map. Maps besides the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page use settings based on those selected for the
‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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Enabling/disabling traffic information on the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the display traffic information on the Inset Map or HSI Map.
Customizing traffic display on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Traffic’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
• Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off.
• Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic.
- TA Only - Displays Traffic Alerts only.
• Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown.
• Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown (with the option to turn off).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with the changed settings.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page is specialized to show surrounding TIS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s
current position and altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aircraft orientation on this map is always
heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 2 to 12 nm, as
indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page. When the aircraft is
on the ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. Once the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches from Standby
to Operating Mode and the system begins to display traffic information. Refer to the System Status discussion
for more information.
Displaying traffic on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
3) Confirm TIS is in Operating Mode:
a) Press the TIS OPER Softkey to begin displaying traffic.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ (shown if TIS is in Standby Mode) and press the ENT Key.
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Traffic Mode Annunciation
“TIS Not Available”
Voice Alert Status
Non-Threat Traffic
5000’ Above,
Climbing
Range
Marking
Rings
“Non-Bearing” Traffic
(System Unable to
Determine Bearing)
Distance is 4.0 nm,
1100’ Above,
Descending
Traffic
Advisory,
1000’ Above,
Climbing
Off-Scale Traffic
Advisory
200’ Above,
Descending
Non-Threat
Traffic,
1200’ Below,
Climbing
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciations
Figure 6-94 ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
Select
to Mute
“TIS Not
Available”
Voice Alert
TIS ALERTS
When the number of TAs on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page increases from one scan to the next, the following
occur:
• A single “Traffic” voice alert is generated.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears to the right of the airspeed tape, flashes for five seconds, and remains
displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
• The PFD Inset Map or HSI Map is automatically displayed with traffic.
To reduce the number of nuisance alerts due to proximate aircraft, the “Traffic” voice alert is generated only
when the number of TAs increases. For example, when the first TA is displayed, a voice and visual annunciation
are generated. As long as a single TA remains on the display, no additional voice alerts are generated. If a second
TA appears on the display or if the number of TAs initially decreases and then subsequently increases, another
voice alert is generated.
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Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-95 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
A “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert is generated when the TIS service becomes unavailable or is out of
range. TIS may be unavailable in the radar coverage area due to the following:
• Radar site TIS Mode S sensor is not operational or is out of service
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is beyond the maximum range of the TIS-capable Mode S radar site.
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is above the radar site in the cone of silence and out of range of an adjacent site.
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is below radar coverage. In flat terrain, the coverage extends from about 3000
feet upward at 55 miles. Terrain and obstacles around the radar site can further decrease radar coverage in all
directions.
• Traffic does not have an operating transponder.
The “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert can be manually muted to reduce nuisance alerting. TNA muting
status is shown in the upper right corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
Muting the “TIS Not Available” voice alert:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the TNA Mute Softkey. The status is displayed in the upper left corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘‘’Not Available” Mute On’ (shown if TNA muting is currently off) and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM STATUS
The system performs an automatic test of TIS during power-up. If TIS passes the test, TIS enters Standby
Mode (on the ground) or Operating Mode (in the air). If TIS fails the power up test, an annunciation is shown
in the center of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
Traffic Map Page Center
Banner Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
UNAVAILABLE
Description
Data is not being received from the transponder*
Data is being received from the transponder, but a failure is detected in the data stream*
The transponder has failed*
TIS is unavailable or out of range
* Contact a service center or Garmin dealer for corrective action
Table 6-24 TIS Failure Annunciations
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page. When the aircraft
is on the ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. If traffic is selected for display on another map while
Standby Mode is selected, the traffic display enabled icon is crossed out (also the case whenever TIS has failed).
Once the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches to Operating Mode and traffic information is displayed. The mode
can be changed manually using softkeys or the page menu.
Traffic Map Mode
Annunciation
Traffic Map Center
Traffic Overlay Status
Banner Annunciation Icon (Navigation Maps)
Description
Data is being received from the transponder,
but a failure is detected in the data stream*
Data is not being received from the
transponder*
TIS is operating and is receiving traffic data
from a data link.
TIS is operating, but the traffic service is
currently unavailable or is out of reception
range.
DATA FAILED
TRFC FAIL
NO DATA
TRFC FAIL
OPERATING
None
OPERATING
UNAVAILABLE
STANDBY
STANDBY
TIS is in Standby Mode.
UNIT FAILED
TRFC FAIL
The transponder has failed*
* Contact a service center or Garmin dealer for corrective action
Table 6-25 TIS Modes and Status Annunciations
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Switching between TIS modes:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the Standby or Operate Softkey to switch between modes. The mode is displayed in the upper right
corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ or ‘Standby Mode’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed, as shown in the following table.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
AGE MM:SS
TRFC COAST
TRFC RMVD
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
TRFC UNAVAIL
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending)
Appears if traffic data is not refreshed within 6 seconds
If after another 6 seconds data is not received, traffic is removed from the display
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced as the age increases
The displayed data is not current (6 to 12 seconds since last message)
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced when this message is displayed
Traffic is removed because it is too old for coasting (12 to 60 seconds since last message)
Traffic may exist within the selected display range, but it is not displayed
Traffic data has failed
Traffic has not been detected
The traffic service is unavailable or out of range
*Shown as symbol on ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
**Shown in center of ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
Table 6-26 TIS Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.6 TAS TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
NOTE: Pilots should be aware of traffic system limitations. Traffic systems require transponders of other
aircraft to respond to system interrogations. If the transponders do not respond to interrogations due
to phenomena such as antenna shading or marginal transponder performance, traffic may be displayed
intermittently, or not at all. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude
separation data or climb descent indication. Pilots should remain vigilant for traffic at all times.
NOTE: Mode-S TIS is disabled when another traffic system is installed.
NOTE: If Garmin GTX 345R transponder is installed, refer to the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast
(ADS-B) Traffic discussion for more information about ADS-B traffic displays.
The optional Garmin GTS 820 is a Traffic Advisory System (TAS). It enhances flight crew situational awareness
by displaying traffic information for transponder-equipped aircraft. The system also provides visual annunciations
and voice alerts to help the pilot visually acquire traffic.
The Garmin GTS 820 is capable of tracking up to 45 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode A or C transponders,
and up to 30 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode S transponders. A maximum of 30 aircraft with the highest
threat potential can be displayed simultaneously.
No TAS surveillance is provided for aircraft without operating transponders.
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TAS THEORY OF OPERATION
When the traffic system is in Operating Mode, the system directly interrogates the transponders of other
aircraft in the vicinity. The traffic system uses this information to derive the distance, relative bearing, and if
reported, the altitude and vertical trend for each aircraft within its surveillance range. The traffic system then
calculates a closure rate to each intruder based on the projected Closest Point of Approach (CPA). If the closure
rate meets the threat criteria for a Traffic Advisory (TA), the traffic system provides visual annunciations and
voice alerts.
TAS SURVEILLANCE VOLUME AND SYMBOLOGY
The GTS 820 TAS surveillance system actively scans the airspace within ±10,000 feet of its altitude. Under
ideal conditions, the GTS 820 scans transponder traffic up to 22 nm in the forward direction. The range is
somewhat reduced to the sides and aft of the aircraft due to the directional interrogation signal patterns. In
areas of greater transponder traffic density or when TCAS II (Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II)
systems are detected, the on-board traffic system automatically reduces its interrogation transmitter power
(and therefore range) in order to limit potential interference from other signals.
If a Garmin GTX 33D ES or GTX 345 transponder is installed with this TAS, the system uses the following
symbols to represent traffic.
TAS Symbol
Description
Non-Threat Traffic
Proximity Advisory (PA)
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-27 TAS Symbol Description with GTX 33D ES Transponder
If a Garmin GTX 345 transponder is installed with the TAS, the symbols in the following table depict traffic,
and include Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) information. Refer to the ADS-B Traffic
discussion later in this section for more information.
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Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B directional information is beyond the selected display range. Displayed at outer range ring at proper
bearing. Arrow points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range without directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper
bearing.
Proximity Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
Other Non-Threat traffic with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Other Non-Threat traffic without directional information.
Traffic located on the ground with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the aircraft track. Ground
traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Ground traffic without ADS-B directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or
own aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic with ADS-B directional information. Pointed end indicates direction of travel. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic without ADS-B directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface
(SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Table 6-28 ADS-B Traffic Symbology with GTX 345R Transponder
A Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as a solid amber circle or circle enclosing an arrow, alerts the crew to a
potentially hazardous intruding aircraft, if the closing rate, distance, and vertical separation meet TA criteria.
A TA that is beyond the selected display range (off scale) is indicated by a half TA symbol at the edge of the
screen at the relative bearing of the intruder.
A Proximity Advisory (PA), displayed as a solid white diamond or arrow, indicates the intruding aircraft is
within ±1200 feet and is within a 6 nm range, but is still not considered a TA threat.
Other, non-threat traffic, shown as an open white diamond or arrow, is displayed for traffic beyond six
nautical miles that is neither a TA or PA.
Relative altitude, when available, is displayed above or below the corresponding intruder symbol in
hundreds of feet. When this altitude is above own aircraft, it is preceded by a ‘+’ symbol; a minus sign ‘-’
indicates traffic is below own aircraft.
The system displays the altitude vertical trend as an up/down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in
either direction) to the right of the intruder symbol.
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Motion Vector Line indicates
intruder aircraft track
Relative Altitude
Vertical trend arrow
Figure 6-96 Intruder Altitude and Vertical
Trend Arrow
Figure 6-97 Intruder Traffic with ADS-B Directional
Information and Motion Vector
TA ALERTING CONDITIONS
The GTS 820 traffic system automatically adjusts its TA sensitivity level to reduce the likelihood of nuisance
TA alerting when the aircraft is more likely to be near an airport. The system uses Level A (less) sensitivity
when the landing gear is extended or the height above terrain is at or below 2,000’ AGL. If the height above
terrain is unavailable, Level A sensitivity applies when the ground speed is less than 120 knots. In all other
conditions, Level B (higher) sensitivity applies.
Sensitivity Intruder Altitude
Level
Available
A
Yes
A
No
B
Yes
B
No
TA Alerting Conditions
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of horizontal separation and vertical
separation is within 600 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 nm and vertical separation is within 600 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of separation or intruder range is
within 0.2 NM.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of horizontal separation and vertical
separation is within 800 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 nm and vertical separation is within 800 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of separation or intruder range is
within 0.55 NM.
Table 6-29 TA Sensitivity Level and TA Alerting Criteria
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TAS ALERTS
When the TAS detects a new TA, the following occur:
• The system issues a single “Traffic!” voice alert, followed by additional voice information about the bearing,
relative altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA. For example, the
announcement “Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the traffic is in front of own aircraft,
above own altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Approximate Distance (nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
Table 6-30 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
• A TRAFFIC Annunciation appears at the right of the airspeed on the PFD, flashes for five seconds, and
remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
• A PFD map is automatically displayed with TA traffic.
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, a yellow text banner will be displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map Page and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA symbol. The text will indicate “TA”
followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA traffic, if known.
A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that initially triggered the TA are no
longer present.
Traffic Appears
when TA is
Detected
Figure 6-98 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
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SYSTEM TEST
The traffic system provides a system test mode to verify the TAS is operating normally. The test takes about
ten seconds to complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols appears on the ‘Map
- Traffic Map’ Page. If system test passes, the system announces, “TAS System Test Passed” or “TAS System
Test Failed.” When the system test is complete, the traffic system enters Standby Mode.
Testing the traffic system:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
3) Turn the Joystick to set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full test pattern to be displayed during test.
4) Press the Standby or TAS STBY Softkey.
5) Press the Test Softkey.
Or:
1) With the Traffic system in Standby mode, press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Test Mode’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
NOTE: Traffic surveillance is not available during the system test. Use caution when performing a system
test during flight.
TAS Test Mode
Figure 6-99 ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page with Test Mode Enabled
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OPERATION
NOTE: The TAS automatically changes from Standby to Operating mode eight seconds after takeoff. The
system also automatically changes from Operating to Standby mode 24 seconds after landing.
When the avionics system initially receives power on the ground, the traffic system is in Standby Mode. The
system must be in Operating Mode for traffic to be displayed and for TAs to be issued.
Changing traffic system modes on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
3) Press the Operate or TAS OPER Softkey to begin displaying traffic. ‘OPERATING’ is displayed in the Traffic
mode field.
4) Press the Standby or TAS STBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. ‘STANDBY’ is displayed in
the Traffic mode field.
Or:
1) With the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2)
Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired mode.
3) Press the ENT Key.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position
and altitude, without basemap clutter. It is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Aircraft
orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. The pilot can adjust the map range with
the Joystick. A range indication appears on each range ring.
The system annunciates the traffic mode and altitude display mode in the upper right corner of the ‘Map Traffic Map’ Page.
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TAS Operating Mode
Annunciation
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, 1000 Below,
Climbing
Traffic Advisory,
200’ Above,
Climbing
No-bearing
Traffic Advisory,
4.0 nm away,
1100’ Above,
Descending
Proximity
Advisory,
1200’ Below,
Descending
Off-scale Traffic
Advisory
Figure 6-100 ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page with TAS and ADS-B Traffic Displayed
Altitude Display Mode
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic is
displayed. If traffic meets the criteria for a TA, it is also displayed even if it is outside of the selected volume
of airspace.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, select the ALT Mode Softkey.
2) Select one of the following Softkeys:
• Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 9900 feet above the aircraft to 2700
feet below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to
2700 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• Below: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9900
feet below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the Traffic Page, select the Back Softkey.
Or:
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1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following (see softkey description in the previous step 2):
•
Above.
•
Normal.
•
Below.
•
Unrestricted.
3) Select the ENT Softkey.
Flight ID Display
The Flight IDs of other aircraft (when available) can be enabled for display on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’
Page. When a flight ID is received, it will appear above or below the corresponding traffic symbol on the
‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page when this option is enabled.
Flight ID
Figure 6-101 ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page with Flight IDs Enabled
Enabling/Disabling Flight ID Display:
On the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, select the FLT ID Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘Show Flight IDs’ or ‘Hide Flight IDs’ (choice dependent on current state).
3) Press the ENT Key.
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Figure 6-102 Traffic Map Page Menu
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The display range on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable
with the Joystick, and rings on the map denote the ranges.
Changing the display range on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page:
1) Turn the Joystick.
2) The following range options are available:
•
750 ft (with optional ADS-B).
•
750 ft and 1500 ft (with optional ADS-B).
•
1500 ft and 0.5 nm (with optional ADS-B).
•
0.5 nm and 1 nm (with optional ADS-B).
•
1 nm and 2 nm (with optional ADS-B).
•
2 nm.
•
2 and 6 nm.
•
6 and 12 nm.
•
12 and 24 nm.
•
24 and 40 nm.
Enabling/disabling the display of Flight ID for traffic:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Select the FLT ID Softkey to enable/disable the display of Flight IDs for displayed traffic.
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ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Traffic information
can also be displayed on the following other maps for additional reference on the MFD when the traffic unit
is operating:
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
• Trip Planning Page
• Map - IFR/VFR Charts Page
Enabling/disabling traffic information (MFD maps other than the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page):
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Select the Traffic Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, the system shows a traffic status
icon to indicate traffic is enabled for display as well as the altitude display mode (Above, Below, Normal,
Unres).
Proximity
Advisory
Traffic Advisory
Traffic
Advisory OffScale Banner
Annunciation
Traffic Overlay
Enabled Icon and
Altitude Display
Mode
No Bearing
Traffic
Advisory
Annunciation
Figure 6-103 Displaying Traffic on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page
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Customizing the traffic display on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections.
• Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off.
• Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic.
- TA/PA - Displays only Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories.
- TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only.
• Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown.
• Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels (relative altitude, vertical trend) are shown
with the option to turn off.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the ‘Map - Traffic Map’
Page use settings based on those selected for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
A traffic-only inset map is available on the PFD by pressing the TFC Map Softkey. A traffic map appears on
the PFD. This map resembles the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, and presents a heading up format.
An HSI map is also available which resembles the Traffic Map.
Showing the HSI Traffic Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the HSI Trfc Softkey.
Traffic information can also be overlaid on PFD navigation maps.
Enabling/disabling traffic overlay on PFD navigation maps:
1) With the Inset Map or HSI Map displayed, press the Map/HSI Softkey on the PFD.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the display traffic information.
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SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Mode
Traffic System Test
Initiated
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
TEST
(‘TEST MODE’ shown in center of page))
Operating
OPERATING
STANDBY
Standby
(also shown in white in center of page)
Traffic System Failed*
FAIL
* See Table 6-32 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-31 Traffic Modes
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the ‘Map Traffic Map’ Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Traffic Map Page Center
Annunciation
Description
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
NO DATA
Data is being received from the TAS unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure
DATA FAILED
Incorrect data format received from the TAS unit
FAILED
Table 6-32 TAS Failure Annunciations
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending).
TAS unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
*Shown as symbol on ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
**Shown in center of ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
Table 6-33 TAS Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.7 ADS-B TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
ADS-B SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is a core technology in the FAA NextGen air traffic
control system. It offers improved surveillance services, both air-to-air and air-to-ground, especially in areas
where radar coverage is ineffective due to terrain, or where it is impractical or cost prohibitive. ADS-B is
comprised of three segments for the purposes of providing traffic information: ADS-B (Broadcast), ADS-R
(Rebroadcast), and Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B).
ADS-B includes the automatic broadcast of position reports by aircraft, surface vehicles, and transmitters on
fixed objects. These broadcasts contain information such as GPS position, identity (Flight ID, Call Sign, Tail
Number, ICAO registration number, etc.), ground track, ground speed, pressure altitude, and emergency status.
1090 ES
UAT
RADAR
Composite
GPS
1090 ES
18,000 FT
10,000 FT
Mode A/C
RADAR
ATC
UAT
UAT
UAT
1090 ES
ADS-B Ground Station (ADS-R,
TIS-B, FIS-B)
Figure 6-104 ADS-B System
For the purpose of distinguishing between levels of ADS-B service, there are three classifications of aircraft or
system capability: ADS-B In, ADS-B Out, and ADS-B participating. ADS-B In refers to the capability to receive
ADS-B information. ADS-B Out refers to the capability to transmit ADS-B information. ADS-B participating
refers to the capability to both send and receive ADS-B information. Aircraft lacking either ADS-In, ADS-B Out,
or both ADS-B capabilities may also be referred to as ADS-B nonparticipating aircraft.
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The ADS-B system operates on two frequencies: 1090 MHz and 978 MHz. Both frequencies provide the same
traffic information. An aircraft may be ADS-B In, Out, or participating on one or both frequencies, depending
on the installed equipment. The 1090 MHz frequency portion of ADS-B is known as 1090 Extended Squitter
(1090 ES). The 978 MHz portion of ADS-B is known as Universal Access Transceiver (UAT).
The optional Garmin GTX 33 ES/330 transponder provides ADS-B Out functions using the 1090 ES data link,
and no ADS-B In traffic display is provided.
The optional Garmin GTX 345R transponder provides ADS-B Out functions using the 1090 ES data link. It
also performs ADS-B In functions using the UAT data link. For the GTX 345, this includes the reception of
Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) data link weather service, provided when the aircraft is receiving
data from a participating ground station; refer to the Data Link Weather section for more information about
FIS-B Weather.
AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE-REBROADCAST (ADS-R)
Because it is not required that ADS-B In capable aircraft be able to receive ADS-B data on both the 1090
MHz and 978 MHz data links, a method exists to get data from one data link to the other. ADS-R is the
rebroadcast of ADS-B data by FAA ground stations, which provide this service by taking traffic data from one
link and rebroadcasting it on the other. For example, if two aircraft are in the service volume for a ground
station, and one is transmitting on 1090 MHz and the other is transmitting on 978 MHz, the ground station
retransmits the data from each aircraft on the other link to ensure the two aircraft can “see” each other as
traffic.
For example, if another aircraft can only receive 978 MHz UAT information, it cannot directly ‘see’ another
aircraft sending only 1090 ES information aircraft unless an ADS-R ground station in the vicinity rebroadcasts
the 1090 ES data over the 978 MHz UAT frequency. This is also true for an aircraft when can only receive
1090 ES data; it would need an ADS-R ground station to ‘see’ another aircraft operating on the UAT frequency.
TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE-BROADCAST (TIS-B)
TIS-B provides a link between the secondary surveillance radar (SSR)-based system ATC uses and the ADSB-based system. When an ADS-B In or Out capable aircraft is within the service volume of an FAA ADS-B
ground station, the ground station broadcasts a portion of the ATC radar data to the aircraft. This aircraft is
then included in the list of aircraft being provided TIS-B service and is then considered a “TIS-B participant.”
TIS-B coverage is available when the aircraft is within ground station coverage, in SSR coverage, and the
other aircraft is also in SSR coverage, and is transmitting its altitude.
The ground station provides ATC radar information for other aircraft within ±3,500 feet and 15 NM of the
participant, to include altitude, position, ground speed, and ground track. TIS-B broadcasts occur once every
three to thirteen seconds, depending on the characteristics of the ground station providing the TIS-B service.
ADS-B WITH TAS
When the system is receiving ADS-B In traffic and with a TAS in Operating Mode, the system attempts to
match (or “correlate”) data the two traffic sources. When a correlation is made, the system displays the traffic
information for the tracked aircraft determined to be the most accurate. Any traffic that is not correlated
(i.e., only detected by one system but not the other) is also displayed for the flight crew. This may occur,
for example, if another aircraft is beyond the surveillance range of the TAS, but own aircraft is receiving
information via ADS-B for the other aircraft. The traffic correlation feature improves the accuracy of the traffic
displayed, while reducing the occurrence of displaying the same traffic for a given aircraft twice.
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NOTE: When operating on the edges of ATC radar coverage or when using an optional active traffic system
providing intermittent traffic data, a single aircraft may be briefly or periodically be depicted as two aircraft
on the display.
CONFLICT SITUATIONAL AWARENESS & ALERTING (CSA)
Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA) is an alerting algorithm which provides ADS-B traffic alerting similar to
the TAS system discussed previously.
When a TA occurs with is equipment, the displays a ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation and provides a voice alert. This
annunciation and voice alert is the same as the alerts issues by the Garmin GTS 820 TAS discussed previously.
The own aircraft altitude above terrain determines the sensitivity of the CSA algorithm to minimize nuisance
alerts. Height Above Terrain, and Geodetic Sea Level (GSL) altitude are used to adjust the sensitivity of the CSA
algorithm in accordance with the following table:
Sensitivity
Level
Height Above
Terrain (HAT)
4
4
4
5
5
Any
Any
Unavailable
Any
>1000
<=2350
Unavailable
Unavailable or
>2350
5
6
7
Unavailable or
>2350
8
Unavailable or
>2350
9
Unavailable or
>2350
10
Unavailable or
>2350
Vertical
Protected
Own Altitude Look-ahead
GPS Phase of Flight
Threshold for Volume
(Feet)
time (sec)
Alert (feet)
(NM)
Any
Any
20
850
0.20
Any
Any
20
850
0.20
Approach
Any
20
850
0.20
Any
Any
25
850
0.20
Any
Any
25
850
0.20
Terminal
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Any
<=5000
25
30
850
850
0.20
0.35
>5000
<=10,000
40
850
0.55
>10,000
<=20,000
45
850
0.80
>20,000
<=42,000
48
850
1.10
> 42,000
48
1200
1.10
Table 6-34 CSA Alerting Thresholds for ADS-B Traffic
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AIRBORNE AND SURFACE APPLICATIONS
ADS-B traffic can help the pilot visually acquire traffic both in the air and on-the-ground. There are two ADS-B
applications or modes: Airborne Situational Awareness (AIRB) and Surface Situational Awareness (SURF). The
system automatically selects the appropriate application based on conditions.
The AIRB application is on when the aircraft is more than five NM and 1,500 feet above the nearest airport.
When the AIRB application is active, the system only displays traffic which is airborne.
The SURF application is on when the aircraft is within five NM and less than 1,500 feet above field elevation.
When the SURF applications is on, the system displays airborne and on the ground traffic. At a Traffic Map
Page range of one nm or less, the airport environment (including taxiways and runways) appears in addition to
traffic. The airport displays are derived from the SafeTaxi database. Refer to the Additional Features section for
more information about SafeTaxi displays.
NOTE: Do not rely on the solely on the traffic display to determine the runway alignment of traffic, especially
when runways are in close proximity to each other.
Due to the varying precision of the data received via ADS-B, ADS-R, and TIS-B services, not all traffic symbols
may not be depicted on the traffic display. Because higher data precision is required for traffic to be displayed
in the SURF environment, some traffic eligible for AIRB will not be displayed while SURF is on. Availability for
AIRB and SURF is depicted on the Aux - ADS-B Status Page, discussed later in this section.
SURF Application On
Aircraft In The Air
Descending
Aircraft On The
Ground
Ground-Based
Vehicle
Figure 6-105 ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page with SURF Mode On
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TRAFFIC DESCRIPTION
The symbols used to display ADS-B traffic are shown in the following table.
Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range with directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range without directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper
bearing.
Proximity Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
Other Non-Threat traffic with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Other Non-Threat traffic without directional information.
Traffic located on the ground with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Ground traffic without directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own
aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic with ADS-B directional information. Pointed end indicates direction of travel. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic without ADS-B directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface
(SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Table 6-35 ADS-B Traffic Symbology
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OPERATION
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and
altitude, without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading.
Map range is adjustable with the Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper right corner of the page.
