Garmin | G1000: Beechcraft King Air 200/B200 | Garmin G1000: Beechcraft King Air 200/B200 G1000 Pilot’s Guide for KingAir 200/B200 Series - SSV 0985.03

Garmin G1000: Beechcraft King Air 200/B200 G1000 Pilot’s Guide for KingAir 200/B200 Series - SSV 0985.03
G1000
®
Integrated Flight Deck
Pilot’s Guide
Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
Untitled-1 1
11/13/2007 9:15:37 AM
Copyright © 2008-2010 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 0985.03 or later for the Hawker Beechctaft 200/B200 Series. Some
differences in operation may be observed when comparing the information in this manual to earlier or later software versions.
Garmin International, Inc., 1200 East 151st Street, Olathe, Kansas 66062, U.S.A.
Tel: 913/397.8200
Fax: 913/397.8282
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Tel: 886/02.2642.9199
Fax: 886/02.2642.9099
For after-hours emergency, aircraft on ground (AOG) technical support for Garmin panel mount and integrated avionics systems, please
contact Garmin’s AOG Hotline at 913.397.0836.
Website Address: www.garmin.com
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and provided further that any unauthorized commercial distribution of this manual or any revision hereto is strictly prohibited.
Garmin® and G1000® are registered trademarks of Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries, and ESP™ is a trademark of Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries.
These trademarks may not be used without the express permission of Garmin.
Bendix/King® and Honeywell® are registered trademarks of Honeywell International, Inc.; Becker® is a registered trademark of Becker
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Inc..
October 2010
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Printed in the U.S.A.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
Limited Warranty
LIMITED WARRANTY
This Garmin product is warranted to be free from defects in materials or workmanship for two years from the date of purchase. Within this
period, Garmin will, at its sole option, repair or replace any components that fail in normal use. Such repairs or replacement will be made
at no charge to the customer for parts and labor, provided that the customer shall be responsible for any transportation cost. This warranty
does not cover failures due to abuse, misuse, accident, or unauthorized alterations or repairs.
THE WARRANTIES AND REMEDIES CONTAINED HEREIN ARE EXCLUSIVE AND IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING ANY LIABILITY ARISING UNDER ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE. THIS WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS, WHICH MAY VARY FROM STATE TO
STATE.
IN NO EVENT SHALL GARMIN BE LIABLE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER
RESULTING FROM THE USE, MISUSE, OR INABILITY TO USE THIS PRODUCT OR FROM DEFECTS IN THE PRODUCT. Some states do not
allow the exclusion of incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitations may not apply to you.
Garmin retains the exclusive right to repair or replace the unit or software, or to offer a full refund of the purchase price, at its sole
discretion. SUCH REMEDY SHALL BE YOUR SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDY FOR ANY BREACH OF WARRANTY.
To obtain warranty service, contact your local Garmin Authorized Service Center. For assistance in locating a Service Center near you, visit
the Garmin Website at “http://www.garmin.com” or contact Garmin Customer Service at 800-800-1020.
ii
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Warnings, Cautions, and Notes
WARNING: Navigation and terrain separation must NOT be predicated upon the use of the terrain avoidance
feature. The terrain avoidance feature is NOT intended to be used as a primary reference for terrain avoidance
and does not relieve the pilot from the responsibility of being aware of surroundings during flight. The
terrain avoidance feature is only to be used as an aid for terrain avoidance. Terrain data is obtained from
third party sources. Garmin is not able to independently verify the accuracy of the terrain data.
WARNING: The displayed minimum safe altitudes (MSAs) are only advisory in nature and should not be
relied upon as the sole source of obstacle and terrain avoidance information. Always refer to current
aeronautical charts for appropriate minimum clearance altitudes.
WARNING: The altitude calculated by G1000 GPS receivers is geometric height above Mean Sea Level and
could vary significantly from the altitude displayed by pressure altimeters, such as the GDC 74A Air Data
Computer, or other altimeters in aircraft. GPS altitude should never be used for vertical navigation. Always
use pressure altitude displayed by the G1000 PFD or other pressure altimeters in aircraft.
WARNING: Do not use outdated database information. Databases used in the G1000 system must be updated
regularly in order to ensure that the information remains current. Pilots using any outdated database do so
entirely at their own risk.
WARNING: Do not use basemap (land and water data) information for primary navigation. Basemap data is
intended only to supplement other approved navigation data sources and should be considered as an aid to
enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Traffic information shown on system displays is provided as an aid in visually acquiring traffic.
Pilots must maneuver the aircraft based only upon ATC guidance or positive visual acquisition of conflicting
traffic.
WARNING: Use of the Stormscope is not intended for hazardous weather penetration (thunderstorm
penetration). Stormscope information, as displayed on the G1000 MFD, is to be used only for weather
avoidance, not penetration.
WARNING: GDL 69 Weather should not be used for hazardous weather penetration. Weather information
provided by the GDL 69 is approved only for weather avoidance, not penetration.
Warning: NEXRAD weather data is to be used for long-range planning purposes only. Due to inherent
delays in data transmission and the relative age of the data, NEXRAD weather data should not be used for
short-range weather avoidance.
WARNING: For safety reasons, G1000 operational procedures must be learned on the ground.
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
iii
Warnings, Cautions, and Notes
WARNING: The Garmin G1000, as installed in this aircraft, has a very high degree of functional integrity.
However, the pilot must recognize that providing monitoring and/or self-test capability for all conceivable
system failures is not practical. Although unlikely, it may be possible for erroneous operation to occur
without a fault indication shown by the G1000. It is thus the responsibility of the pilot to detect such
an occurrence by means of cross-checking with all redundant or correlated information available in the
cockpit.
WARNING: The United States government operates the Global Positioning System and is solely responsible
for its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy
and performance of all GPS equipment. Portions of the Garmin G1000 utilize GPS as a precision electronic
NAVigation AID (NAVAID). Therefore, as with all NAVAIDs, information presented by the G1000 can be
misused or misinterpreted and, therefore, become unsafe.
WARNING: To reduce the risk of unsafe operation, carefully review and understand all aspects of the G1000
Pilot’s Guide documentation and the G1000 Integrated Avionics System in the Airplane Flight Manual.
Thoroughly practice basic operation prior to actual use. During flight operations, carefully compare indications
from the G1000 to all available navigation sources, including the information from other NAVAIDs, visual
sightings, charts, etc. For safety purposes, always resolve any discrepancies before continuing navigation.
WARNING: The illustrations in this guide are only examples. Never use the G1000 to attempt to penetrate
a thunderstorm. Both the FAA Advisory Circular, Subject: Thunderstorms, and the Aeronautical Information
Manual (AIM) recommend avoiding “by at least 20 miles any thunderstorm identified as severe or giving an
intense radar echo.”
WARNING: Lamp(s) inside this product may contain mercury (HG) and must be recycled or disposed of
according to local, state, or federal laws. For more information, refer to our website at www.garmin.com/
aboutGarmin/environment/disposal.jsp.
WARNING: Because of variation in the earth’s magnetic field, operating the G1000 within the following
areas could result in loss of reliable attitude and heading indications. North of 72° North latitude at all
longitudes; South of 70° South latitude at all longitudes; North of 65° North latitude between longitude
75° W and 120° W. (Northern Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 70° W and 128° W.
(Northern Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 85° E and 114° E. (Northern Russia);
South of 55° South latitude between longitude 120° E and 165° E. (Region south of Australia and New
Zealand)
WARNING: Do not use GPS to navigate to any active waypoint identified as a ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ by a
system message. ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ waypoints are derived from an unknown map reference datum that
may be incompatible with the map reference datum used by GPS (known as WGS84) and may be positioned
in error as displayed.
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Warnings, Cautions, and Notes
CAUTION: The PFD and MFD displays use a lens coated with a special anti-reflective coating that is very
sensitive to skin oils, waxes, and abrasive cleaners. CLEANERS CONTAINING AMMONIA WILL HARM THE
ANTI-REFLECTIVE COATING. It is very important to clean the lens using a clean, lint-free cloth and an
eyeglass lens cleaner that is specified as safe for anti-reflective coatings.
CAUTION: The Garmin G1000 does not contain any user-serviceable parts. Repairs should only be made by
an authorized Garmin service center. Unauthorized repairs or modifications could void both the warranty
and the pilot’s authority to operate this device under FAA/FCC regulations.
Note: When using Stormscope, there are several atmospheric phenomena in addition to nearby thunderstorms
that can cause isolated discharge points in the strike display mode. However, clusters of two or more
discharge points in the strike display mode do indicate thunderstorm activity if these points reappear after
the screen has been cleared.
nOTE: All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen images of the G1000 panel and
displays, are subject to change and may not reflect the most current G1000 system and aviation databases.
Depictions of equipment may differ slightly from the actual equipment.
NOTE: This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
(1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received,
including interference that may cause undesired operation.
NOTE: Interference from GPS repeaters operating inside nearby hangars can cause an intermittent loss of
attitude and heading displays while the aircraft is on the ground. Moving the aircraft more than 100 yards
away from the source of the interference should alleviate the condition.
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the flight displays to appear dim or blank.
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals known to the State of California
to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This notice is being provided in accordance with
California’s Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would like additional information, please refer to
our web site at www.garmin.com/prop65.
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
v
Revision Information
Record of Revisions
vi
Part Number
190-00928-00
190-00928-01
Revision
A
A
Date
12/3/08
7/24/09
190-00928-02
A
10/20/10
Page Range
Description
i – I-6
Initial Release for GDU 9.12
i – I-6
Added GDU 10.00 changes
Added TAWS A functionality
Added radar altimeter functionality
i – I-6
Added GDU 11.12 changes
Added GTS 820/850
Added GDL 59/GSR 56
Added Worldwide Weather
Added Profile View
Added Selected Altitude Arc
Added Electronic Stabilization & Protection (ESP™)
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Table of Contents
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
Section 1 System Overview
System Description.................................................... 1
Line Replaceable Units (LRU).................................... 2
G1000 Controls.......................................................... 8
PFD Controls................................................................. 8
Controls Associated With the MFD................................ 10
AFCS Controls............................................................. 12
Audio Panel Controls................................................... 14
Secure Digital Cards................................................ 16
System Power-up...................................................... 17
System Operation.................................................... 18
Normal Operation. ...................................................... 18
Reversionary Mode. .................................................... 19
AHRS Operation.......................................................... 20
G1000 System Annunciations....................................... 22
Softkey Function. ........................................................ 22
GPS Receiver Operation............................................... 29
Accessing G1000 Functionality.............................. 34
Menus. ...................................................................... 34
MFD Page Groups. ...................................................... 34
MFD System Pages...................................................... 38
Display Backlighting................................................ 52
Section 2 Flight Instruments
2.1 Flight Instruments.................................................... 56
Airspeed Indicator....................................................... 56
Attitude Indicator........................................................ 59
Altimeter.................................................................... 61
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI). ...................................... 64
Vertical Deviation........................................................ 64
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............................... 65
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)................................... 70
2.2 Supplemental Flight Data....................................... 78
Temperature Displays. ................................................. 78
Wind Data.................................................................. 79
Vertical Navigation (VNV) Indications. .......................... 80
2.3 PFD Annunciations and Alerting Functions........... 81
G1000 Alerting system. ............................................... 81
Marker Beacon Annunciations...................................... 83
Traffic Annunciation. ................................................... 83
TAWS Annunciations. .................................................. 84
Altitude Alerting. ........................................................ 84
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Low Altitude Annunciation........................................... 85
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height Alerting....... 85
Radar Altimeter........................................................... 86
2.4 Abnormal Operations.............................................. 88
Abnormal GPS Conditions............................................ 88
Unusual Attitudes. ...................................................... 89
Section 3 Engine Indication System
3.1 EIS Display................................................................ 92
Interstage Turbine Temperature..................................... 94
Torque. ...................................................................... 94
Tachometer (RPM)....................................................... 95
Turbine Speed............................................................. 96
Fuel Flow. .................................................................. 96
Oil Pressure................................................................ 97
Oil Temperature. ......................................................... 97
3.2 EIS Display in Reversionary Mode......................... 98
Reversionary Display. .................................................. 99
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
Section 4 Audio Panel and CNS
Overview................................................................. 101
Audio Panel Volume Control....................................... 101
PFD Controls and Frequency Display. .......................... 102
Audio Panel Controls................................................. 104
Control Unit.............................................................. 106
COM Operation...................................................... 108
COM Transceiver Selection and Activation. .................. 108
COM Transceiver Manual Tuning................................. 109
Quick-Tuning and Activating 121.500 MHz.................. 111
Auto-Tuning the COM Frequency................................ 112
Frequency Spacing. ................................................... 116
Automatic Squelch.................................................... 117
Volume. ................................................................... 117
NAV Operation....................................................... 118
NAV Radio Selection and Activation............................ 118
NAV Receiver Manual Tuning. .................................... 119
Auto-Tuning a NAV Frequency from the MFD............... 122
Marker Beacon Receiver. ........................................... 127
DME Tuning.............................................................. 128
GTX 33 Mode S Transponders............................... 129
Transponder Controls. ............................................... 129
Transponder Mode Selection. ..................................... 130
Entering a Transponder Code...................................... 133
IDENT Function......................................................... 135
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
vii
Table of Contents
4.5 Additional Audio Panel Functions........................ 136
Power-Up. ................................................................ 136
Mono/Stereo Headsets. ............................................. 136
Speaker.................................................................... 136
Unmuted Inputs........................................................ 136
Intercom. ................................................................. 137
Passenger Address (PA) System. ................................. 138
Simultaneous COM Operation.................................... 138
Clearance Recorder and Player................................... 139
4.6 Audio Panels Preflight Procedure........................ 140
4.7 Abnormal Operation.............................................. 142
Stuck Microphone..................................................... 142
COM Tuning Failure................................................... 142
PFD Failure, Dual System............................................ 143
Audio Panel Fail-Safe Operation. ................................ 144
Reversionary Mode. .................................................. 144
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
viii
Section 5 Flight Management
Introduction............................................................ 145
Navigation Status Box............................................... 146
Using Map Displays............................................... 148
Map Orientation. ...................................................... 148
Map Range............................................................... 150
Map Panning............................................................ 152
Measuring Bearing and Distance. ............................... 157
Topography. ............................................................. 158
Map Symbols............................................................ 161
Airways.................................................................... 167
Track Vector.............................................................. 169
Wind Vector.............................................................. 170
Nav Range Ring........................................................ 171
Fuel Range Ring........................................................ 172
Field of View (SVS). ................................................... 173
Selected Altitude Intercept Arc.................................... 174
Waypoints............................................................... 175
Airports.................................................................... 176
Intersections............................................................. 183
NDBs. ...................................................................... 185
VORs........................................................................ 187
User Waypoints......................................................... 189
Airspaces................................................................. 195
5.5 Direct-to-Navigation ............................................ 200
5.6 Flight Planning....................................................... 207
Flight Plan Creation................................................... 208
Adding Waypoints to an Existing Flight Plan................ 213
Adding Airways to a Flight Plan.................................. 215
Adding Procedures to a Stored Flight Plan................... 218
Flight Plan Storage.................................................... 225
Flight Plan Editing..................................................... 227
Along Track Offsets. .................................................. 231
Parallel Track. ........................................................... 232
Activating a Flight Plan Leg........................................ 235
Inverting a Flight Plan. .............................................. 236
Flight Plan Views....................................................... 237
Closest Point of FPL................................................... 239
5.7 Vertical Navigation................................................ 240
Altitude Constraints. ................................................. 242
5.8 Procedures.............................................................. 246
Departures. .............................................................. 246
Arrivals . .................................................................. 249
Approaches . ............................................................ 251
5.9 Trip Planning........................................................... 257
Trip Planning. ........................................................... 257
Weight Planning. ...................................................... 261
Weight Caution And Warning Conditions..................... 263
5.10 RAIM Prediction..................................................... 264
5.11 Navigating a Flight Plan........................................ 268
5.12 Abnormal Operation.............................................. 297
Section 6 Hazard Avoidance
6.1 XM Satellite Weather............................................. 299
Activating Services.................................................... 299
Using XM Satellite Weather Products.......................... 301
Weather Softkeys on the Weather Data Link Page......... 304
6.2 Worldwide Weather............................................... 331
GFDS Weather Data Requests..................................... 338
Worldwide Weather Products. .................................... 342
Abnormal Operations. ............................................... 355
6.3 Airborne Color Weather Radar............................. 357
System Description.................................................... 357
Principles of Pulsed Airborne Weather Radar................ 357
Safe Operating Distance. ........................................... 361
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Table of Contents
Basic Antenna Tilt Setup. ........................................... 362
Practical Application Using the Basic Tilt Setup. ........... 362
Weather Mapping and Interpretation.......................... 363
Ground Mapping and Interpretation. .......................... 374
6.4 Stormscope............................................................. 375
Setting Up Stormscope on the Navigation Map............ 376
Selecting the Stormscope Page................................... 379
6.5 TAWS-B.................................................................... 381
Displaying TAWS-B Data. ........................................... 382
TAWS-B Alerts........................................................... 386
System Status........................................................... 391
6.6 Profile View Terrain................................................ 393
Profile View Display................................................... 394
6.7 TAWS-A.................................................................... 397
TAWS-A Page............................................................ 399
TAWS-A Alerts. ......................................................... 401
System Status........................................................... 413
TAWS-A Abnormal operations. ................................... 413
6.8 Traffic Information Service (TIS)........................... 415
Traffic Map Page....................................................... 419
TIS Alerts.................................................................. 420
System Status........................................................... 421
6.9 Garmin GTS Traffic................................................. 424
Theory of operation................................................... 424
Traffic Alerts. ............................................................ 427
System Test............................................................... 428
Operation................................................................. 429
6.10 L-3 Skywatch Traffic............................................... 438
TAS Symbology......................................................... 438
Operation................................................................. 439
Altitude Display. ....................................................... 442
Traffic Map Page Display Range.................................. 442
TAS Alerts................................................................. 444
System Status........................................................... 444
6.11 Honeywell KTA 870 Traffic.................................... 446
TAS Symbology......................................................... 446
Operation................................................................. 447
Altitude Display. ....................................................... 450
Traffic Map Page Display Range.................................. 450
TAS Alerts................................................................. 452
System Status........................................................... 453
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Section 7 Automatic Flight Control System
7.1 AFCS Overview....................................................... 455
Additional AFCS Controls........................................... 457
7.2 Flight Director Operation...................................... 458
Activating the Flight Director...................................... 458
AFCS Status Box. ...................................................... 459
Flight Director Modes................................................ 460
Switching Flight Directors. ......................................... 460
Command Bars......................................................... 461
Underspeed Protection. ............................................. 462
7.3 Vertical Modes........................................................ 464
Pitch Hold Mode (PIT)................................................ 465
Selected Altitude Capture Mode (ALTS). ...................... 466
Altitude Hold Mode (ALT)........................................... 467
Vertical Speed Mode (VS)........................................... 468
Flight Level Change Mode (FLC). ................................ 469
Vertical Navigation Modes (VPTH, ALTV). .................... 471
Glidepath Mode (GP)................................................. 476
Glideslope Mode (GS)................................................ 478
Takeoff (TO) and Go Around (GA) Modes..................... 479
Level Mode (LVL)....................................................... 480
7.4 Lateral Modes......................................................... 481
Roll Hold Mode (ROL)................................................ 482
Low Bank Mode........................................................ 482
Heading Select Mode (HDG)....................................... 483
Navigation Modes (GPS, VOR, LOC)............................. 484
Approach Modes (GPS, VAPP, LOC).............................. 486
Backcourse Mode (BC)............................................... 488
Level Mode (LVL)....................................................... 489
7.5 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Operation................ 490
Flight Control. .......................................................... 490
Engagement............................................................. 491
Control Wheel Steering.............................................. 491
Disengagement......................................................... 492
7.6 Example Flight Plan............................................... 493
Departure................................................................. 494
Intercepting a VOR Radial.......................................... 496
Flying a Flight Plan/GPS Course.................................. 497
Descent.................................................................... 498
Approach. ................................................................ 504
Go Around/Missed Approach...................................... 508
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
ix
Table of Contents
7.7 AFCS Annunciations and Alerts............................ 510
AFCS Status Alerts..................................................... 510
Overspeed Protection. ............................................... 511
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
x
Section 8 Additional Features
Synthetic Vision System (SVS).............................. 514
SVS Operation. ......................................................... 515
SVS Features............................................................. 517
Field of View............................................................. 525
SafeTaxi................................................................... 527
SafeTaxi Cycle Number and Revision........................... 530
ChartView............................................................... 533
ChartView Softkeys. .................................................. 533
Terminal Procedures Charts........................................ 534
Chart Options........................................................... 542
Day/Night View......................................................... 548
ChartView Cycle Number and Expiration Date. ............ 550
FliteCharts............................................................... 553
FliteCharts Softkeys................................................... 553
Terminal Procedures Charts........................................ 554
Chart Options........................................................... 561
Day/Night View......................................................... 565
FliteCharts Cycle Number and Expiration Date............. 567
AOPA Airport Directory......................................... 570
AOPA Database Cycle Number and Revision................ 571
Satellite Telephone and Data Link Services........ 573
Registering with garmin flight data Services................ 573
Disable/Enable Iridium Transceiver.............................. 576
Telephone Communication......................................... 577
Text Messaging (SMS). .............................................. 590
System Data Logging................................................. 606
XM Radio Entertainment....................................... 612
Activating XM Satellite Radio Services. ....................... 612
Using XM Radio........................................................ 614
Scheduler................................................................ 617
Flight Data Logging............................................... 619
Electronic Stability & Protection (ESP™)............. 621
Roll Engagement....................................................... 622
Pitch Engagement..................................................... 624
Angle of Attack Protection. ........................................ 625
High Airspeed Protection. .......................................... 625
8.11 Abnormal Operation.............................................. 626
SVS Troubleshooting.................................................. 626
Reversionary Mode. .................................................. 626
Unusual Attitudes. .................................................... 627
Appendices
Annunciations and Alerts................................................ 631
Alert Level Definitions. .............................................. 632
Aircraft Alerts. .......................................................... 633
Comparator Annunciations......................................... 635
Reversionary Sensor Annunciations............................. 636
G1000 System Annunciations..................................... 636
G1000 System Message Advisories............................. 639
AFCS Alerts............................................................... 651
TAWS ALERTS. .......................................................... 652
SD Card Use...................................................................... 655
Jeppesen Databases.................................................. 655
Garmin Databases..................................................... 658
Glossary............................................................................. 665
Frequently Asked Questions........................................... 673
Map Symbols.................................................................... 677
Index
Index . ................................................................................. I-1
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
System Overview
Section 1 System Overview
1.1System Description
This section provides an overview of the G1000 Integrated Flight Deck as installed in the Beechcraft 200/B200
Series. The G1000 system is an integrated flight control system that presents flight instrumentation, position,
navigation, communication, and identification information to the pilot through large-format displays. The system
consists of the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• GDU 1040A Primary Flight Display (PFD)
• GDL 69A Satellite Data Link Receiver
• GDU 1500 Multi Function Display (MFD)
• GWX 68 Weather Radar
• GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Unit
• GCU 477 MFD Control Unit
• GDC 74B Air Data Computer (ADC)
• GDL 59 Data Link
• GEA 71 Engine/Airframe Unit
• GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver
• GRS 77 Attitude and Heading Reference System
(AHRS)
• GTS 820/850 Traffic Avoidance System (optional)
• GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
• GMU 44 Magnetometer
• GA 58 Directional Antenna
• GMA 1347D Dual Audio System with Integrated
Marker Beacon Receiver
• GTP 59 Outside Air Temperature (OAT) Probe
• GTX 33/33D Extended Squitter Mode S
Transponder
• GSM 85A/GSM 86 Servo Gearboxes
• GSA 80 AFCS Servos
A top-level G1000 system block diagram is shown in Figure 1-1 (it does not include the GSM 85A/GSM 86).
NOTE: Refer to the AFCS section for details on the GFC 700 AFCS.
In the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series, the GFC 700 Automated Flight Control System (AFCS) provides the flight
director (FD), autopilot (AP), and yaw damper (YD) functions of the G1000 system.
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
1
System Overview
1.2 Line Replaceable Units (LRU)
• GDU 1040A (2) – Each unit is configured as a PFD that features a 10.4-inch LCD with 1024 x 768 resolution.
The unit installed on the left/pilot side is designated as PFD1, and the one installed on the right/copilot side
is designated as PFD2. These units communicate with each other, the MFD, and with the on-side GIA 63W
Integrated Avionics Unit through a High-Speed Data Bus (HSDB) connection.
• GDU 1500 (1) – Features a 15-inch LCD with 1024 x 768 resolution and is configured as an MFD. This unit
is linked to both PFDs via HSDB connection.
• GIA 63W (2) – Functions as the main communication hub, linking all LRUs with the on-side PFD. Each
GIA 63W contains a GPS SBAS receiver, VHF COM/NAV/GS receivers, a flight director (FD) and system
integration microprocessors. Each GIA 63W is paired with the on-side PFD via HSDB connection. The GIA
63Ws are not paired together and do not communicate with each other directly.
2
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
System Overview
• GDC 74B (2) – Processes data from the pitot/static system as well as the OAT probe. This unit provides
pressure altitude, airspeed, vertical speed and OAT information to the G1000 system, and it communicates
with the on-side GIA 63W, on-side GDU 1040A, GDU 1040A MFD, and on-side GRS 77, using an ARINC 429
digital interface (it also interfaces directly with the on-side GTP 59). The GDC 74B is designed to operate in
Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) airspace.
• GEA 71 (2) – Receives and processes signals from the engine and airframe sensors. This unit communicates
with both GIA 63Ws using an RS-485 digital interface.
• GRS 77 (2) – Provides aircraft attitude and heading information via ARINC 429 to both the on-side GDU
1040A, the GDU 1040A MFD, and the on-side GIA 63W. The GRS 77 contains advanced sensors (including
accelerometers and rate sensors) and interfaces with the on-side GMU 44 to obtain magnetic field information,
with the GDC 74B to obtain air data, and with both GIA 63Ws to obtain GPS information. AHRS modes of
operation are discussed later in this document.
• GMU 44 (2) – Measures local magnetic field. Data is sent to the GRS 77 for processing to determine aircraft
magnetic heading. This unit receives power directly from the GRS 77 and communicates with the GRS 77,
using an RS-485 digital interface.
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System Overview
• GMA 1347D (2) – Integrates NAV/COM digital audio, intercom system and marker beacon controls, and is
installed in dual configuration on the outboard side of PFD1 and PFD2. This unit also enables the manual
control of the display reversionary mode (red DISPLAY BACKUP button) and communicates with the on-side
GIA 63W, using an RS-232 digital interface.
• GTX 33/33D (2) – Solid-state transponders that provide Modes A, C, S and ADS-B capability. Both transponders
can be controlled from either PFD, and only one transponder can be active at a time. Each transponder
communicates with the on-side GIA 63W through an RS-232 digital interface.
• GDL 69A (1) – A satellite radio receiver that provides real-time weather information to the G1000 MFD (and,
indirectly, to the inset map of the PFD) as well as digital audio entertainment. The GDL 69A communicates
with the MFD via HSDB connection. A subscription to the XM Satellite Radio service is required to enable the
GDL 69A capability.
• GDL 59 (1) – GDL 59 operation is performed with the MFD through the HSDB. Connectivity with the GSR 56
for the Iridium telephone feature is through the RS-232 bus.
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System Overview
• GSR 56 (1) – The Iridium Transceiver operation for voice communication is by means of a telephone handset in
the cabin and pilot and copilot headsets in the cockpit. The tranceiver can also send and receive data provided
by the GDL 59 through the RS-232 bus.
• GWX 68 (1) – Provides airborne weather and ground mapped radar data to the MFD, through the GDL 69A,
via HSDB connection.
• GCU 477 (1) – Provides the Flight Management System (FMS) controls for the MFD through an RS-232 digital
interface.
• GMC 710 (1) – Provides the controls for the GFC 700 AFCS through an RS-232 digital interface allowing
communication with both PFDs.
• GTP 59 (2) – Provides Outside Air Temperature (OAT) data to the on-side GDC 74B.
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System Overview
• GTS 820/850 – The GTS 820 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) and GTS 850 TCAS I use active interrogations of
Mode S and Mode C transponders to provide Traffic Advisories to the pilot independent of the air traffic control
system.
• GA 58 – The GA 58 is directional antenna for the Traffic Avoidance System. One top-mounted directional
antenna is required. Optional bottom mounted antenna offers better threat visibility.
• GA 36 (1) and GA 37 (1) – The GA 36 is a through-mount GPS/SBAS antenna. The GA 37 is a through-mount
GPS/SBAS antenna with XM/Data Link.
GA 36
GA 37
• GSA 80 (4), and GSM 85A/GSM 86 (4) – The GSA 80 servos are used for the automatic control of roll, pitch,
and yaw, and pitch trim. These units interface with each GIA 63W.
The GSM 85A or GSM 86 servo gearbox is responsible for transferring the output torque of the GSA 80 servo
actuator to the mechanical flight-control surface linkage.
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System Overview
GMC 710
GDL 59
GWX 68
GDU 1040A
(PFD #1)
GCU 477
GDL 69A
GSR 56
GTS 820/850
GDU 1040A
(PFD #2)
GDU 1500
(MFD)
GMA 1347D
#1
GMA 1347D
#2
GMU 44 #1
GMU 44 #2
GRS 77 #1
GRS 77 #2
GIA 63W #1
GIA 63W #2
VHF COM
VHF NAV/LOC
GPS/SBAS
G/S
GDC 74B #1
AFCS Mode Logic
Flight Director
Servo Management
GTP 59 #1
GDC 74B #2
VHF COM
VHF NAV/LOC
GPS/SBAS
G/S
GTP 59 #2
AFCS Mode Logic
Flight Director
Servo Management
GSA 80
(Pitch Trim)
GSA 80
(Pitch)
GSA 80
GTX 33/33D
(Roll)
GTX 33/33D
GSA 80
(Yaw)
GEA 71 #1
GEA 71 #2
Figure 1-1 G1000 System (LRU Configuration)
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System Overview
1.3G1000 Controls
NOTE: The Audio Panel (GMA 1347D) and AFCS controls (GMC 710) are described in the CNS & Audio Panel
and AFCS sections respectively.
The G1000 system controls are located on the PFD and MFD bezels, MFD Control Unit, AFCS Control Unit and
audio panel. The controls for the PFD and MFD are discussed within the following pages of this section.
PFD Controls
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
8
Figure 1-2 PFD Controls
9
13
10
14
11
15
12
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System Overview
The following list provides an overview of the controls located on the PFD bezel (see Figure 1-2).
1
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to toggle the Morse code identifier audio ON
and OFF. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Toggles the standby and active NAV frequencies.
3
Dual NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Press to switch the tuning box (cyan box) between NAV1 and NAV2.
4
Joystick – Changes the map range when rotated. Activates the map pointer when pressed.
5
BARO Knob – Sets the altimeter barometric pressure. Press to enter standard pressure (29.92).
6
Dual COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small
knob for kHz). Press to switch the tuning box (cyan box) between COM1 and COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Toggles the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this
key for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency
field as a percentage. Press to turn the COM automatic squelch ON and OFF.
9
Direct-to Key ( ) – Allows the user to enter a destination waypoint and establish a direct course to the
selected destination (the destination is either specified by the identifier, chosen from the active route, or
taken from the map pointer position).
10
FPL Key – Displays the active Flight Plan Page for creating and editing the active flight plan.
11
CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes page menus. Pressing and holding this key
displays the Navigation Map Page automatically.
12
Dual FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob. Press the FMS Knob to turn the selection cursor
ON and OFF. When the cursor is ON, data may be entered in the applicable window by turning the small
and large knobs. The large knob moves the cursor on the page, while the small knob selects individual
characters for the highlighted cursor location.
13
MENU Key – Displays a context-sensitive list of options. This list allows the user to access additional
features or make setting changes that relate to particular pages.
14
PROC Key – Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs) and approach
procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan. If a flight plan is used, available procedures for the departure and/or
arrival airport are automatically suggested. These procedures can then be loaded into the active flight plan.
If a flight plan is not used, both the desired airport and the desired procedure may be selected.
15
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
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System Overview
Controls Associated With the MFD
The controls for the MFD (GDU 1500) are located on both the MFD bezel and the Control Unit (GCU 477).
The bottom portion of the MFD bezel features 12 softkeys that are designed to perform various functions
depending upon the specific page being displayed. These softkeys are discussed throughout the Pilot’s Guide
documentation.
The following list provides an overview of the controls located on the Control Unit (see Figure 1-3):
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
21
20
19
18
17
Figure 1-3 Control Unit (GCU 477)
10
1
Alphabetic Keys – Allow the user to enter letters quickly, without having to select individual characters
with the FMS Knob.
2
Joystick – Changes the map range when rotated. Activates the map pointer when pressed.
3
CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes page menus. Pressing and holding this key
displays the Navigation Map Page automatically.
4
FPL Key – Displays the active Flight Plan Page for creating and editing the active flight plan, or for
accessing stored flight plans.
5
Direct-to Key ( ) – Allows the user to enter a destination waypoint and establish a direct course to the
selected destination (the destination is either specified by the identifier, chosen from the active route, or
taken from the map pointer position).
6
MENU Key – Displays a context-sensitive list of options. This list allows the user to access additional
features or make setting changes that relate to particular pages.
7
PROC Key – Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs) and approach
procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan. If a flight plan is used, available procedures for the departure and/or
arrival airport are automatically suggested. Theses procedures can then be loaded into the active flight
plan. If a flight plan is not used, both the desired airport and the desired procedure may be selected.
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System Overview
8
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
9
Dual FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob. When the FMS Key is pressed, this knob selects the
MFD page to be viewed. The large knob selects a page group (MAP, WPT, AUX, NRST), while the small
knob selects a specific page within the page group. Pressing the FMS Knob turns the selection cursor ON
and OFF. When the cursor is ON, data may be entered in the applicable window by turning the small
and large knobs. In this case, the large knob moves the cursor on the page, while the small knob selects
individual characters for the highlighted cursor location. This knob also tuning capability for the COM
and NAV radios when the appropriate COM or NAV key is presssed. When the XPDR Key is pressed, the
transponder code may be entered using the FMS Knob.
10
FMS Key – Sets the FMS Knob to control FMS functions on the MFD. When pressed, an annunciator next
to the key illuminates indicating adjustment of the FMS Knob will now affect FMS functions.
11
Numeric Keys – Allow the user to enter numbers quickly, without having to select individual characters
with the FMS Knob.
12
COM Key – Sets the FMS Knob to control tuning of the COM radios. The first press will select COM1,
as indicated by an illuminated “1” to the left of the key. Press again to select COM2. This is annunciated
with a “2” to the right of the key. Each subsequent press of the COM Key will switch between COM1 and
COM2. Use the FMS Knob to tune the selected COM.
13
Frequency Transfer Key (EMERG) – Switches the standby and active COM or NAV frequencies. Press
and hold this key for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically into the
active frequency field.
14
NAV Key – Sets the FMS Knob to control tuning of the NAV radios. The first press will select NAV1, as
indicated by an illuminated “1” to the left of the key. Press again to select NAV2. This is annunciated with
a “2” to the right of the key. Each subsequent press of the NAV Key will switch between NAV1 and NAV2.
Use the FMS Knob to tune the selected NAV.
15
XPDR Key – Sets the FMS Knob to enter transponders codes. When pressed, an annunciator next to the
key illuminates indicating the FMS Knob can now be used for transponder code entry.
16
IDENT Key – Activates transponder IDENT function.
17
Plus (+) Minus (-) Key – Toggles a (+) or (-) character.
18
SEL Key – The center of this key activates the selected MFD softkey, while the right and left arrows move
the softkey selection box to the right and left, respectively.
19
Decimal Key – Enters a decimal point.
20
BKSP Key – Moves the cursor back one character space.
21
SPC Key – Adds a space character.
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System Overview
AFCS Controls
NOTE: With the exception of the FD and SPD Keys, if a key is selected, its respective annunciator is
illuminated.
1
2
3
4
19
18
17
16
5
15
14
6
7
13
12
8
11
10
9
Figure 1-4 AFCS Control Unit (GMC 710)
The GFC 700 AFCS is mainly controlled through the GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit. The AFCS Control Unit
consists of the following controls:
12
1
HDG Key – Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode.
2
APR Key – Selects/deselects Approach Mode.
3
NAV Key – Selects/deselects Navigation Mode.
4
FD Key – Activates/deactivates the flight director in the default pitch and roll modes. If the autopilot is
engaged, the FD Key is disabled.
5
XFR Key – Switches the autopilot between the pilot-side and the copilot-side flight directors. This selection
also selects which air data computer is communicating with the active transponder. Upon power-up, the
pilot-side FD is selected.
6
ALT Key – Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode.
7
VS Key – Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode.
8
FLC Key – Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode.
9
CRS2 Knob – Sets the copilot-selected course on the HSI of PFD2 when the VOR1, VOR2, or OBS/SUSP
mode is selected. Pressing this knob centers the CDI on the currently selected VOR. The copilot-selected
course provides course reference to the copilot-side flight director when operating in Navigation and
Approach modes.
10
SPD Key – Switches the Flight Level Change mode reference speed between IAS and MACH number.
11
NOSE UP/DN Wheel – Controls the active mode reference for the Pitch, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level
Change modes.
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System Overview
12
VNV Key – Selects/deselects Vertical Navigation mode.
13
ALT SEL Knob – Sets the selected altitude in the Selected Altitude Box. In addition to providing the
standard G1000 altitude alerter function, selected altitude provides an altitude setting for the Altitude
Capture/Hold mode of the AFCS.
14
YD Key – Engages/disengages the yaw damper.
15
AP Key – Engages/disengages the autopilot.
16
BANK Key – Selects/deselects Low Bank Mode.
17
CRS1 Knob – Sets the pilot-selected course on the HSI of PFD1 when the VOR1, VOR2, or OBS/SUSP mode
is selected. Pressing this knob centers the CDI on the currently selected VOR. The pilot-selected course
provides course reference to the pilot-side flight director when operating in Navigation and Approach
modes.
18
BC Key – Selects/deselects Back Course Mode.
19
HDG Knob – Sets the selected heading on the HSI. When operating in Heading Select mode, this knob
provides the heading reference to the flight director.
Additional AFCS Controls
The AP DISC (Autopilot Disconnect) Switch, CWS (Control Wheel Steering) Button, GO AROUND
Switch, and MEPT (Manual Electric Pitch Trim) Switch are additional AFCS controls and are located in the cockpit,
separately from the AFCS Control Unit. These are discussed in detail in the AFCS section.
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System Overview
Audio Panel Controls
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Figure 1-5 Audio Panel Controls (GMA 1347D)
NOTE: When a key is selected, a triangular annunciator above the key is illuminated.
14
1
COM1 MIC – Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM receiver to be heard. COM2 receiver audio
can be added by pressing the COM2 Key.
2
COM1 – When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard.
3
COM2 MIC – Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 is simultaneously selected when this key
is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM receiver to be heard. COM2 can be deselected by
pressing the COM2 Key, or COM1 can be added by pressing the COM1 Key.
4
COM2 – When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard.
5
COM3 MIC – Selects an optional transmitter for transmitting (if installed). COM3 is simultaneously
selected when this key is pressed allowing received audio from the optional receiver to be heard. COM3
can be deselected by pressing the COM3 Key, or either COM1 or COM2 can be added by pressing the
COM1 or COM2 Key.
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System Overview
6
COM3 – When selected, audio from an optional COM can be heard.
7
PA – Selects the passenger address system. The selected COM transmitter is deselected when the PA Key
is pressed.
8
TEL – When selected, activates the SATCOM transceiver.
9
MUSIC – Toggles the Music input on or off. Pressing and holding toggles music muting on or off.
10
SPKR – Pressing this key selects and deselects the corresponding cockpit speaker. With SPKR selected on,
the COM and NAV receiver audio, and alerts are heard on the speaker.
11
MKR/MUTE – Mutes the currently received marker beacon receiver audio. Unmutes when new marker
beacon audio is received.
12
HI SENS – Press to increase Marker Beacon Receiver sensitivity. Press again to return to normal.
13
DME – Pressing turns optional DME audio on or off.
14
NAV1 – When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
15
ADF – Pressing turns on or off the audio from the optional ADF receiver.
16
NAV2 – When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
17
AUX – Not used on the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series.
18
MAN SQ – Press to enable manual squelch for the intercom. When active, press the ICS Knob to illuminate
‘SQ’. Turn the ICS Knob to adjust squelch.
19
PLAY – Press once to play the last recorded audio. Press again to stop playing. Press twice quickly while
audio is playing and the previous block of recorded audio is played. Each subsequent two presses skips
back to the previously recorded block.
20
INTR COM – Pressing selects the pilot/copilot intercom on both audio panels. Press again to deselect the
intercom.
21
CABIN – Initiates intercom communications with passengers in the cabin.
22
ICS Knob – Turn to adjust intercom volume or squelch. Press to switch between volume and squelch
control as indicated by the ‘VOL’ or ‘SQ’ being illuminated. The MAN SQ Key must be selected to allow
squelch adjustment.
23
MSTR Knob – The Master Volume Control adjusts volume for the blended NAV, COM, and intercom
audio.
24
Reversionary Mode Button – Pressing manually selects Reversionary Mode.
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System Overview
1.4Secure Digital Cards
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for instructions on updating the aviation databases.
NOTE: Ensure that the G1000 system is powered off before inserting the SD card.
The GDU 1040A and GDU 1500 data card slots use Secure Digital (SD) cards and are located on the top
right portion of the display bezels. Each display bezel is equipped with two SD card slots. SD cards are used
for aviation database and system software updates as well as terrain database storage. Also, flight plans may be
imported or exported from an SD card in the MFD.
Install an SD card
Insert the SD card in the SD card slot, pushing the card in until the spring latch engages. The front of the card
should remain flush with the face of the display bezel.
Remove an SD card
Gently press on the SD card to release the spring latch and eject the card.
PFD
MFD
SD Card Slots
Figure 1-6 Display Bezel SD Card Slots
16
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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System Overview
1.5System Power-up
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for AHRS initialization bank angle limitations.
NOTE: See the Appendices for additional information regarding system-specific annunciations and alerts.
NOTE: See the Pilot’s Operating Handbook and FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM/POH) for specific
procedures concerning avionics power application and emergency power supply operation.
The G1000 system is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical
busses. The G1000 PFDs, MFD and supporting sub-systems include both power-on and continuous built-in test
features that exercise the processor, RAM, ROM, external inputs and outputs to provide safe operation.
During system initialization, test annunciations are displayed, as shown in Figure 1-7. All system annunciations
should disappear typically within one minute of power-up. Upon power-up, key annunciator lights also become
momentarily illuminated on the audio panels, the control units and the display bezels.
On the PFD, the AHRS begins to initialize and displays ‘AHRS ALIGN: Keep Wings Level’. The AHRS should
display valid attitude and heading fields typically within one minute of power-up. The AHRS can align itself both
while taxiing and during level flight.
When the MFD powers up (Figure 1-8), the MFD Power-up Page displays the following information:
• System version
• Copyright
• Land database name and version
• Safe Taxi database name and effective dates
• Terrain database name and version
• Airport Terrain database name and version
• Obstacle database name and effective dates
• Navigation database name and effective dates
• Airport Directory name and effective dates
• FliteCharts/ChartView database information
Current database information includes the valid operating dates, cycle number and database type. When this
information has been reviewed for currency (to ensure that no databases have expired), the pilot is prompted
to continue. Pressing the ENT Key acknowledges this information and displays the Auxiliary (AUX) Weight
Planning Page.
Figure 1-7 PFD Initialization
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Figure 1-8 MFD Power-up Page
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System Overview
1.6System Operation
The displays are connected together via multiple data busses, thus allowing for high-speed communication.
As shown in Figure 1-1, each GIA 63W is connected to the on-side PFD. This section discusses the normal and
reversionary modes of operation as well as the various AHRS modes of the G1000 system.
Normal Operation
PFD
In normal mode, the PFD presents graphical flight instrumentation (attitude, heading, airspeed, altitude
and vertical speed), thereby replacing the traditional flight instrument cluster. The PFD also offers control for
COM and NAV frequency selection.
MFD
In normal mode, the right portion of the MFD displays a full-color moving map with navigation information,
while the left portion of the MFD is dedicated to the Engine Indication System (EIS).
Figure 1-9 gives an example of the G1000 displays in normal mode.
PFD1
PFD2
MFD
Figure 1-9 Normal Operation
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System Overview
Reversionary Mode
NOTE: The G1000 system alerts the pilot when backup paths are utilized by the LRUs. Refer to the Appendices
for further information regarding system-specific alerts.
Reversionary mode is a mode of operation in which all important flight information is presented identically
on at least one of the remaining displays (see Figure 1-10). Transition to reversionary mode should be
straightforward for the pilot, for flight parameters are presented in the same format as in normal mode.
Figure 1-10 Reversionary Mode (Manual)
Reversionary mode can be activated manually by pressing the dedicated DISPLAY BACKUP button at the
bottom of the audio panel (see Figure 1-11 and refer to the Audio Panel section for further details). Pressing
this button again deactivates reversionary mode.
Pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP
button activates/deactivates
reversionary mode for both the
on-side PFD and the MFD.
Figure 1-11 DISPLAY BACKUP Button
Each display can be configured to operate in reversionary mode, as follows:
• PFD1 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the left audio panel.
• MFD – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the left or the right audio panel.
• PFD2 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the right audio panel.
Should the connection between a PFD and the on-side GIA 63W become inoperative, the on-side GIA 63W
can no longer communicate with the remaining PFD (refer to Figure 1-1). As a result, the NAV and COM
functions provided to the failed PFD by the on-side GIA 63W are flagged as invalid (red “X”) on the remaining
PFD (see Figure 1-12).
Figure 1-12 Inoperative Input (NAV1 Shown)
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System Overview
AHRS Operation
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for specific AHRS alert information.
Note: Aggressive maneuvering while AHRS is not operating normally may degrade AHRS accuracy.
In addition to using internal sensors, the GRS 77 AHRS uses GPS information, magnetic field data and air
data to assist in attitude/heading calculations. In normal mode, the AHRS relies upon GPS and magnetic
field measurements. If either of these external measurements is unavailable or invalid, the AHRS uses air
data information for attitude determination. Four AHRS modes of operation are available (see Figure 1-13)
and depend upon the combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of air data, GPS, or magnetometer sensor
inputs is communicated to the pilot by message advisory alerts.
available
unavailable
GPS Data
available
unavailable
le
ab
AHRS
no-GPS
Mode
ail
av
AHRS no- AHRS no-Mag/
Mag Mode
no-Air Mode
Heading Invalid
Air Data
un
available
Air Data
AHRS Normal
Operation
unavailable
Magnetometer Data
available
available
unavailable
Magnetometer Data
Attitude/Heading Invalid
Figure 1-13 AHRS Operation
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System Overview
GPS Input Failure
Note: In-flight initialization of AHRS, when operating without any valid source of GPS data and at true
air speed values greater than approximately 200 knots, is not guaranteed. Under these rare conditions, it
is possible for in-flight AHRS initialization to take an indefinite amount of time which would result in an
extended period of time where valid AHRS outputs are unavailable.
The G1000 system provides two sources of GPS information. If a single GPS receiver fails, or if the
information provided from one of the GPS receivers is unreliable, the AHRS seamlessly transitions to using the
other GPS receiver. An alert message informs the pilot of the use of the backup GPS path. If both GPS inputs
fail, the AHRS continues to operate in reversionary No-GPS mode so long as the air data and magnetometer
inputs are available and valid.
Air Data Input Failure
A failure of the air data input has no effect on AHRS output while AHRS is operating in normal mode. A
failure of the air data input while the AHRS is operating in reversionary No-GPS mode results in invalid
attitude and heading information on the PFD (as indicated by red “X” flags).
Magnetometer Failure
If the magnetometer input fails, the AHRS transitions to one of the reversionary No-Magnetometer modes
and continues to output valid attitude information. However, if the aircraft is airborne, the heading output
on the PFD does become invalid (as indicated by a red “X”).
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
21
System Overview
G1000 System Annunciations
NOTE: For a detailed description of all annunciations and alerts, refer to Appendix A. Refer to the (AFM/
POH) for additional information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red “X” is typically displayed on windows associated with
the failed data (Figure 1-14 displays all possible flags and responsible LRUs). Upon G1000 power-up, certain
windows remain invalid as equipment begins to initialize. All windows should be operational within one
minute of power-up. If any window remains flagged, the G1000 system should be serviced by a Garminauthorized repair facility.
GIA 63W
Integrated Avionics
Units
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Units
GDC 74B Air
Data Computer
GRS 77 AHRS
Or
GMU 44
Magnetometer
GEA 71 Engine
Airframe Unit
Or
GIA 63W
Integrated Avionics
Unit
GDC 74B Air
Data Computer
Figure 1-14 G1000 System Failure Annunciations
GIA 63W
Integrated Avionics
Units
GTX 33 Transponder
Or
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
Softkey Function
The softkeys are located along the bottoms of the displays. The softkeys shown depend on the softkey level
or page being displayed. The bezel keys below the softkeys can be used to select the appropriate softkey. When
a softkey is selected, its color changes to black text on gray background and remains this way until it is turned
off, at which time it reverts to white text on black background.
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
System Overview
Softkey On
Softkey Names (displayed)
Bezel-Mounted Softkeys (press)
Figure 1-15 Softkeys (Second-Level PFD Configuration)
Another means of selecting softkeys on the MFD is by using the GCU 477 Control Unit:
Selecting a softkey using the Control Unit
1) Move the softkey selection box to the desired softkey using the arrows of the SEL Key.
2) Press the center of the SEL Key to select the desired softkey.
PFD Softkeys
The CDI, IDENT, TMR/REF, NRST, and ALERTS Softkeys undergo a momentary change to black text
on gray background and automatically switch back to white text on black background when selected. If
messages remain after acknowledgement, the ALERTS Softkey is black on white.
The PFD softkeys provide control over flight management functions, including GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic,
and lightning (optional). Each softkey sublevel has a BACK Softkey which can be pressed to return to
the previous level. The ALERTS Softkey is visible in all softkey levels. For the top level softkeys and the
transponder (XPDR) levels, the IDENT Softkey remains visible.
INSET
OFF
DCLTR (3)
TRAFFIC
TOPO
TERRAIN
STRMSCP
NEXRAD
or
PRECIP
XM LTNG
or
DL LTNG
METAR
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Displays Inset Map in PFD lower left corner
Removes Inset Map
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through declutter levels:
DCLTR (No Declutter): All map features visible
DCLTR-1: Declutters land data
DCLTR-2: Declutters land and SUA data
DCLTR-3: Removes everything except for the active flight plan
Displays traffic information on Inset Map
TRAFFIC: No Traffic displayed on Inset Map
TRFC-1: Traffic displayed on Inset Map
TRFC-2: Traffic Only display shown
Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes) and elevation
scale on Inset Map
Displays terrain information on Inset Map (not available with TAWS-A)
Displays Stormscope information on Inset Map (optional)
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and coverage on Inset Map (optional)
or
Displays Worldwide Weather precipitation on Inset Map (optional)
Displays XM lightning information on Inset Map (optional)
or
Displays Worldwide Weather lightning information on Inset Map (optional)
Displays METAR information on Inset Map (optional)
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
23
System Overview
SENSOR
ADC1
ADC2
AHRS1
AHRS2
PFD
SYN VIS
PATHWAY
SYN TERR
HRZN HDG
APTSIGNS
DFLTS
WIND
DME
BRG1
OPTN 1
OPTN 2
OPTN 3
OFF
Displays the softkeys for selecting the two HSI formats
HSI FRMT
360 HSI
ARC HSI
BRG2
ALT UNIT
Displays HSI as a 360° compass rose
Displays HSI as a 140° viewable arc
Cycles the Bearing 2 Information Window through NAV2 or GPS waypoint identifier
and GPS-derived distance information, and ADF/frequency.
Displays softkeys for setting the altimeter and BARO settings to metric units
METERS
IN
When enabled, displays altimeter in meters
Press to display the BARO setting as inches of mercury
HPA
Press to display the BARO setting as hectopacals
STD BARO
OBS
CDI
DME
24
Displays softkeys for selecting the #1 and #2 AHRS and Air Data Computers
Selects the #1 Air Data Computer
Selects the #2 Air Data Computer
Selects the #1 AHRS
Selects the #2 AHRS
Displays second-level softkeys for additional PFD configurations
Displays the softkeys for enabling or disabling Synthetic Vision features
Displays rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the
active flight plan
Enables synthetic terrain depiction
Displays compass heading along the Zero-Pitch line
Displays position markers for airports within approximately 15 nm of the current
aircraft position. Airport identifiers are displayed when the airport is within
approximately 9 nm.
Resets PFD to default settings, including changing units to standard
Displays softkeys to select wind data parameters
Wind direction arrow with numeric speed
Wind direction arrow with numeric direction and magnitude
Headwind/tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed components
Information not displayed
Displays DME Informatin Window
Cycles the Bearing 1 Information Window through NAV1 or GPS waypoint identifier
and GPS-derived distance information, and ADF/frequency.
Sets barometric pressure to 29.92 in Hg (1013 hPa if metric units are selected)
Selects OBS mode on the CDI when navigating by GPS (only available with active
leg)
Cycles through GPS, VOR1, and VOR2 navigation modes on the CDI
Displays the DME Tuning Window, allowing tuning and selection of the DME
(optional)
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
System Overview
XPDR
XPDR1
XPDR2
STBY
ON
ALT
GND
VFR
CODE
0—7
BKSP
ADS-B TX
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
ALERTS
Displays transponder mode selection softkeys
Selects the #1 transponder as active
Selects the #2 transponder as active
Selects standby mode (transponder does not reply to any interrogations)
Selects Mode A (transponder replies to interrogations)
Selects Mode C – altitude reporting mode (transponder replies to identification and
altitude interrogations)
Manually selects Ground Mode, the transponder does not allow Mode A and
Mode C replies, but it does permit acquisition squitter and replies to discretely
addressed Mode S interrogations
Automatically enters the VFR code (1200 in the U.S.A. only)
Displays transponder code selection softkeys 0-7
Use numbers to enter code
Removes numbers entered, one at a time
Enables/disables automatic transmission of ADS-B position and speed.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds, identifying
the transponder return on the ATC screen
Displays Timer/References Window
Displays Nearest Airports Window
Displays Alerts Window
(optional)
ALERTS
Figure 1-16 Top Level PFD Softkeys
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
25
System Overview
(optional)
ALERTS
(optional)
(optional)
STRMSCP
TRFC-1
(optional)
(optional)
PRECIP
or
DL LTNG
(optional)
or
METAR
ALERTS
Select the BACK Softkey
to return to the top-level softkeys.
TRFC-2
Figure 1-17 INSET Softkeys
(optional)
ALERTS
ADC1
ADC2
AHRS1
AHRS2
BACK
ALERTS
Select the BACK Softkey toreturn to the top level softkeys.
Figure 1-18 SENSOR Softkeys
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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System Overview
(optional)
ALERTS
HSI FRMT
SYN VIS
ALERTS
ALT UNIT
Select the BACK Softkey to return
to the top-level softkeys
METERS
360 HSI
IN
HPA
ALERTS
ARC HSI
ALERTS
ALERTS
PATHWAY SYN TERR HRZN HDG APTSIGNS
ALERTS
Figure 1-19 PFD Configuration Softkeys
(optional)
ALERTS
ADS-B TX
ALERTS
Select the BACK Softkey to return
to the top-level softkeys.
ALERTS
Select the BACK Softkey to return to the previous level softkeys.
Figure 1-20 XPDR Softkeys
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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System Overview
MFD Softkeys
MAP
TRAFFIC
PROFILE
TOPO
TERRAIN
AIRWAYS
(Default label is
dependent on map
setup option selected)
STRMSCP
NEXRAD
XM LTNG
NEXRAD
or
PRECIP
XM LTNG
or
DL LTNG
BACK
DCLTR (3)
SHW CHRT
CHKLIST
Enables second-level Navigation Map softkeys
Displays traffic information on Navigation Map Page
Displays profile view on Navigation Map Page
Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes) and elevation scale on
Navigation Map Page
Displays terrain information on Navigation Map Page (not available with TAWS-A)
Displays airways on the map; cycles through the following:
AIRWAYS: No airways are displayed
AIRWY ON: All airways are displayed
AIRWY LO: Only low altitude airways are displayed
AIRWY HI: Only high altitude airways are displayed
Displays Stormscope information on Navigation Map Page (optional)
Displays NEXRAD weather and coverage information on Navigation Map Page (optional)
Displays XM lightning information on Navigation Map Page (optional)
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and coverage on Navigation Map Page (optional)
or
Displays Worldwide Weather precipitation on Navigation Map Page (optional)
Displays XM lightning information on Navigation Map Page (optional)
or
Displays Worldwide Weather lightning information on Navigation Map Page (optional)
Returns to top-level softkeys
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through declutter levels:
DCLTR (No Declutter): All map features visible
DCLTR-1: Declutters land data
DCLTR-2: Declutters land and SUA data
DCLTR-3: Removes everything except for the active flight plan
When available, displays optional airport and terminal procedure charts
When available, displays optional checklists
(optional)
DCLTR
MAP
SHW CHRT
CHKLIST
DCLTR-1
DCLTR-2
DCLTR-3
TRAFFIC
PROFILE
TOPO
(optional)
TERRAIN
AIRWAYS
(optional)
STRMSCP
Select the BACK Softkey
on this level to return to the
top softkey level.
(optional)
(optional)
PRECIP
or
NEXRAD
DL LTNG
or
XM LTNG
BACK
AIRWY ON
AIRWY LO
AIRWAY HI
Figure 1-21 MFD Softkeys
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
System Overview
GPS Receiver Operation
Each GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU) contains a GPS receiver. Information collected by the specified
receiver (GPS1 for the #1 IAU or GPS2 for the #2 IAU) may be viewed on the AUX - GPS Status Page.
GPS1 provides information to the pilot-side PFD and GPS2 provides data to the copilot-side PFD. Internal
system checking is performed to ensure both GPS receivers are providing accurate data to the PFDs. In some
circumstances, both GPS receivers may be providing accurate data, but one receiver may be providing a better
GPS solution than the other receiver. In this case the GPS receiver producing the better solution is automatically
coupled to both PFDs. “BOTH ON GPS 1” or “BOTH ON GPS 2” is displayed in the Reversionary Sensor
Window (see Appendix A) indicating which GPS receiver is being used. Both GPS receivers are still functioning
properly, but one receiver is performing better than the other at that particular time.
These GPS sensor annunciations are most often seen after system power-up when one GPS receiver has
acquired satellites before the other, or one of the GPS receivers has not yet acquired a SBAS signal. While
the aircraft is on the ground, the SBAS signal may be blocked by obstructions causing one GPS receiver to
have difficulty acquiring a good signal. Also, while airborne, turning the aircraft may result in one of the GPS
receivers temporarily losing the SBAS signal.
If the sensor annunciation persists, check for a system failure message in the Messages Window on the PFD.
If no failure message exists, check the GPS Status Page and compare the information for GPS1 and GPS2.
Discrepancies may indicate a problem.
Viewing GPS receiver status information
1) Use the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group (see Section 1.7 for information on navigating MFD
page groups).
2) Use the small FMS Knob to select GPS Status Page.
Selecting the GPS receiver for which data may be reviewed
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - GPS Status Page.
2) To change the selected GPS receiver:
a) Select the desired GPS Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the receiver which is not selected and press the ENT Key.
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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System Overview
Satellite Constellation
Diagram
Satellite Signal
Information Status
GPS Receiver
Status
RAIM
Availability
Prediction
MSAS and
WAAS
Selected
Satellite Signal
Strength Bars
GPS Selection
Softkeys
RAIM Softkey
Selected
SBAS Softkey
Selected
Figure 1-22 GPS Status Page (RAIM or SBAS Selected)
The GPS Status Page provides the following information:
• Satellite constellation diagram
Satellites currently in view are shown at their respective positions on a sky view diagram. The sky view is
always in a north-up orientation, with the outer circle representing the horizon, the inner circle representing
45° above the horizon, and the center point showing the position directly overhead.
Each satellite is represented by an oval containing the Pseudo-random noise (PRN) number (i.e., satellite
identification number). Satellites whose signals are currently being used are represented by solid ovals.
• Satellite signal information status
The accuracy of the aircraft’s GPS fix is calculated using Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU), Dilution
of Precision (DOP), and horizontal and vertical figures of merit (HFOM and VFOM). EPU is the radius of a
circle centered on an estimated horizontal position in which actual position has 95% probability of laying.
EPU is a statistical error indication and not an actual error measurement.
DOP measures satellite geometry quality (i.e., number of satellites received and where they are relative to
each other) on a range from 0.0 to 9.9, with lower numbers denoting better accuracy. HFOM and VFOM,
measures of horizontal and vertical position uncertainty, are the current 95% confidence horizontal and
vertical accuracy values reported by the GPS receiver.
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
System Overview
The current calculated GPS position, time, altitude, ground speed, and track for the aircraft are displayed
below the satellite signal accuracy measurements.
• GPS receiver status
The GPS solution type (ACQUIRING, 2D NAV, 2D DIFF NAV, 3D NAV, 3D DIFF NAV) for the active
GPS receiver (GPS1 or GPS2) is shown in the upper right of the GPS Status Page. When the receiver is
in the process of acquiring enough satellite signals for navigation, the receiver uses satellite orbital data
(collected continuously from the satellites) and last known position to determine the satellites that should be
in view. ACQUIRING is indicated as the solution until a sufficient number of satellites have been acquired
for computing a solution.
When the receiver is in the process of acquiring a 3D differential GPS solution, 3D NAV is indicated as the
solution until the 3D differential fix has finished acquisition. SBAS (Satellite-Based Augmentation System)
indicates INACTIVE. When acquisition is complete, the solution status indicates 3D DIFF NAV and SBAS
indicates ACTIVE.
• RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) Prediction (RAIM Softkey is selected)
In most cases performing a RAIM prediction is not necessary. However, in some cases, the selected approach
may be outside the SBAS coverage area and it may be necessary to perform a RAIM prediction for the intended
approach.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to
calculate a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nautical miles for oceanic and enroute, 1.0
nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of
flight, RAIM is available nearly 100% of the time.
The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a specified date and time. RAIM
computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival date and time.
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not available. The
G1000 automatically monitors RAIM and warns with an alert message when it is not available. If RAIM is not
predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become active, as indicated by
the messages “Approach is not active” and “RAIM not available from FAF to MAP”. If RAIM is not available
when crossing the FAF, the missed approach procedure must be flown.
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, select the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window.
5) Enter the desired waypoint:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired waypoint by identifier, facility, or city name and press the ENT Key. Refer
to Section 1.7 for instructions on entering alphanumeric data into the G1000.
Or:
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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System Overview
a) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
b) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the NRST, RECENT, or AIRWAY waypoints, if required.
c) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint. The G1000 automatically fills in the identifier,
facility, and city fields with the information for the selected waypoint.
d) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
8) With the cursor highlighting ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one
of the following is displayed:
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
Predicting RAIM availability at present position
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, select the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) With ‘Set WPT to Present Position’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
9) With the cursor highlighting ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one
of the following is displayed:
32
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
System Overview
• SBAS Selection (SBAS Softkey is selected)
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of the SBAS coverage area, it may
be desirable to disable WAAS or MSAS (although it is not recommended). When disabled, the SBAS field in
the GPS Status box indicates DISABLED. There may be a small delay for the GPS Status box to be updated
upon WAAS and MSAS enabling/disabling.
Disabling WAAS or MSAS
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, press the SBAS Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to hightlight ‘MSAS’ or ‘WAAS’.
4) Press the ENT Key to uncheck the box.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
• GPS Satellite Signal Strengths
The GPS Status Page can be helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due to poor satellite
coverage or installation problems. As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength bar is displayed
for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite PRN number (01-32 or 120-138 for WAAS) below each
bar. The progress of satellite acquisition is shown in three stages, as indicated by signal bar appearance:
- No bar—Receiver is looking for the indicated satellite
- Hollow bar—Receiver has found the satellite and is collecting data
- Light blue bar—Receiver has collected the necessary data and the satellite signal can be used
- Green bar—Satellite is being used for the GPS solution
- Checkered bar—Receiver has excluded the satellite (Fault Detection and Exclusion)
- “D” indication—Denotes the satellite is being used as part of the differential computations
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission that must be collected (signal strength bar is hollow) before
the satellite may be used for navigation (signal strength bar becomes solid).
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System Overview
1.7Accessing G1000 Functionality
Menus
The G1000 has a MENU Key that, when pressed, displays a context-sensitive list of options. This options list
allows the user to access additional features or make settings changes which specifically relate to the currently
displayed window/page. There is no all-encompassing menu. Some menus provide access to additional
submenus that are used to view, edit, select, and review options. Menus display ‘NO OPTIONS’ when there are
no options for the window/page selected. The main controls used in association with all window/page group
operations are described in section 1.3. Softkey selection does not display menus or submenus.
Navigating the Page Menu Window
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Window.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through a list of available options (a scroll bar appears to the right of the window
when the option list is longer than the window).
3) Press the ENT Key to select the desired option.
4) The CLR Key may be pressed to remove the menu and cancel the operation. Pressing the FMS Knob also
removes the displayed menu.
No Options with
NRST Window
Displayed on the
PFD
Options
with FPL
Window
Displayed
Figure 1-23 Page Menu Examples
MFD Page Groups
Note: Refer to the GPS Navigation, Hazard Avoidance, and Additional Features sections for details on
specific pages.
The page group and active page title box are displayed in the upper right of the screen.
Page Group
Active Page Title
Figure 1-24 Page Title Box
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
System Overview
In the bottom right corner of the screen, the current page group, number of pages available in the group, and
placement of the current page within the group are indicated.
Page Groups
Pages in Current Group
Selected Page
Figure 1-25 Page Group Icons
The MFD displays information in four main page groups; specific pages within each group can vary depending
on the configuration of optional equipment.
Selecting a page using the FMS Knob
1) Turn the large FMS Knob until the desired page group is selected.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob until the desired page is selected.
There are also several pages (Airport Information and XM Information pages) which are selected first from
within a main page group with the FMS Knobs, then with the appropriate softkey at the bottom of the page. In
this case, the page remains set to the selected screen until a different screen softkey is pressed.
Map Page Group (MAP)
Navigation Map
Traffic Map
Weather Radar
Stormscope®(optional)
Weather Data Link (service optional)
TAWS
Figure 1-26 Map Pages
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System Overview
Waypoint Page Group (WPT)
Airport/Procedures/Weather Information Pages
- Airport Information
(INFO-1 Softkey)
- Airport Directory Information
(INFO-2 Softkey)
- Departure Information
(DP Softkey)
- Arrival Information
(STAR Softkey)
- Approach Information
(APR Softkey)
- Weather Information (optional)
(WX Softkey)
Intersection Information
NDB Information
Airport/
Procedures/
Weather
Information
Pages
VOR Information
User Waypoint Information
Figure 1-27 Waypoint Pages
Auxiliary Page Group (AUX)
Weight Planning
Trip Planning
Utility
GPS Status
System Setup 1/2
XM Satellite pages
- XM Information
(INFO Softkey)
- XM Radio
(RADIO Softkey)
Satellite Comm pages
- Telephone
(TEL Softkey)
- Text Messaging
(SMS Softkey)
Report Status/WiFi Setup
- Telephone
(REPORT Softkey)
- Text Messaging
(WI-FI Softkey)
System Status
36
Report/
Wi-Fi Pages
SatComm
Pages
XM Satellite
Pages
System Setup
Pages
Figure 1-28 Auxiliary Pages
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
System Overview
Nearest Page Group (NRST)
Nearest Airports
Nearest Intersections
Nearest NDB
Nearest VOR
Nearest User Waypoints
Nearest Frequencies
Nearest Airspaces
Figure 1-29 Nearest Pages
In addition to the main page groups accessed exclusively using the FMS Knobs, there are pages for flight
planning (FPL) and loading procedures (PROC) which are accessed by a dedicated key. In some instances,
softkeys may be used to access the Procedure Pages.
The Flight Plan Pages are accessed using the FPL Key. Main pages within this group are selected by turning
the small FMS Knob.
Flight Plan Pages (FPL)
Active Flight Plan
- Wide View, Narrow View (VIEW
Softkey)
Flight Plan Catalog
Stored Flight Plan (via NEW Softkey on
Flight Plan Catalog Page)
Narrow and
Wide View
Figure 1-30 Flight Plan Pages
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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System Overview
The Procedure pages may be accessed at any time on the MFD by pressing the PROC Key. A menu is
initialized, and when a departure, approach, or arrival is selected, the appropriate Procedure Loading Page is
opened. Turning the FMS Knob does not scroll through the Procedure pages (note the single page icon in the
lower right corner).
Procedure Pages (PROC)
Departure Loading
Arrival Loading
Approach Loading
Figure 1-31 Procedure Pages
For some of these pages (Airport Information pages, XM Satellite pages, Procedure pages), the title of the page
may change while the page icon remains the same.
MFD System Pages
In the Auxiliary (AUX) Page Group, there are two system pages: System Setup (page 5 of 7) and System Status
(page 7 of 7). The System Setup Page allows management of various system parameters, while the System
Status Page displays the status of all G1000 system LRUs.
System Setup Page
The System Setup Page allows management of the pilot profiles and the following system parameters:
• Time display format (local or UTC )
• Displayed measurement units
• MFD Data Bar (Navigation Status Box) fields
(see the Flight Management Section)
• Barometric Transition Alert (see the Flight Instruments Section)
• GPS Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) range (see the Flight Instruments Section)
• Airspace alerts (see the Flight Management Section)
• COM transceiver channel spacing (see the Audio Panel and CNS Section)
• Arrival alert
• Displayed nearest airports (see the Flight Management Section)
• Audio alert voice
• Flight Director Format (see the Flight Instruments Section)
38
• CDI/Baro Synchronization) (see the Flight Instruments Section)
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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System Overview
Restoring system setup defaults:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Select the DFLTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Restore Defaults’, and press the ENT Key.
Figure 1-32 System Setup Page
Date/Time
The G1000 obtains the current Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) date and time directly from the GPS
satellite signals (shown on the AUX - GPS Status Page, Figure 1-22). System time (displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD) can be displayed in three formats: local 12-hr, local 24-hr, or UTC. Local time is
set by adding/subtracting an offset (hours:minutes) to/from UTC.
Figure 1-33 System Time (Local 24-hr Format)
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System Overview
Configuring the system time:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Time Format’ field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired format and press the ENT Key to confirm selection. The ‘Time
Offset’ field is highlighted.
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time offset (±HH:MM) and press the ENT Key to confirm selection.
Figure 1-34 Date/Time Settings (System Setup Page)
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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System Overview
Pilot Profiles
System settings may be saved under a pilot profile. When the system is powered on, the last selected pilot
profile is shown on the MFD Power-up Splash Screen (Figure 1-8). The G1000 can store up to 25 profiles;
the currently active profile, the amount of memory used, and the amount of memory available are shown at
the top of the System Setup Page in the box labeled ‘Pilot Profile’. From here, pilot profiles may be created,
selected, renamed, or deleted.
Figure 1-35 Pilot Profile Management (System Setup Page)
Creating a profile:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CREATE’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Create Profile’ window is displayed.
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter a profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key. Pilot profile names
cannot begin with a blank as the first letter.
6) In the next field, use the small FMS Knob to select the desired settings upon which to base the new profile.
Profiles can be created based on Garmin factory defaults, default profile settings (initially based on Garmin
factory defaults unless edited by the pilot), or current system settings.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘CREATE’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to create the profile
Or:
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System Overview
Use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CREATE and ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to activate the new profile.
9) To cancel the process, select ‘CANCEL’ with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key.
Selecting an active profile:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the active profile field in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the pilot profile list and highlight the desired profile.
5) Press the ENT Key. The G1000 loads and displays the system settings for the selected profile.
Renaming a profile:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘RENAME’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Rename Profile’ window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to rename.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter a new profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘RENAME’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
9) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting a profile:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘DELETE’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Delete Profile’ window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to delete.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) With ‘DELETE’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
8) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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System Overview
Display Units
Units in which various quantities are displayed on the G1000 screens are listed on the System Setup Page.
The Navigation Angle reference, the Temperature units, and the Position units can be set from here.
Category
Navigation Angle
Settings
Magnetic (North)*
True (North)
User
Distance and Speed** Metric
Nautical*
Altitude and Vertical
Speed***
Feet
Temperature
Celsius*
Fahrenheit
Pounds
Fuel and Fuel
Flow***
Weight**
Position
Affected Quantities
Heading
Course
Bearing
Track
Desired Track
Wind direction (Trip Planning Page)
Crosstrack error (HSI)
Bearing distances (information windows)
DME distance (information window)
Flight plan distances
Map ranges
DIS, GS, TAS, XTK fields (Navigation Status Box)
All distances on MFD
Altitude buffer distance (System Setup)
Arrival Alert trigger distance (System Setup)
All speeds on MFD
All altitudes on MFD
All elevations on MFD
All temperatures on PFD
Total Air Temperature (Trip Planning Page)
Fuel parameters (Trip Planning Page)
Pounds*
N/A
Kilograms
HDDD°MM.MM’* All positions
HDDD°MM’SS.S”
MGRS
UTM/UPS
Exceptions
Airspeed Indicator
True Airspeed (PFD)
Wind speed vector
Map range (Traffic Page, Terrain
Proximity/TAWS Page)
CDI scaling (System Setup)
Fuel range calculation (EIS)
Altimeter
Vertical Speed Indicator
VNV altitudes (Active Flight Plan)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
N/A
N/A
* Default setting
** Contact a Garmin-authorized service center to change this setting
*** Not configurable
Table 1-1 Display Units Settings (System Setup Page)
Changing a display unit setting
1) While on the System Setup Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the Display Units Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired units.
4) Press the ENT Key. Press the CLR Key to cancel the action without changing the units.
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System Overview
Arrival Alerts
The Arrival Alert Box on the System Setup Page allows the Alerts Window arrival alerts to be turned
ON/OFF, and the alert trigger distance (up to 99.9 units) set for alerts in the Alerts Window and the
PFD Navigation Status Box. An arrival alert can be set to notify the pilot with a message upon reaching
a user-specified distance from the final destination (the direct-to waypoint or the last waypoint in a flight
plan). When Arrival Alerts is set to ON, and the set distance is reached, an “Arrival at waypoint” message
is displayed in the PFD Navigation Status Box, and a “WPT ARRIVAL - Arriving at waypoint - [xxxx]” is
displayed in the Alerts Window. When Arrival Alerts is set to OFF, only the PFD Navigation Status Box
message “Arriving at waypoint” is displayed, and it is displayed when the time to the final destination is
approximately ten seconds.
Figure 1-36 Arrival Alert Settings (System Setup Page)
Enabling/disabling the Alerts Window arrival alert:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ON/OFF field in the Arrival Alert Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
Changing the arrival alert trigger distance:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the distance field in the Arrival Alert Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
Audio Alerts
The Audio Alert Box on the System Setup Page allows the audio alert voice to be set to male or female.
Changing the audio alert voice
1) While on the System Setup Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the voice in the Audio Alert Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and highlight the desired voice and press the ENT Key.
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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System Overview
System Status Page
The System Status Page displays the status and software version numbers for all detected system LRUs.
Pertinent information on all system databases is also displayed. Active LRUs are indicated by green check
marks and failed LRUs are indicated by red “X”s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center or Garmin
dealer informed.
Figure 1-37 Example System Status Page
The LRU and ARFRM, Softkeys on the System Status Page select the applicable list (LRU INFO or AIRFRAME
window) through which the FMS Knob can be used to scroll information within the selected window.
Selecting the MFD1 DB Softkey (label background changes to grey indicting the softkey is selected) places
the cursor in the database window. Use the FMS Knob to scroll through database information for the MFD.
Selecting the softkey again will change the softkey label to PFD1 DB. PFD 1 database information is now
displayed in the database window. Selecting the softkey a third time will change the softkey label to PFD2
DB. PFD 2 database information is now displayed in the database window.
The ANN TEST Softkey, when selected, causes an annunciation test tone to be played.
The RA TEST Softkey, when selected, initiates the Radar Altimeter test mode. For more information, see
the Flight Instruments section.
Selecting the SYNC DBS Softkey (label background changes to grey indicting the softkey is selected)
activates the Automatic Database Synchronization feature. When this feature is active, databases are
updated automatically in the MFD and both PFDs from one SD card. For a detailed discussion on database
synchronization, see the SD Card Use section in the Appendices.
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System Overview
Utility Page
For flight planning purposes, timers, trip statistics, and a scheduler feature are provided on the AUX Utility Page. The timers available include a stopwatch-like generic timer, a total time in flight timer, and a
record of the time of departure. Trip statistics—odometer, trip odometer, and average trip and maximum
groundspeeds—are displayed from the time of the last reset. Refer to the Additional Features section for a
dicussion on the Scheduler feature.
Figure 1-38 Utility Page
Timers
The G1000 timers available include:
• Stopwatch-like generic timers (available from the PFD Timer/References Window and on the MFD AUX
- Utility Page)
• Total-time-in-flight timer (MFD AUX - Utility Page)
• Time since departure (MFD AUX - Utility Page)
The generic timer can be set to count up or down from a specified time (HH:MM:SS). When the
countdown on the timer reaches zero the digits begin to count up from zero. If the timer is reset before
reaching zero on a countdown, the digits are reset to the initial value. If the timer is counting up when
reset, the digits are zeroed.
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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System Overview
Setting the generic timer (PFD):
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the timer field (hh/mm/ss).
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
4) With the UP/DN field highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (UP/DN) and
press the ENT Key.
6) With ‘START?’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to ‘STOP?’.
7) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘STOP?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘RESET?’.
8) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘RESET?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘START?’ and the
digits are reset.
9) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
Figure 1-39 Generic Timer (PFD Timer/References Window)
Setting the generic timer (MFD AUX - Utility Page)
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (UP/DN) and press the ENT Key.
4) If a desired starting time is desired:
a) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the HH:MM:SS field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘START?’ and press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to
‘STOP?’.
6) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘STOP?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘RESET?’.
7) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘RESET?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘START?’ and the
digits are reset.
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System Overview
Figure 1-40 Timers (MFD AUX - Utility Page)
The flight timer can be set to count up from zero starting at system power-up or from the time that the
aircraft lifts off; the timer can also be reset to zero at any time.
Setting the flight timer starting criterion
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the flight timer.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (PWR-ON or IN-AIR) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the flight timer
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Reset Flight Timer’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
The G1000 records the time at which departure occurs, depending on whether the pilot prefers the time
to be recorded from system power-up or from aircraft lift off. The displayed departure time can also be reset
to display the current time at the point of reset. The format in which the time is displayed is controlled
from the System Setup Page.
Setting the departure timer starting criterion
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the departure time.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (PWR-ON or IN-AIR) and press the ENT Key.
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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System Overview
Resetting the departure time
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Reset Departure Time’ and press the ENT Key.