A tower icon appears in the ADS-B status box to indicate when the system is receiving ADS-R and TIS-B
services from a ground station. When these services are not available, a white-’X’ appears over the tower icon.
AIRB Application On
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, 1000 Below,
Climbing
Traffic Advisory,
200’ Above,
Climbing
No-Bearing
Traffic Advisory,
4.0 nm Away,
1100’ Above,
Descending
Proximity
Advisory,
1200’ Below,
Descending
Off-Scale Traffic
Advisory
Figure 6-106 ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page with ADS-B Traffic Displayed
Enabling/disabling the display of ADS-B traffic:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Select the ADS-B Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘ADS-B On’ or ‘ADS-B Off’.
b) Press the ENT Key.
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Testing the display of ADS-B traffic:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) If necessary, turn the Joystick to select a map range of 2 and 6 nm to ensure full test pattern display.
3) Ensure the ADS-B Softkey is disabled.
4) If the optional TAS is installed, ensure the TAS STBY Softkey is enabled.
5) Press the Test Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Test Mode’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
A test pattern of traffic symbols appears during the test, and a ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears on the
PFDs. At the conclusion of the test, the system issues the voice alert “Traffic System Test”. If the test pattern
is displayed and the voice alert is heard, the system has passed the test.
ADS-B Test Mode
Figure 6-107 System Test in Progress with Test Pattern
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity traffic is displayed.
TAs occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
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Changing the altitude range:
1) On the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, select the ALT Mode Softkey.
2) Select one of the following softkeys:
• Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 9900 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• Below: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9900 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the Traffic Map Page, select the Back Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight one of the following options (see softkey description in the previous step
2):
•
Above.
•
Normal,
•
Below,
•
Unrestricted,
3) Press the ENT Key.
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DISPLAYING MOTION VECTORS
When Absolute Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors extending from the traffic symbols depict the
traffic’s reported track and speed over the ground. When Relative Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors
extending from the traffic symbols display how the traffic is moving relative to own aircraft. These vectors
are calculated using the traffic’s track and ground speed and own aircraft’s track and ground speed. These two
values are combined to depict where the traffic is moving purely with respect to own aircraft, and provide a
forecast of where the traffic will be, relative to own aircraft, in the near future.
Absolute
Motion Vectors
Absolute Motion Vectors
selected
Figure 6-108 ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page with Absolute Motion Vectors Enabled
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Relative Motion
Vectors
Relative Motion Vectors
Selected
Figure 6-109 ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page with Relative Motion Vectors Enabled
Enabling/disabling the Motion Vector display:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Select the Motion Softkey.
3) Select one of the following softkeys:
•
Absolute: Displays the motion vector pointing in the absolute direction.
•
Relative: Displays the motion vector relative to own aircraft.
•
Off: Disables the display of the motion vector.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Relative Motion’, ‘Absolute Motion’ or ‘Motion Vector Off’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
Adjusting the duration for the Motion Vector projected time:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Select the Motion Softkey.
3) Select the Duration Softkey.
4) Select a softkey for the desired duration (30 SEC, 1 MIN, 2 MIN, 5 MIN).
5) When finished, select the Back Softkey to return to the ‘Traffic Map’ Page.
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Displaying Additional Traffic Information
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page can display additional information for a selected aircraft symbol. This may
include the aircraft tail number/Flight ID, type of aircraft (e.g., glider, small/medium/large aircraft, service
vehicle, unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV), course, track, groundspeed), and other information.
Showing additional traffic information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. A cyan border appears on the first selected traffic symbol. Additional information appears
in a window in the lower-left corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
3) To select a different aircraft symbol, turn the FMS Knob to move the cyan border until another symbol is
selected.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob again to disable the traffic selection.
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The display range on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable
with the Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
Changing the display range on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page:
1) Turn the Joystick.
2) The following range options are available:
•
500 feet.
•
500 feet and 1000 feet.
•
1000 feet and 2000 feet.
•
2000 feet and 1 nm.
•
1 and 2 nm.
•
2 and 6 nm.
•
6 and 12 nm.
•
12 and 24 nm.
•
24 and 40 nm.
NOTE: ADS-B traffic can be displayed as an overlay to navigation maps. Refer to the previous TAS discussions
for information about these additional traffic displays.
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ADS-B SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Traffic Map Page Center
Banner Annunciation
ADS-B: TEST
TEST MODE
ADS-B: AIRB
None
ADS-B: SURF
None
ABS-B Traffic Off
ADS-B: OFF
ADS-B TRFC OFF
ADS-B Traffic Not
Available
ADS-B: N/A
NO TRK/HDG
ADS-B Failed*
ADS-B: FAIL
FAILED
ADS-B Mode
ADS-B System Test
Initiated
ADS-B Operating in
Airborne Mode
ADS-B Operating in
Surface Mode
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
* See Table 6-38 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-36 ADS-B Modes
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page displays a white antenna icon to indicate the successful reception of ADS-B traffic
services from a ground station. A white-X over this icon indicates reception of ADS-B services is unavailable.
ADS-B Ground Station Reception Status
Receiving ADS-B traffic services from a ground
station
Not receiving ADS-B traffic services from a
ground station
Traffic Map Pane Icon
Table 6-37 ADS-B Modes
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the ‘Map - Traffic
Map’ Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Traffic Map Page Center
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure
Incorrect data format received from the traffic unit
Table 6-38 Traffic Failure Annunciations
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NOTE: If the optional TAS fails, the display of ADS-B traffic (ADS-B In) also fails, unless a GTX 345R
transponder is installed. In this case, if the TAS fails, the display of ADS-B traffic continues even if the TAS
has failed.
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending).
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted
data)
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
*Shown as symbol on ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
**Shown in center of ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
Table 6-39 Traffic Status Annunciations
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Additional information about the status of ADS-B traffic products is available on the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’
Page.
Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page.
Figure 6-110 Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status on ADS-B Status Page
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ADS-B Status Page
Item
Traffic Application
Status: Airborne
(AIRB), Surface (SURF),
Airborne Alerts (CSA)
Status Message
Description
On
Traffic application is currently on. Required input data is available, and it meets
performance requirements.
Traffic application is not currently active, but application is ready to run when
condition(s) determine the application should be active. Required input data is
available, and it meets performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is available, but it does
not meet performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is not available or the
application has failed.
Traffic application is not available, because it has not been configured. If this
annunciation persists, the system should be serviced.
Traffic application status is invalid or unknown.
The system is receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA ground station.
The system is not receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA ground station.
ADS-R coverage is invalid or unknown.
The system is using the #1 GPS receiver for the GPS position source.
The system is using the #2 GPS receiver for the GPS position source.
The GPS source is invalid or unknown.
Displays the number of minutes since the last uplink from a ground station
occurred. If no uplink has been received, or the status is invalid, dashes appear
instead of the number of minutes.
Available to Run
Not Available
Fault
Not Configured
TIS-B/ADS-R Coverage
GPS Status: GPS
Source
Ground Uplink Status:
Last Uplink
---------------Available
Not Available
--------------External #1
External #2
--------Number of minutes, or
‘------’
Table 6-40 ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page Messages for ADS-B Traffic
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 AFCS OVERVIEW
NOTE: The current pertinent flight manual always supersedes this Pilot’s Guide.
The digital Garmin Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) is fully integrated within the system's avionics
architecture. The System Overview section provides a block diagram to support this system description. AFCS
functionality is distributed across the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• GDU 1050A Primary Flight Displays (PFDs) (2)
• GTA 82 Pitch Trim Adapter (1)
• GDU 1550 Multi-Function Display (MFD) (1)
• GSM 86 Servo Gearboxes (4)
• GIA 64W Integrated Avionics Units (IAUs) (2)
• GMC 710 AFCS Controller
• GSA 81 AFCS Servos (4)
The Garmin AFCS can be divided into these main operating functions:
• Flight Director (FD) — The aircraft has two flight directors, each operating within a GIA and referred to as
pilot-side and copilot-side. Commands for the selected flight director are displayed on both PFDs. The flight
director provides:
– Command Bars showing pitch/roll guidance
– Vertical/lateral mode selection and processing
– Autopilot communication
• Autopilot (AP) — Autopilot operation occurs within the pitch, roll, and pitch trim servos adapter. It also
provides servo monitoring and automatic flight control in response to flight director steering commands,
Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) attitude and rate information, and airspeed.
• Yaw Damper (YD) — The yaw servo is self-monitoring and provides Dutch roll damping and turn coordination
in response to yaw rate, roll angle, lateral acceleration, and airspeed.
• Manual Electric Pitch Trim (MEPT) — The pitch trim servo provides manual electric pitch trim capability
when the autopilot is not engaged.
• Manual Electric Yaw Trim (MEYT) — The yaw trim adapter provides manual electric yaw trim capability
when the autopilot is not engaged.
BASIC AUTOPILOT OPERATION
This section provides an overview for autopilot engagement and disengagement. A more detailed description
follows in the Autopilot and Yaw Damper Operation section.
• Autopilot Engagement — The autopilot may be engaged by pushing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit.
Annunciations regarding the engagement are indicated on the PFD.
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• Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director Off — Upon engagement, the autopilot will be set to hold the
current attitude of the airplane, if the flight director was not previously on. In this case, ‘PIT’ and ‘ROL’ will
be annunciated.
• Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director On — If the flight director is on, the autopilot will smoothly
pitch and roll the airplane to capture the FD command bars. The prior flight director modes remain
unchanged.
• Autopilot Disengagement — The most common way to disconnect the autopilot is to press and release the
AP DISC Switch, which is located on each control wheel. An autopilot disconnect tone will be heard and
annunciated on the PFD. Other ways to disconnect the autopilot include:
–
Pressing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit
–
Pressing the GA Switch (located on the left throttle)
–
Operating the MEPT Switch (located on the each control wheel)
–
Pulling the autopilot circuit breaker
In the event of unexpected autopilot behavior, pressing and holding the AP DISC Switch will disconnect the
autopilot and remove all power to the servos for as long as the AP DISC Switch is held.
AFCS CONTROLS
The following controls are located on the AFCS Control Unit:
NOTE: With the exception of the FD and SPD Keys all keys have a corresponding LED light.
4
HDG Key
APR Key
NAV Key
FD Key
5
XFR Key
6
ALT Key
VS Key
FLC Key
CRS Knobs
1
2
3
7
8
9
17
10
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SPD Key
Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode
Selects/deselects Approach Mode
Selects/deselects Navigation Mode
Activates/deactivates the flight director only
Pressing once turns on the selected flight director in the default vertical and lateral
modes. Pressing again deactivates the flight director and removes the Command
Bars. If the autopilot is engaged, the key is disabled.
Transfers between the pilot and copilot flight directors and controls which flight
director the autopilot is tracking
Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode
Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode
Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode
Adjust the Selected Course (while in VOR, LOC, or OBS Mode) in 1° increments on
the Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) of the corresponding PFD
Press to re-center the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) and return course pointer
directly TO the bearing of the active waypoint/station
Toggles Airspeed Reference between IAS and Mach for Flight Level Change Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
19
UP/DN Wheel Adjusts the reference in Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, Flight Level Change, and Altitude Hold
Modes (see Flight Director Vertical Modes Table for change increments in each mode.
VNV Key
Selects/deselects VNAV PATH Descent Mode for Vertical Navigation flight control
ALT SEL Knob Controls the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments (a finer resolution of 10 feet is
available under approach conditions)
YD Key
Engages/disengages the yaw damper
AP Key
Engages/disengages the autopilot
BANK Key
Manually selects/deselects Low Bank Mode
BC Key
Selects/deselects Backcourse Mode
HDG Knob Adjusts the Selected Heading and bug in 1° increments on the HSI (both PFDs)
Press to synchronize the Selected Heading to the current heading on the pilot-side PFD
Annunciator Light
(all except FD and SPD keys)
1
2
3
4
19
18
17
16
5
15
14
6
7
13
12
8
11
10
9
Figure 7-1 AFCS Control Unit
The following AFCS controls are located separately from the AFCS Control Unit:
AP DISC Switch
(Autopilot
Disconnect)
Disengages the autopilot and flight director and interrupts pitch trim operation
An AP DISC Switch is located on each control wheel.
This switch may be used to acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the
associated aural tone.
While pressed, allows manual control of the aircraft while the autopilot is engaged and
CWS Button
synchronizes the flight director’s Command Bars with the current aircraft pitch (if
(Control Wheel
not in a Vertical Navigation, Glideslope, or Glidepath Mode) and roll (if in Roll Hold
Steering)
Mode)
A CWS Button is located on each control wheel.
Upon release of the CWS Button, the flight director may establish new pitch and roll
references, depending on the current vertical and lateral modes. CWS operation
details are discussed in the respective mode sections of this manual.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
GA Switch
(Go Around)
Selects flight director Takeoff (on ground) or Go Around (in air) Mode.
If an approach procedure is loaded this switch also activates the missed approach when
the selected navigation source is FMS or when the navigation source is VOR/LOC
and a valid frequency has been tuned.
The GA Switch is located on the throttle.
MEPT Switch
Used to command manual electric pitch trim. An MEPT Switch is located on each
(Manual Electric control wheel.
Pitch Trim)
A MEPT Switch is located on each control wheel.
The aircraft uses a four direction switch. Pushing down on the switch and operating the
switch forward and backward adjusts pitch trim down (forward) and up (rearward).
Pushing the switch in either direction disengages the autopilot, if currently engaged,
but does not affect yaw damper operation.
Used to command manual electric yaw trim.
MEYT Switch
(Manual Electric The aircraft uses a four direction switch. Operating the switch left and right adjusts yaw
Yaw Trim)
trim left or right.
Engages the autopilot (if the autopilot is disengaged and the aircraft is within the
LVL Button
autopilot engagement limitations) in level vertical and lateral modes.
(Level)
The LVL Button is located to the left of the AFCS Controller.
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7.2 FLIGHT DIRECTOR OPERATION
The flight director function provides pitch and roll commands to the AFCS and displays them on the PFDs.
With the flight director active, the aircraft can be hand-flown to follow the path shown by the Command Bars.
Maximum commanded pitch (-15°, +20°) and roll (25°) angles, vertical acceleration, and roll rate are limited to
values established during AFCS certification (if underspeed protection is installed, maximum commanded pitch
is +/- 50° and roll is +/- 75°). The flight director also provides commands to the autopilot.
ACTIVATING THE FLIGHT DIRECTOR
An initial press of a key listed in the table below (when the flight director is not active) activates the pilot-side
flight director in the listed modes. The flight director may be turned off and the Command Bars removed from
the displays by pressing the FD Key again. The FD Key is disabled when the autopilot is engaged.
Control Pressed
Modes Selected
ALT Key
VS Key
VNV Key
Lateral
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Takeoff (on ground)
Go Around (in air)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
NAV Key
Navigation**
BC Key
Backcourse***
APR Key
Approach**
HDG Key
LVL Button
Heading Select
Level
FD Key
AP Key
CWS Button
GA Switch
ROL
ROL
ROL
TO
GA
ROL
ROL
ROL
FMS
VOR
LOC
BC
FMS
VOR
LOC
HDG
LVL
Vertical
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Takeoff (on ground)
TO
Go Around (in air)
GA
Altitude Hold
ALT
Vertical Speed
VS
Vertical Path Tracking* VPTH
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
Level
PIT
LVL
*Valid VNV flight plan must be entered before VNV Key press activates flight director.
**The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active
FMS course before NAV or APR Key press activates flight director.
***The selected navigation receiver must have a valid LOC signal before BC Key press
activates flight director.
Table 7-1 Flight Director Activation
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AFCS STATUS BOX
Flight director mode annunciations are displayed on the PFDs when the flight director is active. Flight
director selection as well as autopilot and yaw damper statuses are shown in the center of the AFCS Status Box.
Lateral flight director modes are displayed on the left and vertical on the right. Armed modes are displayed in
white and active in green.
Yaw
Autopilot Damper
Lateral Modes
Status
Status
Armed
Active
Flight Director
Indicator Arrow
Active
Vertical Modes
Armed
AFCS Status Box
Selected
Altitude
Command
Bars
Vertical
Speed
Reference
FMS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Figure 7-2 PFD AFCS Display
FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODES
Flight director modes are normally selected independently for the pitch and roll axes. Unless otherwise
specified, all mode keys are alternate action (i.e., press on, press off). In the absence of specific mode selection,
the flight director reverts to the default pitch and/or roll mode. Mode keys on the AFCS controller are
accompanied by annunciator lights which are illuminated when their respective modes are armed or active.
Armed modes are annunciated in white and active in green in the AFCS Status Box. Under normal operation,
when the control for the active flight director mode is pressed, the flight director reverts to the default mode for
the axis. Automatic transition from armed to active mode is indicated by the white armed mode annunciation
moving to the green active mode field and flashing for 10 seconds.
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If the information required to compute a flight director mode becomes invalid or unavailable, the flight
director automatically reverts to the default mode for that axis. A flashing amber mode annunciation and
annunciator light indicate loss of sensor (ADC) or navigation data (VOR, LOC, FMS, VNV, SBAS) required to
compute commands. When such a loss occurs, the system automatically begins to roll the wings level (enters
Roll Hold Mode) or maintains the pitch angle (enters Pitch Hold Mode), depending on the affected axis. The
flashing annunciation stops when the affected mode key is pressed or another mode for the axis is selected. If
after 10 seconds no action is taken, the flashing annunciation stops.
Figure 7-3 Loss of FMS Signal
The flight director is automatically disabled if the attitude information required to compute the default flight
director modes becomes invalid or unavailable.
SWITCHING FLIGHT DIRECTORS
The aircraft has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU. The autopilot follows the selected flight
director only, indicated by an arrow pointing toward either the pilot or copilot side, in the center of the AFCS
Status Box. Flight directors may be switched by pressing the XFR Key. The annunciator light arrow for the
selected flight director is also illuminated beside the XFR Key. When the flight directors are switched, the
vertical and lateral modes revert to default.
Pilot-side Flight Director Selected
Copilot-side Flight Director Selected
Figure 7-4 Flight Director Selection Indications
COMMAND BARS
Upon activation of the flight director, Command Bars are displayed in magenta on the PFDs as a single cue.
The Aircraft Symbol (in amber) changes to accommodate the Command Bar format; the Command Bars do not
override the Aircraft Symbol. In the following figure, the single-cue Command Bars move together vertically to
indicate pitch commands and bank left or right to indicate roll commands.
Command Bars
Aircraft Symbol
Figure 7-5 Single-cue Command Bars
If the attitude information being sent to the flight director becomes invalid or unavailable, the Command Bars
are removed from the display. The flight director Command Bars also disappear if the pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚
or bank exceeds 65˚.
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7.3 AFCS MODES
The AFCS is capable of operating in a variety of independent Lateral Modes, Vertical Modes and Combination
of both the Lateral and Vertical Modes.
VERTICAL MODES
The following table lists the vertical modes with their corresponding controls and annunciations. The mode
reference is displayed next to the active mode annunciation for Altitude Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level
Change modes. The NOSE UP and NOSE DN Wheel can be used to change the vertical mode reference while
operating under Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode. Increments of change and acceptable
ranges of values for each of these references using the NOSE UP and NOSE DN Wheel are also listed in the
table.
Vertical Mode
Description
Control Annunciation
Reference
Range
Holds the current aircraft pitch
-15° to
Pitch Hold
attitude; may be used to climb/ (default)
PIT
+20°
descend to the Selected Altitude
Selected Altitude Capture
Captures the Selected Altitude
*
ALTS
Altitude Hold
Holds the current Altitude Reference ALT Key ALT nnnnn ft
Maintains the current aircraft vertical
-4000 to
Vertical Speed
speed; may be used to climb/descend VS Key VS nnnn fpm
+3000 fpm
to the Selected Altitude
75 to
Flight Level Change, IAS Hold Maintains the current aircraft
FLC nnn kt
265 kt
airspeed (in IAS or Mach) while the
FLC Key
aircraft is climbing/descending to the
M 0.20 to
Flight Level Change, Mach Hold Selected Altitude
FLC M .nnn
0.69
Reference
Change
Increment
0.5°
100 fpm
1 kt
M 0.01
* ALTS armed automatically when PIT, VS, FLC, TO, or GA active, and under VPTH when Selected Altitude is to be captured
instead of VNV Target Altitude
Table 7-2 Flight Director Vertical Modes
PITCH HOLD MODE (PIT)
When the flight director is activated (the FD Key is pressed) or switched (the XFR Key is pressed), Pitch
Hold Mode is selected by default. Pitch Hold Mode is indicated as the active vertical mode by the ‘PIT’
annunciation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the
Altimeter), since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Pitch Hold Mode is activated.
In Pitch Hold Mode, the flight director maintains a constant pitch attitude, the pitch reference. The pitch
reference is set to the aircraft pitch attitude at the moment of mode selection. If the aircraft pitch attitude
exceeds the flight director pitch command limitations, the flight director commands a pitch angle equal to
the nose-up/down limit.
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Changing the Pitch Reference
When operating in Pitch Hold Mode, the pitch reference can be adjusted by:
• Using the NOSE UP and NOSE DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new pitch reference, then releasing the
CWS Button
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Command Bars Maintain
Desired Pitch Reference
Figure 7-6 Pitch Hold Mode
SELECTED ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTS)
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed with activation of the following modes:
• Pitch Hold
• Vertical Speed
• Flight Level Change
• Takeoff/Go Around (if the Selected Altitude is at
least 400 feet above the current aircraft altitude)
• Vertical Path Tracking (if the Selected Altitude
is to be captured instead of the VNV Target
Altitude)
The white ‘ALTS’ annunciation indicates Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed. The ALT SEL Knob is
used to set the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter) until Selected Altitude Capture Mode becomes
active.
As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to Selected Altitude
Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic transition is indicated by the green ‘ALTS’
annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation. The Selected
Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTS’ annunciation.
At 50 feet from the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from Selected Altitude
Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and holds the Selected Altitude (shown as the Altitude Reference). As Altitude
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Hold Mode becomes active, the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes
green for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic transition.
Altitude Reference
(in this case, equal to
Selected Altitude)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-7 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in Selected Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Changing the Selected Altitude
Use of the ALT SEL Knob on the MFD to change the Selected Altitude while Selected Altitude Capture
Mode is active causes the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode with Selected Altitude Capture Mode
armed for the new Selected Altitude.
ALTITUDE HOLD MODE (ALT)
Altitude Hold Mode can be activated by pressing the ALT Key; the flight director maintains the current
aircraft altitude (to the nearest 10 feet) as the Altitude Reference. The flight director’s Altitude Reference,
shown in the AFCS Status Box, is independent of the Selected Altitude, displayed above the Altimeter.
Altitude Hold Mode active is indicated by a green ‘ALT’ annunciation in the AFCS Status Box.
Altitude Hold Mode is automatically armed when the flight director is in Selected Altitude Capture Mode.
Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically transitions to Altitude Hold Mode when the altitude error is
less than 50 feet. In this case, the Selected Altitude becomes the flight director’s Altitude Reference.
Changing the Altitude Reference
NOTE: Turning the ALT SEL Knob while in Altitude Hold Mode changes the Selected Altitude, but not the
flight director’s Altitude Reference, and does not cancel the mode.
The Altitude Reference (shown in the AFCS Status Box) may be changed by:
• Using the NOSE UP/NOSE DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Altitude Reference, then releasing the
CWS Button at the desired altitude (the new altitude is now the Altitude Reference)
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Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Altitude
Reference
Selected
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
to Maintain Altitude Reference
Figure 7-8 Altitude Hold Mode
VERTICAL SPEED MODE (VS)
In Vertical Speed Mode, the flight director acquires and maintains a Vertical Speed Reference. Current
aircraft vertical speed (to the nearest 100 fpm) becomes the Vertical Speed Reference at the moment of Vertical
Speed Mode activation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above
the Altimeter) since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Vertical Speed Mode is
selected.
When Vertical Speed Mode is activated by pressing the VS Key, ‘VS’ is annunciated in green in the AFCS
Status Box along with the Vertical Speed Reference. The Vertical Speed Reference is also displayed above the
Vertical Speed Indicator. A Vertical Speed Reference Bug corresponding to the Vertical Speed Reference is
shown on the indicator.
Changing the Vertical Speed Reference
The Vertical Speed Reference (shown both in the AFCS Status Box and above the Vertical Speed Indicator)
may be changed by:
• Using the NOSE UP and NOSE DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Vertical Speed Reference, then releasing
the CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
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Vertical Speed
Mode Active
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb to
Attain Vertical Speed Reference
Figure 7-9 Vertical Speed Hold Mode
FLIGHT LEVEL CHANGE MODE (FLC)
NOTE: The Selected Altitude should be set before selecting Flight Level Change Mode.
Flight Level Change Mode is selected by pressing the FLC Key. This mode acquires and maintains the
Airspeed Reference in IAS while climbing or descending to the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter).
When Flight Level Change Mode is active, the flight director continuously monitors Selected Altitude,
airspeed, and altitude.
The Airspeed Reference is set to the current airspeed upon mode activation. Flight Level Change Mode is
indicated by a green ‘FLC’ annunciation beside the Airspeed Reference in the AFCS Status Box. The Airspeed
Reference is also displayed directly above the Airspeed Indicator, along with a bug corresponding to the
Airspeed Reference along the tape.
Engine power must be adjusted to allow the autopilot to fly the aircraft at a pitch attitude corresponding
to the desired flight profile (climb or descent) while maintaining the Airspeed Reference. The flight director
maintains the current altitude until either engine power or the Airspeed Reference are adjusted and does not
allow the aircraft to climb or descend away from the Selected Altitude.