Trip Statistics
The odometer and trip odometer record the total mileage traveled from the last reset; these odometers can
be reset independently. Resetting the trip odometer also resets the average trip groundspeed. Maximum
groundspeed for the period of time since the last reset is also displayed.
Resetting trip statistics readouts
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key. The following reset options for trip statistics are displayed:
• Reset Trip ODOM/AVG GS—Resets trip average ground speed readout and odometer
• Reset Odometer—Resets odometer readout only
• Reset Maximum Speed—Resets maximum speed readout only
• Reset All—Resets flight timer, departure timer, odometers, and groundspeed readouts
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired reset option and press the ENT Key. The selected parameters are reset
to zero and begin to display data from the point of reset.
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System Overview
Scheduler
The G1000’s Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., “Change oil”,
“Switch fuel tanks”, “Overhaul”) in the Alerts Window on the PFD. Messages can be set to display based
on a specific date and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero (one-time; default setting), or
recurrently whenever the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set to periodic alerting
automatically reset to the original timer value once the message is displayed. When power is cycled,
messages are retained until deleted, and message timer countdown is restarted.
Figure 1-41 Scheduler (Utility Page)
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty scheduler message naming field.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the message text to be displayed in the Alerts Window and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the field next to ‘Type’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select set the message alert type:
• Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
• One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
• Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HHH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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System Overview
9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MMM-YYY) and press the ENT Key.
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the name field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
5) Press the ENT Key to confirm message deletion.
Scheduler messages appear in the Alerts Window on the PFD and cause the ALERTS Softkey label to
change to ‘ADVISORY’. Pressing the ADVISORY Softkey opens the Alerts Window and acknowledges
the scheduler message. The softkey reverts to the ‘ALERTS’ label and when pressed, the Alerts Window is
removed from the display and the scheduler message is deleted from the message queue.
Figure 1-42 PFD Alerts Window
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System Overview
1.8Display Backlighting
The PFD and MFD display backlighting, the PFD and MFD bezel, and the Audio Panel keys can be adjusted
manually in one of two ways:
• Using the individual dimmer bus control for the desired display, or
• Using the PFD Setup Menu and the following procedures. In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be
adjusted from the PFDs. In reversionary mode, adjustments can be made from any remaining displays.
Adjusting display backlighting:
1) Press either PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘AUTO’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD1 DSPL’. If
desired, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘AUTO’ next to ‘MFD DSPL’ or ‘PFD2 DSPL’.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MANUAL’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting then press the ENT Key.
4) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Adjusting key backlighting:
1) Press either PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘AUTO’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD1 DSPL’.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘PFD DSPL’, ‘MFD DSPL’, or ‘PFD2 DSPL’, as desired.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘PFD1 KEY’, ‘MFD KEY’, or ‘PFD2
KEY’.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘AUTO’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MANUAL’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Figure 1-43 PFD Setup Menu
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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Flight Instruments
Section 2 Flight Instruments
WARNING: In the event that the airspeed, attitude, altitude, or heading indications become unusable, refer
to the backup instruments.
Note: The Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) provides additional readouts and bugs on selected flight
instruments. Refer to the AFCS Section for details on these bugs and readouts, as they appear on the display
during certain AFCS modes.
Increased situational awareness is provided by replacing the traditional instruments on the panel with easyto-scan pilot and copilot Primary Flight Displays (PFD) that features a large horizon, airspeed, attitude, altitude,
vertical speed, and course deviation information. In addition to the flight instruments, navigation, communication,
terrain, traffic, and weather information are also presented on the PFD and explained in other sections of this
Pilot’s Guide.
The following flight instruments and supplemental flight data are displayed on the PFDs:
• Airspeed Indicator, showing
• Horizontal Situation Indicator, showing
– True Airspeed
– Turn Rate Indicator
– Ground Speed
– Bearing pointers and information windows
– Mach number
– DME Information Window (optional)
– Airspeed awareness ranges
– Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
– Reference flags
• DME Tuning Window
• Attitude Indicator with slip/skid indication
• Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
• Altimeter, showing
– Barometric setting
• International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)
temperature deviation
– Selected Altitude
• System time
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope, and
Glidepath Indicators
• Wind data
• Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
• Radar altimeter (optional)
• Vertical Navigation indications
The PFDs also display various alerts and annunciations.
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Flight Instruments
23
22
21
20
19
1
18
17
2
16
15
3
14
4
13
5
6
12
7
11
8
10
9
1
NAV Frequency Box
13
Turn Rate Indicator
2
Airspeed Indicator
14
Altimeter Barometric Setting
3
Ground Speed
15
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
4
True Airspeed
16
Selected Altitude Bug
5
Current Heading
17
Altimeter
6
Selected Heading Bug
18
Selected Altitude
7
19
COM Frequency Box
8
International Standard Atmosphere
(ISA) temperature deviation
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
20
AFCS Status Box
9
Softkeys
21
Navigation Status Box
10
System Time
22
Slip/Skid Indicator
11
Transponder Data Box
22
Attitude Indicator
12
Horizontal Situation Indicator ( HSI)
Figure 2-1 Primary Flight Display (Default)
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Flight Instruments
18
16
17
1
15
14
13
12
11
2
10
3
9
8
4
6
5
7
1
Traffic Annunciation
10
Selected Course
2
Selected Heading
11
Radar Altimeter (optional)
3
Wind Data
12
Current Vertical Speed
4
Inset Map
13
Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI)
5
DME Information Window (optional)
14
Reversionary Sensor Window
6
Bearing Information Windows
15
Comparator Window
7
16
Current VNV Target Altitude
8
Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height
Flight Plan Window
17
Terrain Annunciation
9
Annunciation Window
18
AFCS Status Annunciation
Figure 2-2 Additional PFD Information
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Flight Instruments
2.1Flight Instruments
Airspeed Indicator
Note: Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) and FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) for
speed criteria and Vspeed values.
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The true airspeed (TAS)
is displayed in knots below the Airspeed Indicator. When displayed, the Mach number appears in place of the
TAS. The ground speed is displayed to the left of the TAS. The numeric labels and major tick marks on the
moving tape are marked at intervals of 10 knots, while minor tick marks on the moving tape are indicated at
intervals of 5 knots. Speed indication starts at 20 knots, with 60 knots of airspeed viewable at any time. The
actual airspeed is displayed inside the black pointer. The pointer remains black until reaching the high airspeed
limit, at which point it turns red.
VYSE
Blue Line
Actual
Airspeed
Vspeed
References
Airspeed
Trend
Vector
VMCA
Red Line
True
Airspeed
Ground
Speed
Figure 2-4 Red Pointer
Showing Airspeed Above VMO
Figure 2-3 Airspeed Indicator
Speeds above the maximum operating speed, VMO or MMO depending on aircraft altitude, appear in the high
speed warning range, represented on the airspeed tape by red/white “barber pole” coloration.
A red low speed awareness range extends up to the low speed awareness velocity, VLSA. An aural stall warning
is generated as the aircraft approaches a stall condition.
The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical magenta line that appears to the right of the color-coded speed range
strip when airspeed is either accelerating or decelerating. One end of the magenta line is anchored to the
tip of the airspeed pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down corresponding to the rate of
acceleration or deceleration. For any constant rate of acceleration or deceleration, the moving end of the line
shows approximately what the indicated airspeed value will be in six seconds. If the trend vector crosses VMO/
MMO, the text of the actual airspeed readout changes to yellow while the pointer remains black. The trend
vector is absent if the speed remains constant or if any data needed to calculate airspeed is not available due to
a system failure.
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Flight Instruments
Landing Takeoff
Vspeeds can be changed and their flags turned on/off from the Timer/References Window. When active (on),
the Vspeeds are displayed at their respective locations to the right of the airspeed scale. By default, all Vspeed
values are reset and all flags turned off during power-up.
Vspeed
Flag
VR
R
V50
50
VREF
RF
Table 2-1 Vspeed Flag Labels
Vspeeds are categorized as either takeoff or landing. Takeoff Vspeed flags are automatically turned off when
airspeed reaches 160 knots. The order in which the categories are displayed is determined by whether the
aircraft is on the ground or in the air. If the aircraft is on the ground, the takeoff Vspeeds are displayed at the
top of the Vspeed list. If the aircraft is in the air, the landing Vspeeds are displayed at the top.
The maximum speed with approach flaps is displayed as a solid white triangle to the right of the airspeed
scale. This indication is always displayed and cannot be turned off by the pilot.
Maximum
Approach
Flaps Speed
Figure 2-5 Maximum Flaps Extended Speed Reference
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Flight Instruments
Changing Vspeeds and turning Vspeed flags on/off:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired Vspeed.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to change the Vspeed in 1-kt increments (when a speed has been changed from a
default value, an asterisk appears next to the speed).
4) Press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ON/OFF field
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ON or counterclockwise to OFF.
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
Figure 2-6 Takeoff and Landing Vspeeds
(Timer/References Window)
Vspeed flags can be turned on or off and values restored all at once or by category (takeoff and landing).
Modifying Vspeeds (on, off, restore defaults):
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired selection.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
Figure 2-7 Page Menu
(Timer/References Window)
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Flight Instruments
Attitude Indicator
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a white horizon line. The
Attitude Indicator displays the pitch, roll, and slip/skid information.
9
8
1
7
2
6
3
4
5
1
Roll Pointer
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
Aircraft Symbol
5
Land Representation
6
Pitch Scale
7
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
Figure 2-8 Attitude Indicator
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Above and below the horizon line, major pitch marks and numeric
labels are shown for every 10˚, up to 80˚. Minor pitch marks are shown for intervening 5˚ increments, up to
25˚ below and 45˚ above the horizon line. Between 20˚ below to 20˚ above the horizon line, minor pitch marks
occur every 2.5˚. When the Synthetic Vision System (SVS) is activated, the pitch scale is reduced to 10˚ up and
7.5˚ down; refer to the Additional Features section for more information about SVS.
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚ and 60˚ and minor tick
marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the zero. Angle of bank is indicated by the position
of the pointer on the roll scale.
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the bar beneath the roll pointer. One bar displacement is equal to one ball
displacement on a traditional inclinometer. The indicator bar moves with the roll pointer and moves laterally
away from the pointer to indicate uncoordinated flight. Slip (inside the turn) or skid (outside the turn) is
indicated by the location of the bar relative to the pointer.
When the optional Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) system is available, additional indications may
appear on the pitch and roll scales; refer to the Additional Features and AFCS Sections for more information
about ESP.
Figure 2-9 Slip/Skid Indication
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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Flight Instruments
The yellow symbolic aircraft on the Attitude Indicator changes appearance based on selection of AFCS
flight director Command Bar format (see the AFCS Section for details). Both PFDs show the same Command
Bar format and Aircraft Symbol. The Command Bar format (single-cue or cross-pointer) may be selected from
the AUX - System Setup 1 Page (Figure 2-10).
Changing Command Bar format:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the SETUP 1 Softkey to display the System Setup 1 Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Format Active’ in the ‘Flight Director’ box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired format.
’SNGL CUE’ to display Command Bars as a single cue (Aircraft Symbol in Figure 2-10).
Or:
’X-POINTER’ to display Command Bars as a cross pointer (Aircraft Symbol in Figure 2-10).
Cross-pointer
Single-cue
Figure 2-10 Flight Director Format
(AUX - System Setup Page)
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Flight Instruments
Altimeter
The Altimeter displays 600 feet of barometric altitude values at a time on a moving tape rolling number gauge.
Numeric labels and major tick marks are shown at intervals of 100 feet. Minor tick marks are at intervals of 20
feet. The indicated altitude is displayed inside the black pointer.
The Selected Altitude is displayed above the Altimeter in the box indicated by a selection bug symbol. A bug
corresponding to this altitude is shown on the tape. If the Selected Altitude exceeds the range shown on the
tape, the bug appears at the upper or lower edge of the tape. When the metric value is selected it is displayed
in a separate box above the Selected and Indicated Altitudes (Figure 2-12). See the AFCS Section for more
information about Selected Altitude.
The Altitude Trend Vector is a vertical magenta line that appears to the left of the altitude range strip when
the aircraft is either climbing or descending. One end of the magenta line is anchored to the tip of the altitude
pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down according to the rate of vertical speed. For any
constant rate of vertical speed, the moving end of the line shows approximately what the indicated altitude
value will be in six seconds. The trend vector is absent if the altitude remains constant or if data needed for
calculation is not available due to a system failure.
Setting the Selected Altitude:
Turn the ALT SEL Knob to set the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments.
If set, the Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height (MDA/DH) value is also available for the Selected Altitude.
When the altimeter is configured for metric units, the selected altitude is adjusted in 50 meter increments.
Selected
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Altitude
Trend
Vector
Selected
Altitude
(Meters)
Indicated
Altitude
(Meters)
Indicated
Altitude
MDA/DH
Bug
Barometric
Setting
Figure 2-11 Altimeter
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Barometric
Setting
(Hectopascals)
Figure 2-12 Altimeter (Metric Units)
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
61
Flight Instruments
Displaying altitude in meters:
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT UNIT Softkey.
3) Press the METERS Softkey to turn on metric altitude readouts.
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury (in Hg) or hectopascals
(hPa). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNV vertical deviation, moving
the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to re-establish on the
descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target Altitude, the aircraft may not
re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
Turn the BARO Knob to select the desired setting.
Selecting standard barometric pressure:
Press the BARO Knob to select standard pressure; STD BARO is displayed in barometric setting box.
Or:
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the STD BARO Softkey; STD BARO is displayed in barometric setting box.
Figure 2-13 Standard Barometric Altimeter Setting
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units:
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT UNIT Softkey.
3) Press the IN Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in inches of mercury (in Hg).
Or, press the HPA Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in hectopascals (hPa; see Figure 2-12).
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
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Flight Instruments
If the barometric altimeter settings differ between PFDs by more than 0.02 in Hg, the readouts turn yellow.
The settings can be synchronized from the PFD Setup Menu. Once the settings are synchronized (BARO
SYNC turned on), they remain synchronized until the setting is turned off.
Synchronizing the altimeter barometric pressure settings:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the SETUP 1 Softkey to display the System Setup 1 Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘BARO’ in the Synchronization box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ON or counterclockwise to OFF.
Barometric Settings
not Synchronized on PFD
Displayed in Yellow
Figure 2-14 System Setup Page, Barometric Pressure Synchronization
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
63
Flight Instruments
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) displays the aircraft vertical speed using a non-moving tape labeled at 2000
and 4000 fpm with minor tick marks every 1000 fpm. The current vertical speed is displayed in the pointer
along the tape. Digits appear in the pointer when the climb or descent rate is greater than 100 fpm. If the rate
of ascent/descent exceeds 4000 fpm, the pointer appears at the corresponding edge of the tape and the rate
appears inside the pointer.
A magenta chevron bug is displayed as the Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) for reaching a VNV
Target Altitude once the “TOD [Top of Descent] within 1 minute” alert has been generated. See the Flight
Management Section for details on VNV features, and refer to Section 2.2, Supplemental Flight Data, for more
information about VNV indications on the PFD.
Vertical Deviation
Note: The Glidepath Indicator is only available when an SBAS signal (such as WAAS, EGNOS, or MSAS) is
available.
The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI; Figure 2-15) uses a magenta chevron to indicate the baro-VNV vertical
deviation when Vertical Navigation (VNV) is being used; the VDI appears in conjunction with the “TOD within
1 minute” alert. Full-scale deflection (two dots) is 1000 feet. The VDI is removed from the display if vertical
deviation becomes invalid. See the Flight Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features, and refer
to Section 2.2, Supplemental Flight Data, for more information about VNV indications on the PFD.
The Glideslope Indicator (Figure 2-16) appears to the left of the Altimeter whenever an ILS frequency is tuned
in the active NAV field and the aircraft heading and selected course are within 107˚. A green diamond acts as
the Glideslope Indicator, like a glideslope needle on a conventional indicator. If a localizer frequency is tuned
and there is no glideslope, “NO GS” is displayed in place of the diamond.
The glidepath is analogous to the glideslope for GPS approaches supporting SBAS vertical guidance (LNAV+V,
L/VNV, LPV). When an approach of this type is loaded into the flight plan and GPS is the selected navigation
source, the Glidepath Indicator (Figure 2-17) appears as a magenta diamond during the approach. If the
approach type downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the diamond.
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Marker Beacon
Annunciation
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Vertical
Speed Glideslope
Pointer Indicator
Glidepath
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Figure 2-15 Vertical Speed and
Deviation Indicators (VSI and VDI)
64
Figure 2-16 Glideslope Indicator
Figure 2-17 Glidepath Indicator
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Flight Instruments
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) displays a rotating compass card in a heading-up orientation. Letters
indicate the cardinal points and numeric labels occur every 30˚. Major tick marks are at 10˚ intervals and minor
tick marks at 5˚ intervals. A digital reading of the current heading appears on top of the HSI, and the current
track is represented on the HSI by a magenta diamond indicator. The HSI also presents turn rate, course
deviation, bearing, and navigation source information and is available in two formats (360˚ compass rose and
140˚ arc).
Changing the HSI display format:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the HSI FRMT Softkey.
3) Press the 360 HSI or ARC HSI Softkey.
The 360˚ HSI contains a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI), with a Course Pointer, To/From Indicator, and a
sliding deviation bar and scale. The course pointer is a single line arrow (GPS, VOR1, and LOC1) or a double
line arrow (VOR2 and LOC2) which points in the direction of the set course. The To/From arrow rotates with
the course pointer and is displayed when the active NAVAID is received.
1
15
14
2
13
3
4
12
5
11
6
10
9
7
8
1
Turn Rate Indicator
9
To/From Indicator
2
Current Track Indicator
10
Course Pointer
3
Lateral Deviation Scale
11
Heading Bug
4
Navigation Source
12
Flight Phase
5
Aircraft Symbol
13
Lubber Line
6
14
7
Course Deviation Indicator
(CDI)
Rotating Compass Rose
8
OBS Mode Active
Turn Rate/Heading
Trend Vector
15 Current Heading
Figure 2-18 Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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Flight Instruments
The Arc HSI is a 140˚ expanded section of the compass rose. The Arc HSI contains a Course Pointer,
To/From Indicator, a sliding deviation indicator (the To/From and deviation indicators are combined), and a
deviation scale. Upon station passage, the To/From Indicator flips and points to the tail of the aircraft, just like
a conventional To/From flag. Depending on the navigation source, the CDI on the Arc HSI can appear in two
different ways: an arrowhead (GPS, VOR, OBS) or a diamond (LOC).
Course Pointer
Navigation Source
Flight Phase Annunciation
Course Deviation and
To/From Indicator
Lateral Deviation Scale
Figure 2-19 Arc HSI
The Selected Heading is shown to the upper left of the HSI for 3 seconds after being adjusted The light blue
bug on the compass rose corresponds to the Selected Heading. While the HSI is displayed as an arc, if the
Selected Heading Bug is adjusted off the shown portion of the compass rose, the digital reading is displayed.
Adjusting the Selected Heading:
Turn the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading.
Press the HDG Knob to synchronize the bug to the current heading.
The Selected Course is shown to the upper right of the HSI for 3 seconds after being adjusted. While the
HSI is displayed as an arc, the Selected Course is displayed whenever the Course Pointer is not within the 140˚
currently shown.
Adjusting the Selected Course:
Turn the CRS Knob to set the Selected Course.
Press the CRS Knob to re-center the CDI and return the course pointer to the bearing of the active waypoint or
navigation station (see OBS Mode for adjusting a GPS course).
Current Track Indicator
Current Heading
Selected Heading
Selected Course
Selected Heading Bug
Figure 2-20 Heading and Course Indications
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Flight Instruments
Navigation angles (track, heading, course, bearing) are corrected to the computed magnetic variation (‘Mag
Var’) or referenced to true north (denoted ‘T’), set on the AUX - System Setup 1 Page. When an approach
referenced to true north has been loaded into the flight plan, the system generates a message to change the
navigation angle setting to ‘True’ at the appropriate time.
Figure 2-21 Heading and Course Indications (True)
Changing the navigation angle setting:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the SETUP 1 Softkey to display the System Setup 1 Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Nav Angle’ in the ‘Display Units’ box (Figure 2-22).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
• TRUE - References angles to true north (denoted with ‘T’)
• MAGNETIC - Angles corrected to the computed magnetic variation (‘Mag Var’)
Figure 2-22 System Setup Page, Navigation Angle Settings
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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Flight Instruments
Turn Rate Indicator
The Turn Rate Indicator is located directly above the rotating compass card. Tick marks to the left and right
of the lubber line denote half-standard and standard turn rates. A magenta Turn Rate Trend Vector shows the
current turn rate. The end of the trend vector gives the heading predicted in 6 seconds, based on the present
turn rate. A standard-rate turn is shown on the indicator by the trend vector stopping at the standard turn
rate tick mark, corresponding to a predicted heading of 18˚ from the current heading. At rates greater than 4
deg/sec, an arrowhead appears at the end of the magenta trend vector and the prediction is no longer valid.
Half Standard
Turn Rate
Arrow Shown
for Turn Rate
> 4 Degrees
per Second
Standard
Turn Rate
Figure 2-23 Turn Rate Indicator and Trend Vector
Bearing Pointers and Information Windows
NOTE: When the Arc HSI is displayed, the Bearing Information windows and pointers are disabled.
Two bearing pointers and associated information can be displayed on the HSI for NAV and GPS sources.
The pointers are light blue and are single- (BRG1) or double-lined (BRG2); an icon is shown in the respective
information window to indicate the pointer type. The bearing pointers never override the CDI and are
visually separated from the CDI by a white ring (shown when bearing pointers are selected but not necessarily
visible due to data unavailability).
Tuning Mode
Frequency
Bearing 1
Pointer
Bearing 2
Pointer
Distance
DME Information Window
(optional)
Distance to
Bearing Source
Station
Identifier
Bearing 2 Information Window
Bearing
Source
Pointer
Icon
Bearing 1 Information Window
Figure 2-24 HSI with Bearing and DME Information
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Flight Instruments
When a bearing pointer is displayed, its associated information window is also displayed. The Bearing
Information windows (Figure 2-24) are displayed to the lower sides of the HSI and show:
• Bearing source (NAV, GPS, ADF)
• Station/waypoint identifier (NAV, GPS)
• Pointer icon (BRG1 = single line, BRG2 = double line)
• GPS-derived great circle distance to bearing
source
• Frequency (NAV)
If the NAV radio is the bearing source and is tuned to an ILS frequency (refer to the Audio Panel and CNS
Section for information on tuning the radios), the bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and the frequency
is replaced with “ILS”. When NAV1 or NAV2 is the selected bearing source, the frequency is replaced by the
station identifier when the station is within range. If GPS is the bearing source, the active waypoint identifier
is displayed in lieu of a frequency.
The bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and “NO DATA” is displayed in the information window if:
• The NAV radio is not receiving the tuned VOR
station
• GPS is the bearing source and an active waypoint
is not selected
Selecting bearing display and changing sources:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press a BRG Softkey to display the desired bearing pointer and information window with a NAV source.
3) Press the BRG Softkey again to change the bearing source to GPS.
4) Press the BRG Softkey a third time to change the bearing source to ADF (note: ADF radio installation is
optional).
5) To remove the bearing pointer and information window, press the BRG Softkey again.
DME Information Window
Note: DME radio installation is optional.
The DME Information Window is displayed above the BRG1 Information Window and shows the DME
label, tuning mode (NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD), frequency, and distance. When a signal is invalid, the distance
is replaced by “–.– – NM”. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for information on tuning the radios.
Displaying the DME Information Window:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the DME Softkey to display the DME Information Window above the BRG1 Information Window.
3) To remove the DME Information Window, press the DME Softkey again.
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Flight Instruments
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
NOTE: If a heading change of greater than 105˚ with respect to the course is made, the CDI on the Arc HSI
switches to the opposite side of the deviation scale and displays reverse sensing.
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer along a lateral deviation
scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data is not valid, the CDI is not
displayed.
Flight
Phase
Navigation
Source
Scale
Crosstrack
Error
Navigation
Source
Crosstrack
Error
CDI Scale
Flight
Phase
CDI
Arc HSI
CDI
360º HSI
Figure 2-25 Course Deviation Indicator
The CDI can display two sources of navigation: GPS or NAV (VOR, localizer). Color indicates the current
navigation source: magenta (for GPS) or green (for VOR and LOC); the Selected Course readout also follows
these color indications. When coupled to GPS, the full scale limits for the CDI are defined by a GPS-derived
distance. When coupled to a VOR or localizer (LOC), the CDI has the same angular limits as a mechanical CDI.
If the CDI exceeds the maximum deviation on the scale (two dots) while coupled to GPS, the crosstrack error
(XTK) is displayed below the white aircraft symbol.
Navigation
Source Selected
on Both PFDs
Figure 2-26 Navigation Sources
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Flight Instruments
Changing navigation sources:
1) Select the CDI Softkey to change from GPS to VOR1 or LOC1. This places the light blue tuning box over the
NAV1 standby frequency in the upper left corner of the PFD.
2) Select the CDI Softkey again to change from VOR1 or LOC1 to VOR2 or LOC2. This places the light blue tuning
box over the NAV2 standby frequency.
3) Select the CDI Softkey a third time to return to GPS.
NAV1 Selected for Tuning
GPS
Selected
LOC1
Selected
NAV2 Selected for Tuning
VOR2
Selected
Selecting the CDI Softkey
Cycles through
Navigation Sources
Figure 2-27 Selecting a Navigation Source
If the same VOR/LOC navigation source is selected on both PFDs, the navigation source annunciation turns
yellow on both displays (unless synchronized). Once the CDIs are synchronized (CDI SYNC turned on), they
remain synchronized until the setting is turned off.
Synchronizing the CDIs:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the SETUP 1 Softkey to display the System Setup 1 Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘CDI Sync’ in the Synchronization box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ON or counterclockwise to OFF.
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Flight Instruments
Figure 2-28 System Setup Page, CDI Synchronization
The system automatically switches from GPS to LOC navigation source and changes the CDI scaling accordingly
when all of the following occur:
• A localizer or ILS approach has been loaded into the active flight plan
• The final approach fix (FAF) is the active leg, the FAF is less than 15 nm away, and the aircraft is moving
toward the FAF
• A valid localizer frequency has been tuned
• The GPS CDI deviation is less than 1.2 times full-scale deflection
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Flight Instruments
GPS steering guidance is still provided after the CDI automatically switches to LOC until LOC capture, up
to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) for an ILS approach, or until GPS information becomes invalid. Activating
a Vector-to-Final (VTF; see the Flight Management Section) also causes the CDI to switch to LOC navigation
source; GPS steering guidance is not provided after this switch.
GPS CDI Scaling
When GPS is the selected navigation source, the flight plan legs are sequenced automatically and
annunciations appear on the HSI for the flight phase. Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in
magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the color changes to yellow. If the current leg in the flight plan
is a heading leg, ‘HDG LEG’ is annunciated in magenta beneath the aircraft symbol.
The current GPS CDI scale setting is displayed as ‘System CDI’ on the AUX - System Setup 1 Page and the
full-scale deflection setting may also be changed (2.0 nm, 1.0 nm, 0.3 nm, or Auto) from this page (Figure
2-29). If the selected scaling is smaller than the automatic setting for enroute and terminal phases, the CDI is
scaled accordingly and the selected setting is be displayed rather than the flight phase annunciation.
Changing the selected GPS CDI setting:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the SETUP 1 Softkey to display the System Setup 1 Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Selected’ in the ‘GPS CDI’ box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
7) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
Figure 2-29 System Setup Page, GPS CDI Settings
When set to ‘Auto’ (default), the GPS CDI scale automatically adjusts to the desired limits based upon the
current phase of flight (Figure 2-30, 2-31, 2-32, Table 2-2).
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73
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
(Oceanic if >200 nm
from nearest airport)
Refer to accompanying
approach CDI scaling figures
Terminal
Approach
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
1.0 nm
0.3 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
Flight Instruments
Missed
Approach
Figure 2-30 Automatic CDI Scaling
• When a departure procedure is active, the CDI is scaled for departure (0.3 nm).
• The system switches from departure to terminal CDI scaling (1.0 nm) under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the procedure is not aligned with the departure runway
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF (see
Glossary for leg type definitions)
- After any leg in the departure procedure that is not CA or FA
• At 30 nm from the departure airport the enroute phase of flight is automatically entered and CDI scaling
changes to 2.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
- When navigating with an active departure procedure, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change
until the aircraft arrives at the last departure waypoint (if more than 30 nm from the departure airport)
or the leg after the last departure waypoint has been activated or a direct-to waypoint is activated.
• If after completing the departure procedure the nearest airport is more than 200 nm away from the aircraft
and the approach procedure has not yet commenced, the CDI is scaled for oceanic flight (2.0 nm).
• Within 31 nm of the destination airport (terminal area), the CDI scale gradually ramps down from 2.0 nm
to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm; except under the following conditions:
- When navigating with an active arrival route, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change until the
aircraft arrives at the first waypoint in the arrival route (if within 31 nm from the destination airport).
• During approach, the CDI scale ramps down even further (see Figures 2-32 and 2-33). This transition
normally occurs within 2.0 nm of the final approach fix (FAF). The CDI switches to approach scaling
automatically once the approach procedure is activated or if Vector-to-Final (VTF) is selected.
- If the active waypoint is the FAF, the ground track and the bearing to the FAF must be within 45° of the
final approach segment course.
- If the active waypoint is part of the missed approach procedure, the active leg and preceding missed
approach legs must be aligned with the final approach segment course and the aircraft must not have
passed the turn initiation point.
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2 nm
2 nm
FAF
FAF
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
angle based
on database
information
course width
angle set
by system
350 ft
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
CDI scale is set to the smaller of 0.3 nm
or an angle set by the system
CDI Full-scale Deflection
Flight Instruments
Landing
Threshold
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
Figure 2-31 Typical LNAV and LNAV+V Approach CDI Scaling
Figure 2-32 Typical LNAV/VNAV and LPV Approach CDI Scaling
• When a missed approach is activated, the CDI scale changes to 0.3 nm.
• The system automatically switches back to terminal scaling under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not aligned with the final approach path
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF
- After any leg in the missed approach procedure that is not CA or FA
Flight Phase
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Annunciation
DPRT
TERM
ENR
OCN
Approach
(Non-precision)
LNAV
Approach
(Non-precision with
Vertical Guidance)
Approach
(LNAV/VNAV)
Approach
(LPV)
Missed Approach
Automatic CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
2.0 nm
1.0 nm decreasing to 350 feet depending on
variables (see Figure 2-30)
LNAV + V
L/VNAV
LPV
MAPR
1.0 nm decreasing to a specified course width, then
0.3 nm, depending on variables (see Figure 2-31)
0.3 nm
Table 2-2 Automatic GPS CDI Scaling
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OBS Mode
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
Enabling Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode suspends the automatic sequencing of waypoints in a GPS
flight plan (GPS must be the selected navigation source), but retains the current “active-to” waypoint as the
navigation reference even after passing the waypoint. ‘OBS’ is annunciated to the lower right of the aircraft
symbol when OBS Mode is selected (see Figure 2-33).
While OBS Mode is enabled, a course line is drawn through the “active-to” waypoint on the moving map.
If desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled, the GPS flight
plan returns to normal operation with automatic sequencing of waypoints, following the course set in OBS
Mode. The flight path on the moving map retains the modified course line.
GPS
Selected
Extended
Course
Line
OBS Mode
Enabled
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Enables
OBS Mode
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Again
Disables OBS Mode
Figure 2-33 Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode
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Flight Instruments
Enabling/disabling OBS Mode while navigating a GPS flight plan:
1) Select the OBS Softkey to select OBS Mode.
2) Turn the CRS Knob to select the desired course to/from the waypoint. Press the CRS Knob to synchronize the
Selected Course with the bearing to the next waypoint.
3) Select the OBS Softkey again to return to automatic waypoint sequencing.
As the aircraft crosses the missed approach point (MAP), automatic approach waypoint sequencing is
suspended. SUSP appears on the HSI at the lower right of the aircraft symbol. The OBS Softkey label
changes to indicate the suspension is active as shown in Figure 2-34. Pressing the SUSP Softkey deactivates
the suspension and resumes automatic sequencing of approach waypoints.
Pressing the SUSP
Softkey Suspends
Waypoint Sequencing
SUSP
Annunciation
Figure 2-34 Suspending Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
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2.2Supplemental Flight Data
Note: Selecting the DFLTS Softkey (a second-level PFD softkey) turns off metric Altimeter display, the Inset
Map, and wind data display.
In addition to the flight instruments, the PFD also displays various supplemental information, including
temperatures, wind data, and Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications.
Temperature Displays
The G1000 Outside Air Temperature display (OAT), which is adjusted for compressibility effects, and the
deviation from International Standard Atmosphere Temperature display (ISA) are shown in degrees Celsius
(°C) by default in the lower left of the PFD under normal display conditions, or below the true airspeed in
reversionary mode.
Normal Display
Reversionary Mode
Figure 2-35 Outside Air Temperature
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Wind Data
Wind direction and speed in knots can be displayed in a window to the upper left of the HSI. When the
window is selected for display, but wind information is invalid or unavailable, the window shows “NO WIND
DATA”. Wind data can be displayed in three different ways:
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
No Data
Figure 2-36 Wind Data
Displaying wind data:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the WIND Softkey to display wind data below the Selected Heading.
3) Press one of the OPTN softkeys to change how wind data is displayed:
• OPTN 1: Wind direction arrow and speed
• OPTN 2: Wind direction arrow with true digital direction and speed
• OPTN 3: Wind direction arrows with headwind, tailwind, and crosswind speed components
4) To remove the window, press the OFF Softkey.
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Vertical Navigation (VNV) Indications
When a VNV flight plan has been activated, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, RVSI, VDI) appear on the
PFD in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” message and “Vertical track” voice alert. See the Flight
Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features. VNV indications are removed from the PFD
according to the criteria listed in Table 2-3.
Top of Descent Message
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Enroute
Phase of
Flight
Figure 2-37 Vertical Navigation Indications (PFD)
VNV Indication Removed
Required Vertical
Vertical
VNV Target
Speed (RVSI)
Deviation (VDI)
Altitude
Aircraft > 1 min before the next TOD due to flight plan change
X
X
X
VNV cancelled (CNCL VNV Softkey selected on MFD)
X
X
X
Distance to active waypoint cannot be computed due to
unsupported flight plan leg type (see Flight Management
X
X
X
Section)
Aircraft > 250 feet below active VNV Target Altitude
X
X
X
Current crosstrack or track angle error has exceeded limit
X
X
X
Active altitude-constrained waypoint cannot be reached within
X
X
maximum allowed flight path angle and vertical speed
X
Last altitude-constrained waypoint in active flight plan reached
X
X
(30 sec before)
Criteria
Table 2-3 VNV Indication Removal Criteria
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Flight Instruments
2.3 PFD Annunciations and Alerting Functions
The following annunciations and alerting functions are displayed on the PFD. Refer to Appendix A for more
information on alerts and annunciations.
G1000 Alerting system
Messages appear in the Alerts Window (in the lower right corner of the PFD; Figure 2-38) when a warning,
caution, advisory alert, or G1000 message advisory occurs. System alert messages are provided for awareness
of G1000 system problems or status and may not require pilot action. The Alerts Window allows system alerts
to be displayed simultaneously. The FMS Knob can be used to scroll through the alert messages. The Alerts
Window is enabled/disabled by selecting the ALERTS Softkey. If the window is already open when a new
message is generated, selecting the ALERTS Softkey to acknowledge the message causes it to turn gray.
The Annunciation Window appears to the right of the Vertical Speed Indicator and displays abbreviated
annunciation text for aircraft alerts. Text color is based on alert level: warnings appear in red, cautions in
yellow, advisory alerts in white. New alerts, regardless of priority, are displayed at the top of the Annunciation
Window, separated by a white line from acknowledged alerts. Once acknowledged, they are sequenced based
on priority.
Comparator
Window
Reversionary
Sensor
Window
Annunciation
Window
Alerts
Window
Softkey
Annunciation
Figure 2-38 G1000 Alerting System
The ADVISORY Softkey provides general information to the pilot that may not need immediate attention.
A flashing ADVISORY Softkey annunciation (no aural tone) indicates the presence of a message advisory. The
flashing ADVISORY Softkey annunciation continues to flash until acknowledged (by pressing the ADVISORY
Softkey).
Figure 2-39 Softkey Annunciation
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Critical values generated by redundant sensors are monitored by comparators. If differences in the sensors
exceed a specified amount, the Comparator Window appears in the upper right corner of the PFD and the
discrepancy is annunciated in the Comparator Window as a ‘MISCOMP’ (miscompare). If one or both of the
sensed values are unavailable, it is annunciated as a ‘NO COMP’ (no compare).
Figure 2-40 Comparator Window
Reversionary sensor selection is annunciated in a window on the right side of the PFD. These annunciations
reflect reversionary sensors selected on one or both PFDs. Pressing the SENSOR Softkey accesses the ADC1,
ADC2, AHRS1, and AHRS2 softkeys. These softkeys allow switching of the sensors being viewed on each
PFD. With certain types of sensor failures, the G1000 may make some sensor selections automatically. The GPS
sensor cannot be switched manually.
Figure 2-41 Reversionary Sensor Window
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Marker Beacon Annunciations
Marker Beacon Annunciations are displayed on the PFD to the left of the Selected Altitude. Outer marker
reception is indicated in blue, middle in yellow, and inner in white. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section
for more information on Marker Beacon Annunciations.
Outer Marker
Middle Marker
Inner Marker
Altimeter
Figure 2-42 Marker Beacon Annunciations
Traffic Annunciation
The System displays traffic symbolically on the Inset Map (PFD), the Navigation Map Page (MFD), and various
other MFD page maps. Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section for more details about the Traffic Information
Service (TIS) and optional Traffic Advisory Systems (TAS). When a traffic advisory (TA) is detected, the following
automatically occurs:
• The PFD Inset Map is enabled, displaying traffic (Figure 2-43)
• A flashing black-on-yellow TRAFFIC annunciation (Figure 2-44) appears to the top left of the Attitude
Indicator for five seconds and remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area
• A single “Traffic” aural alert is generated, unless an optional Traffic Advisory System (TAS) is installed (refer to
the applicable TAS documentation for alerts generated by TAS equipment)
If additional TAs appear, new aural and visual alerts are generated.
Traffic
Symbols
Figure 2-44 Traffic Annunciation
Figure 2-43 Inset Map with Traffic Displayed
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TAWS Annunciations
Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) annunciations appear on the PFD to the upper left of the
Altimeter. In TAWS-A installations, annunciations also appear to the upper right of the Airspeed Indicator.
Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section and Appendix A for information on TAWS alerts and annunciations.
Figure 2-45 Example TAWS-A Annunciations
Altitude Alerting
The Altitude Alerting function provides the pilot with visual and aural alerts when approaching the Selected
Altitude. Whenever the Selected Altitude is changed, the Altitude Alerter is reset. The Altitude Alerter is
independent of the GFC 700 AFCS, but alerting tones are generated only when the GFC 700 is installed. The
following occur when approaching the Selected Altitude:
• Upon passing through 1000 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter)
changes to black text on a light blue background, flashes for 5 seconds, and an aural tone is generated.
• When the aircraft passes within 200 ft of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude changes to light blue text
on a black background and flashes for 5 seconds.
• After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the pilot flies outside the deviation band (±200 feet of the Selected
Altitude), the Selected Altitude changes to yellow text on a black background, flashes for 5 seconds, and an
aural tone is generated.
Within 1000 ft
Within 200 ft
Deviation of ±200 ft
Figure 2-46 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
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Low Altitude Annunciation
NOTE: The Low Altitude Annunciation is available only when an SBAS signal (such as WAAS, EGNOS, or
MSAS) is available and the pilot has inhibited TAWS alerts.
When the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach using vertical guidance,
a Low Altitude Annunciation may appear if the current aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed
altitude at the FAF. A black-on-yellow ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation appears to the top right of the Altimeter,
flashing for several seconds then remaining displayed until the condition is resolved.
Altimeter
Figure 2-47 Low Altitude on GPS SBAS Approach
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height Alerting
For altitude awareness, a Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH), based on barometric
or radar altitude can be set. When active, the altitude setting is displayed to the lower left of the Altimeter and
with a bug at the corresponding altitude along the Altimeter (once the altitude is within the visible range of the
tape). The following visual annunciations alert the pilot when approaching the MDA/DH:
• When the aircraft altitude descends to within 2500 feet of the MDA/DH setting, a box labeled BARO MIN or
RA MIN appears with the altitude in light blue text. The bug appears in light blue on the altitude tape at the
corresponding altitude once in range.
• When the aircraft passes through 100 feet of the MDA or DH, the bug and text turn white.
• Once the aircraft reaches the MDA/DH, the bug and text turn yellow and the aural alert, “Minimums
Minimums”, is generated.
Within 2500 feet
Within 100 feet
Altitude Reached
MDA/DH
Bug
MDA/DH
Setting
Figure 2-48 Barometric MDA/DH Alerting Visual Annunciations
Alerting is inhibited while the aircraft is on the ground and until the aircraft reaches 150 feet above the setting
for the alert. If the aircraft proceeds to climb after having reached the MDA/DH, once it reaches 50 feet above
the MDA/DH, alerting is disabled.
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The MDA/DH may be set from either PFD and is synchronized on both PFDs. The function is reset when the
power is cycled.
Setting the barometric or radar minimum descent altitude and bug:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Minimums field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘BARO’ or ‘RAD ALT’. ‘OFF’ is selected by default. Press the ENT Key or
turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired altitude (from zero to 16,000 feet when ‘BARO’ is selected, or up
to 2,500 feet when ‘RAD ALT’ is selected).
5) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
Figure 2-49 Timer/References Window, MDA/DH Setting
Radar Altimeter
When the radar height (the aircraft altitude above ground level detected by the radar altimeter) is between -40
and 2500 feet, the current value is displayed in green to the right of the current aircraft heading (Figure 2-50).
Display of radar height becomes more sensitive as the height above ground decreases (Table 2-4).
Radar Altimeter
Figure 2-50 Current Radar Height
Radar Height Range
Shown to Nearest
-40 to 200 feet
5 feet
200 to 1500 feet
10 feet
1500 to 2500 feet
50 feet
Table 2-4 Radar Altimeter Sensitivity
When the radar altimeter is selected as the altitude source for the minimum descent altitude alerting function
(Figure 2-51), the color of the radar height changes to yellow (Figure 2-52).
Figure 2-51 RAD ALT Setting
(Timer/References Window)
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Flight Instruments
Figure 2-52 RA as Altitude Source for MDA/DH
A ground line (Figure 2-53) is shown on the Altimeter to display the aircraft’s height relative to the ground.
If the data becomes invalid, the message “RA FAIL” is displayed in yellow in the RA box (Figure 2-54). The
Radar Altimeter test is done on the MFD but is displayed on the PFDs to the right of the current heading (Figure
2-55).
Radar
Altimeter
Ground
Line
Radar Altimeter
Minimums Box
Figure 2-53 Altimeter Displaying the Ground Line (RAD ALT)
Figure 2-54 Radar Altimeter with Invalid Data
Enabling/Disabling the Radar Altimeter Test Mode:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
3) Press the RA TEST Softkey to enable or disable the test.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘Enable RA Test Mode’ or ‘Disable RA Test Mode’ (choice dependent on
current state).
3) Press the ENT Key.
When test mode is active, ‘RA TEST’ is annunciated above the RA box and 50 feet will be displayed in the
RA box.
Figure 2-55 Radar Altimeter with Test Annunciation
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2.4Abnormal Operations
Abnormal GPS Conditions
The annunciations listed in Table 2-5 can appear on the HSI when abnormal GPS conditions occur; see Figure
2-56 for examples. Refer to the Flight Management Section for more information on Dead Reckoning (DR)
Mode.
Annunciation
LOI
INTEG OK
DR
Location
Lower left of
aircraft symbol
Lower left of
aircraft symbol
Upper right of
aircraft symbol
Description
Loss of Integrity Monitoring–GPS integrity is insufficient for the current
phase of flight
Integrity OK–GPS integrity has been restored to within normal limits
(annunciation displayed for 5 seconds)
Dead Reckoning–System is using projected position rather than GPS position
to compute navigation data and sequence active flight plan waypoints
Table 2-5 Abnormal GPS Conditions Annunciated on HSI
Figure 2-56 Example HSI Annunciations
DR Mode causes the following items on the PFD to be shown in yellow:
• CDI (when GPS is the selected navigation source; removed after 20 minutes in DR mode operation)
• Current Track Indicator
• Wind data and pointers in the Wind Data Box on the PFD
• GPS bearing pointers
• Distances in the Bearing Information windows
• Active Flight Plan distances, bearings, and ETE values
The accuracy items should be verified when operating in DR Mode.
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Unusual Attitudes
When the aircraft enters an unusual pitch attitude, red extreme pitch warning chevrons pointing toward the
horizon are displayed on the Attitude Indicator, starting at 50˚ above and 30˚ below the horizon line.
Nose High
Nose Low
Figure 2-57 Pitch Attitude Warnings
If pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚, some information displayed on the PFD is removed. The
Altimeter and Airspeed, Attitude, Vertical Speed, and Horizontal Situation indicators remain on the display
and the Bearing Information, Alerts, and Annunciation windows can be displayed during such situations. The
following information is removed from the PFD (and corresponding softkeys are disabled) when the aircraft
experiences unusual attitudes:
• Traffic Annunciations
• Transponder Status Box
• AFCS Annunciations
• PFD Setup Menu
• Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height readout
• Flight director Command Bars
• Windows displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD:
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope,
and Glidepath Indicators
• Inset Map
• Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
– Timer/References
• Altimeter Barometric Setting
• International Standard
Atmosphere Temperature (ISA)
– Nearest Airports
• Selected Altitude
– Flight Plan
• VNV Target Altitude
• DME Information Window
(optional)
– Alerts
• System Time
• Wind data
– DME Tuning (optional)
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Engine Indication System
Section 3 Engine Indication System
The G1000 Engine Indication System (EIS) displays critical engine and fuel flow parameters on the left side of
the Multi Function Display (MFD) during normal operations (Figure 3-1). In Reversionary Mode, the display(s)
are configured to combine the Primary Flight Display (PFD) symbology with the EIS (Figure 3-12).
EIS Display
Figure 3-1 MFD (Normal Mode)
EIS information is presented using gauges and digital readouts. Green bands on the instrument scales indicate
normal ranges of operation; yellow and red bands indicate caution and warning, respectively. White or uncolored
bands indicate areas outside of normal operation not yet in the caution or warning ranges (except for the Fuel
Flow gauges, which do not display bands). During normal operating conditions, an instrument’s pointer appears
in white and the readout text is green.
When an unsafe operating condition occurs, the pointer and readout color change to yellow or red, indicating
a caution or warning. If a cautionary time limit is exceeded, the pointers and digits may flash red, even if the
parameter is still within in the cautionary range. If the sensor data for a parameter becomes invalid or unavailable,
a red ‘X’ is displayed across the indicator and/or readout. If the sensor data for a parameter is out of range, dashes
‘---’ are displayed instead of a readout.
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Engine Indication System
3.1EIS Display
NOTE: The gauges displayed and the values shown in this section are taken from an example Beechcraft
200/B200 configuration. Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) and FAA Approved Airplane Flight
Manual (AFM) for specific values and operating limitations.
1
92
Displays Interstage Turbine Temperature in degrees Celsius (°C)
2
Interstage Turbine
Temperature (ITT)
Torque (FT-LB)
3
Tachometer (PROP RPM)
4
Propeller Sync
5
Turbine Speed (% RPM)
6
7
Fuel Flow
(FFLOW PPH)
Oil Pressure (OIL PSI)
Displays propeller speed in revolutions per minute (rpm); the red band
indicates propeller overspeed
Displays a diamond when propellers are in sync. Indicates when propellers
are out of sync by the diamond transitioning to an arrowhead. The
arrowhead points towards the propeller turning at a higher-speed.
Displays turbine speed in a percentage of the revolutions per minute
(rpm)
Displays current fuel flow in pounds per hour (pph)
8
Oil Temperature (OIL °C)
Displays torque in foot-pounds
Displays pressure of oil supplied to the engines in pounds per square
inch (psi)
Displays the oil temperature in degrees Celsius (°C)
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Engine Indication System
200/B200 Example Configuration
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
8
Figure 3-2 EIS Display (Normal Mode)
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Engine Indication System
Interstage Turbine Temperature
The Interstage Turbine Temperature (ITT) Gauge is displayed at the top of the EIS strip. This gauge differs
for engine start and running conditions. Values between 200 and 1200 degrees Celsius (°C) are shown at
engine start; values change to 200 to 900 °C once the engine has stabilized. A red triangle is displayed at 1000
°C during engine start to indicate maximum starting ITT. This is available in both normal and reversionary
modes.
ITT Engine Running
ITT Engine Start
Figure 3-3 ITT Gauge
Torque
The Torque Gauge displays engine power in foot-pounds and is located beneath the ITT gauge. The values
range from 0 FT-LB to 2600 FT-LB If the torque remains above 2230 FT-LB for more than 5 seconds, a warning
condition occurs.
Figure 3-4 Torque Gauge
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Engine Indication System
Tachometer (RPM)
The Tachometer is located beneath the Torque gauge and displays the propeller speed in revolutions per
minute (RPM) from 0 to 2500. A propeller overspeed is indicated if the propeller speed exceeds the maximum
safe operating speed (red tick mark). The Tachometer is equipped with a propeller sync indicator, which
points towards the higher-speed propeller when propellers are out of sync. The indicator changes linearly
with RPM difference between the left and right propellers. A full diamond is displayed when the propellers are
synchronized and transitions to a full arrowhead when the difference is greater or equal to 50 rpm.
Figure 3-5 Propellers Synchronized
Figure 3-6 Propellers Out of Sync (less than 50 rpm)
Figure 3-7 Propellers Out of Sync
(greater than or equal to 50 rpm)
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Engine Indication System
Turbine Speed
The Turbine Speed Gauge is located beneath the Tachometer. The gauge range is from 0 to 110%.
Figure 3-8 Turbine Speed Gauge
Fuel Flow
The Fuel Flow Gauge is displayed beneath the Turbine Speed gauge. Fuel Flow is displayed in pounds per
hour (pph) from 0 to 600 pph.
Figure 3-9 Fuel Flow Gauge
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Engine Indication System
Oil Pressure
The Oil Pressure Gauge is located beneath the Fuel Flow gauge. Oil pressure is displayed in pounds per square
inch (psi) from 0 to 200 psi. Safe operating pressure is more than 90 psi and less than 135 psi (varies based on
altitude above FL210 and type of engines installed; refer to the AFM). A red triangle represents the maximum oil
transient pressure at 200 psi.
Below FL210
Above FL210
Figure 3-10 Oil Pressure Gauge
Oil Temperature
The Oil Temperature Gauge is located beneath the Oil Pressure gauge. Oil temperature is displayed in
degrees Celsius (°C).
Figure 3-11 Oil Temperature Gauge
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Engine Indication System
3.2EIS Display in Reversionary Mode
In the event of PFD1, PFD2 or MFD failure, the Display Backup button must be pressed to enter reversionary
(or backup) mode. Reversionary mode is a mode of operation in which all important flight information is
presented identically on at least one of the operating displays (see Figure 3-12). Transition to reversionary
mode should be straightforward for the pilot, for flight parameters are presented in the same format as in
normal mode (refer to the System Overview for information about display Reversionary Mode).
EIS Display
Figure 3-12 Reversionary Mode (200/B200)
In the event of display failure, the display modes are as follows:
• PFD1 failure – Press the Display Backup button on the left Audio Panel. MFD enters reversionary mode; PFD2
remains in normal mode.
• MFD failure – Press the Display Backup buttons on both Audio Panels. PFD1 and PFD2 enter reversionary
mode.
• PFD2 failure – Press the Display Backup button on the right Audio Panel. MFD enters reversionary mode;
PFD1 remains in normal mode.
Figure 3-13 Display Backup Button
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Engine Indication System
Reversionary Display
The EIS Reversionary Mode Display gauges have a different shape and share one title (i.e. ITT, FFLOW) for
each pair of gauges. Major white tick marks are displayed only at the minimum and maximum values. No
minor tick marks or numeric labels are displayed. Prop Synchronization information is not displayed while in
Reversionary Mode.
NOTE: The gauges displayed and the values shown in this section are taken from an example Beechcraft
200/B200 configuration. Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) and FAA Approved Airplane Flight
Manual (AFM) for specific values and operating limitations.
200/B200 Example Configuration
Figure 3-14 EIS Reversionary Mode Display
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Audio Panel and CNS
Section 4 Audio Panel and CNS
4.1Overview
The Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) system includes the Audio Panels, communication radios,
navigation radios, and Mode S transponders. The System Overview Section provides a block diagram description
of the Audio Panels and CNS system interconnection.
CNS operation in the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series is performed by the following Line Replaceable Units
(LRUs):
• Primary Flight Display (PFD) (2)
• Audio Panel (2)
• Multi Function Display (MFD)
• Mode S Transponder (2)
• Integrated Avionics Unit (2)
• Control Unit
The PFD and Control Unit controls are used to tune the communication transceivers and navigation radios.
The two Audio Panels provide the traditional audio selector functions of microphone and receiver audio
selection. Each Audio Panel includes a two position intercom system (ICS) between the pilot and copilot, a
marker beacon system, and a COM clearance recorder. Ambient noise from the aircraft radios is reduced by a
feature called Master Avionics Squelch (MASQ). When no audio is detected, MASQ processing further reduces
the amount of background noise from the radios.
The Mode S Transponders are controlled with softkeys and the FMS Knobs. The Transponder Data Box is
located to the left of the System Time Box. The data box displays the selected transponder, the active four-digit
code, mode, and a reply status (Figure 4-1).
Audio Panel Volume Control
Adjusting the master volume control affects all radio audio volume and airframe type warnings that are heard
in the headsets (not the speaker) for the pilot or copilot side Audio Panel. Radio adjustments made on the PFD
controls to compensate for the master volume change on the Audio Panel also affect the radio levels for the other
pilot. Independent radio volume adjustments made using the Audio Panel Master Volume controls affect only
the audio heard in the corresponding crew position headset.
Radio volume adjustments may be overridden by each crew position independently using the master volume
control on the Audio Panel for the respective crew position. In addition, the master volume control for each
Audio Panel affects all other system audio output to its designated crew position headset much like volume
adjustments found on many aviation headsets.
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PFD Controls and Frequency Display
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Figure 4-1 PFD Controls, NAV/COM Frequency Tuning Boxes, and DME Tuning Window
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1
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to turn the Morse code identifier audio on
and off. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
3
NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
Press to move the frequency selected for tuning (light blue numbers) and the Frequency Transfer Arrow
between NAV1 and NAV2.
4
NAV Frequency Box – Displays NAV standby and active frequency fields, volume, and station ID. The
frequency of the NAV radio selected for navigation is displayed in green.
5
COM Frequency Box – Displays COM standby and active frequency fields and volume. The selected COM
transceiver frequency is displayed in green.
6
COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Press to move the frrequency selected for tuning (light blue numbers) and the Frequency Transfer
Arrow between COM1 and COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this key
for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Press to turn the COM automatic squelch on
and off. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency field as a percentage.
9
DME Tuning Window – Displays DME frequency pairing mode. Display by selecting the DME Softkey.
10
ENT Key – Validates or confirms DME pairing mode and Auto-tune selection.
11
FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob, used to enter transponder codes, select DME modes, and
Auto-tune entries when DME Tuning Window or NRST Window is present. Press the FMS Knob to turn
the selection cursor on and off. The large knob moves the cursor in the window. The small knob selects
individual characters for the highlighted cursor location.
12
Transponder Data Box – Indicates the selected transponder code, operating mode, reply, and ident status
for the applicable transponder.
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Audio Panel Controls
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Figure 4-2 Audio Panel Controls
NOTE: When a key is selected, a triangular annunciator above the key is illuminated.
104
1
COM1 MIC – Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM receiver to be heard. COM2 receive can be
added by pressing the COM2 Key.
2
COM1 – When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard.
3
COM2 MIC – Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM receiver to be heard. COM1 receive can be
added by pressing the COM1 Key.
4
COM2 – When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard.
5
COM3 MIC – Reserved for optional COM radio.
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6
COM3 – Reserved for optional COM radio.
7
PA – Selects the passenger address system. The selected COM transmitter is deselected when the PA Key
is pressed.
8
TEL – When selected, activates the SATCOM transceiver.
9
MUSIC – Toggles the Music 1 input on or off. Pressing and holding toggles music muting on or off.
10
SPKR – Selects and deselects the on-side flight deck speaker. COM and NAV receiver audio can be heard
on the speaker.
11
MKR/MUTE – Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker beacon receiver
audio. Unmutes automatically when new marker beacon audio is received.
12
HI SENS – Press to increase marker beacon receiver sensitivity. Press again to return to low sensitivity.
13
DME – Turns optional DME audio on or off.
14
NAV1 – When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
15
ADF – Turns optional ADF receiver audio on or off.
16
NAV2 – When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
17
AUX – Not used in Beechcraft 200/B200 Series aircraft.
18
MAN SQ – Enables manual squelch for the intercom. When the intercom is active, press the ICS Knob to
illuminate SQ. Turn the ICS Knob to adjust squelch.
19
PLAY – Press once to play the last recorded COM audio. Press again to stop playing. Press twice within 0.5
second while audio is playing and the previous block of recorded audio will be played. Each subsequent
two presses within 0.5 second plays each previously recorded block.
20
INTR COM – Selects and deselects the pilot/copilot intercom on both Audio Panels.
21
CABIN – Initiates intercom communications with passengers in the cabin.
22
ICS Knob – Turn to adjust intercom volume or squelch. Press to switch between volume and squelch
control as indicated by illumination of VOL or SQ. The MAN SQ Key must be selected to allow squelch
adjustment.
23
MSTR Knob – The Master Volume Control adjusts volume for the blended NAV, COM, intercom audio,
and alert warnings.
24
DISPLAY BACKUP Button – Manually selects PFD/MFD Reversionary Mode.
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Control Unit
The Control Unit is a pedestal-mounted interface allowing MFD operation, data entry, COM and NAV tuning,
and transponder control. Many procedures can be performed using the Control Unit rather than the display
bezel controls. Annunciators beside the FMS, XPDR, COM, and NAV keys illuminate when their respective
control modes are selected. The unit is in FMS control mode by default on system power-up.
The appropriate frequency box on the selected display is outlined by a light blue selection box, which flashes
for a few seconds to indicate control unit activity. Selection of a different display control or radio tuning mode
results in cancelation of the previous radio tuning mode.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
14
10
13
12
11
Figure 4-3 Control Unit
Tuning Selection
Box
Figure 4-4 Frequency Tuning with the Control Unit
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1
CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus.
2
MENU Key – Displays a list of options for accessing additional features or making setting changes.
3
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
4
FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob. This knob provides tuning capability for the COM and
NAV radios when the appropriate COM or NAV key is presssed. When the XPDR Key is pressed, the
transponder code may be entered using the FMS Knob. The large knob moves the cursor in the window.
The small knob selects individual characters for the highlighted cursor location.
5
FMS Key – Sets the FMS Knob to control FMS functions on the MFD. When pressed, an annunciator next
to the key illuminates indicating adjustment of the FMS Knob will now affect FMS functions.
6
COM Key – Sets the FMS Knob to control tuning of the COM radios. The first press will select COM1,
as indicated by an illuminated “1” to the left of the key. Press again to select COM2. This is annunciated
with a “2” to the right of the key. Each subsequent press of the COM Key will switch between COM1 and
COM2. Use the FMS Knob to tune the selected COM The COM Tuning Selection Box is outlined with a
light blue line when the COM frequency is active on the control unit (Figure 4‑4).
7
Frequency Transfer Key (EMERG) – Transfers the standby and active COM or NAV frequencies. Press
and hold for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the COM
active frequency field.
8
NAV Key – Sets the FMS Knob to control tuning of the NAV radios. The first press will select NAV1, as
indicated by an illuminated “1” to the left of the key. Press again to select NAV2. This is annunciated with
a “2” to the right of the key. Each subsequent press of the NAV Key will switch between NAV1 and NAV2.
Use the FMS Knob to tune the selected NAV. The NAV Tuning Selection Box is outlined with a light blue
line when the NAV frequency is active on the control unit.
9
XPDR Key – Sets the FMS Knob to enter transponder codes. When pressed, an annunciator next to the
key illuminates indicating the FMS Knob can now be used for transponder code entry. Transponder code
entry can be performed with either the number keypad or FMS Knob.
10
IDENT Key – Press to activate the IDENT function of the transponder. When the IDENT Key is pressed,
a green IDNT indication is displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for 18 seconds.
11
SEL Key – The center of this key activates the selected MFD softkey, while the right and left arrows move
the softkey selection box to the right and left, respectively.
12
Decimal Key – Enters a decimal point.
13
BKSP Key – Moves cursor back one character space and removes last character entered.
14
Alphanumeric Keys – Allows data entry (rather than using the FMS Knob to select characters/
numbers).
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4.2 COM Operation
COM Transceiver Selection and Activation
NOTE: During PA Mode, the COM MIC Annunciator is extinguished and the COM active frequency color
changes to white, indicating that neither COM transmitter is active.
NOTE: When turning on the G1000 for use, the system remembers the last frequencies used and the active
COM transceiver state prior to shutdown.
The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the left side and the
two standby frequencies are on the right. The COM transceiver is selected for transmitting by pressing the
COM MIC Keys on the Audio Panel. During reception of audio from the COM radio selected for transmission,
audio from the other COM radio is muted.
An active COM frequency displayed in green indicates that the COM transceiver is selected on the Audio
Panel (COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key). Both active COM frequencies appearing in white indicate that no COM
radio is selected for transmitting (PA Key is selected on the Audio Panel).
Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency selected for
tuning is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
Active
Fields
Standby
Fields
Top Section of
the Audio Panel
Selected for Tuning
COM1 Radio is Selected on the Audio Panel
Figure 4-5 Selecting a COM Radio for Transmit
COM3 is reserved for an optional COM radio.
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Transmit/Receive Indications
During COM transmission, a white TX appears by the active COM frequency. On the Audio Panel, when
the active COM is transmitting, the active transceiver COM MIC Key Annunciator flashes approximately once
per second.
During COM signal reception, a white RX appears by the active COM frequency.
Transmit and
Receive Indicators
Annunciator
Flashes During
Transmission
Figure 4-6 COM Radio Transmit and Receive Indications
When the same COM radio is selected on both Audio Panels, the pilot has transmit priority on COM1, the
copilot has transmit priority on COM2.
COM Transceiver Manual Tuning
The COM frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the right side of each PFD.
Manually tuning a COM frequency:
1) Turn the COM Knob to tune the desired frequency (large knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the COM VOL/SQ Knob.
4) Press the COM VOL/SQ Knob to turn automatic squelch on and off.
Turn the VOL/SQ Knob to adjust
volume. Press the Knob to Turn
Automatic Squelch On or Off
Press the Frequency Transfer
Key to Transfer COM
Frequencies Between Active
and Standby Frequency
Turn the COM Knob
to Tune the Selected
Frequency
Figure 4-7 COM Frequency Tuning
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Manual COM frequency tuning from the Control Unit
1) Press the COM Key to enable the FMS Knob for COM tuning. The COM Tuning Selection Box is shown.
2) Press the COM Key again, if needed, to select the desired COM radio (1 or 2).
3) Turn the FMS Knob to tune the desired frequency in the COM Tuning Box (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz).
Or:
Press the numeric keys on the keypad to enter a Frequency.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
If an error is made during frequency entry with the numeric keypad, pressing the BKSP Key moves the cursor
back one space. If an incorrect frequency is entered, reenter the correct one using the same procedure.
First, Press the COM Key to activate COM
tuning from the FMS Knob or Numeric
Keypad
Third, Press the Frequency
Transfer Key to Move the
Frequency to the Active Field.
Second, Turn the FMS Knob or Press
the Numeric Keys to Enter a Frequency
into the COM Standby Frequency Box
Figure 4-8 Frequency Tuning from the Control Unit
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Selecting the Radio to be Tuned
Press the small COM Knob to transfer the frequency selected for tuning and the Frequency Transfer Arrow
between the upper and lower radio frequency fields.
Press the COM Knob to Switch
the Tuning Selection From One
COM Radio to the Other
Figure 4-9 Switching COM Tuning Boxes
Quick-Tuning and Activating 121.500 MHz
Pressing and holding the COM Frequency Transfer Key for two seconds automatically loads the emergency
COM frequency (121.500 MHz) in the active field of the COM radio selected for tuning (the one with the
transfer arrow). In the example shown, pressing the Audio Panel COM2 MIC Key activates the transceiver.
Press for Two Seconds to
Load 121.500 MHz
Figure 4-10 Quickly Tuning 121.500 MHz
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Auto-Tuning the COM Frequency
COM frequencies can be automatically tuned from the following:
• Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies Page (ARTCC, FSS, WX)
• WPT – Airport Information Page
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces Page
• NRST – Nearest Airports Page
Auto-Tuning from the PFD
COM frequencies for the nearest airports can be automatically tuned from the Nearest Airports Window on
the PFD. When the desired frequency is entered, it becomes a standby frequency. Pressing the Frequency
Transfer Key places this frequency into the COM Active Frequency Field.
Auto-tuning a COM frequency for a nearby airport from the PFD:
1) Select the NRST Softkey on the PFD to open the Nearest Airports Window. A list of 25 nearest airport identifiers
and COM frequencies is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the list and highlight the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the COM Standby Frequency Field.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
Figure 4-11 Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
Select the NRST
Softkey to Open
the Nearest
Airports Window
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Auto-tuning from the MFD
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the COM Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT
page group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key (Figures 4-12, 4-13, and 4-14).
Auto-tuning a COM frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the COM frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob or
selecting the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency (Figure 4-11).
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key on either PFD to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency
Field.
Press the ENT Key to Load a
Highlighted Frequency into the
COM Standby Frequency Box.
Turn the FMS Knob to Scroll Through a
List of Frequencies.
Figure 4-12 Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key (Figure 4-9) to display the page menu (Figure 4-10).
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor on the desired selection.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob or the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-13 Nearest Pages Menus
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On the WPT - Airport Information Page, the cursor can be placed on the frequency field by pressing the
FMS Knob and scrolling through the list. The frequency is transferred to the COM Standby Field with the
ENT Key.
Selected Airport
Identifier and
Information
Runway
Information
Press ENT Key to
load frequency
into PFD1 COM
Standby Field.
Cursor then
advances to the
next frequency.
Figure 4-14 WPT – Airport Information Page
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Select INFO‑1
Softkey for
AIRPORT,
RUNWAYS, and
FREQUENCIES
Windows
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COM frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST – Nearest Airspaces, NRST – Nearest Frequencies,
and NRST – Nearest Airports Pages on the MFD in a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU
Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
Figure 4-15 NRST – Nearest Airspaces, NRST – Nearest Airports, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages
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Frequency Spacing
The G1000 COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing
(118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel spacing
is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in the complete 3040-channel list.
COM channel spacing is set on the System Setup Page of the AUX Page Group.
8.33-kHz Channel
Spacing
25-kHz Channel
Spacing
Figure 4-16 COM Channel Spacing
Changing COM frequency channel spacing:
1) Select the AUX – System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Channel Spacing Field in the COM Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired channel spacing.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the channel spacing selection.
While the COM CONFIG Window is selected, the G1000 softkeys are blank.
Select 8.33-kHz
or 25.0-kHz
COM Frequency
Channel Spacing
AUX - SYSTEM
SETUP-1 PAGE
Figure 4-17 AUX – System Setup Page
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Automatic Squelch
Automatic Squelch quiets unwanted static noise when no audio signal is received, while still providing good
sensitivity to weak COM signals. To disable Automatic Squelch, press the VOL/SQ Knob. When Automatic
Squelch is disabled, COM audio reception is always on. Continuous static noise is heard over the headsets and
speaker, if selected. Pressing the VOL/SQ Knob again enables Automatic Squelch.
When Automatic Squelch is disabled, a white RX appears next to the COM frequency.
Manual Squelch
Indication
Press the COM VOL/
SQ Knob to turn off
Automatic Squelch.
Press again to restore
Automatic Squelch.
Figure 4-18 Overriding Automatic Squelch
Volume
COM radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob. Turning the knob
clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume. When adjusting volume,
the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication remains for two seconds after
the change.
COM Volume
Level Remains
for Two Seconds
Figure 4-19 COM Volume Level
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4.3NAV Operation
NAV Radio Selection and Activation
The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; two standby fields and two active fields. The active
frequencies are on the right side and the standby frequencies are on the left.
A NAV radio is selected for navigation by selecting the CDI Softkey located on the PFD. The active NAV
frequency selected for navigation is displayed in green. Selecting the CDI Softkey once selects NAV1 as the
navigation radio. Selecting the CDI Softkey a second time selects NAV2 as the navigation radio. Selecting the
CDI Softkey a third time activates GPS mode. Selecting the CDI Softkey again cycles back to NAV1.
While cycling through the CDI Softkey selections, the selected NAV standby frequency is selected for tuning,
the Frequency Transfer Arrow is placed in the selected NAV Frequency Field, and the active NAV frequency
color changes to green.
The three navigation modes that can be cycled through are:
• VOR1 (or LOC1) – If NAV1 is selected, a green single line arrow (not shown) labeled either VOR1 or LOC1
is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV1 frequency is displayed in green.
• VOR2 (or LOC2) – If NAV2 is selected, a green double line arrow (shown) labeled either VOR2 or LOC2 is
displayed on the HSI and the active NAV2 frequency is displayed in green.
• GPS – If GPS Mode is selected, a magenta single line arrow (not shown) appears on the HSI and neither NAV
radio is selected. Both active NAV frequencies are then displayed in white and the previously selected NAV
standby frequency remains selected for tuning.
Standby
Fields
Selected for
Tuning
Active
Fields
The NAV Radio is
Selected by Selecting
the CDI Softkey
Figure 4-20 Selecting a NAV Radio for Navigation
See the Flight Instruments Section for selecting the DME and Bearing Information windows and using VOR
or ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
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NAV radios are selected for listening by pressing the corresponding keys on the Audio Panel. Pressing the
NAV1, NAV2, ADF, or DME Key selects and deselects the navigation radio source. Selected audio can be heard over
the headset and the speakers (if selected). All radios can be selected individually or simultaneously.
Figure 4-21 Selecting a NAV Radio Receiver
NAV Receiver Manual Tuning
The NAV frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the left side of the PFDs.
Manually tuning a NAV frequency:
1) Turn the NAV Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box.
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
4) Press the NAV VOL/ID Knob to turn the Morse code identifier audio on and off.
Turn VOL/ID Knob to adjust
volume. Press Knob to Turn
Morse Code On or Off.
Press the Frequency Transfer Key to
Transfer NAV Frequencies Between
Active and Standby Frequency Fields
Turn the NAV Knob to
Tune the Frequency in
the Tuning Box
Figure 4-22 NAV Frequency Tuning
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Manual NAV frequency tuning from the Control Unit
1) Press the NAV Key to enable the FMS Knob for NAV tuning. The NAV Tuning Selection Box is shown.
2) Press the NAV Key again, if needed, to select the desired NAV radio (1 or 2).
3) Turn the FMS Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz).
Or:
Press the numeric keys on the keypad to enter a Frequency.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
If an error is made during frequency entry with the numeric keypad, pressing the BKSP Key moves the cursor
back one space. If an incorrect frequency is entered, reenter the correct one using the same procedure.
Third, Press the Frequency
Transfer Key to Move the
Frequency to the Active Field.
First, Press the NAV Key to activate NAV
tuning from the FMS Knob or Numeric
Keypad
Second, Turn the FMS Knob or Press
the Numeric Keys to Enter a Frequency
into the NAV Standby Frequency Box
Figure 4-23 Frequency Tuning from the Control Unit
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Selecting the Radio to be Tuned
Press the small NAV Knob to transfer the frequency tuning selection and the Frequency Transfer Arrow
between the upper and lower radio frequency fields.
Press the NAV Knob to Switch
the tuning selection from one
NAV Radio to the other
Figure 4-24 Switching NAV Tuning Boxes
VOR/LOC ID
When the Morse code Identifier audio is on for a NAV radio, a white ID appears to the left of the active
NAV frequency.
In the example shown, in order to listen to either station identifier, press the NAV1 or NAV2 Key on the
Audio Panel. Pressing the VOL/ID Knob turns off the Morse code audio only in the radio selected for tuning
(light blue numbers). To turn off both NAV IDs, transfer the tuning selection between NAV1 and NAV2 with
the small NAV Knob and press the VOL/ID Knob again to turn the Morse code off in the other radio.
The Morse Code Identifier
for the TOP VOR is On
Station
Identifier
Figure 4-25 NAV Radio ID Indication
Volume
NAV Radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/ID Knob. Turning the knob
clockwise increases volume, counterclockwise decreases volume.
When adjusting, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication remains
for two seconds after the change.
NAV Volume Level
Remains for Two
Seconds
Figure 4-26 NAV Volume Level
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Auto-Tuning a NAV Frequency from the MFD
NAV frequencies can be selected and loaded from the following MFD pages:
• WPT – Airport Information
• NRST – Nearest VOR
• WPT – VOR Information
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies (FSS, WX)
• NRST – Nearest Airports
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces
The MFD provides auto-tuning of NAV frequencies from waypoint and nearest pages. During enroute
navigation, the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV standby frequency field. During approach
activation the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV active frequency field.
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT page
group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key (Figures 4-27, 4-28, and 4-29).
Auto-tuning a NAV frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the NAV frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob or the
appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV identifier or NAV frequency.
3) On the Nearest VOR and Nearest Airports pages, press the FREQ Softkey to place the cursor on the NAV
frequency (Figure 4-25).
4) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV radio.
5) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
Press the ENT Key to Load a
Highlighted Frequency into the
NAV Standby Frequency Box.
Turn the FMS
Knob to Scroll
Through a List
of Frequencies.
Figure 4-27 NAV Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
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Or:
1) When on the NRST pages, press the MENU Key on the MFD control unit to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor in the desired window.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob or the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV radio.
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest VOR Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-28 Nearest Pages Menus
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In the example shown, the VOR list is selected with the VOR Softkey or from the page menu. The FMS Knob
or ENT Key is used to scroll through the list. The cursor is placed on the frequency with the FREQ Softkey and
loaded into the NAV Tuning Box with the ENT Key.
Press the ENT
Key to Load
the Frequency
into the NAV
Standby Field.
Select the VOR Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Identifier
Select the FREQ Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Frequency
Figure 4-29 Loading the NAV Frequency from the NRST – Nearest VOR Page
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While enroute, NAV frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST – Nearest Airports,
WPT – Airport Information, WPT – VOR Information, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages on the MFD in
a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
Figure 4-30 NRST – Nearest Frequencies, WPT – VOR Information, WPT – Airport Information, and
NRST – Nearest Airports Pages
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Auto-Tuning NAV Frequencies on Approach Activation
NOTE: The primary NAV frequency is auto-tuned upon loading a VOR or ILS/Localizer approach.
NOTE: When an ILS/LOC approach has been activated in GPS Mode, the system switches to NAV Mode as
the final approach course is intercepted (within 15 nm of the FAF). See the Flight Management Section for
details.
NAV frequencies are automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency field on approach activation, on both
PFD1 and PFD2.
When loading or activating a VOR or ILS/LOC approach, the approach frequency is automatically transferred
to a NAV frequency field as follows:
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, the approach frequency is transferred to the NAV1 or NAV2
active frequency fields. The frequency that was previously in the NAV1 or NAV2 active frequency fields are
transferred to standby.
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, and if the approach frequency is already loaded into the NAV1
or NAV2 standby frequency field, the standby frequency is transferred to active.
• If the current CDI navigation source is NAV1 or NAV2, the approach frequency is transferred to the standby
frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
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Marker Beacon Receiver
NOTE: The marker beacon indicators operate independently of marker beacon audio and cannot be turned
off.
The marker beacon receiver is used as part of an ILS. The marker beacon receiver is always on and detects
any marker beacon signals within the reception range of the aircraft.
The receiver detects the three marker tones – outer, middle, and inner – and provides the marker beacon
annunciations located to the left of the Altimeter on the PFD.
Outer Marker
Indication
Middle Marker
Indication
Inner Marker
Indication
Figure 4-31 Marker Beacon Annunciations on the PFD
Figure 4-32 Marker Beacon Keys
The Audio Panels provide three different states of marker beacon operation; On, Muted, and Deselected.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key selects and deselects marker beacon audio. The key annunciator indicates when
marker beacon audio is selected.
During marker beacon audio reception, pressing the MKR/MUTE Key mutes the audio but does not affect the
marker annunciations (Figure 4-31). The marker tone is silenced, then waits for the next marker tone. The
MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is illuminated, indicating audio muting. The audio returns when the next marker
beacon signal is received. If the MKR/MUTE Key is pressed during signal reception (O, M, I indication) while
marker beacon audio is muted, the audio is deselected and the MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is extinguished.
Pressing the HI SENS Key switches between high and low marker beacon receiver sensitivity. The HI SENS
function (annunciator illuminated) is used to provide an earlier indication when nearing a marker during an
approach. The LO SENS function (annunciator extinguished) results in a narrower marker dwell while over a
station.
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DME Tuning
NOTE: When turning on the G1000 for use, the system remembers the last frequency used for DME tuning
and the NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD state prior to shutdown.
The G1000 System tunes the optional DME transceiver. The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a
VHF NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is automatic and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
The DME Tuning Window is located to the right of the HSI in the lower right corner of the PFD. The DME
transceiver is tuned by selecting NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD in the DME Tuning Window. Pressing the DME
Softkey switches the DME Tuning Window on and off.
DME
Modes
Figure 4-33 DME Tuning Window
The following DME transceiver pairing can be selected:
• NAV1 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV1 frequency.
• NAV2 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV2 frequency.
• HOLD – When in the HOLD position, the DME frequency remains paired with the last selected NAV
frequency.
Selecting DME transceiver pairing:
1) Press the DME Softkey to display the DME Tuning Window.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the DME tuning mode.
3) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
Pressing the CLR Key or FMS Knob while in the process of DME pairing cancels the tuning entry and reverts
back to the previously selected DME tuning state. Pressing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates the cursor in
the DME Tuning Window.
See the Flight Instruments Section for displaying the DME information window.
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4.4GTX 33 Mode S Transponders
The GTX 33 Mode S Transponders provide Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S interrogation and reply capabilities.
Selective addressing or Mode Select (Mode S) capability includes the following features:
• Level-2 reply data link capability (used to exchange information between aircraft and ATC facilities)
• Surveillance identifier capability
• Flight ID (Flight Identification) reporting – The Mode S Transponder reports aircraft identification as either the
aircraft registration or a unique Flight ID.
• Altitude reporting
• Airborne status determination
• Transponder capability reporting
• Mode S Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) requirements
• Acquisition squitter – Acquisition squitter, or short squitter, is the transponder 24-bit identification address. The transmission is sent periodically, regardless of the presence of interrogations. The purpose of acquisition
squitter is to enable Mode S ground stations and aircraft equipped with a Traffic Avoidance System (TAS) to
recognize the presence of Mode S-equipped aircraft for selective interrogation.
• Extended squitter – Transmits the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) position, velocity, and
heading information periodically without requiring an interrogation.
The Hazard Avoidance Section provides more details on traffic avoidance systems.
Transponder Controls
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Mode Selection, and
Code Selection. When the top-level XPDR Softkey is selected, the Mode Selection softkeys appear: XPDR1,
XPDR2, STBY, ON, ALT, VFR, CODE, IDENT, ADS-B TX , BACK.
When the CODE Softkey is selected, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, IDENT, BKSP,
BACK. The digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Selecting the numbered softkeys in sequence enters
the transponder code. If an error is made, selecting the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the
previous digit. Selecting the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous digit.
Selecting the BACK Softkey during code selection reverts to the Mode Selection Softkeys. Selecting the BACK
Softkey during mode selection reverts to the top-level softkeys.
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on either PFD. Code entry must be completed with either
the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
Selecting the IDENT Softkey while in Mode or Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to the
top-level softkeys.
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
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XPDR1
XPDR2
STBY
ON
ALT
GND
VFR
XPDR
IDENT
CODE
IDENT
ADS-B TX
BACK
ALERTS
Selecting the BACK Softkey
returns to the top-level softkeys.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
IDENT
BKSP
BACK
ALERTS
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns to the mode selection softkeys.
Figure 4-34 Transponder Softkeys (PFD)
Selecting and activating Transponder 1 or Transponder 2:
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Select the XPDR1 or XPDR2 Softkey to select and activate the desired transponder.
When turning on the G1000 for use, the system activates Transponder 1 as the default unit, regardless of
which transponder was active prior to shutdown. When switching between Transponder 1 and Transponder 2,
the code and mode remain the same. If a new code is entered in the active transponder, switching transponders
does not bring back the previous code.
Transponder Mode Selection
Mode selection can be automatic (Ground and Altitude Modes) or manual (Standby, ON, and Altitude Modes).
The STBY, ON, and ALT Softkeys can be accessed by selecting the XPDR Softkey.
Selecting a transponder mode:
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Select the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode.
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Ground Mode
Ground Mode is normally selected automatically when the aircraft is on the ground. The transponder
powers up in the last mode it was in when shut down. Ground Mode can be overridden by selecting any one
of the Mode Selection Softkeys. A green GND indication and transponder code appear in the mode field of
the Transponder Data Box. In Ground Mode, the transponder does not allow Mode A and Mode C replies,
but it does permit acquisition squitter and replies to discretely addressed Mode S interrogations.
When Standby Mode has been selected on the ground, the transponder can be returned to Ground Mode
by selecting the GND Softkey.
GND
Mode
Figure 4-35 Ground Mode
Standby Mode (Manual)
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited.
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by selecting the STBY Softkey. In Standby, the transponder does
not reply to interrogations, but new codes can be entered. When Standby is selected, a white STBY indication
and transponder code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box. In all other modes, these fields
appear in green.
STBY Mode (White
Code Number and
Mode)
Figure 4-36 Standby Mode
Manual ON Mode
ON Mode can be selected at any time by selecting the ON Softkey. ON Mode generates Mode A and Mode S
replies, but Mode C altitude reporting is inhibited. In ON Mode, a green ON indication and transponder
code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
ON Mode
(No Altitude
Reporting)
Figure 4-37 ON Mode
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Altitude Mode (Automatic or Manual)
Altitude Mode is automatically selected when the aircraft becomes airborne. Altitude Mode may also be
selected manually by selecting the ALT Softkey.
If Altitude Mode is selected, a green ALT indication and transponder code appear in the mode field of the
Transponder Data Box, and all transponder replies requesting altitude information are provided with pressure
altitude information.
ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting)
Figure 4-38 Altitude Mode
Reply Status
When the transponder sends replies to interrogations, a white R indication appears momentarily in the
reply status field of the Transponder Data Box.
Reply to
Interrogation
Figure 4-39 Reply Indication
ADS-B TX MODE
The transmission of the ADS-B information is enabled/disabled by pressing the ADS-B TX Softkey. ADS-B
transimssion defaults to enabled at each power cycle. Do not disable ADS-B transmission unless requested
by ATC.
ADS-B Transmission
Enabled
Figure 4-40 Altitude Mode
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Entering a Transponder Code
Entering a transponder code with softkeys:
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Select the CODE Softkey to display the Transponder Code Selection Softkeys, for digit entry.
3) Select the digit softkeys to enter the code in the code field. When entering the code, the next softkey in sequence
must be selected within 10 seconds, or the entry is cancelled and restored to the previous code. Selecting the
BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the previous digit. Five seconds after the fourth digit has been
entered, the transponder code becomes active.
Entering
a Code
Figure 4-41 Entering a Code
Entering a transponder code with the PFD FMS Knob:
1) Select the XPDR and the CODE Softkeys as in the previous procedure to enable code entry.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the first two code digits.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
Pressing the CLR Key or small FMS Knob before code entry is complete cancels code entry and restores the
previous code. Waiting for 10 seconds after code entry is finished activates the code automatically.
Turn the Small
FMS Knob to
Enter Two Code
Digits at a Time
Press the ENT Key
to Complete Code
Entry
Turn the Large
FMS Knob to
Move the Cursor
to the Next
Code Field
Figure 4-42 Entering a Code with the FMS Knob
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Manual code entry from the Control Unit
1) Press the XPDR Key to select the transponder code field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob on the PFD to enter the first two code digits, turn the large FMS Knob to select the
last two digits, and turn the small FMS Knob to enter the last two code digits.
Or:
Press the numeric keys on the keypad to enter a code.
If an error is made during code entry with the numeric keypad, pressing the BKSP Key moves the cursor
back one space. If an incorrect code is entered, reenter the correct one using the same procedure.
Third, Press ENT Key to
Complete Code Entry
Second, Turn the FMS Knob, Small
Knob to Enter Two Code Digits at a
Time, Large Knob to Move the Cursor
to the Next Code Field, or Press the
Numeric Keys to Enter a Code into the
Transponder Data Box
First, Press the XPDR Key to
Activate Code Entry from the
FMS Knob or Numeric Keypad
into the Transponder Data Box
Figure 4-43 Transponder Code Entry from the Control Unit
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VFR Code
The VFR code can be entered either manually or by selecting the XPDR Softkey, then the VFR Softkey.
When the VFR Softkey is selected, the pre-programmed VFR code is automatically displayed in the code field
of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting the VFR Softkey again restores the previous identification code.
The pre-programmed VFR Code is set at the factory to 1200. If a VFR code change is required, contact a
Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
VFR Code
Figure 4-44 VFR Code
IDENT Function
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT Softkey is inoperative.
Selecting the IDENT Softkey sends a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The indication
distinguishes the identing transponder from all the others on the air traffic controller’s screen. The IDENT
Softkey appears on all levels of transponder softkeys. When the IDENT Softkey is selected, a green IDNT
indication is displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for a duration of 18 seconds.
After the IDENT Softkey is selected while in Mode or Code Selection, the system reverts to the top-level
softkeys.
IDNT
Indication
Select the
IDENT Softkey
to Initiate the
ID Function
Figure 4-45 IDENT Softkey and Indication
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4.5Additional Audio Panel Functions
Power-Up
The Audio Panels perform a self-test during power-up. During the self-test all Audio Panel annunciator lights
illuminate for approximately two seconds. Once the self-test is completed, most of the settings are restored to
those in use before the unit was last turned off. The exceptions are the speaker and intercom, which are always
selected during power up.
Mono/Stereo Headsets
Stereo headsets are recommended for use in this aircraft.
Using a monaural headset in a stereo jack shorts the right headset channel output to ground. While this does
not damage the Audio Panel, a person listening on a monaural headset hears only the left channel in both ears.
If a monaural headset is used at one of the passenger positions, any other passenger using a stereo headset hears
audio in the left ear only.
Speaker
NOTE: When the oxygen mask switch on the instrument panel is selected, each pilot’s microphone audio is
heard on the cross-side speaker. The on-side speaker is also enabled and cannot be deselected.
Each Audio Panel is connected to a separate flight deck speaker for listening to all of the radios. Each SPKR
Key controls the on-side speaker unless oxygen masks are in use. During oxygen mask use the on-side speaker
is always enabled.
Pressing the SPKR Key selects and deselects the speaker. Except for oxygen mask use, speaker audio is
muted when the PTT Key is pressed.
Figure 4-46 Speaker Key
Unmuted Inputs
Aural alerts are always present on the headset and are on the speaker when the SPKR is selected. These
warnings and the aircraft radios are not heard on the passenger headphones.
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Intercom
Pressing the INTR COM Key on either Audio Panel selects and deselects the intercom on both Audio Panels.
The annunciator is lit when the intercom is active. The intercom connects the pilot and copilot together. Either
the pilot or copilot may select or deselect the intercom.
The CABIN Key initiates two way communication between the pilot or copilot and the passengers in the
cabin. The annunciator is lit when the cabin intercom is active on either Audio Panel.
When the flight crew wants to communicate with the passengers, the pilot or copilot presses the CABIN
Key to signal that communication is desired. The cabin signal must be acknowledged to begin intercom
conversation.
When the passengers want to communicate with the pilot/copilot, they press the HAIL Key at their seat in
the cabin. The CABIN annunciator flashes on both Audio Panels to signal the pilot and copilot that cabin
communication is desired. The hail signal must be acknowledged by pressing the CABIN Key to begin intercom
conversation.
The MAN SQ Key allows either automatic or manual control of the intercom squelch setting. Pressing the
MAN SQ Key enables manual squelch control, indicated by the MAN SQ annunciator.
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is extinguished (Automatic Squelch is on), the ICS Knob controls only the
volume (pressing the ICS Knob has no effect on the VOL/SQ selection).
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is illuminated (Manual Squelch), the ICS Knob controls either volume or
squelch (selected by pressing the ICS Knob and indicated by the VOL or SQ annunciation).
Manual Squelch
Annunciator; Off
for Automatic
Squelch, On for
Manual Squelch
Cabin Annunciator; On for
Cabin Intercom, Flashes for
Cabin to Flight Deck Hail
Selects and Deselects
Cabin Intercom
Pilot/Copilot
ICS
Press to switch
between VOL and SQ.
Turn to adjust Squelch
when SQ Annunciation
is lit, Volume when
VOL Annunciation is lit.
Master Volume
Control for Pilot
Side or Copilot
Side
Volume Annunciation
Squelch Annunciation
Figure 4-47 Intercom Controls
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Passenger Address (PA) System
A passenger address system is provided by pressing the PA Key to deliver messages to the passengers. The
message is heard by the other pilot on the headset only if the INTR COM Key is enabled. PA messages are one
way from the flight deck to the passengers.
A Push-to-talk (PTT) must be pressed to deliver PA announcements to the passengers over their
headphones.
When PA is selected on the Audio Panel, the annunciator flashes about once per second while pressing the
PTT, the COM MIC annunciator is no longer lit, and the active COM frequency for that Audio Panel changes to
white, indicating that there is no COM selected.
PA Key is Selected on
the Audio Panel
Figure 4-48 PA Key Selected for Cabin Announcements
Simultaneous COM Operation
Both the pilot and the copilot can transmit and receive simultaneously over separate COM radios. The
selected COM MIC Annunciator flashes when either pilot’s microphone PTT is pressed.
If both pilots select the same COM radio, the pilot has priority on COM1 and the copilot has priority on
COM2.
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Clearance Recorder and Player
NOTE: Pressing the play key on the pilot’s Audio Panel plays recorded audio to the Pilot. Pressing the play
key on the Copilot’s Audio Panel plays recorded audio to the Copilot.
The Audio Panel contains a digital clearance recorder that continually records up to 2.5 minutes of the
selected COM radio signal. Recorded COM audio is stored in separate memory blocks. Once 2.5 minutes of
recording time have been reached, the recorder begins recording over the stored memory blocks, starting from
the oldest block.
The PLAY Key controls the play function. The PLAY annunciator remains lit to indicate when play is in
progress. The PLAY annunciator turns off after playback is finished.
Pressing the PLAY Key once plays the latest recorded memory block and then returns to normal operation.
Pressing the PLAY Key again during play of a memory block stops play. If a COM input signal is detected
during play of a recorded memory block, play is halted.
Pressing the PLAY Key twice within one-half second while audio is playing plays the previous block of
recorded audio. Each subsequent two presses of the PLAY Key within one-half second backtracks through the
recorded memory blocks to reach and play any recorded block.
Powering off the unit automatically clears all recorded blocks.
PLAY Key
Controls the
Play Function
Figure 4-49 Play Key
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4.6Audio Panels Preflight Procedure
NOTE: If the flight crew is using headsets that have a high/low switch or volume control knob, verify that
the switch is in the high position and the volume control on the headsets are at max volume setting. On
single‑pilot flights, verify that all other headsets are not connected to avoid excess noise in the audio
system.
NOTE: When the MAN SQ Key is pressed, the flight crew is now able to set the ICS squelch manually. If
manual squelch is set to full open (SQ annunciated and the small knob turned counterclockwise) background
noise is heard in the ICS system as well as during COM transmissions.
After powering up the G1000 system the following steps aid the flight crew in maximizing the use of the Audio
Panels as well as prevent flight crew induced issues. These preflight procedures should be performed each time a
flight crew boards the aircraft to insure awareness of all audio levels in the Audio Panels and radios.
Automatic/Manual
Squelch
Pilot/Copilot
ICS
Cabin ICS
Master Volume
Control
ICS Volume and
Squelch Control
Volume Annunciation
Squelch Annunciation
Reversionary Mode
for PFD1 and MFD
Reversionary Mode
for PFD2 and MFD
Pilot Side
Copilot Side
Figure 4-50 Audio Panel Controls
Independent radio volume adjustments made using the PFD controls affect only the audio output for each
radio selected for adjustment. Radio volume adjustment affects both crew positions equally for each radio that
is adjusted. Turning the master volume control located on either Audio Panel affects only the audio heard in the
corresponding crew position headset. Thus, radio volume adjustments may be overridden by each crew position
independently using the master volume control on the Audio Panel for the respective crew position. The master
volume control for each Audio Panel affects all other system audio output for the pilot or copilot headset.
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Setting the Audio Panels during preflight:
1) Verify that the INTR COM Key is selected.
2) Verify manual squelch is set to minimum.
3) Turn the MSTR Knob (Master Volume Control) on both Audio Panels clockwise two full turns. This sets the
headset audio level to max volume (least amount of attenuation).
4) Adjust radio volume levels (COM, NAV, etc.) to a suitable level.
5) Adjust the ICS volume Knob on each Audio Panel to the desired intercom level.
6) Reset squelch to automatic, or adjust to the appropriate level manually.
Once this procedure has been completed, the master volume controls on both Audio Panels may now be
adjusted. The flight crew can change settings, keeping in mind the notes above.
Pilot Master
Volume Control
Radio Volume
Knobs Adjust
Radio Level
Master Volume
Knobs Adjust
Headphone
Volume Level
COM Radio
Audio
NAV Radio
Audio
Copilot Master
Volume Control
Figure 4-51 Radio and Headphone Volume Controls
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4.7Abnormal Operation
Abnormal operation of the G1000 includes equipment failures of the G1000 components and failure of
associated equipment, including switches and external devices.
Stuck Microphone
If the push-to-talk (PTT) Key becomes stuck, the COM transmitter stops transmitting after 35 seconds of
continuous operation. An alert appears on the PFD to advise the crew of a stuck microphone.
The COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key Annunciator on the Audio Panel flashes as long as the PTT Key remains
stuck.
Figure 4-52 Stuck Microphone Alert
COM Tuning Failure
In case of a COM system tuning failure, the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) is automatically tuned in
the radio in which the tuning failure occurred.
Emergency Channel
Loaded Automatically
Figure 4-53 COM Tuning Failure
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PFD Failure, Dual System
If PFD1 fails, COM1 and NAV1 display a red X on both remaining displays. NAV1 is unavailable. COM1
automatically tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM1 emergency frequency is available
to both the copilot and pilot.
Emergency Channel
Loaded Automatically
Figure 4-54 Frequency Section of PFD2 Display after PFD1 Failure
If PFD2 fails, COM2 and NAV2 display a red X on the remaining PFD display. NAV2 is unavailable. COM2
tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM2 emergency frequency is available to both the
copilot and pilot.
Figure 4-55 PFD1 Display after PFD2 Failure
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Audio Panel Fail-Safe Operation
If there is a failure of both Audio Panels, a fail-safe circuit connects the pilot’s headset and microphone directly
to the COM1 transceiver and the copilot’s headset directly to the COM2 transceiver. Audio is not available on
the speakers.
If there is a failure of one Audio Panel, the remaining one does not have access to the others side’s COM and
NAV. For example, if the pilot side Audio Panel fails, the copilot side Audio Panel has access to all the radios
except for COM1 and NAV1.
Reversionary Mode
The red DISPLAY BACKUP Button selects the PFD/MFD Reversionary Mode. See the System Overview
Section for more information on Reversionary Mode.
Figure 4-56 Reversionary Mode Button
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Section 5 Flight Management
5.1Introduction
The G1000 is an integrated flight, engine, communication, navigation and surveillance system. This section of
the Pilot’s Guide explains flight management using the G1000.
The most prominent part of the G1000 are the three full color displays: two Primary Flight Displays (PFD) and
a Multi Function Display (MFD). The information to successfully navigate the aircraft using the GPS sensors is
displayed on the PFD and the MFD. See examples in the Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2. Detailed descriptions of GPS
navigation functions are discussed later in this section.
A brief description of the GPS navigation data on the PFD and MFD follows.
Navigation mode indicates which sensor is providing the course data (e.g., GPS, VOR) and the flight plan phase
(e.g., Departure (DPRT), Terminal (TERM), Enroute (ENR), Oceanic (OCN), Approach (LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV,
or LPV), or Missed Approach (MAPR)).
The Inset Map is a small version of the MFD Navigation Map and can be displayed in the lower left corner of
the PFD. When the system is in reversionary mode, the Inset Map is displayed in the lower right corner. The
Inset Map is displayed by pressing the INSET Softkey. Pressing the INSET Softkey again, then pressing the OFF
Softkey removes the Inset Map.
The Navigation Map displays aviation data (e.g., airports, VORs, airways, airspaces), geographic data (e.g.,
cities, lakes, highways, borders), topographic data (map shading indicating elevation), and hazard data (e.g.,
traffic, terrain, weather). The amount of displayed data can be reduced by selecting the DCLTR Softkey. The
Navigation Map can be oriented four different ways: North Up (NORTH UP), Track Up (TRK UP), Desired Track
Up (DTK UP), or Heading Up (HDG UP).
An aircraft icon is placed on the Navigation Map at the location corresponding to the calculated present position.
The aircraft position and the flight plan legs are accurately based on GPS calculations. The basemap upon which
these are placed are from a source with less resolution, therefore the relative position of the aircraft to map features
is not exact. The leg of the active flight plan currently being flown is shown as a magenta line on the navigation
map. The other legs are shown in white.
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 500 feet to 2000 nm. The current range is indicated in the
lower right corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. To change the map
range on any map, turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to zoom in ( -, decreasing), or clockwise to zoom out (+,
increasing).
The Direct-to Window, the Flight Plan Window, the Procedures Window, and the Nearest Airports Window
can be displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Details of these windows are discussed in detail later in
the section.
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Navigation Status Box
Navigation Mode
Inset Map
Location of:
- Direct To Window
- Flight Plan Window
- Procedures Window
- Nearest Airports Window
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD
Navigation Status Box
Map Orientation
Navigation Page Title
Navigation Map
- Aviation Data
- Geographic Data
- Topographic Data
- Hazard Data
Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Active Flight Plan Leg
Map Range
Figure 5-2 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Page
Navigation Status Box
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the PFD contains two fields displaying the following
information:
PFD Navigation Status Box
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• Active flight plan leg (e.g., ‘D-> KICT’ or ‘KIXD ->
KCOS’) or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘Turn
right to 021˚ in 8 seconds’)
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the
MFD contains four data fields, each displaying one of
the following items:
• Distance (DIS) and Bearing (BRG) to the next
waypoint or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘TOD
within 1 minute’)
• Bearing (BRG)
The symbols used in the PFD status bar are:
Symbol
Description
Active Leg
Direct-to
Right Procedure Turn
Left Procedure Turn
Right Holding Pattern
• Distance (DIS)
• Desired Track (DTK)
• Endurance (END)
• Enroute Safe Altitude (ESA)
• Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA)
• Estimated Time Enroute (ETE)
• Fuel on Board (FOB)
• Fuel over Destination (FOD)
• Ground Speed (GS)
• Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA)
Left Holding Pattern
• True Air Speed (TAS)
Vector to Final
• Track Angle Error (TKE)
Right DME Arc
Left DME Arc
• Track (TRK)
• Vertical Speed Required (VSR)
• Crosstrack Error (XTK)
MFD Navigation Status Box
The navigation information displayed in the four data fields can be selected on the MFD Data Bar Fields Box
on the AUX - System Setup Page. The default selections (in order left to right) are GS, DTK, TRK, and ETE.
Changing a field in the MFD Navigation Status Box:
1) Select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the MFD Data Bar Fields Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the data options list.
5) Select the desired data.
6) Press the ENT Key. Selecting the DFLTS Softkey returns all fields to the default setting.
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5.2Using Map Displays
Map displays are used extensively in the G1000 to provide situational awareness in flight. Most G1000 maps
can display the following information:
• Airports, NAVAIDs, airspaces, airways, land data
(highways, cities, lakes, rivers, borders, etc.) with
names
• Map Pointer information (distance and bearing to
pointer, location of pointer, name, and other pertinent
information)
• Aircraft icon (representing present position)
• Nav range ring
• Fuel range ring
• Flight plan legs
• User waypoints
• Map range
• Track vector
• Wind direction and speed
• Topography scale
• Map orientation
• Topography data
• Icons for enabled map features
• Obstacle data
The information in this section applies to the following maps unless otherwise noted:
• All Map Group Pages (MAP)
• Flight Plan Pages (FPL)
• All Waypoint Group Pages (WPT)
• Direct-to Window
• AUX - Trip Planning
• PFD Inset Map
• All Nearest Group Pages (NRST)
• Procedure Loading Pages
Map Orientation
Maps are shown in one of four different orientation options, allowing flexibility in determining aircraft
position relative to other items on the map (north up) or for determining where map items are relative to where
the aircraft is going (track up, desired track up, or heading up). The map orientation is shown in the upper
right corner of the map.
Figure 5-3 Map Orientation
• North up (NORTH UP) aligns the top of the map display to north (default setting).
• Track up (TRK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current ground track.
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• Desired track up (DTK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the desired course.
• Heading up (HDG UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current aircraft heading.
Note: When panning or reviewing active flight plan legs in a non-North Up orientation, the map does not
show the map orientation nor the wind direction and speed.
Note: Map orientation can only be changed on the Navigation Map Page. Any other displays that show
navigation data reflect the orientation selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Changing the Navigation Map orientation:
1) With the Navigation Map Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
Map Setup
Selection
Figure 5-4 Navigation Map Page Menu Window
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Map Setup Window.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob, or press the ENT Key once, to select the ‘ORIENTATION’ field.
Map Group Selection
Orientation Field
Figure 5-5 Map Setup Menu Window - Map Group
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4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired orientation.
5) Press the ENT Key to select the new orientation.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the base page.
Map Range
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 500 feet to 2000 nm. The current range is indicated in
the lower right corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. When the
map range is decreased to a point that exceeds the capability of the G1000 to accurately represent the map,
a magnifying glass icon is shown to the left of the map range. To change the map range turn the Joystick
counter-clockwise to decrease the range, or clockwise to increase the range.
Range Overzoom
Figure 5-6 Map Range
Auto Zoom
Auto zoom allows the G1000 to change the map display range to the smallest range clearly showing the
active waypoint. Auto zoom can be overridden by adjusting the range with the Joystick, and remains until
the active waypoint changes, a terrain or traffic alert occurs, the aircraft takes off, or the manual override times
out (timer set on Map Setup Window).
If a terrain caution or warning occurs, any map page displaying TAWS/TERRAIN data automatically adjusts
to the smallest map range clearly showing the highest priority alert. If a new traffic advisory alert occurs, any
map page capable of displaying traffic advisory alerts automatically adjusts to the smallest map range clearly
showing the traffic advisory. When terrain or traffic alerts clear, the map returns to the previous auto zoom
range based on the active waypoint.
The auto zoom function can be turned on or off independently for the PFDs and MFD. Control of the
ranges at which the auto zoom occurs is done by setting the minimum and maximum ‘look forward’ times
(set on the Map Setup Window for the Map Group). These settings determine the minimum and maximum
distance to display based upon the aircraft’s ground speed.
• Waypoints that are long distances apart cause the map range to increase to a point where many details on
the map are decluttered. If this is not acceptable, lower the maximum look ahead time to a value that limits
the auto zoom to an acceptable range.
• Waypoints that are very short distances apart cause the map range to decrease to a point where situational
awareness may not be what is desired. Increase the minimum look ahead time to a value that limits the auto
zoom to a minimum range that provides acceptable situational awareness.
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• Flight plans that have a combination of long and short legs cause the range to increase and decrease as
waypoints sequence. To avoid this, auto zoom can be disabled or the maximum/minimum times can be
adjusted.
• The ‘time out’ time (configurable on the Map Setup Page for the Map Group) determines how long auto
zoom is overridden by a manual adjustment of the range knob. At the expiration of this time, the auto
zoom range is restored. Setting the ‘time out’ value to zero causes the manual override to never time out.
• When the maximum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the upper limit becomes the maximum range available
(2000 nm).
• When the minimum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the lower limit becomes 1.5 nm.
Auto Zoom:
Off, MFD Only, PFD Only, All On
Manual Range Override
Expiration Time
Maximum Look Forward Time
Minimum Look Forward Time
Figure 5-7 Map Setup Menu Window - Map Group, Auto Zoom
Configuring automatic zoom:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘AUTO ZOOM’ field.
6) Select ‘Off’, ‘MFD Only’, ‘PFD Only’, or ‘ALL On’.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘MAX LOOK FWD’ field.
Times are from zero to 999 minutes.
8) Use the FMS Knobs to set the time. Press the ENT Key.
9) Repeat step 8 for ‘MIN LOOK FWD’ (zero to 99 minutes) and ‘TIME OUT’ (zero to 99 minutes).
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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Map Panning
Map panning allows the pilot to:
• View parts of the map outside the displayed range without adjusting the map range
• Highlight and select locations on the map
• Review information for a selected airport, NAVAID or user waypoint
• Designate locations for use in flight planning
• View airspace and airway information
When the panning function is selected by pressing the Joystick, the Map Pointer flashes on the map display.
A window also appears at the top of the map display showing the latitude/longitude position of the pointer,
the bearing and distance to the pointer from the aircraft’s present position, and the elevation of the land at the
position of the pointer.
Map Pointer Information
Map Pointer
Figure 5-8 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
Note: The map is normally centered on the aircraft’s position. If the map has been panned and there has
been no pointer movement for about 60 seconds, the map reverts back to centered on the aircraft position
and the flashing pointer is removed.
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When the Map Pointer is placed on an object, the name of the object is highlighted (even if the name was
not originally displayed on the map). When any map feature or object is selected on the map display, pertinent
information is displayed.
Information about Point
of Interest
Map Pointer on
POI
Figure 5-9 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
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When the Map Pointer crosses an airspace boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace information
is shown at the top of the display. The information includes the name and class of airspace, the ceiling in feet
above Mean Sea Level (MSL), and the floor in feet MSL.
Information about
Airspace
Map Pointer on
Airspace
Figure 5-10 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Airspace
Panning the map:
1) Press the Joystick to display the Map Pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to move the Map Pointer around the map.
3) Press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and recenter the map on the aircraft’s current position.
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Reviewing information for an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint:
1) Place the Map Pointer on a waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Waypoint Information Page for the selected waypoint.
3) Select the GO BACK Softkey, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the Waypoint Information Page and return to
the Navigation Map showing the selected waypoint.
NAVAID
Information
GO BACK Softkey
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Information Window - NAVAID
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Viewing airspace information for a special-use or controlled airspace:
1) Place the Map Pointer on an open area within the boundaries of an airspace.
2) Press the ENT Key to display an options menu.
3) ‘Review Airspaces?’ should already be highlighted, if not select it. Press the ENT Key to display the Airspace
Information Page for the selected airspace.
4) Press the CLR or ENT Key to exit the Airspace Information Page.
Airspace
Information
Figure 5-12 Navigation Map - Information Window - Airspace
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Measuring Bearing and Distance
Distance and bearing from the aircraft’s present position to any point on the viewable navigation map may be
calculated using the ‘Measure Bearing and Distance’ selection from Navigation Map page menu. The bearing
and distance tool displays a dashed Measurement Line and a Measure Pointer to aid in graphically identifying
points with which to measure. Lat/Long, distance and elevation data for the Measure Pointer is provided in a
window at the top of the navigation map.
Measuring bearing and distance between any two points:
1) Press the MENU Key (with the Navigation Map Page displayed).
2) Highlight the ‘Measure Bearing/Distance’ field.
3) Press the ENT Key. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present position.
4) Move the Joystick to place the reference pointer at the desired location. The bearing and distance are displayed
at the top of the map. Elevation at the current pointer position is also displayed. Pressing the ENT Key changes
the starting point for measuring.
5) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance option, press the Joystick; or select ‘Stop Measuring’ from the Page
Menu and press the ENT Key.
Measurement
Information
Pointer Lat/Long
Measurement Line
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Measuring Bearing and Distance
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Topography
All navigation maps can display various shades of topography colors representing land elevation, similar
to aviation sectional charts. Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following
procedures. Topographic data can also be displayed on the selectable profile map at the bottom of the navigation
map (the profile map is not available if TAWS-A is configured).
Navigation Map
Topographic Data
Navigation Map
Black Background
TOPO Softkey
Not Enabled
Topographic Data
on Profile Map
TOPO Softkey
Enabled
TOPO Off
TOPO On
Figure 5-14 Navigation Map - Topographic Data
Displaying/removing topographic data on all pages displaying navigation maps:
1) Select the MAP Softkey (the INSET Softkey for the PFD Inset Map).
2) Select the TOPO Softkey.
3) Select the TOPO Softkey again to remove topographic data from the Navigation Map. When topographic data
is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data (TOPO DATA) using the Navigation Map Page Menu:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘TOPO DATA’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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TOPO DATA
On/Off
TOPO DATA
Range
Figure 5-15 Navigation Map Setup Menu - TOPO DATA Setup
The topographic data range is the maximum map range on which topographic data is displayed.
Note: Since the PFD Inset Map is much smaller than the MFD navigation maps, items are removed on the
PFD Inset Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the Map Setup pages (e.g., a setting
of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD navigation maps, while the PFD Inset Map
removes the same item at 50 nm).
Selecting a topographical data range (TOPO DATA):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘TOPO DATA’ range field. TOPO ranges are from 500 ft to 2000 nm.
6) To change the TOPO range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
7) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
In addition, the Navigation Map can display a topographic scale (located in the lower right hand side of the
map) showing a scale of the terrain elevation and current elevation values.
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Maximum Displayed Elevation
Minimum Displayed Elevation
Aircraft Altitude (MSL)
Range of
Displayed
Elevations
Ground Elevation at Map Pointer
Location (only visible when Map
Pointer is displayed)
Figure 5-16 Navigation Map - TOPO SCALE
Displaying/removing the topographic scale (TOPO SCALE):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group and select the ENT Key.
4) Highlight the ‘TOPO SCALE’ field.
5) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
TOPO SCALE
On/Off
Figure 5-17 Navigation Map Setup Menu - TOPO SCALE Setup
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Map Symbols
This section discusses the types of land and aviation symbols that can be displayed. Each listed type of symbol
can be turned on or off, and the maximum range to display each symbol can be set. The decluttering of the
symbols from the map using the DCLTR Softkey is also discussed.
Land Symbols
The following items are configured on the land menu:
Land Symbols
(Text label size can be None, Small, Medium (Med), or Large
(Lrg))
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Latitude/Longitude (LAT/LON)
Off
2000
Interstate Highway (FREEWAY)
300
800
International Highway (FREEWAY)
300
800
US Highway (NATIONAL HWY)
30
80
State Highway (LOCAL HWY)
15
30
8
15
Railroads (RAILROAD)
15
30
LARGE CITY (> 200,000)
800
1500
MEDIUM CITY (> 50,000)
100
200
SMALL CITY (> 5,000)
States and Provinces (STATE/PROV)
20
800
50
1500
Rivers and Lakes (RIVER/LAKE)
200
500
USER WAYPOINT
150
300
Highways and Roads
Local Road (LOCAL ROAD)
N/A
Table 5-1 Land Symbol Information
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Aviation Symbols
The following items are configured on the aviation menu:
Aviation Symbols
(Text label size can be None, Small, Medium (Med),
or Large (Lrg))
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Active Flight Plan Leg (ACTIVE FPL)
2000
2000
Non-active Flight Plan Leg (ACTIVE FPL)
2000
2000
2000
250
150
50
3
Off
15
2000
500
300
100
20
100
30
Non-directional Beacon (NDB WAYPOINT)
15
30
VOR (VOR WAYPOINT)
150
300
Class B Airspace/TMA (CLASS B/TMA)
200
500
Class C Airspace/TCA (CLASS C/TCA)
200
500
Class D Airspace (CLASS D)
150
300
Restricted Area (RESTRICTED)
200
500
Military Operations Area [MOA(MILITARY)]
200
500
Other/Air Defense Interdiction Zone (OTHER/ADIZ)
200
500
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
500
2000
Active Flight Plan Waypoint (ACTIVE FPL WPT)
Large Airports (LARGE APT)
Medium Airports (MEDIUM APT)
Small Airports (SMALL APT)
Taxiways (SAFETAXI)
Runway Extension (RWY EXTENSION)
Intersection (INT WAYPOINT)
See Airports, NAVAIDs
See Additional Features
N/A
Table 5-2 Aviation Symbol Information
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Symbol Setup
All pages with maps can display land symbols (roads, lakes, borders, etc). Land symbols can be removed
totally (turned off).
Displaying/removing all land symbols:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The Page Menu is displayed and the cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Group Menu is displayed and the cursor flashes on the ‘Map’ option.
3) Highlight the ‘LAND DATA’ field.
4) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
LAND DATA
On/Off
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map Setup Menu - LAND DATA Setup
The label size (TEXT) sets the size at which labels appear on the display (none, small, medium, and large).
The range (RNG) sets the maximum range at which items appear on the display.
Selecting a ‘Land’ or ‘Aviation’ group item text size and range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Land’ or ‘Aviation’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Select the desired land option.
6) Select the desired text size.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected size.
8) Select the desired range.
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9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected range.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Text Label Size
(None, Small, Med, or Lrg)
Maximum Display Range
Figure 5-19 Navigation Map Setup Menu - LAND GROUP Setup
Text Label Size
(None, Small, Med, or Lrg)
Maximum Display Range
Figure 5-20 Navigation Map Setup Menu - AVIATION GROUP Setup
Note: Since the PFD Inset Map is much smaller than the MFD navigation maps, items are removed on the
PFD Inset Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the Map Setup pages (e.g., a setting
of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD navigation maps, while the PFD Inset Map
removes the same item at 50 nm).
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Map Declutter
The declutter feature allows the pilot to progressively step through four levels of removing map information.
The declutter level is displayed in the DCLTR Softkey and next to the Declutter Menu Option.
Declutter Level
DCLTR Softkey
Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 5-21 Navigation Map - Declutter Level Indications
Decluttering the map:
Select the DCLTR Softkey with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The current declutter level is shown. With
each softkey selection, another level of map information is removed.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed.
2) Select ‘Declutter’. The current declutter level is shown.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Decluttering the PFD Inset Map:
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
2) Select the DCLTR Softkey. The current declutter level is shown. With each selection, another level of map
information is removed.
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Table 5-3 lists the items displayed at each declutter level. The ‘X’ represents map items displayed for the
various levels of declutter.
Item
Flight Plan Route Lines
Flight Plan Route Waypoints
Rivers/Lakes
Topography Data
International Borders
Track Vector
Navigation Range Ring
Fuel Range Ring
Terrain Data
Traffic
Airways
NEXRAD
XM Lightning Data
Airports
Runway Labels
Restricted
MOA (Military)
User Waypoints
Latitude/Longitude Grid
NAVAIDs
Class B Airspaces/TMA
Class C Airspaces/TCA
Class D Airspaces
Other Airspaces/ADIZ
TFRs
Obstacles
Land/Country Text
Cities
Roads
Railroads
State/Province Boundaries
River/Lake Names
No Declutter Declutter-1 Declutter-2 Declutter-3
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Table 5-3 Navigation Map Items Displayed by Declutter Level
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Airways
This airways discussion is based upon the North American airway structure. The airway structure in places
other than North America vary by location, etc. and are not discussed in this book. Low Altitude Airways (or
Victor Airways) primarily serve smaller piston-engine, propeller-driven airplanes on shorter routes and at lower
altitudes. Airways are eight nautical miles wide and start 1,200 feet above ground level (AGL) and extend up
to 18,000 feet mean sea level (MSL). Low Altitude Airways are designated with a “V” before the airway number
(hence the name “Victor Airways”) since they run primarily between VORs.
High Altitude Airways (or Jet Routes) primarily serve airliners, jets, turboprops, and turbocharged piston
aircraft operating above 18,000 feet MSL. Jet Routes start at 18,000 feet MSL and extend upward to 45,000 feet
MSL (altitudes above 18,000 feet are called “flight levels” and are described as FL450 for 45,000 feet MSL). Jet
Routes are designated with a “J” before the route number.
Low Altitude Airways are drawn in gray (the same shade used for roads). High Altitude Airways are drawn
in green. When both types of airways are displayed, High Altitude Airways are drawn on top of Low Altitude
Airways.
When airways are selected for display on the map, the airway waypoints (VORs, NDBs and Intersections) are
also displayed.
Low Altitude
Airway
(Victor Airway)
High Altitude
Airway
(Jet Route)
Figure 5-22 Airways on MFD Navigation Page
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Airways may be displayed on the map at the pilot’s discretion using either a combination of AIRWAYS Softkey
selections, or menu selections using the MENU Key from the Navigation Map Page. The Airway range can also
be programmed to only display Airways on the MFD when the map range is at or below a specific number.
Displaying/removing airways:
1) Select the MAP Softkey.
2) Select the AIRWAYS Softkey. Both High and Low Altitude Airways are displayed (AIRWY ON).
3) Select the softkey again to display Low Altitude Airways only (AIRWY LO).
4) Select the softkey again to display High Altitude Airways only (AIRWY HI).
5) Select the softkey again to remove High Altitude Airways. No airways are displayed (AIRWAYS).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘AIRWAYS’ field.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Off’, ‘All’, ‘LO Only’, or ‘HI Only’, and press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Airway Display Selection
Off, All, LO Only, HI Only
Low Altitude Airway Range
High Altitude Airway Range
Figure 5-23 Navigation Map Setup Menu - AIRWAYS Setup
The airway range is the maximum map range on which airways are displayed.
Selecting an airway range (LOW ALT AIRWAY or HI ALT AIRWAY):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Highlight the ‘LOW ALT AIRWAY’ or ‘HI ALT AIRWAY’ range field.
5) To change the range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
6) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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The following range items are configurable on the airways menu:
Airway Type
Symbol
Low Altitude Airway (LOW ALT AIRWAY)
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
200
500
High Altitude Airway (HI ALT AIRWAY)
300
500
Table 5-4 Airway Range Information
Track Vector
The Navigation Map can display a track vector that is useful in minimizing track angle error. The track vector
is a solid light blue line segment extended to a predicted location. The track vector look-ahead time is selectable
(30 sec, 60 sec (default), 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min) and determines the length of the track vector. The track
vector shows up to 90 degrees of a turn for the 30 and 60 second time settings.
Track Vector
Figure 5-24 Navigation Map -Track Vector
Displaying/removing the track vector:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘TRACK VECTOR’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’. Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the look
ahead time field. Use the FMS Knob to select the desired time. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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Wind Vector On/Off
Nav Range Ring On/Off
Track Vector
- On/Off
- Look Ahead Time
Fuel Range
- On/Off
- Fuel Reserve Time
Figure 5-25 Navigation Map Setup Menu -TRACK VECTOR, WIND VECTOR, NAV RANGE RING, FUEL RANGE RING Setup
Wind Vector
The map displays a wind vector arrow in the upper right-hand portion of the screen. Wind vector information
is displayed as a white arrow pointing in the direction in which the wind is moving for wind speeds greater than
or equal to 1 kt.
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
Figure 5-26 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
Note: The wind vector is not displayed until the aircraft is moving. It is not displayed on the Waypoint
Information pages.
Displaying/removing the wind vector:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘WIND VECTOR’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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Nav Range Ring
The Nav Range Ring shows the direction of travel (ground track) on a rotating compass card. The range is
determined by the map range. The range is 1/4 of the map range (e.g., 7.5 nm on a 30 nm map).
Range (radius)
Nav Range Ring
Figure 5-27 Navigation Map - Nav Range Ring
Note: The Nav Range Ring is not displayed on the Waypoint Information pages, Nearest pages, or Direct-to
Window map.
Displaying/removing the Nav Range Ring:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘NAV RANGE RING’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Note: The Nav Range Ring is referenced to either magnetic or true north, based on the selection on the AUX
- System Setup Page.
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Fuel Range Ring
The map can display a fuel range ring which shows the remaining flight distance. A dashed green circle
indicates the selected range to reserve fuel. A solid green circle indicates the total endurance range. If only
reserve fuel remains, the range is indicated by a solid yellow circle.
Total Endurance Range
Time to Reserve Fuel
Range to Reserve Fuel
Figure 5-28 Navigation Map - Fuel Range Ring
Displaying/removing the fuel range ring and selecting a fuel range time:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘FUEL RNG (RSV)’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Highlight the fuel reserve time field. This time should be set to the amount of flight time equal to the amount
of fuel reserve desired.
8) To change the reserve fuel time, enter a time (00:00 to 23:59; hours:minutes). The default setting is 00:45
minutes.
9) Press the ENT Key.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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Field of View (SVS)
The map can display the boundaries of the PFD Synthetic Vision System (SVS) lateral field of view. The field
of view is shown as two dashed lines forming a V shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map. This is only
available if SVS is installed on the aircraft.
Lateral Field
of View
Boundaries
Figure 5-29 Navigation Map - Field of View
Displaying/removing the field of view:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘FIELD OF VIEW’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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Selected Altitude Intercept Arc
The map can display the location along the current track where the aircraft will intercept the selected altitude.
The location will be shown as a light blue arc when the aircraft is actuallly climbing or descending.
Range to
Altitude Arc
Figure 5-30 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
Displaying/removing the selected altitude intercept arc:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘SEL ALT ARC’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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5.3 Waypoints
Waypoints are predetermined geographical positions (internal database) or pilot-entered positions, and are
used for all phases of flight planning and navigation.
Communication and navigation frequencies can be tuned “automatically” from various Waypoint Information
(WPT) pages, Nearest (NRST) pages, and the Nearest Airports Window (on PFD). This auto-tuning feature
simplifies frequency entry over manual tuning. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS section for details on autotuning.
Waypoints can be selected by entering the ICAO identifier, entering the name of the facility, or by entering
the city name. See the System Overview section for detailed instructions on entering data in the G1000. As a
waypoint identifier, facility name, or location is entered, the G1000’s Spell’N’Find™ feature scrolls through the
database, displaying those waypoints matching the characters which have been entered to that point. A direct-to
navigation leg to the selected waypoint can be initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key on any of the waypoint
pages.
Identifier Entry Field
City Entry Field
Facility
Entry Field
- Waypoint Identifier
- Type (symbol)
- Facility Name
- City
Entered Waypoint on
Map
Map Area Showing
Entered Waypoint
Waypoint Location
Figure 5-31 Waypoint Information Window
If duplicate entries exist for the entered facility name or location, additional entries may be viewed by continuing
to turn the small FMS Knob during the selection process. If duplicate entries exist for an identifier, a Duplicate
Waypoints Window is displayed when the ENT Key is pressed.
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Identifier with
Duplicates
Duplicate
Waypoints
Duplicate Message
Airports
Figure 5-32 Waypoint Information Window - Duplicate Identifier
Note: ‘North Up’ orientation on the Airport Information Page cannot be changed; the pilot needs to be
aware of proper orientation if the Navigation Map orientation is different from the Airport Information Page
Map.
The Airport Information Page is the first page in WPT group and allows the pilot to view airport information,
load frequencies (COM, NAV, and lighting), review runways, and review instrument procedures that may be
involved in the flight plan. See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information on loading frequencies
(auto-tuning). After engine startup, the Airport Information Page defaults to the airport where the aircraft is
located. After a flight plan has been loaded, it defaults to the destination airport. On a flight plan with multiple
airports, it defaults to the airport which is the current active waypoint.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the Airport Information
Page displays airport information in three boxes labeled ‘AIRPORT’, ‘RUNWAYS’, and ‘FREQUENCIES’. For
airports with multiple runways, information for each runway is available. This information is viewed on the
Airport Information Page by pressing the INFO softkey until INFO-1 is displayed.
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Airport Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
- Lat/Long/Elev
- Fuel Available
- Time Zone (UTC Offset)
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Airport
Runway Information
- Designation
- Length/Width/Surface
- Lighting Available
Airport/Runway
Diagram
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
- Availability
- Additional Information
Softkeys
Figure 5-33 Airport Information Page
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the Airport Information Page:
• Usage type: Public, Military, Private, or Heliport
• Runway surface type: Hard, Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft, Unknown, or Water
• Runway lighting type: No Lights, Part Time, Full Time, Unknown, or PCL Freq (for pilot-controlled
lighting)
• COM Availability: TX (transmit only), RX (receive only), PT (part time), i (additional information available)
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Airport Directory
Information
Airport Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
Softkeys
Figure 5-34 Airport Directory Page Example
The AOPA directory information is viewed on the Airport Directory Page by pressing the INFO softkey until
INFO-2 is displayed. The following are types of AOPA airport directory informantion shown (if available) on
the Airport Directory Page:
• Airport:
Identifier, Site
Number, Name, City, State
• Phones: Phone/Fax Numbers
• Hours: Facility Hours, Light
Hours, Tower Hours, Beacon
Hours
• Location: Sectional, Magnetic
Variation
• Frequencies: Type/Frequency
• Transportation:
Ground
Transportation Type Available
• Approach: Approach Facility
Name, Frequency, Frequency
Parameter
178
• Traffic Pattern Altitudes
(TPA): Aircraft Class/Altitude
• Weather:
Service Type,
Frequency, Phone Number
• Flight Service Station (FSS):
FSS Name, Phone Numbers
• Runway: Headings, Length,
Width, Obstructions, Surface
• Obstructions: General Airport
Obstructions
• Special
Operations
at
Airport
• Instrument
Approaches:
Published Approach, Freq.
• NAVAIDS: Type, Identifier,
Frequency, Radial, Distance
• Noise:
Noise Abatement
Procedures
• Charts: Low Altitude Chart
Number
• Services Available: Category,
Specific Service
• Notes: Airport Notes
• Pilot Controlled Lighting:
High/Med/Low Clicks/Second
• FBO:
Type, Frequencies,
Services, Fees, Fuel, Credit
Cards, Phone/Fax Numbers
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Selecting an airport for review by identifier, facility name, or location:
1) From the Airport Information Page, press the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Selecting a runway:
1) With the Airport Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘RUNWAYS’ Box, on the runway designator.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired runway (if more than one) for the selected airport.
4) To remove the flashing cursor, press the FMS Knob.
Viewing a destination airport:
From the Airport Information Page press the MENU Key. Select ‘View Destination Airport’. The Destination
Airport is displayed.
The Airport Frequencies Box uses the descriptions and abbreviations listed in the following table:
Communication Frequencies
Approach * Control
Pre-Taxi
Arrival *
CTA *
Radar
ASOS
Departure * Ramp
ATIS
Gate
Terminal *
AWOS
Ground
TMA *
Center
Helicopter
Tower
Class B *
Multicom
TRSA *
Class C *
Other
Unicom
Clearance
Navigation Frequencies
ILS
LOC
* May include Additional Information
Table 5-5 Airport Frequency Abbreviations
A departure, arrival, or approach can be loaded using the softkeys on the Airport Information Page. See the
Procedures section for details. METARs or TAFs applicable to the selected airport can be selected for display (see
the Hazard Avoidance section for details about weather).
The G1000 provides a NRST Softkey on the PFD, which gives the pilot quick access to nearest airport
information (very useful if an immediate landing is required). The Nearest Airports Window displays a list of
up to 25 of the nearest airports (three entries can be displayed at one time). If there are more than three they are
displayed in a scrollable list. If there are no nearest airports available, “NONE WITHIN 200NM” is displayed.
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Bearing/Distance to Airport
Airport Identifier/
Type
Approach Available
Length of Longest
Runway
COM Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Additional Airports
(within 200 nm)
NRST Softkey
Figure 5-35 Nearest Airports Window on PFD
Pressing the ENT Key displays the PFD Airport Information Window for the highlighted airport. Pressing the
ENT Key again returns to the Nearest Airports Window with the cursor on the next airport in the list. Continued
presses of the ENT Key sequences through the information pages for all airports in the Nearest Airports list.
Airport Information
- ID/Type/City
- Facility
Airport Information
- Usage/Time/Elev
- Region
Airport Information
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-36 Airport Information Window on PFD
The Nearest Airports Page on the MFD is first in the group of NRST pages because of its potential use in
the event of an in-flight emergency. In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and
surrounding area, the page displays nearest airport information in five boxes labeled ‘NEAREST AIRPORTS’,
‘INFORMATION’, ‘RUNWAYS’, ‘FREQUENCIES’, and ‘APPROACHES’.
The selected airport is indicated by a white arrow, and a dashed white line is drawn on the navigation map
from the aircraft position to the nearest airport. Up to four nearest airports, one runway, up to six frequencies,
and up to six approaches are visible at one time. If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled.
If there are no items for display in a boxed area, text indicating that fact is displayed. The currently selected
airport remains in the list until it is unselected.
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Nearest Airports
- ID/Type
- Bearing/Distance
Airport Information
- Facility/City/Elevation
Runway Information
- Designation/Surface
- Length/Width
Nearest Airport
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Airport
- Identification
- Frequency
Approaches Available
Window Selection
Softkeys
Figure 5-37 Nearest Airport Page
LD APR Softkey (only
available if an approach is
highlighted)
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the PFD:
1) Select the NRST Softkey to display the Nearest Airports Window. Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the airport identifier with the FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to display the Airport Information
Window.
3) To return to the Nearest Airports Window press the ENT Key (with the cursor on ‘BACK’) or press the CLR
Key. The cursor is now on the next airport in the nearest airports list. (Repeatedly pressing the ENT Key
moves through the airport list, alternating between the Nearest Airports Window and the Airport Information
Window.)
4) Press the CLR Key or the NRST Softkey to close the PFD Nearest Airports Window.
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the NRST page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Nearest Airports Page (it is the first page of the group, so it may already
be selected). If there are no Nearest Airports available, “NONE WITHIN 200 NM” is displayed.
3) Select the APT Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Airport Window’ and
press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘NEAREST AIRPORTS’ Box. The first airport in the nearest airports
list is highlighted.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport. (Pressing the ENT Key also moves to the next airport.)
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Viewing runway information for a specific airport:
1) With the Nearest Airports Page displayed, select the RNWY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select
Runway Window’; and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘RUNWAYS’ Box.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for frequency selection and the Procedures section for approaches.
The Nearest Airports Box on the System Setup Page defines the minimum runway length and surface type
used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on the MFD Nearest Airports Page. A minimum
runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways or runways that are
not appropriately surfaced from being displayed. Default settings are 0 feet (or meters) for runway length and
“HARD/SOFT” for runway surface type.
Selecting nearest airport surface matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the runway surface field in the Nearest Airports Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (ANY, HARD ONLY, HARD/SOFT).
5) Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Selecting nearest airport minimum runway length matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the minimum length field in the Nearest Airport Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the minimum runway length (zero to 25,000 feet) and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Nearest Airport Criteria
- Type of Runway Surface
- Minimum Runway Length
Figure 5-38 System Setup Page - Nearest Airport Selection Criteria
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Intersections
Note: The VOR displayed on the Intersection Information Page is the nearest VOR, not necessarily the VOR
used to define the intersection.
The Intersection Information Page is used to view information about intersections. In addition to displaying
a map of the currently selected intersection and surrounding area, the Intersection Information Page displays
intersection information in three boxes labeled ‘INTERSECTION’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘NEAREST VOR’.
Intersection Identifier
Intersection Info
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Intersection
- Region
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
Selected Intersection
Figure 5-39 Intersection Information Page
Selecting an intersection:
1) With the Intersection Information Page displayed, enter an identifier in the Intersection Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest Intersections Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest Intersection Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The Nearest Intersections Page can be used to quickly find an intersection close to the flight path. In addition
to displaying a map of the surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest intersections in
three boxes labeled ‘NEAREST INT’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘REFERENCE VOR’.
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The selected intersection is indicated by a white arrow. Up to sixteen intersections are visible at a time. If
there are more than can be shown, the list can be scrolled. If there are no items for display, text indicating that
fact is displayed.
Note: The list only includes waypoints that are within 200 nm.
Intersection Information
- Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to
intersection from
aircraft position
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Intersection
Intersection Lat/Long
Reference VOR Info
Nearest
Intersection
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- VOR Frequency
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
Figure 5-40 Nearest Intersections Page
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NDBs
The NDB Information Page is used to view information about NDBs. In addition to displaying a map of
the currently selected NDB and surrounding area, the page displays NDB information in four boxes labeled
‘NDB’, ‘INFORMATION’, ‘FREQUENCY’, and ‘NEAREST AIRPORT’.
NDB Identifier/Type
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
NDB
NDB Information
- Type
- Region
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
Selected NDB
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
Figure 5-41 NDB Information Page
Note: Compass locator (LOM, LMM): a low power, low or medium frequency radio beacon installed in
conjunction with the instrument landing system. When LOM is used, the locator is at the Outer Marker;
when LMM is used, the locator is at the Middle Marker.
Selecting an NDB:
1) With the NDB Information Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the NDB, or the city in which it’s
located in the NDB Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest NDB Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest NDB Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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The Nearest NDB Page can be used to quickly find a NDB close to the flight path. In addition to displaying
a map of the surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest NDBs in three boxes labeled
‘NEAREST NDB’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘FREQUENCY’.
A white arrow before the NDB identifier indicates the selected NDB. Up to sixteen NDBs are visible at a time.
If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. The list only includes waypoints that are within
200nm. If there are no NDBs in the list, text indicating that there are no nearest NDBs is displayed. If there are
no nearest NDBs in the list, the information and frequency fields are dashed.
NDB Identifier/Symbol
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
NDB
- Bearing/Distance to
NDB from aircraft
position
Nearest NDB
NDB Information
- Facility Name/City
- Type
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
Figure 5-42 Nearest NDB Page
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VORs
The VOR Information Page can be used to view information about VOR and ILS navigation signals, or to
quickly auto-tune a VOR or ILS frequency. Localizer information cannot be viewed on the VOR Information
Page. If a VOR station is combined with a TACAN station it is listed as a VORTAC on the VOR Information
Page and if it includes only DME, it is displayed as VOR-DME.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected VOR and surrounding area, the VOR Information
Page displays VOR information in four boxes labeled ‘VOR’, ‘INFORMATION’, ‘FREQUENCY’, and ‘NEAREST
AIRPORT’.
VOR Identifier/Type
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
Navigation Map
Showing
Selected VOR
VOR Information
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Region
- Lat/Long
VOR Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
Selected VOR
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
Figure 5-43 VOR Information Page
The VOR classes used in the VOR information box are: LOW ALTITUDE, HIGH ALTITUDE, and
TERMINAL.
Selecting a VOR:
1) With the VOR Information Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the VOR, or the city in which it’s
located in the VOR Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest VOR Page displayed, press the FMS Knob or press the VOR Softkey.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VOR Box.
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3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest VOR Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Select VOR Window’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VOR Box.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The Nearest VOR Page can be used to quickly find a VOR station close to the aircraft. Also, a NAV frequency
from a selected VOR station can be loaded from the Nearest VOR Page. In addition to displaying a map of
the surrounding area, the Nearest VOR Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VOR stations in three
boxes labeled ‘NEAREST VOR’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘FREQUENCY’. The list only includes waypoints that
are within 200 nm.
A white arrow before the VOR identifier indicates the selected VOR. Up to sixteen VORs are visible at a
time. If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. If there are no VORs in the list, text
indicating that there are no nearest VORs is displayed. If there are no nearest VORs in the list, the information
is dashed.
VOR Identifier/Symbol
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
VOR
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
from aircraft position
VOR Information
- Facility Name/City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR
VOR Frequency
Figure 5-44 Nearest VOR Page
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User Waypoints
The system can create and store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. User waypoints can be created from any
map page (except PFD Inset Map, AUX-Trip Planning Page, or Procedure Pages) by selecting a position on the
map using the Joystick, or from the User Waypoint Information Page by referencing a bearing/distance from
an existing waypoint, bearings from two existing waypoints, or a latitude and longitude. Once a waypoint has
been created, it can be renamed, deleted, or moved. Temporary user waypoints are erased upon system power
down.
User Waypoint Info
- Identifier
- Temporary/Normal
- Waypoint Type
User Wpt Comment
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
User Waypoint
Reference Wpt/Info
- Identifier/Rad/Dist or
- Identifiers/Radials or
- Region/Lat/Long
User Waypoint List
Selected User
Waypoint
- Identifier
- Comment
# User Wpts Used
Displayed if User Wpt
was created on map
page
Softkeys
Figure 5-45 User Waypoint Information Page
Selecting a User Waypoint:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, enter the name of the User Waypoint, or scroll to the
desired waypoint in the User Waypoint List using the large FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest User Waypoints Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest USR Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Nearest User Wpt List
- Identifier
- Bearing/Distance from
aircraft position
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
User Waypoint
Selected User
Waypoint
User Waypoint Info
- Comment
- Lat/Long
Reference Wpt Info
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
Figure 5-46 Nearest User Waypoint Page
Creating User Waypoints
User waypoints can be created from the User Waypoint Information Page in the following ways:
Creating user waypoints from the User Waypoint Information Page:
1) Select the NEW Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Create New User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The current aircraft position is the default location of the new waypoint.
4) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
a) Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
b) Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
c) Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
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5) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
6) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “TEMPORARY” or “NORMAL” by moving the cursor
to “TEMPORARY” and selecting the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Are you sure you want to create the new User Waypoint AAAAAA?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
a) Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
b) Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
c) Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “TEMPORARY” or “NORMAL” by moving the cursor
to “TEMPORARY” and selecting the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Figure 5-47 User Waypoint Information Page Menu
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Creating user waypoints from map pages:
1) Press the Joystick to activate the panning function and pan to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key. The User Waypoint Information Page is displayed with the captured position.
Note: If the pointer has highlighted a map database feature, one of three things happens upon pressing
the ENT Key: 1) information about the selected feature is displayed instead of initiating a new waypoint,
2) a menu pops up allowing a choice between ‘Review Airspaces’ or ‘Create User Waypoint’, or 3) a new
waypoint is initiated with the default name being the selected map item.
3) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected name. The first reference waypoint box is highlighted.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
a) Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
b) Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
c) Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “TEMPORARY” or “NORMAL” by moving the cursor
to “TEMPORARY” and selecting the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
9) Press the GO BACK Softkey to return to the map page.
Editing User Waypoints
Editing a user waypoint comment or location:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Select a user waypoint in the User Waypoint List, if required, and press the ENT Key.
3) Move the cursor to the desired field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to make any changes.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Renaming user waypoints:
1) Highlight a user waypoint in the User Waypoint List. Select the RENAME Softkey, or press the MENU Key and
select ‘Rename User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a new name.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Do you want to rename the user waypoint AAAAAA to BBBBBB?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing the location of an existing waypoint to the aircraft present position:
1) Enter a waypoint name or select the waypoint in the User Waypoint List, then press the ENT Key.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Use Present Position’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice. The new waypoint’s location is saved.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
A system generated comment for a user waypoint incorporates the reference waypoint identifier, bearing,
and distance. If a system generated comment has been edited, a new comment can be generated.
Resetting the comment field to the system generated comment:
1) Enter a waypoint name or select the waypoint in the User Waypoint List, then press the ENT Key.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Auto Comment’.
4) Press the ENT Key. The generated comment is based on the reference point used to define the waypoint.
The default type of user waypoint (normal or temporary) can be changed using the user waypoint information
page menu. Temporary user waypoints are automatically deleted upon the next power cycle.
Changing the user waypoint storage duration default setting:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Move the cursor to select ‘Waypoint Setup’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Select ‘NORMAL’ or ‘TEMPORARY’ as desired, and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor and return to the User Waypoint Information Page.
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Deleting User Waypoints
Deleting a single user waypoint:
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List, or enter a waypoint in the User Waypoint field.
2) Select the DELETE Softkey or press the CLR Key. ‘Yes’ is highlighted in the confirmation window.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List, or enter a waypoint in the User Waypoint field.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete User Waypoint’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Note: The option to ‘Delete All User Waypoints’ is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all user waypoints:
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete All User Waypoints.’
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.4Airspaces
The G1000 can display the following types of airspaces: Class B/TMA, Class C/TCA, Class D, Restricted, MOA
(Military), Other Airspace, Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ), and Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR).
Class D Airspace
MOA (Military)
Class B Airspace
Restricted Area
TFR
Alert Area
Class C Airspace
ADIZ
Warning Area
Figure 5-48 Airspaces
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The Nearest Airspaces Page, Airspace Alerts Window, and Airspace Alerts on the PFD provide additional
information about airspaces and the location of the aircraft in relationship to them.
The Airspace Alerts Box allows the pilot to turn the controlled/special-use airspace message alerts on or off.
This does not affect the alerts listed on the Nearest Airspaces Page or the airspace boundaries depicted on the
Navigation Map Page. It simply turns on/off the warning provided when the aircraft is approaching or near an
airspace.
An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below an airspace. For example,
if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/below an airspace, an alert message is
not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below an airspace and projected to enter it, the pilot
is notified with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the altitude buffer field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Turning an airspace alert on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Airspace Alerts Box
- Airspace Altitude Buffer
- Alert On/Off
(Default Settings Shown)
DFLTS Softkey
Figure 5-49 System Setup Page - Airspace Alerts
Map ranges for the airspace boundaries are selected from the Aviation Group in the Map Setup Menu. See Table
5-2 for the default and maximum ranges for each type of airspace and the symbol used to define the airspace
area.
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The Nearest Airspaces Page can be used to quickly find airspaces close to the flight path. In addition, a selected
frequency associated with the airspace can be loaded from the Nearest Airspaces Page. In addition to displaying
a map of airspace boundaries and surrounding area, the Nearest Airspaces Page displays airspace information in
four boxes labeled ‘AIRSPACE ALERTS’, ‘AIRSPACE, AGENCY’, ‘VERTICAL LIMITS’, and ‘FREQUENCIES’.
Airspace Alerts Info
- Name
- Proximity (Ahead, Inside,
Ahead < 2nm, Within 2nm)
- Time till Intercept (only if
Ahead or Ahead < 2nm)
Airspace/Agency Info
- Airspace Type
- Controlling Agency
Airspace 1
Airspace Vertical Limits
- Ceiling
- Floor
Associated Frequencies
- Type
- Availability/Info
- Frequency
Airspace 2
Softkeys
Figure 5-50 Nearest Airspaces Page
Airspace alerts and associated frequencies are shown in scrollable lists on the Nearest Airspaces Page. The
ALERTS and FREQ softkeys place the cursor in the respective list. The FREQ Softkey is enabled only if one or
more frequencies exist for a selected airspace.
Selecting and viewing an airspace alert with its associated information:
1) Select the Nearest Airspaces Page.
2) Select the ALERTS Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Alerts Window’,
and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘AIRSPACE ALERTS’ Box.
3) Select the desired airspace.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Pressing the PFD ALERTS Softkey displays the message window on the PFD. The following airspace alerts are
displayed in the message window:
Message
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead –
less than 10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and
ahead.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near –
less than 2 nm.
Comments
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft penetrates the airspace within 10
minutes.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
Table 5-6 PFD Airspace Alert Messages
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5.5 Direct-to-Navigation
The Direct-to method of navigation, initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key on either the MFD or PFD, is
quicker to use than a flight plan when the desire is to navigate to a single point such as a nearby airport.
Once a direct-to is activated, the G1000 establishes a point-to-point course line from the present position to the
selected direct-to destination. Course guidance is provided until the direct-to is replaced with a new direct-to or
flight plan, or cancelled.
A vertical navigation (VNV) direct-to creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the current altitude to a selected altitude at the direct-to waypoint. Vertical navigation is based on barometric
altitudes, not on GPS altitude, and is used for cruise and descent phases of flight.
The Direct-to Window allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation. The Direct-to Window displays
selected direct-to waypoint data on the PFD and the MFD.
Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/Region
- Facility Name
- City
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Map of Selected Point
Location of Destination
- Bearing/Distance
Desired Course
Figure 5-51 Direct-to Window - MFD
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Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/City
- Facility Name
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Direct-to Point Info
- Bearing/Distance
- Desired Course
Activation Command
Figure 5-52 Direct-to Window - PFD
Any waypoint can be entered as a direct-to destination from the Direct-to Window.
Entering a waypoint identifier, facility name, or city as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed (with the active flight plan wayoint as the default
selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it counter-clockwise brings
up the waypoint selection submenu - press the CLR Key to remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the
facility name, or city field and turn the small FMS Knob to begin entering a facility name or city. If duplicate
entries exist for the entered facility or city name, additional entries can be viewed by turning the small FMS
Knob during the selection process.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the direct-to.
Any waypoint contained in the active flight plan can be selected as a direct-to waypoint from the Direct-to
Window, the Active Flight Plan Page, or the Active Flight Plan Window.
Waypoint Submenu
- Flight Plan Waypoints
- Nearest Airports
- Recent Waypoints
- User Waypoints
- Airway Waypoints
(only available when
active leg is part of an
airway)
Figure 5-53 Waypoint Submenu
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Selecting an active flight plan waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) While navigating an active flight plan, press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the
active flight plan waypoint as the default selection.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
3) Select the desired waypoint.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Or:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, or the Active Flight Plan Window on the PFD.
2) Select the desired waypoint.
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Any NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoint can be selected as a direct-to destination in the Direct-to
Window.
Selecting a NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed (with the active flight plan destination as the
default selection or a blank destination if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoints.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
The Direct-to Window can be displayed from any page and allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation.
If the direct-to is initiated from any page except the WPT pages, the default waypoint is the active flight plan
waypoint (if a flight plan is active) or a blank waypoint field. Direct-to requests on any WPT page defaults to the
displayed waypoint.
Selecting any waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Select the page or window containing the desired waypoint type and select the desired waypoint.
2) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window with the selected waypoint as the direct-to
destination.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
4) Press ENT again to activate the direct-to.
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Selecting a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
1) Select the NRST Softkey on the PFD; or turn the FMS Knob to display the Nearest Airports Page and press the
FMS Knob.
2) Select the desired airport (the nearest one is already selected).
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Direct-to destinations may also be selected by using the pointer on the navigation map pages. If no airport,
NAVAID, or user waypoint exists at the desired location, a temporary waypoint named ‘MAPWPT’ is automatically
created at the location of the map arrow.
Selecting a waypoint as a direct-to destination using the pointer:
1) From a navigation map page, press the Joystick to display the pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to place the pointer at the desired destination location.
3) If the pointer is placed on an existing airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint, the waypoint name is highlighted.
4) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window with the selected point entered as the direct-to
destination.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Cancelling a Direct-to:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. If a flight plan is still active, the G1000 resumes
navigating the flight plan along the closest leg.
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Page Menu
- Cancel Direct-To
Navigation
Figure 5-54 Direct-to Window - Cancelling Direct-to Navigation
When navigating a direct-to, the G1000 sets a direct great circle course to the selected destination. The course
to a destination can also be manually selected using the course field (‘COURSE’) on the Direct-to Window.
Selecting a manual direct-to course:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the destination field highlighted.
2) Highlight the course field.
3) Enter the desired course.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Reselecting the direct course from the current position:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the destination field highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
3) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
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A direct-to with altitude constraints creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from the
aircraft’s current altitude to the altitude of the direct-to waypoint. The altitude is reached at the waypoint, or at the
specified distance along the flight path if an offset distance has been entered. All VNV altitudes prior to the directto destination are removed from the active flight plan upon successful activation of a direct-to destination that is
part of the active flight plan. All VNV altitudes following the direct-to waypoint are retained. See the section on
Vertical Navigation for more information regarding the use and purpose of VNV altitudes and offset distances.
Entering a VNV altitude and along-track offset for the waypoint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor over the ‘VNV’ altitude field.
3) Enter the desired altitude.
4) Press the ENT Key. The option to select MSL or AGL is now displayed.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now flashing in the VNV offset distance field.
7) Enter the desired along-track distance before the waypoint.
8) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
9) Press the ENT Key to activate.
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Removing a VNV altitude constraint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Clear Vertical Constraints’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Page Menu
- Clear Vertical Navigation
Constraints
Figure 5-55 Direct-to Window - Clearing Vertical Constraints
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5.6Flight Planning
Flight planning on the G1000 consists of building a flight plan by entering waypoints one at a time, adding
waypoints along airways, and inserting departures, airways, arrivals, or approaches as needed. The G1000 allows
flight planning information to be entered from either the MFD or PFD. The flight plan is displayed on maps using
different line widths, colors, and types, based on the type of leg and the segment of the flight plan currently being
flown (departure, enroute, arrival, approach, or missed approach).
Flight Plan Leg Type
Symbol
Active non-heading Leg
Active heading Leg
Non-heading Leg in the current flight segment
Heading Leg not in the current flight segment
Non-heading Leg not in the active flight segment
Turn Anticipation Arc
Table 5-7 Flight Plan Leg Symbols
Up to 99 flight plans with up to 99 waypoints each can be created and stored in memory. One flight plan can be
activated at a time and becomes the active flight plan. The active flight plan is erased when the system is turned
off and overwritten when another flight plan is activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, departure,
or arrival, the G1000 uses the waypoint information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the
database is changed or updated, the G1000 automatically updates the information if the procedure has not been
modified. If an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is no longer available, the procedure is deleted from the
affected stored flight plan(s), and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A) advising that
one or more stored flight plans need to be edited.
Whenever an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach,
departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan along with a header line describing the instrument
procedure the pilot selected. The original enroute portion of the flight plan remains active (unless an instrument
procedure is activated) when the procedure is loaded.
When the database is updated, the airways need to be reloaded also. Each airway segment is reloaded from
the database given the entry waypoint, the airway identifier and the exit waypoint. This reloads the sequence of
waypoints between the entry and exit waypoints (the sequence may change when the database is updated). The
update of an airway can fail during this process. If that happens, the airway waypoints are changed to regular
(non-airway) flight plan waypoints, and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A).
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The following could cause the airway update to fail:
• Airway identifier, entry waypoint or exit waypoint not found in the new database.
• Airway entry/exit waypoint is not an acceptable waypoint for the airway – either the waypoint is no longer on
the airway, or there is a new directional restriction that prevents it being used.
• Loading the new airway sequence would exceed the capacity of the flight plan.
Flight Plan Creation
There are three methods to create or modify a flight plan:
• Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• Active Flight Plan Window on the PFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• Flight Plan Catalog Page on the MFD (create/modify a stored flight plan)
Active FPL Waypoint List
- Comment
- Procedure Header
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Vertical Navigation Profile
- Active Vertical WPT Alt/ID
- Vertical Speed Target
- Flight Path Angle
- Vertical Speed Target
- Time to Top of Descent
- Vertical Deviation
Turn Anticipation
Arc
Non-Active,
Flight Plan Leg
Figure 5-56 Active Flight Plan Page
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Active Flight Plan Comment
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Waypoint List
- Waypoint ID
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Airway Identifier
Figure 5-57 Active Flight Plan Window on PFD
Catalog Contents
- # Used
- # Empty
Flight Plan List
- Comment
Selected
Flight Plan
Map
Selected FPL Info
- Departure Waypoint
- Destination Waypoint
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Softkeys
Figure 5-58 Flight Plan Catalog Page
The active flight plan is listed on the active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, and in the Active Flight Plan
Window on the PFD. It is the flight plan to which the G1000 is currently providing guidance, and is shown
on the navigation maps. Stored flight plans are listed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page, and are available for
activation (becomes the active flight plan).
Creating an active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (only on MFD).
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3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
4) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
5) Repeat step numbers 3 and 4 to enter each additional flight plan waypoint.
6) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Creating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Select the NEW Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create New Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key to
display a blank flight plan for the first empty storage location.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key.
6) Repeat step numbers 4 and 5 to enter each additional flight plan waypoint.
7) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to return to the Flight Plan Catalog Page. The new
flight plan is now in the list.
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Flight plans can be imported from an SD Card or exported to an SD Card from the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Importing a Flight Plan from an SD Card
1) Insert the SD card containing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight an empty or existing flight plan.
6) Press the IMPORT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Import Flight Plan”, and press the ENT Key.
If an empty slot is selected, a list of the available flight plans on the SD card will be displayed.
Or:
If an existing flight plan is selected, an “Overwrite existing flight plan? OK or CANCEL” prompt is displayed.
Press the ENT Key to choose to overwrite the selected flight plan and see the list of available flight plans on the
SD card. If overwriting the existing flight plan is not desired, select “CANCEL” using the FMS Knob, press the
ENT Key, select another flight plan slot, and press the IMPORT Softkey again.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan for importing.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the import.
9) Press the ENT Key again to confirm the import.
Import/Export Softkeys
List of Flight Plans to Import &
Details for the Selected File
Import Successful
Figure 5-59 Flight Plan Import
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Note: If the imported flight plan contains a waypoint with a name that duplicates the name of a waypoint
already stored on the system, the system compares the coordinates of the imported waypoint with those of
the existing waypoint. If the coordinates are different, the imported waypoint is automatically renamed by
adding characters to the end of the name.
Exporting a Flight Plan to an SD Card
1) Insert the SD card into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be exported.
6) Press the EXPORT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Export Flight Plan”.
7) If desired, change the name for the exported file by turning the large FMS Knob to the left to highlight the
name, then use the small and large FMS knobs to enter the new name, and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the export.
9) Press the ENT Key to confirm the export.
Note: The exported flight plan will not contain any procedures or airways.
Import/Export Softkeys
Stored Flight Plan to be Exported &
Exported Flight Plan Name
Export Successful
Figure 5-60 Flight Plan Export
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Adding Waypoints to an Existing Flight Plan
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose the flight plan, select the
desired point of insertion, enter the waypoint, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. Flight plans
are limited to 99 waypoints (including waypoints within airways and procedures). If the number of waypoints
in the flight plan exceeds 99, the message “Flight plan is full. Remove unnecessary waypoints.” appears and the
new waypoint(s) are not added to the flight plan.
Stored Flight Plan Selected
- Memory Slot
- Comment
- Procedure Identifier
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Softkeys
Figure 5-61 Stored Flight Plan Page
Flight Plan Full Message
Figure 5-62 Active Flight Plan Page - FPL Full
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Adding a waypoint to a stored flight plan:
1) On the Flight Plan Catalog Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select “EDIT” and press
the ENT Key. The Stored Flight Plan Page is displayed.
4) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly in front of the
highlighted waypoint.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
6) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The new waypoint now exists in the flight plan.
Note: If the identifier entered in the Waypoint Information Window has duplicates, a Duplicate Waypoint
Window is displayed. Use the FMS Knob to select the correct waypoint.
Figure 5-63 Duplicate Waypoints Window
Adding a waypoint to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Select the point in the flight plan before which to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly
in front of the highlighted waypoint.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
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Creating and adding user waypoints to the active flight plan:
1) Press the Joystick to activate the panning function on the Active Flight Plan Page and pan to the map location
of the desired user waypoint.
2) Select the LD WPT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The user
waypoint is created with a name of USRxxx (using the next available in sequence) and is added to the end of
the active flight plan.
Adding Airways to a Flight Plan
Airways can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose a flight plan (add the desired
airway entry point if not already in the flight plan), select the waypoint after the desired airway entry point,
select the airway, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. An airway can only be loaded if there is a
waypoint in the flight plan that is part of the desired airway and is not part of an arrival or approach procedure.
The G1000 also anticipates the desired airway and exit point based on loaded flight plan waypoints.
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Airways Available at TOP
Airway Waypoint
Sequence
Preview of
Selected Airway
Figure 5-64 Select Airway Page - Selecting Airway
Adding an airway to a flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint after the desired airway entry point. If this waypoint is not
a valid airway entry point, a valid entry point should be entered at this time.
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4) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and select the LD AIRWY Softkey, or press the MENU Key and
select “Load Airway”. The Select Airway Page is displayed. The LD AIRWY Softkey or the “Load Airway” menu
item is available only when a valid airway entry waypoint has been chosen (the waypoint ahead of the cursor
position).
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways are
shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is
highlighted.
7) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted.
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Selected Exit Point
Preview of
Selected Airway
Airway Exit Points
Available
Selected Airway Exit
Point
Figure 5-65 Select Airway Page - Selecting Exit Point
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Inserted Airway Header
- Airway Identifier: [airway
identifier].[exit waypoint identifier]
(e.g., V4.SLN)
Figure 5-66 Active Flight Plan Page - Airway Inserted
Restrictions on Adding Airways
Some airways have directional restrictions on all or part of the route. For example, Airway “A2” in Europe
has a directional restriction over the whole route such that it can be flown only in the direction MTD-ABBBNE-DEVAL.
Airway “UR975” in North Africa has more complicated directional restrictions within the list of airway
waypoints AMANO, VAKOR, LIBRO, NELDA, DIRKA, GZO, KOSET, and SARKI:
• Starting from AMANO, the airway can be flown only to LIBRO.
• Starting from SARKI, the airway can be flown only to LIBRO.
• Between NELDA and GZO, the airway can be flown in either direction.
In the US, airways that are “one-way” for specified hours of operation are not uncommon. These airways
are always bidirectional in the G1000 database.
The system only allows correct airway sequences to be inserted. If the pilot subsequently inverts the flight
plan, the system inverts the airway waypoint sequence and removes the airway header.
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Adding Procedures to a Stored Flight Plan
The G1000 allows the pilot to insert pre-defined instrument procedures from the navigation database into a
flight plan. The procedures are designed to facilitate routing of traffic leaving an airport (departure), arriving at
an airport (arrival), and landing at an airport (approach). See the procedures section for more details.