Airspeed Reference units can be manually toggled between IAS and Mach units using the SPD Key. When
the FLC Airspeed Reference is displayed in Mach, the Airspeed Reference Bug is displayed on the Airspeed
Indicator at the IAS corresponding to the selected Mach target speed and the current Mach number is shown
below the Airspeed Indicator.
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Flight Level
Change Mode
Active
Airspeed
Reference
Airspeed
Reference
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to Attain Selected Altitude
Figure 7-10 Flight Level Change Mode (IAS)
Flight Level
Change Mode
Active
Airspeed
Reference
Mach
Airspeed
Reference
Mach
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to Attain Selected Altitude
Figure 7-11 Flight Level Change Mode (Mach)
Changing the Airspeed Reference
The Airspeed Reference (shown in both the AFCS Status Box and above the Airspeed Indicator) may be
adjusted by:
• Using the NOSE UP and NOSE DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Airspeed Reference, then releasing the
CWS Button
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NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
LATERAL MODES
The following table relates each Garmin AFCS lateral mode to its respective control and annunciation. Lateral
Modes automatically arm at 400' AGL. Refer to the combination modes section for information regarding Go
Around and Takeoff modes.
Lateral Mode
Description
Roll Hold
Low Bank
Heading Select**
Navigation, FMS Arm/Capture/Track**
Navigation, VOR Enroute Arm/Capture/
Track**
Navigation, LOC Arm/Capture/Track
(No Glideslope)
Control Annunciation
Holds the current aircraft roll
attitude or rolls the wings level,
(default)
depending on the commanded
bank angle
Limits the maximum commanded BANK
roll angle
Key
Captures and tracks the Selected HDG
Heading
Key
Captures and tracks the Selected
Heading
NAV
Captures and tracks the selected
Key
navigation source (FMS, VOR,
LOC)
Maximum Roll
Command Limit
ROL
25°
*
15°
HDG
25°
FMS
VOR
LOC
25° Capture
10° Track
25° Capture
10° Track
25° Capture
10° Track
* No annunciation appears in the AFCS Status Box. The acceptable bank angle range is indicated in green along the Roll
Scale of the Attitude Indicator.
** The Heading, Navigation GPS and Navigation VOR mode maximum roll command limit will be limited to the Low Bank
mode value if it is engaged.
Table 7-3 Flight Director Lateral Modes
The CWS Button does not change lateral references for Heading Select, Navigation, Backcourse, or Approach
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading/Course upon release of the CWS Button.
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ROLL HOLD MODE (ROL)
NOTE: If Roll Hold Mode is activated as a result of a mode reversion, the flight director rolls wings level.
When the flight director is activated or switched, Roll Hold Mode is selected by default. This mode is
annunciated as ‘ROL’ in the AFCS Status Box. The current aircraft bank angle is held, subject to the bank
angle condition.
Figure 7-12 Roll Hold Mode Annunciation
Bank Angle
< 6°
6 to 30°
> 30°
Flight Director Response
Rolls wings level
Maintains current aircraft roll attitude
Limits bank to 30°
Table 7-4 Roll Hold Mode Responses
Changing the Roll Reference
The roll reference can be changed by pressing the CWS Button, establishing the desired bank angle, then
releasing the CWS Button.
LOW BANK MODE
When in Low Bank Mode, the flight director limits the maximum commanded roll angle to 15°. Low bank
arc limits are displayed in green along the Roll Scale.
Low Bank Mode can be manually selected/deselected by pressing the BANK Key while in Heading Select
or Navigation Modes (GPS and VOR). Low Bank Mode is activated automatically above 25,000 feet (FL250).
The flight director deactivates Low Bank Mode when descending through 25,000 feet. The annunciator light
next to the BANK Key illuminates while Low Bank Mode is selected.
Low Bank Arc
Figure 7-13 Low Bank Mode Limits
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HEADING SELECT MODE (HDG)
Heading Select Mode is activated by pressing the HDG Key. Heading Select Mode acquires and maintains
the Selected Heading. The Selected Heading is shown by a cyan bug on the HSI and in the box to the upper
left of the HSI.
Changing the Selected Heading
NOTE: Pressing the HDG Knob synchronizes the Selected Heading to the current heading.
The Selected Heading is adjusted using the HDG Knob. Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying
the aircraft does not change the Selected Heading. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected
Heading upon release of the CWS Button.
Turns are commanded in the same direction as Selected Heading Bug movement, even if the bug is turned
more than 180° from the present heading (e.g., a 270° turn to the right). However, Selected Heading
changes of more than 330° at a time result in turn reversals.
Heading Select
Mode Active
Selected
Heading
Selected
Heading
Bug
Command Bars Track
Selected Heading
Figure 7-14 Heading Select Mode
NAVIGATION MODES (FMS, VOR, LOC, BC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active FMS course for the
flight director to enter Navigation Mode.
NOTE: When intercepting a flight plan leg, the flight director gives commands to capture the active leg at
approximately a 45° angle to the track between the waypoints defining the active leg. The flight director
does not give commands fly to the starting waypoint of the active leg.
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NOTE: When making a backcourse approach, set the Selected Course to the localizer front course.
Pressing the NAV Key selects Navigation Mode. Navigation Mode acquires and tracks the selected navigation
source (FMS, VOR, LOC). The flight director follows FMS roll steering commands when FMS is the selected
navigation source. When the navigation source is VOR or LOC, the flight director creates roll steering
commands from the Selected Course and deviation. Navigation Mode can also be used to fly non-precision
SBAS and LOC approaches where vertical guidance is not required.
Backcourse Navigation Mode is selected when the localizer front course is greater than 105° from the aircraft
heading. Backcourse Navigation Mode captures and tracks a localizer signal in the backcourse direction. The
annunciation ‘BC’ in the AFCS Status Box indicates Backcourse Navigation Mode.
If the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) shows greater than one dot when the NAV Key is pressed, the
selected mode is armed. If the CDI is less than one dot, Navigation Mode is automatically captured when the
NAV Key is pressed. The armed annunciation appears in white to the left of the active roll mode.
Figure 7-15 FMS Navigation Mode Active
When the CDI has automatically switched from FMS to LOC during a LOC/ILS approach, FMS Navigation
Mode remains active, providing FMS steering guidance until the localizer signal is captured. LOC Navigation
Mode is armed automatically when the navigation source switch takes place if the APR Key is not pressed
prior to the automatic source switch.
If Navigation Mode is active and either of the following occur, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode
(wings rolled level):
• Different VOR tuned while in VOR Navigation Mode (VOR Navigation Mode reverts to armed)
• Navigation source manually switched (with the CDI Softkey)
• During a LOC/ILS approach, the FAF is crossed while in FMS Navigation Mode after the automatic
navigation source switch from FMS to LOC
Changing the Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer, or OBS Mode has been enabled when using FMS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Navigation Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or FMS flight plan) when
the CWS Button is released.
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VOR Navigation
Mode Active
VOR is Selected
Navigation Source
Selected
Course
Figure 7-16 Navigation Mode
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COMBINATION MODES (VNV, APR, NAV, BC, GA, LVL)
The following table lists the modes that operating by using both Vertical and Lateral Modes with their
corresponding controls and annunciations.
Mode
Description
Vertical Path Tracking
VNV Target Altitude Capture
Glidepath
Glideslope
Backcourse Arm/Capture/Track
Control
Captures and tracks descent
legs of an active vertical VNV Key
profile
Captures
the
Vertical
Navigation (VNV) Target
*
Altitude
Captures and tracks the
SBAS glidepath on approach
APR Key
Captures and tracks the ILS
glideslope on approach
Captures
and
tracks
a localizer signal for BC Key
backcourse approaches
Annunciation
ALTV
GP
GS
Approach, ILS Arm/Capture/Track
(Glideslope Mode automatically
armed)
Takeoff
Go Around**
Level
25° Capture
10° Track
BC
25° Capture
10° Track
25° Capture
10° Track
FMS
Captures and tracks the
selected navigation source APR Key
(FMS, VOR, LOC)
VAPP
25° Capture
10° Track
LOC
Commands a constant pitch
angle and wings level on the
ground in preparation for
takeoff
Commands a constant pitch
angle and wings level in the
air
Autopilot engages and
commands
pitch angle
necessary to establish zero
vertical fpm
Reference
Range
VPTH
Approach, FMS Arm/Capture/Track
Approach, VOR Arm/Capture/Track
Maximum
Roll
Command
Limit
TO
10°
GA
10°
LVL
N/A
GA
Switch
LVL
Button
* ALTV is armed automatically under VPTH when VNV Target Altitude is to be captured instead of Selected Altitude.
**Go Around mode disengages the autopilot unless a compatible lift computer is installed.
Table 7-5 Flight Director Combination Modes
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VERTICAL NAVIGATION MODES (VPTH, ALTV)
NOTE: VNV is disabled when parallel track or Dead Reckoning Mode is active. Refer to the Flight Management
Section for more information on VNV flight plans.
NOTE: The Selected Altitude takes precedence over any other vertical constraints.
Vertical Navigation (VNV) flight control is available for enroute/terminal cruise and descent operations
when VNV flight planning is available. Conditions for availability include, but are not limited to:
• The selected navigation source is FMS
• A VNV flight plan (with at least one altitude-constrained waypoint) or vertical direct-to is active
• VNV is enabled (VNV ENBL Softkey pressed on the MFD)
• Crosstrack error is valid and within certain limits
• Desired/actual track are valid or track angle error is within certain limits
• The VNV Target Altitude of the active waypoint is no more than 250 ft above the current aircraft altitude
The flight director may be armed for VNV at any time, but no target altitudes are captured during a climb.
The Command Bars provide vertical profile guidance based on specified altitudes (entered manually or loaded
from the database) at waypoints in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to. The appropriate VNV flight
control modes are sequenced by the flight director to follow the path defined by the vertical profile. Upon
reaching the last waypoint in the VNV flight plan, the flight director transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and
cancels any armed VNV modes.
VERTICAL PATH TRACKING MODE (VPTH)
NOTE: If another vertical mode key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is selected, Vertical Path
Tracking Mode reverts to armed.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The
autopilot guides the aircraft back to the descent path upon release of the CWS Button.
When a vertical profile (VNV flight plan) is active and the VNV Key is pressed, Vertical Path Tracking
Mode is armed in preparation for descent path capture. ‘VPTH’ (or ‘/V’ when Glidepath or Glideslope Mode
is concurrently armed) is annunciated in white in addition to previously armed modes. If applicable, the
appropriate altitude capture mode is armed for capture of the next VNV Target Altitude (ALTV) or the Selected
Altitude (ALTS), whichever is greater.
Figure 7-17 Vertical Path Tracking Armed Annunciations
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Prior to descent path interception, the Selected Altitude must be set below the current aircraft altitude
by at least 75 feet. For the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path Tracking Mode,
acknowledgment is required within five minutes of descent path interception by:
• Pressing the VNV Key
• Adjusting the Selected Altitude
If acknowledgment is not received within 1 minute of descent path interception, the white ‘VPTH’
annunciation starts to flash. Flashing continues until acknowledged or the descent path is intercepted. If
the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed and the
descent is not captured.
In conjunction with the “TOD [top of descent] within 1 minute” annunciation in the PFD Navigation Status
Box and the “Vertical track” voice message, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, vertical deviation, and
vertical speed required) appear on the PFDs in magenta.
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Vertical Path Tracking
Armed (Flashing Indicates
Acknowledgment Required)
VNV Target
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
FMS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Enroute
Phase of
Flight
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Figure 7-18 Vertical Path Capture
When a descent leg is captured (i.e., vertical deviation becomes valid), Vertical Path Tracking becomes
active and tracks the descent profile. An altitude capture mode (‘ALTS’ or ‘ALTV’) is armed as appropriate.
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Vertical Path
Tracking Active
VNV Target Altitude
Capture Armed
VNV Target
Altitude
FMS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Terminal
Phase of
Flight
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Command Bars Indicate Descent to
Maintain Required Vertical Speed
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
Figure 7-19 Vertical Path Tracking Mode
If the altimeter barometric setting is adjusted while Vertical Path Tracking is active, the flight director
increases/decreases the descent rate by up to 500 fpm to re-establish the aircraft on the descent path (without
commanding a climb). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNV vertical
deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to reestablish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target Altitude,
the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
Automatic Reversion to Pitch Hold Mode
Several situations can occur while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active which cause the flight director to
revert to Pitch Hold Mode:
• Vertical deviation exceeds 200 feet during an overspeed condition
• Vertical deviation experiences a discontinuity that both exceeds 200 feet in magnitude and results in the
vertical deviation exceeding 200 feet in magnitude. Such discontinuities are usually caused by flight plan
changes that affect the vertical profile
• Vertical deviation becomes invalid (the Vertical Deviation Indicator is removed from the PFD)
• A display enters Reversionary Mode (this does not apply to an active vertical direct-to)
Unless VNV is disabled, Vertical Path Tracking Mode and the appropriate altitude capture mode become
armed following the reversion to Pitch Hold Mode to allow for possible profile recapture.
Non-Path Descents
Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes can also be used to fly non-path descents
while VNV flight control is selected. If the VS or FLC Key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is
selected, Vertical Path Tracking Mode reverts to armed along with the appropriate altitude capture mode to
allow profile re-capture.
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Figure 7-20 Flight Level Change VNV Non-Path Descent
To prevent immediate profile re-capture, the following must be satisfied:
• At least 10 seconds have passed since the non-path transition was initiated
• Vertical deviation from the profile has exceeded 250 feet, but is now less than 200 feet
Pressing the VNV Key twice re-arms Vertical Path Tracking for immediate profile re-capture.
VNV TARGET ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTV)
NOTE: Armed VNV Target Altitude and Selected Altitude capture modes are mutually exclusive. However,
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed implicitly (not annunciated) whenever VNV Target Altitude Capture
Mode is armed.
VNV Target Altitude Capture is analogous to Selected Altitude Capture Mode and is armed automatically
after the VNV Key is pressed and the next VNV Target Altitude is to be intercepted before the Selected Altitude.
The annunciation ‘ALTV’ indicates that the VNV Target Altitude is to be captured. VNV Target Altitudes are
shown in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to, and can be entered manually or loaded from a database
(see the Flight Management Section for details). At the same time as “TOD within 1 minute” is annunciated
in the Navigation Status Box, the active VNV Target Altitude is displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator.
NOTE: When the Selected Altitude is set to the VNV Target Altitude, Selected Altitude Capture Mode (ALTS)
will be armed even though the altitude value is part of the active VNAV flight plan.
As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to VNV Target
Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic transition is indicated by the green
‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT” annunciation. The
VNV Target Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTV’ annunciation and remains displayed
above the Vertical Speed Indicator. The Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) is removed once VNV
Target Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
At 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from VNV Target
Altitude Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and tracks the level leg. As Altitude Hold Mode becomes active, the
white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes green for 10 seconds to indicate
the automatic transition. The flight director automatically arms Vertical Path Tracking, allowing upcoming
descent legs to be captured and subsequently tracked.
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Altitude Reference (In This Case,
Equal To VNV Altitude Target)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-21 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
Changing the VNV Target Altitude
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Changing the current VNV Target Altitude while VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode is active causes the
flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode. Vertical Path Tracking and the appropriate altitude capture mode
are armed in preparation to capture the new VNV Target Altitude or the Selected Altitude, depending on
which altitude is to be intercepted first.
VNV target altitudes can be changed while editing the active flight plan (see the Flight Management Section
for details).
APPROACH MODES (FMS, VAPP, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active FMS course for the
flight director to enter Approach Mode.
Approach Mode is activated when the APR Key is pressed. Approach Mode acquires and tracks the
selected navigation source (FMS, VOR, or LOC), depending on loaded approach. This mode uses the selected
navigation receiver deviation and desired course inputs to fly the approach. Pressing the APR Key when
the CDI is greater than one dot arms the selected approach mode (annunciated in white to the left of the
active lateral mode). If the CDI is less than one dot, the LOC is automatically captured when the APR Key
is pressed.
VOR Approach Mode (VAPP) provides greater sensitivity for signal tracking than VOR Navigation Mode.
Selecting VOR Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid VOR frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that VOR is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
When FMS Approach Mode is armed, Glidepath Mode is also armed.
Selecting FMS Approach Mode without a Glidepath:
1) Ensure a SBAS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan
(cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that FMS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the NAV Key.
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Figure 7-22 FMS Approach Mode Armed
Glidepath Mode (GP)
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glidepath Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glidepath upon release of the CWS Button.
Glidepath Mode is used to track the WAAS-based glidepath. When Glidepath Mode is armed, ‘GP’ is
annunciated in white in the AFCS Status Box.
Selecting FMS Approach Mode with a Glidepath:
1) Ensure a SBAS approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LP+V, LNAV+V) is loaded into the active flight
plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan (cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that FMS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
NOTE: Some RNAV (SBAS) approaches provide a vertical descent angle as an aid in flying a stabilized
approach. These approaches are NOT considered Approaches with Vertical Guidance (APV). Approaches
that are annunciated on the HSI as LNAV or LNAV+V are considered Non-precision Approaches (NPA) and
are flown to an MDA even though vertical glidepath (GP) information may be provided.
WARNING: Do not rely on the autopilot to level the aircraft at the MDA/DH when flying an approach with
vertical guidance. The autopilot will not level the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the
altitude preselect.
Figure 7-23 Glidepath Mode Armed
Upon reaching the glidepath, the flight director transitions to Glidepath Mode and begins to capture and
track the glidepath.
Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured:
• A GPS approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V) is loaded into the active flight plan.
• The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF)
• Vertical deviation is valid
• The CDI is at less than full scale deviation
• Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
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FMS Approach
Mode Active
Glidepath
Mode Active
FMS is Selected
Navigation
Source
LPV Approach
Active
Glidepath
Indicator
Figure 7-24 Glidepath Mode
Glideslope Mode (GS)
LOC Approach Mode allows the autopilot to fly a LOC/ILS approach with a glideslope. When LOC
Approach Mode is armed, Glideslope Mode is also armed automatically. LOC captures are inhibited if the
difference between aircraft heading and localizer course exceeds 105°.
Selecting LOC Approach Mode without a Glideslope:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
1) Ensure that FMS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glideslope Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glideslope upon release of the CWS Button.
Glideslope Mode is available for LOC/ILS approaches to capture and track the glideslope. When
Glideslope Mode is armed (annunciated as ‘GS’ in white), LOC Approach Mode is armed as the lateral
flight director mode.
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Selecting LOC Approach Mode with a Glideslope:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
1) Ensure that FMS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
Figure 7-25 Glideslope Mode Armed
Once LOC is the navigation source, the localizer and glideslope can be captured. Upon reaching the
glideslope, the flight director transitions to Glideslope Mode and begins to capture and track the glideslope.
Active ILS
Frequency Tuned
Approach
Mode Active
Glideslope
Mode Active
NAV1 (localizer) is Selected
Navigation Source
Glideslope
Indicator
Figure 7-26 Glideslope Mode
Once the following occurs, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level):
• Approach Mode is active and a Vectors-To-Final is activated
• Approach Mode is active and Navigation source is manually switched
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• During a LOC/ILS approach FMS Navigation Mode is active and the FAF is crossed after the automatic
navigation source switch from FMS to LOC
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using FMS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob.
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Approach or Backcourse Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or FMS flight
plan) when the CWS Button is released.
BACKCOURSE MODE (BC)
NOTE: When making a backcourse approach, set the Selected Course to the localizer front course.
Backcourse Mode captures and tracks a localizer signal in the backcourse direction. The mode may be
selected by pressing the BC Key. Backcourse Mode is armed if the CDI is greater than one dot when the mode
is selected. If the CDI is less than one dot, Backcourse Mode is automatically captured when the BC Key is
pressed. The flight director creates roll steering commands from the Selected Course and deviation when in
Backcourse Mode.
Backcourse
Mode Active
LOC2 is Selected Navigation Source
Figure 7-27 Backcourse Mode
Changing the Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not reset any reference data while in Backcourse
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course when the CWS Button is released.
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INTERCEPTING AND FLYING A DME ARC
The AFCS will intercept and track a DME arc that is part of the active flight plan provided that FMS
Navigation Mode is engaged, FMS is the active navigation source on the CDI, and the DME arc segment is
the active flight plan leg. It is important to note that automatic navigation of DME arcs is based on FMS.
Thus, even if the APR key is pressed and LOC or VOR Approach Mode is armed prior to reaching the Initial
Approach Fix (IAF), Approach Mode will not activate until the arc segment is completed.
If the pilot decides to intercept the arc at a location other than the published IAF (i.e. ATC provides
vectors to intercept the arc) and subsequently selects Heading Mode or Roll Mode, the AFCS will not
automatically intercept or track the arc unless the pilot activates the arc leg of the flight plan and arms FMS
Navigation Mode. The AFCS will not intercept and fly a DME arc before reaching an IAF that defines the
beginning of the arc segment. Likewise, if at any point while established on the DME arc the pilot deselects
FMS Navigation Mode, the AFCS will no longer track the arc.
TAKEOFF (TO) AND GO AROUND (GA) MODES
In Takeoff and Go Around modes, the flight director commands a constant set pitch attitude. The GA
Switch is used to select both modes. The mode entered by the flight director depends on whether the aircraft
is on the ground. Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when the aircraft is at least 400 feet
below the Selected altitude at the time Takeoff or Go Around Mode is selected.
Takeoff Mode provides an attitude reference during rotation and takeoff. This mode can be selected only
while on the ground by pushing the GA Switch. The flight director Command Bars assume a wings-level,
pitch-up attitude. Autopilot engagement while Takeoff Mode is active is inhibited while the aircraft is on the
ground.
Pressing the GA Switch while in the air activates the flight director in a wings-level, pitch-up attitude,
allowing the execution of a missed approach or a go around. Attempts to modify the aircraft attitude (i.e.,
with the NOSE UP and NOSE DN Wheel or CWS Button) result in reversion to Pitch Hold Mode.
Go Around
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate Climb
Figure 7-28 Go Around Modes
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LEVEL MODE
Level Mode is a coupled pitch and roll mode and is annunciated as both the vertical and lateral modes when
active. Pressing the LVL Button (located on the instrument panel) engages the autopilot and yaw damper (if
the autopilot is disengaged and the aircraft is within the autopilot engagement limitations) in level vertical and
lateral modes. While Level Mode does not track altitude or heading, it will adjust the pitch angle to maintain
zero vertical speed. When the LVL Button is pressed, all armed and active modes are cancelled and the
autopilot and flight director revert to LVL mode for pitch and roll. While in level mode, all other modes are
available by pressing the corresponding button.
Roll
Pitch
Command Bars Indicate
Level with the Horizon
Figure 7-29 Level Mode Annunciation
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7.4 AUTOPILOT AND YAW DAMPER OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the current pertinent flight manual for specific instructions regarding emergency procedures.
The autopilot and yaw damper operate the flight control surface servos to provide automatic flight control. The
autopilot controls the aircraft pitch and roll attitudes following commands received from the flight director. Pitch
autotrim provides trim commands to the pitch trim servo to relieve any sustained effort required by the pitch
servo. Autopilot operation is independent of the yaw damper.
The yaw damper reduces Dutch roll tendencies and coordinates turns. It can operate independently of the
autopilot and may be used during normal hand-flight maneuvers. Yaw rate commands are limited to 6 deg/sec
by the yaw damper.
FLIGHT CONTROL
Pitch and roll commands are provided to the servos based on the active flight director modes. Yaw damping
is provided by the yaw servo. Servo motor control limits the maximum servo speed and torque. The servo
gearboxes are equipped with slip-clutches set to certain values. This allows the servos to be overridden in case
of an emergency.
PITCH AXIS AND TRIM
The autopilot pitch axis uses pitch rate to stabilize the aircraft pitch attitude during flight director maneuvers.
Flight director pitch commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with pitch damper control, and sent
to the pitch servo motor. The pitch servo measures the output effort (torque) and provides this signal to the
pitch trim servo. The pitch trim servo commands the motor to reduce the average pitch servo effort.
When the autopilot is not engaged, the pitch trim servo may be used to provide manual electric pitch trim
(MEPT). This allows the aircraft to be trimmed using a control wheel switch rather than the trim wheel. Trim
speeds are scheduled with airspeed to provide more consistent response.
ROLL AXIS
The autopilot roll axis uses roll rate to stabilize aircraft roll attitude during flight director maneuvers. The
flight director roll commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with roll damper control, and sent to
the roll servo motor.
YAW AXIS
The yaw damper uses yaw rate and roll attitude to dampen the aircraft’s natural Dutch roll response. It also
uses lateral acceleration to coordinate turns. Yaw damper operation is independent of autopilot engagement.
When the yaw damper is not engaged, the yaw trim adapter may be used to provide manual electric yaw
trim (MEYT). This allows the aircraft to be trimmed using a control wheel switch. Trim speeds are scheduled
with airspeed to provide more consistent response.
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ENGAGEMENT
NOTE: Autopilot engagement/disengagement is not equivalent to servo engagement/disengagement. Use
the CWS Button to disengage the pitch and roll servos while the autopilot remains active.
When the YD Key is pressed, the system engages the yaw damper independently of the autopilot and the yaw
damper annunciator light is illuminated. When the AP Key is pressed, the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight
director (if not already active) are activated and the annunciator lights on the AFCS controller for the autopilot
and yaw damper are illuminated. The flight director engages in Pitch and Roll Hold Modes when initially
activated.