Flight Plan Name
Flight Plan Waypoint
List
Softkeys
Load Departure Load Arrival Load Approach Activate Flight Plan
Figure 5-67 Stored Flight Plan Page
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Departure (DP)
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can
be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
Departure Airport
Selected
Departure
Departures Available at
KMKC
Preview of
Selected
Departure
Departure Waypoint
Sequence
Figure 5-68 Departure Loading Page - Selecting the Departure
Loading a departure procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
3) Select the LD DP Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Departure”, and press the ENT Key. The
Departure Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select a departure. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a runway served by the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition for the selected departure. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected departure procedure.
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Departure Airport
Selected
Departure
Selected Runway
Preview of
Selected
Departure
Selected Transition
Departure Transition Points
Available
Selected
Departure End
Point
Figure 5-69 Departure Loading Page - Selecting Transition
Inserted Departure Header
- Departure Identifier: [departure
airport]-[departure runway].
[departure transition].
[departure end point]
(e.g., KMKC-ALL.WLDCT2.SLN)
Figure 5-70 Stored Flight Plan Page - Departure Inserted
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Arrival (STAR)
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) is loaded at the destination airport in the flight plan. Only one arrival
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
Destination Airport
Selected Arrival
Arrivals Available at KCOS
Selected Runway
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
Preview of
Selected Arrival
Figure 5-71 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Arrival
Loading an arrival procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
3) Select the LD STAR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Arrival”, and press the ENT Key. The Arrival
Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select an arrival. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a transition for the selected arrival. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway served by the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected arrival procedure.
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Destination Airport
Selected Arrival
Selected Transition
Transitions Available with
DBRY1
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
Preview of
Selected Arrival
Figure 5-72 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
Inserted Arrival Header
- Arrival Identifier:
[arrival airport]-[arrival transition].
[arrival].[arrival runway]
(e.g., KCOS-TBE.DBRY1.ALL)
Figure 5-73 Stored Flight Plan Page - Arrival Inserted
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Approach (APPR)
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has an approach available. Only one
approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route for a selected approach is defined by designating
transition waypoints.
Destination Airport
Selected
Approach
Approaches Available at
KCOS
Barometric Minimum
Preview of
Selected
Approach
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Figure 5-74 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Approach
Loading an approach procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
3) Select the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Approach”, and press the ENT Key. The
Approach Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select an approach. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a transition for the selected approach. Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the selected approach procedure.
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Destination Airport
Selected
Approach
Selected Transition
Transitions Available with
Selected Approach
Preview of
Selected
Approach
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Load Approach?
Figure 5-75 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
Inserted Approach Header
- Approach Identifier: [approach
airport].[runway and approach type]
(e.g., KCOS-RNAV 35RGPS LPV)
Figure 5-76 Stored Flight Plan Page - Approach Inserted
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Flight Plan Storage
The G1000 can store up to 99 flight plans, numbered 1 through 99. The active flight plan is erased when
the G1000 is powered off or when another flight plan is activated. Details about each stored flight plan can be
viewed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page and on the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Viewing information about a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
4) The Flight Plan Information is displayed showing departure, destination, total distance, and enroute safe altitude
information for the selected Flight Plan.
5) Select the EDIT Softkey to open the Stored Flight Plan Page and view the waypoints in the flight plan.
6) Press the FMS Knob to exit the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Flight Plan Name
(Comment)
Selected Flight Plan
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan
Stored Flight Plan Info
- Departure Airport
- Destination Airport
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Stored FPL Editing
Softkeys
Figure 5-77 Stored Flight Plan Information
Storing an active flight plan from the Active Flight Plan Page or the Active Flight Plan Window:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. The flight plan is stored in the next available position in the flight
plan list on the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
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Sort Flight Plans
The stored flight plans can be sorted alphanumerically based on the flight plan name (comment) assigned
to each flight plan.
Sorting by flight plan name (comment):
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Sort By Comment’ and press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed.
4 ) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to change flight plan ordering. To cancel the request, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Activate a Flight Plan
Activating a stored flight plan erases the active flight plan and replaces it with the flight plan being activated.
Inverting a stored flight plan reverses the waypoint order, erases the active flight plan, and replaces it with the
flight plan being activated (the stored flight plan is not changed).
Activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Select the ACTIVE Softkey; or press the ENT Key twice; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’,
and press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Stored Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Select the INVERT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key.
The ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
Copy a Flight Plan
The G1000 allows copying a flight plan into a new flight plan memory slot, allowing editing, etc., without
affecting the original flight plan. This can be used to duplicate an existing stored flight plan for use in creating
a modified version of the original stored flight plan.
Copying a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
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3) Select the COPY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Copy Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The
‘Copy to Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to copy the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Delete a Stored Flight Plan
Individual or all stored flight plans can be deleted from the G1000 memory.
Deleting a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Select the DELETE Softkey; press the CLR Key; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Note: The option to delete all stored flight plans is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all stored flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Delete All’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all flight plans. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Flight Plan Editing
The active flight plan or any stored flight plan can be edited. The edits made to the active flight plan affect
navigation as soon as they are entered.
Deleting the Active Flight Plan
The G1000 allows deleting an active flight plan. Deleting the active flight plan suspends navigation by the
G1000.
Deleting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete all waypoints in flight
plan?’ window is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the active flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
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Deleting Flight Plan Items
Individual waypoints, entire airways, and entire procedures can be deleted from a flight plan. Some waypoints
in the final approach segment (such as the FAF or MAP) can not be deleted individually. Attempting to delete
a waypoint that is not allowed results in a window displaying ‘Invalid flight plan modification.’
Deleting an individual waypoint from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire airway from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the white header of the airway to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name>?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the white header of the procedure to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove <procedure>’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
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Deleting an individual waypoint from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire airway from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the airway to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name>?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the procedure to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove <procedure>’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing Flight Plan Comments (Names)
The comment field (or name) of each flight plan can be changed to something that is useful for identification
and sorting.
Changing the active flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
3) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing a stored flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Along Track Offsets
A waypoint having an “along track offset” distance from an existing waypoint can be entered into a flight plan.
Along track offset waypoints lie along the path of the existing flight plan, and can be used to make the system
reach a specified altitude before or after reaching the specified flight plan waypoint. Offset distances can be
entered from 1 to 99 nm in increments of 1 nm. Entering a negative offset distance results in an along track
offset waypoint inserted before the selected waypoint, whereas entering a positive offset distance results in an
along track offset waypoint inserted after the selected waypoint. Multiple offset waypoints are allowed.
A waypoint must be adjacent to its parent waypoint in the flight plan, so the system limits the along-track
distance to less than the length of the leg before or after the selected waypoint. If the selected waypoint is the
active waypoint, the distance is limited to less than the distance to go to the active waypoint. Assigning an along
track offset to a leg with indeterminate length is not permitted. An along track offset is not allowed at or after
the final approach fix of an approach.
An along track offset distance cannot be modified once entered. If the along track offset distance must be
changed, the existing along track offset waypoint must be deleted and a new one created with the new offset
distance.
Along Track Offset
Waypoint and Distance
from Flight Plan Waypoint
Along Track
Offset Waypoint
and Distance
Figure 5-78 Along Track Offset
Entering an along track offset distance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the along track offset.
3) Select the ATK OFST Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create ATK Offset Waypoint’, and
press the ENT Key.
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4) Enter a positive or negative offset distance in the range of +/- 1 to 99 nm (limited by leg distances).
5) Press the ENT Key to create the offset waypoint.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Parallel Track
The Parallel Track (PTK) feature allows creation of a parallel course offset of 1 to 50 nm left or right of the
current flight plan. When Parallel Track is activated, the course line drawn on the map pages shows the parallel
course, and waypoint names have a lower case “p” placed after the identifier.
Using direct-to, loading an approach, a holding pattern, or editing and activating the flight plan automatically
cancels Parallel Track. Parallel Track is also cancelled if a course change occurs greater than 120° or the parallel
tracks overlap as a result of the course change.
Note: Vertical navigation is unavailable while the Parallel Track feature is active.
Active Flight Plan prior to Parallel Track
Selecting Parallel
Track
Figure 5-79 Active Flight Plan Window - Selecting Parallel Track
Activating parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The Parallel Track Window is displayed
with the direction field highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Left’ or ‘Right’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘DISTANCE’ field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a distance from 1-99 nm and press the ENT Key. ‘ACTIVATE PARALLEL
TRACK’ is highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key to activate parallel track. Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to cancel the parallel track
activation.
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Offset Direction
Offset Distance
Activation Prompt
Figure 5-80 Parallel Track Window
Parallel Track Waypoints
- TIFTO-p
- TOP-p
- ULNAZ-p
- ...
- LAA-p
Activating Parallel Track
affects the entire active
flight segment (e.g.,
enroute)
Parallel Track
Original Track
Figure 5-81 Parallel Track Active
If the parallel track proposed by the offset direction and distance is not allowed by the system, the activation
prompt is displayed, but disabled. Parallel Track cannot be activated if a course is set using direct-to or if the
active leg is the first leg of the departure procedure. Attempting to activate parallel track with these conditions
results in the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable Invalid Route Geometry’. If an approach leg is active the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track with the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable
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Approach Leg Active’. If the offset direction and distance results in an unreasonable route geometry the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because of invalid geometry.
Subdued Prompt
(Unavailable)
Unavailable Status
Invalid
Geometry
Approach
Active
Figure 5-82 Parallel Track Unavailable
If the active leg is not a track between two fixes (TF) or a course to a fix (DF) leg, the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because parallel track is not available for the
active leg type.
Offset Direction &
Distance Subdued
(Unavailable)
Cancel Prompt
Active Status
Figure 5-83 Cancelling Parallel Track
Cancelling parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The Parallel Track Window is displayed
with ‘CANCEL PARALLEL TRACK?’ highlighted.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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Activating a Flight Plan Leg
The G1000 allows selection of a highlighted leg as the “active leg” (the flight plan leg which is currently
used for navigation guidance).
Activating a flight plan leg:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the destination waypoint for the desired leg.
3) Select the ACT LEG Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Leg’, and press the ENT Key.
A confirmation window is displayed with ‘ACTIVATE’ highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan leg. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press
the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Current
Active Leg
Selected Destination
Waypoint
Activate Leg Softkey
Figure 5-84 Active Flight Plan Page - Selecting the Leg Destination Waypoint
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New Active
Flight Plan Leg
Confirmation Window
Figure 5-85 Active Flight Plan Page - New Active Leg
Inverting a Flight Plan
Any flight plan may be inverted (reversed) for navigation back to the original departure point.
Inverting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. An ‘Invert Active Flight Plan?’
confirmation window is displayed.
3) Select ‘OK’.
4) Press the ENT Key to invert and activate the active flight plan. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Select the INVERT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key.
The ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
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Flight Plan Views
Information about flight plans can be viewed in more than one way. The active flight plan can be configured
to show cumulative distance over the length of the flight plan or the distance for each leg of the flight plan;
and the active flight plan can be viewed in a narrow or wide view. In the wide view, additional information is
displayed: Fuel Remaining (FUEL REM), Estimated Time Enroute (ETE), Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA), and
Bearing to the waypoint (BRG).
Switching between leg-to-leg waypoint distance and cumulative waypoint distance:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Select the VIEW Softkey to display the CUM and LEG-LEG Softkeys.
3) Select the CUM Softkey to view cumulative waypoint distance, or select the LEG-LEG Softkey to view leg-to-leg
waypoint distance.
4) Select the BACK Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
Active Flight Plan Leg to Leg Distance
Active Flight Plan Cumulative Distance
WIDE Softkey, NARROW Softkey, LEG-LEG Softkey, CUM Softkey
Figure 5-86 Active Flight Plan - Leg to Leg vs. Cumulative Distance
Switching between wide and narrow view:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Select the VIEW Softkey to display the WIDE and NARROW Softkeys.
3) Select the WIDE Softkey to display the wide view, or select the NARROW Softkey to display the narrow view.
4) Select the BACK Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
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Active Flight Plan Narrow View
Active Flight Plan Wide View
WIDE Softkey, NARROW Softkey, LEG-LEG Softkey, CUM Softkey
Figure 5-87 Active Flight Plan - Wide vs. Narrow View
Collapsing Airways
The G1000 allows airways on the active flight plan to be collapsed or expanded from the Active Flight Plan
Page/Window. When airways have been collapsed, it is indicated on the airway heading.
When airways are collapsed, leg-to-leg computed values such as DIS or ETE shown for the exit waypoint
reflect the total of all the legs on the airway that have been hidden in the collapsed display. The DTK value is
inhibited because it is not usable in this context.
The Active Flight Plan Page always keeps the following three waypoints visible: “From” waypoint, “To”
waypoint, and “Next” waypoint. To prevent one or more of these waypoints from being hidden in a collapsed
airway segment, the airway segment that contains either the “To” or the “Next” waypoint is automatically
expanded. When an airway is loaded, airways are automatically expanded to facilitate flight plan review.
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Q3.FEPOT Airway
Collapsed View
Expanded View
Figure 5-88 Expanded/Collapsed Airways
Collapsing/expanding the airways in the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Collapse Airways’ or ‘Expand Airways’, and press the ENT Key. The airways are
collapsed/expanded.
Closest Point of FPL
‘Closest Point of FPL’ calculates the bearing and closest distance at which a flight plan passes a reference
waypoint, and creates a new user waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to a chosen reference
waypoint.
Determining the closest point along the active flight plan to a selected waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Closest Point Of FPL’’, and press the ENT Key. A window appears with the
reference waypoint field highlighted.
3) Enter the identifier of the reference waypoint and press the ENT Key. The G1000 displays the bearing (BRG) and
distance (DIS) to the closest point along the flight plan to the selected reference waypoint and creates a user
waypoint at this location. The name for the new user waypoint is derived from the identifier of the reference
waypoint.
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5.7Vertical Navigation
Note: The G1000 supports vertical navigation for all lateral leg types except for CA, CI, FA, FM, HA, HM, PI,
VA, VD, VI, VR, and VM. Vertical constraints are not retained in stored flight plans.
The G1000 system Vertical Navigation (VNV) feature provides vertical profile guidance during the enroute
and teminal phases of flight. Guidance based on specified altitudes at waypoints in the active flight plan or to a
direct-to waypoint is provided. It includes vertical path guidance to a descending path, which is provided as a
linear deviation from the desired path. The desired path is defined by a line joining two waypoints with specified
altitudes or as a vertical angle from a specified waypoint/altitude. The vertical waypoints are integrated into the
active flight plan. Both manual and autopilot-coupled guidance are supported.
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Disabled (fields dashed)
ENBL VNV Softkey
Enabled (valid data)
CNCL VNV Softkey
Figure 5-89 Enabling/Disabling Vertical Navigation
Enabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Select the ENBL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Enable VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is enabled, and vertical guidance begins with the waypoint shown in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box
(defaults first waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude enabled for vertical navigation (e.g., HABUK)).
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Disabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Select the CNCL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Cancel VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is disabled.
Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ), and time
to top of descent/bottom of descent (TIME TO TOD/BOD) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI)
and Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) on the PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ, and TIME TO
TOD items displayed in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box are dashed. VNV remains disabled until manually
enabled. Vertical guidance in reversionary mode can only be enabled for a direct-to waypoint.
The G1000 allows a vertical navigation direct-to to any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Selecting the VNV Direct-to Softkey on the Active Flight Plan Page
allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV direct-to
waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan from current
position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with
altitude constraint activated by pressing the Direct-to Key also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass
flight plan waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent
(TOD) point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached.
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Prior to VNV Direct-to
VNV Direct-To Softkey
After VNV Direct-to
VNV PROF Softkey
Figure 5-90 Vertical Navigation Direct-To
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Activating a vertical navigation direct-to:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint.
Note: The selected waypoint must have a designated altitude constraint (light blue number) to be used. If
not, the first waypoint in the flight plan with a designated altitude constraint is selected.
3) Select the VNV Direct-To Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘VNV Direct-To’, and press the ENT Key.
An ‘Activate vertical Direct-to to: NNNNNFT at XXXXXX?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. Vertical guidance begins to the altitude constraint for the selected waypoint.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The vertical navigation profile can be modified by directly entering a vertical speed target (VS TGT) and/or flight
path angle (FPA) in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box.
Modifying the VS TGT and FPA:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Select the VNV PROF Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select VNV Profile Window’, and press the
ENT Key. The cursor is now located in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs as needed to edit the values.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Altitude Constraints
The G1000 system can use altitude constraints associated with lateral waypoints to give guidance for vertical
navigation. These altitudes are, depending on the specific instance, manually entered or retrieved from the
published altitudes in the navigation database. The navigation database only contains altitudes for procedures
that call for “Cross at” altitudes. If the procedure states “Expect to cross at,” then the altitude is not in the
database. In this case the altitude may be entered manually.
Displayed Text
Examples
Cross AT
or ABOVE
5,000 ft
Large White Text
Large Light Blue Text
Cross AT
2,300 ft
Small Light Blue Text
Cross AT
or BELOW
3,000 ft
Small Light Blue
Subdued Text
Altitude Constraint
Examples
Small White Text with
Altitude Restriction Bar
Figure 5-91 Waypoint Altitude Constraints
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White Text
Light Blue Text
Light Blue Subdued Text
Large Altitude calculated by the system
Text estimating the altitude of the aircraft as
it passes over the navigation point. This
altitude is provided as a reference and is
not designated to be used in determining
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude has been entered manually.
Altitude is designated for use in giving
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude does not match the published
altitude in navigation database or no
published altitude exists.
The system cannot use this
altitude in determining vertical
speed and deviation guidance
because of an invalid constraint
condition.
Small
Text
Altitude is designated for use in giving
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude has been retrieved from the
navigation database or has been entered
manually and matches a published
altitude in the navigation database.
The system cannot use this
altitude in determining vertical
speed and deviation guidance
because of an invalid constraint
condition.
Altitude is not designated to be used in
determining vertical speed and deviation
guidance. Altitude has been retrieved
from the navigation database and is
provided as a reference.
Table 5-8 Altitude Constraint Size and Color Coding
Altitudes associated with arrival and approach procedures are “auto-designated”. This means the system
automatically uses the altitudes loaded with the arrival or approach for giving vertical speed and deviation
guidance. Note that these altitudes are displayed as blue text up to, but not including, the FAF. The FAF is
always a “reference only” altitude and cannot be designated, unless the selected approach does not provide
vertical guidance. In this case, the FAF altitude can be designated.
Altitudes that have been designated for use in vertical guidance can be “un-designated” using the CLR Key.
The altitude is now displayed only as a reference. It is not used to give vertical guidance. Other displayed
altitudes may change due to re-calculations or be rendered invalid as a result of manually changing an altitude
to a non-designated altitude.
Designating a waypoint altitude to be used for vertical guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter editing mode.
4) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in blue, indicating it is usable for vertical guidance.
Designating a procedure waypoint altitude to be used for vertical guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude.
3) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in blue, indicating it is usable for vertical guidance.
Altitude constraints are displayed and entered in feet mean sea level (MSL) values to the nearest hundred. An
altitude constraint in feet above ground level (AGL) format is supported for airports. When a database altitude
restriction is displayed, the G1000 allows entry of a different altitude when creating a waypoint, effectively
overriding the database restriction (only before the FAF). When a database altitude restriction of type “AT or
ABOVE” or “AT or BELOW” is activated, the system uses the “AT” portion of the restriction to define the vertical
profile.
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An altitude constraint is invalid if:
• Meeting the constraint requires the aircraft to climb
• Meeting the constraint requires the maximum flight path angle (6° down) or maximum vertical speed (-6000 fpm) to be exceeded
• The altitude constraint results in a TOD behind the aircraft present position
• The constraint is within a leg type for which altitude constraints are not supported
• The altitude constraint is added to the FAF of an approach that provides vertical guidance (i.e., ILS or GPS
SBAS approach)
• The altitude constraint is added to a waypoint past the FAF.
Entering/modifiying an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Enter an altitude constraint value using the FMS Knobs. To enter altitudes as a flight level, turn the small
FMS Knob counter-clockwise past zero or clockwise past 9 on the first character, and the system automatically
changes to show units of Flight Level. Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight the first zero and enter
the three digit flight level.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport, an additional choice
is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
Altitude constraints can be modified or deleted after having been added to the flight plan. In the event
an altitude constraint is deleted and the navigation database contains an altitude restriction for the lateral
waypoint, the G1000 displays the altitude restriction from the database provided no predicted altitude
can be provided. The G1000 also provides a way to reinstate a published altitude constraint that has been
edited.
Deleting an altitude constraint provided by the navigation database:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove VNV altitude constraint?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting an altitude constraint that has been manually entered:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘REMOVE’ and press the ENT Key. The manually entered altitude is deleted (it is replaced by a system
calculated altitude, if available).
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Reverting a manually entered altitude constraint back to the navigation database value:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘REVERT’ and press the ENT Key. The altitude is changed to the navigation database value.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Modifying a system calculated altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. An ‘Edit or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘EDIT’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Edit the value using the FMS Knobs, and press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.8 Procedures
The G1000 can access the whole range of instrument procedures available. Departures (DPs), arrivals (STARs),
and non-precision and precision approaches (APPRs) are stored within the database and can be loaded using any
Procedures (PROC) Key.
The selected procedure for the departure or arrival airport is added to the active flight plan. No waypoints are
required to be in the active flight plan to load procedures; however, if the departure and arrival airport are already
loaded, the procedure loading window defaults to the appropriate airport, saving some time selecting the correct
airport on the Procedure Loading Page. Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “load” or “activate”
is given. “Loading” adds the approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation
guidance. This allows continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps
the procedure available on the Active Flight Plan Page for quick activation when needed. “Activating” also adds
the procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in
the approach.
Departures
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can be
loaded at a time in a flight plan. If a departure is loaded when another departure is already in the active flight
plan, the new departure replaces the previous departure. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
Loading a Departure into the Active Flight Plan
Loading a departure into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT DEPARTURE’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Departure Loading Page is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select a departure from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure.
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Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Departure Airport
Departure Preview
Departure Choices
Figure 5-92 Departure Selection
Selected Departure
Loaded Departure
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-93 Departure Loading
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Viewing available departures at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), select the DP Softkey. The Departure Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The cursor
moves to the Runway box. The departure is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The departure is previewed on the map.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The departure is previewed on the map.
7) Select the INFO-x Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
Removing a Departure from the Active Flight Plan
When plans change while flying IFR, departures can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing a departure procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the departure header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Arrivals
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available. Only one arrival
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an arrival is loaded when another arrival is already in the active
flight plan, the new arrival replaces the previous arrival. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
Loading an Arrival into the Active Flight Plan
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT ARRIVAL’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Arrival Loading Page is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select an arrival from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure.
Destination Airport
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Arrival Preview
Arrival Choices
Figure 5-94 Arrival Selection
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Selected Arrival
Loaded Arrival
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-95 Arrival Loading
Viewing available arrivals at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), select the STAR Softkey. The Arrival Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport Information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Arrival. The arrival is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor moves
to the Transition box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Runway box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
7) Select the INFO-x Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
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Removing an Arrival from the Active Flight Plan
When plans change while flying IFR, arrivals can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing an arrival from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the arrival header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Approaches
NOTE: If certain GPS parameters (SBAS, RAIM, etc.) are not available, some published approach procedures
for the desired airport may not be displayed in the list of available approaches.
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available, and provides guidance
for non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach procedures.
Only one approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an approach is loaded when another approach
is already in the active flight plan, the new approach replaces the previous approach. The route is defined by
selection of an approach and the transition waypoints.
Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “load” or “activate” is given. “Loading” adds the
approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This allows
continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps the procedure
available on the Active Flight Plan Page for quick activation when needed. “Activating” also adds the
procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in
the approach.
When selecting an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure name indicates the procedure
can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures do not have this designation, meaning the GPS
receiver can be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. If the GPS receiver cannot be used for
primary guidance, the appropriate navigation receiver must be used for the selected approach (e.g., VOR or
ILS). The final course segment of ILS approaches, for example, must be flown by tuning the NAV receiver to
the proper frequency and selecting that NAV receiver on the CDI.
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The G1000 SBAS GPS allows for flying LNAV, LNAV/VNAV, and LPV approaches according to the published
chart. LNAV+V is a standard LNAV approach with advisory vertical guidance provided for assistance in
maintaining a constant vertical glidepath similar to an ILS glideslope on approach. This guidance is displayed
on the G1000 PFD in the same location as the ILS glideslope using a magenta diamond. In all cases where
LNAV+V is indicated by the system during an approach, LNAV minima are used. The active approach type
is annunciated on the HSI as shown in the following table:
HSI Annunciation
Description
LNAV
GPS approach using published LNAV minima
LNAV+V
GPS approach using published LNAV minima.
Advisory vertical guidance is provided
L/VNAV
GPS approach using published LNAV/VNAV
minima
LPV
GPS approach using published LPV minima
Example on HSI
Approach Type
- LNAV
- LNAV+V
- L/VNAV
- LPV
Table 5-9 Approach Types
Loading an Approach into the Active Flight Plan
Loading an approach into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT APPROACH’, and press the ENT Key. The Approach Loading Page is displayed.
3) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
4) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
5) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
6) Barometric Minimums
a) To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, and press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS
Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
b) To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key with ‘LOAD?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
NOTE: When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED
FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV
receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
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Destination Airport
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Approach Preview
Approach Choices
Figure 5-96 Approach Selection
Selected Approach
Loaded Approach
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys LOAD or ACTIVATE? Annunciation
Figure 5-97 Approach Loading
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Viewing available approaches at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), select the APR Softkey. The Approach
Information Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Approach. The approach is previewed on
the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available approaches. Press the ENT Key to select the approach. The
cursor moves to the Transition box. The approach is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Minimums box. The approach is previewed on the map.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select BARO or ‘RAD ALT’ (optional) minimums on or off. Press the ENT Key.
a) When minimums are selected on, the cursor moves to the minimum altitude field . Use the small FMS Knob to
select the altitude. Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the Sequence box. The approach is previewed on
the map.
Or:
b) When minimums are selected off, the cursor moves to the Sequence box. The approach is previewed on the
map.
7) Press the INFO-x Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
Loading an approach into the active flight plan from the Nearest Airport Page:
1) Select the Nearest Airports Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired nearest airport. The airport is
previewed on the map.
3) Select the APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Approach Window’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired approach.
5) Select the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Load Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The
Approach Loading Page is displayed with the transitions field highlighted.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired transition, and press the ENT Key.
5) Minimums
a) To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘RAD ALT’ (optional), and press the ENT Key.
Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
b) To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key. The ‘LOAD?’ field is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key with ‘LOAD?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure. The system continues
navigating the current flight plan until the approach is activated. When GPS is not approved for the selected
final approach course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the
approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
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Activating an Approach
A previously loaded approach can be activated from the Procedures Window.
Activating a previously loaded approach:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed with ‘Activate Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
In many cases, it may be easiest to “load” the full approach while still some distance away, enroute to the
destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, use the steps above to select ‘Activate Vector-To-Final’ — which
makes the inbound course to the FAF waypoint active.
Activating a previously loaded approach with vectors to final:
1) Press the PROC Key to display the Procedures Window.
2) Highlight ‘ACTIVATE VECTOR-TO-FINAL’ and press the ENT Key.
Loading and activating an approach using the MENU Key:
1) From the Approach Loading Page, press the MENU Key. The page menu is displayed with ‘Load & Activate
Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT
APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to
a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
Removing an Approach from the Active Flight Plan
When plans change while flying IFR, approaches can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing an approach from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the approach header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Missed Approach
Activating a missed approach in the active flight plan:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘ACTIVATE MISSED APPROACH’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The aircraft automatically sequences to the MAHP.
Or:
Press the Go-Around Button.
Course To Altitude
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6368ft’) is
not part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along
the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded.
This altitude is provided by Jeppesen, and may be below, equal to, or above the published minimums for
this approach. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,368 feet) after crossing
the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of 6,368 feet is
reached. After reaching 6,368 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case MOGAL).
If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to the
published fix (MOGAL) to begin the missed approach procedure.
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed Approach
Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if the
aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to Altitude leg
when the missed approach procedure is activated.
Course to Altitude Leg
Figure 5-98 Course to Altitude
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5.9Trip Planning
The G1000 allows the pilot to view trip planning information, fuel information, and other information for
a specified flight plan or flight plan leg based on automatic data, or based on manually entered data. Weight
planning is also available, based on manually entered fuel data and the active flight plan (to estimate remaining
fuel).
Trip Planning
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the statistics is done on the Trip Planning Page
located in the AUX Page Group.
Selected Flight Plan Segment
- FPL Number/Cumulative Legs (CUM or REM) or Leg Number (NN)
- Waypoints Defining Selected Flight Plan/Flight Plan Leg
Trip Planning Page Mode
- Automatic/Manual
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan/
Flight Plan Leg
Trip Input Data (sensor/pilot)
- Departure Time (local)
- Ground Speed
- Fuel Flow
- Fuel On Board Aircraft
- Calibrated Airspeed
- Indicated Altitude
- Barometric Pressure
- Total Air Temperature
Trip Statistics
Desired Track Distance Est. Time Enroute Est. Time of Arrival Enroute Safe Altitude Sunrise Time (local) Sunset Time (local) -
Other Statistics
- Density Altitude
- True Airspeed (TAS)
Fuel Statistics
Efficiency Total Endurance Remaining Fuel Remaining Endurance Fuel Required Total Range -
Softkeys
- Automatic/Manual Page Mode
- Flight Plan/Waypoint Mode
Figure 5-99 Trip Planning Page
The trip planning inputs are based on sensor inputs (automatic page mode) or on pilot inputs (manual page
mode). Some additional explanation of the sources for some of the inputs is as follows:
• Departure time (DEP TIME) - This defaults to the current time in automatic page mode. The computations
are from the aircraft present position, so the aircraft is always just departing.
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• Calibrated airspeed (CALIBRATED AS) - The primary source is from the air data system, and the secondary
source of information is GPS ground speed.
• Indicated altitude (IND ALTITUDE) - The primary source is the barometric altitude, and the secondary source
of information is GPS altitude.
Trip Statistics
The trip statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and the entire flight plan (CUM) selected,
the waypoints are the starting and ending waypoints of the selected flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
waypoints are the endpoints of the selected leg.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and the remaining flight plan (REM)
selected, the ‘from’ waypoint is the present position of the aircraft and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the
active flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
‘from’ waypoint is the current aircraft position and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the selected leg.
In waypoint (WPTS) mode these are manually selected waypoints (if there is an active flight plan, these
default to the endpoints of the active leg).
Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has already
been flown.
• Desired Track (DTK) - DTK is shown as nnn° and is the desired track between the selected waypoints. It is dashed unless only a single leg is selected.
• Distance (DIS) - The distance is shown in tenths of units up to 99.9, and in whole units up to 9999. • Estimated time enroute (ETE) - ETE is shown as hours:minutes until less than an hour, then it is shown
as minutes:seconds.
• Estimated time of arrival (ETA) - ETA is shown as hours:minutes and is the local time at the
destination.
- If in waypoint mode then the ETA is the ETE added to the departure time.
- If a flight plan other than the active flight plan is selected it shows the ETA by adding to the departure
time all of the ETEs of the legs up to and including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected,
then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
- If the active flight plan is selected the ETA reflects the current position of the aircraft and the current
leg being flown. The ETA is calculated by adding to the current time the ETEs of the current leg up to
and including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the
last leg of the flight plan was selected.
• Enroute safe altitude (ESA) - The ESA is shown as nnnnnFT
• Destination sunrise and sunset times (SUNRISE, SUNSET) - These times are shown as hours:minutes
and are the local time at the destination.
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Fuel Statistics
The fuel statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs. Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has
already been flown.
• Fuel efficiency (EFFICIENCY) - This value is calculated by dividing the current ground speed by the
current fuel flow.
• Time of fuel endurance (TOTAL ENDUR) - This time is shown as hours:minutes. This value is obtained
by dividing the amount of fuel on board by the current fuel flow.
• Fuel on board upon reaching end of selected leg (REM FUEL) - This value is calculated by taking the
amount of fuel onboard and subtracting the fuel required to reach the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel endurance remaining at end of selected leg (REM ENDUR) - This value is calculated by taking the time
of fuel endurance and subtracting the estimated time enroute to the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel required for trip (FUEL REQ) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time to go by the fuel
flow.
• Total range at entered fuel flow (TOTAL RANGE) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time of fuel
endurance by the ground speed.
Other Statistics
These statistics are calculated based on the system sensor inputs or the manual trip planning inputs.
• Density altitude (DENSITY ALT)
• True airspeed (TRUE AIRSPEED)
The pilot may select automatic (AUTO) or manual (MANUAL) page mode, and flight plan (FPL) or waypoint
(WPTS) mode. In automatic page mode, only the FPL, LEG, or waypoint IDs are editable (based on FPL/WPTS
selection).
Selected Flight Plan NN -
Selected Leg(s)
00 is Active FPL
01-99 are Stored FPLs
Starting and Ending Waypoint of
Selected Flight Plan Segment
Stored Flight Plan
- CUM: Beginning to End of FPL
- NN: Beginning to End of Selected Leg
Active Flight Plan
- REM: Pres. Pos. to End of FPL
- NN: Pres. Pos. to End of Selected Leg
Figure 5-100 Trip Planning Page - Flight Plan Mode
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Selected Flight Plan
Selected Leg(s)
Not Available
Not Available
Selected Starting and Ending Waypoints
Figure 5-101 Trip Planning Page - Waypoint Mode
Selecting automatic or manual page mode:
Select the AUTO Softkey or the MANUAL Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Auto Mode’ or ‘Manual
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting flight plan or waypoint mode:
Select the FPL Softkey or the WPTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Flight Plan Mode’ or ‘Waypoints
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting a flight plan and leg for trip statistics:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the flight plan number field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired flight plan number.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CUM’ or ‘REM’. The statistics for each leg can be viewed by turning the
small FMS Knob to select the desired leg. The Inset Map also displays the selected data.
Selecting waypoints for waypoint mode:
1) Select the WPTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the ENT Key. The
cursor is positioned in the waypoint field directly below the FPL field.
2) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint (or select from the Page Menu ‘Set WPT to Present Position’
if that is what is desired), and press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the second waypoint field.
3) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint, and press the ENT Key. The statistics for the selected leg
are displayed.
In manual page mode, the other eight trip input data fields must be entered by the pilot, in addition to flight
plan and leg selection.
Entering manual data for trip statistics calculations:
1) Select the MANUAL Softkey or select ‘Manual Mode’ from the Page Menu, and press the ENT Key. The cursor
may now be positioned in any field in the top right two boxes.
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to move the cursor onto the DEP TIME field and enter the desired value. Press the ENT Key.
The statistics are calculated using the new value and the cursor moves to the next entry field. Repeat until all
desired values have been entered.
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Weight Planning
Note: All weight planning page data fields display data rounded to the nearest 10 pounds or 5 kilograms.
Fuel Weight Calculator
A/C Payload Calculator
- Zero Fuel Weight Calculation
- Fuel on Board Entry
- Aircraft Weight Calculation
- Estimated Landing Weight Calculation
- Estimated Landing Fuel Calculation
- Fuel Reserve Entry
- Excess Fuel Calculation
Basic Empty Weight Entry Pilot and Stores Weight Entry Basic Operating Weight Calculation Passenger(s) Weight Entry Cargo Weight Entry Zero Fuel Weight Calculation -
Empty Weight Softkey
(selects Basic Empty
Weight)
Figure 5-102 Weight Planning Page
Entering basic empty weight:
1) Select the EMPTY WT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Basic Empty Weight’, and press the ENT
Key to select the ‘BASIC EMPTY WEIGHT’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the basic empty weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering a pilot and stores weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘PILOT AND STORES’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the pilot and stores weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The basic operating weight is calculated by adding the basic empty weight and the pilot and stores weight.
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Entering the number of passengers:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘PASSENGERS #’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the number of passengers.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering the average passenger weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the passenger weight field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the average passenger weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The total weight of passengers is calculated by multiplying the number of passengers by the average passenger
weight.
Entering the cargo weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘CARGO’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the cargo weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The ‘ZERO FUEL WEIGHT’ is calculated by adding the basic empty, pilot and stores, passenger, and cargo
weights.
Entering a fuel on board weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘FUEL ON BOARD’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel on board.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering fuel reserve:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘FUEL RESERVES’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel reserves amount.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor
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When the aircraft is in the air and a destination waypoint has been entered, the fuel calculations can be
completed.
• Estimated landing weight = zero fuel weight + estimated landing fuel weight. • Estimated landing fuel weight = fuel on board weight - (fuel flow x ETE)
• Excess fuel weight = estimated landing fuel weight - fuel reserves weight
If the aircraft is on the ground or a destination waypoint has not been entered, the following fields display
invalid values consisting of six dashes:
• Estimated landing weight
• Estimated landing fuel weight
• Excess fuel weight
Weight Caution And Warning Conditions
If the zero fuel weight is greater than the maximum allowable zero fuel weight, then the zero fuel weight is
displayed in amber.
If the aircraft weight is greater than the maximum allowable takeoff weight, then the aircraft weight is displayed
in amber.
If the estimated landing weight is greater than the maximum allowable landing weight, then the estimated
landing weight is displayed in amber.
If the estimated landing fuel weight is positive, but less than or equal to the fuel reserves weight, the following
values are displayed in amber:
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
If the estimated landing fuel weight is zero or negative, then the following values are displayed in red:
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
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5.10 RAIM Prediction
RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to calculate
a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nm for oceanic, 2.0 nm for enroute, 1.0 nm for terminal,
and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of flight, RAIM is
available nearly 100% of the time. The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a
specified date and time. RAIM computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival
date and time. Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not
available. RAIM prediction must be initiated manually if there is concern over SBAS coverage at the destination
or some other reason that compromises navigation precision. If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the
final approach course, the approach does not become active. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the
missed approach procedure must be flown.
RAIM PREDICTION Box
- Prediction Waypoint
- Arrival Time
- Arrival Date
- RAIM Status
RAIM Softkey
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
Figure 5-103 RAIM Prediction
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. The RAIM Prediction ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
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3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
4) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint; or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key with ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ highlighted to begin the computation.
Predicting RAIM availability at the aircraft present position:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. The RAIM Prediction ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set WPT to Present Position’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key with ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ highlighted to begin the computation.
Status of the RAIM computation for the selected waypoint, time, and date is displayed at the bottom of the
RAIM PREDICTION Box as follows:
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ - RAIM has not been computed.
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’ - RAIM calculation is in progress.
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’ - RAIM is predicted to be available.
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’ - RAIM is predicted to be unavailable.
The Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) provides increased navigation accuracy when available. SBAS
can be enabled or disabled manually on the GPS Status Page.
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SBAS Status
SBAS SELECTION Box
- MSAS Enable/Disable
- WAAS Enable/Disable
RAIM Softkey
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
Figure 5-104 SBAS Display - Active
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Enabling/Disabling SBAS:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
2) Press the SBAS softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘MSAS’ or ‘WAAS’.
4) Press the ENT Key to disable SBAS. Press the ENT Key again to enable SBAS.
SBAS Status
SBAS SELECTION Box
- WAAS Enable/Disable
- MSAS Enable/Disable
RAIM Softkey
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
Figure 5-105 SBAS Display - Disabled
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5.11Navigating a Flight Plan
The following discussion is an example of navigating a flight plan with the SBAS capable GPS system while the
G1000 provides vertical guidance through descents. A lateral flight plan (LNAV) would be navigated in much the
same way, but would not include vertical guidance when the final approach course is active.
nOTE: The following example flight plan is for instructional purposes only. All database information depicted
should be considered not current.
The example is a flight plan from KMKC to KCOS filed using the TIFTO2 departure, various Victor Airways,
and the DBRY1 arrival with the transition at TBE. The flight plan includes an enroute altitude of 12,000 feet, an
LPV (WAAS) approach selected for runway 35R, and a missed approach executed at the Missed Approach Point
(MAP). A few enroute changes are demonstrated.
1) Prior to departure, the TIFTO2 departure, the airways, and the DBRY1 arrival at KCOS are loaded. See the
Procedures section for loading departures and arrivals. Note the magenta arrow in Figure 5-106 indicating the
active departure leg.
After takeoff, ATC assigns a heading of 240º.
2) Figure 5-106 shows the aircraft on the assigned heading of 240º. ‘TERM’ (Terminal) is the current CDI flight
phase displayed on the HSI indicating 1.0 nm CDI scaling.
Figure 5-106 Assigned Heading of 240º
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3) ATC now assigns routing to join V4. A heading of 290º is assigned to intercept V4. The aircraft turns to heading
290° as seen in Figure 5-107.
Figure 5-107 Assigned Heading of 290º
4) Enter V4 into the flight plan.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
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b) The desired entry point for V4 (TOP) must be entered. Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight
plan insertion point (SLN) as shown in Figure 5-108. When the V4 entry point (TOP) is inserted, it is placed
immediately above the highlighted waypoint (SLN).
Figure 5-108 Begin Adding V4 to the Flight Plan
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. Enter the desired entry point for V4,
Topeka VOR (TOP), as shown in Figure 5-109.
Figure 5-109 Entering V4 Entry Point
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d) Press the ENT Key. TOP is inserted into the flight plan as in Figure 5-110.
Figure 5-110 TOP Inserted into the Flight Plan
e) With SLN still highlighted as in Figure 5-110, turn the small FMS Knob clockwise. The Waypoint Information
Page is displayed and the LD AIRWY Softkey is now available.
f) Select the LD AIRWY Softkey to display the list of available airways for TOP as seen in Figure 5-111.
Figure 5-111 List of Available Airways for TOP
g) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight V4 in the list as seen in Figure 5-111.
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h) Press the ENT Key. The list of available exits for V4 is now displayed as in Figure 5-112.
Figure 5-112 List of Available Exits for V4
i) If necessary, turn either FMS Knob to select the desired exit. In this case Salina VOR (SLN) is selected as in
Figure 5-112.
j) Press the ENT Key. The selected airway and exit are displayed, and the prompt “LOAD?” highlighted as in
Figure 5-113.
Figure 5-113 Ready to Load V4
k) Press the ENT Key.
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l) V4 is now loaded into the flight plan as shown in Figure 5-114.
Figure 5-114 V4 is Loaded in the Flight Plan
5) Making V4 the active leg of the flight plan.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ULNAZ. The TO waypoint of the leg is selected in order to activate the
leg.
c) Select the ACT LEG Softkey. The confirmation window is now displayed as in Figure 5-115. Note the TOP to
ULNAZ leg is actually part of V4.
Figure 5-115 Comfirm Active Leg
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d) Verify the displayed leg is the desired leg and press the ENT Key. Note in Figure 5-116, the magenta arrow in
the flight plan window and magenta line on the map indicating V4 is now the active flight plan leg. Note the
phase of flight remained in Terminal (TERM) mode up to this point because a departure leg was active. Since a
leg after the departure is now active, the current CDI flight phase is ENR (Enroute) and CDI scaling has changed
to 2.0 nm.
Figure 5-116 V4 Now Active Leg
6) The aircraft continues on heading 290º. When crosstrack distance is less than 2.0 nm, the XTK disappears from
the HSI and the CDI is positioned on the last dot indicating a 2.0 nm distance from the centerline of the next
course.
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7) As the CDI approaches center, the aircraft turns onto the active leg as seen in Figure 5-117.
Figure 5-117 Turn on to Active Leg
8) At SLN, Victor Airway 244 (V244) is intercepted. Turn prompts are displayed in the PFD Navigation Status Box
as seen in Figure 5-118.
Figure 5-118 Turn to Intercept V244
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9) As seen in Figure 5-119, V244 is now the active flight plan leg.
Figure 5-119 V244 Now Active Leg
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10) At Lamar VOR (LAA) V263 is intercepted. See Figure 5-120.
Figure 5-120 WIZGE to LAA Leg Active
11) ATC grants clearance to proceed direct to the OPSHN intersection to begin the arrival procedure. ATC advises
to expect an altitude of 10,000 feet at OPSHN.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to select OPSHN in the flight plan list.
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c) Press the Direct-to (
) Key. The Direct-to Window is now displayed as shown in Figure 5-121.
Figure 5-121 Direct To OPSHN
d) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the VNV altitude field as shown in Figure 5-122.
Figure 5-122 Enter VNV Altitude
e) An altitude of 10,000 feet is entered as requested by ATC.
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f) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the VNV offset field as shown in Figure 5-123.
Figure 5-123 Enter VNV Offset Distance
g) Enter the offset, or distance from the waypoint at which to reach the selected altitude. In this case, three miles
prior to OPSHN is entered. In other words, the G1000 gives vertical guidance so the aircraft arrives at an
altitude of 10,000 feet three miles prior to OPSHN.
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h) Press the ENT Key twice to activate the direct-to. Note, in Figure 5-124, the magenta arrow indicating the directto OPSHN after the offset waypoint for OPSHN. The preceding offset waypoint indicates the offset distance
and altitude that were previously entered. The remaining waypoints in the loaded arrival procedure have no
database specified altitudes, therefore, dashes are displayed. Keep the CDI centered and maintain a track along
the magenta line to OPSHN.
Note the Direct-to waypoint is within the loaded arrival procedure, therefore, phase of flight scaling for the CDI
changes to Terminal Mode and is annunciated by displaying ‘TERM’ on the HSI.
NOTE: If the loaded arrival procedure has waypoints with altitude constraints retrieved from the database
to be used as is, the altitude must be manually accepted by placing the cursor over the desired altitude,
then pressing the ENT Key. The altitude is now displayed as light blue meaning it is used by the system to
determine vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Figure 5-124 Direct-to Active
12) The aircraft is proceeding to OPSHN. The expected approach is the RNAV LPV approach to runway 35R, so it is
selected.
a) Press the PROC Key to display the Procedures Window.
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b) ‘SELECT APPROACH’ should be highlighted as shown in Figure 5-125.
Figure 5-125 Procedures Window
c) Press the ENT Key. A list of available approaches for the destination airport is displayed as in Figure 5-126.
Figure 5-126 List of Available Approaches
d) Turn either FMS Knob to select the LPV approach for 35R as shown in Figure 5-126.
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e) Press the ENT Key. A list of available transitions for the selected approach is displayed as in Figure 5-127.
Figure 5-127 List of Available Transitions
f) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired transition. In this case, the Initial Approach Fix (IAF) at HABUK is
used.
g) Press the ENT Key.
h) Barometric Minimums
To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, and press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
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Figure 5-128 Barometric Minimums Set
i) With ‘LOAD?’ highlighted, again press the ENT Key. The selected approach is added to the flight plan as seen
in Figure 5-129.
Figure 5-129 Loaded Approach
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13) Note the altitude constraints associated with each of the approach waypoints as seen in Figure 5-130. These
altitudes are loaded from the database and are displayed as light blue text, indicating these values are
“designated” for use in computing vertical deviation guidance.
Note: To no longer use the displayed altitude for calculating vertical deviation guidance, perform the
following:
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired altitude.
c) Press the CLR Key.
d) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
After making the altitude “non-designated”, it is displayed as white text.
Altitude constraint values associated with the Final Approach Fix (FAF) and waypoints beyond the FAF cannot be
designated for vertical guidance. These altitude values are always displayed as white text, as in Figure 5-130.
Vertical guidance from the FAF and on to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) is given using the SBAS GPS altitude
source, therefore, the displayed altitude values are for reference only.
Figure 5-130 Vertical Guidance is Active to the FAF
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14) As the aircraft approaches OPSHN, it may be desirable to adjust the speed, or steepness of the upcoming
descent. The default Flight Path Angle (FPA) is -3.5 degrees and a required vertical speed is computed to
maintain the -3.5 FPA. To change the vertical flight path, perform the following steps.
a) Select the VNV PROF Softkey to place the cursor in the target vertical speed field (VS TGT) as shown in Figure
5-131.
b) At this point, the descent vertical speed can be selected, or the FPA can be selected. Turn the large FMS Knob
to select the desired selection field, then turn the small FMS Knob to enter the desired value.
Note the information now displayed in the ‘CURRENT VNV PROFILE’ box. Also, note the offset waypoint (orange
box) and gray circle are now displayed on the map. The gray circle marks the Top of Descent (TOD). In this
example, vertical guidance is provided at the TOD that results in a -3.0 degree FPA descent to an altitude of
10,000 feet upon reaching the offset waypoint.
Figure 5-131 Adjusting the Descent
c) Press the ENT Key.
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15) As seen in Figure 5-132, the aircraft is approaching TOD. Note the target vertical speed required to reach the
selected altitude. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) and the Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) are
now displayed on the PFD as shown in Figure 5-133. When the aircraft is within one minute of the TOD, it is
annunciated as shown in Figure 5-133, and an aural alert ‘Vertical track’ will be heard.
Figure 5-132 Approaching Top of Descent (TOD)
Target Altitude
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
Required Vertical
Speed Indicator
(RVSI)
Figure 5-133 VDI & RVSI Upon Reaching Top of Descent (TOD)
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16) Upon reaching TOD, a descent vertical speed is established by placing the VSI pointer in line with the RVSI as
shown in Figure 5-134.
Keep Vertical Deviation
Indicator Centered
Align Actual Vertical Speed
with
Required Vertical Speed
Figure 5-134 VDI & RVSI Showing Correctly Established Descent
17) When the aircraft is one minute from the bottom of descent (BOD) it is annunciated as shown in Figure 5-135.
Upon reaching the offset waypoint for OPSHN, the aircraft is at 10,000 feet.
Figure 5-135 Approaching Bottom of Descent (BOD) at OPSHN Offset Waypoint
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18) The aircraft is approaching OPSHN. The upcoming turn and next heading are annunciated at the top left of the
PFD as seen in Figure 5-136. Initiate the turn and maneuver the aircraft on a track through the turn radius to
intercept the magenta line for the OPSHN to FSHER leg and center the CDI.
Figure 5-136 Turn to intercept OPSHN to FSHER Leg
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19) After passing OPSHN, the next leg of the arrival turns magenta as shown in Figure 5-137. The magenta arrow
in the flight plan list now indicates the OPSHN to FSHER leg of the arrival procedure is now active.
Figure 5-137 Tracking the OPSHN to FSHER Leg
20) The flight continues through the arrival procedure to PYNON (see Figure 5-138). At a point 31 nm from the
destination airport, the phase of flight scaling for the CDI changes to Terminal Mode and is annunciated by
displaying ‘TERM’ on the HSI.
A descent to HABUK is in the next leg. Note the TOD point on the map. Annunciations for the upcoming turn
and descent, as well as the VDI and RVSI, appear on the PFD as the flight progresses.
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Figure 5-138 Approaching PYNON
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21) Upon passing PYNON the approach procedure automatically becomes active. The approach may be activated
at any point to proceed directly to the IAF. In this example, the aircraft has progressed through the final
waypoint of the arrival and the flight plan has automatically sequenced to the IAF as the active leg, activating
the approach procedure (see Figure 5-139).
Figure 5-139 Approach is Now Active
Note: To manually activate the approach procedure, perform the following steps:
a) Press the PROC Key.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘ACTIVATE APPROACH’ as shown in Figure 5-140.
c) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
Figure 5-140 Manually Activate Approach
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22) The IAF is the next waypoint. At the TOD, establish a descent vertical speed as previously discussed in Step 16.
The aircraft altitude is 9,000 feet upon reaching HABUK.
Figure 5-141 Descending Turn to the Initial Approach Fix (IAF)
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23) After crossing FALUR the next waypoint is the FAF. The flight phase changes to LPV on the HSI indicating the
current phase of flight is in Approach Mode and the approach type is LPV. CDI scaling changes accordingly and is
used much like a localizer when flying an ILS approach. The RVSI is no longer displayed and the VDI changes to
the Glidepath Indicator (as shown in Figure 5-142) when the final approach course becomes active.
Figure 5-142 Descending to the FAF
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The descent continues through the FAF (CEGIX) using the Glidepath Indicator, as one would use a glideslope
indicator, to obtain an altitude “AT” 7,800 feet at the FAF. Note the altitude restriction lines over and under (At)
the altitude in the ‘ALT’ field in Figure 5-142.
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24) After crossing CEGIX, the aircraft continues following the glidepath to maintain the descent to “AT or ABOVE”
6,370 feet at the Missed Approach Point (MAP) (RW35R) as seen in Figure 5-143.
Figure 5-143 Descending to the Missed Approach Point
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6368ft’) is not part
of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along the runway
centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded. This altitude
is provided by Jeppesen, and may be below, equal to, or above the published minimums for this approach. In
this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,368 feet) after crossing the MAP, a direct-to
is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of 6,368 feet is reached. After reaching
6,368 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case MOGAL). If the aircraft altitude is
above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to the published fix (MOGAL) to
begin the missed approach procedure.
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure. For
example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed Approach Hold
Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if the aircraft
altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to Altitude leg when the
missed approach procedure is activated.
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25) Upon reaching the MAP, it is decided to execute a missed approach. Automatic waypoint sequencing is
suspended past the MAP. Select the SUSP Softkey on the PFD to resume automatic waypoint sequencing
through the missed approach procedure.
A direct-to is initiated to MOGAL, which is the Missed Approach Hold Point (MAHP) as seen in Figure 5-144.
The aircraft is climbing to 10,000 feet. The CDI flight phase now changes from LPV to MAPR as seen on the
HSI.
Figure 5-144 Missed Approach Active
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26) The aircraft continues climbing to “AT or ABOVE” 10,000 feet at MOGAL. A holding pattern is established at
the MAHP (MOGAL) as shown in Figure 5-145.
Figure 5-145 Establishing the Holding Pattern
27) The aircraft maintains 10,000 feet while following the magenta line through the hold as in Figure 5-146.
Figure 5-146 Hold Established
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5.12Abnormal Operation
This section discusses the Dead Reckoning mode of operation and the subsequent indications.
Note: Dead Reckoning Mode only functions in Enroute (ENR) or Oceanic (OCN) phase of flight. In all other
phases, an invalid GPS solution produces a “NO GPS POSITION” annunciation on the map and the G1000
stops using GPS.
While in Enroute or Oceanic phase of flight, if the G1000 detects an invalid GPS solution or is unable to
calculate a GPS position, the system automatically reverts to Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode. In DR Mode, the G1000
uses its last-known position combined with continuously updated airspeed and heading data (when available) to
calculate and display the aircraft’s current estimated position.
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the G1000 in DR Mode may become increasingly
unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. If while in DR Mode airspeed and/or heading data
is also lost or not available, the DR function may not be capable of accurately tracking estimated position and,
consequently, the system may display a path that is different than the actual movement of the aircraft. Estimated
position information displayed by the G1000 through DR while there is no heading and/or airspeed data available
should not be used for navigation.
DR Mode is inherently less accurate than the standard GPS/SBAS Mode due to the lack of satellite measurements
needed to determine a position. Changes in wind speed and/or wind direction compound the relative inaccuracy
of DR Mode. Because of this degraded accuracy, other navigation equipment must be relied upon for position
awareness until GPS-derived position data is restored.
DR Mode is indicated on the G1000 by the appearance of the letters ‘DR’ superimposed in yellow over the
‘own aircraft’ symbol as shown in Figure 5-147. In addition, ‘DR’ is prominently displayed in yellow on the HSI
slightly above and to the right of the aircraft symbol on the CDI as shown in Figure 5-147. The CDI deviation
bar remains, but is removed from the display after 20 minutes in DR Mode. The autopilot will remain coupled
in DR mode as long as the deviation info is available (20 min.) Lastly, but at the same time, a ‘GPS NAV LOST’
alert message appears on the PFD. Normal navigation using GPS/SBAS source data resumes automatically once
a valid GPS solution is restored.
As a result of operating in DR Mode, all GPS-derived data is computed based upon an estimated position and
is displayed as yellow text on the display to denote degraded navigation source information as shown in Figure
5-147.
Also, while the G1000 is in DR Mode, some terrain functions are not available. Additionally, the accuracy of
all nearest information (airports, airspaces, and waypoints) is questionable. Finally, airspace alerts continue to
function, but with degraded accuracy.
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Distance &
Bearing
Current
Track
Indicator
Ground
Speed
Dead Reckoning
Annunciaion
Wind Data
GPS Navigation
Lost Message
Course
Deviation
Indicator
Bearing
Pointer/
Distance
Wind Data
Nav Data Bar
All data except
Active Leg,
TAS, and DTK
are in yellow
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Subdued Aircraft
Symbol
Figure 5-147 Dead Reckoning Mode - GPS Derived Data Shown in Yellow
Note: The Inset Map is removed from the PFD any time aircraft pitch is greater than +30° or less than –20°,
or when a 65° bank angle is reached.
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Section 6 Hazard Avoidance
Hazard avoidance features available for the G1000 are designed to aid situational awareness and provide advisory
information with regard to potential hazards to flight safety associated with weather, terrain, and air traffic.
Weather
• GDL 69/69A XM® Satellite Weather (Subscription optional)
• GSR 56 GFDS Worldwide Weather (Optional)
• GWX 68 Airborne Color Weather Radar
• L-3 STORMSCOPE® WX-500 Series II Weather Mapping Sensor (Optional)
Terrain Avoidance
• TAWS-B (Terrain Awareness Warning System - TSO-C151b certified)
• Profile View Terrain (standard with TAWS-B)
• TAWS-A (Terrain Awareness Warning System - TSO-C151b and TSO-92c certified) (Optional)
Traffic
• Traffic Information Service (TIS)
• Garmin GTS 820 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) (Optional)
• Garmin GTS 850 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) (Optional)
• L-3 SKYWATCH® SKY 497 TAS (Optional)
• L-3 SKYWATCH® HP SKY 899 TAS/TCAS (Optional)
• Honeywell® KTA 870 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) (Optional)
6.1XM Satellite Weather
Note: XM Satellite Weather data provides information for avoiding hazardous weather. Do not utilize XM
Weather information to penetrate hazardous weather.
XM Satellite Weather is provided through the GDL 69A, a remote-mounted data-link satellite receiver. Received
graphical weather information and associated text is displayed on the Multi Function Display (MFD) and the
Primary Flight Display (PFD) Inset Map. The GDL 69A can also receive XM Satellite Radio® entertainment
services. Both weather data and entertainment programming operate in the S-band frequency range to provide
continuous reception capabilities at any altitude throughout North America.
XM Satellite Radio services are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit
www.xmradio.com.
Activating Services
Before XM Satellite Weather can be used, the service must be activated. Service is activated by providing XM
Satellite Radio with coded IDs unique to the installed GDL 69A. XM Satellite Radio and XM Satellite Weather
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services each have coded IDs. The Data and Audio Radio IDs must be provided to XM Satellite Radio to activate
the weather service and entertainment subscriptions, respectively. These IDs are located on:
• The label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
• The XM Information Page on the MFD (Figure 6-1)
• The XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit (available at www.garmin.com, P/N
190-00355-04)
Contact the installer if the Audio and Data Radio IDs cannot be located.
XM Satellite Radio uses the coded IDs to send an activation signal that allows the G1000 to display weather
data and/or entertainment programming provided through the GDL 69A.
Activating XM Satellite Weather and XM Satellite Radio services:
1) Contact XM Satellite Radio by email (address listed on their website, www.xmradio.com) or by the customer
service phone number listed on the website. Follow the instructions provided by XM Satellite Radio services.
2) Select the XM page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
3) Select the INFO Softkey to display the XM Information Page (if page is not already displayed).
4) Verify that the desired services are activated.
5) Select the LOCK Softkey.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘YES’.
7) To complete activation, press the ENT Key
Data Radio
ID (for XM
Weather)
Audio Radio ID
(for XM Satellite
Radio)
Weather Products
(Available Products
for Service Class
Indicated in Green)
Select INFO
Softkey to Display
XM Information
Page
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Figure 6-1 XM Information Page
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
Select LOCK
Softkey to Lock
Subscription
Information
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Using XM Satellite Weather Products
The primary map for viewing XM Weather data is the Weather Data Link Page in the Map Page Group. This
is the only G1000 map display capable of showing information for all available XM weather products.
Viewing the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link Page.
NEXRAD
Weather
Product Icon
and Age
(U.S. and
Canada)
NEXRAD Weather
Product Selected
for Display
Figure 6-2 Weather Data Link Page
When a weather product is active on the Weather Data Link Page or the Navigation Map Page, the age of the
data is displayed on the screen next to the weather product icon (Figure 6-2). The age of the product is based
on the time difference between when the data was assembled on the ground and the current GPS time. Weather
products are refreshed at specific intervals (defined in the Refresh Rate column in Table 6-1).
If for any reason, a weather product is not refreshed within the designated Expiration Time intervals (see
Table 6-1), the data is considered expired and is removed from the display, and the product age display is
replaced by dashes. This ensures that the displayed data is consistent with what is currently being broadcast by
XM Satellite Radio services. If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age
changes to yellow. If no data is available for a weather product, ‘N/A’ is displayed next to the weather product
icon.
Table 6-1 shows the weather product symbols, the expiration time and the refresh rate. The refresh rate
represents the interval at which XM Satellite Radio broadcasts new signals that may or may not contain new
weather data. It does not represent the rate at which weather data is updated or new content is received by the
Data Link Receiver. Weather data is refreshed at intervals that are defined and controlled by XM Satellite Radio
and its data vendors.
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Expiration Time
(Minutes)
30
Refresh Rate
(Minutes)
5 (U.S.)
10 (Canada)
Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
60
15
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
30
7.5
XM Lightning (LTNG)
30
5
Cell Movement (CELL MOV)
30
1.25
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
60
12
METARs
90
12
City Forecast (CITY)
90
12
Surface Analysis (SFC)
60
12
Freezing Levels (FRZ LVL)
60
12
Winds Aloft (WIND)
60
12
County Warnings (COUNTY)
60
5
Cyclone Warnings (CYCLONE)
60
12
90
22
90
12
90
12
180
12
30
60
60
5
12
12
Weather Product
Symbol
NEXRAD
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD)
(ICNG)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Air Report
(AIREPs)
Turbulence
(TURB)
Radar Coverage Not Available
TFRs
TAFs
No product image
No product image
No product image
Table 6-1 Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
+
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
+
XM Lightning (LTNG)
+
Cell Movement (CELL MOV)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Surface Analysis (SFC)
+
Freezing Levels (FRZ LVL)
+
Winds Aloft (WIND)
+
County Warnings (COUNTY)
+
Cyclone Warnings (CYCLONE)
+
Icing Potential (ICNG)
+
PIREPs
+
+
AIREPs
+
+
Turbulence (TURB)
+
Radar Coverage
TAFs
+
+
City Forecast (CITY)
TFRs
+
+
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
METARs
Flight Plan Pages
+
Nearest Page Group
+
AUX - Trip Planning
Page
+
Weather Information
Page
Weather Data Link
Page
NEXRAD
Navigation Map Page
Weather Product
PFD Inset Map
Table 6-2 shows which XM products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on specific maps.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Table 6-2 Weather Product Display Maps
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Weather Softkeys on the Weather Data Link Page
Softkeys control the display of weather information on most MFD pages and the PFD Inset Map (Figure 6-3
shows the weather product softkeys for the Weather Data Link Page). When a weather product is selected
for display, the corresponding softkey label changes to gray to indicate the product is enabled. Unavailable
weather products have subdued softkey labels (softkeys are disabled from selection).
NEXRAD ECHO TOP CLD TOP XM LTNG CELL MOV
CYCLONE SFC OFF
FRZ LVL
SIG/AIR
METAR
LEGEND MORE WX CHKLIST
WIND OFF ICNG OFF TURB OFF AIREPS
PIREPS
COUNTY
BACK
SFC Softkey label changes
to reflect current selection.
WIND/ICNG/TURB Softkey labels
change to reflect current selection.
CURRENT
OFF
12 HR
24 HR
36 HR
48 HR
Select the BACK Softkey
to move up one level.
LEGEND
BACK
PREV and NEXT Softkeys cycle through Winds Aloft,
Icing, and Turbulence altitude selection softkeys.
PREV
OFF
SFC
3000
6000
9000
12000
15000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
36000
39000
42000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
1000
3000
6000
9000
12000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
39000
42000
45000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
15000
36000
Figure 6-3 Weather Data Link Weather Product Softkeys
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link Page control the map range settings
above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the weather
product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The menus also
provide a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling display of weather products.
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Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-4).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘PRODUCT GROUP 1’ or ‘PRODUCT GROUP 2’, and press the ENT Key (Figure
6-5).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-4 Weather Data Link Page Menu
Figure 6-5 Weather Data Link Page Setup Menu
Restoring default Weather Data Link Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Highlight the desired default(s) to restore (all or for selection) and press ENT Key.
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Maps besides the Weather Data Link Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-6).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-7).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-8).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-6 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-7 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-8 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
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Each active weather product has an associated legend which can be displayed on the Weather Data Link
Page.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Select the LEGEND Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the window.
4) To remove the Legend Window, select the LEGEND Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
Additional information about the following can be displayed by panning over the display on the map:
• Echo Tops
• County Warnings
• Cell Movement
• TFRs
• SIGMETs
• AIREPs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPs
• METARs
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the RANGE Knob. The map range is adjusted by turning
the RANGE Knob. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map
Pointer.
Additional
Information
on Weather
Feature
Selected with
Map Pointer
Severe
Thunderstorm
Warning Selected
with Map Pointer
Figure 6-9 Panning on the Weather Data Link Page
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NEXRAD
NOTE: NEXRAD data cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain, echo tops, icing, turbulence, or
Stormscope.
WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar), is a network of 158 high-resolution Doppler radar
systems that are operated by the National Weather Service (NWS). NEXRAD data provides centralized
meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The maximum
range of a single NEXRAD radar site is 250 nm. In addition to a wide array of services, the NEXRAD network
provides important information about severe weather for air traffic safety.
NEXRAD data is not real-time. The lapsed time between collection, processing, and dissemination of
NEXRAD images can be significant and may not reflect the current radar synopsis. Due to the inherent delays
and the relative age of the data, it should be used for long-range planning purposes only. Never use NEXRAD
data or any radar data to penetrate hazardous weather.
Figure 6-10 NEXRAD Data on the Weather Data Link Page
NEXRAD data can be displayed on the following maps:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Weather Data Link Page
• Flight Plan Pages
• Airport Information Page
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Displaying NEXRAD weather information:
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, seelect the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link Page.
2) Select the NEXRAD Softkey.
Composite data from all the NEXRAD radar sites in the United States is shown. This data is composed of
the maximum reflectivity from the individual radar sweeps. The display of the information is color-coded to
indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can be viewed on the Weather Data Link Page.
For the NEXRAD legend (Figure 6-11), select the LEGEND Softkey when NEXRAD is selected for display.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-11 NEXRAD Data with Legend
The display of radar coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or ECHO TOPS is selected. Areas
where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is not being collected
are indicated in gray shade of purple.
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
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NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
• NEXRAD base reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine cloud layers or precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet snow, wet
hail, and rain.
• NEXRAD base reflectivity is sampled at the minimum antenna elevation angle. An individual NEXRAD
site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information about storms directly over
the site.
• When zoomed in to a range of 30 nm, each square block on the display represents an area of four square
kilometers. The intensity level reflected by each square represents the highest level of NEXRAD data
sampled within the area (Figure 6-12).
Block represents
4 km2
Figure 6-12 NEXRAD Data - Zoomed
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
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NEXRAD Limitations (Canada)
• Radar coverage extends to 55ºN.
• Any precipitation displayed between 52ºN and 55ºN is displayed as mixed because the type is
unknown.
No Coverage
Above 55°N
Precipitation Above
52°N Displays as
Mixed
Figure 6-13 NEXRAD Data - Canada
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Echo Tops
Note: Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time as Cloud Tops or NEXRAD data is displayed.
Echo Tops data (Figure 6-14) shows the location, elevation, and direction of the highest radar echo. The
highest radar echo does not indicate the top of a storm or clouds; rather it indicates the highest altitude at
which precipitation is detected. Information is derived from NEXRAD data.
Figure 6-14 Echo Tops Data
Displaying Echo Tops information:
1) Select the XM Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the ECHO TOPS Softkey.
To display the Echo Tops legend (Figure 6-15), select the LEGEND Softkey when Echo Tops is selected for
display. Since Echo Tops and Cloud Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Echo Tops is activated, NEXRAD and Cloud Tops data are
removed.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-15 Echo Tops Legend
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Cloud TOPs
Note: Cloud Tops and Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time.
Cloud Tops data (Figure 6-16) depicts cloud top altitudes as determined from satellite imagery.
Figure 6-16 Cloud Tops Data
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the XM Weather Data Link Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the CLD TOP Softkey.
To display the Cloud Tops legend (Figure 6-17), select the LEGEND Softkey when Cloud Tops is selected
for display. Since Cloud Tops and Echo Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Cloud Tops is activated, Echo Tops data is removed.
Figure 6-17 Cloud Tops Legend
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XM Lightning
Note: XM Lightning and optional L-3 STORMSCOPE® WX-500 Lightning cannot be displayed at the same
time.
Lightning data (Figure 6-18) shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes. A strike
icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. The exact location of the lightning
strike is not displayed.
Lightning
Strikes
Figure 6-18 Lightning Data
XM Lightning data displays on the following maps:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Weather Data Link Page
• Flight Plan Pages
Displaying XM Lightning information:
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the XM
Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the XM LTNG Softkey (LTNG Softkey on the XM Weather Data Link Page).
To display the XM Lightning legend on the XM Weather Data Link Page (Figure 6-19), select the LEGEND
Softkey when XM Lightning is selected for display.
Figure 6-19 Lightning Legend
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Cell Movement
Cell Movement data (Figure 6-20) shows the location and movement of storm cells as identified by the
ground-based system. Cells are represented by yellow squares, with direction of movement indicated with
short, orange arrows.
Storm
Cells
Figure 6-20 Cell Movement Data
On most applicable maps, Cell Movement data is selected for display along with NEXRAD. On the XM
Weather Data Link Page, Cell Movement data can be selected independently. Cell Movement data can be
displayed on the following maps:
• Navigation Map
• Nearest Pages
• AUX - Trip Planning Page
• Weather Data Link Page
Displaying Cell Movement information:
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the XM
Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey (CEL MOV Softkey on the XM Weather Data Link Page). For Cell Movement to
be displayed on maps other than the XM Weather Data Link Page, Cell Movement must be turned on in the
Navigation Map Setup Menu (see “Setting Up XM Satellite Weather”).
To display the Cell Movement legend on the XM Weather Data Link Page, (Figure 6-21), select the LEGEND
Softkey when Cell Movement is selected for display.
Figure 6-21 Cell Movement Legend
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SIGMETS and AIRMETS
SIGMET (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMET (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET is a significant weather condition
occurring at a localized geographical position.
Airmet
Turbulence
Airmet
Convective
Sigmet
Figure 6-22 SIGMET/AIRMET Data
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the XM Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the RANGE Knob and move the Map Pointer over the
icon.
4) Press the ENT key. Figure 6-23 shows sample SIGMET text.
To display the SIGMET and AIRMET legend (Figure 6-23), select the LEGEND Softkey when SIGMETs and
AIRMETs are selected for display.
Sample SIGMET Text
SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
Figure 6-23 SIGMET/AIRMET Text and Legend
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METARs and TAFs
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure as reported for METARs is given in hectopascals (hPa), except for in the United
States, where it is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are reported in Celsius.
Note: METAR information is only displayed within the installed aviation database service area.
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or
observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical
data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the report.
METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
Instructions
for Viewing
METAR and
TAF Text
Selected
Airport
Figure 6-24 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link Page
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR data is displayed first in a
decoded fashion, then as raw text. TAF information is displayed only in its raw form when it is available
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Displaying METAR and TAF text:
1) On the XM Weather Data Link Page, select the METAR Softkey.
2) Press the RANGE Knob and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the XM Weather Data Link Page.
Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Press the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that the METAR text must
be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
Decoded
METAR
Text
METAR
Symbol
METAR
Text
TAF
Text
Figure 6-25 METAR with Text
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To display the METAR legend (Figure 6-26) on the XM Weather Data Link Page, select the LEGEND
Softkey when METARs are selected for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. A gray METAR flag is displayed
when the METAR text does not contain adequate information.
Figure 6-26 METAR Legend
Surface Analysis and City Forecast
Note: Surface Analysis and City Forecast data are displayed only within the installed Aviation Database
service area.
Surface Analysis and City Forecast (Figure 6-27) information is available for current and forecast weather
conditions. Forecasts are available for intervals of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours.
Figure 6-27 Surface Analysis Data - 24-Hour
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Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast information:
1) Select the XM Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the SFC Softkey.
4) Select the desired forecast time: CURRENT, 12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, or 48 HR. The SFC Softkey label changes
to reflect the forecast time selected.
To display the Surface Analysis and City Forecast legend (Figure 6-28), select the LEGEND Softkey when
Surface Analysis and City Forecast are selected to be displayed.
Figure 6-28 Surface Analysis Legend
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Freezing Level
Freezing Level data (Figure 6-29) shows the color-coded contour lines for the altitude and location at
which the first isotherm is found. When no data is displayed for a given altitude, the data for that altitude
has not been received, or is out of date and has been removed from the display. New data appears at the next
update.
Figure 6-29 Freeze Level Data
Displaying Freezing Level information:
1) Select the XM Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the FRZ LVL Softkey.
To display the Freezing Level legend (Figure 6-30), select the LEGEND Softkey when Freezing Level data is
selected to be displayed.
Figure 6-30 Freezing Level Legend
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Winds Aloft
Winds Aloft data (Figure 6-31) shows the forecast wind speed and direction at the surface and at selected
altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3000-foot increments up to 42,000 feet MSL.
Displaying Winds Aloft data:
1) Select the XM Weather Data Link Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the WIND Softkey.
4) Select the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Select the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The WIND Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Figure 6-31 Winds Aloft at 21,000 Feet
To display the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-32), select the LEGEND Softkey when Winds Aloft is
selected for display.
Figure 6-32 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
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Note: Profile View is only available if TAWS-B is installed.
Winds Aloft data can also be shown inside the Profile View (Figure 6-33) on the Navigation Map Page.
Wind direction arrows indicate headwind or tailwind components of at least five knots along the altitude scale
using symbols comparable to those shown in the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-32). Refer to section 6.7 for
additional information about Profile View.
Profile View
Path Enabled
Winds Aloft Data Age
Wind Component
Velocity and Direction
Arrows
Altitude Scale
Figure 6-33 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data on
Profile View
Showing/Hiding Profile View (containing winds aloft data)
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the PROFILE Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current
state) and press the ENT Key.
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Winds Aloft data inside the Profile View is enabled by default when the Profile View is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display in Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-34).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Profile Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-35).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Profile Winds’ (Figure 6-36).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-34 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-35 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-36 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
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County Warnings
County warning data (Figure 6-37) provides specific public awareness and protection weather warnings from
the National Weather Service (NWS). This can include information on fires, tornadoes, severe thunderstorms,
flood conditions, and other natural disasters.
Additional
Information
on Warning
Selected with
Map Pointer
Tornado
Warning
Severe
Thunderstorm
Warning
Selected
Figure 6-37 County Flood and Severe Weather Warnings
Displaying County Warning information:
1) Select the XM Weather Data Link Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the COUNTY Softkey.
To display the County Warnings legend (Figure 6-38), select the LEGEND Softkey when County Warnings
are selected to be displayed.
Figure 6-38 County Warnings Legend
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Cyclone
The Cyclone weather product (Figure 6-39) shows the current location of cyclones (hurricanes) and their
projected tracks.
Cyclone
Figure 6-39 Cyclone Data Selected for Display
Displaying cyclone (hurricane) track information:
1) Select the XM Weather Data Link Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the CYCLONE Softkey.
To display the Cyclone legend (Figure 6-40), select the LEGEND Softkey when Cyclones are selected to
be displayed.
Figure 6-40 Cyclone Legend
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Icing (CIP & SLD)
Current Icing Product (CIP) data (Figure 6-41) shows a graphical view of the current icing environment.
Icing severity is displayed in four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extreme (not specific to aircraft type).
The CIP product is not a forecast, but a presentation of the current conditions at the time of the analysis.
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing conditions are characterized by the presence of relatively large,
super cooled water droplets indicative of freezing drizzle and freezing rain aloft. SLD threat areas are depicted
as magenta dots over the CIP colors.
Displaying Icing data:
1) Select the XM Weather Data Link Page.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the ICNG Softkey.
4) Select the desired altitude level: 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet. Press the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle through
the altitude softkeys. The ICNG Softkey label changes to indicate the altitude selected.
Supercooled
Large Droplet
Threat
Icing
Figure 6-41 Icing Data at 15,000 Feet
To display the Icing Potential legend (Figure 6-42), select the LEGEND Softkey when Icing is selected for
display.
Figure 6-42 Icing Potential Legend
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Turbulence
Turbulence data (Figure 6-43) identifies the potential for erratic movement of high-altitude air mass
associated winds. Turbulence is classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme, at altitudes between 21,000
and 45,000 feet.Turbulence data is intended to supplement AIRMETs and SIGMETs.
Displaying Turbulence data:
1) Select the XM Weather Data Link Page.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the TURB Softkey.
4) Select the desired altitude level: 21,000 feet up to 45,000 feet. Selects the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The TURB Softkey label changes to indicate the altitude selected.
Moderate
Turbulence
Severe
Turbulence
Light
Turbulence
Figure 6-43 Turbulence Data at 21,000 Feet
To display the Turbulence legend (Figure 6-44), select the LEGEND Softkey when Turbulence is selected
for display.
Figure 6-44 Turbulence Legend
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PIREPs and AIREPs
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) (Figure 6-45) provide timely weather information for a particular route of
flight. When significant weather conditions are reported or forecast, Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities are
required to solicit PIREPs. A PIREP may contain unforecast adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight
visibility, icing conditions, wind shear, and turbulence. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent
(UUA).
Another type of PIREP is an Air Report (AIREP). AIREPs are used almost exclusively by commerical
airlines.
Instructions for
Viewing PIREP
and AIREP Text
PIREP
Selected
AIREP
Urgent
PIREP
Figure 6-45 AIREPs and PIREPs on the Weather Data Link Page
Displaying PIREP and AIREP text:
1) Select the XM Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the AIREPS or PIREPS Softkey.
4) Press the RANGE Knob and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather
report when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with PIREP or AIREP text. The data is first displayed
in a decoded fashion, then as raw text.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP or AIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the XM Weather Data Link Page.
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Decoded PIREP Text
Raw PIREP Text
Figure 6-46 PIREP Text on the Weather Data Link Page
To display the PIREP or AIREP legend (Figure 6-47), select the LEGEND Softkey when PIREPs or AIREPs
are selected for display.
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
Figure 6-47 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
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6.2 Worldwide Weather
Note: Garmin Flight Data Services Worldwide Weather provides information for avoiding hazardous
weather. Do not utilize Worldwide Weather information to penetrate hazardous weather.
Garmin Flight Data Services (GFDS) provides Worldwide Weather reception capabilities to the G1000 through
the optional GSR 56 Iridium satellite datalink. Graphical weather information and associated text are displayed
on the Multi Function Display (MFD) and the Primary Flight Display (PFD) Inset Map.
Weather data are provided after the pilot initiates either a manual or automatic GFDS data request on the GFDS
Weather Data Link Page on the MFD.