Autopilot
Engaged
Yaw
Damper
Engaged
Figure 7-30 Autopilot And Yaw Damper Engaged
Autopilot and yaw damper status are displayed in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Engagement is indicated
by green 'AP' and 'YD' annunciations respectively.
CONTROL WHEEL STEERING
During autopilot operation, the aircraft may be hand-flown without disengaging the autopilot. Pressing and
holding the CWS Button disengages the pitch and roll servos from the flight control surfaces and allows the
aircraft to be hand-flown. At the same time, the flight director is synchronized to the aircraft attitude during
the maneuver.
The ‘AP’ annunciation is temporarily replaced by ‘CWS’ in white for the duration of CWS maneuvers.
Control Wheel Steering
Figure 7-31 CWS Annunciation
In most scenarios, releasing the CWS Button reengages the autopilot with a new reference. Refer to flight
director mode descriptions for specific CWS behavior in each mode.
DISENGAGEMENT
The autopilot may be manually disengaged by pushing the AP DISC, GA, MEYT Switch, MEPT Switch, or
the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit. Manual disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow ‘AP’
annunciation and a three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert. The AP DISC or MEPT Switch may be used
to cancel the aural alert.
Figure 7-32 Manual Autopilot Disengagement
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Automatic autopilot disengagement is indicated by a flashing red and white ‘AP’ annunciation and by the
autopilot disconnect aural alert, which continues until acknowledged by pushing the AP DISC or MEPT
Switch. Automatic autopilot disengagement occurs due to:
• System failure
• Stall warning
• Invalid sensor data
• Inability to compute default flight director modes
• Roll Trim input
Figure 7-33 Automatic Autopilot Disengagement
Yaw damper disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow ‘YD’ annunciation. Automatic yaw
damper disengagement occurs when autopilot disengagement is caused by failure in a parameter also affecting
the yaw damper. This means the yaw damper can remain operational in some cases where the autopilot
automatically disengages. A localized failure in the yaw damper system or invalid sensor data also cause yaw
damper disengagement.
Figure 7-34 Automatic Autopilot and
Yaw Damper Disengagement
EMERGENCY DESCENT MODE
ACTIVATION
The aircraft is equipped with an Emergency Descent Mode (EDM). EDM is automatically activated when
the autopilot is engaged and:
• Pressure Altitude is greater than 15,000 feet MSL
AND
• CABIN ALTITUDE CAS warning message is triggered
Throttle should be reduced to idle to achieve a maximum rate of decent. EDM is annunciated on the PFD
and the following AFCS modes are engaged: FLC Mode with a target speed of 265 KIAS or Mach equivalent,
Heading Mode with a course 90° left of current heading, and a target altitude of 15,000 feet MSL.
NOTE: Refer to the current pertinent flight manual for specific instructions regarding emergency procedures.
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HDG Mode
Active
FLC Mode
Active
Target 265 KIAS
Selected
EDM
Annunciated
15000 MSL
Selected
Figure 7-35 Emergency Descent Mode Armed
EDM OVERRIDE
To exit the EDM Mode press the AP Key on the AFCS Controller. If the AP Key is pressed again an EDM
Override advisory will appear and the pilot will have the ability to change AFCS modes as necessary. EDM Mode
cannot be re-entered until the EDM Override is cleared. To clear the EDM Override the 'CABIN ALTITUDE' CAS
warning needs to be cleared and the AP Key needs to be cycled off and back on again.
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7.5 AFCS ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
AFCS STATUS ALERTS
The annunciations in the following table (listed in order of increasing priority) can appear on the PFDs above
the Airspeed and Attitude indicators. Only one annunciation may occur at a time, and messages are prioritized
by criticality.
AFCS Status
Annunciation
AFCS
Figure 7-36 AFCS Status Annunciation
Alert Condition
Annunciation
Elevator Mistrim Down
Description
A condition has developed causing the pitch servo to provide a sustained force. Be
prepared to apply nose up control wheel force upon autopilot disconnect.
Elevator Mistrim Up
Aileron Mistrim Left
A condition has developed causing the roll servo to provide a sustained left force.
Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and observe any maximum fuel imbalance
limits.
Aileron Mistrim Right
A condition has developed causing the roll servo to provide a sustained right force. Ensure
the slip/skid indicator is centered and observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
Rudder Mistrim Left
A condition has developed causing the yaw servo to provide a sustained force. Ensure the
slip/skid indicator is centered and observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
Rudder Mistrim Right
A condition has developed causing the yaw servo to provide a sustained force. Ensure
the slip/skid indicator is centered and observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
Yaw Damper Failure
YD control failure; AP also inoperative
Pitch Trim Failure
(or stuck MEPT Switch)
MEYT Switch Stuck, or
Yaw Trim Failure
PTRM
YTRM
If AP engaged, take control of the aircraft and disengage AP
If AP disengaged, move MEPT switches separately to unstick
If AP engaged, take control of the aircraft and disengage AP
If AP disengaged, move MEYT switch to unstick
Roll Failure
ROLL
Roll axis control failure; AP inoperative
Pitch Failure
PTCH
Pitch axis control failure; AP inoperative
System Failure
AFCS
AP and MEPT are unavailable; FD may still be available
Preflight Test
PFT
Performing preflight system test; aural alert sounds at completion
Do not press the AP DISC Switch during servo power-up and preflight system tests
as this may cause the preflight system test to fail or never to start (if servos fail their
power-up tests). Power must be cycled to the servos to remedy the situation.
PFT
Preflight system test failed; aural alert sounds at failure
Table 7-6 AFCS Status Alerts
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UNDERSPEED PROTECTION
Underspeed Protection is available when the optional Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) system is
installed and the autopilot is on. It is designed to discourage aircraft operation below minimum established
airspeeds.
When the aircraft reaches a predetermined airspeed (see pertinent flight manual for airspeeds which are
dependant upon flap setting, and anti-ice system onboard), a flashing amber ‘MINSPD’ annunciation will
appear above the airspeed indicator.
Figure 7-37 MINSPD Annunciation
When the airspeed trend vector reaches the predetermined airspeed, a single aural “AIRSPEED” will sound,
alerting the pilot to the impending underspeed condition.
If the aircraft continues to decelerate, Underspeed Protection functionality depends on which vertical flight
director mode is selected. For the purpose of this discussion, the vertical flight director modes can be divided
into two categories: Those in which it is important to maintain altitude for as long as possible (altitude-critical
modes), and those in which maintaining altitude is less crucial (non-altitude critical modes).
ALTITUDE-CRITICAL MODES (ALT, GS, GP, TO, GA, FLC)
When the aircraft decelerates to stall warning, the lateral and vertical flight director modes will change from
active to armed, and the autopilot will provide input causing the aircraft to pitch down and the wings to level.
Lateral and
Vertical FD
Modes Armed
Figure 7-38 Lateral and Vertical Flight Director Modes Armed
An aural “AIRSPEED” alert will sound every five seconds and a red “UNDERSPEED PROTECT ACTIVE”
annunciation will appear to the right of the Vertical Speed Indicator. The pitch down force will continue until
the aircraft reaches a pitch attitude at which IAS equals the IAS at which stall warning turns off, plus two
knots.
Figure 7-39 Underspeed Protect Active Annunciation
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When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to above the IAS at which stall warning turns
off, plus two knots, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical reference and
the vertical and lateral flight director modes will change from armed to active.
NON-ALTITUDE CRITICAL MODES (PIT, VS, VNAV, IAS)
When the aircraft decelerates to an IAS below the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed, a red
“UNDERSPEED PROTECT ACTIVE” annunciation will appear to the right of the Vertical Speed Indicator.
The vertical flight director mode will change from active to armed, and the autopilot will cause the aircraft to
pitch down until reaching a pitch attitude at which IAS equals the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed.
When the airspeed trend vector reaches an IAS below the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed, a single
aural "AIRSPEED" will sound, alerting the pilot to the impending underspeed condition.
Vertical FD
Mode Armed
Figure 7-40 Vertical Flight Director Mode Armed
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to an IAS above the minimum commandable
autopilot airspeed, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical reference and
the vertical flight director mode will change from armed to active.
OVERSPEED PROTECTION
NOTE: Overspeed protection is not active in Altitude Hold, Glideslope or Glidepath modes.
While Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, Flight Level Change, Vertical Path Tracking, or an altitude capture mode is
active, airspeed is monitored by the flight director. Pitch commands are not changed until overspeed protection
becomes active. Overspeed protection is provided in situations where the flight director cannot acquire and
maintain the mode reference for the selected vertical mode without exceeding Vne.
When an autopilot overspeed condition occurs, the Airspeed Reference appears in a box above the Airspeed
Indicator, flashing a amber ‘MAXSPD’ annunciation. Engine power should be reduced and/or the pitch reference
adjusted to slow the aircraft. The annunciation disappears when the overspeed condition is resolved.
Figure 7-41 Overspeed Annunciation
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7.6 ABNORMAL OPERATION
SUSPECTED AUTOPILOT MALFUNCTION
NOTE: Consult the aircraft documentation for the location of circuit breakers as well as specifics that may
supplement or amplify this procedure.
If an autopilot failure or trim failure is suspected to have occurred, perform the following steps:
1) Firmly grasp the control wheel.
2) Press and hold the AP DISC Switch. The autopilot will disconnect and power is removed from the trim motor.
Power is also removed from all primary servo motors and engaged solenoids. Note the visual and aural alerting
indicating autopilot disconnect.
3) Retrim the aircraft as needed. Substantial trim adjustment may be needed.
4) Pull the appropriate circuit breaker(s) to electrically isolate the servo and solenoid components.
5) Release the AP DISC Switch.
OVERPOWERING AUTOPILOT SERVOS
In the context of this discussion, “overpowering” refers to any pressure or force applied to the pitch controls
when the autopilot is engaged. A small amount of pressure or force on the pitch controls can cause the autopilot
automatic trim to run to an out-of-trim condition. Therefore, any application of pressure or force to the
controls should be avoided when the autopilot is engaged.
Overpowering the autopilot during flight will cause the autopilot’s automatic trim to run, resulting in an outof-trim condition or cause the trim to hit the stop if the action is prolonged. In this case, larger than anticipated
control forces are required after the autopilot is disengaged.
The following steps should be added to the preflight check:
1) Check for proper autopilot operation and ensure the autopilot can be overpowered.
2) Note the forces required to overpower the autopilot servo clutches.
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SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
NOTE: With the availability of SafeTaxi®, ChartView, or FliteCharts®, it may be necessary to carry another
source of charts on-board the aircraft.
Additional features of the system include the following:
• SafeTaxi® diagrams
• SiriusXM® Satellite Radio entertainment
• FliteCharts® and ChartView electronic charts
• Flight Data Logging
• Satellite telephone and SMS messaging services
• Electronic Checklists
• SurfaceWatch
• Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™)
• Connext®
SafeTaxi diagrams provide detailed taxiway, runway, and ramp information at more than 700 airports in the
United States. By decreasing range on an airport that has a SafeTaxi diagram available, a close up view of the
airport layout can be seen.
The optional ChartView and FliteCharts provide on-board electronic terminal procedures charts. Electronic
charts offer the convenience of rapid access to essential information.
The Iridium Transceiver provides an airborne low speed datalink, Iridium Satellite Telephone service, and Short
Message Service (SMS).
The optional SurfaceWatch feature provides voice and visual annunciations to aid in maintaining situational
awareness and avoid potential runway incursions during ground and air operations in the airport environment.
Connext allows for setting up the installed optional Flight Stream device for a Bluetooth connection between
the system and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™ application.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment audio feature of the Datalink Receiver handles more than
170 channels of music, news, and sports. SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers more entertainment choices and longer
range coverage than commercial broadcast stations.
The Flight Data Logging feature automatically stores critical flight and engine data on an SD data card (up to
16GB) inserted into the top card slot of the MFD.
Electronic checklists allow a pilot to quickly find the proper procedure for a particular phase of flight.
The Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) system discourages aircraft operation outside the normal flight
envelope.
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8.1 SAFETAXI
SafeTaxi is an enhanced feature that gives greater map detail when viewing airports at close range. The
maximum map ranges for enhanced detail are pilot configurable. When viewing at ranges close enough to
show the airport detail, the map reveals taxiways with identifying letters/numbers, airport Hot Spots, and airport
landmarks including ramps, buildings, control towers, and other prominent features. Resolution is greater at
lower map ranges. When the MFD display is within the SafeTaxi ranges, the airplane symbol on the airport
provides enhanced position awareness.
Designated Hot Spots are recognized at airports with many intersecting taxiways and runways, and/or complex
ramp areas. Airport Hot Spots are outlined to caution pilots of areas on an airport surface where positional
awareness confusion or runway incursions happen most often. Hot Spots are defined with a magenta circle or
outline around the region of possible confusion.
Any map page that displays the navigation view can also show the SafeTaxi airport layout within the maximum
configured range. The following is a list of pages where the SafeTaxi feature can be seen:
• Navigation Map Page
• VOR Information Page
• Inset Map (PFD)
• User Waypoint Information Page
• Weather Datalink Page
• Trip Planning Page
• Airport Information Page
• Nearest Pages
• Intersection Information Page
• Active and Stored Flight Plan Pages
• NDB Information Page
During ground operations the aircraft’s position is displayed in reference to taxiways, runways, and airport
features. In the example shown, the aircraft is on taxiway Bravo approaching the High Alert Intersection boundary
on KSFO airport. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta. When panning over the airport, features such as
runway holding lines and taxiways are shown at the cursor.
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Airport
Features
Taxiway
Identification
Aircraft
Position
Detail Softkey
Removes
Taxiway
Markings
Figure 8-1 SafeTaxi Depiction on the Navigation Map Page
The Detail Softkey (declutter) label advances to Detail All, Detail 3, Detail 2 and Detail 1 each time the softkey
is selected for easy recognition of decluttering level. Selecting the Detail All Softkey removes the taxiway
markings and airport feature labels. Selecting the Detail 3 Softkey removes VOR station ID, the VOR symbol,
and intersection names if within the airport plan view. Selecting the Detail 2 Softkey removes the airport runway
layout, unless the airport in view is part of an active route structure. Selecting the Detail 1 Softkey cycles back
to the original map detail. Refer to Map Declutter Levels in the Flight Management Section.
Configuring SafeTaxi range:
1) While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu.’
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Map Settings’ Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aviation’ Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Aviation’ Group options to SafeTaxi.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the SafeTaxi range of distances.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired distance for maximum SafeTaxi display range.
7) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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8.2 CHARTS
Electronic charts that resemble the paper versions of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts (FliteCharts)
and Jeppesen terminal procedures charts (ChartView) can be displayed on the MFD.
When the databases for both chart types are purchased and loaded in the system, the desired charts brand, or
source, can be selected for viewing. The active chart source for a particular procedure is shown on the information
pane under Source.
Selecting preferred charts source:
1) While viewing a chart press the MENU Softkey to display the Page Menu options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Charts Setup’ menu option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the ‘Preferred Charts Source’ option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the available options (FliteCharts, ChartView).
Preferred Charts Source Option
Chart Setup Option
Figure 8-2 Preferred Charts Source
Chart
Source
Figure 8-3 Chart Source
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Rotating selected chart:
1) While viewing a chart press the CHRT Opt Softkey to display the available options.
2) Press the ROT CCW or ROT CW Softkeys to rotate the displayed chart in 90 degree increments counterclockwise or clockwise respectively.
SPLIT VIEW
Split view allows for displaying several items such as a selected chart and navigation map simultaneously.
This capability is available for charts within the MAP and FPL page groups. The pane that is currently selected
and can be controlled is outlined in cyan. More information on enabling/disabling split view can be found in
the System Overview section.
When “[Auto]” is appended at the end of the page title (ex. Map - Chart + Navigation Map [Auto]), this
indicates that the chart is corresponding to phase of flight. For information on automatically accessing the
appropriate chart for the current phase of flight, see Flight Management section.
Changing split view orientation:
While in split view mode, pressing and holding Joystick for several seconds toggles between narrow (vertical) split
screens and wide (horizontal) split screens.
Figure 8-4 Navigation Map Vertical Split Screen
CHARTVIEW
ChartView resembles the paper version of Jeppesen terminal procedures charts. The charts are displayed in
full color with high-resolution. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft position on the moving map in the plan
view of approach charts and on airport diagrams. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta.
The georeferenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Inset boxes are not considered within the chart boundaries.
Therefore, when the aircraft symbol reaches a chart boundary line, or inset box, the aircraft symbol is removed
from the display.
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The following figure shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, the grey shading
is for illustrative purposes only and will not appear on the published chart or MFD display. These off-scale
areas appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted geographical position
of this information, as it relates to the chart plan view, is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when
the aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart plan
view, not to the off-scale area.
Inset Box
Off-Scale
Area
Off-Scale
Areas
Figure 8-5 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the georeferenced aircraft symbol.
The ChartView database subscription is available from Jeppesen, Inc. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Airport Diagrams
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• NOTAMs
• Approaches
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting terminal procedures charts:
While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, ‘NRST - Nearest Airport’ Page, or ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page,
press the Charts Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Options’ Menu and select Chart Mode On.
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3) Press the ENT Key to display the charts.
4) Use the softkeys at the bottom of the screen to select the appropriate chart.
Navigation Map Page Options Menu
Chart Softkeys
Figure 8-6 Selecting Charts
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner No Available Charts appears on the screen. The
banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability of a particular airport chart
selection or procedure for a selected airport.
Figure 8-7 No Available Charts
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the
banner Unable To Display Chart is then displayed.
Figure 8-8 Unable To Display Chart Banner
When a chart is not available by pressing the Charts Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts may
be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, pressing
the Charts Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The airport runway diagram is usually displayed on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ page after the Info
Softkey is pressed. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are
available, that page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport
is shown.
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Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, or ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’
Page, press the Charts Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page. (Press the APR Softkey if not already selected).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the ‘Charts’ Box.
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Charts’ Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
Chart Scale
Figure 8-9 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
While the Charts Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. Once the desired chart is
selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart page can be scrolled using the Joystick. Pressing the
Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
The aircraft symbol is shown on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft position is within the
boundaries of the chart. The aircraft symbol is not displayed when the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears. If
the Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, the aircraft symbol is not shown. The Aircraft Not
Shown Icon may appear at certain times, even if the chart is displayed to scale.
Pressing the Charts Softkey switches between the ChartView diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group.
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The aircraft position is shown in magenta on the ChartView diagrams when the location of the aircraft is
within the chart boundaries.
Figure 8-10 Additional Airport Information
In the example shown in following figure, the Class B Chart is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays the
Charlotte Class B Airspace Chart.
Figure 8-11 Airport Information Page, Class B Chart Selected from Info View
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- Pressing the SYNC Softkey displays the database linked chart associated with the current phase of flight.
- Pressing the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
- Pressing the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
- Pressing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
- Recent NOTAMS applicable to the current ChartView cycle are included in the ChartView database. Pressing
the NOTAM Softkey shows the local NOTAM information for selected airports, when available. When
NOTAMS are not available, the NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled. The NOTAM
Softkey may appear on the ‘Airport Information’ Page and all of the chart page selections. Pressing the
NOTAM Softkey again removes the NOTAMS information.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
NOTE: Only NOTAMs applicable to specific information conveyed on the displayed Jeppesen chart are
available when the NOTAM Softkey is pressed. There may be other NOTAMs available pertaining to the
flight that may not be displayed. Contact Jeppesen for more information regarding Jeppesen database
published NOTAMs.
CHART OPTIONS
- Pressing the CHRT Opt Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level.
- Pressing the All Softkey shows the complete approach chart on the screen.
Complete
Chart
Shown
Figure 8-12 Approach Information Page, All View
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- Pressing the Header Softkey shows the header view (approach chart briefing strip) on the screen.
- Pressing the Plan Softkey shows the approach chart two dimensional plan view.
- Pressing the Profile Softkey displays the approach chart descent profile strip.
- Pressing the Minimums Softkey displays the minimum descent altitude/visibility strip at the bottom of the
approach chart.
- If the chart scale has been adjusted to view a small area of the chart, pressing the Fit WDTH Softkey changes
the chart size to fit the available screen width.
- Pressing the Full SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
Selecting additional information:
1) While viewing the Airport Diagram, press the Full SCN Softkey to display the information windows (Airport,
Info).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Airport, Info, Runways, or Frequencies Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Info Box choices. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired
choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
Pressing the Back Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys. The full screen
view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Full Screen Off’ Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-13 Chart Setup Option
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DAY/NIGHT VIEW
ChartView can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a
dark environment. When the ‘Chart Setup’ Box is selected the MFD softkeys are blank.
Selecting day, night, or automatic view:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-14 Page Menu Chart Setup
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the ‘Color Scheme’ Option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between ‘Day’, ‘Auto’, and ‘Night’ Options.
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the ‘Charts Setup’ Menu.
Figure 8-15 Airport Information Page, Day View
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`
Figure 8-16 Airport Information Page, Night View
FLITECHARTS
FliteCharts resemble the paper version of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts. The charts are
displayed with high-resolution and in color for applicable charts.
The georeferenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Not all charts are georeferenced. These charts will display an
Aircraft Not Shown Icon in the lower right corner of the MFD.
Figure 8-17 Aircraft Not Shown Icon
An aircraft symbol may be displayed within an off-scale area depicted on some charts. Off-scale areas are
indicated by the grey shading. Note, these areas are not shaded on the published chart. These off-scale areas
appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted geographical position of this
information, as it relates to the chart plan view, is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when the
aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart plan view,
not to the off-scale area.
The FliteCharts database subscription is available from Garmin. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Approaches
• Departure Procedures (DP)
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Inset Box
Off-Scale
Area
Off-Scale
Areas
Figure 8-18 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the georeferenced aircraft symbol.
FLITECHARTS SOFTKEYS
FliteCharts functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the ‘Navigation Map’ Page,
‘Nearest Airports’ Page, or ‘Flight Plan’ Page, pressing the Charts Softkey displays the available terminal chart
and advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT Opt, SYNC, Info, DP, STAR, APR, NOTAM,
Charts, and CHECKLIST. NOTAMs are not available with FliteCharts. The NOTAM Softkey label appears
subdued and is disabled. The CHECKLIST Softkey appears subdued if not installed. The Charts Softkey
appears on the Airport Information Page.
Pressing the CHRT Opt Softkey displays the available terminal chart and advances to the next level of
softkeys: ROT CCW, ROT CW, All, Header, Plan, Profile, Minimums, Fit WDTH, Full SCN and Back.
While viewing the CHRT Opt softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting terminal procedures charts:
While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, ‘NRST - Nearest Airport’ Page, or ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page,
press the Charts Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Options’ Menu to ‘Chart Mode On.’
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3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner No Available Charts appears on the screen.
The No Available Charts banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability of a
particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
Figure 8-19 No Available Charts Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the
banner Unable To Display Chart is then displayed.
Figure 8-20 Unable To Display Chart Banner
When a chart is not available by pressing the Charts Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts may
be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, pressing
the Charts Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The airport runway diagram is usually displayed on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ page after the Info
Softkey is pressed. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are
available, that page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport
is shown.
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, or ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’
Page, press the Charts Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the ‘Charts’ Box. (Press the APR Softkey
if not already selected).
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Charts’ Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
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Figure 8-21 Selecting a Chart
While the Charts Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. Once the desired chart
is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart can be panned using the Joystick. Pressing the
Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
The aircraft symbol is not shown on FliteCharts. The Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE,
and the Aircraft Not Shown Icon is displayed in the lower right corner of the screen (see above).
Pressing the Charts Softkey switches between the FliteCharts diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group.
Pressing the Info Softkey displays the Airport Diagram.
Pressing the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
Pressing the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
Pressing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
CHART OPTIONS
Pressing the CHRT Opt Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level.
Pressing the ROT CCW Softkey rotates the chart counterclockwise.
Pressing the ROT CW Softkey rotates the chart clockwise.
Pressing the Full SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
Pressing the Fit WIDTH Softkey fits the width of the chart in the display viewing area.
Pressing the Back Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
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Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Full Screen Off’ Option and press the ENT Key.
The full screen view can be turned back on by following the previous steps and selecting ‘Full Screen On’
Option.
Figure 8-22 Full Screen On or Off
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
FliteCharts can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a
dark environment. When the Charts Setup Box is selected the MFD softkeys are blank.
Selecting day, night, or automatic view:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu ‘Options.’
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Charts Setup’ Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-23 Page Menu Chart Setup
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the ‘Color Scheme’ Option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between ‘Day’, ‘Auto’, and ‘Night’ Options.
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5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the ‘Charts Setup’ Menu.
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8.3 SATELLITE PHONE AND SMS MESSAGING
NOTE: An account must be established to access the Iridium satellite network for voice/SMS.
The Iridium Transceiver provides an airborne low speed datalink, Iridium Satellite Telephone service, and Short
Message Service (SMS).
The telephone is available to the flight crew through the audio panel and headsets.
For aircraft equipped with an Iridium Transceiver and a Flight Stream 510, calls and SMS text messages can
be made using a Personal Electronic Device through the Garmin Pilot App. Please refer to the Garmin Pilot user
guide for Iridium Datalink.
REGISTERING WITH GARMIN CONNEXT
A subscriber account must be established prior to using the Iridium Satellite System. Before setting up an
Iridium account, obtain the serial number of the Iridium Transceiver (GSR 1) and the System ID by selecting
the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page. Contact Garmin at www.flyGarmin.com.
DISABLE/ENABLE IRIDIUM TRANSCEIVER
Iridium telephone and data communications may be turned on or off by performing these simple steps.
Disabling/enabling telephone and low speed data services:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone’ Page.
3) If necessary, press the Phone Softkey to display the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page.
Figure 8-24 ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page
4) Press the MENU Key. The Page Menu window is now displayed.
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5) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Disable Iridium Transmission’ in the menu list.
Figure 8-25 Select Disable Iridium Transmission
6) Press the ENT Key. The Iridium transceiver is now disabled.
7) To enable the Iridium transceiver, repeat steps 1 through 4, then select ‘Enable Iridium Transceiver’.
TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION
The pilot or copilot can place and answer calls on the Iridium satellite network. Control and monitoring of
telephone functions are accomplished through the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone’ Page.
Viewing the Satellite Phone Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone’ page.
3) If necessary, press the Phone Softkey to display the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone’ Page.
The phone status display gives a graphical representation of the current disposition of voice and/or data
transmissions.
Internal
Phone
External
Phone
Description
Phone is Idle
Phone is ringing
Phone has a dial tone (off hook) or connected to another phone
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Phone dialed is busy
Phone is dialing another phone
Phone has failed
Phone status not known
Phone is disabled
Phone is reserved for data transmission
Calling other phone or incoming call from other phone
Other phone is on hold
Phones are connected
Table 8-1 Telephone Symbols
CONTACTS
The names, telephone number, and email addresses can be saved in a list of contacts for easy use when
making telephone calls.
Entering a new contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) If necessary, turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘New Entry’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves the ‘Name’ field of the ‘Contact Details’ window.
4) Enter the desired name of the new contact. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the
PFD/MFD Controller, the FMS Knob on the PFD/MFD Controller, or via the FMS Knob on the MFD.
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Figure 8-26 PFD/MFD Controller
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Phone Number’ field.
6) Enter the desired telephone number. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the PFD/
MFD Controller, the FMS Knob on the PFD/MFD Controller, or via the FMS Knob on the MFD.
7) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Email’ field.
8) Enter the desired email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the PFD/MFD
Controller, the FMS Knob on the PFD/MFD Controller, or via the FMS Knob on the MFD.
9) Press the Symbols Softkey to display the “at” symbol, the period, and other special characters.
Figure 8-27 Special Characters
10) Press the ENT Key. The Save Button is highlighted.
11) Press the ENT Key. The new contact entry is added to the list of saved contacts.
Deleting a contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name.
3) Press the Delete Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the selected contact.
Editing a contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone Page’ displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name.
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3) Press the Edit Softkey. The cursor is placed in the ‘Name’ field. Enter the desired changes. Entry can be
accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the PFD/MFD Controller, the FMS Knob on the PFD/MFD
Controller, or via the FMS Knob on the MFD.
4) Press the ENT Key when each field is complete. The Save Button is now highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key to save the changes.
Figure 8-28 Editing a Contact
INCOMING CALLS
When viewing MFD pages other than the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone’ Page, a pop-up alert will be displayed and
an aural alert “Incoming Call” will be heard. If the incoming call is an Iridium network call, Iridium will
be displayed. The pop-up alert may be inhibited at times, such as during takeoff. In addition to the popup alert, a ringing phone symbol will be displayed to the right of the MFD page title. Also, the voice alert
“Incoming Call” will be heard on the selected cockpit audio.
NOTE: The Push-to-Talk Switch is not utilized for telephone communication. The microphone is active after
pressing the Answer Softkey, and stays active until the call is terminated.
Answering an incoming call in the cockpit:
1) Press the Phone Key on the audio panel.
2) Press the Answer Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
While viewing the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone’ Page:
1) Press the Phone Key on the audio panel.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
3) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Answer Incoming Call’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
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Pressing the Ignore Softkey will extinguish the pop-up window and leave the call unanswered. Pressing
the Phone Softkey will display the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone’ Page allowing additional call information to be
viewed before answering.
Muting incoming call alerts:
1) With the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable Incoming Call Alerts’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The voice and pop-up alert will not be displayed now when an incoming call is received.
OUTGOING CALLS
Making an external call from the cockpit using the Iridium satellite network:
1) Press the Phone Key on the audio panel.
2) With the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone’ Page displayed, press the Dial Softkey on the MFD.
The International dialing sequence is necessary to place a call from the cockpit to an external phone:
Country Code + City/Area Code (if any) + Telephone Number. The following country codes may be used
when calling other satellite telephone systems.
Satellite System
Inmarsat
ICO
Ellipso
Iridium
Globalstar
Country Code
870
8810 or 8811
8812 or 8813
8816 or 8817
8818 or 8819
Figure 8-29 Enter Phone Number
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3) Enter the desired telephone number (country code first) by using the FMS Knob on the MFD..
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘OK’ is highlighted.
Figure 8-30 Make the Call
5) Press the ENT Key. The system will begin calling the number.
Figure 8-31 System is Making the Connection
When the phone is answered, the connection is established. To exit the call, press the Hangup Softkey.
Figure 8-32 Phone is Answered, Connection Complete
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Making an external call from the cockpit by using the Contact List:
1) Press the Phone Key on the audio panel.
2) With the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired contact name in the list of contacts.
4) Press the Call Softkey. The external call is initiated and the number associated with the contact name is dialed.
PLACING THE COCKPIT PHONE ON HOLD
Placing a call on hold:
Press the Hold Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Put Current Call On Hold’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
The cockpit phone is now isolated from the call. This figure illustrates a call between the cockpit and an
external phone in which the cockpit phone has been put on hold. Press the Hold Softkey again to resume
the call.
Figure 8-33 Cockpit Phone on Hold
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TEXT MESSAGING (SMS)
The pilot or copilot can send and receive text messages on the Iridium satellite network. Messages may be
sent to an email address or text message capable cellular telephone. Message length is limited to 160 characters,
including the email address. Senders should address text messages to aircraft by entering [aircraft Iridium
phone number]@msg.iridium.com.
Viewing the Text Messaging Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone’.
3) If necessary, press the SMS Softkey to display the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page.
Figure 8-34 Text Messaging Page
Message Symbol
Description
Received text message that has not been opened
Received text message that has been opened
Saved text message, draft not sent
System is sending text message
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Message Symbol
Description
Text message has been sent
System failed to send text message
Predefined text message
Table 8-2 Text Message Symbols
VIEWING A TEXT MESSAGE WHEN RECEIVED
When viewing MFD pages other than the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, a pop-up alert will be displayed
when a new text message is received.
New Text Message Symbol on MFD
New Text Message Pop-up
Figure 8-35 New Text Message Received
Press the View Softkey to view the message. Pressing the Ignore Softkey will extinguish the pop-up
window and leave the text message unopened. Pressing the Ignore All Softkey will extinguish the popwindow and ignore all future incoming text messages. Pressing the SMS Softkey will display the ‘Aux - Text
Messaging’ Page.
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Figure 8-36 Text Message Displayed from Pop-Up Alert
The pop-up alerts may be enabled or disabled through the Page Menu.
Enabling/disabling incoming text message pop-up alerts:
1) With the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable New Message Popups’ or ‘Enable New Message Popups’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The pop-up alert will not be displayed when an incoming text message is received.
Figure 8-37 Disabling New Text Message Pop-Ups
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REPLY TO A TEXT MESSAGE
After reading a text message, a reply may be sent.
Replying to a text message:
While viewing the text message, press the Reply Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Reply To Message’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
SENDING A TEXT MESSAGE
Text messages may be sent from the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page.
Sending a new text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the New Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-38 Composing a New Text Message
2) The SMS Text Message Draft Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘To’ field. Enter the desired
telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through use of the FMS Knob and softkeys on
the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to enter letters, numbers and the “at” symbol, or numbers can be entered from
the MFD by pressing the Numbers Softkey. Press the CapsLock Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha
characters. Special characters can be accessed by pressing the Symbols Softkey.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘Message’ field.
4) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 2.
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5) Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the Send Softkey to send the message immediately after confirming you want the message to be sent, or
press the Save Softkey to save the message in Outbox for sending at a later time. Press the Cancel Softkey to
delete the message.
PREDEFINED TEXT MESSAGES
Time and effort can be saved in typing text messages that are used repeatedly by saving these messages as
a predefined message.
Creating a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select ‘Edit Predefined Messages’.
Figure 8-39 Creating/Editing Predefined Messages
3) Press the ENT Key. The Predefined Messages view is now displayed.
4) Press the New Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Predefined Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The Predefined SMS Text Message Window is now displayed.
Figure 8-40 Composing a Predefined Message
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5) The cursor is displayed in the ‘Title’ field. Enter the desired message title. Entry can be accomplished through
use of the FMS Knob and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to enter letters, numbers and the “at”
symbol, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by pressing the Numbers Softkey. Press the CapsLock
Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters. Special characters can be accessed by pressing the
Symbols Softkey.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘Message’ field.
7) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 5.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Press the Save Softkey. The new predefined message is now shown in the displayed list. Pressing the Cancel
Softkey will delete the message without saving.
Or:
10) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
11) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Cancel Drafting Message’.
12) Press the ENT Key.
Sending a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, select the New Softkey.
2) The SMS Text Message Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘To’ field. Enter the desired telephone
number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through use of the FMS Knob and softkeys on the MFD.
The FMS Knob is used to enter letters, numbers and the “at” symbol, or numbers can be entered from the
MFD by pressing the Numbers Softkey. Press the CapsLock Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha
characters. Special characters can be accessed by pressing the Symbols Softkey.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘Message’ field.
Figure 8-41 Predefined Message Softkey Shown When Composing a Message
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4) Press the PREDEFD Softkey. The Predefined Message Menu Window is displayed.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired predefined message.
6) Press the ENT Key. The predefined message text is inserted into the message field. If desired, the message can
be edited by using the FMS Knobs.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the Send Softkey to transmit the message.
TEXT MESSAGE BOXES
Received text messages reside in the Inbox as ‘Read’ or Unread’ messages. The Outbox contains ‘Sent” and
‘Unsent’ text messages. Saved messages that are meant to be sent later are stored as Drafts. Each text message
box may be viewed separately, or together in any combination.
Showing Inbox messages:
While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press the Outbox Softkey and
the Drafts Softkey to only display the Inbox.
Or:
1) If the Inbox is not already displayed, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Inbox Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
Figure 8-42 Text Message Inbox
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Showing Outbox messages:
While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press the Inbox Softkey and
the Drafts Softkey to only display the Outbox.
Or:
1) If the Outbox is not already displayed, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Outbox Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
Showing Draft messages:
While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press the Inbox Softkey and
the Outbox Softkey to only display the Draft messages.
Or:
1) If the Draft messages are not already displayed, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Draft Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
MANAGING TEXT MESSAGES
The viewed messages may be listed according to the date/time the message was sent or received, the type of
message (read, unread, sent, unsent, etc.), or by message address.
Viewing messages sorted by message date/time:
While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press the Time Softkey if not
already selected.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Date/Time’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
Viewing messages sorted by message type:
While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press the Type Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Type’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
Viewing messages sorted by address:
While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press the Address Softkey.
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Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Address’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
Viewing the content of a text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, select the desired message box.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
4) Press the VIEW Softkey.
Or:
Press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘View Selected Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Message content is displayed.
Figure 8-43 Viewing Message Content
5) To close the text message, press the Cancel Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Cancel Drafting Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
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Marking selected message as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Press the MRK Read Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark Selected Message As Read’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
The message symbol now indicates the message has been opened.
Marking all messages as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark All New Messages As Read’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed.
4) With cursor highlighting ‘YES’, press the ENT Key. The message symbols now indicate all the message have
been opened.
Deleting a message:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Press the Delete Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
4) With cursor highlighting ‘YES’, press the ENT Key. The message is now deleted.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Delete Selected Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed.
5) With cursor highlighting ‘YES’, press the ENT Key. The message is now deleted.
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8.4 SURFACEWATCH
WARNING: Do not use SurfaceWatch™ information as the primary method of flight guidance during airborne
or ground operations. SurfaceWatch does not have NOTAM or ATIS information regarding the current active
runway, condition, or information about the position of hold lines.
NOTE: The SafeTaxi database must be available to provide information regarding taxiways, aprons and
other objects in the airport environment.
The SurfaceWatch™ feature provides visual annunciations to help the flight crew maintain situational
awareness and avoid potential runway incursions and excursions during ground and air operations in the airport
environment. The SurfaceWatch feature is comprised of the following key components:
• Alert Annunciations
- Taxiway Takeoff
- Runway Too Short (during takeoff or landing)
- Check Runway (during takeoff or landing)
- Taxiway Landing
• Provides information on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) that contains runway and taxiway information that
changes as the aircraft moves through the airport environment.
The full SurfaceWatch feature is not available in Reversionary Mode.
Inhibiting/uninhibiting SurfaceWatch:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor..
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the SurfaceWatch field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to toggle the SurfaceWatch alerts on or off.
INFORMATION BOX
The SurfaceWatch™ Information Box is displayed on the PFD. It contains runway and taxiway information
that dynamically changes as the aircraft moves through the airport environment. The information that is
displayed in the Information Box is the aircraft’s relative position to nearby aprons, taxiways, and runways.
There are three components to the SurfaceWatch™ Information Box. These components are Currently
Occupied, Approaching, and Crossing Runways.
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Figure 8-44 Information Types Displayed in the Information Box
CURRENTLY OCCUPIED
This component indicates the aircraft is ‘ON’ the indicated apron, taxiway, or runway. The aircraft is
currently ‘ON’ runway 09 (RWY 09). The remaining runway distance is also shown when the aircraft is
situated on and aligned with a runway.
If the aircraft is airborne and approaching an airport, ‘AIRBORNE TO’ and the destination airport identifier
will be displayed.
Information regarding non-manuevering areas not labeled on the SafeTaxi diagram will not be displayed.
APPROACHING COMPONENT
This component indicates the aircraft is ‘APPROACHING’ the indicated apron, taxiway, or runway. In the
previous figure, the aircraft is currently ‘APPROACHING’ taxiway C (TWY C). The distance to the taxiway
is also shown.
When the aircraft is taxiing and approaching an intersection of multiple taxiways, the taxiway identifiers
will be listed in order of proximity and the distance to the nearest is displayed.
When the aircraft is taxiing and crossing an intersection of multiple taxiways, ‘CROSSING’ will be displayed
and no distance will be shown.
CROSSING RUNWAYS
This component lists the runways, from closest to furthest, that are ‘CROSSING’ the runway the aircraft
currently occupies. The distance to each runway is also shown in order of closest distance. Runways behind
the aircraft are not depicted.
The Crossing Runways component is shown in conjunction with the Currently Occupied component of
the Information Box.
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ALERTS
The SurfaceWatch alert annunciations are displayed in the central portion of the PFD. The alert annunciations
are accompanied by a corresponding voice alert.
SurfaceWatch Alert
Annunciation
Associated Voice
Alert
Description
TWY TAKEOFF
“Taxiway”
RWY TOO SHORT
“Runway too short”
Issued when the aircraft is taking off from a runway with a length less than needed as
calculated by the PERF function.
CHECK RUNWAY
“Check runway”
Issued when the aircraft is taking off from a runway different than that entered in PERF.
TWY LANDING
“Taxiway”
RWY TOO SHORT
“Runway too short”
CHECK RUNWAY
“Check runway”
Issued when the aircraft is taking off from a non-runway (e.g. a taxiway).
Issued when the aircraft is landing on a non-runway (e.g. a taxiway).
Issued when the aircraft is landing on a runway with a length less than needed as calculated
by the PERF function.
Issued when the aircraft is landing on a runway different than that entered in PERF.
Table 8-3 SurfaceWatch Alert Annunciations
TAKEOFF ALERTS
The Takeoff phase-of-flight, as determined by the system, must be valid in order for the system to issue
Takeoff Alerts.
Taxiway Takeoff
The Taxiway Takeoff alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a non-runway (e.g. a
taxiway) or the aircraft is not aligned with a runway.
In addition to the visual and voice alerts, the Information Box contains a textual description of the currently
occupied taxiway (or other maneuvering area) and potentially the next area (apron or maneuvering area) to
be occupied (based on aircraft heading and the airport geometry) and the distance to that area.
Figure 8-45 Typical Taxiway Information Displayed in the Information Box
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Runway Too Short
The Runway Too Short (during takeoff) alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a runway
and the remaining runway length is less than the required length. The insufficient runway length condition
is determined based on aircraft current position during the takeoff roll and the required takeoff distance
information entered on the Takeoff Data Screen.
Note that while the Runway Too Short alert may be issued for any runway from which the aircraft is
taking off, the system will always calculate the runway length for the specific runway entered in the Takeoff
Data.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will contain a textual description of the
currently occupied runway and the remaining runway length.
Figure 8-46 Typical Runway Information Displayed in the Information Box
Check Runway
The Check Runway alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a runway that does not
match the departure runway entered in the Takeoff Data Screen.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box contains a textual description of the currently
occupied runway.
LANDING ALERTS
The On-Final phase-of-flight, as determined by the system, must be valid in order for the system to issue
Landing Alerts.
Taxiway Landing
The Taxiway Landing alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a non-runway (e.g. a taxiway)
or the aircraft is not aligned with a runway.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier
and the text “APPROACHING TWY” to indicate a non-runway landing is being attempted.
Figure 8-47 Typical Information Displayed During a Taxiway Landing Alert
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Runway Too Short
The Runway Too Short alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a runway where the remaining
runway length is less than the required landing runway length entered in the Landing Data Screen.
Note that while the Runway Too Short alert may be issued for any runway with which aircraft is aligned,
the system will always calculate the runway length for the specific runway entered in entered in the Landing
Data Screen.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier
and the text “APPROACHING REMAINING” to indicate a the remaining runway length.
Figure 8-48 Typical Information Displayed During a Runway Too Short Alert
Check Runway
The Check Runway alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a runway that does not match the
arrival runway specified in the Landing Data.
Additionally, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier, the runway with which
the aircraft is aligned, and the distance to the runway.
Figure 8-49 Typical Information Displayed During a Check Runway Alert
SURFACEWATCH SETUP
Origin/destination airport, runway and distance data entered integrates with SurfaceWatch technology to
alert the flight crew to a runway too short for takeoff/landing, or to advise of a potential taxiway takeoff/landing.
The runway selected in SurfaceWatch Setup appears on the airport diagram in cyan, and appears outlined in
cyan on the synthetic vision representation of the runway on the PFD.
Entering origin/destination airport:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the Origin or Destination Airport field.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to input the desired Origin or Destination Airport.
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Selecting origin/destination runway:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the Runway or Landing Runway field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired available Runway or Landing Runway. As the small FMS Knob is
turned, the preview of the selected runway or landing runway is also displayed.
Selecting required takeoff/landing distance:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the REQD Takeoff DIS or REQD Landing DIS field.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the required takeoff or landing distance. Upon pressing the FMS Knob and
committing the required takeoff or landing distance, the Runway Length field will turn amber if an insufficient
runway length exists.
Figure 8-50 SurfaceWatch Setup Page (MFD)
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8.5 DATABASE CYCLE NUMBERS AND REVISIONS
CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
Databases that may be available include FliteCharts, Obstacle, Terrain, IFR/VFR, Navigation, ChartView,
SafeTaxi, Airport Directory. Data is revised and expiration dates vary. Data is still viewable during a period that
extends from the cycle expiration date to the disables date. When turning on the system, the Power-up Page
displays the current status of the databases. As an example, see the table below for the various FliteCharts
Power-up Page displays and the definition of each. The expiration date and disables date varies for each database.
Example Power-up Page Display Text
Table 8-4 Database Power-up Page Annunciations
White text, such as ‘FliteCharts Data Expires’ plus a date, indicates the chart database is current. Amber text,
such as ‘Chart data is out of date!’ or ‘FliteCharts Data: Disabled”, indicates charts are no longer viewable and
have expired.
Database time critical information can also be found on the Aux - System Status’ page. The database Region,
Cycle number, Effective, Expires, and Disables dates of the subscription appear in either blue or amber text.
Dates shown in blue are current data. Dates shown in amber indicate the data is not within the current
subscription period.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor in the Database window. Scroll through the
listed information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the applicable database information
is shown.
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Database cycle numbers are in a format such as YYTI or YYII, which are deciphered as follows:
YYTI
YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
T – Indicates the database type (ex. S is for SafeTaxi, D is for Airport Directory)
I – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 5 is the fifth issue of the year)
YYII
YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
II – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 05 is the fifth issue of the year)
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix for instructions on revising databases.
Example Power-up Page Display Text
Database Cycle Number Format
YYII
Revision Cycle
28 days
YYMI
Not Applicable
YYTI
Not Applicable
YYBI
56 days
YYSI
56 days
YYDI
56 days
YYII
28 days
YYII
14 days
YYII
28 days
Table 8-5 Database Cycle Number and Revision
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8.6 CONNEXT SETUP
The Connext Setup Page allows for setting up the optional Flight Stream device, or an optional transponder, for
a Bluetooth connection between the system and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™ application.
The mobile device must be ‘paired’ with the system in order to use the various functions. Pairing is accomplished
by first placing the system in pairing mode by displaying the Connext Setup Page. The system is ‘discoverable’
whenever this page is displayed. The pairing operation is completed from the mobile device and the Garmin Pilot
application. See the device Bluetooth pairing instructions and the connection instructions in the Garmin Pilot
application.
Viewing the Connext Setup Page
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Connext Setup page.
Figure 8-51 Select the Connext Setup Page
Changing the Bluetooth Name
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Bluetooth Name’ field.
3) Enter the desired name by using the large FMS Knob to select the character field, and the small FMS Knob
select the desired alphanumeric character for that field.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is removed and the new name is displayed.
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Figure 8-52 Changing the Bluetooth Name
Enabling/disabling Flight Plan Importing from Garmin Pilot
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Flight Plan Import’ field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Figure 8-53 Flight Plan Import Enabled
Enabling/disabling WiFi Database Importing from Garmin Pilot
1) While viewing the Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘WiFi Database Import’ field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Figure 8-54 WiFi Database Disabled
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Enabling/disabling Automatic Reconnection of a Specific Paired Device
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired paired device.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’. Selecting ‘Enabled’ allows the system to automatically
connect to a previously paired device when detected.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Figure 8-55 Disabled Auto Connect
Removing a Specific Paired Device from the List of Paired Devices:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired paired device.
3) Press the Remove Softkey. A confirmation screen is displayed.
4) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Yes’.
5) Press the ENT Key to remove the device from the list of paired devices.
Figure 8-56 Removing Paired Device
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8.7 SIRIUSXM RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
NOTE: Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section for information about SiriusXM Weather products.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment feature of the Datalink Receiver is available for the pilot’s
and passengers’ enjoyment. The Datalink can receive SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment services at any
altitude throughout the Continental U.S. Entertainment audio is available only on the GDL 69A Datalink Receiver,
not the GDL 69.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers a variety of radio programming over long distances without having to constantly
search for new stations. Based on signals from satellites, coverage far exceeds land-based transmissions.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio services are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit
www.siriusxm.com.
ACTIVATING SIRIUSXM SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES
The service is activated by providing SiriusXM Satellite Radio with either one or two coded IDs, depending on
the equipment. Either the Audio Radio ID or the Data Radio ID, or both, must be provided to SiriusXM Satellite
Radio to activate the entertainment subscription.
It is not required to activate both the entertainment and weather service subscriptions with the GDL 69A.
Either or both services can be activated. SiriusXM Satellite Radio uses one or both of the coded IDs to send an
activation signal that, when received by the GDL 69A, allows it to play entertainment programming.
These IDs are located:
• On the label on the back of the Datalink Receiver
• On the XM Information Page on the MFD
• On the XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit (available at www.garmin.com, P/N
190-00355-04)
Contact the installer if the Data Radio ID and the Audio Radio ID cannot be located.
Activating the SiriusXM Satellite Radio services:
1) Contact SiriusXM Satellite Radio. Follow the instructions provided by SiriusXM Satellite Radio services.
2) Select the Auxiliary Page Group.
3) Select the ‘Aux - XM Radio’ page.
4) Select the INFO Softkey to display the XM Information Page.
5) Verify that the desired services are activated.
6) Select the Lock Softkey.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight YES.
8) To complete activation, press the ENT Key.
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Audio
Radio ID
Data
Radio ID
Weather
Products
Window
Info
Softkey
Figure 8-57 XM Information Page
If SiriusXM Weather services have not been activated, all the weather product boxes are blank on the XM
Information Page and a amber Activation Required message is displayed in the center of the Weather Datalink
Page (Map Page Group). The Service Class refers to the groupings of weather products available for subscription.
USING SIRIUSXM RADIO
The XM Radio Page provides information and control of the audio entertainment features of the SiriusXM
Satellite Radio.
Selecting the XM Radio Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the displayed XM Radio Page.
3) Select the Radio Softkey to show the XM Radio Page where audio entertainment is controlled.
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Active
Channels
Channel
List
Categories
Field
Volume
Field
Figure 8-58 XM Radio Page
ACTIVE CHANNEL AND CHANNEL LIST
The Active Channel Box on the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected channel that the SiriusXM
Radio is using.
The Channels List Box of the XM Radio Page shows a list of the available channels for the selected category.
Channels can be stepped through one at a time or may be selected directly by channel number.
Selecting a channel from the channel list:
1) While on the XM Radio Page, select the Channel Softkey.
2) Select the CH + Softkey to go up through the list in the Channel Box, or move down the list with the CH – Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to highlight the channel list and turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the channels.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
Selecting a channel directly:
1) While on the XM Radio Page, select the Channel Softkey.