Worldwide Weather requires an active GFDS subscription. Refer to the Additional Features section for
information on registering with GFDS prior to accessing Worldwide Weather products.
Accessing GFDS Worldwide Weather Products
The primary map for viewing GFDS Weather data is the GFDS Weather Data Link Page in the Map Page Group
(Figure 6-48). This is the only map display capable of showing information for all available GFDS Worldwide
Weather products. No weather data is displayed until the first GFDS Weather Data Request is made.
Viewing the GFDS Weather Data Link Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the GFDS Weather Data Link Page.
Weather
product age
information
Precip Weather
Product Display
Enabled icon
Precip Weather
Product Selected
for Display
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Figure 6-48 GFDS Weather Data Link Page
(After GFDS Weather Request)
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When a weather product is selected for display on the GFDS Weather Data Link Page, a box containing a
symbol for the product and its age (in minutes) are shown in the upper right (Figure 6-48). If weather data has
not been requested yet or is not available, ‘N/A’ is shown next to the product symbol instead of age. The age of
the weather product is based on the time difference between when the data was assembled on the ground and
the current GPS time. Weather products are updated continuously or refreshed at specific intervals (defined in
the Refresh Rate column in Table 6-3).
If for any reason, a weather product is not refreshed within the defined Expiration Time intervals (see
Table 6-3), the data is considered expired and is removed from the display. The age of the expired product is
replaced by dashes. If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age changes
to yellow.
Table 6-3 shows the GFDS weather product symbols, the expiration time and the refresh rates. The refresh
rate represents the interval at which the GFDS servers make available the most current known weather data.
It does not necessarily represent the rate at which new content is received from weather sources.
Note: The availability of specific Worldwide Weather products varies from region to region.
Weather Product
Symbol
Radar Precipitation
(PRECIP)
Infrared Satellite
(IR SAT)
Datalink Lightning
(DL LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Temporary Flight Restrictions
no product image
(TFRs)
Terminal Aerodrome Reports
no product image
(TAFs)
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
30
Refresh Rate
(Minutes)
U.S.: 3*
Canada: 3*†
Europe: 15
60
30
30
Continuous
60
Continuous
90
Continuous
60
Continuous
90
Continuous
60
Continuous
60
Continuous
* The composite precipitation image is updated every 3 minutes, but individual radar sites may take
between 3 and 10 minutes to provide new data.
†
Canadian radar precipitation data provided by Environment Canada.
Table 6-3 GFDS Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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Nearest Page Group
Flight Plan Pages
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Winds Aloft (WIND)
+
+
PIREPs
+
+
+
+
Radar Coverage
+
+
+
TFRs
+
+
+
+
+
+
TAFs
+
+
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
METARs
Weather Information
Page
+
Infrared Satellite (IR SAT)
Datalink Lightning (LTNG)
GFDS Weather Data
Link Page
+
Navigation Map Page
Profile View*
+
AUX - Trip Planning
Page
Precipitation (PRECIP)
Navigation Map Page
GFDS Weather Product
PFD Inset Map
Table 6-4 shows which GFDS Weather products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on specific
G1000 maps.
* Only available if TAWS-B is installed.
Table 6-4 GFDS Weather Product Display Maps
Softkeys control the display of weather information on most MFD pages and the PFD Inset Map (Figure
6-49 shows the weather product softkeys for the GFDS Weather Data Link Page). When a weather product is
selected for display, the corresponding softkey label changes to gray to indicate the product display is enabled.
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PRECIP
IR SAT
DL LTNG
SIG/AIR
WIND OFF
METAR
LEGEND MORE WX CHKLIST
PIREPS
BACK
WIND Softkey label changes
to reflect current selection.
Press the BACK Softkey
to move up one level.
PREV and NEXT Softkeys cycle through Winds Aloft
altitude selection softkeys.
PREV
OFF
SFC
3000
6000
9000
12000
15000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
36000
39000
42000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
Figure 6-49 GFDS Weather Product Softkeys (MFD)
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the GFDS Weather Data Link Page control the map range
settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the
weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The menus
also provide a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling display of weather products.
Setting up and customizing the GFDS Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the GFDS Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-50).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Product Group 1’ or ‘Product Group 2’, and press the ENT Key (Figure
6-51).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the GFDS Weather Data Link Page with the changed settings.
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Figure 6-50 GFDS Weather Data Link Page Menu
Figure 6-51 GFDS Weather Data Link Page Setup Menu
Restoring default GFDS Weather Data Link Page settings:
1) Select the GFDS Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Highlight the desired default(s) to restore (all or for selection) and press ENT Key.
The G1000 supports dual datalink installation of both the GSR56 for Worldwide Weather and the GDL69A
for XM® Satellite Weather. Only one set of datalink weather products (GFDS or XM) can be displayed at a
time.
Switching between GFDS and XM weather sources:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the MAP page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the GFDS (or XM) Weather Data Link Page.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Display GFDS Weather’ or ‘Display XM’ Weather’ (choice dependent on
current weather source) and press the ENT Key.
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If both GFDS and XM weather services are installed, customizing the display settings for the corresponding
weather products shown in Table 6-5 will result in identical settings for both services.
GFDS Worldwide Weather
Product
Precipitation
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD)
(PRECIP)
Cloud Top
Infrared Satellite
(CLD TOP)
(IR SAT)
XM Lightning
GFDS Lightning
(DL LTNG)
(XM LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
(PIREPs)
XM Weather Product
Table 6-5 Corresponding XM and GFDS Weather Products
Maps besides the GFDS Weather Data Link Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map
Page.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-52).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-53).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-54).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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Figure 6-52 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-53 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-54 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
Each active weather product has an associated legend which can be displayed on the GFDS Weather Data
Link Page. If no weather product softkeys are selected, the LEGEND Softkey will be unavailable.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products
1) Select the GFDS Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the LEGEND Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the window.
4) To remove the Legend Window, select the LEGEND Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
Additional information about the following can be displayed by panning over the display on the map:
• Infrared Satellite (IR SAT)
• METARs
• SIGMETs
• TFRs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPs
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the RANGE Knob. The map range is adjusted by turning
the RANGE Knob. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map
Pointer.
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Additional Information on
TFR Selected
with Map
Pointer
TFR Selected
with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-55 Panning on the GFDS Data Link Page
GFDS Weather Data Requests
The GFDS Data Request window provides the flight crew with the options to enable or disable the requested
weather coverage area(s), choose automatic weather update intervals (if desired), and the ability to send or cancel
weather data requests. The status of the GFDS data request process is also displayed.
Before a GFDS data request can occur, a valid request coverage area must be defined from which all currently
available GFDS weather products will be retrieved. At a minimum, either the aircraft’s present position or a
waypoint (as part of a flight plan or entered directly in the ‘WAYPOINT’ coverage field) must be part of the request
coverage area, otherwise the request status window will indicate ‘INVALID COVERAGE AREA’ and the system will
not allow a request to occur.
It is not necessary for a destination (based on an active flight plan), a flight plan, or waypoint to be specified
prior to enabling these coverage areas; however no weather data will be retrieved for these option(s) until a flight
plan or waypoint is provided, respectively.
Requesting GFDS weather data manually:
1) Select the GFDS Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘GFDS Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-56).
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4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired coverage option(s) and press the ENT Key to check or uncheck
one of more of the following coverage selections (Figures 6-57, 6-58):
• PRESENT POSITION – Requests data based on current location.
• DESTINATION – Requests data based on the active flight plan destination (Direct-To destinations excluded).
See the Flight Management section for more information about entering and activating flight plans.
• FPL – Requests data along an active flight plan, if one exists. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired
flight plan look-ahead distance option (or choose ‘REMAINING FPL’ to request the remainder of the flight
plan), then press the ENT Key.
• WAYPOINT – Requests data based on a waypoint (which may be off-route). Turn the large and small FMS
Knobs to enter a waypoint, then press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob highlight to the ‘DIAMETER / RTE WIDTH’ (diameter/route width) distance field and
turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired diameter and route width of the request, then press the ENT
Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob until the ‘SEND REQ’ button is highlighted. Press the ENT Key to initiate the request
immediately or press the FMS Knob to return to the GFDS Data Link Page without requesting weather data.
Figure 6-56 GFDS Weather Data Link Page Menu
Figure 6-57 GFDS Data Request Window
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Present Position Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Next 80 nm of Flight Plan
Selected, 200 nm Route
Width Requested
Destination Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Off-Route Waypoint
Selected, 200 nm Diameter
Requested
Figure 6-58 GFDS Weather Data Request Results with Precipitation and Infrared Satellite Displayed
During a GFDS Data Request, the Request Status box displays “Processing...” and the ‘CANCEL REQ’ button
is highlighted. If desired, the GFDS Data Request window may be closed while the data request is processing
by pressing the FMS Knob; the data request will continue to process in the background. GFDS Data Requests
typically take between 1 to 3 minutes to complete depending on the size of the selected weather coverage area
and Iridium signal connection quality.
The G1000 retrieves all available Worldwide Weather products within the selected coverage area during
an initial GFDS Data Request, regardless of which products (if any) are currently enabled for display. On
subsequent requests, previously retrieved textual data (such as METARs and TAFS) is retained if it has not
expired, while new textual weather data matching the current coverage area and all graphical weather data is
downloaded during every data request.
At the completion of a successful weather data request, the request status window (if still open) will indicate
‘OK’.
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Cancelling a GFDS Weather Data Request in Progress:
1) Select the GFDS Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘GFDS Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘CANCEL REQ’ and press the ENT Key. The request status box indicates
‘Request Cancelled’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the GFDS Weather Datalink Page.
The pilot can schedule GFDS data requests to recur automatically. Auto requests remain enabled until the
pilot disables them, or the G1000 power is cycled. The Request Status window will indicate a countdown timer
until the next automatic data request occurs.
NOTE: If automatic GFDS data requests were enabled prior to the system entering Reversionary Mode, the
automatic weather data requests will continue in Reversionary Mode, however the GFDS Data Request
window and its associated options will not be available.
Enabling/disabling automatic GFDS Data Requests:
1) Select the GFDS Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘GFDS Weather Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Choose the desired weather coverage options.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘UPDATE RATE’ setting. Then turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the
desired automatic update frequency (OFF, 5 Min, 10 Min, 15 Min, 20 Min, 25 Min, 30 Min, 45 Min, or 60 Min),
then press the ENT Key.
6) The ‘SEND REQ” button is highlighted and a countdown timer is displayed in the ‘REQUEST STATUS’ based on
the currently selected update rate. Press the ENT Key to immediately send an immediate GFDS Data Request.
Or:
Press the FMS Knob to return to the GFDS Weather Data Link Page.
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Worldwide Weather Products
Precipitation
NOTE: Precipitation data cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain or Stormscope.
Precipitation (PRECIP) data is not real-time. The lapsed time between collection, processing, and
dissemination of radar images can be significant and may not reflect the current radar synopsis. Due to the
inherent delays and the relative age of the data, it should be used for long-range planning purposes only.
Boundary of
Precipitationr data
request
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-59 Precipitation Data on the GFDS Weather Data Link Page
Precipitation data can be displayed on the following maps:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Weather Data Link Page
• Flight Plan Pages
• Airport Information Page
Displaying Precipitation weather information:
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
GFDS Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the PRECIP Softkey.
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Radar data shown represents lowest level, base reflectivity, of radar returns. The display of the information
is color-coded to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can be viewed on the
GFDS Weather Data Link Page. For the Precipitation legend (Figure 6-60), select the LEGEND Softkey when
Precipitation is selected for display.
No Radar Coverage
Boundary of weather
data request
Figure 6-60 Precipitation Data Legend
The display of radar coverage is enabled active when Precipitation is selected for display. Areas where
precipitation radar coverage is not currently available or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade
of purple. A white boundary line depicting the selected coverage area of the GFDS weather data request
encloses the precipitation data when this weather product is displayed.
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the Precipitation
display directly correlate to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous weather
can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different radar echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). Weather
radars measure the reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
Precipitation Limitations
Radar images may have certain limitations:
• Radar base reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine cloud layers or precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet snow, wet
hail, and rain.
• Radar base reflectivity is sampled at the minimum antenna elevation angle. An individual radar site
cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information about storms directly over the
site.
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• When zoomed in to a range of 30 nm, each square block on the display represents an area of four square
kilometers.
Block represents
4 km2
Figure 6-61 Precipitation Data - Zoomed
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
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Infrared Satellite
Infrared Satellite (IR SAT) data (Figure 6-62) depicts cloud top temperatures from satellite imagery. Brighter
cloud top colors indicate cooler temperatures occurring at higher altitudes.
Figure 6-62 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link Page
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the GFDS Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the IR SAT Softkey.
To display the Infrared Satellite legend (Figure 6-63), select the LEGEND Softkey when Infrared Satellite data
is selected for display.
Figure 6-63 Infrared Satellite Legend
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Datalink Lightning
Datalink Lightning (DL LTNG) data (Figure 6-64) shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground
lightning strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. Neither
cloud-to-cloud nor the exact location of the lightning strike is displayed.
If the aircraft is also equipped with the L-3 WX-500 Stormscope®, only one lightning product may be
enabled for display at a time.
Lightning Strikes
Figure 6-64 Datalink Lightning
Datalink Lightning data displayed on the following maps:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Weather Data Link Page
• Flight Plan Pages
Displaying Datalink Lightning information:
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the GFDS
Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the DL LTNG Softkey.
To display the Datalink Lightning legend on the GFDS Weather Data Link Page (Figure 6-65), select the
LEGEND Softkey when Datalink Lightning is selected for display.
Figure 6-65 Datalink Lightning Legend
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SIGMETs and AIRMETs
SIGMETs (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMETs (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET can be displayed when significant
weather conditions are not widespread.
The entire SIGMET or AIRMET is displayed as long as any portion of it is issued within the coverage area
of the GFDS data request.
SIGMET
Figure 6-66 SIGMET/AIRMET Data
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the GFDS Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the RANGE Knob and move the Map Pointer over the
icon.
4) Press the ENT key. Figure 67 shows sample SIGMET text.
To display the SIGMET and AIRMET legend (Figure 6-68), select the LEGEND Softkey when SIGMETs and
AIRMETs are selected for display.
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Figure 6-67 Sample SIGMET Text
Figure 6-68 SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
METARs and TAFs
Note: METAR information is only displayed within the installed aviation database service area.
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or
observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical
data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the report.
METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
Instructions
for Viewing
METAR and
TAF Text
Selected
Airport
Figure 6-69 METAR Flags on the GFDS Weather Data Link Page
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
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METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. TAF information is displayed in its
raw form when it is available.
Displaying METAR and TAF text:
1) On the GFDS Weather Data Link Page, select the METAR Softkey.
2) Press the RANGE Knob and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the GFDS Weather Data Link Page.
Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Select the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that the METAR text must
be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
METAR
Text
METAR
Symbol
TAF
Text
Figure 6-70 METAR and TAF Text
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To display the METAR legend on the GFDS Weather Data Link Page (Figure 6-71), select the LEGEND
Softkey when METARs are selected for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. A gray METAR flag is displayed
when the METAR text does not contain adequate information.
Figure 6-71 METAR Legend
Winds Aloft
Winds Aloft data (Figure 6-72) shows the forecasted wind speed and direction at the surface and at selected
altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3,000-foot increments up to 42,000 feet MSL.
Displaying Winds Aloft data:
1) Select the GFDS Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the WIND Softkey.
4) Select the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Select the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The WIND Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Figure 6-72 Winds Aloft at 24,000 Feet
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To display the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-73), select the LEGEND Softkey when Winds Aloft is
selected for display.
Figure 6-73 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
Note: Profile View is only available if TAWS-B is installed.
Winds Aloft data can also be shown inside the Profile View (Figure 6-74) on the Navigation Map Page.
Wind direction arrows indicate headwind or tailwind components of at least five knots along the altitude scale
using symbols comparable to those shown in the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-73). Refer to section 6.7 for
additional information about Profile View.
Profile View
Path Enabled
Winds Aloft Data Age
Wind Component
Velocity and Direction
Arrows
Altitude Scale
Figure 6-74 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data on Profile View
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Showing/Hiding Profile View (containing winds aloft data)
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the PROFILE Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current
state) and press the ENT Key.
Winds Aloft data inside the Profile View is enabled by default when the Profile View is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display in Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-75).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Profile Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-76).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Profile Winds’ (Figure 6-77).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-75 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-76 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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PIREPs
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) describe in-flight weather encountered by pilots. A PIREP may contain
unforecast adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions, wind shear, turbulence,
and type of aircraft flown. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Instructions for
Viewing PIREP
Text
Urgent
PIREP
PIREP
Selected
Figure 6-78 PIREPs on the GFDS Weather Data Link Page
Displaying PIREP text:
1) Select the GFDS Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the PIREPS Softkey.
4) Press the RANGE Knob and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather
report when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The PIREP tex is first displayed in a decoded fashion, then as raw text.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to close the PIREP text window and return to the GFDS Weather Data Link
Page.
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Decoded PIREP Text
Raw PIREP Text
Figure 6-79 PIREP Text on the GFDS Weather Data Link Page
To display the PIREP or AIREP legend (Figure 6-80), select the LEGEND Softkey when PIREPs or AIREPs
are selected for display.
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
Figure 6-80 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
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Abnormal Operations
If the G1000 cannot complete a GFDS weather data request, one or more messages will appear in the request
status window.
Weather Request
Status Message
Auto requests inhibited
Send manual request
to reset.
Auto update retry: ##
Seconds
GFDS Comm Error [2]
GFDS Comm Error [4]
GFDS Comm Error [5]
GFDS Comm Error [6]
Desciption
The system has disabled automatic weather data requests due to excessive errors. Automatic
weather data requests have stopped. Send a manual weather data request to resume automatic
updates.
The system will attempt another automatic weather data request after an error occurred during the
previous request. Timer counts down until the next automatic request occurs.
A communications error has occurred with the GDL59 or GIA. The G1000 should be serviced.
This occurs if multiple automatic weather data requests have recently failed, or the GDL 59 or a GIA
is off-line.
This can occur if the GDL 59 is off-line or not configured, or the Iridium or GFDS networks are not
accessible. Check Iridium signal strength. If this error persists, the G1000 should be serviced.
A communications error has occurred. It this error persists, the G1000 should be serviced.
GFDS Comm Error [7]
GFDS Comm Error [8]
GFDS Login Invalid
A weather data transfer has timed out. Check Iridium signal strength and re-send the data request.
A server error has occurred or invalid data received.
There is a problem with the GFDS registration. Contact Garmin Flight Data Services at 1-866-7395687 in the United States or 913-397-8200, ext. 1135 for assistance.
GFDS Server
The GFDS weather data server is temporarily out of service, but is expected to return to service in
Temporarily Inop
less than 30 minutes.
GFDS Server Inop
The GFDS weather data server will be out of service for at least 30 minutes.
Invalid Coverage Area The weather data request coverage area does not contain at least one of the following: a waypoint,
a flight plan, or a flight plan destination. Verify at least one of the coverage options is enabled
(checked) and contains required criteria, then re-send the data request.
NO GFDS Subscription The system is not be currently subscribed to GFDS, or the access code is incorrect. Verify the access
code. Contact Garmin Flight Data Services at 1-866-739-5687 in the United States or 913-3978200, ext. 1135 for assistance.
Reduce Request Area
The GFDS weather data request area exceeds size limits. Reduce weather coverage area and resend data request.
Request Cancelled
The user has cancelled a GFDS weather data request.
Requested area too
The size of the GFDS weather data request has exceeded limits. Reduce the size of the coverage area
large. Reduce coverage and try the weather data request again.
area.
Request Failed - Try
The weather data request timed-out. Re-send data request.
Again
Transfer Preempted
The GDL 59 is busy. Retry request later.
Table 6-6 Abnormal GFDS Request Status Messages
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The G1000 also displays message advisories on the PFD which may indicate a problem with the GDL 59; refer
to Appendix A for more information.
wORLDWIDE WEATHER IN REVERSIONARY MODE
When the G1000 is operating in Reversionary Mode, only those weather products which can be displayed
on the PFD Inset map will be available for display (see Table 6-4 for a list of weather products and their
associated map availability).
If manual weather data requests were enabled prior to entering Reversionary Mode, no new GFDS weather
data can be retrieved while operating in Reversionary Mode. If automatic weather data requests were enabled
prior to Reversionary Mode operation, the system will continue the automatic data requests in Reversionary
Mode (provided automatic requests have not been inhibited due to a system error).
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6.3Airborne Color Weather Radar
System Description
The Garmin GWX 68 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a four-color digital pulsed radar with 6.5 kilowatts
of output power. It combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with a high-definition target
display. The pulse width is four microseconds (µs) on all ranges except the 2.5 nm range. The GWX 68 uses a
one µs pulse width at this range to reduce the targets smearing together on the display for better target definition
at close range.
The KingAir 200/B200 Series uses a 12-inch phased array antenna that is fully stabilized to accommodate 30º
of pitch and roll.
To focus radar scanning on specific areas, Sector Scanning offers pilot-adjustable horizontal scan angles of
20º, 40º, 60º, or 90º. A vertical scanning function helps to analyze storm tops, gradients, and cell buildup
activity at various altitudes.
Radar features include:
• Extended Sensitivity Time Constant (STC) logic that automatically correlates distance of the return echo with
intensity, so cells do not suddenly appear to get larger as they get closer.
• WATCH™ (Weather ATtenuated Color Highlight) helps identify possible shadowing effects of short-range
cell activity, identifying areas where radar return signals are weakened or attenuated by intense precipitation
(or large areas of lesser precipitation) and may not fully reflect the weather behind a storm.
• Weather Alert that looks ahead for intense cell activity in the 80-320 nm range, even if these ranges are not
being monitored.
Principles of Pulsed Airborne Weather Radar
The term RADAR is an acronym for RAdio Detecting And Ranging. Pulsed radar locates targets by transmitting
a microwave pulse beam that, upon encountering a target, is reflected back to the radar receiver as a return
echo. The microwave pulses are focused and radiated by the antenna, with the most intense energy in the
center of the beam and decreasing intensity near the edge. The same antenna is used for both transmitting and
receiving. The returned signal is then processed and displayed on the G1000 MFD.
Radar detection is a two-way process that requires 12.36 µs for the transmitted microwave pulses to travel out
and back for each nautical mile of target range. It takes 123.6 µs for a transmitted pulse to make the round trip
if a target is ten nautical miles away.
Airborne weather radar should be used to avoid severe weather, not for penetrating severe weather. The
decision to fly into an area of radar targets depends on target intensity, spacing between the targets, aircraft
capabilities, and pilot experience. Pulse type weather radar detects only precipitation, not clouds or turbulence.
The display may indicate clear areas between intense returns, but this does not necessarily mean it is safe to fly
between them. Only Doppler radar can detect turbulence.
Airborne weather radar has other capabilities beyond weather detection. It also has the ability to detect and
provide distance to cities, mountains, coastlines, rivers, lakes, and oceans.
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NEXRAD and Airborne Weather Radar
Both Airborne Weather Radar and NEXRAD measure weather reflectivity in decibels (dB). A decibel is a
logarithmic expression of the ratio of two quantities. Airborne Weather Radar measures the ratio of power
against the gain of the antenna, while NEXRAD measures the energy reflected back to the radar, or the radar
reflectivity ratio.
Both systems use colors to identify the different echo intensities, but the colors are not interchangeable.
Airborne color radar values used by Garmin Airborne Color Weather Radar should not be confused with
NEXRAD radar values.
Antenna Beam Illumination
The radar beam is much like the beam of a spotlight. The further the beam travels, the wider it becomes.
The radar is only capable of seeing what is inside the boundaries of the beam. The figure below depicts a radar
beam’s characteristics. The figure illustrates vertical dimensions of the radar beam, although the same holds
true for the horizontal dimensions. In other words, the beam is as wide as it is tall. Note that it is possible to
miss areas of precipitation on the radar display because of the antenna tilt setting. With the antenna tilt set
to zero in this illustration, the beam overshoots the precipitation at 15 nautical miles.
Altitude (x1000 ft.)
80
Antenna at Zero Tilt
18,000 ft.
8°
0
0
15
Half Power at
s
Beam Sidelobe
Max Power at Beam Center
18,000 ft.
30
45
60
75
90
Range (nautical miles)
Figure 6-81 Radar Beam from a 12 inch Antenna
The curvature of the earth can also be a factor in missing areas of precipitation, especially at range settings
of 150 nautical miles or more. Here the beam overshoots the precipitation at less than 320 nautical miles.
320 nm
Figure 6-82 Radar Beam in Relation to the Curvature of the Earth
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Radar Signal Attenuation
The phenomenon of radar signal attenuation affects the operation of weather radar. When the radar signal
is transmitted, it is progressively absorbed and scattered, making the signal weaker. This weakening, or
attenuation, is caused by two primary sources, distance and precipitation.
Attenuation because of distance is due to the fact that the radar energy leaving the antenna is inversely
proportional to the square of the distance. The reflected radar energy from a target 40 miles away that fills
the radar beam is one fourth the energy reflected from an equivalent target 20 miles away. This would appear
to the operator that the storm is gaining intensity as the aircraft gets closer. Internal signal processing within
the GWX 68 system compensates for much of this distance attenuation.
Attenuation due to precipitation is not as predictable as distance attenuation. It is also more intense. As the
radar signal passes through moisture, a portion of the radar energy is reflected back to the antenna. However,
much of the energy is absorbed. If precipitation is very heavy, or covers a large area, the signal may not
reach completely through the area of precipitation. The weather radar system cannot distinguish between an
attenuated signal and an area of no precipitation. If the signal has been fully attenuated, the radar displays
a radar shadow. This appears as an end to the precipitation when, in fact, the heavy rain may extend much
further. A cell containing heavy precipitation may block another cell located behind the first, preventing it
from being displayed on the radar. Never fly into these shadowed areas and never assume that all of the heavy
precipitation is being displayed unless another cell or a ground target can be seen beyond the heavy cell. The
WATCH™ feature of the GWX 68 Weather Radar system can help in identifying these shadowed areas. Areas
in question appear as shadowed or gray on the radar display. Proper use of the antenna tilt control can also
help detect radar shadows.
Attenuation can also be due to poor maintenance or degradation of the radome. Even the smallest amount of
wear and scratching, pitting, and pinholes on the radome surface can cause damage and system inefficiency.
Radar Signal Reflectivity
Precipitation
Precipitation or objects more dense than water, such as the surface of the earth or solid structures, are
detected by the weather radar. The weather radar does not detect clouds, thunderstorms, or turbulence
directly. It detects precipitation associated with clouds, thunderstorms, and turbulence. The best radar
signal reflectors are raindrops, wet snow, or wet hail. The larger the raindrop, the better the reflectivity. The
size of the precipitation droplet is the most important factor in radar reflectivity. Because large drops in a
small concentrated area are characteristic of a severe thunderstorm, the radar displays the storm as a strong
return. Ice crystals, dry snow, and dry hail have low levels of reflectivity as shown in the illustration, and
often not displayed by the radar. Additionally, a cloud that contains only small raindrops, such as fog or
drizzle, does not reflect enough radar energy to produce a measurable target return.
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Figure 6-83 Precipitation Type and Reflectivity
Ground Returns
The intensity of ground target returns depends upon the angle at which the radar beam strikes the
ground target (Angle of Incidence) and the reflective properties of that target. The gain can be adjusted so
shorelines, rivers, lakes, and cities are well-defined. Increasing the gain too much causes the display to fill
in between targets, thus obscuring some landmarks.
Cities normally provide a strong return signal. While large buildings and structures provide good returns,
small buildings can be shadowed from the radar beam by the taller buildings. As the aircraft approaches
and shorter ranges are selected, details become more noticeable as the highly reflective regular lines and
edges of the city become more defined.
Bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, and oceans are not good reflectors and normally do not provide good
returns. The energy is reflected in a forward scatter angle with inadequate energy being returned. They
can appear as dark areas on the display. However, rough or choppy water is a better reflector and provides
stronger returns from the downwind sides of the waves.
Mountains also provide strong return signals to the antenna, but also block the areas behind. However,
over mountainous terrain, the radar beam can be reflected back and forth in the mountain passes or off
canyon walls, using up all or most of the radar energy. In this case, no return signal is received from this
area, causing the display to show a dark spot which could indicate a pass where no pass exists.
Angle of Incidence
The angle at which the radar beam strikes the target is called the Angle of Incidence. The figure illustrates
the incident angle (‘A’). This directly affects the detectable range, the area of illumination, and the intensity
of the displayed target returns. A large incident angle gives the radar system a smaller detectable range and
lower display intensity due to minimized reflection of the radar energy.
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Figure 6-84 Angle of Incidence
A smaller incident angle gives the radar a larger detectable range of operation and the target display shows
a higher intensity. Since more radar energy is reflected back to the antenna with a low incident angle, the
resulting detectable range is increased for mountainous terrain.
Safe Operating Distance
The following information establishes a minimum safe distance from the antenna for personnel near
operating weather radar. The minimum safe distance is based on the FCC’s exposure limit at 9.3 to 9.5 GHz for
general population/uncontrolled environments, which is 1 mW/cm2. See Advisory Circular 20-68B for more
information on safe distance determination.
Maximum Permissible Exposure Level (MPEL)
The zone in which the radiation level exceeds the US Government standard of 1 mW/cm2 is the semicircular
area of at least 11 feet from the 12-inch antenna. All personnel must remain outside of this zone. With a
scanning or rotating beam, the averaged power density at the MPEL boundary is significantly reduced.
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MPEL
Boundary
11’ for 12”
antenna
Figure 6-85 MPEL Boundary
Basic Antenna Tilt Setup
The following discussion is a simple method for setting up the weather radar antenna tilt for most situations.
It is not to be considered an all encompassing setup that works in all situations, but this method does provide
good overall parameters for the monitoring of threats. Ultimately, it is desired to have the antenna tilted so that
the bottom of the radar beam is four degrees below parallel with the ground. The following example explains
one way of achieving this.
With the aircraft flying level, adjust the antenna tilt so ground returns are displayed at a distance that equals
the aircraft’s current altitude (AGL) divided by 1,000. For example, if the aircraft is at 14,000 feet, adjust the
tilt so the front edge of ground returns are displayed at 14 nautical miles. Note this antenna tilt angle setting.
Now, raise the antenna tilt 6 degrees above this setting. The bottom of the radar beam is now angled down 4º
from parallel with the ground.
Practical Application Using the Basic Tilt Setup
With the antenna tilt set as previously described, any displayed target return should be scrutinized when
flying at altitudes between 2,000 and 30,000 feet AGL. If the displayed target advances on the screen to within
5 nautical miles of the aircraft, avoid it. This may be either weather or ground returns that are 2,000 feet or less
below the aircraft. Raising the antenna tilt 4 degrees can help separate ground returns from weather returns in
relatively flat terrain. This aligns the bottom of the radar beam parallel with the ground. Return the antenna
tilt to the previous setting after a few sweeps.
If the aircraft is above 29,000 feet, be cautious of any target return that gets to within 30 nautical miles. This is
likely a thunderstorm that has a top high enough that the aircraft cannot fly over it safely.
If the aircraft altitude is 15,000 feet or lower, setting the displayed range to 60 miles may be more helpful.
Closely monitor anything that enters the display.
Also, after setting up the antenna tilt angle as described previously, ground returns can be monitored for possible
threats. The relationship between antenna tilt angle, altitude, and distance is one degree of tilt equals 100 feet of
altitude for every one nautical mile.
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4000
3000
Change in Antenna Tilt
2000
+4°
+3°
+2°
+1°
0°
-1°
-2°
-3°
-4°
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
10 nm
Vertical Change of Radar Beam (feet)
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Figure 6-86 Vertical Change in Radar Beam per Nautical Mile
Therefore, with the antenna tilt set so that the bottom of the beam is four degrees below parallel with
the ground, a target return at 10 nm is approximately 4,000 feet below the aircraft; at 20 nm, 8,000 feet;
at 50 nm, 20,000 feet. In other words, at this tilt setting, a ground return (such as a mountain peak) being
displayed at 10 nm would have a maximum distance below the aircraft of 4,000 feet. When the ground target
return moves to 5 nm, maximum distance below the aircraft is 2,000 feet.
This setup provides a good starting point for practical use of the GWX 68. There are many other factors to
consider in order to become proficient at using weather radar in all situations.
Weather Mapping and Interpretation
Weather Display Interpretation
When evaluating various target returns on the weather radar display, the colors denote precipitation intensity
and rates shown in the table.
Weather Mode Color
Intensity
Black
Green
Yellow
Red
Magenta
< 23 dBZ
23 dBZ to < 32 dBZ
32 dBZ to < 41 dBZ
41 dBZ to < 50 dBZ
50 dBZ and greater
Approximate
Precipitation Rate
(in/hr.)
< .01.
.01 - 0.1.
0.1 - 0.5
0.5 - 2
>2
Table 6-7 Precipitation Intensity Levels
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Thunderstorms
Updrafts and downdrafts in thunderstorms carry water through the cloud. The more severe the drafts, the
greater the number and size of the precipitation droplets. With this in mind, the following interpretations
can be made from what is displayed on the weather radar. Avoid these areas by an extra wide margin.
• In areas where the displayed target intensity is red or magenta (indicating large amounts of precipitation),
the turbulence is considered severe.
• Areas that show steep color gradients (intense color changes) over thin bands or short distances suggest
irregular rainfall rate and strong turbulence.
• Areas that show red or magenta are associated with hail or turbulence, as well as heavy precipitation. Vertical
scanning and antenna tilt management may be necessary to identify areas of maximum intensity.
Along squall lines (multiple cells or clusters of cells in a line) individual cells may be in different stages
of development. Areas between closely spaced, intense targets may contain developing clouds not having
enough moisture to produce a return. However, these areas could have strong updrafts or downdrafts.
Targets showing wide areas of green are generally precipitation without severe turbulence.
Irregularities in the target return may also indicate turbulence, appearing as hooks, fingers, or scalloped
edges. These irregularities may be present in green areas with no yellow, red, or magenta areas and should
be treated as highly dangerous areas. Avoid these areas as if they are red or magenta.
Squall Line
Steep Gradient
Hook or Finger
Scalloped Edge
Figure 6-87 Cell Irregularities
Thunderstorm development is rapid. A course may become blocked within a short time. When displaying
shorter ranges, periodically select a longer range to see if problems are developing further out. That can
help prevent getting trapped in a blind alley or an area that is closed at one end by convective weather.
Figure 6-88 The Blind Alley - Horizontal Scan
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In areas of multiple heavy cells, use the Vertical Scan feature along with antenna tilt management to
examine the areas. Remember to avoid shadowed areas behind targets.
The Blind Alley at Close Range
The Large Storm Behind
Figure 6-89 The Blind Alley
Tornadoes
There are no conclusive radar target return characteristics which identify a tornado. However, tornadoes
may be present if the following characteristics are observed:
• A narrow, finger-like portion extends and in a short time curls into a hook and closes on itself.
• A hook, which may be in the general shape of the numeral 6 (9 in the southern hemisphere), especially
if bright and projecting from the southwest quadrant (northeast quadrant in the southern hemisphere) of
a major thunderstorm.
• V-shaped notches.
• Doughnut shapes.
These shapes do not always indicate tornadoes, and tornado returns are not limited to these characteristics.
Confirmed radar observations of tornadoes most often have not shown shapes different from those of a
normal thunderstorm display.
Hail
Hail results from updrafts carrying water high enough to freeze. Therefore, the higher the top of a
thunderstorm, the greater the probability that it contains hail. Vertically scanning the target return can
give the radar top of a thunderstorm that contains hail. Radar top is the top of a storm cell as detected by
radar. It is not the actual top, or true top of the storm. The actual top of a storm cell is seen with the eyes
in clear air and may be much higher than the radar top. The actual top does not indicate the top of the
hazardous area.
Hail can fall below the minimum reflectivity threshold for radar detection. It can have a film of water on
its surface, making its reflective characteristics similar to a very large water droplet. Because of this film of
water, and because hail stones usually are larger than water droplets, thunderstorms with large amounts
of wet hail return stronger signals than those with rain. Some hail shafts are extremely narrow (100 yards
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or less) and make poor radar targets. In the upper regions of a cell where ice particles are dry (no liquid
coating), target returns are less intense.
Hail shafts are associated with the same radar target return characteristics as tornados. U-shaped cloud
edges three to seven miles across can also indicate hail. These target returns appear quite suddenly along
any edge of the cell outline. They also change in intensity and shape in a matter of seconds, making vigilant
monitoring essential.
Operation in Weather Mode
WARNING: Begin transmitting only when it is safe to do so. When transmitting while the aircraft is on the
ground, no personnel or objects should be within 11 feet of the antenna.
CAUTION: In Standby mode, the antenna is parked at the center line. It is always a good idea to put the
radar in Standby mode before taxiing the aircraft to prevent the antenna from bouncing on the bottom stop
and possibly causing damage to the radar assembly.
When the weather radar system is in the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically switches
to Standby mode on landing.
In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system automatically switches to Standby mode. The system
remains in Standby mode until both displays are restored. In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system
cannot be controlled.
Radar Mode
Scan Line
Antenna Stabilization Status
Figure 6-90 Horizontal Scan Display
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Displaying weather on the Weather Radar Page:
1) Select the Weather Radar Page in the Map Page Group with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the MODE Softkey.
3) While on the ground, select the STANDBY Softkey. A one-minute warm-up period is initiated (countdown is
displayed on the screen). After the warm-up is complete, the radar enters the Standby Mode.
a)
Select the WEATHER Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
Figure 6-91 Confirming Activating Radar
b)
Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight YES and press the ENT Key to continue radar activation.
OR:
If the aircraft is airborne, select the WEATHER Softkey. A one-minute warm-up period is initiated (countdown
is displayed on the screen). After the warm-up is complete, the radar begins transmitting.
4) Turn the RANGE Knob to select the desired map range.
5) The horizontal scan is initially displayed (Figure 6-90). If desired, select the VERTICAL Softkey to change to
vertical scanning.
Vertically scanning a storm cell:
NOTE: Vertical scanning of a storm cell should be done with the aircraft wings level to avoid constant
adjustment of the Bearing Line.
1) While in the Horizontal Scan view, select the BRG Softkey. This places the cursor in the BEARING field and
displays the Bearing Line.
If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Bearing
Line. Press the ENT Key.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line on the desired storm cell or other area to be vertically
scanned.
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Scan Line
Bearing Line
Figure 6-92 Bearing Line on Horizontal Scan
4) Select the VERTICAL Softkey. A vertical scan of the selected area is now displayed (Figure 6-93).
5) The small FMS Knob may be used to move the scanned bearing line a few degrees right or left.
6) Turn the RANGE Knob to adjust the range.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
8) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, select the HORIZON Softkey to return to the Horizontal Scan view
and repeat the previous steps.
The RANGE Knob can also be used to adjust bearing from left to right.
Figure 6-93 Vertical Scan Display
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Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle
In order to make an accurate interpretation of a storm cell, the radar beam should be pointed at the wet
part of the weather cell to record the proper rainfall intensity (color level). The ideal aiming point is just
below the freezing level of the storm. The best way to find this point is to use the Vertical Scan feature. The
antenna tilt angle can be centered on the strongest return area in the vertical scan to get a more accurate
view of the coverage and intensity of the target in the horizontal scan.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Horizontal Scan display:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the TILT field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired antenna tilt angle.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
The RANGE Knob can also be used to adjust tilt up and down.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Vertical Scan display:
1) Select the TILT Softkey to activate the cursor in the TILT field and display the Tilt Line.
If the Tilt Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Tilt Line. Press
the ENT Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the antenna tilt angle. The selected tilt angle is implemented when Horizontal
Scan is again selected.
The RANGE Knob can also be used to adjust tilt.
Tilt Line
Scan Line
Figure 6-94 Adjusting Tilt on Vertical Scan Display
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Adjusting Gain
WARNING: Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity. Remember to return the gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the
actual intensity of precipitation.
1) Select the GAIN Softkey to activate the cursor in the GAIN field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the gain for the desirable level. The gain setting is visible in the GAIN field
as a movable horizontal bar in a flashing box. The line pointer is a reference depicting the calibrated position.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
4) Select the GAIN Softkey again to recalibrate the gain. CALIBRATED is displayed in the GAIN field.
Manual Gain Set Below Calibrated
Calibrated Gain
Figure 6-95 Gain Calibration
Sector Scan
1) While in horizontal scan mode, select the BRG Softkey to display the Bearing Line and place the cursor in the
BEARING field. If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select
Show Bearing Line.
2) Press the ENT Key.
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Figure 6-96 Selecting Sector Scan Position
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line in the desired position. The location of the Bearing Line
becomes the center point of the Sector Scan.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the SECTOR SCAN field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select FULL, 60˚, 40˚, or 20˚ scan.
6) If desired, readjust the Bearing Line as discussed previously to change the center of the Sector Scan.
7) Select the BRG Softkey again to remove the Bearing Line and cursor. The bearing reference is reset to 0º.
Figure 6-97 40˚ Sector Scan
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Antenna Stabilization
1) To activate or deactivate the antenna stabilization, select the MODE Softkey.
2) Select the STAB ON Softkey to activate antenna stabilization or select the STAB OFF Softkey to deactivate. The
current stabilization condition is shown in the upper right of the weather radar display.
Weather Attenuated Color Highlight (WATCH™)
While in horizontal scan mode, this feature can be used as a tool to determine areas of possible inaccuracies
in displayed intensity due to weakening of the radar energy. This weakening is known as attenuation. The
radar energy weakens as it passes through areas of intense precipitation, large areas of lesser precipitation,
and distance. Issues with the radome also attenuates the radar energy. All these factors have an effect on the
return intensity. The more energy that dissipates, the lesser the displayed intensity of the return. Accuracy
of the displayed intensity of returns located in the shaded areas are suspect. Make maneuvering decisions
with this information in mind. Proper antenna tilt management should still be employed to determine the
extent of attenuation in a shaded area.
To activate or deactivate the WATCH™ feature, select the WATCH Softkey.
Displayed intensity is questionable.
Potentially stronger than displayed.
Horizontal Scan Without WATCH™
Areas of
Attenuated Signal
Horizontal Scan With WATCH™
Figure 6-98 Horizontal Scan Without and With WATCH™
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Weather Alert
The Weather Alert feature indicates the presence of heavy precipitation between the ranges of 80 and 320
nm regardless of the currently displayed range. Weather Alert targets appear as red bands along the outer
range ring at the approximate azimuth of the detected returns.
If a Weather Alert is detected within ±10° of the aircraft heading, an alert is displayed on the PFD in the
Messages Window.
If the antenna tilt is adjusted too low, a weather alert can be generated by ground returns. To avoid
unwanted weather alerts, deselect the WX ALRT Softkey..
Weather Alerts
Figure 6-99 Weather Alert Indications
To activate or deactivate Weather Alerts, select the WX ALRT Softkey. Activating and deactivating also
enables or inhibits the alert on the PFD.
Figure 6-100 Weather Alert on PFD
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Ground Mapping and Interpretation
A secondary use of the weather radar system is for the presentation of terrain. This can be a useful tool for
verifying aircraft position. A picture of the ground is represented much like a topographical map that can be
used as a supplement to the navigation map on the MFD.
Ground Map mode uses a different gain range than Weather mode. Different colors are also used to represent
the intensity levels. The displayed intensity of ground target returns are defined in the table below. Use of the
GAIN and TILT controls help improve contrast so that specific ground targets can be recognized more easily.
As previously discussed, the type and orientation of the target in relation to the aircraft affects the intensity
displayed.
When the weather radar system is in either the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby mode upon landing.
Ground Map
Mode Color
Black
Light blue
Yellow
Magenta
Blue
Intensity
0 dB
> 0 dB to < 9 dB
9 dB to < 18 dB
18 dB to < 27 dB
27 dB and greater
Table 6-8 Ground Target Return Intensity Levels
Operation in Ground Map Mode
1) Select the MODE Softkey.
2) Select the GROUND Softkey to place the radar in Ground Map mode.
3) Select the BACK Softkey.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the TILT field.
6) Adjust the antenna tilt angle by turning the small FMS Knob to display ground returns at the desired distance.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
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6.4Stormscope
NOTE: The Stormscope system is not intended for hazardous thunderstorm penetration. Weather information
on the G1000 MFD is approved for weather avoidance only. Refer to the WX-500 User’s Guide for a detailed
description of Stormscope operation.
Note: L-3 STORMSCOPE® WX-500 Lightning and XM or GFDS datalink lightning cannot be displayed at
the same time.
The following pages can display Stormscope data:
• PFD Inset Map
• Stormscope Page
• Navigation Map
• AUX - Trip Planning Page
• Nearest Pages
To display Stormscope data on any map besides the Stormscope Page, select the MAP Softkey (or the INSET
Softkey for the PFD Inset Map), then select the STRMSCP Softkey. These pages can also display cell or strike data
using the yellow lightning strike symbology shown in Table 6-9.
Lightning Age
Symbol
Strike is less than 6 seconds old
Strike is between 6 and 60 seconds old
Strike is between 1 and 2 minutes old
Strike is between 2 and 3 minutes old
Table 6-9 Lightning Age and Symbols
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Setting Up Stormscope on the Navigation Map
Setting up Stormscope options on the Navigation Map:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Setup’ selected (Figure 6-101), press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the group selection window. Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Weather’
(Figure 6-102), and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight and move between the product selections.
5) When an item is highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the option.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page (Figure 6-103).
The following options are available (Figure 6-102):
• STRMSCP LTNG – Turns the display of Stormscope data on or off.
• STRMSCP MODE – Selects the CELL or STRIKE mode of lightning activity. Cell mode identifies clusters
or cells of electrical activity. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
• STRMSCP SMBL – Selects the range at which Stormscope data displays. Stormscope data is removed
when a map range greater than the STRMSCP SMBL value is selected.
Figure 6-101 Page Menu
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Figure 6-102 Map Setup Menu
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Cell and Strike Mode on the Navigation Map
On the Navigation Map, cell mode identifies cells of lightning activity (Figure 6-103). Stormscope identifies
clusters of electrical activity that indicate cells. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning
strikes.
Selecting the ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Setup’ selected, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-101).
3) Select the ‘Weather’ group (Figure 6-102).
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on ‘STRMSCP LTNG’.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘STRMSCP MODE’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to change between ‘CELL’ and ‘STRIKE’ options. When an item is selected, press the
ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Map
Orientation
Stormscope
Mode
Strike Rate
per Minute
Stormscope
Icon
80 nm Map
Range
Figure 6-103 Navigation Map Page with Stormscope
Lightning Data
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn. This
is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the nose of the aircraft.
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Manually clearing Stormscope data on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Clear Stormscope Lightning’ (Figure 6-104).
3) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-104 Navigation Map Page Options Menu
Zoom Range on the Navigation Map
Stormscope lightning data can be displayed up to 800 nm zoom range (in North Up orientation) on the
Navigation Map Page. However, in Track Up orientation at the 500 nm range, a portion of Stormscope lightning
data can be behind the aircraft and therefore not visible on the Navigation Map. Since the range for Stormscope
data is 400 nm diameter total (200 nm in front and 200 nm behind), the 500 nm range in North Up orientation
shows all the data.
At a map range of less than 25 nm, Stormscope lightning data is not displayed, but can still be present. The
presence of Stormscope lightning data is indicated by the annunciation ‘LTNG < 25 nm’ in the upper right
corner (Figure 6-105).
Figure 6-105 Lightning Display Range Annunciation
Selecting a Stormscope range on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘MAP SETUP’.
3) Select the ‘Weather’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘STRMSCP SMBL’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the maximum display range.
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7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
To change the display range on the Navigation Map Page, turn the RANGE Knob clockwise to zoom out or
counter-clockwise to zoom in.
Selecting the Stormscope Page
Stormscope lightning data can be displayed at the ranges of 25 nm, 50 nm, 100 nm, and 200 nm.
Adjusting the Stormscope Map Range:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Stormscope Page.
3) To change the map range, turn the RANGE Knob clockwise to zoom out or counter-clockwise to zoom in.
Figure 6-106 Stormscope Page
Changing between ‘cell’ and ‘strike’ mode:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the MODE Softkey. The CELL and STRIKE softkeys are displayed.
3) Press the CELL Softkey to display ‘CELL’ data or select the STRIKE Softkey to display ‘STRIKE’ data. ‘CELL’ or
‘STRIKE’ is displayed in the mode box in the upper left corner of the Stormscope Page.
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the Stormscope Page.
Or:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between ‘CELL’ and ‘STRIKE’ options.
4) When an item is selected, press the ENT Key.
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If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn
(Figure 6-107). This is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the
nose of the aircraft.
Manually clearing Stormscope data:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Clear Stormscope Lightning’ (Figure 6-107).
4) Press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the CLEAR Softkey.
Figure 6-107 Navigation Map Page Options Menu
Changing the viewing mode between 360˚ and 120˚:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the VIEW Softkey. The 360 and ARC softkeys are displayed.
3) Press the 360 Softkey to display a 360˚ viewing area or select the ARC Softkey to display a 120˚ viewing area.
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the Stormscope Page.
Or:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between ‘View Arc’ and ‘View 360˚ options.
4) When an item is selected, press the ENT Key.
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6.5TAWS-B
Warning: Do not use TAWS-B information for primary terrain avoidance. TAWS-B is intended only to
enhance situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft latitude is greater than 75° North or 60° South.
NOTE: The data contained in the TAWS-B databases comes from government agencies. Garmin accurately
processes and cross-validates the data but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
TAWS-B (Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B) is an optional feature to increase situational awareness
and aid in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). TAWS-B provides visual and aural annunciations when
terrain and obstacles are within the given altitude threshold from the aircraft. The displayed alerts and warnings
are advisory in nature only.
TAWS-B satisfies TSO-C151b Class B requirements for certification.
TAWS-B requires the following to operate properly:
• A valid terrain/obstacle/airport terrain database
• A valid 3-D GPS position solution
TAWS-B uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. Terrain information is based
on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may be
shown if available in the database. The data undergoes verification by Garmin to confirm accuracy of the content,
per TSO-C151b. However, the displayed information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and data
may be inaccurate.
TAWS-B uses information provided from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude. GPS
altitude is derived from satellite measurements. GPS altitude is converted to a mean sea level (MSL)-based
altitude (GPS-MSL altitude) and is used to determine TAWS-B alerts. GPS-MSL altitude accuracy is affected by
factors such as satellite geometry, but it is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that normally
affect pressure altitude devices. GPS-MSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL
altitude. Therefore, GPS altitude provides a highly accurate and reliable MSL altitude source to calculate terrain
and obstacle alerts.
The terrain and obstacle databases used by TAWS-B are referenced to mean sea level (MSL). Using the GPS
position and GPS-MSL altitude, TAWS-B displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative
to the position and altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the GPS position and GPS-MSL altitude are used to
calculate and “predict” the aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this
manner, TAWS-B can provide advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain conditions.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter setting
to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmosphere conditions seldom
match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where pressure,
temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read from the
altimeter) to differ from the GPS-MSL altitude. This variation results in the aircraft’s true altitude differing from
the baro-corrected altitude.
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Displaying TAWS-B Data
TAWS-B uses yellow (caution) and red (warning) to depict terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than
200 feet above ground level, AGL) alerts relative to aircraft altitude. Colors are adjusted automatically as the
aircraft altitude changes. The colors and symbols in Figure 6-108 and Table 6-10 are used to represent terrain,
obstacles, and potential impact points.
Figure 6-108 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for TAWS-B
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
Potential
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL Impact Points
Obstacle Location
WARNING: Red obstacle is above or within
100’ below current aircraft altitude
CAUTION: Yellow obstacle is between 100’
and 1000’ below current aircraft altitude
Table 6-10 TAWS-B Obstacle Colors and Symbology
TAWS-B information can be displayed on the following maps:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Page
• TAWS-B Page
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps other than the TAWS-B Page):
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey).
2) Press the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
When TAWS-B is selected on maps other than the TAWS-B Page, an icon to indicate the feature is enabled for
display and a legend for TAWS-B terrain colors are shown (Figure 6-115).
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
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obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map.
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles for which warnings
and cautions are issued are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting
limit.
Maps besides the TAWS-B Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The
maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the Navigation
Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20 nm, the highest
obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-109).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-110).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-111).
• TERRAIN DATA – Turns the display of terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
• OBSTACLE DATA – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-109 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-110 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-111 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Map Group
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TAWS-B Page
The TAWS-B Page is specialized to show terrain, obstacle, and potential impact point data in relation to the
aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs)
can be displayed for reference. If an obstacle and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the display
automatically zooms in to the closest potential point of impact on the TAWS-B Page.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the RANGE Knob from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
Displaying the TAWS-B Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the TAWS-B Page.
Changing the TAWS-B Page view:
1) Press the VIEW Softkey.
2) Press the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘View Arc or ‘View 360º’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key to change the view
Showing/hiding aviation information on the TAWS-B Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
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Red Terrain
(Warning - Terrain
Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Map Range
Black Terrain
(Terrain More than
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Yellow Terrain
(Caution - Terrain
Between 100’ and
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Annunciation Window
Figure 6-112 TAWS-B Page, 360º View
Map Range Arc
Red Terrain
(Warning - Terrain
Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Black Terrain
(Terrain More than
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Yellow Terrain
(Caution - Terrain
Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Annunciation Window
Figure 6-113 TAWS-B Page (ARC View)
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TAWS-B Alerts
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within TAWS-B software algorithms.
TAWS-B alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an alert
is issued, visual annunciations are displayed and aural alerts are simultaneously issued. Table 6-11 shows
TAWS-B alert types with corresponding annunciations and aural messages.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The TAWS-B Alert Annunciation is
shown to the upper left of the Altimeter on the PFD and below the Terrain Legend on the MFD. If the TAWS-B
Page is not displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up alert:
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the TAWS-B Page)
PFD Alert Annunciation
MFD
Pop-up
Alert
Figure 6-114 TAWS-B Alert Annunciations
Terrain Display Enabled
Terrain Legend
Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-115 Navigation Map Page with Terrain data
(After TAWS-B Pop-up Alert Acknowledgment)
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PFD/MFD Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
MFD Pop-Up Alert
(Except TAWS-B Page)
Aural Message
Excessive Descent Rate
Warning (EDR)
“Pull Up”
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Warning (RTC)
*
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
*
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up’
*
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
*
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
or
Imminent Terrain Impact
Warning (ITI)
or
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Warning (ROC)
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Warning (IOI)
or
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Caution (RTC)
or
Imminent Terrain Impact
Caution (ITI)
or
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Caution (ROC)
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Caution (IOI)
Premature Descent Alert
Caution (PDA)
Altitude Callout “500”
Excessive Descent Rate
Caution (EDR)
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
“Sink Rate”
Negative Climb Rate Caution
(NCR)
*
or
“Don’t Sink”*
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
* Alerts with multiple messages are configurable at installation and are installation-dependent. Alerts for the default
configuration are indicated with asterisks.
Table 6-11 TAWS-B Alerts Summary
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Excessive Descent Rate Alert
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide suitable notification when the
aircraft is determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain at an excessive speed. Figure 6-116 shows the
parameters for the alert as defined by TSO-C151b.
6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
4000
NK
: “SI
ion
Caut
3500
”
RATE
3000
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
Descent Rate (FPM)
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
500
Figure 6-116 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values in Figure 6-117. When an RTC alert is issued, a potential impact point is displayed on the
TAWS-B Page.
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is below the elevation of a terrain or obstacle cell in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts are
accompanied by a potential impact point displayed on the TAWS-B Page. The alert is annunciated when the
projected vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes in Figure 6-117.
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Required Terrain Clearance
RTC Level (FT)
RTC Descending (FT)
800
Required
Terrain
Clearance
(FT)
Required
Terrain Clearance
(FT)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
Distance From Runway (NM)
Distance
From Runway (NM)
30
Figure 6-117 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
FLTA alerts are automatically inhibited when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination runway
elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends.
Premature Descent Alerting
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway (Figure 6-118).
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
800
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
600
500
400
300
PDA Alerting Area
200
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-118 PDA Alerting Threshold
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PDA and FLTA aural and visual alerts can be manually inhibited. Discretion should be used when inhibiting
TAWS-B and the system should be enabled when appropriate. When TAWS-B is inhibited, the alert
annunciation ‘TAWS INH’ is shown on the PFD and MFD (Figure 6-119).
Figure 6-119 TAWS-B Alerting Disabled
(TAWS Inhibited) Annunciation
Inhibiting/enabling TAWS-B alerting:
1) Select the TAWS-B Page.
2) Press the INHIBIT Softkey to inhibit or enable TAWS-B (choice dependent on current state).
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Inhibit TAWS’ or ‘Enable TAWS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
If TAWS-B alerts are inhibited when the Final Approach Fix is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach,
a ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation may appear on the PFD next to the Altimeter if the current aircraft altitude is at
least 164 feet below the prescribed altitude at the Final Approach Fix. See the Flight Instruments Section for
details.
Five-Hundred Aural Alert
The purpose of the aural alert message “Five-hundred” is to provide an advisory alert of when the aircraft
descends to within 500 feet above the terrain or runway threshold. When the aircraft is within 5 nm of
an airport, the “Five Hundred” aural alert is based on the nearest runway threshold elevation. When the
aircraft is more than 5 nm of the nearest airport, the “Five Hundred” aural alert is based on the height above
terrain.
There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the “Five Hundred” aural alert.
Negative Climb Rate After Takeoff Alert (NCR)
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff.
The aural message “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by an annunciation and a pop-up terrain
alert on the display. NCR alerting is only active when departing from an airport and when the following
conditions are met:
• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
• Distance from the departure airport is 5 nm or less
• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
NCR alerts can be triggered by either altitude loss (Figure 6-120) or sink rate (6-121).
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1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-120 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-121 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
System Status
During power-up, TAWS-B conducts a self-test of its aural and visual annunciations. The system test can also
be manually initiated. A single chime is issued at test completion. TAWS-B System Testing is disabled when
ground speed exceeds 30 knots.
Manually testing the TAWS-B System:
1) Select the TAWS-B Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Test TAWS System’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the selection. (Figure 6-123)
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Figure 6-123 TAWS-B Page Menu
TAWS-B continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status, and
GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the aural message “TAWS System Failure” is
generated along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
TAWS-B requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should the
navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TAWS N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the TAWS-B Page. If in-flight, the aural message
“TAWS Not Available” is also generated. When the GPS signal is restored and the aircraft is within the
database coverage area, the aural message “TAWS Available” is generated.
PFD/MFD
TAWS-B Page
TAWS-B Page Center Banner
Annunciation Annunciation
Alert Type
System Test in progress
System Test pass
None
TAWS System Test Fail; Terrain,
Airport Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid on all GDUs;
software mismatch among GDUs;
TAWS audio fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid. TAWS
operating with PFD Terrain or Obstacle
databases
No GPS position
Excessively degraded GPS signal, or
out of database coverage area
Sufficient GPS signal reception
restored
TAWS Alerting is disabled
None
None
Aural Message
TAWS TEST
None
None
“TAWS System Test OK”
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
TERRAIN
DATABASE
FAILURE
None
TAWS Alert
Types
Not Available
None Available
FLTA, PDA
NO GPS
POSITION
None
“TAWS Not Available”
FLTA, PDA, VCO
“TAWS Not Available”
FLTA, PDA
None
“TAWS Available”
(aural message only in flight)
None
FLTA, PDA
None
Table 6-12 TAWS-B System Status Annunciations
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6.6 Profile View Terrain
NOTE: Profile View is only available if TAWS-B in installed..
The G1000 offers a Profile View of terrain and obstacles relative to the aircraft’s current flight path and altitude
on the Navigation Map Page of the MFD. Profile View does not provide TAWS-B terrain or obstacle caution or
warning annunciations or voice alerts systems, nor does it display potential impact points inside the Profile View.
The colors and symbols in Figure 6-124 and Table 6-13 are used to represent terrain and obstacles.
Terrain Above Aircraft Altitude
Red terrain is above
or within 100 ft below
the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude
100 ft Threshold
1000 ft
Yellow terrain is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Black terrain is more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Figure 6-124 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Profile View Terrain
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Table 6-13 Profile View Terrain/Obstacle Colors and Symbology
Accessing Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the PROFILE Softkey to enable or disable Profile View.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
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Enabling/Disabling Profile View Terrain on the Navigation Map (when Profile View is enabled):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the TERRAIN Softkey.
Profile View Display
When the Profile View is enabled, it is displayed in a window below the Navigation Map. Altitude is shown
along a vertical scale, with an aircraft icon positioned at the current altitude. Distance is represented horizontally
along the bottom of the Profile View, and increases from left (present position) to right.
When the Navigation Map range is adjusted with the RANGE Knob, the horizontal distance of the Profile
View is adjusted proportionately to be 1/2 of the Navigation Map range distance down to 1 nm, at which point
Profile View is no longer available (‘PROFILE NOT AVAILABLE’ is displayed). When Navigation Map range
is adjusted to remove altitude-correlated colored terrain data (as shown in the Terrain Legend) or obstacles
from the Navigation Map, these items are also removed from the Profile View; only an outline of the terrain
will be displayed in black in the Profile View window. Refer to the Terrain Proximity, Terrain-SVS, or TAWS-B
discussions for more information about displaying terrain or obstacles on the Navigation Map Page.
Profile Path
Range
Markers
Navigation Map Range
Terrain Legend
Terrain Enabled Icons
Altitude Scale
Distance Scale
Profile View Length
is One Half of the
Navigation Map
Range
Figure 6-125 Profile View on Navigation Map with Terrain Display Enabled
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The Profile View is based on the current aircraft track (or heading if track is unavailable) and shows the highest
known terrain or obstacles within a predetermined width from the present aircraft position to the end of the
profile range. The width of the Profile View is determined by the phase of flight, and is widest during enroute
or oceanic phases (Table 6-14).
Flight Phase
Total Profile View Width
Approach
0.6 nm
Departure
0.6 nm
Terminal
2.0 nm
Enroute
4.0 nm
Oceanic
4.0 nm
Table 6-14 Profile View Width Scale
Profile Path
The Profile Path displays the horizontal and lateral boundaries of the Profile View. The path is shown as a
white rectangle on the Navigation Map Page and is only available when Profile View is enabled. White range
markers both edges of the Profile Path rectangle match the range markers along the distance scale inside the
Profile View display window whenever the profile range is at least 4 nm (or 7.5 km if configured for metric
units).
The Profile Path rectangle may be configured on or off, and the Navigation Map range at which the Profile
Path is removed from map display can be changed.
Customizing the Profile Path display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-126).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Profile’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-127).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-128).
• PROFILE PATH – Turns the display of the Profile Path on or off and sets maximum range at which Profile Path
is shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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Figure 6-126 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-127 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
396
Figure 6-128 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu,
Profile Group
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6.7TAWS-A
Warning: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain avoidance. TAWS-A is intended only to enhance
situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft latitude is greater than 75° North or 60° South.
NOTE: The data contained in the TAWS databases comes from government agencies. Garmin accurately
processes and cross-validates the data but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
TAWS-A (Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class A) is an optional feature to increase situational awareness
and aid in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). TAWS-A provides visual and aural annunciations when
terrain and obstacles are within the given altitude threshold from the aircraft. The displayed alerts and warnings
are advisory in nature only.
TAWS-A satisfies TSO-C151b Class A and TSO-92c requirements for certification.
Class A TAWS requires the following components:
• A valid terrain/obstacle/airport terrain database
• A valid 3-D GPS position solution
• Valid flap and landing gear status inputs
• A valid radar altimeter
TAWS-A uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. Terrain information is based
on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may be
shown if available in the database. The data undergoes verification by Garmin to confirm accuracy of the content,
per TSO-C151b. However, the displayed information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and data
may be inaccurate.
TAWS-A uses information from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude, along with
additional altitude input from the radar altimeter. GPS altitude is derived from satellite measurements. GPS
altitude is converted to a mean sea level (MSL)-based altitude (GPS-MSL altitude) and is used in part to determine
TAWS-A alerts. GPS-MSL altitude accuracy is affected by factors such as satellite geometry, but it is not subject to
variations in pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure altitude devices. GPS-MSL altitude does not
require local altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. Therefore, GPS altitude provides a highly accurate and
reliable MSL altitude source to calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
The terrain and obstacle databases used by TAWS-A are referenced to mean sea level (MSL). Using the GPS
position and GPS-MSL altitude, TAWS-A displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative
to the position and altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the GPS position and GPS-MSL altitude are used to
calculate and “predict” the aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this
manner, TAWS-A can provide advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain conditions.
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Class A TAWS incorporates radar altimeter input with the GPS-MSL altitude to provide a more accurate position
reference when at lower altitudes for certain alert types, and to retain a level of ground proximity warning capability
in the unlikely event of an airport, terrain or obstacle database failure.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter setting
to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions seldom
match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where pressure,
temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read from the
altimeter) to differ from the GPS-MSL altitude. This variation results in the aircraft’s true altitude differing from
the baro-corrected altitude.
TAWS-A provides the following alert types:
• Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) Alerting, which consists of:
• Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) / Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC) Alerting
• Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) / Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) Alerting
• Premature Descent Alerting (PDA)
• Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) Alerting, which consists of:
• Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) Alerting
• Excessive Closure Rate (ECR) to Terrain Alerting
• Flight Into Terrain (FIT) Alerting
• Negative Climb Rate (NCR) after takeoff Alerting
• Excessive below Glideslope/Glidepath Deviation (GSD) Alerting
• Altitude Voice Call Out (VCO) Alerting
Displaying TAWS-A Data
TAWS-A uses yellow (caution) and red (warning) to depict terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than
200 feet above ground level, AGL) alerts relative to aircraft altitude. Colors are adjusted automatically as the
aircraft altitude changes. The colors and symbols in Figure 6-129 and Table 6-15 are used to represent terrain,
obstacles, and potential impact points.
Figure 6-129 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for TAWS-B
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Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
Potential
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL Impact Points
Obstacle Location
WARNING: Red obstacle is above or within
100’ below current aircraft altitude
CAUTION: Yellow obstacle is between 100’
and 1000’ below current aircraft altitude
Table 6-15 TAWS-A Obstacle Colors and Symbology
TAWS-A Page
The TAWS-A Page shows terrain, obstacle, and potential impact point data in relation to the aircraft’s current
altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs) can be displayed
for reference. If an obstacle and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the display automatically
zooms in to the closest potential point of impact on the TAWS-A Page.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the RANGE Knob from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
Displaying the TAWS-A Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the TAWS-A Page.
Changing the TAWS-A Page view:
1) Select the VIEW Softkey.
2) Press the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘View Arcº’ or ‘View 360º’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key to change the view
Showing/hiding aviation information on the TAWS-A Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the
ENT Key.
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Red Terrain
(Warning - Terrain
Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Map Range
Black Terrain
(Terrain More than
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Yellow Terrain
(Caution - Terrain
Between 100’ and
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Annunciation Window
Figure 6-130 TAWS-A Page, 360º View
Red Terrain
(Warning - Terrain
Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Yellow Terrain
(Caution - Terrain
Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Map Range Arc
Black Terrain
(Terrain More than
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Annunciation Window
Figure 6-131 TAWS-A Page (ARC View)
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TAWS-A Alerts
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within TAWS-A software algorithms.
TAWS-A alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an alert
is issued, visual annunciations are displayed and aural alerts are simultaneously issued. Table 6-16 shows
TAWS-A alert types with corresponding annunciations and aural messages.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The TAWS-A Alert Annunciation is
shown to the upper left of the Altimeter or upper right of the Airspeed indicator on the PFD and below the
Terrain Legend on the MFD. If the TAWS-A Page is not already displayed on the MFD, a pop-up alert appears
on the MFD while an alert is active. To acknowledge the pop-up alert:
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the TAWS-A Page)
PFD with TAWS-A Annunciations
MFD Pop-Up Alert (on non-TAWS-A pages)
MFD TAWS-A Page with Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-132 Example TAWS-A Annunciations
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PFD/MFD TAWS-A
Page
Annunciation
Alert Type
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
MFD Map Page
Pop-Up Alert
(Except TAWS-A Page)
or
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
or
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning (IOI)
or
Aural Message
*
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up” *
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
*
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
*
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
*
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
Excessive Descent Rate Warning (EDR)
“<whoop> <whoop> Pull Up”
Excessive Closure Rate Warning (ECR)
“<whoop> <whoop> Pull Up”
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
or
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
or
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution (IOI)
or
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
*
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”*
or
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”
Premature Descent Alert Caution (PDA)
“Too Low, Terrain”
Excessive Descent Rate Caution (EDR)
“Sink Rate”
Excessive Closure Rate Caution (ECR)
“Terrain, Terrain”
Negative Climb Rate Caution (NCR)
or
“Don’t Sink”*
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
*
Flight Into Terrain High Speed Caution
(FIT)
“Too Low, Terrain”
Flight Into Terrain Gear Caution (FIT)
“Too Low, Gear”
Flight Into Terrain Flaps Caution (FIT)
“Too Low, Flaps”
Flight Into Terrain Takeoff Caution (FIT)
“Too Low, Terrain”
Glide Slope Deviation Caution (GSD)
(depends on approach type)
Altitude Voice Callout (VCO)
or
or
“Glideslope”
or
“Glidepath”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”*, “Four-Hundred”*, “Three-Hundred”*, “Two-Hundred”*, “One-Hundred”*
* Alerts with multiple messages are configurable. Alerts for the default configuration are indicated with asterisks.
Table 6-16 TAWS-A Alerts Summary
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Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values in Figure 6-133. When an RTC alert is issued, a potential impact point is displayed on the
TAWS-A Page.
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is below the elevation of a terrain or obstacle cell in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts are
accompanied by a potential impact point displayed on the TAWS-A Page. The alert is annunciated when the
projected vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes in Figure 6-133.
Required Terrain Clearance
RTC Level (FT)
RTC Descending (FT)
800
Required
Terrain
Clearance
(FT)
Required
Terrain Clearance
(FT)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
Distance From Runway (NM)
Distance
From Runway (NM)
25
30
Figure 6-133 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
FLTA alerts are automatically inhibited when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination runway
elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends.
Premature Descent Alerting
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway (Figure 6-134).
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
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800
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
600
500
400
300
PDA Alerting Area
200
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-134 PDA Alerting Threshold
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
Inhibiting FLTA and PDA Alerts
NOTE: The ‘Inhibit TAWS’ function only inhibits FLTA and PDA alerts. Alerting for GPWS alerts (EDR, ECR,
NCR, FIT) and GSD is controlled independently from FLTA and PDA alerts.
FLTA and PDA aural and visual alerts can be manually inhibited. Discretion should be used when inhibiting
alerts and the system should be enabled when appropriate. When PDA and FLTA alerts are inhibited, the
alert annunciation ‘TAWS INH’ is shown on the PFD and on the TAWS-A Page annunciation window of the
MFD (Figure 6-135).
Figure 6-135 TAWS-A Page Menu and Inhibit Annunciation
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Inhibiting/enabling FLTA and PDA alerting:
1) Select the TAWS-A Page.
2) Select the TAWS INH Softkey to inhibit or enable TAWS-A (choice dependent on current state).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key. (Figure 6-135)
2) Select ‘Inhibit TAWS’ or ‘Enable TAWS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
If PDA and FLTA alerts are inhibited when the Final Approach Fix is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS
approach, a ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation may appear on the PFD next to the Altimeter if the current aircraft
altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed altitude at the Final Approach Fix. See the Flight Instruments
Section for details.
Excessive Descent Rate Alert
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide suitable notification when the
aircraft is determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain at an excessive speed. Figure 6-136 shows the
parameters for the alert as defined by TSO-C151b.
6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
INK
n: “S
4000
”
RATE
io
Caut
3500
3000
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
Descent Rate (FPM)
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
500
Figure 6-136 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
Excessive Closure Rate Alert
The Excessive Closure Rate (ECR) alert provides suitable notification when the aircraft is determined to
be closing upon terrain at an excessive speed for a given aircraft gear and flap configuration.
Figures 6-137 and 6-138 show the ECR alerting criteria for flaps in the landing configuration and for all
other flight phases respectively.
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Height Above Terrain (Feet)
ECR alerts are automatically inhibited when the aircraft is 5 nm from the nearest airport, except when FLTA
is not available (causing the TAWS N/A or TAWS FAIL annunciation to be displayed), in which case ECR
alerting will remain active until landing.
Closure Rate (FPM)
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
Figure 6-137 Excessive Closure Rate Alert Criteria (Flaps Up or Takeoff Configuration)
Closure Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-138 Excessive Closure Rate Alert Criteria (Flaps in Landing Configuration)
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Flight Into TERRAIN ALERT
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
Flight Into Terrain (FIT) alerts occur when the aircraft is too low with respect to terrain based on landing
gear status, flap position, and groundspeed. FIT caution alerts are issued when flight conditions meet the
criteria shown in Figure 6-139.
*
*
Altitude Change Rate (FPM)
* Flap position will not trigger alert if Flap Override option is enabled; see discussion below.
Figure 6-139 Flight Into Terrain Caution Alert Criteria
To reduce nuisance FIT alerts on approaches where flap extension is not desired (or is intentionally delayed),
the pilot may override FIT alerting based on the flap position, while all other FIT alerting remains in effect.
Figure 6-140 TAWS-A Page Menu and FIT Flap Override Annunciation
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Overriding Flaps-based FIT alerting:
1) Select the TAWS-A Page
2) Select the FLAP OVR Softkey
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key. (Figure 6-140)
2) Select ‘Flap Override’ or ‘Disable Flap Override’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
When the Flaps Override option is enabled, the annunciation ‘FLAP OVR’ is annunciated on the PFD and
on the TAWS-A Page of the MFD (Figure 6-140). If GPWS alerts are also inhibited (which include FIT), the
‘FLAP OVR’ annunciation is not shown.
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
FIT alerts also occur during takeoff or go-around if the aircraft’s height above ground level (as determined by
the radar altimeter) is too close to rising terrain. TAWS-A will issue the aural message “Too Low - Terrain”
and visual annunciations when conditions enter the caution alert area (Figure 6-141).
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
Radio Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-141 FIT Alerting After Takeoff
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Negative Climb Rate After Takeoff Alert
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff.
The aural message “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by an annunciation and a pop-up terrain
alert on the MFD if the TAWS-A Page is not already displayed. NCR alerting for TAWS-A is only active when
departing from an airport and when the following conditions are met:
• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
• Distance from the departure airport is 5 nm or less
• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
• Landing gear or flaps are configured for takeoff
NCR alerts can be triggered by either altitude loss (Figure 6-142) or sink rate (6-143).
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
500
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
400
300
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-142 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
500
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
400
300
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-143 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
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Inhibiting GPWS Alerts (EDR, ECR, FIT, and NCR)
NOTE: The ‘Inhibit GPWS’ function only affects GPWS alerts (EDR, ECR, NCR, and FIT). Alerting for FLTA,
PDA, and GSD is controlled independently from the GPWS alerts listed below.
EDR, ECR, FIT, and NCR aural and visual alerts can be manually inhibited as a group. Discretion should be
used when inhibiting alerts and the GPWS system should be enabled when appropriate. When these alerts
are inhibited, the alert annunciation ‘GPWS INH’ is shown on the PFD and on the TAWS-A Page annunciation
window of the MFD (Figure 6-144).
Figure 6-144 TAWS-A Page Menu and GPWS Inhibit Annunciation
Inhibiting/enabling GPWS alerting:
1) Select the TAWS-A Page.
2) Select the GPWS INH Softkey to inhibit or enable GPWS alerts (choice dependent on current state).
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key. (Figure 6-144)
b) Select ‘Inhibit GPWS’ or ‘Enable GPWS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
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Excessive below Glideslope/Glidepath Deviation Alert
Radio Altitude (Feet)
A Glideslope Deviation or Glidepath Deviation (GSD) caution alert is issued when the system detects
that the aircraft is significantly below the glidepath for the selected approach in relation to the aircraft’s height
above terrain (Figure 6-145).
“GLIDESLOPE”
or
“GLIDEPATH”
Number of Dots Below Glideslope/Glidepath
Figure 6-145 Excessive Below Glideslope/Glidepath Deviation Alert Criteria
GSD alerting is only active after departure and the following conditions are met:
• An ILS, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, or LNAV+V approach is active and vertical navigation indications are being
displayed.
• Aircraft is below 1000 feet AGL.
• Gear is configured for landing.
When a GSD caution alert occurs on an ILS approach, the aural and visual annunciation ‘GLIDESLOPE’
is issued. If a GSD caution alert occurs on an LPV, LNAV/VNAV, or LNAV+V approach, the aural and visual
annunciation ‘GLIDEPATH’ is issued (Figure 6-146).
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Inhbiting GSD Alerts
NOTE: GSD alerting may only be inhibited while a GSD alert is occurring. GSD alerts are inhibited
independently from all other FLTA, PDA, and GPWS alerts.
During a GSD alert, the PFD Softkeys are reconfigured as shown in figure 6-146 to provide an option to
inhibit the alert. A ‘GLIDESLOPE’ alert will display a GS INH Softkey to inhibit the alert. A ‘GLIDEPATH’
alert will display a GP INH Softkey to inhibit the alert. When an inhibit Softkey is pressed, the PFD Softkeys
return to the top-level display. Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top level of the PFD Softkeys without
inhibiting the GSD alert.
Or:
Or:
Figure 6-146 GSD Glideslope Alert and PFD Softkeys
Altitude Voice Callout (VCO)
TAWS-A provides aural advisory alerts as the aircraft descends, beginning at 500 feet above the terrain (if
greater than 5 nm from the nearest airport) or 500 feet above the nearest runway threshold (if less than 5 nm
from the nearest airport). Upon descent to this altitude, the aural alert message “Five-hundred” is issued.
Maintenance personnel may enable additional VCO alerts corresponding to 400, 300, 200, and 100 feet.
There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the aural message(s). VCO alerts cannot
be inhibited.
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System Status
During power-up, TAWS-A conducts a self-test of its aural and visual annunciations. The system test can also
be manually initiated. A single chime is issued at test completion. TAWS-A System Testing is disabled when
ground speed exceeds 30 knots. TAWS-A terrain alerts will not be issued while a test is in progress.
TAWS-A Page
Center Banner
Annunciation
Aural Message
TAWS System Fail
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
GPWS System Fail
None
“GPWS System Failure”
System Test in progress
TAWS TEST
None
None
“TAWS System Test OK”
PFD/MFD TAWS-A
Page Annunciation
Alert Type
System Test pass
None
Table 6-17 TAWS-A System Test Status Annunciations
Manually testing the TAWS-A System:
1) Select the TAWS-A Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Test TAWS System’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the selection. (Figure 6-147)
Figure 6-147 TAWS-A Page Menu
TAWS-A Abnormal operations
TAWS-A continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, flap and landing gear
position, radar altimeter input, and GPS status.
If no GDU contains Terrain, Airport Terrain, and Obstacle databases (or the databases are invalid), the aural
message “TAWS System Failure” is generated along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
TAWS-A requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should the
navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
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‘TAWS N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the TAWS-A Page. The aural message “TAWS Not
Available” is also generated if airborne, and some TAWS-A terrain alerts will not be issued (Table 6-18), while
GPWS alerting (which are not dependent on GPS position) will continue to operate. When the GPS signal
is re-established and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the aural message “TAWS Available” is
generated.