2) Select the Direct CH Softkey. The channel number in the Active Channel Box is highlighted.
3) Select the numbered softkeys located on the bottom of the display to directly select the desired channel number.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
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CATEGORY
The Category Box of the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected category of audio. Categories of
channels such as jazz, rock, or news can be selected to list the available channels for a type of music or other
contents. One of the optional categories is Presets to view channels that have been programmed.
Selecting a category:
1) Select the Category Softkey on the XM Radio Page.
2) Select the CAT + and CAT - Softkeys to cycle through the categories.
Or:
Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Categories list. Highlight the desired category with the small FMS Knob
and press the ENT Key. Selecting All Categories places all channels in the list.
Figure 8-59 Categories List
PRESETS
Up to 15 channels from any category can be assigned a preset number. The preset channels are selected by
selecting the Presets and More softkeys. Then the preset channel can be selected directly and added to the
channel list for the Presets category.
Setting a preset channel number:
1) On the XM Radio Page, while listening to an Active Channel that is wanted for a preset, select the Presets
Softkey to access the first five preset channels (Preset 1 - Preset 5).
2) Select the More Softkey to access the next five channels (Preset 6 – Preset 10), and again to access the last five
channels (Preset 11 – Preset 15). Selecting the More Softkey repeatedly cycles through the preset channels.
3) Select any one of the (Preset 1 - Preset 15) Softkeys to assign a number to the active channel.
4) Select the Set Softkey on the desired channel number to save the channel as a preset.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Select Presets to
Access the Preset
Channels Softkeys
Select Set to
Save Each
Preset Channel
Select More to
Cycle Through the
Preset Channels
Figure 8-60 Accessing and Selecting SiriusXM Preset Channels
Selecting the Back Softkey, or 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, returns the system to the top level softkeys.
VOLUME
Radio volume is shown as a percentage. Volume level is controlled by selecting the Volume Softkey, which
brings up the volume increase and decrease softkeys.
Adjusting the volume:
1) With the XM Radio Page displayed, select the Volume Softkey.
2) Select the VOL – Softkey to reduce volume or select the VOL + Softkey to increase volume. (Once the VOL
Softkey is selected, the volume can also be adjusted using the small FMS Knob.) Volume can also be adjusted
with the Audio Panel Volume Knob when MUS1 or MUS2 Buttons are pressed.
Figure 8-61 Volume Control
SiriusXM Radio volume may also be adjusted on each passenger headset.
Muting SiriusXM audio:
1) Select the ‘Aux - XM Radio’ Page or ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
2) Press the Mute Softkey to mute the audio. Press the Mute Softkey again to unmute the audio.
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8.8 FLIGHT DATA LOGGING
NOTE: Some aircraft installations may not provide all aircraft/engine data capable of being logged by the
system.
The Flight Data Logging feature will automatically store critical flight and engine data on an SD data card (up
to 16GB) inserted into the top card slot of the MFD. Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each
1GB of available space on the card.
Data is written to the SD card once each second while the MFD is powered on. All flight data logged on a
specific date is stored in a file named in a format which includes the date, time, and nearest airport identifier. The
file is created automatically each time the system is powered on, provided an SD card has been inserted.
The status of the Flight Data Logging feature can be viewed on the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page. If no SD card has been
inserted, “NO CARD” is displayed. When data is being written to the SD card, “LOGGING DATA” is displayed.
The .csv file may be viewed with Microsoft Excel® or other spreadsheet applications.
The following is a list of data parameters the system is capable of logging.
• Date
• Magnetic Heading (degrees)
• Time
• HSI source
• FMS altitude (MSL)
• Selected course
• FMS altitude (WGS84 datum)
• Com1/Com2 frequency
• Baro-Corrected altitude (feet)
• Nav1/Nav2 frequency
• Fuel Qty (right, left, & center)
(gals)
• Baro Correction (in/Hg)
• CDI deflection
• Fuel Flow (gph)
• Indicated airspeed (kts)
• VDI/GP/GS deflection
• Oil Pressure (psi)
• Vertical speed (fpm)
• Wind Direction (degrees)
• Oil Temperature (deg. F)
• Selected Vertical Speed (fpm)
• Wind Speed (knots)
• Engine Speed (rpm)
• FMS vertical speed (fpm)
• Active Waypoint Identifier
• Power (%)
• OAT (degrees C)
• Distance to next waypoint (nm)
• UTC Offset (HH:MM)
• True airspeed (knots)
• Voltage 1 (volts)
• Pitch Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Bearing to
(degrees)
• Roll Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Magnetic variation (degrees)
• Ground Speed (kts)
• Autopilot On/Off
• Ground Track (degrees magnetic)
• AFCS roll/pitch modes
• Latitude
+North)
• AFCS roll/pitch commands
(degrees;
geodetic;
waypoint
• FMS fix
• Longitude (degrees; geodetic;
+East)
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next
• FMS horizontal alert limit
• FMS vertical alert limit
• SBAS FMS horizontal protection
level
• SBAS FMS vertical protection
level
• Voltage 2 (volts)
• Amps 1 (amps)
• Amps 2 (amps)
• Altimeter Setting (in. Hg.)
• HSI Selection (GPS,NAV1/2)
• GPS Fix (e.g. 2D, 3D, 3DDiff)
• CDI Deflection (0.0 to 1.0)
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The file containing the recorded data will appear in the format shown in the following figure. This file can be
imported into most computer spreadsheet applications.
Local Date
YYMMDD
Local 24hr Time
HHMMSS
Nearest Airport
(A blank will be
inserted if no
airport is found)
log_181115_133808_KNPA.csv
Figure 8-62 Log File Format
Data logging status can be monitored on the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
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8.9 ELECTRONIC CHECKLISTS
NOTE: The optional checklists presented here are for example only and may differ from checklists available
for the airframe. The information described in this section is not intended to replace the checklist information
described in the approved current pertinent flight manual or the Pilot Safety and Warning Supplements
document.
NOTE: Garmin is not responsible for the content of checklists. Checklists are created by the aircraft
manufacturer. Modifications or updates to the checklists are coordinated through the aircraft manufacturer.
The user cannot edit these checklists.
The MFD is able to display optional electronic checklists which allow a pilot to quickly find the proper procedure
on the ground and during each phase of flight. Checklists are stored in internal memory once loaded into the
system. New checklist files, if made available by the manufacturer, may be installed by placing them on an SD
card and inserting the SD card into the top slot on the MFD bezel. After system startup, and the new checklists are
installed, the SD card may be removed from the top bezel slot (or left in place if data logging is desired).
Accessing and navigating checklists:
1) From any page on the MFD (except the EIS Pages), press the Checklist Softkey or turn the large FMS Knob to
select the Checklist Page.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Group’ field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired procedure and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Checklist’ field.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired checklist and press the ENT Key. The selected checklist item is
indicated with white text surrounded by a white box.
6) Press the ENT Key or Check Softkey to check the selected checklist item. The line item turns green and a
checkmark is placed in the associated box. The next line item is automatically selected for checking.
Either FMS Knob can be used to scroll through the checklist and select the desired checklist item.
Press the CLR Key or Uncheck Softkey to remove a check mark from an item.
7) When all checklist items have been checked, ‘*Checklist Finished*’ is displayed in green text at the bottom left
of the checklist window. If all items in the checklist have not be checked, ‘*Checklist Not Finished*’ will be
displayed in amber text.
8) Press the ENT Key. ‘Go To Next Checklist?’ will be highlighted by the cursor.
9) Press the ENT Key to advance to the next checklist.
10) Press the Exit Softkey to exit the Checklist Page and return to the page last viewed.
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Accessing emergency procedures:
1) From any page on the MFD (except the EIS Pages), press the Checklist Softkey or turn the large FMS Knob to
select the Checklist Page.
2) Press the EMER Softkey.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired emergency checklist and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the ENT Key or Check Softkey to check the selected emergency checklist item. The line item turns green
and a checkmark is placed in the box next to it. The next line item is automatically highlighted for checking.
Either FMS Knob can be used to scroll through the checklist and select the desired checklist item.
Press the CLR Key or Uncheck Softkey to remove a check mark from an item.
5) When all checklist items have been checked, ‘*Checklist Finished*’ is displayed in green text at the bottom left
of the checklist window. If all items in the checklist have not be checked, ‘*Checklist Not Finished*’ will be
displayed in amber text.
6) Press the ENT Key. ‘Go To Next Checklist?’ will be highlighted by the cursor.
7) Press the ENT Key to advance to the next checklist.
8) Press the Return Softkey to return to the previous checklist.
9) Press the Exit Softkey to exit the Checklist Page and return to the page last viewed.
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8.10 ELECTRONIC STABILITY & PROTECTION (ESP™)
Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) is an optional feature that is intended to discourage the exceedance of
attitude and established airspeed parameters. This feature will only function when the aircraft is above 200 feet AGL
and the autopilot is not engaged.
ESP engages when the aircraft exceeds one or more conditions (pitch, roll, Vmo, and/or Mmo) beyond the normal
flight parameters. Enhanced stability for each condition is provided by applying a force to the appropriate control
surface to return the aircraft to the normal flight envelope. This is perceived by the pilot as resistance to control
movement in the undesired direction when the aircraft approaches a steep attitude or high airspeed.
As the aircraft deviates further from the normal attitude and/or airspeed, the force increases (up to an established
maximum) to encourage control movement in the direction necessary to return to the normal attitude and/or
airspeed range. Except in the case of high airspeed, when maximum force is reached, force remains constant up
to the maximum engagement limit. Above the maximum engagement limit, forces are no longer applied. There
is no maximum engagement related to a high airspeed condition.
When ESP has been engaged for more than ten seconds (cumulative; not necessarily consecutive seconds) of a
20-second interval, the autopilot is automatically engaged with the flight director in Level Mode, bringing the aircraft
into level flight. An aural “Engaging Autopilot” alert is played and the flight director mode annunciation will indicate
‘LVL’ for vertical and lateral modes.
The pilot can interrupt ESP by pressing and holding either the Control Wheel Steering (CWS) or Autopilot
Disconnect (AP DISC) Switch. Upon releasing the CWS or AP DISC Switch, ESP force will again be applied,
provided aircraft attitude and/or airspeed are within their respective engagement limits. ESP can also be overridden
by overpowering the servo’s mechanical torque limit.
ESP can be enabled or disabled on the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page on the MFD.
Enabling/disabling ESP:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the SETUP 2 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Stability & Protection field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
ESP is automatically enabled on system power up.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
ROLL ENGAGEMENT
Roll Limit Indicators are displayed on the roll scale at 45° right and left, indicating where ESP will engage (see
following figure). As roll attitude exceeds 45°, ESP will engage and the on-side Roll Limit Indicator will move
to 30°, as shown in the following figure. The Roll Limit Indicator is now showing where ESP will disengage as
roll attitude decreases.
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45°)
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45°)
Figure 8-63 ESP Roll Engagement Indication (ESP NOT Engaged
ESP Engage (45°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 44°
ESP Disengage (30°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 46°
Before ESP Engage
After ESP Engage
Figure 8-64 Roll Increasing to ESP Engagement
Once engaged, ESP force will be applied between 30° and 75°, as illustrated in the following figure. The
force increases as roll attitude increases and decreases as roll attitude decreases. The applied force is intended
to encourage pilot input that returns the airplane to a more normal roll attitude. As roll attitude decreases, ESP
will disengage at 30°.
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º
30
20º
10º
0º
10º
20º
5º
º
90º
90º
75º
75º
º
60
60
º
º
45
4
30
Figure 8-65 ESP Roll Operating Range When Engaged
(Force Increases as Roll Increases & Decreases as Roll Decreases)
ESP is automatically disengaged if the aircraft reaches the autopilot roll engagement attitude limit of 75°.
ESP Upper Disengage Limit (75°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 49°
Figure 8-66 Roll Attitude Autopilot Engagement Limit (ESP Engaged)
PITCH ENGAGEMENT
ESP engages at 20° nose-up and 22° nose-down. Once ESP is engaged, it will apply increasing opposing
force between 15° and 50° nose-up and between 12° and 50° nose-down, as indicated in the following figure.
Maximum opposing force is applied between 25° and 50° nose-up and between 27° and 50° nose-down. ESP™
disengages when 50° is exceeded in a nose-up or nose-down attitude.
With ESP™ engaged, and the aircraft in a nose-up condition, opposing force steadily decreases from 25° noseup to 15° nose-up as aircraft pitch moves toward zero degrees. ESP™ disengages at 15° nose-up. With ESP™
engaged, and the aircraft in a nose-down condition, opposing force steadily decreases from 27° nose-down to
12° nose-down as aircraft pitch moves toward zero degrees. ESP™ disengages at 12° nose-down.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The opposing force increases or decreases depending on the pitch angle and the direction of pitch travel. This
force is intended to encourage movement in the pitch axis in the direction of the normal pitch attitude range
for the aircraft.
There are no indications marking the pitch ESP engage and disengage limits in these nose-up/nose-down
conditions.
50˚
45˚
45˚
40˚
40˚
35˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
50˚
25˚
20˚
20˚
15˚
15˚
10˚
10˚
5˚
5˚
0˚
0˚
5˚
5˚
10˚
10˚
15˚
15˚
20˚
20˚
25˚
25˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
25˚
35˚
40˚
40˚
45˚
45˚
50˚
50˚
Figure 8-67 ESP Pitch Operating Range When Engaged
(Force Increases as Pitch Increases & Decreases as Pitch Decreases)
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ANGLE OF ATTACK PROTECTION
Angle of attack protection is provided as part of the ESP feature. ESP force may be applied if a stall warning
condition is imminent. In this condition, the Pitch Limit Indicator will be initially displayed 4° below this
computed pitch attitude. When pitch attitude equals that indicated by the Pitch Limit Indicator, ESP will
engage, applying a force in the direction necessary to lower the nose of the aircraft.
Pitch Limit
Indicator
Figure 8-68 Figure 8-49 Pitch Limit Indicator
HIGH AIRSPEED PROTECTION
Exceeding Vmo or Mmo will result in ESP applying force to raise the nose of the aircraft. When the high
airspeed condition is remedied, ESP force is no longer applied.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.11 ABNORMAL OPERATION
SIRIUSXM DATALINK RECEIVER TROUBLESHOOTING
For troubleshooting purposes, check the LRU Information Box on the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page for GDL 69A
SXM status, serial number, and software version number. If a failure has been detected in the SiriusXM Datalink
the status is marked with a red X.
Selecting the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page.
Figure 8-69 LRU Information Window on System Status Page
Some quick troubleshooting steps listed below can be performed to find the possible cause of a failure.
• Ensure the installed Datalink Receiver or Iridium Transceiver has an active subscription or account
• Perform a quick check of the circuit breakers to ensure that power is applied to the Datalink Receiver or
Iridium Transceiver
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
GDL 69A SXM
Ensure that nothing is plugged into the MUSIC 1 or MUSIC 2 jacks because that would prevent SiriusXM
radio from being heard.
If a failure still exists, the following messages may provide insight as to the possible problem:
Message
CHECK ANTENNA
UPDATING
Message Location
XM Information Page (MFD)
XM Information Page (MFD)
Description
Datalink Receiver antenna error; service required
Datalink Receiver updating encryption code
NO SIGNAL
XM Information Page Weather
Datalink Page (MFD)
Loss of signal; signal strength too low for receiver
LOADING
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Acquiring channel audio or information
OFF AIR
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Channel not in service
--------
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Missing channel information
WEATHER DATALINK FAILED Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
No communication from Datalink Receiver within last 5 minutes
ACTIVATION REQUIRED
XM Information Page (MFD)
SiriusXM subscription is not activated
DETECTING ACTIVATION
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
SiriusXM subscription is activating
WAITING FOR DATA...
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
SiriusXM subscription confirmed downloading weather data
Table 8-6 SiriusXM Datalink Receiver Messages
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
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APPENDIX A
ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
The Alerting System conveys alerts using the following:
• ‘CAS’ Window: The ‘CAS’ Window displays abbreviated annunciation text. Text color is based on alert
levels described in the CAS Messages section. The ‘CAS’ Window is on the lower left side of the MFD on
the EIS display. In Reversionary Mode, the ‘CAS’ Window is also displayed on the right side of the PFD.
A white horizontal line separates annunciations that are acknowledged from annunciations that are not yet
acknowledged. Higher priority annunciations are displayed towards the top of the window.
• ‘Alerts’ Window: The ‘Alerts’ Window displays text messages for up to 64 prioritized alert messages. Pressing
the Message Softkey displays the ‘Alerts’ Window. Pressing the Message Softkey a second time removes the
‘Alerts’ Window from the display; the softkey then returns to the previous ‘Alerts’ label. When the ‘Alerts’
Window is displayed, the FMS Knob can be used to scroll through the alert message list.
• System Annunciations: Typically, a large red ‘X’ appears over instruments whose information is supplied by
a failed Line Replaceable Unit (LRU).
System
Annunciation
Red ‘X’
‘CAS’
Window
‘Alerts’
Window
PFD Reversionary Mode
MFD Normal Mode
Figure A-1 CAS Message Displays and ‘Alerts’ Window
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APPENDIX A
CAS MESSAGE PRIORITIZATION
NOTE: Refer to the current version of the pertinent flight manual for corrective pilot actions.
NOTE: Any CAS messages that are generated when the system is first powered on are considered already
acknowledged. They do not flash or trigger the Master Warning or Master Caution.
The Crew Alerting System (CAS) Window is located on the right side of the PFD in Reversionary Mode, and
in the lower left corner of the EIS display in normal conditions. When more caution and advisory messages
exist than can be displayed at once, selecting the CAS Softkey displays softkeys for scrolling up and down
through the messages in the ‘CAS’ Window. Warning messages cannot be scrolled through and remain at the
top of the CAS display.
CAS Scrolling Softkeys
CAS Scrolling Softkeys
PFD Reversionary Mode
MFD Normal Mode
Figure A-2 CAS Scrolling
NOTE: Aural alerts associated with abnormal conditions and advisories are managed through the audio
panels. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information.
NOTE: Refer to the current version of the pertinent flight manual for corrective pilot actions.
NOTE: Red warning messages cannot be scrolled through and remain at the top of the CAS display. The
scroll bar changes to amber if more than ten caution messages exist to be scrolled through.
The Alerting System uses three alert levels. Messages are grouped by criticality (warning, caution, advisory)
and sorted by order of appearance (most recent messages on top). The color of the message is based on its
urgency and on required action:
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Warning: This level of alert requires immediate crew awareness and action. The Master Warning is triggered.
When a new warning CAS message appears in the ‘CAS’ Window, it flashes (inversely red on white) and is
accompanied by a repeating triple chime. Pressing the Master Warning button on the airframe acknowledges
all flashing warning messages. Once acknowledged, warning messages are shown in red text and are displayed
until the issue is corrected. Warning voice alerts repeat continuously until acknowledged by pressing the
button on the airframe.
Caution: This level of alert requires immediate crew awareness and possible future corrective action required.
The Master Caution is triggered. When a new caution message appears in the ‘CAS’ Window, it is shown in
black on amber inverse video and is accompanied by a double chime. Pressing the Master Caution button on
the airframe acknowledges all caution messages. Once acknowledged, caution messages are displayed until the
issue is corrected.
Advisory: This level of alert provides general information. When a new white advisory appears on the CAS
display, it flashes for 5 seconds is accompanied by a single chime. Advisory messages display white on black
background until conditions are cleared.
CAS messages are grouped by criticality (warning and caution) and sorted by order of appearance (most
recent messages on top). Messages flash inverse video until acknowledged by depressing the Master Caution or
Master Warning switches respectively. The color of the message is based on its urgency and on required action.
After the acknowledgment, a message remains displayed at the top of its respective priority group in the ‘CAS’
Window until either a newer message of the same priority appears, or the condition(s) that caused the alert to
display no longer exist.
Two momentary switch/indicators are located above PFD1 for CAS message acknowledgment: Master Warning
and Master Caution.
Master Caution and Warning Indicators
PFD1
Figure A-3 Panel Layout
Some CAS messages can be displayed in more than one alert level group. For example, a message might
display as both a warning and a caution, but cannot appear more than once at any given time (unless the CAS
is being tested). If the received signals justify multiple priorities for a certain message, the message is displayed
for the higher priority condition. When graduating to a higher priority, the message flashes and requires
new acknowledgment. When degrading to a lower priority condition, the message moves to the top of the
appropriate grouping, but does not require new acknowledgment.
A CAS message does not appear more than once at a given time. Warning and Caution CAS messages
flash when they are generated. Amber (Caution) messages continue to flash until acknowledged, or until the
condition(s) that caused the alert to display no longer exist. Red (Warning) messages continue to flash until
acknowledged, even when the condition(s) that caused the alert to display no longer exist.
After the acknowledgment, a message remains displayed at the top of its respective priority group in the ‘CAS’
Window until either a newer message of the same priority appears, or the condition(s) that caused the alert to
display no longer exist.
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APPENDIX A
CAS MESSAGES
WARNING MESSAGES
Message
ABORT APR
AURAL WARN 1 CHNL
AURAL WRN FAIL
CABIN ALTITUDE
CABIN DIFF PRESS
DOOR
EDM
ELEC FEATH FAULT
FIRE
FLAPS ASYM
FUEL OFF
FUEL PRESS
GEAR UNSAFE
ITT
OIL PRESS
O2 CYL CLOSED
PARK BRAKE
PRESSU OFF
USP ACTIVE
Description
Loss of GPS navigation. Abort approach
Aural warning failure of one LRU
Aural warning system failure due to non-communicating LRUs
Cabin altitude over 10,000 ft
Cabin pressure differential over 6.2 psi
Pilot or cabin door open
Autopilot has activated emergency descent mode
Feathering system failure
Engine compartment fire (temperature over 200°C; if installed)
Dissymmetry between left- and right-hand flaps
Fuel tank selectors set to “Off”
Fuel pressure below 10 psi
Gears are in an unsafe configuration
Engine start: ITT over 1000°C, 870°C (5 s), or 840°C (20 s)
Engine running: ITT over 840°C
Oil pressure below 60 psi
Oxygen cylinder closed
Parking brake applied
No Bleed air provided to cabin
Underspeed protection is active
CAUTION MESSAGES
Message
Description
AIRFRM DEICE FAIL
AP ON YD OFF
APR DWNGRADE
AUTO SEL
AUX BOOST PMP ON
BAT AMP
BAT OFF
CARGO DOOR
CHIP
CPDLC OFF
Airframe deice system failure
The autopilot is ON while the Yaw Damper is OFF
Approach downgraded, vertical guidance generated by SBAS is unavailable.
Fuel timer off or out of service
Electric fuel pump running (manual or automatic mode)
Battery current over 50 A while on ground
Battery off
Forward cargo door open
Oil chip detector on (if installed)
CPDLC is off
Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP(TM)) angle of attack (AOA) mode is inoperative. The
system should be serviced
Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP(TM)) indicated air speed (IAS) mode is inoperative. The
system should be serviced
The ESP function has failed and is inoperative. The system should be serviced
Fuel tanks imbalanced by more than 15 USGAL for >30 seconds
ESP DEGRADED - AOA
ESP DEGRADED - IAS
ESP FAIL
FUEL IMBALANCE
522
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
190-02218-01 Rev. B
APPENDIX A
Message
FUEL LOW L-R*
GAS DEGRADED
GAS EVENT
GPU DOOR
GWX FAIL
ICE DETECTED
ICE DETECTION FAIL
IGNITION
INERT SEP FAIL
LOW LVL FAIL L-R*
LOW VOLTAGE
MAIN GEN
NG HI
OIL PRESS
OIL TEMP
PITOT HT ON L-R*
PITOT NO HT L-R*
PRESSU BACKUP
PROP DEICE FAIL
PROP DEICE ON
STALL HEAT ON
STALL NO HEAT
TCAS FAIL
TRAFFIC FAIL
USE OXYGEN MASK
VACUUM LOW
XPDR1 ADS-B FAIL
XPDR1 FAIL
XPDR2 ADS-B FAIL
XPDR2 FAIL
Description
Fuel quantity less than or equal to 9.1 USGAL in specified tank
Global Air System failure. The system should be serviced.
Global Air System needs servicing
GPU receptacle door not closed
The GDU is not receiving status packet from the GWX 70 is reporting a fault. The GWX 70
radar system should be serviced
Ice is detected
Ice detection system failure
Ignition exciter running
Inertial separator failure
Low fuel level sensor failure for specified tank
Battery voltage below 26 V
Starter generator unconnected
Generator speed is more than 103%
Oil pressure between 60 and 100 psi
Oil temperature below 0°C or above 104°C
Specified pitot heat (left or right) on while engine off
Specified pitot heat (left or right) off
GASC cannot compute optimal cabin altitude (cabin altitude default value is set at 9800 feet)
Prop deice selected and not on
Prop deice on while engine off
Stall heat on while engine off
Stall warning heat off
TCAS has failed and is inoperative. The system should be serviced
Traffic has failed and is inoperative. The system should be serviced
Cabin altitude high
Vacuum pressure less than 3.75 in Hg
ADS-B of XPDR1 is inoperative. The transponder may not be receiving a valid GPS position.
Other transponder functions may be available. Service when possible.
XPDR1 has failed and is inoperative. The system should be serviced
ADS-B of XPDR2 is inoperative. The transponder may not be receiving a valid GPS position.
Other transponder functions may be available. Service when possible.
XPDR2 has failed and is inoperative. The system should be serviced
* Only affected side (L, R, or L-R) displayed in CAS message; applicable messages listed here display L-R for example
ADVISORY MESSAGES
Message
EDM OVERRIDE
ESP OFF
INERT SEP ON
MAX DIFF MODE
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Description
Emergency Descent Mode has been overridden by the crew
Electronic Stability and Protection has been disabled on the Avionics Settings Screen
Inertial separator extended
Cabin pressurization system in MAX DIFF MODE.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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APPENDIX A
Message
NO ICE DETECTED
STARTER
Description
No ice is detected by the ice detection system
Starter generator running
DISPLAY INHIBITS
Inhibits prevent certain CAS messages from being displayed during the following conditions:
If two alert levels of the same message are active simultaneously (e.g., L FUEL QTY warning and L FUEL
QTY caution) only the higher alert level is displayed.
If a GEA or GIA fails, all CAS messages depending on sensors associated with that LRU are automatically
inhibited. Inhibits cannot be activated by invalid sensor data.
AUDIO ALERTS
Voice Alert
“Airspeed”
“Aural Warning OK”
“Engaging Autopilot”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Incoming Call”
“Landing Gear, Landing Gear”
“Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
“Minimums, minimums”
“One o’clock” through “Twelve
o’clock” or “No Bearing”
“Overspeed, Overspeed”
“Stall, Landing Gear”
“Stall, Stall”
“Traffic”
“TIS Not Available”
“TAS System Test Failed”
“TAS System Test Passed”
“Traffic, Traffic”
“Use Oxygen Mask, Use Oxygen Mask”
“Vertical track”
524
Description
Played when the indicated airspeed is below a given threshold for a given aircraft
configuration. Note, this alert may be heard under normal conditions during the landing flare.
Played when both audio paths are OK, following a previous audio path or audio processing issue.
Played when ESP has been engaged for more than 10 seconds cumulative of a 20 second
interval, and the autopilot is automatically engaged.
Played to indicate altitude of traffic relative to own aircraft.
Satellite telephone is receiving a call.
Gear up in landing condition.
Played to indicate distance of traffic from own aircraft.
The aircraft has descended below the preset barometric minimum descent altitude.
Played to indicate bearing of traffic from own aircraft.
Airspeed has exceeded 265 Kts.
Combination of airplane in stall condition and gear up in landing condition.
Airplane in stall condition.
Played when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is issued with the TIS system.
The aircraft is outside the Traffic Information Service (TIS) coverage area.
Played when the TAS system fails a pilot-initiated self test.
Played when the TAS system passes a pilot-initiated self test.
Played when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is issued with a TAS system.
Played in conjunction with associated CAS messages when cabin altitude exceeds 10,000 ft.
The aircraft is one minute from Top of Descent. Issued only when vertical navigation is enabled.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
190-02218-01 Rev. B
APPENDIX A
SYSTEM MESSAGE ADVISORIES
This section describes various system message advisories. Certain messages are issued due to an LRU or an
LRU function failure. Such messages are normally accompanied by a corresponding red ‘X’ annunciation.
NOTE: This section provides information regarding message advisories that may be displayed by the
system. Knowledge of the aircraft, systems, flight conditions, and other existing operational priorities must
be considered when responding to a message. Always use sound pilot judgment. The current version of the
pertinent flight manual takes precedence over any conflicting guidance found in this section.
Message
ADC1 ALT EC – ADC1 altitude error
correction is unavailable.
ADC1 AS EC – ADC1 airspeed error
correction is unavailable.
ADC2 ALT EC – ADC2 altitude error
correction is unavailable.
ADC2 AS EC – ADC2 airspeed error
correction is unavailable.
AHRS MAG DB – AHRS magnetic
model database version mismatch.
AHRS1 CAL – AHRS1 calibration
version error. Srvc req’d.
AHRS1 CONFIG– AHRS1 config
error. Config service req’d.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
any GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
backup GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 operating
exclusively in no-GPS mode.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 using backup
GPS source.
AHRS1 SRVC – AHRS1 Magnetic-field
model needs update.
AHRS1 TAS – AHRS1 not receiving
airspeed.
AHRS2 CAL – AHRS2 calibration
version error. Srvc req’d.
AHRS2 CONFIG– AHRS2 config
error. Config service req’d.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 not receiving
any GPS information.
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Comments
GDC1 is reporting that the altitude error correction is unavailable.
GDC1 is reporting that the airspeed error correction is unavailable.
GDC2 is reporting that the altitude error correction is unavailable.
GDC2 is reporting that the airspeed error correction is unavailable.
The #1 AHRS and #2 AHRS magnetic model database versions do not match.
The AHRS1 calibration version error. The system should be serviced.
AHRS configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving any or any useful GPS information. Check AFMS
limitations. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS information. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is operating exclusively in no-GPS mode. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is using the backup GPS path. Primary GPS path has failed. The system
should be serviced when possible.
The #1 AHRS earth magnetic field model is out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS
relies on GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The system should be
serviced.
The AHRS2 calibration version error. The system should be serviced.
AHRS configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving any or any useful GPS information. Check AFMS
limitations. The system should be serviced.
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525
APPENDIX A
Message
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 not receiving
backup GPS information.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 operating
exclusively in no-GPS mode.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 using backup
GPS source.
AHRS2 SRVC – AHRS2 Magnetic-field
model needs update.
AHRS2 TAS – AHRS2 not receiving
airspeed.
Comments
The #2 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS information. The system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is operating exclusively in no-GPS mode. The system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is using the backup GPS path. Primary GPS path has failed. The system
should be serviced when possible.
The #2 AHRS earth magnetic field model is out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS
relies on GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The system should be
serviced.
APR ADVISORY – SBAS VNAV not
SBAS is not available. The system is calculating the VNAV profile using Baro VNAV.
avaialable. Using Baro VNAV.
APR INACTV – Approach is not active. The system notifies the pilot that the loaded approach is not active. Activate approach
when required.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead less Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft will penetrate the airspace within
than 10 minutes.
10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
than 2 nm.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and
ahead.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
AUDIO MANIFEST - Audio software
mismatch, communication halted.
The GDC 74B has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
CHECK CRS – Database course for
LOC1 / [LOC ID] is [CRS]°.
CHECK CRS – Database course for
LOC2 / [LOC ID] is [CRS]°.
CNFG MODULE – PFD1 configuration
module is inoperative.
COM #[1, 2] INOP - CAL - Check
COM calibration.
COM #[1, 2] INOP - CRNT - Check
COM current.
COM #[1, 2] INOP - INTRL - Com
internal fault.
COM #[1, 2] REDUCED TX POWER COM synthesizer lock fault.
COM #[1, 2] INOP - SYNTH - COM
synthesizer lock fault.
COM1 CONFIG – COM1 config error.
Config service req’d.
COM 1 MANIFEST – COM1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
526
Selected course for LOC1 differs from published localizer course by more than 10
degrees.
Selected course for LOC2 differs from published localizer course by more than 10
degrees.
The PFD1 configuration module backup memory has failed. The system should be
serviced.
COM 1 and/or COM 2 calibration version error. Check COM calibration.
COM 1 and/or COM 2 current is low. Check COM current.
COM 1 and/or COM 2 has an internal fault.
COM 1 and/or COM 2 has a reduced transmission power.
The COM 1 and/or COM 2 has a synthesizer lock fault.
The COM1 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The COM1 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
190-02218-01 Rev. B
APPENDIX A
Message
COM1 PTT – COM1 push-to-talk key
is stuck.
COM1 RMT XFR – COM1 remote
transfer key is stuck.
COM1 SERVICE – COM1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
COM1 TEMP – COM1 over temp.
Reducing transmitter power.
COM2 CONFIG – COM2 config error.
Config service req’d.
COM2 MANIFEST – COM2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
COM2 PTT – COM2 push-to-talk key
is stuck.
Comments
The COM1 external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or “pressed”) position.
Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation.
If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The COM1 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”) position. Press the
transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system should
be serviced.
The system has detected a failure in COM1. COM1 may still be usable. The system
should be serviced when possible.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in COM1. The transmitter is
operating at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The COM2 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The COM2 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The COM2 external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or “pressed”) position.
Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation.
If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
COM2 RMT XFR – COM2 remote
The COM2 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”) position. Press the
transfer key is stuck.
transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system should
be serviced.
COM2 SERVICE – COM2 needs
The system has detected a failure in COM2. COM2 may still be usable. The system
service. Return unit for repair.
should be serviced when possible.
COM2 TEMP – COM2 over temp.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in COM2. The transmitter is
Reducing transmitter power.
operating at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
COPILOT PRIM PTT KEYSTK - Copilot The GMA external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or “pressed”) position.
primary push-to-talk key is stuck.
Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
COPILOT SEC PTT KEYSTK - Copilot The GMA external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or “pressed”) position.
secondary push-to-talk key is stuck.
Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
CRUISE I – Cruise I conditions met.
Cruise I engine trend data log has been captured.
CRUISE II – Cruise II conditions met. Cruise II engine trend data log has been captured.
DATA LOST – Pilot stored data was
The pilot profile data was lost. System reverts to default pilot profile and settings. The
lost. Recheck settings.
pilot may reconfigure the MFD & PFDs with preferred settings, if desired.
DB CHANGE – Database changed.
This occurs when a stored flight plan contains procedures that have been manually
Verify user modified procedures.
edited. This alert is issued only after an navigation database update. Verify that the
user-modified procedures in stored flight plans are correct and up to date.
DB CHANGE – Database changed.
This occurs when a stored flight plan contains an airway that is no longer consistent
Verify stored airways.
with the navigation database. This alert is issued only after an navigation database
update. Verify use of airways in stored flight plans and reload airways as needed.
DB MISMATCH – Navigation
The PFDs and MFD have different navigation database versions or regions installed.
database mismatch. Xtalk is off.
Crossfill is off. Check the ‘Aux-System Status’ Page to determine versions or regions.
Also, check the ‘Aux-System Status’ Page for a database synchronization function not
completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
527
APPENDIX A
Message
DB MISMATCH – Obstacle database
mismatch.
Comments
The PFDs and MFD have different obstacle database versions or regions installed.
Check the ‘Aux-System Status’ Page to determine versions or regions. Also, check
the ‘Aux-System Status’ Page for a database synchronization function not completed.
After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Standby Navigation The PFDs and MFD have different standby navigation database versions or regions
database mismatch.
installed. Check the ‘Aux-System Status’ Page to determine versions or regions. Also,
check the ‘Aux-System Status’ Page for a database synchronization function not
completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Terrain database
The PFDs and MFD have different terrain database versions or regions installed.
mismatch.
Check the ‘Aux-System Status’ Page to determine versions or regions. Also, check
the ‘Aux-System Status’ Page for a database synchronization function not completed.
After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
ECS – Service required.
The Environmental Control System has failed.
EPS – Service required.
Electrical Power System needs servicing.
EPS – S/G speed sensor failed.
Starter Generator speed sensor has failed.
ESP CONFIG– ESP config error.
ESP is not configured properly. The system should be serviced.
Config service req’d.
EXCEEDANCE – Exceedance data is
An exceedance log has been captured.
being logged.
FAILED PATH – A data path has
A data path connected to the GDU or the GIA has failed.
failed.
FPL WPT LOCK – Flight plan waypoint Upon power-up, the system detects that a stored flight plan waypoint is locked. This
is locked.
occurs when an navigation database update eliminates an obsolete waypoint. The
flight plan cannot find the specified waypoint and flags this message. This can also
occur with user waypoints in a flight plan that is deleted.
Remove the waypoint from the flight plan if it no longer exists in any database,
Or
update the waypoint name/identifier to reflect the new information.
FPL WPT MOVE – Flight plan
The system has detected that a waypoint coordinate has changed due to a new
waypoint moved.
navigation database update. Verify that stored flight plans contain correct waypoint
locations.
FPL TRUNC – Flight plan has been
This occurs when a newly installed navigation database eliminates an obsolete
truncated.
approach or arrival used by a stored flight plan. The obsolete procedure is removed
from the flight plan. Update flight plan with current arrival or approach.
FS510 CARD ERROR – FS510 not
The SD card was removed from the bottom card slot of the MFD. The SD card needs
detected in MFD Bottom Slot.
to be reinserted.
G/S1 FAIL – G/S1 is inoperative.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 1. The system should be serviced.
G/S1 SERVICE – G/S1 needs service. A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 1. The receiver may still be
Return unit for repair.
available. The system should be serviced when possible.
G/S2 FAIL – G/S2 is inoperative.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 2. The system should be serviced.
G/S2 SERVICE – G/S2 needs service. A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 2. The receiver may still be
Return unit for repair.
available. The system should be serviced when possible.
GCU CNFG – GCU Config error.
GCU configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory. The
Config service req’d.
system should be serviced.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
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APPENDIX A
Message
GCU FAIL – GCU is inoperative.
GCU KEYSTK – GCU [key name] Key
is stuck.
GCU MANIFEST – GCU software
mismatch, communication halted.
GDC1 MANIFEST – GDC1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GDC2 MANIFEST – GDC2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GDL69 MANIFEST – GDL software
mismatch, communication halted.
Comments
A failure has been detected in the GCU. The GCU is unavailable.
A key is stuck on the GCU bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it several
times. The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
The GCU has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GDC 74B has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GDC 74B has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GDL 69A SXM has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
GDL69 CONFIG – GDL 69 config
error. Config service req’d.
GDL69 FAIL – GDL 69 has failed.
GDL 69A SXM configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration
memory. The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GDL 69A SXM. The receiver is unavailable. The
system should be serviced
GEA # [1, 2] INOP- CAL - Check GEA There is a problem with the GEA 1 and/or GEA 2 rigging. Check the rigging.
rigging.
GEA # [1, 2] INOP - CNFG - Check
There is a problem with the GEA 1 and/or GEA 2 software configuration. Check the
GEA software and configuration.
configuration. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
GEA # [1, 2] CM INOP - COMM There is a problem with the GEA 1 and/or GEA 2 config module connection. Check the
Check GEA config module connection. connection.
GEA # [1, 2] CM INOP - INTRL - GEA GEA 1 and/or GEA 2 has an internal fault. The system should be serviced.
internal fault.
GEA # [1, 2] CM INOP - SENS There is an error in the GEA 1 and/or GEA 2 configuration. Check the configuration. If
Check GEA configuration.
the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
GEA # [1, 2] CM INOP - TEMP The GEA 1 and/or GEA 2 configuration module has insufficient cooling. If the problem
Check GEA config module cooling.
persists, the system should be serviced.
GEA # [1, 2] CM INOP - VOLT The GEA 1 and/or GEA 2 voltage is low. Check GEA voltages.
Check GEA voltages.
GEA1 CONFIG – GEA1 config error.
The GEA1 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
Config service req’d.
The system should be serviced.
GEA1 MANIFEST – GEA1 software
The #1 GEA has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
mismatch, communication halted.
GEA2 CONFIG – GEA2 config error.
The GEA2 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
Config service req’d.
The system should be serviced.
GEA2 MANIFEST – GEA2 software
The #2 GEA has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
mismatch, communication halted.
GEO LIMITS – AHRS1 too far North/
South, no magnetic compass.
The aircraft is outside geographical limits for approved AHRS operation. Heading is
GEO LIMITS – AHRS2 too far North/ flagged as invalid.
South, no magnetic compass.
GFC MANIFEST – GFC software
Incorrect servo software is installed, or gain settings are incorrect.
mismatch, communication halted.
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
529
APPENDIX A
Message
GIA #[1, 2] INOP - CRNT - Check GIA
current.
GIA #[1, 2] OVER TEMP - Check GIA
temperature.
GIA #[1, 2] INOP - SERIAL - Check
GIA serial communication.
GIA #[1, 2] INOP - VOLT - Check GIA
voltage.
GMA XTALK – GMA crosstalk error
has occurred.
GMA1 AUX MANIFEST – GMA 1 AUX
software mismatch, communication
halted.
GMA1 CONFIG – GMA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GMA1 FAIL – GMA1 is inoperative.
GMA1 MANIFEST – GMA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GMA1 SERVICE – GMA1 needs service. Return unit for repair.
Comments
GIA 1 and/or GIA 2 current is low. The current should be checked.
GIA 1 and/or GIA 2 is reporting an over-temperature condition.
Loss of GIA 1 and/or GIA 2 serial communication. Check GIA serial communication.
GIA 1 and/or GIA 2 low voltage. Check voltage.
An error has occurred in transferring data between the two GMAs. The system should
be serviced.
The digital audio controller has incorrect software installed. The system should be
serviced.
The audio panel configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory.
The system should be serviced.
The audio panel self-test has detected a failure. The audio panel is unavailable. The
system should be serviced.
The audio panel has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The audio panel self-test has detected a problem in the unit. Certain audio functions may
still be available, and the audio panel may still be usable. The system should be serviced
when possible.
GMA2 CONFIG – GMA2 config error. The audio panel configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory.
Config service req’d.
The system should be serviced.
GMA2 FAIL – GMA2 is inoperative.
The audio panel self-test has detected a failure. The audio panel is unavailable. The
system should be serviced.
GMA2 MANIFEST – GMA2 software
The audio panel has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
mismatch, communication halted.
GMA2 SERVICE – GMA2 needs serThe audio panel self-test has detected a problem in the unit. Certain audio functions may
vice. Return unit for repair.
still be available, and the audio panel may still be usable. The system should be serviced
when possible.
GMC CONFIG – GMC Config error.
Error in the configuration of the GMC 710.
Config service req’d.
GMC FAIL – GMC is inoperative.
A failure has been detected in the GMC 710. The GMC 710 is unavailable.
GMC KEYSTK – GMC [key name] Key A key is stuck on the GMC 710 bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it
is stuck.
several times. The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
GMC MANIFEST – GMC software
The GMC 710 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
mismatch. Communication halted.
GMU1 MANIFEST – GMU1 software
The GMU 44 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
mismatch, communication halted.
GMU2 MANIFEST – GMU2 software
The GMU 44 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
mismatch, communication halted.
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APPENDIX A
Message
GPS #[1, 2] INSPECT RQRD - BATT Check GPS battery.
GPS #[1, 2] INSPECT INOP - CAL Check GPS battery.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. Insufficient satellites.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. Position error.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. GPS fail.
GPS1 SERVICE – GPS1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GPS2 SERVICE – GPS2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GRA1 CAL – GRA1 calibration.
Service req’d.
GRA1 CONFIG – GRA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GRA1 MANIFEST – GRA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GRA1 SERVICE – GRA1 needs service.
Return unit for repair
GRA1 TEMP – GRA1 over
temperature.
GRS1 CONFIG – GRS1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GRS1 MANIFEST – GRS1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GRS1 SERVICE – GRS1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GRS2 CONFIG – GRS2 config error.
Config service req’d.
GRS2 MANIFEST – GRS2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GRS2 SERVICE – GRS1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GSR1 FAIL – GSR1 has failed.
GTS CONFIG – GTS config error.
Config service req’d.
GTS MANIFEST – GTS software
mismatch, communication halted.
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Comments
The GPS battery needs to be checked.
GPS 1 and/or GPS 2 calibration version error. Check GPS calibration.
Loss of GPS navigation due to insufficient satellites.
Loss of GPS navigation due to position error.
Loss of GPS navigation due to GPS failure.
A failure has been detected in the GPS1 and/or GPS2 receiver. The receiver may still
be available. The system should be serviced.
GRA1 has improper calibration. The system should be serviced.
The GRA and GDU have incompatible configurations.
The GRA has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GRA self-test has detected a problem in the unit. The system should be serviced.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in GRA1.
GRS configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The AHRS1 should be serviced when practical.
GRS configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The AHRS1 should be serviced when practical.
A failure has been detected in the #1 GSR. The system should be serviced.
The GTS and GDU have incompatible configurations. This alert is also set when the
GTS has an invalid mode S address configured or the mode S address does not match
both XPDR mode S addresses.
The GTS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
531
APPENDIX A
Message
GTX1 MANIFEST – GTX1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GTX2 MANIFEST – GTX2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GWX CONFIG – GWX config error.
Config service req’d.
GWX MANIFEST – GWX software
mismatch, communication halted.
GWX SERVICE – GWX needs service.
Return unit for repair.
HDG FAULT – AHRS1 magnetometer
fault has occurred.
HDG FAULT – AHRS2 magnetometer
fault has occurred.
HOLD EXPIRED – Holding EFC time
expired.
HW MISMATCH – GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA1 communication
halted.
HW MISMATCH – GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA2 communication
halted.
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
INVALID ADM – Invalid ADM: ATN
communication halted.
LOCKED FPL – Cannot navigate
locked flight plan.
LOI – GPS integrity lost. Crosscheck
with other NAVS.
LOSS OF GPS NAVIGATION – Poor
Satellite Coverage.
LOW BANK ACTIVE – Disengage for
approach.
LOW BANK ACTIVE – Disengage for
RNP less than 1.0.
LRG MAG VAR – Verify all course
angles.
MFD1 CONFIG – MFD1 config error.
Config service req’d.
MFD1 COOLING – MFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
532
Comments
The transponder has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The transponder has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
GWX 70 configuration settings do not match those of the GDU configuration. The
system should be serviced.
The GWX 70 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GWX 70. The GWX 70 may still be usable.
A fault has occurred in the #1 GMU 44. Heading is flagged as invalid. The AHRS uses
GPS for backup mode operation. The system should be serviced.
A fault has occurred in the #2 GMU 44. Heading is flagged as invalid. The AHRS uses
GPS for backup mode operation. The system should be serviced.
Expect Further Clearance (EFC) time has expired for the User Defined Hold.
A GIA mismatch has been detected, where only one is SBAS capable.
A GIA mismatch has been detected, where only one is SBAS capable.
The aircraft is inside the special use airspace.
Data link avionics were not configured correctly and therefore will not be able to
communicate with the ground network.
This occurs when the pilot attempts to activate a stored flight plan that contains
locked waypoint. Remove locked waypoint from flight plan. Update flight plan with
current waypoint.
GPS integrity is insufficient for the current phase of flight.
Loss of GPS navigation due to insufficient/poor satellite coverage.
Low Bank mode is active. Disengage to continue approach.
Low Bank mode is active. Disengage to continue RNP 1.0.
The GDU’s internal model cannot determine the exact magnetic variance for
geographic locations near the magnetic poles. Displayed magnetic course angles may
differ from the actual magnetic heading by more than 2°.
The MFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The MFD is overheating and is reducing power consumption by dimming the display.
If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
190-02218-01 Rev. B
APPENDIX A
Message
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 multiple
database errors exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
database missing.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain
database missing.
MFD1 INOP - DISABLE DISPLAY Check Disable Display Input Wiring
MFD1 INOP - ECC ERROR - Internal
memory unstable - needs repair.
MFD1 INOP - HTR CRNT - Heater
Current Error.
MFD1 INOP - LED STR FAULT Reduced backlight level - needs repair.
MFD1 INOP - TEMP - Check external
cooling fans.
MFD1 INSPECT RQRD – BTM SD
- Bottom SD Card Unstable - Install
new card.
MFD1 INSPECT RQRD - INTERN SD
– Internal Micro SD Unstable - Install
new card.
MFD1 INSPECT RQRD – TOP SD Top SD Card Unstable - Install new
card.
MFD1 KEYSTK – MFD [key name] Key
is stuck.
MFD1 MANIFEST – MFD1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MFD1 SERVICE – MFD1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
NAV #[1, 2] INOP - CAL - Check
Comments
The MFD detected a failure in more than one database. If problem persists, the
system should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the obstacle database. Reload databases with new
data card. If problem persists, delete databases and reload with a new card.
The obstacle database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The MFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Reload databases with new data
card. If problem persists, delete databases and reload with a new card.
The terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The specified GDU has insufficient voltage. The system should be serviced.
The internal memory of the specified GDU is unstable. The system should be serviced.
The specified GDU has a heater current error. The system should be serviced.
The specified GDU has reduced backlight levels. The system should be serviced.
The specified GDU is over-temperature. The system should be serviced.
The bottom SD card is unstable and should be replaced.
The internal SD card is unstable and should be replaced.
The top SD card is unstable and should be replaced.
A key is stuck on the MFD bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it several
times. The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
The MFD has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The MFD self-test has detected a problem. The system should be serviced.
NAV 1 and/or NAV 2 calibration version error. Check COM calibration.
COM calibration.
NAV #[1, 2] INOP - CRNT - Check
COM current.
NAV #[1, 2] INOP - INTRL - Com
internal fault.
NAV #[1, 2] INOP - SERIAL - Check
NAV serial communication.
190-02218-01 Rev. B
NAV 1 and/or NAV 2 current is low. Check COM current.
NAV 1 and/or NAV 2 has an internal fault.
Loss of NAV 1 and/or NAV 2 serial communication. Check NAV serial communication.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
533
APPENDIX A
Message
NAV #[1, 2] INOP - SYNTH LOCK
- COM synthesizer lock fault.
MFD1 VOLTAGE – MFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage
NAV1 MANIFEST – NAV1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
NAV1 RMT XFR – NAV1 remote
transfer key is stuck.
Comments
NAV 1 and/or NAV 2 has a synthesizer lock fault.
The MFD voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
The NAV1 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The remote NAV1 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”) state. Press
the transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
NAV1 SERVICE – NAV1 needs service. A failure has been detected in the NAV1 receiver. The receiver may still be available.
Return unit for repair.
The system should be serviced.
NAV2 MANIFEST – NAV2 software
The NAV2 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
mismatch, communication halted.