TAWS-A also requires radar altimeter input. Should the radar altimeter input fail or become degraded, the
annunciation ‘GPWS FAIL’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the TAWS-A Page. The aural
message “GPWS System Failure” is also generated. The ‘GPWS FAIL’ annunciation will also occur if both GPS
altitude and barometric altitude are unavailable. If only the GPWS system has failed, GPWS-based alerts will
not be available (Table 6-18), while other TAWS-A alerting remains unaffected.
Aural Message
TAWS Alert
Types
Not Available
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
FLTA, PDA
TERRAIN
DATABASE
FAILURE
None
PFD/MFD
TAWS-A Page
TAWS-A Page Center Banner
Annunciation Annunciation
Alert Type
TAWS System Test Fail; Terrain,
Airport Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid on all GDUs;
software mismatch among GDUs;
TAWS audio fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid. TAWS
operating with PFD Terrain or Obstacle
databases
No GPS position
Excessively degraded GPS signal, or
out of database coverage area
Sufficient GPS signal reception
restored
Radar Altimeter invalid, Vertical Speed
Invalid, GPS and Baro Altitude invalid,
Software mismatch among GDUs,
TAWS configuration mismatch among
GDUs, TAWS audio fault
*
None
None
*
NO GPS
POSITION
None
“TAWS Not Available”
None
“TAWS Available”
(aural message only in flight)
“GPWS System Failure”
None
“TAWS Not Available”
FLTA, PDA, GSD†,
VCO*
FLTA, PDA
EDR, ECR, NCR,
FIT, GSD
* VCO alerts are not issued if both TAWS and GPWS systems have failed or are not available
† GSD alert will be available if a valid ILS is being used for navigation, even in no valid GPS signal is being received.
Table 6-18 TAWS-A Abnormal Status Alerts
If the aircraft bank angle exceeds 30˚, TAWS-A will disable ECR alerts. ECR alert availability returns when
the bank angle is reduced for at least eight seconds.
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6.8Traffic Information Service (TIS)
WARNING: The Traffic Information Service (TIS) is intended for advisory use only. TIS is intended to help the
pilot locate traffic visually. It is the responsibility of the pilot to see and maneuver to avoid traffic.
NOTE: TIS is available only when the aircraft is within the service volume of a TIS-capable terminal radar
site. Aircraft without an operating transponder are invisible to both Traffic Advisory Systems (TAS) and TIS.
Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude separation data or climb descent
indication.
NOTE: TIS is disabled if a TAS is installed.
Traffic Information Service (TIS) is designed to help in detection and avoidance of other aircraft. TIS uses the
Mode S transponder for the traffic data link. TIS receives traffic information from ground stations, and is updated
every 5 seconds. The system displays up to eight traffic targets within a 7.5-nm radius, from 3000 feet below to
3500 feet above the requesting aircraft. Traffic is displayed according to TCAS symbology.
TIS Symbol
Description
Non-Threat Traffic
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-20 TIS Traffic Symbols
Traffic Advisories (TA) alert the crew to intruding aircraft. When traffic meets the advisory criteria for the TA,
a solid yellow circle symbol is generated. A TA which is detected but is outside the range of the map on which
traffic is displayed are indicated with a message in the lower left corner of the map.
TIS also provides a vector line showing the direction in which the traffic is moving, to the nearest 45°. Traffic
information for which TIS is unable to determine the bearing (non-bearing traffic) is displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map Page (Figure 6-157) or in a banner at the lower left corner of maps other than the Traffic Map Page
on which traffic can be displayed.
The altitude difference between the requesting aircraft and other intruder aircraft is displayed above/below the
traffic symbol in hundreds of feet. If the other aircraft is above the requesting aircraft, the altitude separation
appears above the traffic symbol; if below, the altitude separation appears below. Altitude trend is displayed as
an up/down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in either direction) to the right of the target symbol. Traffic
symbols for aircraft without altitude reporting capability appear without altitude separation or climb/descent
information.
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Displaying TRAFFIC Data
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps (when TIS is operating):
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
Traffic information is also displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision System (SVS) option is installed and
enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Displaying traffic information (maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Press the MAP Softkey.
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, an icon is shown to indicate the feature is
enabled for display.
Non-Threat Traffic,
2500’ Above,
Descending
Traffic Advisory, 500’
Below, Climbing
Non-Threat Traffic,
Altitude Not
Available
Traffic Display
Enabled Icon
Traffic Banner
Annunciations
Figure 6-148 TIS Traffic on the Navigation Map Page
Displaying traffic information (PFD Inset Map):
1) Select the INSET Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data on the inset map (TRFC-1).
3) Select the softkey again to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
4) Select the softkey again to remove traffic data.
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The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of traffic. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which traffic data (symbols
and labels) are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use settings based on those selected for the
Navigation Map Page.
Customizing traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-149).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Traffic’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-150).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-151).
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA ONLY - Displays Traffic Alerts only
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown (with the option to turn off)
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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Figure 6-149 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-150 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-151 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
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Traffic Map Page
The Traffic Map Page is specialized to show surrounding TIS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current
position and altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up
unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the RANGE Knob from 2 to 12 nm, as indicated
by the map range rings.
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is on the
ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. Once the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches from Standby to
Operating Mode and the G1000 begins to display traffic information. Refer to the System Status discussion for
more information.
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Confirm TIS is in Operating Mode:
Press the OPERATE Softkey to begin displaying traffic.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ (shown if TIS is in Standby Mode) and press the ENT Key.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
Traffic Map Page
Orientation
“TIS Not Available”
Voice Alert Status
Traffic Map Range
Rings
Non-Threat Traffic,
2500’ Above,
Descending
Traffic Advisory, 500’
Below, Climbing
“Non-Bearing” Traffic
(TIS Unable to
Determine Bearing)
Distance is 4.0 nm,
500’ Above,
Descending
Traffic Advisory OffScale, 400’ Below,
Level
Non-Threat Traffic,
Altitude Not
Available
Traffic Status Banners
Figure 6-152 Traffic Map Page
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“TIS Not Available”
Voice Alert
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TIS Alerts
When the number of TAs on the Traffic Map Page increases from one scan to the next, the following occur:
• A single “Traffic” voice alert is generated.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears to the top left of the Attitude Indicator on the PFD, flashing for 5 seconds
and remaining displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with traffic.
To reduce the number of nuisance alerts due to proximate aircraft, the “Traffic” voice alert is generated only
when the number of TAs increases. For example, when the first TA is displayed, a voice and visual annunciation
are generated. As long as a single TA remains on the display, no additional voice alerts are generated. If a second
TA appears on the display or if the number of TAs initially decreases and then subsequently increases, another
voice alert is generated.
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-153 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
A “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert is generated when the TIS service becomes unavailable or is out of
range. TIS may be unavailable in the radar coverage area due to the following:
• Radar site TIS Mode S sensor is not operational or is out of service
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is beyond the maximum range of the TIS-capable Mode S radar site.
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is above the radar site in the cone of silence and out of range of an adjacent site.
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is below radar coverage. In flat terrain, the coverage extends from about 3000
feet upward at 55 miles. Terrain and obstacles around the radar site can further decrease radar coverage in all
directions.
• Traffic does not have an operating transponder.
The “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert can be manually muted to reduce nuisance alerting. TNA muting
status is shown in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
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Muting the “TIS Not Available” voice alert:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the TNA MUTE Softkey. The status is displayed in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ’”Not Available” Mute On’ (shown if TNA muting is currently off) and press the ENT Key.
System Status
The G1000 performs an automatic test of TIS during power-up. If TIS passes the test, TIS enters Standby
Mode (on the ground) or Operating Mode (in the air). If TIS fails the power up test, an annunciation is shown
in the center of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Map Page
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
UNAVAILABLE
Description
Data is not being received from the transponder*
Data is being received from the transponder, but
a failure is detected in the data stream*
The transponder has failed*
TIS is unavailable or out of range
* Contact a service center or Garmin dealer for corrective action
Table 6-21 TIS Failure Annunciations
System Test
Failed Status
Data Not Received
from Transponder
Figure 6-154 TIS Power-up Test Failure
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The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is on the
ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. If traffic is selected for display on another map while Standby
Mode is selected, the traffic display enabled icon is crossed out (also the case whenever TIS has failed). Once
the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches to Operating Mode and traffic information is displayed. The mode can be
changed manually using softkeys or the page menu.
Mode
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
TIS Operating
OPERATING
TIS Standby
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TIS Failed*
FAIL
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
* See Table 6-23 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-22 TIS Modes
Switching between TIS modes:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the STANDBY or OPERATE Softkey to switch between modes. The mode is displayed in the upper left
corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ or ‘Standby Mode’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key. The
annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner
of maps on which traffic can be displayed (Table 6-23).
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Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
AGE MM:SS
TRFC COAST
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending)
Appears if traffic data is not refreshed within 6 seconds
If after another 6 seconds data is not received, traffic is removed from the display
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced as the age increases
The displayed data is not current (6 to 12 seconds since last message)
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced when this message is displayed
Traffic is removed because it is too old for coasting (12 to 60 seconds since last message)
Traffic may exist within the selected display range, but it is not displayed
TRFC RMVD
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
TRFC UNAVAIL
Traffic data has failed
Traffic has not been detected
The traffic service is unavailable or out of range
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-23 TIS Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.9Garmin GTS Traffic
WARNING: The GTS 820 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) and GTS 850 Traffic Collision Avoidance System
I (TCAS I) are intended for advisory use only to aid the pilot in visually acquiring traffic. No avoidance
maneuvers should be based solely upon TAS or TCAS traffic information. It is the responsibility of the pilot
in command to see and maneuver to avoid traffic.
NOTE: Pilots should be aware of TAS/TCAS system limitations. TAS/TCAS systems require transponders of
other aircraft to respond to system interrogations. If the transponders do not respond to interrogations
due phenomena such as antenna shading or marginal transponder performance, traffic may be displayed
intermittently, or not at all. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude
separation data or climb descent indication. Pilots should remain vigilant for traffic at all times.
NOTE: TIS is disabled when TAS or TCAS is installed.
This section covers both the optional Garmin GTS 820 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) and Garmin GTS 850
Traffic Collision Avoidance I System (TCAS I). Operational differences between the GTS 820 and GTS 850 are
noted throughout this section.
The Garmin GTS traffic system enhances flight crew situational awareness by displaying traffic information
for transponder-equipped aircraft. The system also provides visual and aural traffic alerts including voice
announcements to assist in visually acquiring traffic.
The system is capable of tracking up to 45 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode A or C transponders, and up
to 30 intruders equipped with Mode S transponders. A maximum of 30 aircraft with the highest threat potential
can be displayed simultaneously. No traffic surveillance is provided for aircraft without operating transponders.
Theory of operation
When the traffic system is in Operating Mode, the unit interrogates the transponders of intruding aircraft
while monitoring transponder replies. The system uses this information to derive the distance, relative bearing,
and if reported, the altitude and vertical trend for each aircraft within its surveillance range. The traffic system
then calculates a closure rate to each intruder based on the projected Closest Point of Approach (CPA). If the
closure rate meets the threat criteria for a Traffic Advisory (TA), visual and aural alerting is provided.
TAS surveillance VOLUME
The GTS 820/850 surveillance system monitors the airspace within ±10,000 feet of own altitude, and
up to 40 nm in the forward direction. Range is somewhat reduced to the sides and aft of own aircraft
due to the directional interrogation signal patterns. In areas of greater transponder traffic density or when
Traffic Collision and Alerting Systems II (TCAS II) systems are detected, the system automatically reduces
its interrogation transmitter power (and therefore range) in order to limit potential interference from other
signals.
When paired with the optional GTX 33 ES (extended squitter) transponder, the traffic system uses
Automatic Dependent Surveilence - Broadcast (ADS-B) position reports from participating aircraft to enhance
the positional accuracy of traffic displayed within the TAS surveillance range.
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TAS SYMBOLOGY
The traffic system uses symbology to depict intruding traffic on the displays using the symbols shown in
Table 6-24.
TAS Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Proximity Advisory (PA)
Non-Threat Traffic
Table 6-24 TAS Intruder Symbol Description
A Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as a yellow circle, alerts the crew to a potentially hazardous intruding
aircraft, if the closing rate, distance, and vertical separation meet TA criteria. A Traffic Advisory that is beyond
the selected display range is indicated by a half TA symbol at the edge of the screen at the relative bearing of
the intruder.
A Proximity Advisory (PA), displayed as a solid white diamond, indicates the intruding aircraft is within
±1200 feet and is within a 6 nm range, but is still not considered a TA threat.
A Non-threat Advisory, shown as an open white diamond, is displayed for all other traffic beyond 6 nm that
is neither a TA or PA.
Relative altitude, when available, is displayed above or below the corresponding intruder symbol in
hundreds of feet. When this altitude is above own aircraft, it is preceded by a ‘+’ symbol; a minus sign ‘-’
indicates traffic is below own aircraft.
A vertical trend arrow to the right of the intruder symbol indicates climbing or descending traffic with an
upward or downward-pointing arrow respectively.
Relative Altitude
Vertical trend arrow
Figure 6-155 Intruder Altitude and Vertical Trend Arrow
The traffic system automatically suppresses the display of altitude-reporting aircraft on the ground under
either of the following conditions:
• On-ground aircraft is equipped with a Mode S transponder.
• On-ground aircraft is equipped with a Mode C transponder, and own aircraft’s radar altimeter (if installed)
is displaying 1700’ AGL or less.
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TA Alerting Conditions
The traffic system automatically adjusts its TA sensitivity level to reduce the likelihood of nuisance TA
alerting during flight phases likely to be near airports. Level A (less) TA sensitivity is used when the aircraft’s
landing gear is extended, or when the radar altimeter (if equipped) indicates own aircraft is below 2000’ AGL.
In all other conditions, Level B (greater) TA sensitivity is used to assess TA threats.
Sensitivity Intruder Altitude
Level
Available
A
Yes
A
No
B
Yes
B
No
TA Alerting Conditions
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of vertical and
horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of horizontal
separation and vertical separation is within 600 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 nm and vertical separation is within
600 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of separation.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of vertical and
horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of horizontal
separation and vertical separation is within 800 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 nm and vertical separation is within
800 feet.
Intruder range is less than 20 seconds.
Table 6-25 TA Sensitivity Level and TA Alerting Criteria
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Traffic Alerts
When the traffic system detects a new TA, the following occur:
• A single “Traffic!” voice alert is generated, followed by additional voice information about the bearing, relative
altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table 6-26). The announcement
“Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the traffic is in front of own aircraft, above own
altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
• A TRAFFIC Annunciation appears at the top right of the airspeed on the PFD, flashing for five seconds and
remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area (Figure 6-156).
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with TA traffic.
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined (Figures 6-158 and 6-161), a yellow text banner will be
displayed in the center of the Traffic Map Page and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA
symbol. The text will indicate “TA” followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the
TA traffic, if known.
A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that initially triggered the TA are no
longer present.
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-156 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Distance (nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
Table 6-26 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
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System Test
NOTE: Traffic surveillance is not available during the system test. Use caution when performing a system
test during flight.
The traffic system provides a system test mode to verify the system is operating normally. The test takes ten
seconds to complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols is displayed on the
Traffic Map Page (Figure 6-157). An aural announcement is heard when the system test is complete.
Traffic System
GTS 820
GTS 850
Aural Announcement
“TAS System Test Passed.”
or:
“TAS System Test Failed.”
“TCAS System Test Passed.”
or:
“TCAS System Test Failed”
Table 6-27 System Test Aural Announcements
When the system test is complete, the traffic system enters Standby Mode.
Testing the traffic system:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Turn the Range knob to set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full traffic test pattern display.
4) Select the TEST Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Test Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key.
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Test Mode
Annunciation
Operating
Mode
Proximity
Traffic at
1 o’clock,
Distance
3.6 nm,
1000’ Below,
Descending
Non-Threat
Traffic at
11 o’clock,
Distance 3.6
nm, 1000’
Above, Level
TA at 9 o’clock,
Distance 2.0
nm, 200’ Below,
Climbing
Figure 6-157 System Test in Progress with Test Pattern
Operation
NOTE: The traffic system automatically transitions from STANDBY to OPERATE mode eight seconds
after takeoff. The unit also automatically transitions from OPERATE to STANDBY mode 24 seconds after
landing.
After power-up, the traffic system is in Standby Mode. The system must be in Operating Mode for traffic to
be displayed and for TAs to be issued.
Selecting the OPERATE Softkey allows the system to switch from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as
necessary. Selecting the STANDBY Softkey forces the unit into Standby Mode.
Switching from operating mode to standby mode:
On the Traffic Page, select the STANDBY Softkey
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Standby Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key.
Switching from standby mode to operating mode:
On the Traffic Page, select the OPERATE Softkey
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Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Operate Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key. The GTS 820 switches from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as necessary.
Traffic MAP Page
The Traffic Map Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and altitude,
without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map
range is adjustable with the RANGE Knob from 2 to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner of the page.
Operating
Mode
Altitude
Mode
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
Traffic Advisory,
Aircraft is
500’ Below,
Climbing
Traffic Display
Range Rings
“No Bearing”
Traffic (Bearing
Undetermined),
Distance 4.0
nm, 500’ Above,
Descending
Off Scale Traffic
Advisory, 400’
Below, No
Vertical Trend
Proximity
Traffic, 900’
Above, No
Vertical Trend
Non-Threat Traffic,
Altitude Not
Reported
Figure 6-158 Traffic Map Page
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Select the OPERATE Softkey to begin displaying traffic. OPERATING is displayed in the Traffic mode field.
4) Select the STANDBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. STANDBY is displayed in the Traffic
mode field.
5) Turn the RANGE Knob clockwise to display a larger area or counter-clockwise to display a smaller area.
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Altitude Display
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which non-threat and proximity traffic is displayed. TAs
occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, select the ALT MODE Softkey.
2) Select one of the following Softkeys:
• ABOVE: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 9000 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• NORMAL: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below
the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• BELOW: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9000 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the Traffic Page, select the BACK Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following (see softkey description in step 2 above):
•
ABOVE
•
NORMAL
•
BELOW
•
UNRESTRICTED
3) Select the ENT Softkey.
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Flight ID Display
The Flight IDs of other aircraft (when available) can be enabled for display on the Traffic Map Page
(Figure 6-159). When a flight ID is received, it will appear above or below the corresponding traffic symbol
on the Traffic Map Page when this option is enabled.
Flight ID
Figure 6-159 Traffic Map Page with Flight IDs Enabled
Enabling/Disabling Flight ID Display:
On the Traffic Map Page, select the FLT ID Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Show Flight IDs’ or ‘Hide Flight IDs’ (choice dependent on current state)
(Figure 6-160).
3) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-160 Traffic Map Page Menu
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Traffic Map Page Display Range
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable with the
RANGE Knob from 2 to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
Changing the display range on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the RANGE Knob.
2) The following range options are available:
•
2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm
•
24 and 40 nm
Additional Traffic Displays
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps on the MFD when the unit is operating:
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
• Trip Planning Page
• System Pages
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision System (SVS) option is
installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Displaying traffic information (MFD maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Select the MAP Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
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When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, a traffic icon is shown to indicate traffic
is enabled for display (Figure 6-161).
Displaying traffic on the Navigation Map
1) Ensure the traffic system is operating. With the Navigation Map displayed, select the MAP Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map as shown in the figure.
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
Traffic Advisory,
500’ Below,
Climbing
Proximity Traffic,
900’ Above,
Level
Non-Threat
Traffic, Altitude
Not Available
Traffic Advisory
Off-Scale
Traffic Display
Enabled Icon
“No Bearing”
Traffic Advisory
Figure 6-161 Traffic on the Navigation Map Page
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Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-162).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-163).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections (Figure 6-164).
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
- TA ONLY - Displays Traffic Advisories only
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Figure 6-162 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-163 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD Inset Map by pressing the INSET Softkey. A traffic map
will appear in heading up orientation. Traffic information can also be overlaid with navigation, topographic
and optional XM Weather data.
Displaying traffic information (PFD Inset Map):
1) Select the INSET Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data on the inset map (TRFC-1).
3) Select the softkey again to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
4) Select the softkey again to remove traffic data.
System Status
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Mode
Traffic System Test
Initiated
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
TEST
(also shown in white in center of page)
OPERATING
Operating
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
Standby
FAIL
Traffic System Failed*
* See Table 6-29 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-28 Traffic Modes
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Traffic Map Page
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but the
unit is self-reporting a failure
Incorrect data format received from the traffic unit
Table 6-29 Traffic Failure Annunciations
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The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the
selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation
in hundreds of feet, and altitude trend arrow (climbing/
descending).
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or
sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-30 Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.10 L-3 Skywatch Traffic
WARNING: The Traffic Advisory System (TAS) is intended for advisory use only. TAS is intended to help the
pilot locate traffic visually. It is the responsibility of the pilot to see and maneuver to avoid traffic.
NOTE: TIS is disabled when a TAS or Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) is installed.
NOTE: Refer to the SKYWATCH® (SKY497/SKY899) Pilot’s Guide for a detailed discussion of the TAS.
TAS Symbology
The optional Traffic Advisory System (TAS) is designed to help in detection and avoidance of other aircraft. TAS
uses an on-board interrogator-processor and an altitude reporting transponder for the air-to-air traffic data link.
Traffic is displayed using four different symbols.
TAS Symbol
Description
Non-Threat Traffic
Proximity Advisory (PA)
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-31 TAS Symbol Description
A Non-threat Advisory, shown as an open white diamond, indicates that an intruding aircraft is at greater than
±1200 feet relative altitude or the distance is beyond 5 nm.
A Proximity Advisory indicates that the intruding aircraft is within ±1200 feet and is within 5 nm range, but
is still not considered a threat.
A Traffic Advisory (TA) alerts the crew to a potentially hazardous intruding aircraft. Closing rate, distance,
and vertical separation meet TA criteria. A Traffic Advisory that is beyond the selected display range is indicated
by a half TA symbol at the edge of the screen at the relative bearing of the intruder.
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Operation
The unit must be in operating mode for traffic to be displayed. The ability to switch from standby to operating
mode on the ground is especially useful for scanning the airspace around the airport before takeoff.
Switching from standby mode to operating mode:
1) On the Traffic Page, press the OPERATE Softkey or press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select
Operating Mode.
2) If using the FMS menu, press the ENT Key to place the TAS in the operating mode.
3) To switch to Standby Mode from the Traffic Page, press the STANDBY Softkey.
System Test:
1) Set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full test pattern display.
2) Select the STANDBY Softkey.
3) Select the TEST Softkey. ‘TEST MODE’ is annunciated on the MFD.
4) Self test takes approximately eight seconds to complete. When completed successfully, traffic symbols display
and a voice alert is heard to indicate the system test passed.
Displaying Traffic Data
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps when the unit is operating:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
• Traffic Map Page
• Nearest Pages
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision System (SVS) option is
installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Select the OPERATE Softkey to begin displaying traffic. OPERATING is displayed in the Traffic mode field.
4) Select the ALT MODE Softkey to change the altitude volume.
5) Select the STANDBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. STANDBY is displayed in the Traffic
mode field.
6) Turn the RANGE Knob clockwise to display a larger area or counter-clockwise to display a smaller area.
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Operating
Mode
Altitude
Mode
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
Traffic Advisory,
Aircraft is
500’ Below,
Climbing
Traffic Display
Range Rings
“No Bearing”
Traffic (Bearing
Undetermined),
Distance 4.0
nm, 500’ Above,
Descending
Off Scale Traffic
Advisory, 400’
Below, No
Vertical Trend
Proximity
Traffic, 900’
Above, No
Vertical Trend
Non-Threat Traffic,
Altitude Not
Reported
Figure 6-165 Traffic Map Page
The Traffic Map Page shows surrounding TAS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and
altitude, without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading.
Map range is adjustable with the RANGE Knob, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner.
Displaying traffic information (maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Press the MAP Softkey.
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, a traffic icon is shown to indicate TAS is
enabled for display.
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Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
Traffic Advisory,
500’ Below,
Climbing
Proximity Traffic,
900’ Above,
Level
Non-Threat
Traffic, Altitude
Not Available
Traffic Advisory
Off-Scale
Traffic Display
Enabled Icon
“Non-Bearing”
Traffic Advisory
Figure 6-166 TAS Traffic on the Navigation Map Page
Displaying traffic information (PFD Inset Map):
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data on the inset map (TRFC-1).
3) Press the softkey again to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
4) Press the softkey again to remove traffic data.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
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Altitude Display
Changing the altitude display mode:
1) On the Traffic Page, press the ALT MODE Softkey.
2) Press one of the following Softkeys:
•
BELOW
•
NORMAL
•
ABOVE
•
UNREST (unrestricted)
3) To return to the Traffic Page, press the BACK Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following:
•
BELOW
•
NORMAL
•
ABOVE
•
UNREST (unrestricted)
3) Press the ENT Softkey.
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable with the
RANGE Knob from 2 to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
Changing the display range on the Traffic Page:
1) Turn the RANGE Knob.
2) The following range options are available:
•
2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm*
•
24 and 40 nm*
* Range available only on the SKY899 TAS.
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Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-167).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-168).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections (Figure 6-169).
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/PA - Displays Traffic Alerts and Proximity Advisories
- TA ONLY - Displays Traffic Alerts only
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Figure 6-167 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-168 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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TAS Alerts
NOTE: Refer to the TAS documentation for information on alerts generated by the TAS equipment.
When the number of TAs on the Traffic Map Page increases from one scan to the next, the following occur:
• A “Traffic, Traffic” voice alert is generated.
• A TRAFFIC Annunciation appears at the top right of the airspeed on the PFD, flashing for 5 seconds and
remaining displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with TA traffic
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-170 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
System Status
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Mode
TAS Self-test Initiated
TAS Operating
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
TEST
(‘TEST MODE’ also shown in white on
top center of page)
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
OPERATING
TAS Standby
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TAS Failed*
FAIL
* See Table 6-33 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-32 TAS Modes
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If the unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Map Page
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
Data is being received from the TAS unit, but the
unit is self-reporting a failure
Incorrect data format received from the TAS unit
Table 6-33 TAS Failure Annunciations
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the
selected display range
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude
separation in hundreds of feet, and altitude trend arrow
(climbing/descending)
TAS unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or
sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-34 TAS Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.11Honeywell KTA 870 Traffic
WARNING: The Traffic Information System (TAS) is intended for advisory use only. TAS is intended to help
the pilot locate traffic visually. It is the responsibility of the pilot to see and maneuver to avoid traffic.
NOTE: TIS is disabled when a TAS is installed.
NOTE: Refer to the Honeywell® KTA 870 Pilot’s Guide for a detailed discussion of the KTA 870 TAS.
TAS Symbology
The optional Honeywell KTA 870 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) is designed to help in detection and avoidance
of other aircraft. TAS uses an on-board interrogator-processor and the Mode S transponder for the air-to-air traffic
data link. Traffic is displayed using four different symbols.
TAS Symbol
Description
Non-Threat Traffic
Proximity Advisory (PA)
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-35 TAS Symbol Description
A Non-threat Advisory, shown as an open white diamond, indicates that an intruding aircraft is at greater than
±1200 feet relative altitude or the distance is beyond 5 nm.
A Proximity Advisory indicates that the intruding aircraft is within ±1200 feet and is within 5 nm range, but
is still not considered a threat.
A Traffic Advisory (TA) alerts the crew to a potentially hazardous intruding aircraft. Closing rate, distance,
and vertical separation meet TA criteria. A Traffic Advisory that is beyond the selected display range is indicated
by a half TA symbol at the edge of the screen at the relative bearing of the intruder.
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Operation
The KTA 870 must be in Operating Mode for traffic to be displayed. The unit starts in Operating Mode upon
power-up.
Selecting the STANDBY Softkey forces the unit into Standby Mode. Selecting the NORMAL Softkey allows
the KTA 870 to switch from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as necessary.
Switching from operating mode to standby mode:
On the Traffic Page, select the STANDBY Softkey
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select Standby Mode.
2) Press the ENT Key.
Switching from standby mode to operating mode:
On the Traffic Page, select the NORMAL Softkey
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select Normal Mode.
2) Press the ENT Key. The KTA 870 switches from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as necessary.
System Self Test
1) Set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full test pattern display.
2) Select the TEST Softkey.
3) Self test takes approximately eight seconds to complete. When completed successfully, traffic symbols are
displayed and a voice alert “TAS System Test Passed” is heard. In the event that the system test fails, the system
reverts to Standby Mode and a voice alert “TAS System Test Failed” is heard.
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Select the NORMAL Softkey to begin displaying traffic. OPERATING is displayed in the Traffic mode field.
4) Select the ALT MODE Softkey to change the altitude volume.
5) Select the STANDBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. STANDBY is displayed in the Traffic
mode field.
6) Turn the RANGE Knob clockwise to display a larger area or counter-clockwise to display a smaller area.
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Operating
Mode
Altitude
Mode
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
Traffic Advisory,
Aircraft is
500’ Below,
Climbing
Traffic Display
Range Rings
“No Bearing”
Traffic (Bearing
Undetermined),
Distance 4.0
nm, 500’ Above,
Descending
Off Scale Traffic
Advisory, 400’
Below, No
Vertical Trend
Proximity
Traffic, 900’
Above, No
Vertical Trend
Non-Threat Traffic,
Altitude Not
Reported
Figure 6-171 Traffic Map Page
The Traffic Map Page shows surrounding TAS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and
altitude, without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading.
Map range is adjustable with the RANGE Knob from 2 to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner.
Displaying TRAFFIC Data
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps when the KTA 870 unit is operating:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
Displaying traffic information (maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Select the MAP Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, a traffic icon is shown to indicate TAS is
enabled for display.
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Displaying traffic on the Navigation Map
1) Ensure that the TAS system is operating. With the Navigation Map displayed, select the MAP Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map as shown in the figure.
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
Traffic Advisory,
500’ Below,
Climbing
Proximity Traffic,
900’ Above,
Level
Non-Threat
Traffic, Altitude
Not Available
Traffic Advisory
Off-Scale
Traffic Display
Enabled Icon
“Non-Bearing”
Traffic Advisory
Figure 6-172 TAS Traffic on the Navigation Map Page
Displaying traffic information (PFD Inset Map):
1) Select the INSET Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data on the inset map (TRFC-1).
3) Select the softkey again to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
4) Select the softkey again to remove traffic data.
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Altitude Display
The Pilot can select the volume of airspace in which traffic is displayed. Traffic Advisories (TAs) outside of
these limits will still be shown. Refer to the KTA 870 Pilot’s Guide for specific display thresholds.
Changing the altitude display mode:
1) On the Traffic Page, select the ALT MODE Softkey.
2) Select one of the following Softkeys:
•
BELOW
•
NORMAL
•
ABOVE
•
UNREST (unrestricted)
3) To return to the Traffic Page, select the BACK Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following:
•
BELOW
•
NORMAL
•
ABOVE
•
UNREST (unrestricted)
3) Select the ENT Softkey.
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable with the
RANGE Knob from 2 to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
Changing the display range on the Traffic Page:
1) Turn the RANGE Knob.
2) The following range options are available:
450
•
2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm
•
24 and 40 nm
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Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-173).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-174).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections (Figure 6-175).
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/PA - Displays Traffic Alerts and Proximity Advisories
- TA ONLY - Displays Traffic Alerts only
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Figure 6-173 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-174 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-175 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
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The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
TAS Alerts
NOTE: Refer to the KTA 870 documentation for information on alerts generated by the TAS equipment.
When the number of TAs on the Traffic Map Page increases from one scan to the next, the following occur:
• A “Traffic, Traffic” voice alert is generated when the first TA is displayed.
• A TRAFFIC Annunciation appears at the top right of the airspeed on the PFD, flashing for 5 seconds and
remaining displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with TA traffic.
• A single “Traffic” voice alert is generated when the number of TAs increases.
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-176 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
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System Status
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Mode
TAS Self-test Initiated
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
TEST
(‘TEST MODE’ also shown in white on
top center of page)
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
OPERATING
TAS Operating
TAS Standby
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TAS Failed*
FAIL
* See Table 6-37 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-36 TAS Modes
If the unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Map Page
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
Data is being received from the TAS unit, but the
unit is self-reporting a failure
Incorrect data format received from the TAS unit
Table 6-37 TAS Failure Annunciations
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The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the
selected display range
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude
separation in hundreds of feet, and altitude trend
arrow (climbing/descending)
TAS unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or
sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-38 TAS Traffic Status Annunciations
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Automatic Flight Control System
Section 7 Automatic Flight Control System
7.1AFCS Overview
Note: The approved Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) and FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM)
always supersedes this Pilot’s Guide.
The GFC 700 is a digital Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), fully integrated within the G1000 System
avionics architecture. The System Overview section provides a block diagram to support this system description.
GFC 700 AFCS functionality is distributed across the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• GDU 1040A Primary Flight Displays (PFDs) (2)
• GSA 80 AFCS Servos (4)
• GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
• GSM 85A / GSM 86 Servo Gearboxes (4)
• GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Units (IAUs) (2)
The GFC 700 AFCS can be divided into these main operating functions:
• Flight Director (FD) — The Beechcraft 200/B200 has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU and
referred to as pilot-side and copilot-side. Commands for the selected flight director are displayed on both
PFDs.
The flight director provides:
– Command Bars showing pitch/roll guidance
– Vertical/lateral mode selection and processing
– Autopilot communication
• Autopilot (AP) — Autopilot operation occurs within the pitch, roll, and pitch trim servos. It also provides
servo monitoring and automatic flight control in response to flight director steering commands, Attitude and
Heading Reference System (AHRS) attitude and rate information, and airspeed.
• Yaw Damper (YD) — The yaw servo is self-monitoring and provides Dutch roll damping and turn coordination
in response to yaw rate, roll angle, lateral acceleration, and airspeed.
• Manual Electric Pitch Trim (MEPT) — The pitch trim servo provides manual electric pitch trim capability
when the autopilot is not engaged.
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AFCS Control Unit
The AFCS Control Unit is positioned above the MFD, and has the following controls:
HDG Key
APR Key
Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode
4
NAV Key
FD Key
5
XFR Key
Selects/deselects Navigation Mode
Activates/deactivates the flight director only
Pressing once turns on the selected flight director in the default vertical and lateral
modes. Pressing again deactivates the flight director and removes the Command
Bars. If the autopilot is engaged, the key is disabled.
Transfers between the pilot and copilot flight directors and controls which flight
director the autopilot is tracking
Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode
Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode
Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode
Adjust the Selected Course (while in VOR, LOC, or OBS Mode) in 1° increments on
the Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) of the corresponding PFD
Press to re-center the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) and return course pointer
directly TO the bearing of the active waypoint/station
Toggles Airspeed Reference between IAS and Mach for Flight Level Change Mode
Adjusts the reference in Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes
(see Table 7-2 for change increments in each mode)
Selects/deselects Vertical Path Tracking Mode for Vertical Navigation flight control
Controls the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments (a finer resolution of 10 feet is
available under approach conditions)
Engages/disengages the yaw damper
Engages/disengages the autopilot
Manually selects/deselects Low Bank Mode
Selects/deselects Backcourse Mode
Adjusts the Selected Heading and bug in 1° increments on the HSI (both PFDs)
Press to synchronize the Selected Heading to the current heading on the pilot-side PFD
1
2
3
Selects/deselects Approach Mode
ALT Key
7 VS Key
8 FLC Key
17 CRS Knobs
6
9
SPD Key
11 NOSE UP/DN
Wheel
12 VNV Key
13 ALT SEL Knob
10
14
15
16
18
19
YD Key
AP Key
BANK Key
BC Key
HDG Knob
1
2
3
4
19
18
17
16
5
15
14
6
7
13
12
8
11
10
Annunciator
Light
9
Figure 7-1 GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
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Additional AFCS Controls
The following AFCS controls are located separately from the AFCS Control Unit:
AP/YD DISC TRIM Disengages the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director and interrupts pitch trim
operation
INTRPT Switch
(Autopilot
An AP/YD DISC Switch is located on each control wheel.
Disconnect/Trim
This switch may be used to acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the
Interrupt)
associated aural tone.
While pressed, allows manual control of the aircraft while the autopilot is engaged and
CWS Button
synchronizes the flight director’s Command Bars with the current aircraft pitch (if
(Control Wheel
not in a Vertical Navigation, Glideslope, or Glidepath Mode) and roll (if in Roll Hold
Steering)
Mode)
A CWS Button is located on each control wheel.
GA Button
(Go Around)
Upon release of the CWS Button, the flight director may establish new pitch and roll
references, depending on the current vertical and lateral modes. CWS operation
details are discussed in the respective mode sections of this manual.
Selects flight director Takeoff (on ground) or Go Around (in air) Mode
If an approach procedure is loaded this button also activates the missed approach when
the selected navigation source is GPS or when the navigation source is VOR/LOC and
a valid frequency has been tuned.
The GA Button is located on the left throttle.
Used to command manual electric pitch trim
MEPT Switch
(Manual Electric An MEPT Switch is located on each control wheel.
Pitch Trim)
The pilot side MEPT Switch has priority over the copilot side MEPT Switch.
This composite switch is split into left and right sides. The left switch is the ARM
contact and the right switch controls the DN (forward) and UP (rearward) contacts.
Pushing the MEPT ARM Switch disengages the autopilot, if currently engaged, but
does not affect yaw damper operation. The MEPT ARM Switch may be used to
acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the associated aural tone.
Manual trim commands are generated only when both sides of the switch are operated
simultaneously. If either side of the switch is active separately for more than three
seconds, MEPT function is disabled and ‘PTRM’ is displayed as the AFCS Status
Annunciation on the PFDs. The function remains disabled until both sides of the
switch are inactivated.
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7.2 Flight Director Operation
The flight director function provides pitch and roll commands to the AFCS and displays them on the PFDs.
With the flight director active, the aircraft can be hand-flown to follow the path shown by the Command Bars.
Maximum commanded pitch (−15°, +20°) and roll (25°) angles, vertical acceleration, and roll rate are limited to
values established during AFCS certification. The flight director also provides commands to the autopilot.
Activating the Flight Director
An initial press of a key listed in Table 7-1 (when the flight director is not active) activates the pilot-side flight
director in the listed modes. The flight director may be turned off and the Command Bars removed from the
displays by pressing the FD Key again. The FD Key is disabled when the autopilot is engaged.
Control Pressed
Modes Selected
ALT Key
VS Key
FLC Key
VNV Key
Lateral
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Takeoff (on ground)
Go Around (in air)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
NAV Key
Navigation**
BC Key
Backcourse***
APR Key
Approach**
HDG Key
Heading Select
FD Key
AP Key
CWS Button
GA Button
ROL
ROL
ROL
TO
GA
ROL
ROL
ROL
ROL
GPS
VOR
LOC
BC
GPS
VOR
LOC
HDG
Vertical
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Takeoff (on ground)
TO
Go Around (in air)
GA
Altitude Hold
ALT
Vertical Speed
VS
Flight Level Change
FLC
Vertical Path Tracking* VPTH
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
*Valid VNV flight plan must be entered before VNV Key press activates flight director.
**The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS
course before NAV or APR Key press activates flight director.
***The selected navigation receiver must have a valid LOC signal before BC Key press
activates flight director.
Table 7-1 Flight Director Activation
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AFCS Status Box
Flight director mode annunciations are displayed on the PFDs when the flight director is active. Flight
director selection and autopilot and yaw damper statuses are shown in the center of the AFCS Status Box.
Lateral flight director modes are displayed on the left and vertical on the right. Armed modes are displayed in
white and active in green.
Lateral Modes
Armed
Active
Yaw
Autopilot Damper
Status
Status
Flight Director Active
Indicator Arrow
Vertical Modes
Mode
Reference
Armed
AFCS Status Box
Selected
Altitude
Command
Bars
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Figure 7-2 PFD AFCS Display
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Flight Director Modes
Flight director modes are normally selected independently for the pitch and roll axes. Unless otherwise
specified, all mode keys are alternate action (i.e., press on, press off). In the absence of specific mode selection,
the flight director reverts to the default pitch and/or roll modes. Mode keys on the AFCS controller are
accompanied by annunciator lights (Figure 7-1) which are illuminated when their respective modes are armed
or active.
Armed modes are annunciated in white and active in green in the AFCS Status Box. Under normal operation,
when the FD Key is pressed, the flight director reverts to the default mode(s) for the axis(es). Automatic
transition from armed to active mode is indicated by the white armed mode annunciation moving to the green
active mode field and flashing for 10 seconds.
If the information required to compute a flight director mode becomes invalid or unavailable, the flight
director automatically reverts to the default mode for that axis. A flashing yellow mode annunciation and
annunciator light indicate loss of sensor (ADC) or navigation data (VOR, LOC, GPS, VNV, SBAS) required to
compute commands. When such a loss occurs, the system automatically begins to roll the wings level (enters
Roll Hold Mode) or maintain the pitch angle (enters Pitch Hold Mode), depending on the affected axis. The
flashing annunciation stops when the affected mode key is pressed or another mode for the axis is selected. If
after 10 seconds no action is taken, the flashing annunciation stops.
Figure 7-3 Loss of VOR Signal
The flight director is automatically disabled if the attitude information required to compute the default flight
director modes becomes invalid or unavailable.
Switching Flight Directors
The GFC 700 in the Beechcraft 200/B200 has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU. The
autopilot follows the selected flight director only, indicated by an arrow pointing toward either the pilot or
copilot side, in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Flight directors may be switched by pressing the XFR Key.
The annunciator light arrow for the selected flight director is also illuminated beside the XFR Key. When the
flight directors are switched, the vertical and lateral modes revert to default.
Pilot-side Flight Director Selected
Copilot-side Flight Director Selected
Figure 7-4 Flight Director Selection Indications
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Command Bars
Upon activation of the flight director, Command Bars are displayed in magenta on the PFDs as a single
cue or cross pointers. The Aircraft Symbol (in yellow) changes to accommodate the Command Bar format;
the Command Bars do not override the Aircraft Symbol. The single-cue Command Bars (Figure 7-5) move
together vertically to indicate pitch commands and bank left or right to indicate roll commands. Command
Bars displayed as a cross pointer (Figure 7-6) move independently to indicate pitch (horizontal bar) and roll
(vertical bar) commands. Both PFDs show the same Command Bar format.
Command Bars
Aircraft Symbol
Figure 7-5 Single-cue Command Bars
Command Bars
Aircraft Symbol
Figure 7-6 Cross-pointer Command Bars
Changing Command Bar format:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Format Active’ in the ‘Flight Director’ box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired format.
’SNGL CUE’ to display Command Bars as a single cue (Aircraft Symbol in figure 7-5).
Or:
’X-POINTER’ to display Command Bars as a cross pointer (Aircraft Symbol in Figure 7-6).
If the attitude information being sent to the flight director becomes invalid or unavailable, the Command Bars
are removed from the display. The flight director Command Bars also disappear if the pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚
or bank exceeds 65˚.
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Underspeed Protection
Underspeed Protection is available when the optional Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) system is
installed and the autopilot is on. It is designed to discourage aircraft operation below minimum established
airspeeds.
When aircraft airspeed reaches 100 knots IAS, a yellow MINSPD annunciation (Figure 7-7) will appear above
the airspeed indicator. When the airspeed trend vector (specific to each flap setting) reaches a predetermined
airspeed, a single aural “AIRSPEED” will sound, alerting the pilot to the impending underspeed condition.
When aircraft angle of attack is within four degrees of stall warning, the Pitch Limit Indicator (Figure 7-7)
will be displayed approximately four degrees above the aircraft symbol on the pitch attitude indicator. If
deceleration continues, the Pitch Limit Indicator will move downward on the pitch attitude indicator until
coincident with the aircraft symbol at stall warning angle of attack.
Airspeed
Indicator
Pitch Limit
Indicator
Figure 7-7 MINSPD Annunciation and Pitch Limit Indicator
If the aircraft continues to decelerate, Underspeed Protection functionality depends on which vertical flight
director mode is selected. For the purpose of this discussion, the vertical flight director modes can be divided
into two categories: Those in which it is important to maintain altitude for as long as possible (altitude-critical
modes), and those in which maintaining altitude is less crucial (non-altitude critical modes).
Altitude-Critical Modes (ALT, GS, GP, TO, GA, FLC)
If the aircraft declerates to stall warning, the lateral and vertical flight director modes will change from
active to armed (Figure 7-8), and the autopilot will provide input causing the aircraft to pitch down and the
wings to level.
Lateral and
Vertical FD
Modes Armed
Figure 7-8 Lateral and Vertical Flight Director Modes Armed
An aural “AIRSPEED” alert will sound every five seconds and a red “UNDERSPEED PROTECT ACTIVE”
annunciation (Figure 7-9) will appear to the right of the vertical speed indicator. The pitch down force will
continue until the aircraft reaches a pitch attitude at which IAS equals the IAS at which stall warning turns
off, plus two knots.
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Pitch Limit
Indicator
Figure 7-9 Underspeed Protect Active Annunciation
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to above the IAS at which stall warning turns
off, plus two knots, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical reference.
The vertical and lateral flight director modes will change from armed to active, and when aircraft angle of
attack reaches approximately five degrees below stall warning angle of attack, the Pitch Limit Indicator will
be removed.
Non-Altitude Critical Modes (VS, VNAV, IAS,)
If the aircraft decelerates to an IAS below the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed, a red “UNDERSPEED
PROTECT ACTIVE” annunciation (Figure 7-9) will appear to the right of the vertical speed indicator. The
vertical flight director mode will change from active to armed (Figure 7-10), and the autopilot will cause
the aircraft to pitch down until reaching a pitch attitude at which IAS equals the minimum commandable
autopilot airspeed.
Vertical FD
Mode Armed
Figure 7-10 Vertical Flight Director Mode Armed
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to an IAS above the minimum commandable
autopilot airspeed, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical reference.
The vertical flight director mode will change from armed to active, and when aircraft angle of attack reaches
approximately five degrees below stall warning angle of attack, the Pitch Limit Indicator will be removed.
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7.3Vertical Modes
Table 7-2 lists the vertical modes with their corresponding controls and annunciations. The mode reference is
displayed next to the active mode annunciation for Altitude Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes.
The NOSE UP/DN Wheel can be used to change the vertical mode reference while operating under Pitch Hold,
Vertical Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode. Increments of change and reference value ranges for each parameter
are also listed in the table.
Vertical Mode
Description
Control Annunciation
Reference
Range
Reference
Change
Increment
Holds the current aircraft pitch
-15° to
attitude; may be used to climb/ (default)
PIT
+20°
descend to the Selected Altitude
Selected Altitude Capture
Captures the Selected Altitude
*
ALTS
Altitude Hold
Holds the current Altitude Reference ALT Key ALT nnnnn ft
Maintains the current aircraft vertical
-4000 to
Vertical Speed
speed; may be used to climb/descend VS Key VS nnnn fpm
+4000 fpm
to the Selected Altitude
100 to
Flight Level Change, IAS Hold Maintains the current aircraft
FLC nnn kt
259 kt
airspeed (in IAS or Mach) while the
FLC Key
aircraft is climbing/descending to the
M 0.15 to
Flight Level Change, Mach Hold Selected Altitude
FLC M .nnn
0.52
Captures and tracks descent legs of VNV
Vertical Path Tracking
VPTH
an active vertical profile
Key
Captures the Vertical Navigation
VNV Target Altitude Capture
**
ALTV
(VNV) Target Altitude
Captures and tracks the SBAS
Glidepath
GP
glidepath on approach
APR
Key
Captures and tracks the ILS glideslope
Glideslope
GS
on approach
Commands a constant pitch angle
Takeoff
and wings level on the ground in
TO
8.6°
GA
preparation for takeoff
Button
Commands a constant pitch angle
Go Around
GA
8°
and wings level in the air
Autopilot engages and commands
Level
pitch angle necessary to establish ***
LVL
N/A
zero vertical fpm
Pitch Hold
0.5°
100 fpm
1 kt
M 0.01
* ALTS armed automatically when PIT, VS, FLC, TO, or GA active, and under VPTH when Selected Altitude is to be captured
instead of VNV Target Altitude
** ALTV armed automatically under VPTH when VNV Target Altitude is to be captured instead of Selected Altitude
*** Level mode can only become activated as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the Additional
Features section for a detailed discussion of the optional ESP feature.
Table 7-2 Flight Director Vertical Modes
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Pitch Hold Mode (PIT)
When the flight director is activated (the FD Key is pressed) or switched (the XFR Key is pressed), Pitch Hold
Mode is selected by default. Pitch Hold Mode is indicated as the active vertical mode by the ‘PIT’ annunciation.
This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter), since
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Pitch Hold Mode is activated.
In Pitch Hold Mode, the flight director maintains a constant pitch attitude, the pitch reference. The pitch
reference is set to the aircraft pitch attitude at the moment of mode selection. If the aircraft pitch attitude
exceeds the flight director pitch command limitations, the flight director commands a pitch angle equal to the
nose-up/down limit.
Changing the Pitch Reference
When operating in Pitch Hold Mode, the pitch reference can be adjusted by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new pitch reference, then releasing the
CWS Button
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Command Bars Maintain
Desired Pitch Reference
Figure 7-11 Pitch Hold Mode
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Selected Altitude Capture Mode (ALTS)
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed with activation of the following modes:
• Pitch Hold
• Takeoff/Go Around (if the Selected Altitude is at
least 400 feet above the current aircraft altitude)
• Vertical Speed
• Vertical Path Tracking (if the Selected Altitude is to
be captured instead of the VNV Target Altitude)
• Flight Level Change
The white ‘ALTS’ annunciation indicates Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed (see Figure 7-11 for
example). The ALT SEL Knob is used to set the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter) until Selected
Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to Selected Altitude
Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed (Figure 7-12). This automatic transition is indicated by the
green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation.
The Selected Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTS’ annunciation.
At 50 feet from the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from Selected Altitude
Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and holds the Selected Altitude (shown as the Altitude Reference). As Altitude
Hold Mode becomes active, the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes
green for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic transition.
Altitude Reference
(in this case, equal to
Selected Altitude)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-12 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
Changing the Selected Altitude
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in Selected Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Use of the ALT SEL Knob to change the Selected Altitude while Selected Altitude Capture Mode is active
causes the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode with Selected Altitude Capture Mode armed for the
new Selected Altitude.
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Altitude Hold Mode (ALT)
Altitude Hold Mode can be activated by pressing the ALT Key; the flight director maintains the current aircraft
altitude (to the nearest 10 feet) as the Altitude Reference. The flight director’s Altitude Reference, shown in the
AFCS Status Box, is independent of the Selected Altitude, displayed above the Altimeter. Altitude Hold Mode
active is indicated by a green ‘ALT’ annunciation in the AFCS Status Box.
Altitude Hold Mode is automatically armed when the flight director is in Selected Altitude Capture Mode
(see Figure 7-12). Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically transitions to Altitude Hold Mode when
the altitude error is less than 50 feet. In this case, the Selected Altitude becomes the flight director’s Altitude
Reference.
Changing the Altitude Reference
NOTE: Turning the ALT SEL Knob while in Altitude Hold Mode changes the Selected Altitude, but not the
flight director’s Altitude Reference, and does not cancel the mode.
With the CWS Button depressed, the aircraft can be hand-flown to a new Altitude Reference. When the
CWS Button is released at the desired altitude, the new altitude is established as the Altitude Reference.
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Altitude
Reference
Selected
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
to Maintain Altitude Reference
Figure 7-13 Altitude Hold Mode
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Vertical Speed Mode (VS)
In Vertical Speed Mode, the flight director acquires and maintains a Vertical Speed Reference. Current aircraft
vertical speed (to the nearest 100 fpm) becomes the Vertical Speed Reference at the moment of Vertical Speed
Mode activation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the
Altimeter) since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Vertical Speed Mode is selected.
When Vertical Speed Mode is activated by pressing the VS Key, ‘VS’ is annunciated in green in the AFCS Status
Box along with the Vertical Speed Reference. The Vertical Speed Reference is also displayed above the Vertical
Speed Indicator. A Vertical Speed Reference Bug corresponding to the Vertical Speed Reference is shown on
the indicator.
Changing the Vertical Speed Reference
The Vertical Speed Reference (shown both in the AFCS Status Box and above the Vertical Speed Indicator)
may be changed by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Vertical Speed Reference, then releasing
the CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
Vertical Speed
Mode Active
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Selected
Altitude
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb to
Attain Vertical Speed Reference
Figure 7-14 Vertical Speed Hold Mode
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Flight Level Change Mode (FLC)
NOTE: The Selected Altitude should be set before selecting Flight Level Change Mode.
Flight Level Change Mode is selected by pressing the FLC Key. This mode acquires and maintains the
Airspeed Reference (in IAS or Mach) while climbing or descending to the Selected Altitude (shown above
the Altimeter). When Flight Level Change Mode is active, the flight director continuously monitors Selected
Altitude, airspeed, Mach, and altitude.
The Airspeed Reference is set to the current airspeed upon mode activation. Flight Level Change Mode is
indicated by a green ‘FLC’ annunciation beside the Airspeed Reference in the AFCS Status Box. The Airspeed
Reference is also displayed directly above the Airspeed Indicator, along with a bug corresponding to the Airspeed
Reference along the tape.
Engine power must be adjusted to allow the autopilot to fly the aircraft at a pitch attitude corresponding
to the desired flight profile (climb or descent) while maintaining the Airspeed Reference. The flight director
maintains the current altitude until either engine power or the Airspeed Reference are adjusted and does not
allow the aircraft to climb or descend away from the Selected Altitude.
Changing the Airspeed Reference
The Airspeed Reference (shown in both the AFCS Status Box and above the Airspeed Indicator) may be
adjusted by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Airspeed Reference, then releasing the
CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
During climb, the pilot must select the Airspeed Reference (IAS or Mach), automatic switching does not
occur. For descent, if Mach airspeed reference is selected (above 16,000 ft) the aircraft descends in Mach until
the Mach airspeed reference reaches 250 KIAS, at which point the airspeed reference automatically switches
to IAS. The system determines aircraft climb or descent by the relationship between the current and Selected
altitudes.
Airspeed Reference units can be manually toggled between IAS and Mach units using the SPD Key. When
the FLC Airspeed Reference is displayed in Mach, the Airspeed Reference Bug is displayed on the Airspeed
Indicator at the IAS corresponding to the selected Mach target speed and the current Mach number is shown
only in the AFCS Status Box.
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Flight Level
Change Mode
Active
Airspeed
Reference
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Airspeed
Reference
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to Attain Selected Altitude
Figure 7-15 Flight Level Change Mode (IAS)
Flight Level
Change Mode
Active
Airspeed
Reference
(Mach)
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Airspeed
Reference
(Mach)
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to attain Selected Altitude
Figure 7-16 Flight Level Change Mode (Mach)
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Vertical Navigation Modes (VPTH, ALTV)
Note: VNV is disabled when parallel track or Dead Reckoning Mode is active.
Note: The Selected Altitude takes precedence over any other vertical constraints.
Vertical Navigation (VNV) flight control is available for enroute/terminal cruise and descent operations any
time that VNV flight planning is available. Refer to the GPS Navigation Section for more information on VNV
flight plans. Conditions for availability include, but are not limited to:
• The selected navigation source is GPS.
• A VNV flight plan (with at least one altitude-constrained waypoint) or vertical direct-to is active.
• VNV is enabled (VNV ENBL Softkey pressed on the MFD).
• Crosstrack error is valid and within certain limits.
• Desired/actual track are valid or track angle error is within certain limits.
• The VNV Target Altitude of the active waypoint is no more than 250 ft above the current aircraft altitude.
The flight director may be armed for VNV at any time, but no target altitudes are captured during a climb.
The Command Bars provide vertical profile guidance based on specified altitudes (entered manually or loaded
from the database) at waypoints in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to. The appropriate VNV flight control
modes are sequenced by the flight director to follow the path defined by the vertical profile. Upon reaching
the last waypoint in the VNV flight plan, the flight director transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and cancels any
armed VNV modes.
Vertical Path Tracking Mode (VPTH)
Note: If another vertical mode key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is selected, Vertical Path
Tracking Mode reverts to armed.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The
autopilot guides the aircraft back to the descent path upon release of the CWS Button.
When a vertical profile (VNV flight plan) is active and the VNV Key is pressed, Vertical Path Tracking
Mode is armed in preparation for descent path capture. ‘VPTH’ (or ‘/V’ when Glidepath or Glideslope Mode
is concurrently armed) is annunciated in white in addition to previously armed modes. If applicable, the
appropriate altitude capture mode is armed for capture of the next VNV Target Altitude (ALTV) or the Selected
Altitude (ALTS), whichever is greater.
Figure 7-17 Vertical Path Tracking Armed Annunciations
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Prior to descent path interception, the Selected Altitude must be set below the current aircraft altitude
by at least 75 feet. For the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path Tracking Mode,
acknowledgment is required within five minutes of descent path interception by:
• Pressing the VNV Key
• Adjusting the Selected Altitude
If acknowledgment is not received within one minute of descent path interception, the white ‘VPTH’
annunciation starts to flash. Flashing continues until acknowledged or the descent path is intercepted. If
the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed and the
descent is not captured.
In conjunction with the “TOD [top of descent] within 1 minute” annunciation in the PFD Navigation Status
Box and the “Vertical track” voice message, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, vertical deviation, and
vertical speed required) appear on the PFDs in magenta (Figure 7-18).
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Vertical Path Tracking
Armed (Flashing Indicates
Acknowledgment Required
VNV Target
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Enroute
Phase of
Flight
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Figure 7-18 Vertical Path Capture
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When a descent leg is captured (i.e., vertical deviation becomes valid), Vertical Path Tracking becomes
active and tracks the descent profile (Figure 7-19). An altitude capture mode (‘ALTS’ or ‘ALTV’) is armed as
appropriate.
Vertical Path
Tracking Active
VNV Target Altitude
Capture Armed
VNV Target
Altitude
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Terminal
Phase of
Flight
Command Bars Indicate Descent to
Maintain Required Vertical Speed
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
Figure 7-19 Vertical Path Tracking Mode
If the altimeter barometric setting is adjusted while Vertical Path Tracking is active, the flight director
increases/decreases the descent rate by up to 500 fpm to re-establish the aircraft on the descent path (without
commanding a climb). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNV vertical
deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to reestablish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target Altitude,
the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
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Automatic Reversion to Pitch Hold Mode
Several situations can occur while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active which cause the flight director to
revert to Pitch Hold Mode:
• Vertical deviation exceeds 200 feet during an overspeed condition.
• Vertical deviation experiences a discontinuity that both exceeds 200 feet in magnitude and results in the
vertical deviation exceeding 200 feet in magnitude. Such discontinuities are usually caused by flight plan
changes that affect the vertical profile.
• Vertical deviation becomes invalid (the Vertical Deviation Indicator is removed from the PFD).
• A display enters Reversionary Mode (this does not apply to an active vertical direct-to).
Unless VNV is disabled, Vertical Path Tracking Mode and the appropriate altitude capture mode become
armed following the reversion to Pitch Hold Mode to allow for possible profile recapture.
Non-Path Descents
Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes can also be used to fly non-path descents
while VNV flight control is selected. If the VS or FLC Key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is
selected, Vertical Path Tracking Mode reverts to armed along with the appropriate altitude capture mode to
allow profile re-capture.
Figure 7-20 Flight Level Change VNV Non-Path Descent
To prevent immediate profile re-capture, the following must be satisfied:
• At least 10 seconds have passed since the non-path transition was initiated
• Vertical deviation from the profile has exceeded 250 feet, but is now less than 200 feet
Pressing the VNV Key twice re-arms Vertical Path Tracking for immediate profile re-capture.
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VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode (ALTV)
Note: Armed VNV Target Altitude and Selected Altitude capture modes are mutually exclusive. However,
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed implicitly (not annunciated) whenever VNV Target Altitude Capture
Mode is armed.
VNV Target Altitude Capture is analogous to Selected Altitude Capture Mode and is armed automatically
after the VNV Key is pressed and the next VNV Target Altitude is to be intercepted before the Selected Altitude.
The annunciation ‘ALTV’ indicates that the VNV Target Altitude is to be captured. VNV Target Altitudes are
shown in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to, and can be entered manually or loaded from a database
(see the GPS Navigation Section for details). At the same time as “TOD within 1 minute” is annunciated in
the Navigation Status Box, the active VNV Target Altitude is displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator.
As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to VNV Target
Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic transition is indicated by the green
‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation. The
VNV Target Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTV’ annunciation and remains displayed
above the Vertical Speed Indicator. The Required Vertical Speed Indication (RSVI) is removed once VNV
Target Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
At 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from VNV Target
Altitude Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and tracks the level leg. As Altitude Hold Mode becomes active, the
white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes green for 10 seconds to indicate
the automatic transition. The flight director automatically arms Vertical Path Tracking, allowing upcoming
descent legs to be captured and subsequently tracked.
Altitude Reference (In This Case,
Equal To VNV Altitude Target)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-21 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
Changing the VNV Target Altitude
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Changing the current VNV Target Altitude while VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode is active causes the
flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode. Vertical Path Tracking and the appropriate altitude capture
mode are armed in preparation to capture the new VNV Target Altitude or the Selected Altitude, depending
on which altitude is to be intercepted first.
VNV target altitudes can be changed while editing the active flight plan (see the GPS Navigation Section
for details).
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Glidepath Mode (GP)
Glidepath Mode is used to track the SBAS-based glidepath. When Glidepath Mode is armed, ‘GP’ is
annunciated in white in the AFCS Status Box.
Selecting Glidepath Mode:
1) Ensure a GPS approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LNAV +V) is loaded into the active flight plan.
The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan (cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
NOTE: Some RNAV (GPS) approaches provide a vertical descent angle as an aid in flying a stabilized
approach. These approaches are NOT considered Approaches with Vertical Guidance (APV). Approaches
that are annunciated on the HSI as LNAV or LNAV+V are considered Nonprecision Approaches (NPA) and
are flown to an MDA even though vertical glidepath (GP) information may be provided.
WARNING: When flying an LNAV approach (with vertical descent angle) with the autopilot coupled, the
aircraft will not level off at the MDA even if the MDA is set in the altitude preselect.
Upon reaching the glidepath, the flight director transitions to Glidepath Mode and begins to capture and
track the glidepath.
Figure 7-22 Glidepath Mode Armed
Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured:
• The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF).
• Vertical deviation is valid.
• The CDI is at less than full-scale deviation
• Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glidepath Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glidepath upon release of the CWS Button.
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GPS Approach
Mode Active
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
LNAV/VNAV
Approach
Active
Glidepath
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate
Descent on Glidepath
Figure 7-23 Glidepath Mode
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Glideslope Mode (GS)
Glideslope Mode is available for LOC/ILS approaches to capture and track the glideslope. When Glideslope
Mode is armed (annunciated as ‘GS’ in white), LOC Approach Mode is armed as the lateral flight director
mode.
Selecting Glideslope Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
Figure 7-24 Glideslope Mode Armed
Once LOC is the navigation source, the localizer and glideslope can be captured. Upon reaching the glideslope,
the flight director transitions to Glideslope Mode and begins to capture and track the glideslope.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glideslope Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glideslope upon release of the CWS Button.
Active ILS
Frequency Tuned
NAV2 (localizer) is Selected
Navigation Source
Approach
Mode Active
Glideslope
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate Descent
on Localizer/Glideslope Path
Figure 7-25 Glideslope Mode
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Takeoff (TO) and Go Around (GA) Modes
Go Around and Takeoff modes are coupled pitch and roll modes and are annunciated as both the vertical
and lateral modes when active. In these modes, the flight director commands a constant set pitch attitude and
wings level. The GA Button is used to select both modes. The mode entered by the flight director depends on
whether the aircraft is on the ground.
Takeoff Mode provides an attitude reference during rotation and takeoff. This mode can be selected only
while on the ground by pushing the GA Button. The flight director Command Bars assume a wings-level,
pitch-up attitude.
Pressing the GA Button while in the air activates the flight director in wings level, pitch-up attitudes, allowing
the execution of a missed approach or a go around.
Go Around
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate Climb
Takeoff Mode Active
Figure 7-26 Takeoff and Go Around Modes
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Level Mode (LVL)
Level (LVL) mode becomes active only as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the
Additional Features section for a detailed discussion of the optional ESP feature.
When the normal flight envelope thresholds have been exceeded for more than 50% of the last 20 seconds,
Level mode is activated. The autopilot will engage and provide input to bring the aircraft back into straight
and level flight based on zero degrees roll angle and zero feet per minute vertical speed. An aural “ENGAGING
AUTOPILOT” alert sounds and the lateral and vertical flight director annunciations will display “LVL”. The
AFCS will remain in Level mode until the pilot selects another mode.
Figure 7-27 Level Mode
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7.4 Lateral Modes
The following table relates each GFC 700 lateral mode to its respective control and annunciation. Refer to the
vertical modes section for information regarding Go Around and Takeoff modes.
Lateral Mode
Roll Hold
Low Bank
Heading Select
Description
Control Annunciation
Holds the current aircraft roll
attitude or rolls the wings level,
(default)
depending on the commanded
bank angle
Limits the maximum commanded BANK
roll angle
Key
Captures and tracks the Selected HDG
Heading
Key
Navigation, GPS Arm/Capture/Track
Captures and tracks the selected
Navigation, VOR Enroute Arm/Capture/Track
NAV
navigation source (GPS, VOR,
Key
Navigation, LOC Arm/Capture/Track
LOC)
(No Glideslope)
Captures and tracks a
Backcourse Arm/Capture/Track
localizer signal for backcourse BC Key
approaches
Approach, GPS Arm/Capture/Track
Captures and tracks the selected
Approach, VOR Arm/Capture/Track
navigation source (GPS, VOR, APR Key
Approach, ILS Arm/Capture/Track
LOC)
(Glideslope Mode automatically armed)
Disengages the autopilot and
commands a constant pitch angle
Takeoff
and wings level on the ground in
GA
preparation for takeoff
Button
Commands a constant pitch
Go Around
angle and wings level in the air
Autopilot
engages
and
Level
**
commands wings level
Maximum Roll
Command Limit
ROL
25°
*
15°
HDG
25°
GPS
VOR
25°
25°
LOC
25°
BC
25°
GPS
VAPP
25°
25°
LOC
25°
TO
Wings Level
GA
Wings Level
LVL
Wings Level
* No annunciation appears in the AFCS Status Box. The acceptable bank angle range is indicated in green along the Roll
Scale of the Attitude Indicator.
** Level mode can only become activated as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the Additional
Features section for a detailed discussion of the optional ESP feature.
Table 7-3 Flight Director Lateral Modes
The CWS Button does not change lateral references for Heading Select, Navigation, Backcourse, or Approach
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading/Course upon release of the CWS Button.
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Roll Hold Mode (ROL)
Note: If Roll Hold Mode is activated as a result of a mode reversion, the flight director rolls the wings level.
When the flight director is activated or switched, Roll Hold Mode is selected by default. This mode is annunciated
as ‘ROL’ in the AFCS Status Box. The current aircraft bank angle is held, subject to the bank angle condition.
Figure 7-28 Roll Hold Mode Annunciation
Bank Angle
< 6°
6 to 25°
> 25°
Flight Director Response
Rolls wings level
Maintains current aircraft roll attitude
Limits bank to 25°
Table 7-4 Roll Hold Mode Responses
Changing the Roll Reference
The roll reference can be changed by pressing the CWS Button, establishing the desired bank angle, then releasing
the CWS Button.
Low Bank Mode
When in Low Bank Mode, the flight director limits the maximum commanded roll angle to 15°. Low bank arc
limits are displayed in green along the Roll Scale.
Low Bank Mode can be manually selected/deselected by pressing the BANK Key while in Heading Select or
Navigation Modes (GPS and VOR). Low Bank Mode is activated automatically above 20,500 feet. The flight director
deactivates Low Bank Mode when descending through 20,500 feet. The annunciator light next to the BANK Key
illuminates while Low Bank Mode is selected.
Figure 7-29 Low Bank Mode Limits
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Heading Select Mode (HDG)
Heading Select Mode is activated by pressing the HDG Key. Heading Select Mode acquires and maintains the
Selected Heading. The Selected Heading is shown by a light blue bug on the HSI and in the box to the upper
left of the HSI.
Changing the Selected Heading
Note: Pressing the HDG Knob synchronizes the Selected Heading to the current heading.
The Selected Heading is adjusted using the HDG Knob on either PFD. Pressing the CWS Button and handflying the aircraft does not change the Selected Heading. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected
Heading upon release of the CWS Button.
Turns are commanded in the same direction as Selected Heading Bug movement, even if the bug is turned
more than 180° from the present heading (e.g., a 270° turn to the right). However, Selected Heading changes
of more than 330° at a time result in turn reversals.
Heading Select
Mode Active
Selected
Heading
Selected
Heading
Bug
Command Bars Track
Selected Heading
Figure 7-30 Heading Select Mode
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Navigation Modes (GPS, VOR, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
flight director to enter Navigation Mode.
Pressing the NAV Key selects Navigation Mode. Navigation Mode acquires and tracks the selected navigation
source (GPS, VOR, LOC). The flight director follows GPS roll steering commands when GPS is the selected
navigation source. When the navigation source is VOR or LOC, the flight director creates roll steering commands
from the Selected Course and deviation. Navigation Mode can also be used to fly non-precision GPS and LOC
approaches where vertical guidance is not required.
If the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) shows greater than one dot when the NAV Key is pressed, the selected
mode is armed. If the CDI shows less than one dot, Navigation Mode is automatically captured when the NAV
Key is pressed. The armed annunciation appears in white to the left of the active lateral mode.
Figure 7-31 GPS Navigation Mode Armed
When the CDI has automatically switched from GPS to LOC during a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation
Mode remains active, providing GPS steering guidance until the localizer signal is captured. LOC Navigation
Mode is armed automatically when the navigation source switch takes place if the APR Key is not pressed prior
to the automatic source switch.
If Navigation Mode is active and either of the following occur, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode
(wings rolled level):
• Different VOR tuned while in VOR Navigation Mode (VOR Navigation Mode reverts to armed)
• Navigation source manually switched (with the CDI Softkey)
• During a LOC/ILS approach, the FAF is crossed while in GPS Navigation Mode after the automatic navigation
source switch from GPS to LOC
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Changing the Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Navigation Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS flight plan) when the
CWS Button is released.
GPS Navigation
Mode Active
GPS is Selected
Navigation Source
Selected
Course
Command Bars Indicate Left
Turn to Track GPS Course
Figure 7-32 Navigation Mode
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Approach Modes (GPS, VAPP, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
flight director to enter Approach Mode.
Approach Mode is activated when the APR Key is pressed. Approach Mode acquires and tracks the selected
navigation source (GPS, VOR, or LOC), depending on loaded approach. This mode uses the selected navigation
receiver deviation and desired course inputs to fly the approach. Pressing the APR Key when the CDI is greater
than one dot arms the selected approach mode (annunciated in white to the left of the active lateral mode). If
the CDI is less the 1 dot, the LOC is automatically captured when the APR Key is pressed.
VOR Approach Mode (VAPP) provides greater sensitivity for signal tracking than VOR Navigation Mode.
Selecting VOR Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid VOR frequency is tuned
2) Ensure that VOR is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
When GPS Approach Mode is armed, Glidepath Mode is also armed.
Selecting GPS Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a GPS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan
(cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Figure 7-33 GPS Approach Mode Armed
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LOC Approach Mode allows the autopilot to fly a LOC/ILS approach with a glideslope. When LOC Approach
Mode is armed, Glideslope Mode is also armed automatically. LOC captures are inhibited if the difference
between aircraft heading and localizer course exceeds 105°.
Selecting LOC Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
If the following occurs, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level):
• Approach Mode is active and a Vectors-To-Final is activated
• Approach Mode is active and Navigation source is manually switched
• During a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation Mode is active and the FAF is crossed after the automatic
navigation source switch from GPS to LOC
Changing the Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Approach Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS flight plan) when the
CWS Button is released.
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Backcourse Mode (BC)
NOTE: When making a backcourse approach, set the Selected Course to the localizer front course.
Backcourse Mode captures and tracks a localizer signal in the backcourse direction. The mode may be
selected by pressing the BC Key. Backcourse Mode is armed if the CDI is greater than one dot when the mode
is selected. If the CDI is less than one dot, Backcourse Mode is automatically captured when the BC Key is
pressed. The flight director creates roll steering commands from the Selected Course and deviation when in
Backcourse Mode.
Backcourse
Mode Active
LOC2 is Selected Navigation Source
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
Figure 7-34 Backcourse Mode
Changing the Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not reset any reference data while in Backcourse
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course when the CWS Button is released.
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intercepting and flying a dme arc
The AFCS will intercept and track a DME arc that is part of the active flight plan provided that GPS
Navigation Mode is engaged, GPS is the active navigation source on the CDI, and the DME arc segment is
the active flight plan leg. It is important to note that automatic navigation of DME arcs is based on GPS.
Thus, even if the APR key is pressed and LOC or VOR Approach Mode is armed prior to reaching the Initial
Approach Fix (IAF), Approach Mode will not activate until the arc segment is completed.
If the pilot decides to intercept the arc at a location other than the published IAF (i.e. ATC provides vectors
to intercept the arc) and subsequently selects Heading Mode or Roll Mode, the AFCS will not automatically
intercept or track the arc unless the pilot activates the arc leg of the flight plan and arms GPS Navigation
Mode. The AFCS will not intercept and fly a DME arc before reaching an IAF that defines the beginning of the
arc segment. Likewise, if at any point while established on the DME arc the pilot deselects GPS Navigation
Mode, the AFCS will no longer track the arc.
Level Mode (LVL)
Level (LVL) mode becomes active only as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the
Additional Features section for a detailed discussion of the optional ESP feature.
When the normal flight envelope thresholds have been exceeded for more than 50% of the last 20 seconds,
Level mode is activated. The autopilot will engage and provide input to bring the aircraft back into straight
and level flight based on zero degrees roll angle and zero feet per minute vertical speed. An aural “ENGAGING
AUTOPILOT” alert sounds and the lateral and vertical flight director annunciations will display “LVL”. The
AFCS will remain in Level mode until the pilot selects another mode.
Figure 7-35 Level Mode
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7.5 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Operation
NOTE: Refer to the POH/AFM for specific instructions regarding emergency procedures.
The autopilot and yaw damper operate the flight control surface servos to provide automatic flight control. The
autopilot controls the aircraft pitch and roll attitudes following commands received from the flight director. Pitch
autotrim provides trim commands to the pitch trim servo to relieve any sustained effort required by the pitch
servo. Autopilot operation is independent of the yaw damper.
The yaw damper reduces Dutch roll tendencies and coordinates turns. It can operate independently of the
autopilot and may be used during normal hand-flight maneuvers. Yaw rate commands are limited to 6 deg/sec
by the yaw damper.
Flight Control
Pitch and roll commands are provided to the servos based on the active flight director modes. Yaw damping
is provided by the yaw servo. Servo motor control limits the maximum servo speed and torque. The servo
gearboxes are equipped with slip-clutches set to certain values. This allows the servos to be overridden in case
of an emergency.
Pitch Axis and Trim
The autopilot pitch axis uses pitch rate to stabilize the aircraft pitch attitude during flight director maneuvers.
Flight director pitch commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with pitch damper control, and sent
to the pitch servo motor. The pitch servo measures the output effort (torque) and provides this signal to the
pitch trim servo. The pitch trim servo commands the motor to reduce the average pitch servo effort.
When the autopilot is not engaged, the pitch trim servo may be used to provide manual electric pitch
trim (MEPT). This allows the aircraft to be trimmed using a control wheel switch rather than the trim
wheel. Manual trim commands are generated only when both halves of the MEPT Switch are operated
simultaneously. Trim speeds are scheduled with airspeed to provide more consistent response.
The pilot side MEPT Switch has priority over the copilot side MEPT Switch.
Roll Axis
The autopilot roll axis uses roll rate to stabilize aircraft roll attitude during flight director maneuvers. The
flight director roll commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with roll damper control, and sent to
the roll servo motor.
Yaw Axis
The yaw damper uses yaw rate and roll attitude to dampen the aircraft’s natural Dutch roll response. It also
uses lateral acceleration to coordinate turns.
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Engagement
NOTE: Autopilot engagement/disengagement is not equivalent to servo engagement/disengagement. Use
the CWS Button to disengage the pitch and roll servos while the autopilot remains active.
When the AP Key is pressed, the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director (if not already active) are activated
and the annunciator lights on the AFCS controller for the autopilot and yaw damper are illuminated. The flight
director engages in Pitch and Roll Hold Modes when initially activated.
Autopilot
Engaged
Yaw Damper
Engaged
Figure 7-36 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Engaged
When the YD Key is pressed, the system engages the yaw damper independently of the autopilot and the yaw
damper annunciator light is illuminated.
Autopilot and yaw damper status are displayed in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Engagement is indicated
by green ‘AP’ and ‘YD’ annunciations, respectively.
Control Wheel Steering
During autopilot operation, the aircraft may be hand-flown without disengaging the autopilot. Pressing and
holding the CWS Button disengages the pitch and roll servos from the flight control surfaces and allows the
aircraft to be hand-flown. At the same time, the flight director is synchronized to the aircraft attitude during
the maneuver. CWS activity has no effect on yaw damper engagement.
The ‘AP’ annunciation is temporarily replaced by ‘CWS’ in white for the duration of CWS maneuvers.
Control Wheel Steering
Figure 7-37 CWS Annunciation
In most scenarios, releasing the CWS Button reengages the autopilot with a new reference. Refer to flight
director mode descriptions for specific CWS behavior in each mode.
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Disengagement
The autopilot is manually disengaged by pushing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit or the MEPT ARM
Switch. Manual autopilot disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow ‘AP’ annunciation and a
three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert.
Figure 7-38 Manual Autopilot Disengagement
Pushing the AP/YD DISC Switch disengages both the yaw damper and the autopilot. When the yaw damper
and autopilot are manually disengaged, both the ‘AP’ and ‘YD’ annunciation turn yellow and flash for 5 seconds
and a three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert is generated.
Figure 7-39 Yaw Damper Disengagement
After manual disengagement, the autopilot disconnect aural alert may be cancelled by pushing the MEPT ARM
or AP/YD DISC Switch (AP/YD DISC Switch also cancels the flashing ‘AP’ annunciation).
Automatic autopilot disengagement is indicated by a flashing red and white ‘AP’ annunciation and by the
autopilot disconnect aural alert, which continue until acknowledged by pushing the AP/YD DISC or MEPT ARM
Switch. Automatic autopilot disengagement occurs due to:
• System failure
• Invalid sensor data
• Inability to compute default flight director modes (FD also disengages automatically)
Yaw damper disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow ‘YD’ annunciation. Automatic yaw
damper disengagement occurs when autopilot disengagement is caused by failure in a parameter also affecting
the yaw damper. This means the yaw damper can remain operational in some cases where the autopilot
automatically disengages. A localized failure in the yaw damper system or invalid sensor data also cause yaw
damper disengagement.