NAV2 RMT XFR – NAV2 remote
The remote NAV2 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”) state. Press
transfer key is stuck.
the transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
NAV2 SERVICE – NAV2 needs service. A failure has been detected in the NAV2 receiver. The receiver may still be available.
Return unit for repair.
The system should be serviced.
NO RUNWAY POSITION DATA –
Inhibit SurfaceWatch.
Inhibit SurfaceWatch. No runway
position data.
NON-MAG UNITS– Non-magnetic
Navigation angle is not set to MAGNETIC at power-up.
NAV ANGLE display units are active.
NON WGS84 WPT – Do not use GPS The position of the selected waypoint [xxxx] is not calculated based on the WGS84
for navigation to [xxxx]
map reference datum and may be positioned in error as displayed. Do not use GPS to
navigate to the selected non-WGS84 waypoint.
PFD POSITIONS DIFFERENT – PFD
There is a mismatch in the position sensed by the PFDs. Check position sensor settings. If
positions mismatch. Check position
message persists the system should be serviced.
sensors.
PFD1 CONFIG – PFD1 config error.
The PFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
Config service req’d.
system should be serviced.
PFD1 COOLING – PFD1 has poor
The PFD is overheating and is reducing power consumption by dimming the display.
cooling. Reducing power usage.
If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 multiple
The PFD detected a failure in more than one database. Reload databases with new
database errors exists.
data card. If problem persists, delete databases and reload with a new card.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 obstacle
The PFD detected a failure in the obstacle database. Reload databases with new data
database error exists.
card. If problem persists, delete databases and reload with a new card.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 obstacle
The obstacle database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
database missing.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 terrain
The PFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Reload databases with new data
database error exists.
card. If problem persists, delete databases and reload with a new card.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 terrain
The terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
database missing.
534
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
190-02218-01 Rev. B
APPENDIX A
Message
PFD1 INOP - DISABLE DISPLAY Check Disable Display Input Wiring
PFD1 INOP - ECC ERROR - Internal
memory unstable - needs repair.
PFD1 INOP - HTR CRNT - Heater
Current Error.
PFD1 INOP - LED STR FAULT Reduced backlight level - needs repair.
PFD1 INOP - TEMP - Check external
cooling fans.
PFD1 INSPECT RQRD – BTM SD
- Bottom SD Card Unstable - Install
new card.
PFD1 INSPECT RQRD - INTERN SD
– Internal Micro SD Unstable - Install
new card.
PFD1 INSPECT RQRD – TOP SD Top SD Card Unstable - Install new
card.
PFD1 CARD 1 REM – Card 1 was
removed. Reinsert card.
PFD1 CARD 2 REM – Card 2 was
removed. Reinsert card.
PFD1 CARD 1 ERR – Card 1 is invalid.
PFD1 CARD 2 ERR – Card 2 is invalid.
PFD1 SERVICE – PFD1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
PFD1 VOLTAGE – PFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage
PFD2 CARD 1 REM – Card 1 was
removed. Reinsert card.
PFD2 CARD 2 REM – Card 2 was
removed. Reinsert card.
PFD2 CARD 1 ERR – Card 1 is invalid.
PFD2 CARD 2 ERR – Card 2 is invalid.
PFD2 CONFIG – PFD2 config error.
Config service req’d.
PFD2 COOLING – PFD2 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 multiple
database errors exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 obstacle
database error exists.
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Comments
The specified GDU has insufficient voltage. The system should be serviced.
The internal memory of the specified GDU is unstable. The system should be serviced.
The specified GDU has a heater current error. The system should be serviced.
The specified GDU has reduced backlight levels. The system should be serviced.
The specified GDU is over-temperature. The system should be serviced.
The bottom SD card is unstable and should be replaced.
The internal SD card is unstable and should be replaced.
The top SD card is unstable and should be replaced.
The SD card was removed from the top card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The SD
card needs to be reinserted.
The SD card was removed from the bottom card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The
SD card needs to be reinserted.
The SD card in the top card slot of the specified PFD contains invalid data.
The SD card in the bottom card slot of the specified PFD contains invalid data.
The PFD self-test has detected a problem. The system should be serviced.
The PFD1 voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
The SD card was removed from the top card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The SD
card needs to be reinserted.
The SD card was removed from the bottom card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The
SD card needs to be reinserted.
The SD card in the top card slot of the specified PFD contains invalid data.
The SD card in the bottom card slot of the specified PFD contains invalid data.
The PFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The PFD is overheating and is reducing power consumption by dimming the display.
If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in more than one database. Reload databases with new
data card. If problem persists, delete databases and reload with a new card.
The PFD detected a failure in the obstacle database. Reload databases with new data
card. If problem persists, delete databases and reload with a new card.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
535
APPENDIX A
Message
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 obstacle
database missing.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 terrain
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 terrain
database missing.
PFD2 INOP - DISABLE DISPLAY Check Disable Display Input Wiring
PFD2 INOP - ECC ERROR - Internal
memory unstable - needs repair.
PFD2 INOP - HTR CRNT - Heater
Current Error.
PFD2 INOP - LED STR FAULT Reduced backlight level - needs repair.
PFD2 INOP - TEMP - Check external
cooling fans.
PFD2 INSPECT RQRD – BTM SD
- Bottom SD Card Unstable - Install
new card.
PFD2 INSPECT RQRD - INTERN SD
– Internal Micro SD Unstable - Install
new card.
PFD2 INSPECT RQRD – TOP SD Top SD Card Unstable - Install new
card.
PFD2 KEYSTK – PFD2 [key name] Key
is stuck.
PFD2 MANIFEST – PFD2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
PFD2 SERVICE – PFD2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
PFD2 VOLTAGE – PFD2 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage
PILOT PRIM PTT KEYSTK - Pilot
primary push-to-talk key is stuck.
PILOT SEC PTT KEYSTK - Pilot
secondary push-to-talk key is stuck.
PILOT RADIOS MUTED – Pilot
radios are muted.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
invalid leg type.
536
Comments
The obstacle database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The PFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Reload databases with new data
card. If problem persists, delete databases and reload with a new card.
The terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The specified GDU has insufficient voltage. The system should be serviced.
The internal memory of the specified GDU is unstable. The system should be serviced.
The specified GDU has a heater current error. The system should be serviced.
The specified GDU has reduced backlight levels. The system should be serviced.
The specified GDU is over-temperature. The system should be serviced.
The bottom SD card is unstable and should be replaced.
The internal SD card is unstable and should be replaced.
The top SD card is unstable and should be replaced.
A key is stuck on the PFD bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it several
times. The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
The PFD has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The PFD self-test has detected a problem. The system should be serviced.
The PFD2 voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
The GMA external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or “pressed”) position.
Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The GMA external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or “pressed”) position.
Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The pilot radios are set on mute.
Invalid leg type for parallel offset.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
190-02218-01 Rev. B
APPENDIX A
Message
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
past IAF.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
bad geometry.
RECORDER SERVICE REQUIRED The CVDR needs service.
REGISTER CONNEXT – Data services
are inoperative, register w/ Connext.
SCHEDULER [#] – <message>.
SLCT FREQ – Select appropriate
frequency for approach.
SLCT MAG– Select MAGNETIC NAV
ANGLE display units.
SLCT NON-MAG– Select alternate
NAV ANGLE display units.
STEEP TURN – Steep turn ahead.
STRMSCP FAIL – Stormscope has
failed.
SURFACEWATCH DISABLED - Too
far north/south.
SURFACEWATCH FAIL - Invalid
audio configuration.
SURFACEWATCH FAIL - Invalid
configurable alerts.
SURFACEWATCH FAIL - One or
more inputs invalid.
SURFACEWATCH INHIBITED Surfacewatch inhibited.
SVT – SVT DISABLED: Terrain DB
resolution too low.
SW MISMATCH – GDU software
version mismatch. Xtalk is off.
TERRAIN DSP – [PFD1, PFD2 or
MFD1] Terrain awareness display
unavailable.
TIMER EXPIRD – Timer has expired.
UNABLE V WPT – Can’t reach current
vertical waypoint.
VNV UNAVAILABLE – Excessive
crosstrack error.
VNV UNAVAILABLE – Unavailable.
Excessive track angle error.
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Comments
IAF waypoint for parallel offset has been passed.
Bad parallel track geometry.
The CVDR should be serviced.
The system is not registered with Garmin Connext, or its current registration data has
failed authentication.
Message criteria entered by the user.
The system notifies the pilot to load the approach frequency for the appropriate NAV
receiver. Select the correct frequency for the approach.
The system notifies the pilot to set the Nav Angle units on the Avioncs Settings Screen
to Magnetic.
The system notifies the pilot to set the Nav Angle units on the Avionics Settings Screen
to True.
A steep turn is 15 seconds ahead. Prepare to turn.
Stormscope has failed. The system should be serviced.
The SurfaceWatch system has been disabled.
The SurfaceWatch system has failed due to an invalid audio configuration.
The SurfaceWatch system has failed due to invalid configurable alerts.
The SurfaceWatch system has failed due to one or more invalid inputs.
The SurfaceWatch system has been inhibited.
Synthetic Vision is disabled because a terrain database of sufficient resolution is not
currently installed.
The MFD and PFDs have different software versions installed. The system should be
serviced.
One of the terrain, or obstacle databases required for TAWS in the specified PFD or
MFD is missing or invalid.
The system notifies the pilot that the timer has expired.
The current vertical waypoint can not be reached within the maximum flight path
angle and vertical speed constraints. The system automatically transitions to the next
vertical waypoint.
The current crosstrack exceeds the limit, causing vertical deviation to go invalid.
The current track angle error exceeds the limit, causing the vertical deviation to go
invalid.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
537
APPENDIX A
Message
VNV UNAVAILABLE – Parallel course
selected.
VNV UNAVAILABLE – Unsupported
leg type in flight plan.
WPT ARRIVAL – Arriving at waypoint
-[xxxx]
WX ALERT – Possible severe weather
ahead.
XPDR1 ADS-B 1090 – Datalink:
ADS-B 1090 receiver has failed.
XPDR1 ADS-B NO POS –
Transponder: ADS-B is not transmitting
position.
XPDR1 ADS-B TRFC – Transponder:
ADS-B traffic has failed
XPDR1 ADS-B UAT – Datalink:
ADS-B in UAT receiver has failed.
Comments
A parallel course has been selected, causing the vertical deviation to go invalid.
The lateral flight plan contains a procedure turn, vector, or other unsupported leg
type prior to the active vertical waypoint. This prevents vertical guidance to the active
vertical waypoint.
Arriving at waypoint [xxxx], where [xxxx] is the waypoint name.
The GWX indicates severe weather within ±10º of the aircraft heading at a range of
80 to 320 nm.
A failure has been detected in the 1090 receiver.
The transponder is not able to receive position information.
The Transponder is incapable of processing traffic information.
A failure has been detected in the UAT receiver.
XPDR1 CONFIG – XPDR1 config error. The transponder configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration
Config service req’d.
memory. The system should be serviced.
XPDR1 SRVC – XPDR1 needs service.
The #1 transponder should be serviced when possible.
Return unit for repair.
XPDR2 ADS-B 1090 – Datalink:
ADS-B 1090 receiver has failed.
XPDR2 ADS-B NO POS –
Transponder: ADS-B is not transmitting
position.
XPDR2 ADS-B TRFC – Transponder:
ADS-B traffic has failed
XPDR2 ADS-B UAT – Datalink:
ADS-B in UAT receiver has failed.
XPDR2 CONFIG – XPDR2 config error.
Config service req’d.
XPDR2 SRVC – XPDR2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
XTALK ERROR – A flight display
crosstalk error has occurred.
538
A failure has been detected in the 1090 receiver.
The transponder is not able to receive position information.
The Transponder is incapable of processing traffic information.
A failure has been detected in the UAT receiver.
The transponder configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration
memory. The system should be serviced.
The #2 transponder should be serviced when possible.
The MFD and PFDs are not communicating with each other. The system should be
serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
190-02218-01 Rev. B
APPENDIX B
DATABASE MANAGEMENT
Database information is obtained from third party sources. Inaccuracies in the data may be discovered from
time to time. Garmin communicates this information by issuing a Database Alert. These notifications are available
on flygarmin.com.
Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information. These
discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles
and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground.
Go to flygarmin.com and select Aviation Data Error Report.
CAUTION: Never disconnect power to the system when loading a database. Power interruption during the
database loading process could result in maintenance being required to reboot the system.
The system uses Secure Digital (SD) cards to load various types of data. For basic flight operations, SD cards
are required for database updates. Use only 8 GB, 16 GB, or 32 GB cards. If it is desired to leave the card in
the system, only Garmin, OEM, or dealer provided cards should be used. SD Cards obtained elsewhere may be
acceptable for database loading but must be removed when database loading is complete.
Databases may be loaded through Garmin Pilot and wireless transceiver. When loading databases through
Garmin Pilot and the wireless transceiver, the wireless transceiver must be enabled on the system and the
multimedia card inserted in the bottom SD slot of the MFD.
NOTE: When loading database updates, the ‘DB Mismatch’ message will be displayed until database
synchronization is complete, followed by turning system power off, then on. Synchronization can be
monitored on the ‘Aux – Databases’ Page.
NOTE: Loading a database in the system prior to its effective date will result in the expiration date on the
power-up screen and the effective date on the ‘Aux – Databases’ Page being displayed in amber.
LOADING UPDATED DATABASES
CAUTION: Never disconnect power to the system when loading a database. Power interruption during the
database loading process could result in maintenance being required to reboot the system.
NOTE: When loading database updates, the ‘DB Mismatch’ message will be displayed until database
synchronization is complete, followed by turning system power off, then on. Synchronization can be
monitored on the ‘Aux-Database’ Page.
The cycles and dates for both standby and active databases are displayed on the ‘Aux – Databases’ Page on
the MFD. Any active databases with expiration dates in the past will be highlighted with amber text. When
an expired active database has a standby database that is ready to become effective, a cyan double-sided arrow
will be displayed between the database cycles. When this arrow is visible, it indicates that the standby and
active databases in that row will be switched on the next power cycle, activating the current standby database.
Databases can also be manually selected (or deselected) by highlighting a list item and pressing the ENT Key,
provided a valid, verified standby database is present.
190-02218-01 Rev. B
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
539
APPENDIX B
In some cases it may be necessary to obtain an unlock code from Garmin in order to make the database
product functional. It may also be necessary to have the system configured by a Garmin authorized service
facility in order to use some database features.
The navigation database contains the aeronautical data used by the system for the flight management and
flight planning functions. Included is detailed data for waypoints, procedures (arrivals, departures, approaches),
and airways. The navigation database is updated every 28 days.
The basemap database contains data for the topography and land features, such as rivers, lakes, and towns.
It is updated only periodically, with no set schedule. There is no expiration date.
The terrain database contains the terrain mapping data. These databases are updated periodically and have
no expiration date.
The obstacle database contains data for obstacles, such as towers, that pose a potential hazard to aircraft.
Obstacles 200 feet and higher are included in the obstacle database. It is very important to note that not all
obstacles are necessarily charted and therefore may not be contained in the obstacle database. This database is
updated on a 56-day cycle.
NOTE: The data contained in the terrain and obstacle databases comes from government agencies. Garmin
accurately processes and cross-validates the data, but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of
the data.
The AOPA or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory provides data on airports and heliports throughout the U.S. or
worldwide, respectively. The AOPA Directory offers detailed information for over 5,300 U. S. airports, along
with the names and phone numbers of thousands of FBOs. These databases are updated every 56 days. The
AC-U-KWIK Directory offers detailed information for more than 8,000 airports with runways longer than 3,000
feet worldwide.
The SafeTaxi database contains detailed airport diagrams for selected airports. These diagrams aid in following
ground control instructions by accurately displaying the aircraft position on the map in relation to taxiways,
ramps, runways, terminals, and services. This database is updated on a 56-day cycle.
The FliteCharts database contains procedure charts. This database is updated on a 28-day cycle. If not
updated within 180 days of the expiration date, FliteCharts will no longer function.
The ChartView database is updated on a 14-day cycle. If the ChartView database is not updated within 70
days of the expiration date, ChartView will no longer function. The ChartView database must be purchased
directly from Jeppesen, but can be updated at jeppesen.com or flygarmin.com.
The IFR/VFR charts database contains VFR and IFR raster charts. The VFR Charts are digital representations
of the Sectional Aeronautical Charts and Terminal Area Charts. The IFR Charts include both IFR High (designed
for navigation at or above 18,000 ft) and IFR Low (designed for navigation below 18,000 ft). IFR/VFR Charts
are updated every 28 days except for Canadian IFR/VFR Charts which are updated every 56 days.
UPDATE DATABASES USING A SUPPLEMENTAL DATA CARD
All databases are updated through a single SD card in the bottom slot of the MFD. When the card is
inserted, the databases on the card will be copied to standby and synchronized across all powered, configured
units. After update, the card is removed and the databases are stored on the system. When in standby,
databases are not immediately available for use, but stored to be activated at a later time.
540
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Daher TBM 910
190-02218-01 Rev. B
APPENDIX B
Database updates can be obtained by following the instructions detailed in the ‘Aviation Databases’ section
of the Garmin website (flygarmin.com). Once the updated files have been downloaded from the website, a
PC equipped with an appropriate SD card reader is used to unpack and program the new databases onto an
existing Supplemental Data Card. Equipment required to perform the update is as follows:
• Windows-compatible PC computer
• SD Card Reader: SanDisk SDDR-93, SanDisk SDDR-99, Verbatim #96504, or equivalent
• Updated database obtained from the Garmin website
• Supplemental Data (SD) Cards
Update Databases:
1) With the system OFF, remove an SD Card from the bottom SD card slot of the MFD.
2) Download and install the databases on an SD card.
3) Put the SD Card in the bottom SD card slot of the MFD.
4) Turn the system ON.
5) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob and select ‘Aux’.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob and select ‘Databases’.
8) Monitor the Sync Status on the ‘Aux-Databases’ Page. Wait for all databases to complete syncing, indicated by
‘Sync Complete’ being displayed. A cyan double-arrow will appear between the ‘Standby’ and ‘Active’ columns
to show which Standby databases will be transferred to ‘Active’ at the next power cycle.
Figure B-1 ‘Aux - Databases’ Page before Activation of Standby Databases
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9) Verify the correct database cycle information is shown in the ‘Standby’ column.
10 Remove and apply power to the system.
11) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
12) Turn the large FMS Knob and select ‘Aux’.
13) Turn the small FMS Knob and select ‘Databases’.
14) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the ‘Active’ column.
Figure B-2 ‘Aux - Databases’ Page - Updated Databases
15) To manually activate any databases that did not transfer to the ‘Active’ column:
a) Press the FMS Knob. The first database title on the screen will be selected.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob as necessary to select the database title.
c) Press the ENT Key. A cyan double-sided arrow will appear indicating that the standby database will
become active.
Or:
Press the Menu Key and select ‘Swap Standby and Active’ using the small FMS Knob and press the ENT Key.
Press the ENT Key or the FMS Knob to exit.
d) Remove and apply power to the system.
e) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
f) Turn the large FMS Knob and select ‘Aux’.
g) Turn the small FMS Knob and select ‘Databases’.
h) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the ‘Active’ column.
16) For additional information on each database, press and then turn the FMS Knob to select the database, and
then press the Details Softkey. Press the ENT Key or the FMS Knob to exit.
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Or:
Press the Menu Key and select ‘Details’ using the small FMS Knob and press the ENT Key. Press the ENT Key or
the FMS Knob to exit.
17) To view database information for an individual display:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob and select ‘Aux’.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob and select ‘System Status’.
c) Press the Display Database Selection Softkey (MFD1 DB, PFD1 DB, PFD2 DB) to show database information
for each display. Use the small FMS Knob to scroll through the database information. Press the ENT Key
or the FMS Knob to exit.
UPDATE DATABASES USING THE WIRELESS TRANSCEIVER
In order to load databases through Garmin Pilot and the wireless transceiver, the wireless transceiver must
be enabled on the system and inserted in the bottom SD slot of the MFD. A mobile device with Garmin Pilot
must be paired with the wireless transceiver over Bluetooth (Refer to the Additional Features section). When
there is at least one paired device available to connect, the wireless transceiver will automatically connect to
the system’s preferred mobile device. The preferred device can be selected on the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page
from a menu list of paired devices.
Once a connection to the paired mobile device is made, Garmin Pilot makes available databases that can
be transferred to the wireless transceiver. If any of these databases is more recent than the respective standby
database on the system, (or if there is no standby database on the system) those databases will be automatically
selected to load. The database updates may be initiated from the ‘Aux Databases’ Page, or from other pages
on the MFD.
NOTE: The system will only provide a WIFI connection if new databases have been detected for download
on Garmin Pilot WIFI a valid Bluetooth connection. If there are no database updates required the system
will not provide a WiFi signal.
NOTE: If the mobile device has previously connected to the wireless transceiver, and is not connected to
another WIFI source, the mobile device should connect automatically to the wireless transceiver. If the
mobile device is connected to another WIFI source (i.e. hangar WIFI), then the wireless transceiver will not
connect automatically.
Update Databases from any MFD page (except the ‘Aux - Databases’ Page):
1) Insert the wireless transceiver SD Card in the bottom slot of the MFD if not already inserted.
2) Turn the system ON.
3) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
4) On the mobile device, start Garmin Pilot and touch Home > Connext > Database Concierge.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob and select ‘Aux’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob and select the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’.
7) Ensure that ‘WIFI Database Import’ is enabled in the ‘Device’ Window (Refer to Additional Features section for
instructions to enable ‘WIFI Database Import’).
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WiFi Enabled
Bluetooth
Status
WiFi Status
WiFi Password
Figure B-3 ‘Connext Setup’ Page
8) Verify that the mobile device is enabled via Bluetooth in the Bluetooth settings on the mobile device.
9) In the ‘Paired Devices’ Window on the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, ensure the system is paired with the mobile
device in use. (Refer to Additional Features for instructions on connection to a preferred device).
NOTE: The database updates may now be continued from any MFD page, however, the update windows
shown in these instructions will not be shown on the ‘Aux - Databases’ Page. Use the instructions for
updating databases from the ‘Aux - Databases’ Page if desired.
10) Press the Update Softkey when the following window appears. (Pressing the View Softkey will allow database
updates to be viewed from the ‘Aux Databases’ Page, however, the windows shown below will not appear on
the ‘Aux Databases’ Page. Pressing the Ignore Softkey will postpone the updates until further action is taken.)
Figure B-4 Database Update Available
11) If using a device that has not been previously paired with the system, a password prompt will appear on the
mobile device. Enter the password shown in the ‘Password’ Field of the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page.
12) The following window will appear. Database update progress may be monitored on the mobile device.
Figure B-5 Starting Database Transfer
13) When the transfer is complete, the following screen will appear.
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Figure B-6 Database Transfer Complete
14) Press the Close Softkey.
15) Remove and apply power to the system.
16) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
17) Turn the large FMS Knob and select ‘Aux’.
18) Turn the small FMS Knob and select ‘Databases’.
19) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the Active column.
Figure B-7 ‘Aux Databases’ Page with Updated Databases
20) To manually activate any databases that did not transfer to the ‘Active’ column:
a) Press the FMS Knob. The first database title on the screen will be selected.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob as necessary to select the database title.
c) Verify the correct database cycle information is shown for each database for each display.
Or:
Press the Menu Key and select ‘Details’ using the small FMS Knob and press the ENT Key. Press the ENT Key
or the FMS Knob to exit.
d) Remove and apply power to the system.
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e) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
f) Turn the large FMS Knob and select ‘Aux’.
g) Turn the small FMS Knob and select ‘Databases’.
h) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the ‘Active’ column.
22) For additional information on each database, press and then turn the FMS Knob to select the database, and then
press the Details Softkey. Press the ENT Key or the FMS Knob to exit.
Or:
Press the Menu Key and select ‘Details’ using the small FMS Knob and press the ENT Key. Press the ENT Key or
the FMS Knob to exit.
23) To view database information for an individual display:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob and select ‘Aux’.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob and select ‘System Status’.
c) Press the Display Database Selection Softkey (MFD1 DB, PFD1 DB, PFD2 DB) to show database information
for each display. Use the small FMS Knob to scroll through the database information. Press the ENT Key
or the FMS Knob to exit.
Update Databases from the ‘Aux - Databases’ Page:
NOTE: The system will only provide a WIFI connection if new databases have been detected for download
on Garmin Pilot via a valid Bluetooth connection. If there are no database updates required the system will
not provide a WIFI signal.
NOTE: If the mobile device has previously connected to the wireless transceiver, and is not connected to
another WIFI source, the mobile device should connect automatically to the wireless transceiver. If the
mobile device is connected to another WIFI source (i.e. hangar WIFI), then the wireless transceiver will not
connect automatically.
1) Insert the wireless transceiver SD Card in the bottom slot of the MFD if not already inserted.
2) Turn the system ON.
3) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
4) On the mobile device, start Garmin Pilot and tap Home > Connext > Database Concierge.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob and select ‘Aux’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob and select the ‘Connext Setup’.
7) Ensure that WIFI Database Import is enabled in the ‘Device’ Window (Refer to Additional Features section for
instructions to enable WIFI Database Import).
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WIFI Enabled
Bluetooth
Status
WIFI Status
WIFI Password
Figure B-8 ‘Connext Setup’ Page
8) Verify that the mobile device is enabled via Bluetooth in the Bluetooth settings on the mobile device.
9) In the ‘Paired Devices