Figure 7-40 Automatic Autopilot and Yaw Damper Disengagement
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7.6Example Flight Plan
Note: The following example flight plan and diagrams (not to be used for navigation) in this section are
for instructional purposes only and should be considered not current. Numbered portions of accompanying
diagrams correspond to numbered procedure steps.
This scenario-based set of procedures (based on the example flight plan found in the Flight Management
Section) shows various GFC 700 AFCS modes used during a flight. In this scenario, the aircraft departs Charles
B. Wheeler Downtown Airport (KMKC), enroute to Colorado Springs Airport (KCOS). After departure, the
aircraft climbs to 12,000 ft and airway V4 is intercepted, following ATC vectors.
Airway V4 is flown to Salina VOR (SLN) using VOR navigation, then airway V244 is flown using GPS Navigation.
The ILS approach for runway 35L and LPV (WAAS) approach for runway 35R are shown and a missed approach
is executed.
0
33
30
3
27
30
27
30
24
24
21
27
24
27
15
12
21
18
15
18
9
24
21
12
6
Lamar
VOR
(LAA)
Topeka
VOR
(TOP)
12
Hays
VOR
(HYS)
9
V 244
Salina
VOR
(SLN)
9
3
V4
18
V 244
9
6
0
33
15
6
KCOS
KMKC
30
3
3
6
0
33
0
33
12
21
15
18
Figure 7-41 Flight Plan Overview
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Departure
Climbing to the Selected Altitude and flying an assigned heading:
1) Before takeoff:
a) Use the ALT SEL Knob to set the Selected Altitude to 12,000 feet.
b) Push the GA Button to activate Takeoff Mode. The flight director Command Bars establish a pitch up attitude
to follow.
c) Press the AP Key to engage the autopilot in a climb, holding the pitch angle commanded in Takeoff Mode and
wings level.
2) In this example, Vertical Speed Mode is used to capture the Selected Altitude (Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, or
Flight Level Change Mode may be used).
Press the VS Key to activate Vertical Speed Mode.
The Vertical Speed Reference may be adjusted after Vertical Speed Mode is selected using the NOSE UP/DN
Wheel or pushing the CWS Button while hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new Vertical Speed Reference.
3) Use the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading, complying with ATC vectors to intercept Airway V4.
Press the HDG Key to activate Heading Select Mode while the autopilot is engaged in the climb. The autopilot
follows the Selected Heading Bug on the HSI and turns the aircraft to the desired heading.
4) As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
494
At 50 feet from the Selected Altitude, the green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds; the autopilot
transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft.
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Automatic Flight Control System
HD
GM
od
e
TO M
ode
3
Selected Altitude of 12,000 MSL
ALT Mode
4
KMKC
2
1
VS
e
Mod
ode
M
TO
Figure 7-42 Departure
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Intercepting a VOR Radial
During climb-out, the autopilot continues to fly the aircraft in Heading Select Mode. Airway V4 to Salina
VOR (SLN) should now be intercepted. Since the enroute flight plan waypoints correspond to VORs, flight
director Navigation Mode using either VOR or GPS as the navigation source may be used. In this scenario, VOR
Navigation Mode is used for navigation to the first VOR waypoint in the flight plan.
Intercepting a VOR radial:
1) Arm VOR Navigation Mode:
a) Tune the VOR frequency.
b) Press the CDI Softkey to set the navigation source to VOR.
c) Use the CRS1 or CRS2 Knob to set the Selected Course to the desired value, 255°. Note that at this point, the
flight director is still in Heading Select Mode and the autopilot continues to fly the Selected Heading, 290°.
d) Press the NAV Key. This arms VOR Navigation Mode and the white ‘VOR’ annunciation appears to the left of
the active lateral mode.
2) As the aircraft nears the Selected Course, the flight director transitions from Heading Select to VOR Navigation
Mode and the ‘VOR’ annunciation flashes green. The autopilot begins turning to intercept the Selected
Course.
3) The autopilot continues the turn until the aircraft is established on the Selected Course.
0
33
3
30
Hd
29 g
0o
V4
6
27
3
255
9
o
Salina
VOR
(SLN)
24
VO
R
NA
V
Mo
de
2
HD
G
12
M
od
e,
VO
R
Ar
m
ed
15
1
21
18
Figure 7-43 Intercepting a VOR Radial
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Automatic Flight Control System
Flying a Flight Plan/GPS Course
Note: Changing the navigation source cancels Navigation Mode and causes the flight director to revert
back to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level).
As the aircraft closes on Salina VOR, GPS is used to navigate the next leg, airway V244. The aircraft is
currently tracking inbound on Airway V4.
Flying a GPS flight plan:
1) Transition from VOR to GPS Navigation Mode:
a) Press the CDI Softkey until GPS is the selected navigation source.
b) Press the NAV Key to activate GPS Navigation Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft along the active flight
plan leg.
2) Following the flight plan, the autopilot continues to steer the aircraft under GPS guidance. Note that in GPS
Navigation Mode, course changes defined by the flight plan are automatically made without pilot action
required.
0
33
33
3
30
0
V4
6
3
o
075
30
e
V Mod
PS NA
6
27
G
2
12
21
18
12
15
24
9
Hays
VOR
(HYS)
Salina
VOR
(SLN)
V 244
1
24
27
076
Mode
9
o
260
o
AV
VOR N
15
21
18
Figure 7-44 Transition to GPS Flight Plan
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Automatic Flight Control System
Descent
While flying the arrival procedure, the aircraft is cleared for descent in preparation for the approach to KCOS.
Three methods are presented for descent:
• Flight Level Change descent – Flight Level Change Mode can be used to descend to the Selected Altitude at a
constant airspeed. This descent method does not account for flight plan waypoint altitude constraints.
• Vertical Path Tracking descent – Vertical Path Tracking Mode is used to follow the vertical descent path
defined in the GPS flight plan. Altitude constraints correspond to waypoints in the flight plan. Before VNV
flight control can provide vertical profile guidance, a VNV flight plan must be entered and enabled.
• Non-path descent in a VNV scenario – A VNV flight plan is entered and enabled, however Pitch Hold, Vertical
Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode can be used to descend to the VNV Target Altitude prior to reaching the
planned TOD. Flight Level Change Mode is used in the example.
Flight Level Change descent:
1) Select Flight Level Change Mode:
a) Using the ALT SEL Knob, set the Selected Altitude to 10,000 feet.
b) Press the FLC Key to activate Flight Level Change Mode. The annunciation ‘FLC’ appears next to the
Airspeed Reference, which defaults to the current aircraft airspeed. Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed
automatically.
c) If desired press the SPD Key to display the Airspeed Reference in Mach.
2) Use the NOSE UP/DN Wheel or push the CWS Button while hand-flying the aircraft to adjust the commanded
airspeed while maintaining the same power, or reduce power to allow descent in Flight Level Change Mode
while the autopilot maintains the current airspeed.
3) As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
498
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the Selected Altitude; the
autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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Automatic Flight Control System
1
Cruise Altitude of 12,000 MSL
ALT Mode
2
FLC
Mod
e
3
Selected Altitude of 10,000 MSL
ALT Mode
Figure 7-45 FLC Descent
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Automatic Flight Control System
Vertical Path Tracking descent to VNV Target Altitude:
1) Select VNV flight control:
a) Press the VNV Key to arm Vertical Path Tracking Mode. The white annunciation ‘VPTH’ appears.
b) Using the ALT SEL Knob, set the Selected Altitude below the flight plan’s VNV Target Altitude of 10,000 feet.
If the Selected Altitude is not at least 75 ft below the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director captures the
Selected Altitude rather than the VNV Target Altitude once Vertical Path Tracking Mode becomes active (ALTS is
armed rather than ALTV).
c) If Vertical Path Tracking Mode is armed more than 5 minutes prior to descent path capture, acknowledgment is
required for the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path Tracking Mode. To proceed with
descent path capture if the white ‘VPTH’ annunciation begins flashing, do one of the following
•
Press the VNV Key
•
Turn the ALT SEL Knob to adjust the Selected Altitude
If the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed and the
descent is not captured.
2) When the top of descent (TOD) is reached, the flight director transitions to Vertical Path Tracking Mode and
begins the descent to the VNV Target Altitude. Intention to capture the VNV Target Altitude is indicated by the
white ‘ALTV’ annunciation.
3) As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director transitions to VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
500
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude;
the autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft at the vertical waypoint.
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Automatic Flight Control System
1
ALT Mode
TOD
Cruise Altitude of 12,000 MSL
2
VPT
HM
ode
3
VNAV Target Altitude of 10,000 MSL
BOD
ALT Mode
Selected Altitude (set below VNAV Target Altitude)
Along-track Offset, 3 nm before OPSHN
3 nm
Figure 7-46 VPTH Descent
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Automatic Flight Control System
Non-path descent using Flight Level Change Mode:
1) Using Flight Level Change Mode, command a non-path descent to an intermediate altitude above the next VNV
flight plan altitude.
a) Using the ALT SEL Knob, set the Selected Altitude below the current aircraft altitude to an altitude (in this case,
9,400 feet) at which to level off between VNV flight plan altitudes.
b) Press the FLC Key before the planned TOD during an altitude hold while VPTH is armed. The Airspeed Reference
defaults to the current aircraft airspeed. Vertical Path Tracking and Selected Altitude Capture Mode are armed
automatically.
2) Reduce power to allow descent in Flight Level Change Mode. The autopilot maintains the Airspeed Reference.
3) As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the Selected Altitude; the
autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft. After leveling off reset Selected Altitude at
or below 9,000 ft.
4) When the next TOD is reached, Vertical Path Tracking becomes active (may require acknowledgment to allow
descent path capture).
5) As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director transitions to VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
502
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude;
the autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft at the vertical waypoint.
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Automatic Flight Control System
VP
TH
M
od
e
Planned
TOD
2
BOD
ALT Mode
1
FL
C
Pla
nn
M
od
e
Selected Altitude of 9,400 MSL
VNAV Target Altitude of 10,000 MSL
3
ed
De
sce
nt
ALT Mode
Pa
th
TOD
4
VP
TH
Mo
de
VNAV Target Altitude of 9,000 MSL
5
BOD
ALT Mode
Selected Altitude
3 nm
OPSHN
HABUK
Figure 7-47 Non-path Descent
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Approach
Note: If an approach contains a DME arc, the arc must be flown in Navigation Mode with the GFC 700.
When receiving vectors from ATC, Navigation Mode must be selected prior to intercepting the ARC.
Flying an ILS approach:
1) Transition from GPS Navigation Mode to Heading Select Mode.
a) Select the Runway 35L ILS approach for KCOS and select ‘VECTORS’ for the transition. Load and activate the
approach into the flight plan.
b) Use the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading after getting vectors from ATC.
c) Press the HDG Key. The autopilot turns the aircraft to the desired heading.
d) Use Heading Select Mode to comply with ATC vectors as requested.
2) Arm LOC Approach and Glideslope modes.
a) Ensure the appropriate localizer frequency is tuned.
b) Press the APR Key when cleared for approach to arm Approach and Glideslope modes. ‘LOC’ and ‘GS’ appear
in white as armed mode annunciations.
c) The navigation source automatically switches to LOC. After this switch occurs, the localizer signal can be captured
and the flight director determines when to begin the turn to intercept the final approach course. The flight
director now provides guidance to the missed approach point.
3) There are two options available at this point, as the autopilot flies the ILS approach:
• Push the AP/YD DISC Switch at the decision height and land the aircraft.
• Use the GA Button to execute a missed approach.
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Automatic Flight Control System
KCOS
LOC APR/
GS Mode
3
PETEY
2
G
HD
e
od
M
PYNON
1
GPS NAV Mode
Figure 7-48 ILS Approach to KCOS
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Automatic Flight Control System
Flying a RNAV GPS approach with vertical guidance:
WARNING: When flying an LNAV approach (with vertical guidance) with the autopilot coupled, the aircraft
will not level off at the MDA even if the MDA is set in the altitude preselect.
1) Arm flight director modes for a RNAV GPS approach with vertical guidance:
a) Make sure the navigation source is set to GPS (use CDI Softkey to change navigation source).
b) Select the Runway 35R LPV approach for KCOS. Load and activate the approach into the flight plan.
2) Press the APR Key once clearance for approach has been received. GPS Approach Mode is activated and
Glidepath Mode is armed.
3) Once the glidepath is captured, Glidepath Mode becomes active. The flight director now provides guidance to
the missed approach point.
4) There are two options available at this point, as the autopilot flies the approach:
• Push the AP/YD DISC Switch at the decision height and land the aircraft.
• Use the GA Button to execute a missed approach.
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Automatic Flight Control System
KCOS
4
3
GPS APR/
GP Mode
CEGIX
2
FALUR
HABUK
PYNON
1
GPS NAV Mode
Figure 7-49 LPV Approach to KCOS
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Automatic Flight Control System
Go Around/Missed Approach
Note: As a result of calculations performed by the system while flying the holding pattern, the display may
re-size automatically and the aircraft may not precisely track the holding pattern as depicted on the PFD and
MFD.
Flying a missed approach:
1) Push the GA Button at the Decision height and apply go-around power to execute a missed approach. The
autopilot will remain engaged and the flight director will indicate nose-up and wings level attitudes. If flying an
ILS or LOC approach the CDI will switch to GPS as the navigation source.
2) Start the climb to the prescribed altitude in the published Missed Approach Procedure (in this case, 10,000 ft).
Upon reaching the appropriate altitude, press the NAV Key climb to have the autopilot fly to the hold.
3) Use the ALT SEL Knob to set a Selected Altitude to hold.
To hold the current airspeed during the climb, press the FLC Key.
As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the Selected Altitude; the
autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft.
4) The autopilot flies the holding pattern after the missed approach is activated. Annunciations are displayed in
the Navigation Status Box, above the AFCS Status Box.
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Automatic Flight Control System
4
MOGAL
GPS NAV Mode
3
2
GA Mode
KCOS
1
Figure 7-50 Go Around/Missed Approach
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Automatic Flight Control System
7.7AFCS Annunciations and Alerts
AFCS Status Alerts
The annunciations in Table 7-5 (listed in order of increasing priority) can appear on the PFDs above the
Airspeed and Attitude indicators. Only one annunciation may occur at a time, and messages are prioritized by
criticality.
AFCS Status
Annunciation
Figure 7-51 AFCS Status Annunciation
Alert Condition
Rudder Mistrim Right
Rudder Mistrim Left
Aileron Mistrim Right
Aileron Mistrim Left
Annunciation
Description
Yaw servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
Roll servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
Elevator Mistrim Down
Elevator Mistrim Up
Pitch Trim Failure
(or stuck MEPT Switch)
Yaw Damper Failure
Pitch servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
If AP engaged, take control of the aircraft and disengage AP
If AP disengaged, move MEPT switches separately to unstick
YD control failure
Roll Failure
Roll axis control failure; AP and YD inoperative
Pitch Failure
Pitch axis control failure; AP and YD inoperative
System Failure
Preflight Test
AP and MEPT are unavailable; FD may still be available, but YD inoperative
Performing preflight system test; aural alert sounds at completion
Do not press the AP/YD DISC Switch during servo power-up and preflight system
tests as this may cause the preflight system test to fail or never to start (if servos
fail their power-up tests). Power must be cycled to the servos to remedy the
situation.
Preflight system test failed; aural alert sounds at failure
Table 7-5 AFCS Status Alerts
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Automatic Flight Control System
Overspeed Protection
Note: Overspeed protection is not active in ALT, GS or GP modes.
While Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, Flight Level Change, Vertical Path Tracking, or an altitude capture mode is
active, airspeed is monitored by the flight director. Overspeed protection is provided to limit the flight director’s
pitch command in situations where the flight director cannot acquire and maintain the mode reference for the
selected vertical mode without exceeding the certified maximum autopilot airspeed.
When Overspeed Protection is active, the Airspeed Reference appears in a box above the Airspeed Indicator,
flashing a yellow ‘MAXSPD’ annunciation. Engine power should be reduced and/or the pitch reference adjusted
to slow the aircraft. The annunciation disappears when the overspeed condition is resolved.
Airspeed
Indicator
Figure 7-52 Overspeed Annunciation
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Automatic Flight Control System
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Additional Features
Section 8 Additional Features
NOTE: With the availability of SafeTaxi®, ChartView, or FliteCharts®, it may be necessary to carry another
source of charts on-board the aircraft.
Additional features of the system include the following:
• Synthetic Vision System (SVS)
• Iridium satellite telephone
• SafeTaxi® diagrams
• XM Radio entertainment
• ChartView and FliteCharts® electronic charts
• Scheduler
• AOPA’s Airport Directory
• Flight Data Logging
• Data Link Services
• Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) System
The optional Synthetic Vision System (SVS) provides a three-dimensional forward view of terrain features on
the PFD. SVS imagery shows the pilot’s view of relevant features in relation to the aircraft attitude, as well as the
flight path pertaining to the active flight plan.
SafeTaxi diagrams provide detailed taxiway, runway, and ramp information at more than 700 airports in the
United States. By decreasing range on an airport that has a SafeTaxi diagram available, a close up view of the
airport layout can be seen.
The optional ChartView and FliteCharts provide on-board electronic terminal procedures charts. Electronic
charts offer the convenience of rapid access to essential information. Either ChartView or FliteCharts may be
configured in the system, but not both.
AOPA’s Airport Directory offers detailed information for a selected airport, such as available services, hours of
operation, and lodging options.
Telephone and Data Link Services are optional subscription services offered through Garmin Flight Data Services
and Iridium Satellite LLC. Voice and SMS messaging communications are through the Iridium Satellite Network.
Data communications are through Iridium Data Services, or a wireless network (Wi-Fi) when the aircraft is on
the ground. Incorporated in this feature set is a System Data Logging function which records aircraft system
parameters specified by the aircraft manufacturer. This data is then uploaded to Garmin Flight Data Services
through one of the data communications options.
The optional XM Radio entertainment audio feature of the GDL 69A Data Link Receiver handles more than 170
channels of music, news, and sports. XM Radio offers more entertainment choices and longer range coverage
than commercial broadcast stations.
The Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display short term or long term reminder messages such as
Switch fuel tanks, Change oil, or Altimeter-Transponder Check in the Messages Window on the PFD.
The Flight Data Logging feature automatically stores critical flight and engine data on an SD data card.
Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each 1GB of available space on the card.
The Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) system discourages aircraft operation outside an established
flight envelope.
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Additional Features
8.1Synthetic Vision System (SVS)
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
SVS is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or reliability
upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
The optional Synthetic Vision System (SVS) is a visual enhancement to the G1000 Integrated Flight Deck. SVS
depicts a forward-looking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The field of
view is 30 degrees to the left and 35 degrees to the right. SVS information is shown on the Primary Flight Display
(PFD), or on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode (Figure 8‑137). The depicted imagery is
derived from the aircraft attitude, heading, GPS three-dimensional position, and a nine arc-second database of
terrain, obstacles, and other relevant features. The terrain data resolution of nine arc-seconds, meaning that
the terrain elevation contours are stored in squares measuring nine arc-seconds on each side, is required for the
operation of SVS. Loss of any of the required data, including temporary loss of the GPS signal, will cause SVS to
be disabled until the required data is restored.
The SVS terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical map display),
large water features, towers, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are included in the obstacle database. Cultural
features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad tracks, cities, and state boundaries are not displayed
even if those features are found on the MFD map. The terrain display also includes a north–south east–west grid
with lines oriented with true north and spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation relative to the
terrain.
The Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) is integrated within SVS to provide visual and auditory
alerts to indicate the presence of terrain and obstacle threats relevant to the projected flight path. Terrain alerts
are displayed in red and yellow shading on the PFD.
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or fidelity on
which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must not be predicated
solely upon the use of the TAWS terrain or obstacle data displayed by the SVS.
The following SVS enhancements appear on the PFD:
514
• Pathways
• Airport Signs
• Flight Path Marker
• Runway Display
• Horizon Heading Marks
• Terrain Alerting
• Traffic Display
• Obstacle Alerting
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Additional Features
Figure 8-1 Synthetic Vision Imagery
SVS Operation
SVS is activated from the PFD using the softkeys located along the bottom edge of the display. Pressing the
softkeys turns the related function on or off. When SVS is enabled, the pitch scale increments are reduced to
10 degrees up and 7.5 degrees down.
SVS functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. The PFD Softkey leads into the PFD function Softkeys,
including synthetic vision. Pressing the SYN VIS Softkey displays the SVS feature softkeys. The softkeys are
labeled PATHWAY, SYN TERR, HRZN HDG, and APTSIGNS. The BACK Softkey returns to the previous
level of softkeys. Synthetic Terrain must be active before any other SVS feature may be activated.
HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS, and PATHWAY Softkeys are only available when the SYN TERR Softkey is
activated (gray with black characters). After activating the SYN TERR Softkey, the HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS,
and PATHWAY softkeys may be activated in any combination to display desired features. When system power
is cycled, the last selected state (on or off) of the SYN TERR, HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS, and PATHWAY
softkeys is remembered by the system.
• PATHWAY Softkey enables display of rectangular boxes that represent course guidance.
• SYN TERR Softkey enables synthetic terrain depiction.
• HRZN HDG Softkey enables horizon heading marks and digits.
• APTSIGNS Softkey enables airport signposts.
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Additional Features
PFD
SYN VIS
BACK
Pressing the BACK Softkey
returns to the top-level softkeys.
BACK
PATHWAY SYN TERR HRZN HDG APTSIGNS
Pressing the BACK Softkey returns to the previous level of softkeys.
Figure 8-2 SVS Softkeys
Activating and deactivating SVS:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Press the SYN TERR Softkey. The SVS display will cycle on or off with the SYN TERR Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Pathways:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Press the PATHWAY Softkey. The Pathway feature will cycle on or off with the PATHWAY Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Horizon Headings:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Press the HRZN HDG Softkey. The horizon heading display will cycle on or off with the HRZN HDG Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Airport Signs:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Press the APTSIGNS Softkey. Display of airport signs will cycle on or off with the APTSIGNS Softkey.
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Additional Features
SVS Features
Selected
Altitude
Airport
Runway
Pathways
Color
Matches CDI
Indicating
NAV Source
Flight
Path
Marker
Airplane
Symbol
Zero
Pitch Line
(ZPL) with
Compass
Heading
Marks
Synthetic
Terrain
SVS
Softkeys
Figure 8-3 SVS on the Primary Flight Display
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude deviation
information provided by the CDI, VSI, and VDI.
Pathways
Pathways provide a three-dimensional perspective view of the selected route of flight shown as colored
rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active flight plan. The box
size represents 700 feet wide by 200 feet tall during enroute, oceanic, and terminal flight phases. During
an approach, the box width is 700 feet or one half full scale deviation on the HSI, whichever is less. The
height is 200 feet or one half full scale deviation on the VDI, whichever is less. The altitude at which the
pathway boxes are displayed is determined by the higher of either the selected altitude or the VNAV altitude
programmed for the active leg in the flight plan (Figure 8-4).
The color of the rectangular boxes may be magenta, green, or white depending on the route of flight and
navigation source selected. The active GPS or GPS overlay flight plan leg is represented by magenta boxes
that correspond to the Magenta CDI. A localizer course is represented by green boxes that correspond to a
green CDI. An inactive leg of an active flight plan is represented by white boxes corresponding to a white line
drawn on the Inset map or MFD map indicating an inactive leg.
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Additional Features
Selected
Altitude
Programmed
Altitudes
Figure 8-4 Programmed and Selected Altitude
Pathways provide supplemental glidepath/glideslope information on an active ILS, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, and
some LNAV approaches. Pathways are intended as an aid to situational awareness and should not be used
independent of the CDI, VDI, glide path indicator, and glide slope indicator. They are removed from the
display when the selected navigation information is not available. Pathways are not displayed beyond the
active leg when leg sequencing is suspended and are not displayed on any portion of the flight plan leg that
would lead to intercepting a leg in the wrong direction.
Departure and Enroute
Prior to intercepting an active flight plan leg, pathways are displayed as a series of boxes with pointers at
each corner that point in the direction of the active waypoint. Pathways are not displayed for the first leg
of the flight plan if that segment is a Heading-to-Altitude leg. The first segment displaying pathways is the
first active GPS leg or active leg with a GPS overlay. If this leg of the flight plan route is outside the SVS
field of view, pathways will not be visible until the aircraft has turned toward this leg. While approaching
the center of the active leg and prescribed altitude, the number of pathway boxes decreases to a minimum
of four.
Climb profiles cannot be displayed due to the variables associated with aircraft performance. Flight
plan legs requiring a climb are indicated by pathways displayed at a level above the aircraft at the altitude
selected or programmed.
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Additional Features
Descent and Approach
Pathways are shown descending only for a programmed descent (Figures 8-5, 8-6). When the flight plan
includes programmed descent segments, pathways are displayed along the descent path provided that the
selected altitude is lower than the programmed altitude.
When an approach providing vertical guidance is activated, Pathways are shown level at the selected
altitude up to the point along the final approach course where the altitude intercepts the extended vertical
descent path, glidepath, or glideslope. From the vertical path descent, glidepath, or glideslope intercept
point, the pathways are shown inbound to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) along the published lateral
and vertical descent path, or at the selected altitude, whichever is lower.
During an ILS approach, the initial approach segment is displayed in magenta at the segment altitudes
if GPS is selected as the navigation source on the CDI. When switching to localizer inbound with LOC
selected as the navigation source on the CDI, pathways are displayed in green along the localizer and glide
slope.
VOR, LOC BC, and ADF approach segments that are approved to be flown using GPS are displayed in
magenta boxes. Segments that are flown using other than GPS or ILS, such as heading legs or VOR final
approach courses are not displayed.
Selected Altitude
set for Enroute
Selected Altitude
set for Departure
Climbs NOT
displayed
by pathway
Non-programmed descents NOT displayed by pathway
TOD
Selected Altitude
for Step Down
Programmed descent
displayed by pathway
Selected Altitude or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
Figure 8-5 SVS Pathways, Enroute and Descent
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Additional Features
Missed Approach
Upon activating the missed approach, pathways lead to the Missed Approach Holding Point (MAHP) and
are displayed as a level path at the published altitude for the MAHP, or the selected altitude, whichever is
the highest. If the initial missed approach leg is a Course-to-Altitude (CA) leg, the pathways boxes will
be displayed level at the altitude published for the MAHP. If the initial missed approach leg is defined by
a course using other than GPS, pathways are not displayed for that segment. In this case, the pathways
displayed for the next leg may be outside the field of view and will be visible when the aircraft has turned
in the direction of that leg.
Pathways are displayed along each segment including the path required to track course reversals that are
part of a procedure, such as holding patterns. Pathways boxes will not indicate a turn to a MAHP unless a
defined geographical waypoint exists between the MAP and MAHP.
FAF
Descent displayed
by pathway
Selected Altitude
or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
MAP Climbs NOT displayed
by pathway
Turn Segment
NOT displayed
by pathway
MAHP
Figure 8-6 SVS Pathways, Approach, Missed Approach, and Holding
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Additional Features
Flight Path Marker
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at groundspeeds
above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft accounting for wind speed
and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM is always available when the Synthetic Terrain feature is in operation. The FPM represents the
direction of the flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display, while the airplane symbol
represents the aircraft heading.
The FPM works in conjunction with the Pathways feature to assist the pilot in maintaining desired altitudes
and direction when navigating a flight plan. When on course and altitude the FPM is aligned inside the
pathway boxes as shown (Figure 8-7).
The FPM may also be used to identify a possible conflict with the aircraft flight path and distant terrain or
obstacles. Displayed terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s flight path extending above the FPM could indicate
a potential conflict, even before an alert is issued by TAWS. However, decisions regarding terrain and/or
obstacle avoidance should not be made using only the FPM.
Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
Wind
Vector
Figure 8-7 Flight Path Marker and Pathways
Zero Pitch Line
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the aircraft attitude with respect
to the horizon. It may not align with the terrain horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or
when the aircraft is flown at high altitudes.
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Additional Features
Horizon Heading
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows approximately 60 degrees of compass
heading in 30‑degree increments on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and digits appearing
on the zero pitch line are not visible behind either the airspeed or altitude display. Horizon Heading is used
for general heading awareness, and is activated and deactivated by pressing the HRZN HDG Softkey.
Traffic
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the SVS display or may appear as a
partial symbol.
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic systems.
Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting closer, and smaller
when they are further away. Traffic within 250 feet laterally of the aircraft will not be displayed on the SVS
display. Traffic symbols and coloring are consistent with that used for traffic displayed in the Inset map or
MFD traffic page. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not be displayed on the SVS display. For
more details refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard Avoidance section.
Airport Signs
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic terrain
display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately 15 nm from
an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the identifier until
the aircraft is approximately eight nautical miles from the airport. Airport signs are not shown behind the
airspeed or altitude display. Airport signs are activated and deactivated by pressing the APTSIGNS Softkey.
Traffic
Airport
Sign
without
Identifier
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
Airport
Sign with
Identifier
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
Figure 8-8 Airport Signs
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Additional Features
Runways
WARNING: Do not use SVS runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of the aircraft
to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these runways are not
displayed.
Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding terrain. All
runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database. In some situations,
where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be layered. As runways are
displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are displayed in white. Other runways will be gray
in color. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that runway will appear brighter and be outlined
with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft gets closer
to the runway, more detail such as runway numbers and centerlines will be displayed.
Runway
Selected for
Approach
Other
Runway
on Airport
Figure 8-9 Airport Runways
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Additional Features
TAWS Alerting
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward-looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA)
alerts. In addition to the yellow terrain shading for a caution alert and the red shading for a warning alert,
TAWS-B alerting will also indicate potential impact points. These potential impact points correspond to red
and/or yellow X symbols on the PFD Inset Map (as shown in Figure 8-10), MFD map displays, and TAWS-B
Page on the MFD. Terrain shading will only occur on the synthetic terrain display on the PFD and TAWS-A
Page on the MFD when using the optional TAWS-A system. No terrain shading nor potential impact points
will be displayed on the PFD inset map or the MFD map display. For more detailed information regarding
TAWS, refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section.
In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on the
synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVS field of view to the left or right of the
aircraft.
TERRAIN
Annunciation
Terrain
Caution
Potential
Impact
Point
Figure 8-10 Terrain Alert
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Additional Features
Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower symbols found
on the Inset map and MFD maps and charts. Obstacle symbols appear in the perspective view with relative
height above terrain and distance from the aircraft. When employing a TAWS-B system, unlike the Inset
map and MFD moving map display, obstacles on the synthetic terrain display do not change colors to warn
of potential conflict with the aircraft’s flight path until the obstacle is associated with an actual FLTA alert.
Obstacles greater than 1000 feet below the aircraft altitude are not shown. Obstacles are shown behind the
airspeed and altitude displays.
As with terrain alerting on a TAWS-A system, obstacle alerting is limited to the synthetic terrain display on
the PFD and the TAWS-A Page on the MFD.
TERRAIN
Annunciation
Obstacle
Warning
Potential
Impact
Point
Figure 8-11 Obstacle
Field of View
The PFD field of view can be represented on the MFD Navigation Map Page. Two dashed lines forming a
V‑shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map, represent the forward viewing area shown on the PFD.
Configuring field of view:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Map Setup and press the ENT Key.
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Additional Features
Field of
View
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Map Setup Menu, Map Group, Field of View Option
Figure 8-12 Option Menus
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Map Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Map Group options to FIELD OF VIEW.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select On or Off.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
The following figure compares the PFD forward looking depiction with the MFD plan view and FIELD OF
VIEW turned on.
Lines
Depict
PFD Field
of View
SVS View on the PFD
Field of View on the MFD
Figure 8-13 PFD and MFD Field of View Comparison
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Additional Features
8.2SafeTaxi
SafeTaxi is an enhanced feature that gives greater map detail when viewing airports at close range. The
maximum map ranges for enhanced detail are pilot configurable. When viewing at ranges close enough to
show the airport detail, the map reveals taxiways with identifying letters/numbers, airport Hot Spots, and airport
landmarks including ramps, buildings, control towers, and other prominent features. Resolution is greater at
lower map ranges. When the MFD display is within the SafeTaxi ranges, the airplane symbol on the airport
provides enhanced position awareness.
Designated Hot Spots are recognized at airports with many intersecting taxiways and runways, and/or complex
ramp areas. Airport Hot Spots are outlined to caution pilots of areas on an airport surface where positional
awareness confusion or runway incursions happen most often. Hot Spots are defined with a magenta circle or
outline around the region of possible confusion.
Any map page that displays the navigation view can also show the SafeTaxi airport layout within the maximum
configured range. The following is a list of pages where the SafeTaxi feature can be seen:
• Navigation Map Page
• VOR Information Page
• Inset Map (PFD)
• User Waypoint Information Page
• Weather Datalink Page
• Trip Planning Page
• Airport Information Page
• Nearest Pages
• Intersection Information Page
• Active and Stored Flight Plan Pages
• NDB Information Page
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Additional Features
During ground operations the aircraft’s position is displayed in reference to taxiways, runways, and airport
features. In the example shown, the aircraft is on taxiway Bravo inside the High Alert Intersection boundary
on KSFO airport. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta. When panning over the airport, features such as
runway holding lines and taxiways are shown at the cursor.
Taxiway
Identification
Aircraft
Position
Airport Hot
Spot Outline
Airport
Features
Figure 8-14 SafeTaxi Depiction on the Navigation Map Page
DCLTR Softkey
Removes
Taxiway
Markings
The DCLTR Softkey (declutter) label advances to DCLTR-1, DCLTR -2, and DCLTR-3 each time the softkey is
selected for easy recognition of decluttering level. Selecting the DCLTR Softkey removes the taxiway markings
and airport feature labels. Selecting the DCLTR-1 Softkey removes VOR station ID, the VOR symbol, and
intersection names if within the airport plan view. Selecting the DCLTR-2 Softkey removes the airport runway
layout, unless the airport in view is part of an active route structure. Selecting the DCLTR-3 Softkey cycles back
to the original map detail. Refer to Map Declutter Levels in the Flight Management Section.
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Additional Features
Configuring SafeTaxi range:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Map Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-15 Navigation Map PAGE MENU, Map Setup Option
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Aviation Group options to SAFETAXI.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the range of distances.
6) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired distance for maximum SafeTaxi display range.
7) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
SAFETAXI
Option
SafeTaxi
Range
Options
Figure 8-16 MAP SETUP Menu, Aviation Group, SAFETAXI Range Options
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Additional Features
SafeTaxi Cycle Number and Revision
SafeTaxi database is revised every 56 days. SafeTaxi is always available for use after the expiration date.
When turning on the system, the Power-up Page indicates whether the databases are current, out of date, or
not available.
SafeTaxi Database
Figure 8-17 Power-up Page, SafeTaxi Database
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Normal operation. SafeTaxi database is valid and within current cycle.
SafeTaxi database has expired.
Database card contains no SafeTaxi data.
Table 8-1 SafeTaxi Annunciation Definitions
The SafeTaxi Region, Version, Cycle, Effective date and Expires date of the database cycle can also be found
on the AUX - System Status page, as seen in Figure 8-18.
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is
shown.
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Additional Features
The SafeTaxi database cycle number shown in Figure 8-18, 09S3, is deciphered as follows:
09 – Indicates the year 2009
S – Indicates the data is for SafeTaxi
3 – Indicates the third issue of the SafeTaxi database for the year
The SafeTaxi EFFECTIVE date 07–MAY–09 is the beginning date for the current database cycle. SafeTaxi
EXPIRES date 02–JUL–09 is the revision date for the next database cycle.
SafeTaxi Data
Figure 8-18 AUX – System Status Page, SafeTaxi Current Information
SafeTaxi information appears in blue and yellow text. The EFFECTIVE date appears in blue when data is
current and in yellow when the current date is before the effective date. The EXPIRES date appears in blue
when data is current and in yellow when expired (Figures 8‑18 and 8-19). NOT AVAILABLE appears in blue
in the REGION field if SafeTaxi data is not available on the database card (Figure 8‑19). An expired SafeTaxi
database is not disabled and will continue to function indefinitely.
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey a second time. The softkey label will change to PFD1 DB. The DATABASE
window will now be displaying database information for PFD1. As before, scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is shown.
Select the PFD1 DB Softkey. The softkey label will change to PFD2 DB. The DATABASE window will now
display database information for PFD2. Again, scroll through the listed information by turning the FMS Knob
or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is shown.
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for instructions on revising the SafeTaxi database.
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Additional Features
Figure 8-19 illustrates possible SafeTaxi database conditions that may appear on the AUX - System Status
Page. The EFFECTIVE date is the beginning date for this database cycle. If the present date is before the
effective date, the EFFECTIVE date appears in yellow and the EXPIRES date appears in blue. The EXPIRES date
is the revision date for the next database cycle. NOT AVAILABLE indicates that SafeTaxi is not available on the
database card or no database card is inserted.
Current Date is before Effective Date
SafeTaxi Database has Expired
SafeTaxi Database Not Installed
Figure 8-19 AUX – System Status Page, SafeTaxi Expired, SafeTaxi Not Available
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Additional Features
8.3 ChartView
ChartView resembles the paper version of Jeppesen terminal procedures charts. The charts are displayed in full
color with high-resolution. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft position on the moving map in the plan view
of approach charts and on airport diagrams. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta.
The ChartView database subscription is available from Jeppesen, Inc. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Airport Diagrams
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• NOTAMs
• Approaches
ChartView Softkeys
ChartView functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey displays the available terminal chart and
advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT OPT, CHRT, INFO, DP, STAR, APR, WX, NOTAM,
and GO BACK. The chart selection softkeys shown below appear on the Airport Information Page.
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey advances to the next level of softkeys: ALL, HEADER, PLAN, PROFILE,
MINIMUMS, FIT WDTH, FULL SCN, and BACK.
While viewing the CHRT OPT Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
SHW CHRT
CHRT OPT
CHRT
INFO
DP
STAR
APR
WX
NOTAM
GO BACK
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey returns
to the top-level softkeys and previous page.
ALL
HEADER
PLAN
PROFILE
MINIMUMS FIT WDTH FULL SCN
BACK
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns
to the Chart Selection Softkeys.
Figure 8-20 ChartView SHW CHRT, Chart Selection, and Chart Option Softkeys
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Additional Features
Terminal Procedures Charts
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Nearest Airport Page, or Flight Plan Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the OPTIONS Menu to Show Chart.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page OPTIONS Menu
Figure 8-21 Option Menus
On the Waypoint Airport Information Page OPTIONS Menu, select the desired chart and press the ENT Key
to display the chart.
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner CHART NOT AVAILABLE appears on the screen.
The CHART NOT AVAILABLE banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability
of a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
Figure 8-22 Chart Not Available Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the banner
UNABLE TO DISPLAY CHART is then displayed.
Figure 8-23 Unable To Display Chart Banner
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Additional Features
When a chart is not available by selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts
may be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, selecting the
SHW CHRT Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is one associated with the WPT – Airport Information page. Usually this is the airport runway
diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are available, that
page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport is shown.
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Flight Plan Page, or Nearest Airports Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the Airport Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the Approach Box. (Select the APR Softkey
if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Approach Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
Chart Scale
Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
Scroll Through
Chart With
the Joystick
Figure 8-24 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
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Additional Features
While the APPROACH Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the G1000 softkeys are blank. Once the desired
chart is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart page can be scrolled using the Joystick. Pressing
the Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
The aircraft symbol is shown on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft position is within
the boundaries of the chart. The aircraft symbol is not displayed when the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears
(Figure 8‑28). If the Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, the aircraft symbol is not shown. The
Aircraft Not Shown Icon may appear at certain times, even if the chart is displayed to scale.
Selecting the CHRT Softkey switches between the ChartView diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the CHRT Softkey switches between the Gainesville, FL (KGNV) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the WPT – Airport Information page.
Select CHRT Softkey
to Switch Between
ChartView and WPT Airport Information Page
Figure 8-25 CHRT Softkey, Airport Information Page
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Additional Features
Selecting the INFO Softkey returns to the airport diagram when the view is on a different chart. If the
displayed chart is the airport diagram, the INFO Softkey has no effect.
The aircraft position is shown in magenta on the ChartView diagrams when the location of the aircraft is
within the chart boundaries. In the example shown, the aircraft is turning onto Taxiway Bravo on the Charlotte,
NC (KCLT) airport.
Another source for additional airport information is from the INFO Box above the chart for certain airports.
This information source is not related to the INFO Softkey. When the INFO Box is selected using the FMS
Knob, the G1000 softkeys are blank. The Charlotte, NC airport has five additional charts offering information;
the Airport Diagram, Take-off Minimums, Class B Airspace, Airline Parking Gate Coordinates, and Airline
Parking Gate Location. (The numbers in parentheses after the chart name are Jeppesen designators.)
Aircraft
Current
Position
Figure 8-26 Airport Information Page, INFO View, Full Screen Width
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Additional Features
In the example shown in Figure 8-26, the Class B Chart is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays the
Charlotte Class B Airspace Chart (Figure 8-27).
Figure 8-27 Airport Information Page, Class B Chart Selected from INFO View
Selecting the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
Chart Not
To Scale
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-28 Departure Information Page
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Additional Features
Selecting the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
Chart Not
To Scale
Change Range
and Scroll
Through the
Chart With the
Joystick
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-29 Arrival Information Page
Selecting the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
Figure 8-30 Approach Information Page
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Additional Features
Selecting the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, and includes weather data such
as METAR and TAF from the XM Data Link Receiver, when available. Weather information is available only
when an XM Data Link Receiver is installed and the XM Weather subscription is current.
WX Info
When
Available
WX Softkey
Selected
Figure 8-31 Weather Information Page
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
Recent NOTAMS applicable to the current ChartView cycle are included in the ChartView database. Selecting
the NOTAM Softkey shows the local NOTAM information for selected airports, when available. When NOTAMS
are not available, the NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled as shown in Figure 8-31. The
NOTAM Softkey may appear on the Airport Information Page and all of the chart page selections.
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Additional Features
Figure 8-32 NOTAM Available
NOTAM Softkey
Appears for
Selected Airports
Local
NOTAM on
This Airport
NOTAM Softkey
Selected
Figure 8-33 Airport Information Page, Local NOTAMs
Selecting the NOTAM Softkey again removes the NOTAMS information.
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page, Nearest Pages, or Flight
Plan Page).
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Additional Features
Chart Options
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level (Figure 8-20).
Selecting the ALL Softkey shows the complete approach chart on the screen.
Complete
Chart
Shown
Figure 8-34 Approach Information Page, ALL View
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Additional Features
Selecting the HEADER Softkey shows the header view (approach chart briefing strip) on the screen.
Approach
Chart
Briefing Strip
Figure 8-35 Approach Information Page, Header View
Selecting the PLAN Softkey shows the approach chart two dimensional plan view.
Approach
Chart Plan
View
Figure 8-36 Approach Information Page, Plan View
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Additional Features
Selecting the PROFILE Softkey displays the approach chart descent profile strip.
Approach
Chart Descent
Profile Strip
Figure 8-37 Approach Information Page, Profile View, Full Screen Width
Selecting the MINIMUMS Softkey displays the minimum descent altitude/visibility strip at the bottom of the
approach chart.
Minimum
Descent
Altitude/
Visibility Strip
Figure 8-38 Approach Information Page, Minimums View, Full Screen Width
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Additional Features
If the chart scale has been adjusted to view a small area of the chart, selecting the FIT WIDTH Softkey
changes the chart size to fit the available screen width.
Select FIT WDTH
Softkey to Show
Full Chart Width
Figure 8-39 Airport Information Page, FIT WDTH Softkey Selected
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Additional Features
Selecting the FULL SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
Selecting Additional Information:
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, select the FULL SCN Softkey to display the information windows
(AIRPORT, INFO).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the AIRPORT, INFO, RUNWAYS, or FREQUENCIES Box (INFO Box shown).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the INFO Box choices. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired
choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
Available
Information
Select FULL SCN
Softkey to Switch
Between Chart on Full
Screen and Chart with
Info Window
Figure 8-40 Airport Information Page, Full Screen and Info Window
Selecting the BACK Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
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The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the FULL SCREEN and COLOR SCHEME Options.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the On and Off Full Screen Options.
Chart Setup Option
Full Screen On/Off Selection
Figure 8-41 Page Menus
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Additional Features
Day/Night View
ChartView can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a dark
environment. When the CHART SETUP Box is selected the MFD softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-42 Waypoint Information Page, OPTIONS Menu
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the COLOR SCHEME Option (Figure 8‑43).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between Day, Auto, and Night Options.
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the Chart Setup Menu.
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Figure 8-43 Arrival Information Page, Day View
Figure 8-44 Arrival Information Page, Night View
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Additional Features
ChartView Cycle Number and Expiration Date
ChartView database is revised every 14 days. Charts are still viewable during a period that extends from the
cycle expiration date to the disables date. ChartView is disabled 70 days after the expiration date and is no
longer available for viewing. When turning on the system, the Power-up Page displays the current status of the
ChartView database. See the table below for the various ChartView Power-up Page displays and the definition
of each.
ChartView Database
Figure 8-45 Power-up Page, ChartView Database
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Blank Line. System is not configured for ChartView. Contact a Garminauthorized service center for configuration.
System is configured for ChartView but no chart database is installed.
Contact Jeppesen for a ChartView database.
Normal operation. ChartView database is valid and within current
cycle.
ChartView database is within 1 week after expiration date. A new cycle
is available for update.
ChartView database is beyond 1 week after expiration date, but still
within the 70 day viewing period.
ChartView database has timed out. Database is beyond 70 days after
expiration date. ChartView database is no longer available for viewing.
System time is not available. GPS satellite data is unknown or the
system has not yet locked onto satellites. Check database cycle number
for effectivity.
System is verifying chart database when new cycle is installed for the
first time.
After verifying, chart database is found to be corrupt. ChartView is not
available.
Table 8-2 ChartView Power-up Page Annunciations and Definitions
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Additional Features
The ChartView time critical information can also be found on the AUX - System Status page. The database
CYCLE number, EXPIRES, and DISABLES dates of the ChartView subscription appear in either blue or yellow
text. When the ChartView EXPIRES date is reached, ChartView becomes inoperative 70 days later. This is
shown as the DISABLES date. When the DISABLES date is reached, charts are no longer available for viewing.
The SHW CHRT Softkey label then appears subdued and is disabled until a revised issue of ChartView is
installed.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the ChartView database information is
shown.
The ChartView database cycle number shown in the figure, 0904, is deciphered as follows:
09 – Indicates the year 2009
04 – Indicates the fourth issue of the ChartView database for the year
The EXPIRES date 05–MAR–09 is the date that this database should be replaced with the next issue.
The DISABLES date 14–MAY–09 is the date that this database becomes inoperative.
ChartView
Data
Figure 8-46 AUX – System Status Page, ChartView Current and Available
The ChartView database is obtained directly from Jeppesen. Refer to Updating Jeppesen Databases in
Appendix B for instructions on revising the ChartView database.
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Additional Features
Other possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown in Figure 8-47. The EXPIRES date, in yellow,
is the revision date for the next database cycle. The DISABLES date, in yellow, is the date that this database
cycle is no longer viewable. CYCLE NOT AVAILABLE in blue, indicates no ChartView data is available on the
database card or no database card is inserted.
ChartView has Expired, but is not Disabled
ChartView Database is Disabled
ChartView Database is Not Available
Figure 8-47 AUX – System Status Page, ChartView Expired, ChartView Disabled, ChartView Not Available
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8.4FliteCharts
FliteCharts resemble the paper version of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts. The charts are
displayed with high-resolution and in color for applicable charts. FliteCharts database subscription is available
from Garmin. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Approaches
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• Airport Diagrams
FliteCharts Softkeys
FliteCharts functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey displays the available terminal chart and
advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT OPT, CHRT, INFO, DP, STAR, APR, WX, and
GO BACK. The chart selection softkeys appear on the Airport Information Page.
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the available terminal chart and advances to the next level of
softkeys: ALL, FIT WDTH, FULL SCN, and BACK.
While viewing the CHRT OPT Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
NOTAMs are not available with FliteCharts. The NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled.
SHW CHRT
CHRT OPT
CHRT
INFO
DP
STAR
WX
APR
GO BACK
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey returns
to the top-level softkeys and previous page.
ALL
FIT WDTH
FULL SCN
BACK
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns
to the Chart Selection Softkeys.
Figure 8-48 FliteCharts SHW CHRT, Chart Selection, and Chart Option Softkeys
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Additional Features
Terminal Procedures Charts
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Nearest Airport Page, or Flight Plan Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the OPTIONS Menu to Show Chart.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page OPTIONS Menu
Figure 8-49 Option Menus
On the Waypoint Airport Information Page OPTIONS Menu, select the desired chart and press the ENT Key
to display the chart.
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner CHART NOT AVAILABLE appears on the screen.
The CHART NOT AVAILABLE banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability
of a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
Figure 8-50 Chart Not Available Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the banner
UNABLE TO DISPLAY CHART is then displayed.
Figure 8-51 Unable To Display Chart Banner
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Additional Features
When a chart is not available by selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts
may be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, selecting the
SHW CHRT Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is one associated with the WPT – Airport Information page. Usually this is the airport runway
diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are available, that
page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport is shown.
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Flight Plan Page, or Nearest Airports Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the Airport Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the Approach Box. (Select the APR Softkey
if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Approach Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
Chart Not
To Scale
Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
Pan Chart
With the
Joystick
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-52 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
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Additional Features
While the APPROACH Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the G1000 softkeys are blank. Once the desired
chart is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart can be panned using the Joystick. Pressing the
Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
The aircraft symbol is not shown on FliteCharts. The Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, and
the Aircraft Not Shown Icon is displayed in the lower right corner of the screen.
Selecting the CHRT Softkey switches between the FliteCharts diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the CHRT Softkey switches between the Gainesville, FL (KGNV) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the WPT – Airport Information page.
Select CHRT Softkey
to Switch Between
Navigation Map Page
and FliteCharts
Figure 8-53 CHRT Softkey, Airport Information Page
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Additional Features
Selecting the INFO Softkey returns to the airport diagram when the view is on a different chart. If the
displayed chart is the airport diagram, the INFO Softkey has no effect.
Another source for additional airport information is from the INFO Box above the chart (Figure 8-60) or to
the right of the chart (Figure 8-54) for certain airports. This information source is not related to the INFO
Softkey. When the INFO Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the G1000 softkeys are blank. The DeKalb
Peachtree Airport has three additional charts offering information; the Airport Diagram, Alternate Minimums,
and Take-off Minimums.
Info Box
Selected
Figure 8-54 Airport Information Page, INFO View with Airport Information
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Additional Features
In the example shown in Figure 8-54, ALTERNATE MINIMUMS is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays
the IFR Alternate Minimums Chart (Figure 8-55).
Figure 8-55 Airport Information Page, ALTERNATE MINIMUMS Selected from INFO View
Selecting the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
Figure 8-56 Departure Information Page
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Selecting the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
Figure 8-57 Arrival Information Page
Selecting the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
Figure 8-58 Approach Information Page
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Selecting the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, when available, and includes
weather data such as METAR and TAF from the XM Data Link Receiver. Weather information is available only
when an XM Data Link Receiver is installed and the XM Weather subscription is current.
Selecting Additional Information:
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, select the WX Softkey to display the information windows (AIRPORT,
INFO).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the INFO Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the INFO Box choices. When the INFO Box is selected the G1000 softkeys
are blank. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired choice with the large FMS Knob and press the
ENT Key to complete the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
Info Available
on This
Airport
WX Info
When
Available
Figure 8-59 Weather Information Page, WX Softkey Selected
Chart Not
To Scale
Softkeys are
Blank during
Info Box
Selection
WX Softkey
Selected
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page or Flight Plan Page).
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Chart Options
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level (Figure 8-48).
Selecting the ALL Softkey shows the complete chart on the screen.
Complete
Chart
Shown
Figure 8-60 Airport Information Page, ALL View Selected
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Additional Features
Selecting the FIT WIDTH Softkey fits the width of the chart in the display viewing area. In the example
shown, the chart at close range is replaced with the full width chart.
Select FIT WDTH
Softkey to Show
Full Chart Width
Figure 8-61 Approach Information Page, FIT WDTH Softkey Selected
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Selecting the FULL SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
Select FULL SCN
Softkey to Switch
Between Chart on
Full Screen and Chart
with Info Window
Figure 8-62 Airport Information Page, Full Screen and Info Window
Selecting the BACK Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
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Additional Features
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the FULL SCREEN and COLOR SCHEME Options.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the On and Off Full Screen Options.
Chart Setup Option
Full Screen On/Off Selection
Figure 8-63 Page Menus
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Day/Night View
FliteCharts can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a dark
environment. When the CHART SETUP Box is selected the MFD softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-64 Waypoint Information Page, OPTIONS Menu
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the COLOR SCHEME Option (Figure 8‑65).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between Day, Auto, and Night Options.
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the Chart Setup Menu.
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Additional Features
Figure 8-65 Approach Information Page, Day View
Figure 8-66 Approach Information Page, Night View
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Additional Features
FliteCharts Cycle Number and Expiration Date
FliteCharts data is revised every 28 days. Charts are still viewable during a period that extends from the cycle
expiration date to the disables date. FliteCharts is disabled 180 days after the expiration date and are no longer
available for viewing upon reaching the disables date. When turning on the system, the Power-up Page displays
the current status of the FliteCharts database. See the table below for the various FliteCharts Power-up Page
displays and the definition of each.
FliteCharts Database
Figure 8-67 Power-up Page, FliteCharts Database
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Blank Line. System is not configured for FliteCharts. Contact a
Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
System is configured for FliteCharts but no chart database is installed.
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for the FliteCharts
database
Normal operation. FliteCharts database is valid and within current
cycle.
FliteCharts database is beyond the expiration date, but still within the
180 day viewing period.
FliteCharts database has timed out. Database is beyond 180 days
after expiration date. FliteCharts database is no longer available for
viewing.
Table 8-3 FliteCharts Power-up Page Annunciations and Definitions
Other possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown in Figure 8-68. ‘FliteCharts Expires’ plus a
date in white, indicates the chart database is current. ‘Chart data is out of date!’ in yellow, indicates charts are
still viewable, but approaching the disable date.
When the 180 day grace period has expired, ‘Chart data is disabled.’ in yellow indicates that the FliteCharts
database has expired and is no longer viewable. ‘Chart Data: N/A’ appears in white if no FliteCharts data is
available on the database card or no database card is inserted.
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Additional Features
FliteCharts time critical information can also be found on the AUX - System Status page. The FliteCharts
database REGION, CYCLE number, EFFECTIVE, EXPIRES, and DISABLES dates of the subscription appear in
either blue or yellow text. Dates shown in blue are current data. Dates shown in yellow indicate the data is not
within the current subscription period.
FliteCharts becomes inoperative 180 days after the FliteCharts EXPIRES date is reached, and is no longer
available for viewing. This date is shown as the DISABLES date. After the disable date the SHW CHRT Softkey
label appears subdued and is unavailable until a revised issue of FliteCharts is installed.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the FliteCharts database information is
shown.
The FliteCharts database cycle number shown in the figure, 0905, is deciphered as follows:
09 – Indicates the year 2009
05 – Indicates the fifth issue of the FliteCharts database for the year
The FliteCharts EFFECTIVE date 07–MAY–09 is the first date that this database is current.
The FliteCharts EXPIRES date 04–JUN–09 is the last date that this database is current.
The DISABLES date 01–DEC–09 is the date that this database becomes inoperative.
FliteCharts
Data
Figure 8-68 AUX – System Status Page, FliteCharts Current and Available
The FliteCharts database is provided from Garmin. Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for
instructions on revising the FliteCharts database.
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The other three possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown here. The EXPIRES date, in yellow,
is the revision date for the next database cycle. The DISABLES date, in yellow, is the date that this database cycle
is no longer viewable. REGION and CYCLE NOT AVAILABLE in blue, indicate that FliteCharts database is not
available on the database card or no database card is inserted.
FliteCharts Expired, but is not Disabled
FliteCharts Database is Disabled
FliteCharts Database is Not Available
Figure 8-69 AUX – System Status Page, FliteCharts Expired, FliteCharts Disabled, FliteCharts Not Available
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8.5AOPA Airport Directory
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) Airport Directory database offers detailed information
regarding services, hours of operation, lodging options, and more. This information is viewed on the Airport
Information Page by selecting the INFO Softkey until INFO-2 is displayed as shown in Figure 8-70.
Figure 8-70 AOPA Information on the Airport Information Page
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AOPA Database Cycle Number and Revision
The AOPA Airport Directory database is revised four times per year. Check fly.garmin.com for the current
database. The Airport Directory is always available for use after the expiration date. When turning on the
system, the Power-up Page indicates whether the databases are current, out of date, or not available.
AOPA Database
Figure 8-71 Power-up Page, Airport Directory Database
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Normal operation. AOPA Airport Directory database is valid and within
current cycle.
AOPA Airport Directory database has expired.
Database card contains no AOPA Airport Directory data.
Table 8-4 Airport Directory Annunciation Definitions
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Additional Features
The Airport Directory Region, Version, Cycle, Effective date and Expires date of the database cycle can also be
found on the AUX - System Status page, as seen in Figure 8-72.
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the Airport Directory database information
is shown.
The Airport Directory database cycle number shown in the figure, 09D2, is deciphered as follows:
09 – Indicates the year 2009
D – Indicates the data is for Airport Directory
2 – Indicates the second issue of the Airport Directory database for the year
The Airport Directory EFFECTIVE date 15–APR–09 is the beginning date for the current database cycle. The
Airport Directory EXPIRES date 14–JUL–09 is the revision date for the next database cycle.
Airport Directory
Data
Figure 8-72 AUX – System Status Page, Airport Directory Current Information
Airport Directory information appears in blue and yellow text. The EFFECTIVE date appears in blue when
data is current and in yellow when the current date is before the effective date. The EXPIRES date appears in
blue when data is current and in yellow when expired (Table 8-4). NOT AVAILABLE appears in blue in the
REGION field if Airport Directory data is not available on the database card. An expired Airport Directory
database is not disabled and will continue to function indefinitely.
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8.6Satellite Telephone and Data Link Services
NOTE: Separate accounts must be established to access the Iridium satellite network for voice/SMS and low
speed data transmission, and high speed data transmission for the maintenance reports.
The optional GDL 59 Data Link provides an aircraft systems data logger for communication of potential
maintenance issues and, while the aircraft is on the ground, a high speed (IEEE 802.11g) Wi-Fi data link between
the aircraft and a ground computer network. The GDL 59 can also be paired with an optional GSR 56 Iridium
Transceiver providing an airborne low speed data link, Iridium Satellite Telephone service, and Short Message
Service (SMS). Iridium telephone is available to the flight crew through the audio panel and headsets. An
optional handset may be installed in the aircraft cabin to be used for voice communication between the aircraft
cabin and the cockpit and for Iridium telephone service in the aircraft cabin. A low speed (2400 baud) internet
connection is also provided for limited personal computer use in the cabin.
Operation of these features in the cockpit is accomplished through the AUX-TELEPHONE, AUX-TEXT
MESSAGING, AUX-REPORT STATUS, and AUX-WI-FI SETUP Pages. For operation using the cabin handset,
consult the instructions provided with the handset.
Registering with garmin flight data Services
A subscriber account must be established prior to using the Iridium Satellite System for telephone, text
messaging and low speed data services. Contact Garmin Flight Data Services at 1-866-739-5687 in the United
States or 913-397-8200, ext. 1135. After an account has been established, the system must be registered.
Registering the system for telephone and low speed data services:
1) With the aircraft outside and having a clear view of the sky, turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the
AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS. Note the System ID number in the AIRFRAME field
as seen in Figure 8-72.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AUX-REPORTS STATUS or AUX-WI-FI SETUP Page.
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4) If necessary, select the REPORTS Softkey. The AUX-Report Status Page is now displayed as shown in Figure
8-73.
Figure 8-73 Report Status Page Selected Prior to System Registration
5) Press the MENU Key. The Page Menu window is now displayed as seen in Figure 8-74.
6) If the system is connected to Wi-Fi proceed to step 10. If there is no Wi-Fi connection, turn the FMS Knob to
select ‘Iridium Internet’ in the menu list.
Figure 8-74 Select Iridium Internet
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Select CONNECT Softkey. Momentarily, IRIDIUM 1 will display ‘CONNECTED’ in the Connection Status
Window.
9) Press the MENU Key to again display the Page Menu window.
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10) Select ‘Register With GFDS’ in the menu list.
Figure 8-75 Select Register With GFDS
11) Press the ENT Key. The Garmin Flight Data Service Registration window is now displayed as shown in Figure
8-76.
Figure 8-76 Enter Access Code
12) Enter the last four digits of the System ID number in the Access Code field.
13) Press the ENT Key. REGISTER will now be highlighted as in Figure 8-76.
14) Press the ENT Key. System registration is complete when ‘REGISTERED’ is displayed in the STATUS field.
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Disable/Enable Iridium Transceiver
Iridium telephone and data communications may be turn on of off by performing these simple steps.
Disabling/enabling telephone and low speed data services:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AUX-REPORTS STATUS or AUX-WI-FI SETUP Page.
3) If necessary, select the REPORTS Softkey. The AUX-Report Status Page is now displayed as shown in Figure
8-77.
Figure 8-77 Report Status Page
4) Press the MENU Key. The Page Menu window is now displayed as seen in Figure 8-78.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Disable Iridium Transmission’ in the menu list.
Figure 8-78 Select Disable Iridium Transmission
6) Press the ENT Key. The Iridium transceiver is now disabled.
7) To enable the Iridium transceiver, repeat steps 1 through 4, then select ‘Enable Iridium Transceiver’.
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Telephone Communication
The pilot or copilot can place and answer calls on the Iridium satellite network as well as to or from the
telephone handset in the cabin. Calls can also be answered or made from the optional cabin phone, however,
only actions initiated from the cockpit will be discussed here. See the cabin handset user guide for more
information. Control and monitoring of telephone functions are accomplished through the AUX-TELEPHONE
Page.
Viewing the Telephone Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Aux - TELEPHONE or AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page.
3) If necessary, select the TEL Softkey to display the AUX-TELEPHONE Page.
The phone status display, as shown in Figure 8-79, gives a graphical representation of the current disposition
of voice and/or data transmissions. Table 8-5 describes symbology used on Phone Status display.
Satellite
Signal
Strength
External
Phone
Internal
Phones
Figure 8-79 Phone Status Display
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Internal
Phone
External
Phone
Description
Phone is Idle
Phone is ringing
Phone has a dial tone (off hook) or connected to another phone
Phone dialed is busy
Phone is dialing another phone
Phone has failed
Phone status not known
Phone is disabled
Phone is reserved for data transmission
Calling other phone or incoming call from other phone
Other phone is on hold
Phones are connected
Table 8-5 Telephone Symbols
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Incoming Calls
When viewing MFD pages other than the AUX-TELEPHONE Page, a pop-up alert similar to Figure 8-80
will be displayed and an aural alert “Incoming Call” will be heard. If the call is from the cabin, CABIN will be
displayed as seen in Figure 8-80. If the incoming call is an Iridium network call, IRIDIUM will be displayed.
The pop-up alert may be inhibited at times, such as during takeoff. In addition to the pop-up alert, a ringing
phone symbol will be displayed to the right of the MFD page title as shown in Figure 8-80. Also, the voice
alert “Incoming Call” will be heard on the selected cockpit audio.
Incoming Call Pop-up
Incoming Call Symbol on MFD Page
Figure 8-80 Incoming Call
Answering an incoming call in the cockpit:
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Select the ANSWER Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
While viewing the AUX-TELEPHONE Page
NOTE: The Push-to-Talk switch is not utilized for telephone communication. The microphone is active after
selecting the ANSWER Softkey, and stays active until the call is terminated.
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
3) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Answer Incoming Call’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
Selecting the IGNORE Softkey will extinguish the pop-up window and leave the call unanswered. Selecting
the TEL Softkey will display the AUX-TELEPHONE Page allowing additional call information to be viewed
before answering.
Muting incoming call alerts:
1) With the AUX-TELEPHONE Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mute Incoming Call Alerts’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The voice and pop-up alert will not be displayed now when an incoming call is received.
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Outgoing Calls
Voice calls can be made from the cockpit to the handset in the cabin, or to an external phone through the
Iridium Satellite Network.
Making a call to the cabin:
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Select the DIAL Softkey on the MFD. A display similar to Figure 8-81 will be shown.
Figure 8-81 Initiating a Cabin Call
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor will move from ‘CABIN’ to ‘OK’.
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4) Press the ENT Key again. The cabin phone will now ring as seen in Figure 8-82.
Figure 8-82 Cabin Phone Ringing
When the cabin phone is answered, the connection is established as shown in Figure 8-83. To exit the call,
select the HANGUP Softkey.
Figure 8-83 Cabin Phone Answered
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Making an external call from the cockpit using the Iridium satellite network:
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Select the DIAL Softkey on the MFD. A display similar to Figure 8-84 will be shown.
Figure 8-84 Initiating an External Call
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘IRIDIUM’ as seen in Figure 8-85.
Figure 8-85 Selecting the Iridium Satellite System
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4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor has now moved to the phone number entry field as shown in Figure 8-86.
Figure 8-86 Enter Phone Number
5) Enter the desired telephone number (country code first) by selecting the number softkeys on the MFD or by
pressing the numeric keys on the MFD Control Unit.
6) Press the ENT Key. ‘OK’ is highlighted as in Figure 8-87.
Figure 8-87 Make the Call
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7) Press the ENT Key. The system will begin calling the number, as in Figure 8-88.
Figure 8-88 System is Making the Connection
When the phone is answered, the connection is established as shown in Figure 8-89. To exit the call, select
the HANGUP Softkey.
Figure 8-89 Phone is Answered, Connection Complete
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Placing The Cockpit Phone on Hold
Placing a call on hold:
Select the HOLD Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Put Current Call On Hold’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
The cockpit phone is now isolated from the call as seen in Figure 8-90. This figure illustrates a conference
call between the cockpit, cabin, and an external phone in which the cockpit phone has been put on hold.
Select the HOLD Softkey again to resume the call.
Figure 8-90 Cockpit Phone on Hold
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Transferring a Call from the Cockpit
From the cockpit phone, a external call can be transferred to the cabin phone, or a call with the cabin phone
can be transferred to an external phone, or (when two Iridium Transceivers are installed) an external call can
be transferred to another external phone.
Transfering a call:
1) Select the TRANS Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Transfer Current Call’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
A window similar to that shown in Figure 8-91 will be displayed. In this example, an active call to the cabin
is transferred to an external number. Therefore, the window shows the ‘Iridium’ option. If the active call is
with an external phone, ‘CABIN’ would be the option.
Figure 8-91 Enter Phone Number to Receive Transferred Call
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor now highlights the phone number entry field.
3) Enter the phone number to which the call is being transferred, as discussed earlier for making an external call
on the Iridium satellite network.
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘OK’ is now highlighted.
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5) Press the ENT Key again to place the call as shown in Figure 8-92.
Figure 8-92 Call Transfer to an External Phone
When the external phone is answered, the call connection is indicated as in Figure 8-93.
Figure 8-93 Call Transfer Complete
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Making a Conference Call from the Cockpit
The cabin or an external phone (two external phones if two Iridium Transceivers are installed) can be added
to a call already in progress.
Adding another phone to an active call:
1) Select the CONF Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Conference Current Call’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
A window similar to that shown in Figure 8-94 will be displayed. In this example, an external phone will
be added to an active call to the cabin. Therefore, the window shows the ‘Iridium’ option. If the active call
is with an external phone, ‘CABIN’ would be the option.
Figure 8-94 Initiate a Conference Call
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor now highlights the phone number entry field.
3) Enter the phone number to be added to the call, as discussed earlier for making an external call on the Iridium
satellite network.
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘OK’ is now highlighted.
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5) Press the ENT Key again to place the call as shown in Figure 8-95.
Figure 8-95 Conference in External Phone
When the external phone is answered, the call connection is indicated as in Figure 8-96.
Figure 8-96 External Phone Added
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Text Messaging (SMS)
The pilot or copilot can send and receive text messages on the Iridium satellite network. Messages may be
sent to an email address or text message capable cellular telephone. Message length is limited to 160 characters,
including the email address.
The text messaging user interface is mainly through the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page.
Viewing the Text Messaging Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Aux - TELEPHONE or AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page.
3) If necessary, select the SMS Softkey to display the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page as shown in Figure 8-97.
Figure 8-97 Text Messaging Page
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Message Symbol
Description
Received text message that has not been opened
Received text message that has been opened
Saved text message, draft not sent
System is sending text message
Text message has been sent
System failed to send text message
Predefined text message
Table 8-6 Text Message Symbols
Viewing a Text Message When Received
When viewing MFD pages other than the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, a pop-up alert similar to Figure
8-98 will be displayed when a new text message is received.
New Text Message Pop-up
New Text Message Symbol on MFD Page
Figure 8-98 New Text Message Received
Select the VIEW Softkey to view the message (Figure 8-99). Selecting the IGNORE Softkey will extinguish
the pop-up window and leave the text message unopened. Selecting the IGNR ALL Softkey will extinguish
the pop-window and ignore all future incoming text messages. Selecting the SMS Softkey will display the
AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page.
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Figure 8-99 Text Message Displayed from Pop-Up Alert
The pop-up alerts may be enabled or disabled through the Page Menu.
Enabling/disabling incoming text message pop-up alerts:
1) With the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable New Message Popups’ or ‘Enable New Message
Popups’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The pop-up alert will not be displayed when an incoming text message is received.
Figure 8-100 Disabling New Text Message Pop-Ups
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Additional Features
Reply to a Text Message
After reading a text message, a reply may be sent.
Replying to a text message:
While viewing the text message, select the REPLY Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Reply To Message’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Sending a Text Message
Text messages may be sent from the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page.
Sending a new text message:
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the NEW Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-101 Composing a New Text Message
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2) The Text Message Draft Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘TO’ field. Enter the desired
telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used
to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by selecting the NUMBERS Softkey.
Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters. Special characters can be
accessed by selecting the SYMBOLS Softkey. See Figure 8-101.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘MESSAGE’ field.
4) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 2.
5) Press the ENT Key.
6) Select the SEND Softkey to send the message immediately, or select the SAVE Softkey to save the message in
Outbox for sending at a later time. Select the CANCEL Softkey to delete the message.
Predefined Text Messages
Time and effort can be saved in typing text messages that are used repeatedly by saving these messages as
a predefined message.
Creating a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
Figure 8-102 Creating/Editing Predefined Messages
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select ‘Edit Predefined Messages’ as shown in Figure 8-102.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Predefined Messages view is now displayed.
4) Select the NEW Softkey.
Or:
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a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Predefined Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The Predefined SMS Text Message Window is now displayed as shown in Figure 8-103.
Figure 8-103 Composing a Predefined Message
5) The cursor is displayed in the ‘TITLE’ field. Enter the desired message title. Entry can be accomplished through
the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys
on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD
by selecting the NUMBERS Softkey. Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha
characters. Special characters can be accessed by selecting the SYMBOLS Softkey.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘MESSAGE’ field.
7) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 5.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Select the SAVE Softkey. The new predefined message is now shown in the displayed list. Selecting the
CANCEL Softkey will delete the message without saving.
10) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
11) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Stop Editing Predefined Message’.
12) Press the ENT Key.
Sending a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the NEW Softkey.
2) The Text Message Draft Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘TO’ field. Enter the desired
telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
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Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used
to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by selecting the NUMBERS Softkey.
Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters. Special characters can be
accessed by selecting the SYMBOLS Softkey. See Figure 8-104.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘MESSAGE’ field (Figure 8-104).
Figure 8-104 Composing a New Text Message
4) Select the PREDEFD Softkey. The Predefined Message Menu Window is displayed as seen in Figure 8-105.
Figure 8-105 Predefined Message List
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5) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired predefined message.
6) Press the ENT Key. The predefined message text is inserted into the message field. If desired, the message can
be edited by using the FMS Knobs.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Select the SEND Softkey to transmit the message.
Text Message Boxes
Received text messages reside in the Inbox as ‘Read’ or ‘Unread’ messages. The Outbox contains ‘Sent” and
‘Unsent’ text messages. Saved messages that are meant to be sent later are stored as Drafts. Each text message
box may be viewed separately, or together in any combination.
Show Inbox messages:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the INBOX Softkey
(Figure 8-106).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Inbox Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
Figure 8-106 Text Message Inbox
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Show Outbox messages:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the OUTBOX
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Outbox Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
Show Draft messages:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the DRAFTS
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Draft Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
Managing Text Messages
The viewed messages may be listed according to the date/time the message was sent or received, the type of
message (read, unread, sent, unsent, etc.), or by message address.
Viewing messages sorted by message date/time:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the TIME Softkey
(Figure 8-106).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Date/Time’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window (Figure 8-106).
Viewing messages sorted by message type:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the TYPE Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Type’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
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Viewing messages sorted by address:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the ADDRESS
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Address’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
Viewing the content of a text message:
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the desired message box.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
4) Select the VIEW Softkey.
Or:
Press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘View Selected Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Message content is displayed as shown in Figure 8-107).
Figure 8-107 Veiwing Message Content
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5) To close the text message, select the CLOSE Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Close Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Marking selected message as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Select the MRK READ Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark Selected Message As Read’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
The message symbol now indicates the message has been opened.
Marking all messages as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark All New Messages As Read’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed.
4) With cursor highlighting ‘YES’, press the ENT Key. The message symbols now indicate all the message have
been opened.
Delete a message:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Select the DELETE Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Delete Selected Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
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WI-FI Connections
The system can connect to a IEEE 802.11g compatible network provided the aircraft is on the ground and
located within range of the network. The system is capable of WEP64, WEP128,WPA-PSK, and WPA2-PSK
encryption formats. WPA-Enterprise and WPA2-Enterprise are not supported. Connections that require web
proxies, captive portals, or other elements that require user credentials, including a username and password or
a redemption or access code; or require action such as accepting a user agreement, are not supported.
Control and monitoring of Wi-Fi functions are accomplished through the AUX-WI-FI SETUP Page.
Viewing the Wi-Fi Setup Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Aux - WI-FI SETUP or AUX - REPORT STATUS Page.
3) If necessary, select the WI-FI Softkey to display the AUX-WI-FI SETUP Page as shown in Figure 8-108.
Setting up a new Wi-Fi connection:
1) Select the AVAIL Softkey on the MFD. A list of available networks will be displayed in the AVAILABLE NETWORKS
window as shown in Figure 8-108. Signal strength is shown for each network, as well as security requirements
and whether the network has been saved in the system’s memory.
Figure 8-108 Available Wi-Fi Networks
2) If necessary, select the RESCAN Softkey to have the system scan again for available networks.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Rescan Available Networks’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
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3) Press the FMS Knob to place the cursor in the list of networks.
4) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired network. See Figure 8-109.
Figure 8-109 Desired Network Selected
5) Select the CONNECT Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Connect To Selected Network’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
6) If the network is secured, a window similar to Figure 8-110 will be displayed in order to enter the necessary
passcode. Use the FMS Knobs to enter the desired alpha numeric characters. Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to
enter upper case letters. If there is no security associated with the network, proceed to step 9.
Figure 8-110 Enter Security Code
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7) Press the ENT Key. ‘OK’ will be highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key again.
9) The SAVE SETTINGS window is now displayed with the cursor highlighting ‘SAVE CONNECTION’.
Figure 8-111 Save Option
10) The selected network can be saved to system memory to make re-connection easier at a later time.
Connecting the selected network without saving:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to highlight ‘CONNECT’.
b) Press the ENT Key.
Saving and connect the selected network:
a) Press the ENT Key. A checkmark is placed in the checkbox and the cursor moves to the airport field as shown
in Figure 8-112.
b) Using the FMS Knobs, enter an airport identifier to be associated with the saved network. This aids in identifying
the network later in the event of duplicate network names.
c) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to ‘CONNECT’.
d) Press the ENT Key again to connect to the selected network.
Figure 8-112 Save Connection
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Editing a saved network:
1) While viewing list of saved networks, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor as seen in Figure 8-113.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight the network to be edited.
3) Pressing the ENT Key at this point will check or uncheck the AUTO CONNECT checkbox. When a checkmark is
present, the system will automatically connect to the network when within range.
Figure 8-113 Select Network to be Edited
4) Select the EDIT Softkey. The cursor now appears in the CONNECTION SETTINGS window as shown in Figure 8-114.
Figure 8-114 Select Attributes to Edit
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5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the network attribute to be edited.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to begin editing the field.
7) When the entry is complete, press the ENT Key.
8) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key until ‘SAVE’ is highlighted.
9) Press the ENT Key.
Disconnecting a Wi-Fi network:
Select the DISCNCT Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disconnect From Network’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Deleting a saved Wi-Fi network:
1) While viewing the list of saved networks, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight the network to be deleted.
3) Select the DELETE Softkey. The selected network is removed from the list.
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System Data Logging
NOTE: An account must be established with Garmin Flight Data Services to make full use of the System Data
Logging feature.
The system provides recording of Central Maintenance Computer (CMC) data while the aircraft is on the
ground or in flight, including engine trend and exceedance data.
The recorded data is then assembled into reports that can be transmitted to Garmin Flight Data Services using
any of three data transmission methods (Wi-Fi, Iridium RUDICS, and Iridium Short Burst Data). The system
selects the appropriate transmission method based on communication network availability. Data transmission
is initiated manually when the airplane is on the ground.
If report transmission is interrupted for some reason (e.g. networks unavailable, hardware failure, loss of
power), the system will attempt to resume sending the reports at the next opportunity. The system ensures the
complete data set is transmitted.
Transmitted reports remain in the system’s memory until they are overwritten by newer data.
Control and monitoring of report transmissions is accomplished through the AUX-REPORT STATUS Page as
seen in Figure 8-115.
Viewing the Report Status Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select AUX-WI-FI SETUP or aux-REPORT STATUS Page.
3) If necessary, select the REPORT Softkey to display the AUX-REPORT STATUS Page.
Figure 8-115 Report Status Page
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Changing transmission method:
1) While viewing the Report Status Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the 1st or 2nd transmit method for the desired data report.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired option (SAT SHORT BURST, SAT RUDICS, WI-FI, or NONE) as
shown in Figure 8-116. Sat Short Burst is generally used for transmission of data packets less than 300 bytes.
Wi-Fi is used only when the aircraft on the ground.
4) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-116 Select Transmission Method
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Sending all unsent data:
1) While viewing the Report Status Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the SEND button on the desired data report.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Send Report window is displayed as shown in Figure 8-117.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘select data to send’ field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘all unsent data’.
6) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-117 Select Data to Send
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Resending data or send data recorded in a specific time frame:
1) While viewing the Report Status Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the SEND button on the desired data report.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Send Report window is displayed as shown in Figure 8-118.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘select data to send’ field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘data within time frame’.
Figure 8-118 Select Data Within a Specific Time Frame
6) Press the ENT Key. The time frame selection fields are now displayed as shown in Figure 8-119.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the starting time or date field.
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8) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired starting time or date.
Figure 8-119 Set Starting & Ending Time or Date for Time Frame
9) Press the ENT Key. The cursor will move to the next field.
10) When the last field is addressed, ‘OK’ will be highlighted as seen in Figure 8-120. Press the ENT Key to send
the selected data.
Figure 8-120 Select OK to Send Data
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Restoring Reports Page options to default settings:
1) While viewing the Report Status Page, press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Restore Defaults’ in the menu list as shown in Figure 8-121.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-121 Restore Defaults
4) A confirmation window as shown in Figure 8-122 is now displayed.
Figure 8-122 Restore Defaults Confirmation
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘YES’ or ‘NO’.
6) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
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8.7XM Radio Entertainment
Note: Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section for information about XM Weather products.
The optional XM Radio entertainment feature of the GDL 69A Data Link Receiver is available for the pilot’s and
passengers’ enjoyment. The GDL 69A can receive XM Satellite Radio® entertainment services at any altitude
throughout the Continental U.S. Entertainment audio is available only on the GDL 69A Data Link Receiver, not
the GDL 69.
XM Satellite Radio offers a variety of radio programming over long distances without having to constantly
search for new stations. Based on signals from satellites, coverage far exceeds land-based transmissions.
XM Satellite Radio services are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit
www.xmradio.com.
Activating XM Satellite Radio Services
The service is activated by providing XM Satellite Radio with either one or two coded IDs, depending on the
equipment. Either the Audio Radio ID or the Data Radio ID, or both, must be provided to XM Satellite Radio
to activate the entertainment subscription.
It is not required to activate both the entertainment and weather service subscriptions with the GDL 69A.
Either or both services can be activated. XM Satellite Radio uses one or both of the coded IDs to send an
activation signal that, when received by the GDL 69A, allows it to play entertainment programming.
These IDs are located:
• On the label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
• On the XM Information Page on the MFD (Figure 8-123)
• On the XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit (available at www.garmin.com, P/N
190-00355-04)
Contact the installer if the Data Radio ID and the Audio Radio ID cannot be located.
NOTE: The LOCK Softkey on the XM Information Page (Auxiliary Page Group) is used to save GDL 69A
activation data when the XM services are initially set up. It is not used during normal XM Radio operation,
but there should be no adverse effects if inadvertently selected during flight. Refer to the GDL 69/69A XM
Satellite Radio Activation Instructions (190-00355-04, Rev H or later) for further information.
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Activating the XM Satellite Radio services:
1) Contact XM WX Satellite Radio through the e-mail address listed on their website (www.xmradio.com) or by the
customer service phone number listed on the website. Follow the instructions provided by XM Satellite Radio
services.
2) Select the Auxiliary Page Group.
3) Select the next to last page in the AUX Page Group.
4) Select the INFO Softkey to display the XM Information Page.
5) Verify that the desired services are activated.
6) Select the LOCK Softkey.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight YES.
8) To complete activation, press the ENT Key.
Data
Radio ID
Audio
Radio ID
Weather
Products
Window
LOCK Softkey
is Used to Save
Activation Data
During Initial
Setup
RADIO
and INFO
Softkeys
Figure 8-123 XM Information Page
If XM weather services have not been activated, all the weather product boxes are blank on the XM Information
Page and a yellow Activation Required message is displayed in the center of the Weather Data Link Page (Map
Page Group). The Service Class refers to the groupings of weather products available for subscription.
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Using XM Radio
The XM Radio Page provides information and control of the audio entertainment features of the XM Satellite
Radio.
Selecting the XM Radio Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the displayed AUX - XM Information Page.
3) Select the RADIO Softkey to show the XM Radio Page where audio entertainment is controlled.
Active
Channels
Channel
List
Volume
Field
Categories
Field
Figure 8-124 XM Radio Page
Active Channel and Channel List
The Active Channel Box on the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected channel that the XM Radio
is using.
The Channels List Box of the XM Radio Page shows a list of the available channels for the selected category.
Channels can be stepped through one at a time or may be selected directly by channel number.
Selecting a channel from the channel list:
1) While on the XM Radio Page, select the CHNL Softkey.
2) Select the CH + Softkey to go up through the list in the Channel Box, or move down the list with the
CH – Softkey.
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Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to highlight the channel list and turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the channels.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
Selecting a channel directly:
1) While on the XM Radio Page, select the CHNL Softkey.
2) Select the DIR CH Softkey. The channel number in the Active Channel Box is highlighted.
3) Select the numbered softkeys located on the bottom of the display to directly select the desired channel
number.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
Category
The Category Box of the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected category of audio. Categories of
channels such as jazz, rock, or news can be selected to list the available channels for a type of music or other
contents. One of the optional categories is PRESETS to view channels that have been programmed.
Selecting a category:
1) Select the CATGRY Softkey on the XM Radio Page.
2) Select the CAT + and CAT - Softkeys to cycle through the categories.
Or:
Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Categories list. Highlight the desired category with the small FMS Knob
and press the ENT Key. Selecting All Categories places all channels in the list.
Figure 8-125 Categories List
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Presets
Up to 15 channels from any category can be assigned a preset number. The preset channels are selected by
selecting the PRESETS and MORE Softkeys. Then the preset channel can be selected directly and added to
the channel list for the Presets category.
Setting a preset channel number:
1) On the XM Radio Page, while listening to an Active Channel that is wanted for a preset, select the PRESETS
Softkey to access the first five preset channels (PS1 - PS5).
2) Select the MORE Softkey to access the next five channels (PS6 – PS10), and again to access the last five
channels (PS11 – PS15). Selecting the MORE Softkey repeatedly cycles through the preset channels.
3) Select any one of the (PS1 - PS15) softkeys to assign a number to the active channel.
4) Select the SET Softkey on the desired channel number to save the channel as a preset.
Select PRESETS to
Access the Preset
Channels Softkeys
Select MORE to Cycle
Through the Preset
Channels
Select SET
to Save Each
Preset Channel
Figure 8-126 Accessing and Selecting XM Preset Channels
Selecting the BACK Softkey, or 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, returns the system to the top level softkeys.
Volume
Radio volume is shown as a percentage of full volume. Volume level is controlled by selecting the VOL
Softkey, which brings up the MUTE Softkey and the volume increase and decrease softkeys.
Adjusting the volume:
1) With the XM Radio Page displayed, select the VOL Softkey.
2) Select the VOL – Softkey to reduce volume or select the VOL + Softkey to increase volume. (Once the VOL
Softkey is selected, the volume can also be adjusted using the small FMS Knob.)
3) Select the MUTE Softkey to mute the audio. Select the MUTE Softkey again to unmute the audio.
Figure 8-127 Volume Control
XM Radio volume may also be adjusted on each passenger headset.
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8.8Scheduler
The Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., Change oil, Switch fuel tanks,
or Altimeter-Transponder Check) in the Alerts Window on the PFD. Messages can be set to display based on
a specific date and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero (one-time; default setting), or recurrently
whenever the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set to periodic alerting automatically reset
to the original timer value once the message is displayed. When power is cycled, all messages are retained until
deleted, and message timer countdown is resumed.
Figure 8-128 Scheduler (Utility Page)
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty scheduler message naming field.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the message text to be displayed in the Messages Window and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the field next to Type.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the message type:
• Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
• One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
• Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
8) For periodic and one-time messages, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
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9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MM-YY) and press the ENT Key.
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the name field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
5) Press the ENT Key while the message line is cleared to clear the message time.
Scheduler messages appear in the Messages Window on the PFD. When a scheduler message is waiting, the
ALERTS Softkey label changes to ADVISORY. Pressing the ADVISORY Softkey opens the Messages Window
and acknowledges the scheduler message. The softkey label reverts to ALERTS when pressed. Pressing the
ALERTS Softkey again removes the Messages Window from the display, and the scheduler message is deleted
from the message queue.
Figure 8-129 PFD Messages Window
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8.9Flight Data Logging
NOTE: Some aircraft installations may not provide all aircraft/engine data capable of being logged by the
system.
The Flight Data Logging feature will automatically store critical flight and engine data on an SD data card (up
to 16GB) inserted into the top card slot of the MFD. Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each
1GB of available space on the card.
Data is written to the SD card once each second while the MFD is powered on. All flight data logged on a
specific date is stored in a file named in a format which includes that date (dataYYYY_MM_DD.csv). The file is
created automatically each time the G1000 system is powered on, provided an SD card has been inserted.
The status of the Flight Data Logging feature can be viewed on the AUX-UTILITY Page. If no SD card has been
inserted, “NO CARD” is displayed. When data is being written to the SD card, “LOGGING DATA” is displayed.
The .csv file may be viewed with Microsoft Excel® or other spreadsheet applications.
The following is a list of data parameters the G1000 system is capable of logging for the Beechcraft 200/B200
aircraft.
• Date
• Time
• GPS altitude (MSL)
• GPS altitude (WGS84 datum)
• Baro-Corrected altitude (feet)
• Baro Correction (in/Hg)
• Indicated airspeed (kts)
• Vertical speed (fpm)
• GPS vertical speed (fpm)
• OAT (degrees C)
• True airspeed (knots)
• Pitch Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Roll Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Lateral and Vertical G Force (g)
• Ground Speed (kts)
• Ground Track (degrees
magnetic)
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• Latitude (degrees; geodetic;
+North)
• Autopilot On/Off
• Longitude (degrees; geodetic;
+East)
• AFCS roll/pitch commands
• Magnetic Heading (degrees)
• HSI source
• Selected course
• Com1/Com2 frequency
• Nav1/Nav2 frequency
• AFCS roll/pitch modes
• GPS fix
• GPS horizontal alert limit
• GPS vertical alert limit
• SBAS GPS horizontal protection
level
• CDI deflection
• SBAS GPS vertical protection
level
• VDI/GP/GS deflection
• Fuel Qty (right & left)(gals)
• Wind Direction (degrees)
• Fuel Flow (gph)
• Wind Speed (knots)
• Turbine RPM
• Active Waypoint Identifier
• Oil Pressure (psi)
• Distance to next waypoint (nm)
• Oil Temperature (deg. F)
• Bearing to next waypoint
(degrees)
• ITT (deg. F)
• Torque
• Magnetic variation (degrees)
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The file containing the recorded data will appear in the format shown in Figure 8-130. This file can be imported
into most computer spreadsheet applications.
Local Date
YYMMDD
Local 24hr Time
HHMMSS
Nearest Airport
(A blank will be
inserted if no
airport is found)
log_090210_104506_KIXD.csv
Figure 8-130 Log File Format
Data logging status can be monitored on the AUX-UTILITY Page.
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8.10 Electronic Stability & Protection (ESP™)
Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) is an optional feature that is intended to discourage the exceedance of
attitude, established airspeed and angle of attack parameters. This feature will only function when the aircraft is
above 200 feet AGL and the autopilot is not engaged.
ESP engages when the aircraft exceeds one or more conditions (pitch, roll, Vmo, Mmo, and/or angle of attack)
beyond the normal flight parameters. Enhanced stability for each condition is provided by applying a force to
the appropriate control surface to return the aircraft to the desired flight envelope. This is perceived by the pilot
as resistance to control movement in the undesired direction when the aircraft approaches a steep attitude, high
airspeed, or when a stall is imminent.
As the aircraft deviates further from the desired attitude, angle of attack, or airspeed continues to increase, the
force increases (up to an established maximum) to encourage control movement in the direction necessary to return
to the desired attitude and/or airspeed range. Except in the case of high airspeed, when maximum force is reached,
force remains constant up to the maximum engagement limit. Above the maximum engagement limit, forces are no
longer applied. There is no maximum engagement related to a high airspeed condition.
When ESP has been engaged for more than ten seconds (cumulative; not necessarily consecutive seconds) of a
20-second interval, the autopilot is automatically engaged with the flight director in Level Mode in the pitch and/or
roll axis, bringing the aircraft into level flight. An aural “Engaging Autopilot” alert is played and the flight director
mode annunciation will indicate ‘LVL’ for vertical and lateral modes.
The pilot can interrupt ESP by pressing and holding either the Control Wheel Steering (CWS) or Autopilot
Disconnect (AP/YD DISC TRIM INTRPT) switch. Upon releasing the CWS or AP/YD DISC TRIM INTRPT
switch, ESP force will again be applied, provided aircraft attitude, angle of attack and/or airspeed are within their
respective engagement limits. ESP can also be overridden by overpowering the servo’s mechanical torque limit.
ESP can be enabled or disabled on the AUX-System Setup 2 Page on the MFD.
To enable or disable ESP:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, select the SETUP 2 Softkey to display the AUX-SYSTEM SETUP 2 Page. If the AUX-SYSTEM SETUP 2
is already displayed, proceed to step 4.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the STABILITY & PROTECTION field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘ENABLE’ or ‘DISABLE’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
ESP is automatically enabled on system power up.
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Roll Engagement
Roll Limit Indicators are displayed on the roll scale at 45° right and left, indicating where ESP will engage
(see Figure 8-131). As roll attitude exceeds 45°, ESP will engage and the on-side Roll Limit Indicator will move
to 30°, as shown in Figure 8-132. The Roll Limit Indicator is now showing where ESP will disengage as roll
attitude decreases to within the desirable roll attitude range.
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45°)
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45°)
Figure 8-131 ESP Roll Engagement Indication (ESP NOT Engaged)
ESP Engage (45°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 44°
Before ESP Engage
ESP Disengage (30°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 46°
After ESP Engage
Figure 8-132 Roll Increasing to ESP Engagement
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Once engaged, ESP force will be applied between 30° and 75°, as illustrated in Figure 8-133. The force
increases as roll attitude increases and decreases as roll attitude decreases. The applied force is intended to
encourage pilot input that returns the airplane to a more normal roll attitude. As roll attitude decreases, ESP
will disengage at 30°.
º
30
20º
10º
0º
10º
20º
º
º
90º
90º
75º
75º
º
60
60
º
º
45
45
30
Figure 8-133 ESP Roll Operating Range When Engaged
(Force Increases as Roll Increases & Decreases as Roll Decreases)
ESP is automatically disengaged if the aircraft reaches the autopilot roll engagement attitude limit of 75°
(Figure 8-134).
ESP Upper Disengage Limit (75°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 74°
Figure 8-134 Roll Attitude Autopilot Engagement Limit (ESP Engaged)
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Pitch Engagement
ESP engages at 20° nose-up and 17° nose-down. Once ESP is engaged, it will apply opposing force between
15° and 50° nose-up and between 12° and 50° nose-down, as indicated in Figure 8-135. Maximum opposing
force is applied between 25° and 50° nose-up and between 22° and 50° nose-down.
The opposing force increases or decreases depending on the pitch angle and the direction of pitch travel. This
force is intended to encourage movement in the pitch axis in the direction of the normal pitch attitude range
for the aircraft.
There are no indications marking the pitch ESP engage and disengage limits in these nose-up/nose-down
conditions.
50˚
45˚
45˚
40˚
40˚
35˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
50˚
25˚
20˚
20˚
15˚
15˚
10˚
10˚
5˚
5˚
0˚
0˚
5˚
5˚
10˚
10˚
15˚
15˚
20˚
20˚
25˚
25˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
25˚
35˚
40˚
40˚
45˚
45˚
50˚
50˚
Figure 8-135 ESP Pitch Operating Range When Engaged
(Force Increases as Pitch Increases & Decreases as Pitch Decreases)
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Angle of Attack Protection
ESP force may be applied if the Angle of Attack computer determines a stall warning condition is imminent.
In this condition, the Pitch Limit Indicator will be initially displayed 4° below this computed pitch attitude
(Figure 8-136). When pitch attitude equals that indicated by the Pitch Limit Indicator, ESP will engage,
applying a force in the direction necessary to lower the nose of the aircraft.
Pitch Limit Indicator
Figure 8-136 Pitch Limit Indicator
High Airspeed Protection
Exceeding Vmo or Mmo will result in ESP applying force to raise the nose of the aircraft. When the high
airspeed condition is remedied, ESP force is no longer applied.
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8.11Abnormal Operation
SVS Troubleshooting
SVS is intended to be used with traditional attitude, heading, obstacle, terrain, and traffic inputs. SVS is
disabled when valid attitude or heading data is not available for the display. In case of invalid SVS data, the PFD
display reverts to the standard blue-over-brown attitude display.
SVS becomes disabled without the following data resources:
• Attitude data
• Heading data
• GPS position data
• 9 Arc-second Terrain data
• Obstacle data
• TAWS function is not available, in test mode, or failed
• The position of the aircraft exceeds the range of the terrain database.
Reversionary Mode
SVS can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If it is enabled when switching
to Reversionary Mode, SVS will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The standard, non-SVS PFD display will
be shown in the interim.
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Figure 8-137 SVS Reversionary Mode
Unusual Attitudes
Unusual attitudes are displayed with red chevrons overlaid on the display indicating the direction to fly to
correct the unusual attitude condition. The display shows either a brown or blue colored bar at the top or
bottom of the screen to represent earth or sky. This is intended to prevent losing sight of the horizon during
extreme pitch attitudes.
Figure 8-138 Unusual Attitude Display
The blue colored bar is also displayed when terrain gradient is great enough to completely fill the display.
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Blue Band
Terrain
Completely
Fills Display
Figure 8-139 Blue Sky Bar with Full Display Terrain
GDL 69/69A Data Link Receiver Troubleshooting
Some quick troubleshooting steps listed below can be performed to find the possible cause of a failure.
• Ensure the owner/operator of the aircraft in which the Data Link Receiver is installed has subscribed to XM
• Ensure the XM subscription has been activated
• Perform a quick check of the circuit breakers to ensure that power is applied to the Data Link Receiver
• Ensure that nothing is plugged into the MUSIC 1 or MUSIC 2 jacks because that would prevent XM radio
from being heard
For troubleshooting purposes, check the LRU Information Box on the AUX - System Status Page for Data Link
Receiver (GDL 69/69A) status, serial number, and software version number. If a failure has been detected in the
GDL 69/69A the status is marked with a red X.
Selecting the AUX - System Status Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
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Additional Features
Figure 8-140 LRU Information Window on System Status Page
If a failure still exists, the following messages may provide insight as to the possible problem:
Message
CHECK ANTENNA
UPDATING
NO SIGNAL
LOADING
OFF AIR
---
Message Location
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
Weather Datalink Page - center of page
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
Description
Data Link Receiver antenna error; service required
Data Link Receiver updating encryption code
Loss of signal; signal strength too low for receiver
Acquiring channel audio or information
Channel not in service
Missing channel information
No communication from Data Link Receiver
WEATHER DATA LINK FAILURE Weather Datalink Page - center of page
within last 5 minutes
ACTIVATION REQUIRED
Weather Datalink Page - center of page XM subscription is not activated
Table 8-7 GDL 69/69A Data Link Receiver Error Messages
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
629
Additional Features
Blank Page
630
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix A
Annunciations and Alerts
Note: The Pilot’s Operating Handbook and FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM/POH) supersedes
information found in this document.
The G1000 Alerting System conveys alerts using the following:
• Annunciation Window: The Annunciation Window displays abbreviated annunciation text. Text color is based
on alert levels described later in the Alert Levels Definitions section. The Annunciation Window is located to the
right of the Altitude and Vertical Speed boxes on the display. All annunciations can be displayed simultaneously
in the Annunciation Window. A white horizontal line separates annunciations that are acknowledged from
annunciations that are not yet acknowledged. Higher priority annunciations are displayed towards the top of
the window. Lower priority annunciations are displayed towards the bottom of the window.
• Alerts Window: The Alerts Window displays text messages for up to 64 prioritized alert messages. Pressing
the ALERTS Softkey displays the Alerts Window. Pressing the ALERTS Softkey a second time removes the
Alerts Window from the display. When the Alerts Window is displayed, the FMS Knob can be used to scroll
through the alert message list.
• Softkey Annunciation: During certain alerts, the ALERTS Softkey may appear as a flashing annunciation to
accompany an alert. The ALERTS Softkey assumes a new label (ADVISORY). By selecting the softkey when
flashing an annunciation, the alert is acknowledged. The softkey label then returns to ALERTS. If alerts are
still present, the ALERTS label is displayed in white with black text. Selecting the ALERTS Softkey a second
time views the alert text messages.
• System Annunciations: Typically, a large red ‘X’ appears over instruments whose information is supplied by
a failed Line Replaceable Unit (LRU). See the G1000 System Annunciations Section for more information.
System
Annunciation
(Red ‘X’)
Annunciation
Window
Alerts
Window
Figure A-1 G1000 Alerting System
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Softkey
Annunciation
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
631
Appendix A
• Audio Alerting System: The G1000 System issues audio alert tones when specific system conditions are met.
See the Alert Level Definitions Section for more information. The annunciation tone may be tested from the
AUX - System Status Page.
Testing the system annunciation tone and annunciator lights:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
2) Select the ANN TEST Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Highlight ‘Enable Annunciator Test Mode’ and press the ENT Key.
Figure A-2 System Status Page, System Annunciation Testing
Press to Test
Annunciation Tone and
Annunciation Lights
Alert Level Definitions
The G1000 Alerting System, as installed in Beechcraft 200/B200 Series aircraft, uses one alert level.
• ANNUNCIATION OR MESSAGE ADVISORY: This level of alert provides general information.
An annunciation alert is accompanied by a flashing ‘ADVISORY’ Softkey annunciation (see Figure A-3).
Pressing the ADVISORY Softkey acknowledges the presence of the annunciation alert.
Message advisory alerts issue a flashing ‘ADVISORY’ Softkey annunciation (see Figure A-3). Pressing the
ADVISORY Softkey acknowledges the presence of the message advisory alert and displays the alert text
message in the Alerts Window.
Figure A-3 Softkey Annunciation (ALERTS Softkey Labels)
632
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix A
Aircraft Alerts
The following alerts are configured specifically for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series. Red annunciation window
text signifies warnings. White annunciation window text signifies advisories. See the Aircraft Flight Manual
(AFM) for recommended pilot actions.
Warning annunciations
Annunciation Window Text
UNDERSPEED
PROTECT ACTIVE
Alerts Window Message
Audio Alert
None
Alerts Window Message
Avionics cooling fan #1 is inoperative.
Avionics cooling fan #2 is inoperative.
MFD cooling fan is inoperative.
PFD #1 cooling fan is inoperative.
PFD #2 cooling fan is inoperative.
Audio Alert
None
None
None
None
None
None
AdvisorY Annunciations
Annunciation Window Text
AVN FAN 1 FAIL
AVN FAN 2 FAIL
MFD FAN FAIL
PFD 1 FAN FAIL
PFD 2 FAN FAIL
Message Advisory Alerts
Advisory alerts issue a flashing ‘ADVISORY’ Softkey annunciation. Pressing the ADVISORY Softkey
acknowledges the presence of the advisory alert and displays the alert text message in the Alerts Window.
Alerts Window Message
TAWS GEAR FAULT – Landing Gear detected in the DOWN position.
TAWS FLAP FAULT – Flaps detected in the LDG position.
WOW FAULT – Miscompare between weight on wheels inputs.
WOW INVALID – Weight on wheels inputs invalid.
ESP OFF – ESP selected off.
ESP FAIL – ESP is inoperative.
ESP DEGRADE – ESP AOA mode is inoperative.
ESP DEGRADE – ESP IAS mode is inoperative.
YD OFF – AP engaged without Yaw Damper
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Audio Alert/Voice Message
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
633
Appendix A
Aural Alerts
The following aural alerts are announced by the system using a voice of male or female gender (see the
AUX - System Setup Page for the default configured voice gender; contact a Garmin-authorized service center
to change the audio alert voice). Terrain Awareness and Warning System voice alerts are also generated (refer
to the TAWS Alerts section).
Aural Alert
“Minimums”
Description
The aircraft has descended below the preset minimum descent altitude or decision
altitude.
“Vertical track”
The aircraft is one minute from Top of Descent. Issued only when vertical navigation is
enabled.
“Airspeed”
The aircraft is in an underspeed condition. See the AFCS section for more details.
“Engaging autopilot”
The ESP system is engaging the autopilot. See the AFCS section for more details.
“Traffic”
Played when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is issued with the TIS system, the optional GTS 820
TAS system, or the optional GTS 850 TCAS system. See the Hazard Avoidance section
for additional details on GTS 820/850 voice alerts.
“TIS Not Available”
The aircraft is outside the Traffic Information Service (TIS) coverage area.
“Traffic, Traffic”
Played when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is issued with the optional SKY 497/SKY899 TAS
system, or the optional KTA 870 TAS system. See the Skywatch PG or KTA 870 PG for
additional details on voice alerts.
“Traffic”
Played for each subsequent TA (KTA 870 only).
Played when the optional traffic system passes a pilot-initiated self test.
“Traffic Advisory System Test Passed” - SKY 497 TAS
“SKYWATCH System Test Passed”
- SKY 899 TAS
“TAS System Test OK”
- KTA 870 TAS
“TAS System Test Passed”
- GTS 820 TAS
“TCAS System Test Passed”
- GTS 850 TCAS
Played when the optional traffic system fails a pilot-initiated self test.
“Traffic Advisory System Test Failed” - SKY 497 TAS
“SKYWATCH System Test Failed”
- SKY 899 TAS
“TAS System Test Fail”
- KTA 870 TAS
“TAS System Test Fail”
- GTS 820 TAS
“TCAS System Test Fail”
- GTS 850 TCAS
“One o’clock” through
Intruder bearing (GTS 820/850 only)
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if Intruder relative altitude (GTS 820/850 only)
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”,
Intruder distance (GTS 820/850 only)
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
634
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix A
Comparator Annunciations
The Comparator monitors critical values generated by redundant sensors. If differences in the sensors exceed
a specified amount, this discrepency is annunciated in the Comparator Window as a ‘MISCOMP’ (miscompare).
If one or both of the sensed values are unavailable, it is annunciated as a ‘NO COMP’ (no compare) as seen in
Figure A-4. The following is a list of the possible annunciations:
Comparator
Window
Figure A-4 Sensor Comparator Window
Comparator Window Text
ALT MISCOMP
IAS MISCOMP
HDG MISCOMP
PIT MISCOMP
ROL MISCOMP
ALT NO COMP
IAS NO COMP
HDG NO COMP
PIT NO COMP
ROL NO COMP
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Condition
Difference in altitude sensors is > 200 ft.
If both airspeed sensors detect < 35 knots, this is inhibited.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 35 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 10 knots.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 80 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 7 knots.
Difference in heading sensors is > 6 degrees.
Difference in pitch sensors is > 5 degrees.
Difference in roll sensors is > 6 degrees.
No data from one or both altitude sensors.
No data from one or both airspeed sensors.
No data from one or both heading sensors.
No data from one or both pitch sensors.
No data from one or both roll sensors..
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
635
Appendix A
Reversionary Sensor Annunciations
Reversionary sensor selection is annunciated in the Reversionary Sensor Window, as shown in Figure A-5.
These annunciations reflect reversionary sensors selected on one or both PFDs. Pressing the SENSOR Softkey
gives access to ADC1, ADC2, AHRS1, and AHRS2 Softkeys. These softkeys allow manual switching of sensors. In
the case of certain types of sensor failures, the G1000 may make some sensor selections automatically. The GPS
sensor cannot be switched manually.
Reversionary
Sensor
Window
Figure A-5 Reversionary Sensor Windows
Reversionary Sensor
Window Text
BOTH ON ADC1
BOTH ON ADC2
BOTH ON AHRS1
BOTH ON AHRS2
BOTH ON GPS1
BOTH ON GPS2
USING ADC1
USING ADC2
USING AHRS1
USING AHRS2
USING GPS1
USING GPS2
Condition
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number one Air Data Computer.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number two Air Data Computer.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number one Attitude & Heading Reference System.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number two Attitude & Heading Reference System.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number one GPS receiver.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number two GPS receiver.
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 Air Data Computer.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 Air Data Computer.
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 AHRS.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 AHRS.
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 GPS.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 GPS.
G1000 System Annunciations
When a new message is issued, the ALERTS Softkey flashes to alert the flight crew of a new message. It
continues to flash until acknowledged by pressing the softkey. Active messages are displayed in white text.
Messages that have become inactive change to gray text. The ALERTS Softkey flashes if the state of a displayed
message changes or a new message is displayed. The inactive messages can be removed from the Message
Window by pressing the flashing ALERTS Softkey.
The G1000 System Messages convey messages to the flight crew regarding problems with the G1000 system.
Typically, a large red ‘X’ appears in a window when a related LRU fails or detects invalid data.
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red ‘X’ is typically displayed on windows associated with
the failed data. The following section describes various system annunciations. Refer to the AFM/POH for
additional information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
636
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix A
NOTE: Upon power-up of the G1000 system, certain windows remain invalid as G1000 equipment begins to
initialize. All windows should be operational within one minute of power-up. Should any window continue
to remain flagged, the G1000 system should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized repair facility.
System
Annunciation
Red ‘X’
Messages Window
Alerts Softkey Annunciation
Figure A-6 G1000 System Messages
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Units
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Units
GDC 74B Air
Data Computer
GRS 77 AHRS
Or
GMU 44
Magnetometer
GEA 71 Engine
Airframe Unit
Or
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Unit
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Units
GDC 74B Air Data Computer
GTX 33 Transponder Or GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Units
Figure A-7 G1000 System Failure Annunciations
NOTE: Upon power-up, certain windows remain invalid as G1000 equipment begins to initialize. All windows
should be operational within one minute of power-up. If any window continues to remain flagged, the
G1000 System should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized repair facility.
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
637
Appendix A
System Annunciation
Comment
Attitude and Heading Reference System is aligning.
Display system is not receiving attitude information from the AHRS.
Display system is not receiving airspeed input from air data computer.
Display system is not receiving valid heading input from AHRS.
Display system is not receiving altitude input from the air data computer.
Display system is not receiving vertical speed input from the air data computer.
Display system is not receiving valid transponder information.
GPS information is either not present or is invalid for navigation use.
Note that AHRS utilizes GPS inputs during normal operation. AHRS operation may be degraded if
GPS signals are not present (see AFM/POH).
Other Various Red X
Indications
638
A red ‘X’ through any other display field (such as engine instrumentation display) indicates that the
field is not receiving valid data.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix A
G1000 System Message Advisories
This section describes various G1000 system message advisories. Certain messages are issued due to an LRU
or an LRU function failure. Such messages are normally accompanied by a corresponding red ‘X’ annunciation
as shown previously in the G1000 System Annunciation section.
Note: This Section provides information regarding G1000 message advisories that may be displayed by
the system. Knowledge of the aircraft, systems, flight conditions, and other existing operational priorities
must be considered when responding to a message. Always use sound pilot judgment. The AFM/POH takes
precedence over any conflicting guidance found in this section.
MFD & PFD Message Advisories
Message
DATA LOST – Pilot stored data was
lost. Recheck settings.
XTALK ERROR – A flight display
crosstalk error has occurred.
PFD1 SERVICE – PFD1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
PFD2 SERVICE – PFD2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
MFD1 SERVICE – MFD1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
MANIFEST – PFD1 software
mismatch. Communication halted.
MANIFEST – PFD2 software
mismatch. Communication halted.
MANIFEST – MFD1 software
mismatch. Communication halted.
PFD1 CONFIG – PFD1 configuration
error. Config service req’d.
PFD2 CONFIG – PFD2 configuration
error. Config service req’d.
MFD1 CONFIG – MFD1 configuration
error. Config service req’d.
SW MISMATCH – GDU software
version mismatch. Xtalk is off.
PFD1 COOLING – PFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
PFD2 COOLING – PFD2 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
MFD1 COOLING – MFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Comments
The pilot profile data was lost. System reverts to default pilot profile and settings. The
pilot may reconfigure the MFD & PFD with preferred settings, if desired.
The MFD and PFD are not communicating with each other. The G1000 system should
be serviced.
The PFD and/or MFD self-test has detected a problem. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The PFD and/or MFD has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The PFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
G1000 system should be serviced.
The MFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
G1000 system should be serviced.
The MFD and PFD have different software versions installed. The G1000 system
should be serviced.
The PFD and/or MFD is overheating and is reducing power consumption by dimming
the display. If problem persists, the G1000 system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
639
Appendix A
Message
PFD1 KEYSTK – PFD1 [key name] Key
is stuck.
PFD2 KEYSTK – PFD2 [key name] Key
is stuck
MFD1 KEYSTK – MFD1 [key name]
Key is stuck.
CNFG MODULE – PFD1 configuration
module is inoperative.
PFD1 VOLTAGE – PFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage.
PFD2 VOLTAGE – PFD2 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage.
MFD1 VOLTAGE – MFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage.
Comments
A key is stuck on the PFD and/or MFD bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing
it several times. The G1000 system should be serviced if the problem persists.
The PFD1 configuration module backup memory has failed. The G1000 system should
be serviced.
The PFD1 voltage is low. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The PFD2 voltage is low. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The MFD voltage is low. The G1000 system should be serviced.
Database Message Advisories
Message
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 navigation
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1
navigation database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2
navigation database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 basemap
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 basemap
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 basemap
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 terrain database
error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 terrain database
error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain
database missing.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 terrain database
missing.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 terrain database
missing.
640
Comments
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the navigation database. Attempt to
reload the navigation database. If problem persists, the G1000 system should be
serviced.
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the basemap database. The G1000 system
should be serviced.
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Ensure that the
terrain card is properly inserted in display. Replace terrain card. If problem persists,
the G1000 system should be serviced.
The terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
Ensure that the terrain card is properly inserted in the specified display. Replace
terrain card. If problem persists, the G1000 system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix A
Message
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 obstacle
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 obstacle
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
database missing.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 obstacle
database missing.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 obstacle
database missing.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 airport terrain
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 airport terrain
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 airport terrain
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 airport terrain
database missing.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 airport terrain
database missing.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 airport terrain
database missing.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Chartview
database error exists.
Comments
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the obstacle database. Ensure that the
data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the G1000
system should be serviced.
The obstacle database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified
LRU. Ensure that the terrain card is properly inserted in the specified display.
Replace terrain card. If problem persists, the G1000 system should be serviced.
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the airport terrain database. Ensure that
the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the G1000
system should be serviced.
The airport terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the
specified LRU. Ensure that the terrain card is properly inserted in the specified
display. Replace terrain card. If problem persists, the G1000 system should be
serviced.
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi database. Ensure that the
data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the G1000
system should be serviced.
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the Chartview database (optional feature).
Ensure that the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem
persists, the G1000 system should be serviced.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 FliteCharts
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the FliteCharts database (optional feature).
database error exists.
Ensure that the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem
persists, the G1000 system should be serviced.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Airport
The MFD detected a failure in the Airport Directory database. Ensure the data card
Directory database error exists.
is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
DB MISMATCH – Navigation database The PFDs and MFD have different navigation database versions installed. Crossfill is
version mismatch. Xtalk is off.
off. Install correct navigation database version in both displays.
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
641
Appendix A
Message
Comments
DB MISMATCH – Navigation database The PFDs and MFD have different navigation database types installed (Americas,
type mismatch. Xtalk is off.
European, etc.). Crossfill is off. Install correct navigation database type in both
displays.
DB MISMATCH – Terrain database
The PFDs and MFD have different terrain database versions installed. Crossfill is off.
version mismatch.
Install correct terrain database version in both displays.
DB MISMATCH – Terrain database type The PFDs and MFD have different terrain database types installed. Crossfill is off.
mismatch.
Install correct terrain database type in both displays.
DB MISMATCH – Obstacle database
The PFDs and MFD have different obstacle database versions installed. Crossfill is
version mismatch.
off. Install correct obstacle database version in both displays.
DB MISMATCH – Airport Terrain
The PFDs and MFD have different airport terrrain databases installed. Crossfill is off.
database mismatch.
Install correct airport terrain database in both displays.
GMA 1347D Message Advisories
Message
GMA1 FAIL – GMA1 is inoperative.
GMA2 FAIL – GMA2 is inoperative.
GMA XTALK – GMA crosstalk error
has occurred.
GMA1 CONFIG – GMA1 configuration
error. Config service req’d.
GMA2 CONFIG – GMA2 configuration
error. Config service req’d.
MANIFEST – GMA1 software
mismatch. Communication halted.
MANIFEST – GMA2 software
mismatch. Communication halted.
GMA1 SERVICE – GMA1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
GMA2 SERVICE – GMA2 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
Comments
The audio panel self-test has detected a failure. The audio panel is unavailable. The
G1000 system should be serviced.
An error has occurred in transferring data between the two GMAs. The G1000 system
should be serviced.
The audio panel configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory.
The G1000 system should be serviced.
The audio panel has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The audio panel self-test has detected a problem in the unit. Certain audio functions may
still be available, and the audio panel may still be usable. The G1000 system should be
serviced when possible.
GIA 63W Message Advisories
Message
GIA1 CONFIG – GIA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GIA2 CONFIG – GIA2 config error.
Config service req’d.
GIA1 CONFIG – GIA1 audio config
error. Config service req’d.
GIA2 CONFIG – GIA2 audio config
error. Config service req’d.
642
Comments
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 configuration settings do not match backup configuration
memory. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 have an error in the audio configuration. The G1000 system
should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix A
Message
GIA1 COOLING – GIA1 temperature
too low.
GIA2 COOLING – GIA2 temperature
too low.
GIA1 COOLING – GIA1 over
temperature.
GIA2 COOLING – GIA2 over
temperature.
GIA1 SERVICE – GIA1 needs service.
Return the unit for repair.
GIA2 SERVICE – GIA2 needs service.
Return the unit for repair.
HW MISMATCH – GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA1 communication
halted.
HW MISMATCH – GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA2 communication
halted.
MANIFEST – GIA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – GIA2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – GFC software mismatch,
communication halted.
COM1 TEMP – COM1 over temp.
Reducing transmitter power.
COM2 TEMP – COM2 over temp.
Reducing transmitter power.
COM1 SERVICE – COM1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
COM2 SERVICE – COM2 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
COM1 PTT – COM1 push-to-talk key
is stuck.
COM2 PTT – COM2 push-to-talk key
is stuck.
COM1 RMT XFR – COM1 remote
transfer key is stuck.
COM2 RMT XFR – COM2 remote
transfer key is stuck.
LOI – GPS integrity lost. Crosscheck
with other NAVS.
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Comments
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 temperature is too low to operate correctly. Allow units to
warm up to operating temperature.
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 temperature is too high. If problem persists, the G1000 system
should be serviced.
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 self-test has detected a problem in the unit. The G1000 system
should be serviced.
A GIA mismatch has been detected, where only one is SBAS capable. The G1000
system should be serviced.
The GIA1 and/or GIA 2 has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
Incorrect servo software is installed, or gain settings are incorrect.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in COM1 and/or COM2. The
transmitter operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the G1000 system
should be serviced.
The system has detected a failure in COM1 and/or COM2. COM1 and/or COM2 may
still be usable. The G1000 system should be serviced when possible.
The COM1 and/or COM2 external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or
“pressed”) position. Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation.
If the problem persists, the G1000 system should be serviced.
The COM1 and/or COM2 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”)
position. Press the transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem
persists, the G1000 system should be serviced.
GPS integrity is insufficient for the current phase of flight.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
643
Appendix A
Message
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. Insufficient satellites.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. Position error.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. GPS fail.
ABORT APR – Loss of GPS navigation.
Abort approach.
APR DWNGRADE – Approach
downgraded.
TRUE APR – True north approach.
Change HDG reference to TRUE.
GPS1 SERVICE – GPS1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GPS2 SERVICE – GPS2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
NAV1 SERVICE – NAV1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
NAV2 SERVICE – NAV2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
NAV1 RMT XFR – NAV1 remote
transfer key is stuck.
NAV2 RMT XFR – NAV2 remote
transfer key is stuck.
G/S1 FAIL – G/S1 is inoperative.
G/S2 FAIL – G/S2 is inoperative.
G/S1 SERVICE – G/S1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
G/S2 SERVICE – G/S2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
Comments
Loss of GPS navigation due to insufficient satellites.
Loss of GPS navigation due to position error.
Loss of GPS navigation due to GPS failure.
Abort approach due to loss of GPS navigation.
Vertical guidance generated by SBAS is unavailable, use LNAV only minimums..
Displayed after passing the first waypoint of a true north approach when the nav
angle is set to ‘AUTO’.
A failure has been detected in the GPS1 and/or GPS2 receiver. The receiver may still
be available. The G1000 system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the NAV1 and/or NAV2 receiver. The receiver may still
be available. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The remote NAV1 and/or NAV2 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”)
state. Press the transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists,
the G1000 system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 1 and/or receiver 2. The G1000
system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 1 and/or receiver 2. The receiver
may still be available. The G1000 system should be serviced when possible.
GEA 71 Message Advisories
Message
GEA1 CONFIG – GEA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GEA2 CONFIG – GEA2 config error.
Config service req’d.
MANIFEST – GEA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – GEA2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
644
Comments
The GEA1 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The G1000 system should be serviced.
The GEA2 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The G1000 system should be serviced.
The #1 GEA 71 has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The #2 GEA 71 has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix A
GTX 33 Message Advisories
Message
XPDR1 CONFIG – XPDR1 config error.
Config service req’d.
XPDR2 CONFIG – XPDR2 config error.
Config service req’d.
MANIFEST – GTX1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – GTX2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
XPDR1 SRVC – XPDR1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
XPDR2 SRVC – XPDR2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
XPDR1 FAIL – XPDR1 is inoperative.
XPDR2 FAIL – XPDR2 is inoperative.
Comments
The transponder configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration
memory. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The transponder configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration
memory. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The transponder has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The transponder has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The #1 transponder should be serviced when possible.
The #2 transponder should be serviced when possible.
There is no communication with the #1 transponder.
There is no communication with the #2 transponder.
GRS 77 Message Advisories
Message
AHRS1 TAS – AHRS1 not receiving
valid airspeed.
AHRS2 TAS – AHRS2 not receiving
valid airspeed.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 using backup
GPS source.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 using backup
GPS source.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
any GPS information.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 not receiving
any GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
backup GPS information.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 not receiving
backup GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 operating
exclusively in no-GPS mode.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 operating
exclusively in no-GPS mode.
AHRS MAG DB – AHRS magnetic
model database version mismatch.
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Comments
The #1 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS
relies on GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The G1000 system should
be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS
relies on GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The G1000 system should
be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is using the backup GPS path. Primary GPS path has failed. The G1000
system should be serviced when possible.
The #2 AHRS is using the backup GPS path. Primary GPS path has failed. The G1000
system should be serviced when possible.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving any or any useful GPS information. Check AFMS
limitations. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving any or any useful GPS information. Check AFMS
limitations. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS information. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS information. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The #1 AHRS is operating exclusively in no-GPS mode. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The #2 AHRS is operating exclusively in no-GPS mode. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The #1 AHRS and #2 AHRS magnetic model database versions do not match.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
645
Appendix A
Message
AHRS1 SRVC – AHRS1 Magnetic-field
model needs update.
AHRS2 SRVC – AHRS2 Magnetic-field
model needs update.
GEO LIMITS – AHRS1 too far North/
South, no magnetic compass.
GEO LIMITS – AHRS2 too far North/
South, no magnetic compass.
MANIFEST – GRS1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – GRS2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
Comments
The #1 AHRS earth magnetic field model is out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The #2 AHRS earth magnetic field model is out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The aircraft is outside geographical limits for approved AHRS operation. Heading is
flagged as invalid.
The #1 AHRS has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
GMU 44 Message Advisories
Message
HDG FAULT – AHRS1 magnetometer
fault has occurred.
HDG FAULT – AHRS2 magnetometer
fault has occurred.
MANIFEST – GMU1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – GMU2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
Comments
A fault has occurred in the #1 GMU 44. Heading is flagged as invalid. The AHRS uses
GPS for backup mode operation. The G1000 system should be serviced.
A fault has occurred in the #2 GMU 44. Heading is flagged as invalid. The AHRS uses
GPS for backup mode operation. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The GMU 44 has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
GDL 69A Message Advisories
Message
GDL69 CONFIG – GDL 69 config
error. Config service req’d.
GDL69 FAIL – GDL 69 has failed.
Comments
GDL 69 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The G1000 system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GDL 69. The receiver is unavailable. The G1000
system should be serviced
MANIFEST – GDL software mismatch, The GDL 69 has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
communication halted.
GDC 74B Message Advisories
Message
ADC1 ALT EC – ADC1 altitude error
correction is unavailable.
ADC2 ALT EC – ADC2 altitude error
correction is unavailable.
ADC1 AS EC – ADC1 airspeed error
correction is unavailable.
ADC2 AS EC – ADC2 airspeed error
correction is unavailable.
646
Comments
GDC1 or GDC2 is reporting that the altitude error correction is unavailable. The
G1000 system should be serviced.
GDC1 or GDC2 is reporting that the airspeed error correction is unavailable. The
G1000 system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix A
Message
MANIFEST – GDC1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – GDC2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
Comments
The GDC 74B has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
GCU 477 Message Advisories
Message
GCU CNFG – GCU Config error.
Config service req’d.
GCU FAIL – GCU is inoperative.
MANIFEST – GCU software
mismatch, ommunication halted.
GCU KEYSTK – GCU [keyname] Key
is stuck
Comments
GCU 477 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The G1000 system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GCU 477. The GCU 477 is unavailable.
The GCU 477 has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
A key is stuck on the GCU 477 bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it
several times. The G1000 system should be serviced if the problem persists.
GMC 710 Message Advisories
Message
GMC CNFG – GMC Config error.
Config service req’d.
GMC FAIL – GMC is inoperative.
MANIFEST – GMC software
mismatch, communication halted.
GMC KEYSTK – GMC [keyname] Key
is stuck
Comments
Error in the configuration of the GMC 710.
A failure has been detected in the GMC 710. The GMC 710 is unavailable.
The GMC 710 has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
A key is stuck on the GCMC 710 bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it
several times. The G1000 system should be serviced if the problem persists.
GWX 68 Message Advisories
Message
GWX CONFIG – GWX config error.
Config service req’d.
GWX FAIL – GWX is inoperative.
GWX SERVICE – Needs service.
Return unit for repair.
WX ALERT – Possible severe weather
ahead.
MANIFEST – GWX software
mismatch, communication halted.
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Comments
GWX 68 configuration settings do not match those of the GDU configuration. The
G1000 system should be serviced.
The GDU is not recieving status packet from the GWX 68 or the GWX 68 is reporting
a fault. The GWX 68 radar system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GWX 68. The GWX 68 may still be usable.
The GWX 68 indicates severe weather within ±10 degrees of the aircraft heading at a
range of 80 to 320 nm.
The GWX 68 has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
647
Appendix A
GTS 820/850 TRAFFIC ADVISORY SYSTEM
Message Advisory
GTS CONFIG – GTS Config error.
Config service req'd.
MANIFEST – GTS software mismatch,
communication halted.
Comments
The GTS and GDU have different copies of the GTS configuration, or the Mode S
address is invalid. The G1000® system should be serviced.
The GTS has incorrect software installed. The G1000® system should be serviced.
GSR 56 Message Advisories
Message
GSR1 FAIL – GSR1 has failed.
Comments
A failure has been detected in the #1 GSR 56. The system should be serviced.
GDL 59 Message Advisories
Message
GDL59 CONFIG – GDL 59 config
error. Config service req’d.
GDL59 FAIL – GDL 59 has failed.
GDL59 SERVICE – GDL 59 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
GDL59 RTR FAIL – The GDL 59
router has failed.
REGISTER GFDS – Data services
are inoperative, register w/ GFDS.
MANIFEST – GDL software
mismatch, communication halted.
Comments
GDL 59 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GDL 59. The receiver is unavailable. The system
should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GDL 59. The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GDL 59 router. The system should be serviced.
The GDL 59 is not registered with Garmin Flight Data Services, or it’s current registration
data has failed authentication.
The GDL 59 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
Miscellaneous Message Advisories
Message
Comments
FPL WPT LOCK – Flight plan waypoint Upon power-up, the G1000 system detects that a stored flight plan waypoint is
is locked.
locked. This occurs when an navigation database update eliminates an obsolete
waypoint. The flight plan cannot find the specified waypoint and flags this message.
This can also occur with user waypoints in a flight plan that is deleted.
Remove the waypoint from the flight plan if it no longer exists in any database,
Or - update the waypoint name/identifier to reflect the new information.
FPL WPT MOVE – Flight plan
The system has detected that a waypoint coordinate has changed due to a new
waypoint moved.
navigation database update. Verify that stored flight plans contain correct waypoint
locations.
TIMER EXPIRD – Timer has expired.
The system notifies the pilot that the timer has expired.
DB CHANGE – Database changed.
This occurs when a stored flight plan contains a procedure that is no longer consistent
Verify user modified procedures.
with the navigation database. This alert is issued only after an navigation database
update. Verify that the user-modified procedures in stored flight plans are correct and
up to date.
648
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix A
Message
DB CHANGE – Database changed.
Verify stored airways.
ESP CONFIG – ESP config error.
Config service req’d.
FPL TRUNC – Flight plan has been
truncated.
LOCKED FPL – Cannot navigate
locked flight plan.
WPT ARRIVAL – Arriving at waypoint
-[xxxx]
STEEP TURN – Steep turn ahead.
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead less
than 10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and
ahead.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less
than 2 nm.
APPR INACTV – Approach is not
active.
SLCT FREQ – Select appropriate
frequency for approach.
SLCT NAV – Select NAV on CDI for
approach.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
bad geometry.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
invalid leg type.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
past IAF.
UNABLE V WPT – Can’t reach current
vertical waypoint.
VNV – Unavailable. Unsupported leg
type in flight plan.
VNV – Unavailable. Excessive
crosstrack error.
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Comments
This occurs when a stored flight plan contains an airway that is no longer consistent
with the navigation database. This alert is issued only after an navigation database
update. Verify use of airways in stored flight plans and reload airways as needed.
The ESP function is not installed correctly. ESP is not available. The system should be
serviced.
This occurs when a newly installed navigation database eliminates an obsolete
approach or arrival used by a stored flight plan. The obsolete procedure is removed
from the flight plan. Update flight plan with current arrival or approach.
This occurs when the pilot attempts to activate a stored flight plan that contains
locked waypoint. Remove locked waypoint from flight plan. Update flight plan with
current waypoint.
Arriving at waypoint [xxxx], where [xxxx] is the waypoint name.
A steep turn is 15 seconds ahead. Prepare to turn.
The aircraft is inside the special use airspace.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft will penetrate the special use
airspace within 10 minutes.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
The system notifies the pilot that the loaded approach is not active. Activate
approach when required.
The system notifies the pilot to load the approach frequency for the appropriate NAV
receiver. Select the correct frequency for the approach.
The system notifies the pilot to set the CDI to the correct NAV receiver. Set the CDI to
the correct NAV receiver.
Bad parallel track geometry.
Invalid leg type for parallel offset.
IAF waypoint for parallel offset has been passed.
The current vertical waypoint can not be reached within the maximum flight path
angle and vertical speed constraints. The system automatically transitions to the next
vertical waypoint.
The lateral flight plan contains a procedure turn, vector, or other unsupported leg
type prior to the active vertical waypoint. This prevents vertical guidance to the active
vertical waypoint.
The current crosstrack exceeds the limit, causing vertical deviation to go invalid.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
649
Appendix A
Message
VNV – Unavailable. Excessive track
angle error.
VNV – Unavailable. Parallel course
selected.
NO WGS84 WPT – Non WGS 84
waypoint for navigation -[xxxx]
TRAFFIC FAIL – Traffic device has
failed.
STRMSCP FAIL – Stormscope has
failed.
FAILED PATH – A data path has failed.
MAG VAR WARN – Large magnetic
variance. Verify all course angles.
Comments
The current track angle error exceeds the limit, causing the vertical deviation to go
invalid.
A parallel course has been selected, causing the vertical deviation to go invalid.
The position of the selected waypoint [xxxx] is not calculated based on the WGS84
map reference datum and may be positioned in error as displayed. Do not use GPS to
navigate to the selected non-WGS84 waypoint.
The system is no longer receiving data from the traffic system. The traffic device
should be serviced.
Stormscope has failed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
A data path connected to the GDU or the GIA 63/W has failed.
The GDU’s internal model cannot determine the exact magnetic variance for
geographic locations near the magnetic poles. Displayed magnetic course angles may
differ from the actual magnetic heading by more than 2°.
Message criteria entered by the user.
Synthetic Vision is disabled because the aircraft is not within the boundaries of the
installed terrain database.
Synthetic Vision is disabled because a terrain database of sufficient resolution (9 arcsecond or better) is not currently installed.
Selected course for LOC1 differs from published localizer course by more than 10
degrees.
Selected course for LOC2 differs from published localizer course by more than 10
degrees.
The SD card was removed from the top card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The SD
card needs to be reinserted.
The SD card was removed from the bottom card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The
SD card needs to be reinserted.
SCHEDULER [#] – <message>.
SVS – SVS DISABLED: Out of available
terrain region.
SVS – SVS DISABLED: Terrain DB
resolution too low.
CHECK CRS – Database course for
LOC1 / [LOC ID] is [CRS]°.
CHECK CRS – Database course for
LOC2 / [LOC ID] is [CRS]°.
[PFD1, PFD2, or MFD1] CARD 1 REM
– Card 1 was removed. Reinsert card.
[PFD1, PFD2, or MFD1] CARD 2 REM
– Card 2 was removed. Reinsert card.
[PFD1, PFD2, or MFD1] CARD 1 ERR
The SD card in the top card slot of the specified PFD or MFD contains invalid data.
– Card 1 is invalid.
[PFD1, PFD2, or MFD1] CARD 2 ERR
The SD card in the bottom card slot of the specified PFD or MFD contains invalid data.
– Card 2 is invalid.
650
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix A
AFCS Alerts
System Status Field
Figure A-8 AFCS System Status Field
The following alert annunciations appear in the AFCS System Status field on the PFD.
Condition
Pitch Failure
Annunciation Description
Pitch axis control failure. AP is inoperative.
Roll Failure
Roll axis control failure. AP is inoperative.
MET Switch Stuck,
or Pitch Trim Axis
Control Failure
If annunciated when AP is engaged, take control of the aircraft and disengage the
autopilot. If annunciated when AP is not engaged, move each half of the MET
switch separately to check if a stuck switch is causing the annunciation.
Yaw Damper Failure
YD control failure; AP also inoperative
System Failure
AP and MET are unavailable. FD may still be available.
Elevator Mistrim Up
A condition has developed causing the pitch servo to provide a sustained force. Be
prepared to apply nose up control wheel force upon autopilot disconnect.
A condition has developed causing the pitch servo to provide a sustained force. Be
prepared to apply nose down control wheel force upon autopilot disconnect.
A condition has developed causing the roll servo to provide a sustained left force.
Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and observe any maximum fuel imbalance
limits.
A condition has developed causing the roll servo to provide a sustained right force.
Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
A condition has developed causing the yaw servo to provide a sustained force. Ensure
the slip/skid indicator is centered and observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
A condition has developed causing the yaw servo to provide a sustained force.
Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and observe any maximum fuel imbalance
limits.
Performing preflight system test. Upon completion of the test, the aural alert will be
heard.
Preflight system test has failed.
Elevator Mistrim
Down
Aileron Mistrim Left
Aileron Mistrim
Right
Rudder Mistrim Left
Rudder Mistrim
Right
Preflight Test
NOTE: Do not press the AP/YD DISC TRIM INTRPT switch during servo power-up and preflight system tests
as this may cause the preflight system test to fail or never to start (if servos fail their power-up tests). Power
must be cycled to the servos to remedy the situation.
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
651
Appendix A
TAWS ALERTS
Annunciations appear on both PFDs and the MFD. Pop-up alerts appear only on the MFD.
PFD/MFD TAWS
Page
Annunciation
Alert Type
Additional TAWS Page
Annunciation
Aural Message
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
or
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up” †
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning
(ITI)
or
Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
or
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up” †
†
†
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance Warning (ROC)
or
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up” †
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning
(IOI)
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
or
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up” †
†
†
Excessive Descent Rate Warning
(EDR)
“Pull Up”
or
“ [Whoop, Whoop]“Pull Up”
*Excessive Closure Rate Warning
(ECR)
[Whoop, Whoop]“Pull Up”
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution
(ITI)
or
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain” †
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
or
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain” †
†
†
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance Caution (ROC)
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution
(IOI)
or
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle” †
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
or
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle” †
†
†
Premature Descent Alert Caution
(PDA)
“Too Low, Terrain”
Excessive Descent Rate Caution
(EDR)
“Sink Rate”
*Excessive Closure Rate Caution
(ECR)
“Terrain, Terrain”
Negative Climb Rate Caution (NCR)
†
or
“Don’t Sink” †
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
*Flight Into Terrain High Speed
Caution (FIT)
“Too Low, Terrain”
*Flight Into Terrain Gear Caution
(FIT)
“Too Low, Gear”
* TAWS-A Only
† Default Selection
652
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix A
PFD/MFD TAWS
Page
Annunciation
Alert Type
Additional TAWS Page
Annunciation
Aural Message
*Flight Into Terrain Flaps Caution
(FIT)
“Too Low, Flaps”
*Flight Into Terrain Takeoff Caution
(FIT)
“Too Low, Terrain”
*Glide Slope Deviation Caution
(GSD)
(depends on approach type)
Altitude Voice Callout (VCO)
(all except “Five-Hundred” are
configurable)
or
or
None
None
“Glide Slope”
or
“Glide Path”
“Five-Hundred” or *“Four-Hundred” or *“ThreeHundred” or *“Two-Hundred” or *“One-Hundred”
* TAWS-A Only
† Default Selection
TAWS System Status Annunciations
PFD/MFD
Additional
TAWS Page
TAWS Page
Annunciation Annunciation
Alert Type
System Test in progress
System Test pass
None
TAWS System Test Fail; Terrain,
Airport Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid on all GDUs;
software mismatch among GDUs;
TAWS audio fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid. TAWS
operating with PFD Terrain or Obstacle
databases
No GPS position
Excessively degraded GPS signal, or
out of database coverage area
Sufficient GPS signal reception
restored
†
None
None
TAWS Alerting is disabled
*Radar Altimeter invalid, Vertical
Speed Invalid, GPS and Baro Altitude
invalid, Software mismatch among
GDUs, TAWS configuration mismatch
among GDUs, TAWS audio fault
190-00928-02 Rev. A
†
Aural Message
TAWS TEST
None
None
“TAWS System Test OK”
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
TERRAIN
DATABASE
FAILURE
None
TAWS Alert
Types
Not Available
None Available
FLTA, PDA
NO GPS
POSITION
None
“TAWS Not Available”
“TAWS Not Available”
FLTA, PDA,
GSD††, VCO
FLTA, PDA
None
None
“TAWS Available”
(aural message only in flight)
None
FLTA, PDA
None
“GPWS System Failure”
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
EDR, ECR, NCR,
FIT, GSD
653
Appendix A
PFD/MFD
Additional
TAWS Page
TAWS Page
Annunciation Annunciation
Alert Type
Aural Message
*GPWS Alerting is disabled
None
None
*Flap Override is enabled
None
None
*Glideslope/Glidepath Alerting is
disabled
None
None
TAWS Alert
Types
Not Available
EDR, ECR, NCR,
FIT
FIT alerts based
on flap position
GSD
or
* TAWS-A Only
† VCO alerts are not issued if both TAWS and GPWS systems have failed or are not available.
†† GSD alert will be available if a valid ILS is being used for navigation, even if no valid GPS signal is being received.
Flight plan Import/Export Messages
In some circumstances, some messages may appear in conjunction with others.
Flight Plan Import/Export Results
‘Flight plan successfully imported.’
‘File contained user waypoints only. User
waypoints imported successfully. No stored
flight plan data was modified.’
‘No flight plan files found to import.’
‘Flight plan import failed.’
‘Flight plan partially imported.’
‘File contained user waypoints only.’
‘Too many points. Flight plan truncated.’
‘Some waypoints not loaded. Waypoints
locked.’
‘User waypoint database full. Not all loaded.’
‘One or more user waypoints renamed.’
‘Flight plan successfully exported.’
‘Flight export failed.’
654
Description
A flight plan file stored on the SD card was successfully imported as a stored flight plan.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints. These
waypoints have been saved to the system user waypoints. No flight plans stored in the
system have been modified.
The SD card contains no flight plan data.
Flight plan data was not successfully imported from the SD card.
Some flight plan waypoints were successfully imported from the SD card, however others
had errors and were not imported. A partial stored flight plan now exists in the system.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints. One or
more of these waypoints did not import successfully.
The flight plan on the SD card contains more waypoints than the system can support. The
flight plan was imported with as many waypoints as possible.
The flight plan on the SD card contains one or more waypoints that the system cannot find
in the navigation database. The flight plan has been imported, but must be edited within
the system before it can be activated for use.
The flight plan file on the SD card contains user waypoints. The quantity of stored user
waypoints has exceeded system capacity, therefore not all the user waypoints on the SD
card have been imported. Any flight plan user waypoints that were not imported are
locked in the flight plan. The flight plan must be edited within the system before it can be
activated for use.
One or more imported user waypoints were renamed when imported due to naming
conflicts with waypoints already existing in the system.
The stored flight plan was successfully exported to the SD card.
The stored flight plan was not successfully exported to the SD card. The SD card may not
have sufficient available memory or the card may have been removed prematurely.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix B
SD Card Use
The system uses Secure Digital (SD) cards to load and store various types of data. For basic flight operations,
SD cards are required for database storage as well as Jeppesen navigation and ChartView database updates.
CAUTION: Do not load Jeppesen navigation data (except ChartView) onto Garmin Supplemental Data
Cards.
NOTE: Loading a database in the system prior to its effective date will result in the expiration date on the
power-up screen and the effective date on the AUX-System Status Page being displayed in yellow.
Jeppesen Databases
The Jeppesen navigation database is updated on a 28-day cycle. The ChartView database is updated on a
14-day cycle. If the ChartView database is not updated within 70 days of the expiration date, ChartView will
no longer function. Both of these databases are provided directly from Jeppesen.
Note: The Jeppesen aviation navigation database is now referred to as the ‘navigation database’. Previously
this database had been referred to as the ‘aviation database’.
The ChartView database should be copied to the Garmin supplied Supplemental Data Card which will reside
in the bottom card slot on the MFD. The navigation database must be installed from the Jeppesen or user
supplied SD data card. Contact Jeppesen (www.jeppesen.com) for subscription and update information.
NOTE: After the navigation database is installed, the card may be removed.
Updating the active Jeppesen navigation database (not using the Dual Navigation Database or
Automatic Database Synchronization Features):
1) With the system OFF, insert the SD card containing the navigation database update into the top card slot of the
display (PFD or MFD) to be updated (label of SD card facing left).
2) Turn the system ON. A prompt similar to the following is displayed in the upper left corner of the display:
Figure B-1: Standby Navigation Database Prompt
3) Press the NO Softkey to proceed to the active database update, or press the YES Softkey to start the standby
database update to the SD card in the bottom card slot.
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Appendix B
4) A prompt similar to the following is displayed, press the YES Softkey to update the active navigation
database.
Figure B-2 Database Update Confirmation
5) After the update completes, the display starts in normal mode.
6) Turn the system OFF and remove the SD card.
7) Repeat steps 1 through 4 for the other PFD and the MFD. The MFD and PFD databases are now updated.
Remove the SD card when finished.
8) During MFD startup, verify that the correct update cycle is loaded.
Dual Navigation Database FEATURE
The dual navigation database feature allows each display to store an upcoming navigation database on the
bottom SD card so that the system can automatically load it to replace the active database when the new
database becomes effective (the next cycle becomes available seven days prior to its effective date).
If a navigation database loader card is inserted into the top SD card slot of a display, and an SD card is in the
bottom slot, the system will prompt the user (upon on-ground power up) as to whether the database should
be stored on the bottom SD card as the standby database. If the user responds affirmatively, the system will
copy the navigation database from the top SD card to the bottom SD card. As long as the bottom SD card
remains in the card slot, this standby navigation database will be available for the system to use as the active
database as soon as it becomes effective.
The system checks the active and standby databases upon (on-ground only) power-up. If the standby
database is current and the active database is out of date, the display will upload the standby database
into the active internal database location. Uploading the standby database to the active location takes
approximately 45-55 seconds. The pilot is alerted that the update is complete by a system alert message,
‘NAV DB UPDATED’.
Loading a standby navigation database:
1) With the system OFF, insert the SD card containing the navigation database update into the top card slot of the
desired PFD or MFD.
2) Verify that an SD card is inserted in the bottom slot.
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Appendix B
3) Turn the system ON. A prompt similar to the following is displayed.
Figure B-3 Standby Navigation Database Prompt
4) Press the YES Softkey, to start the update.
5) After the navigation database files are copied to the bottom SD card. A prompt similar to the following is
displayed.
Figure B-4 Active Navigation Database Prompt
6) Press the YES Softkey to manually update the active navigation database, or press the NO Softkey to allow the
system to automatically update the active navigation database as applicable per database effectivity.
7) After the update, the display starts in normal mode.
8) Repeat steps 1-7 for each PFD and the MFD, if updating manually.
9) Verify the effectivity of the active navigation database in each PFD and the MFD on the AUX-System Status
Page.
NOTE: The system compares the active databases on each PFD and the MFD, and displays a system alert
message ‘DB Mismatch’ if they are not identical. Similarly, if the standby databases on each PFD and the
MFD are not identical, the system will display a ‘DB Mismatch’ alert for the standby navigation databases.
Garmin recommends enabling the automatic database synchronization feature to protect against database
mismatches.
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Appendix B
Garmin Databases
The following databases are stored on Supplemental Data Cards provided by Garmin:
• Expanded basemap
• Airport terrain
• SafeTaxi
• Terrain
• Obstacle
• FliteCharts
• Airport Directory
(AOPA)
After subscribing to the desired database product, these database products will be downloaded to three
Supplemental Data Cards (with the exception of FliteCharts, which is loaded on only one card). Insert each
Supplemental Data Card into the correct location shown in Figure B-5. These cards must not be removed
except to update the databases stored on each card.
PFD1
PFD2
MFD
Figure B-3 Correct Database Locations
Since these databases are not stored internally in the displays, a Supplemental Data Card containing identical
database versions must be kept in each display unit.
The basemap database contains data for the topography and land features, such as rivers, lakes, and towns.
It is updated only periodically, with no set schedule. There is no expiration date.
The terrain database contains the terrain mapping data. The airport terrain database contains increased
resolution terrain data around airports. These databases are updated periodically and have no expiration date.
The obstacle database contains data for obstacles, such as towers, that pose a potential hazard to aircraft.
Obstacles 200 feet and higher are included in the obstacle database. It is very important to note that not all
obstacles are necessarily charted and therefore may not be contained in the obstacle database. This database is
updated on a 56-day cycle.
NOTE: The data contained in the terrain and obstacle databases comes from government agencies. Garmin
accurately processes and cross-validates the data, but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of
the data.
The AOPA Airport Directory provides data on airports and heliports throughout the U.S., and offers detailed
information for over 5,300 U. S. airports, along with the names and phone numbers of thousands of FBOs. This
database is updated four times per year and has no expiration date
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Appendix B
The SafeTaxi database contains detailed airport diagrams for selected airports. These diagrams aid in following
ground control instructions by accurately displaying the aircraft position on the map in relation to taxiways,
ramps, runways, terminals, and services. This database is updated on a 56-day cycle.
The FliteCharts database contains procedure charts for the United States only. This database is updated on a
28-day cycle. If not updated within 180 days of the expiration date, FliteCharts will no longer function.
Updating Garmin Databases
The Garmin database updates can be obtained by following the instructions detailed in the ‘Aviation
Databases’ section of the Garmin website (fly.garmin.com). Once the updated files have been downloaded
from the website, a PC equipped with an appropriate SD card reader is used to unpack and program the
new databases onto the existing Supplemental Data Cards. Equipment required to perform the update is as
follows:
• Windows-compatible PC computer (Windows 2000 or XP recommended)
• SD Card Reader: SanDisk SDDR-93, SanDisk SDDR-99, Verbatim #96504, or equivalent
• Updated database obtained from the Garmin website
• Existing Supplemental Database SD Cards (010-00330-41, -42, or -43) from both PFDs and MFD
In some cases it may be necessary to obtain an unlock code from Garmin in order to make the database
product functional. It may also be necessary to have the system configured by a Garmin authorized service
facility in order to use some database features.
After the data has been copied to the appropriate data cards, perform the following steps:
1) Insert one SD card in the bottom card slot of the MFD and one in the bottom card slot of each PFD. The SD card
containing the ChartView or FliteCharts database must be inserted into the bottom slot on the MFD.
2) Apply power to the system. View the MFD power-up screen. Check that the databases are initialized and
displayed on the power-up screen. When updating the terrain and FliteCharts databases, an ‘in progress’
message may be seen. If this message is present, wait for the system to finish loading before proceeding to
step 3.
Figure B-6 Database Information on the Power-up Screen
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Appendix B
3) Acknowledge the Power-up Page agreement by pressing the ENT Key or the right most softkey.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page group on the MFD.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page.
Unselected
MFD1 DB Selected PFD1 DB Selected
Figure B-7 Display Database Softkey
6) Press the Display Database Softkey (Figure B-7) to place the cursor in the ‘Database’ box.
7) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the database list and check that all databases are current and there are
no errors.
8) Press the Display Database Softkey to view the Database info pertaining to the desired PFD or MFD.
9) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the database list and check that all databases are current and there are
no errors.
10) Repeat steps 8 and 9 until all the databases in each applicable display have been verified.
11) Power down the system.
Automatic Database Synchronization Feature
The automatic database synchronization feature automatically transfers the database from a single SD
database card to the SD cards on each PFD and the MFD to ensure that all databases are synchronized
throughout the system. After power-up, the system compares all copies of each applicable database. If similar
databases do not match, the most recent valid database is automatically copied to each card in the system that
does not already contain that database.
The following databases are checked and synchronized: Standby Navigation, Basemap, Safetaxi, Airport
Terrain, Obstacle, Airport Directory (AOPA), and Terrain. This feature applies only to databases that are
stored on the SD card that resides in the bottom slot of each display. This feature does not apply to the active
navigation database which is stored internally in each display, or to the charts databases (FliteCharts and
ChartView) which are only required to be present on the MFD. The typical procedure would be to download
new databases to the MFD card, then synchronize the data to the PFD(s).
NOTE: The 9-arc second terrain database may take as long as 100 minutes to synchronize using this method.
Therefore the user may want to transfer the data using a PC, or connect the system to a ground power
source while performing the database synchronization.
If the automatic database synchronization feature is enabled, the standby navigation database can be loaded
onto a single SD card (using the Dual Navigation Database Feature) and placed in the bottom card slot of
the MFD. After power-up, the system will transfer the standby navigation database from that card to the
bottom SD card in each PFD. After the sync completes, if the active navigation database is out-of-date and the
standby database is effective, the standby database will be transferred and used as the internal active database
upon the next power cycle.
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Appendix B
The synchronization progress may be monitored on the AUX-System Status Page in the Sync Status section
of the Database Window (Figure B-8). This section shows the synchronization status of each applicable
database, including the percent complete, time remaining, and to which displays the databases are being
copied. When the synchronization is complete, the status is listed as ‘Complete’, followed by the displays to
which the databases were copied. This sub-section is only present when a sync is occurring or has occurred
on the current power-up.
An indication of ‘Complete’ still requires a power cycle before the synchronized databases will be used by
the system.
Figure B-8 AUX-System Status Page, Database Window
The Display Database Softkey (Figure B-7) is used to place the cursor in the Database Window. Upon
first press of the Display Database Softkey, the softkey will change to a selected state (black text on gray
background) and the cursor will appear in the Database Window. At this point the user can scroll through
all databases in the Database Window to view status information. If the Display Database Softkey is pressed
repeatedly, the softkey will cycle through PFD1, PFD2, and MFD. Database status information in the Database
Window will reflect the database of the selected PFD or MFD. After a successful sync and restart, verify that
the proper databases are now in use on the AUX–System Status Page (Figure B-8).
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Appendix B
If an error occurs during the synchronization, an error message will be displayed, followed by the affected
display in the Sync Status section of the Database Window (Figure B-9). If a synchronization completes on
one display, but an error occurs on another, the error message will be displayed with the affected diaplay
listed after it. When an error message (Table B-1) is displayed, the problem must be corrected before the
synchronization can be completed. A power cycle is required to restart synchronization when ‘Card Full’ or
‘Err’ is shown.
Database Synchronization Error Message
Figure B-9 Synchronization Error Message
Error Message
Canceled
Card Full
Err
Timeout
Description
An active synchronization has been canceled using the SYNC DBS Softkey
SD card does not contain sufficient memory
Displayed for all other errors that may cause the synchronization process to be halted
System timed-out prior to the database transfer completing
Table B-1
The SYNC DBS Softkey (Figure B-10) on the AUX–System Status Page allows the flight crew control over
the automatic database synchronization feature. When database synchronization is enabled, the SYNC DBS
Softkey is displayed as black text on gray background. When database synchronization is disabled, the
softkey is displayed as white text on black background. If the SYNC DBS Softkey is pressed while a database
synchronization is in progress, the current synchronization process will be canceled.
Enabled
Disabled
Figure B-10 SYNC DBS Softkey
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Appendix B
Performing a database synchronization:
1) Remove the MFD database card from the bottom card slot of the MFD.
2) Update the Garmin databases on the MFD card.
3) Insert the MFD database card into the bottom card slot of the MFD.
4) Apply power to the system, check that the databases are initialized and displayed on the power-up screen.
When updating the terrain and FliteCharts databases, an ‘in progress’ message may be seen. If this message is
present, wait for the system to finish loading before proceeding to step 5.
5) Acknowledge the Power-up Page agreement by pressing the ENT Key or the right most softkey.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page group on the MFD.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page.
8) Make sure the SYNC DBS Softkey is in the enabled state (Figure B-10).
9) Monitor the Sync Status in the Database Window, wait for all databases to complete synching.
10) Remove and reapply power to the system, select the AUX-System Status Page, and verify that all databases have
been synchronized.
Canceling an automatic database synchronization:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page.
3) Press the SYNC DBS Softkey (if needed) to disable (Figure B-10) automatic database synchronization.
4) Acknowledge the cancellation by pressing the ENT Key.
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Appendix B
Blank Page
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190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix C
Glossary
ACC
ACT, ACTV
ADC
ADF
ADI
AF
AFCS
AFM
AFMS
AFRM
AGL
AHRS
AIM
AIRMET
ALRT
ALT
ALT, ALTN
AMPS
ANNUNC
ANT
AP
AP DISC
APR
APT
ARINC
ARSPC
ARTCC
ARV
AS
ASB
ASOS
ATC
ATCRBS
ATIS
ATK
AUTOSEQ
190-00928-02 Rev. A
accuracy
active, activate
air data computer
Automatic Direction Finder
Attitude Direction Indicator
Arc to fix
Automatic Flight Control System
Airplane Flight Manual
Airplane Flight Manual Supplement
airframe
Above Ground Level
Attitude and Heading Reference
System
Airman’s Information Manual
Airman’s Meteorological Information
alert
altitude
alternator
amperes
annunciation
antenna
autopilot
autopilot disconnect
approach
airport, aerodrome
Aeronautical Radio Incorporated
airspace
Air Route Traffic Control Center
arrival
airspeed
Aviation Support Branch
Automated Surface Observing System
Air Traffic Control
ATC Radar Beacon System
Automatic Terminal Information Service
along-track
automatic sequence
AUX
AWOS
auxiliary
Automated Weather Observing System
B ALT
BARO
BATT
BC
Bearing
barometric altitude
barometric setting
battery
backcourse
The compass direction from the
present position to a destination
waypoint.
beat frequency oscillator
backspace
bearing
BFO
BKSP
BRG
C
ºC
CA
CALC
Calibrated
Airspeed
CD
CDI
CDU
CF
CHT
CHKLIST
CHNL
CI
CLD
CLR
cm
CNS
CO
COM
CONFIG
COOL
COPLT
center runway
degrees Celsius
Course to Altitude
calculator
Indicated airspeed corrected for
installation and instrument errors.
Course to DME distance
Course Deviation Indicator
Control Display Unit
Course to Fix
Cylinder Head Temperature
checklist
channel
Course to Intercept
cloud
clear
centimeter
Communication, Navigation, &
Surveillance
carbon monoxide
communication radio
configuration
coolant
co-pilot
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Appendix C
Course
Course to
Steer
CR
CRG
CRNT
Crosstrack
Error
CRS
CRS
CRSR
CTA
CTRL
Cumulative
CVR
CVRG
CWS
CYL
D ALT
DB, DBASE
dBZ
DCLTR,
DECLTR
DEC FUEL
deg
DEIC, DEICE
DEP
Desired Track
DEST
DF
DFLT
DGRD
666
The line between two points to be
followed by the aircraft.
The recommended direction to steer
in order to reduce course error or stay
on course. Provides the most efficient
heading to get back to the desired
course and proceed along the flight
plan.
Course to Radial
Cockpit Reference Guide
current
The distance the aircraft is off a
desired course in either direction, left
or right.
course
Course to Steer
cursor
Control Area
control
The total of all legs in a flight plan.
Cockpit Voice Recorder
coverage
control wheel steering
cylinder
DH
Dilution of
Precision
density altitude
database
decibels ‘Z’ (radar return)
declutter
EGT
EIS
ELEV
ELEV
EMERGCY
EMI
ENDUR
Endurance
decrease fuel
degree
de-icing
departure
The desired course between the active
“from” and “to” waypoints.
destination
Direct to Fix
default
degrade
DIR
DIS
Distance
DME
DOP
DP
DPRT
DR
DSBL
DTK
E
ECU
Efficiency
EGNOS
ENG
ENGD
ENR
decision height
A measure of GPS satellite geometry
quality on a scale of one to ten (lower
numbers equal better geometry,
where higher numbers equal poorer
geometry).
direction
distance
The ‘great circle’ distance from the
present position to a destination
waypoint.
Distance Measuring Equipment
Dilution of Precision
Departure Procedure
departure
dead reckoning
disabled
Desired Track
empty, east
Engine Control Unit
A measure of fuel consumption,
expressed in distance per unit of fuel.
European Geostationary Navigation
Overlay Service
Exhaust Gas Temperature
Engine Indication System
elevation
elevator
emergency
Electromagnetic Interference
endurance
Flight endurance, or total possible
flight time based on available fuel on
board.
engine
engaged
enroute
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190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix C
Enroute Safe
Altitude
The recommended minimum altitude
within ten miles left or right of the
desired course on an active flight plan
or direct-to.
ENT
enter
EPE
Estimated Position Error
EPU
Estimated Position Uncertainty
ERR
error
ESA
Enroute Safe Altitude
ESP
Electronic Stability and Protection
Estimated
A measure of horizontal GPS position
Position Error error derived by satellite geometry
conditions and other factors.
Estimated
The estimated time at which the
Time of
aircraft should reach the destination
Arrival
waypoint, based upon current speed
and track.
Estimated
The estimated time it takes to reach
Time Enroute the destination waypoint from the
present position, based upon current
ground speed.
ETA
Estimated Time of Arrival
ETE
Estimated Time Enroute
EXPIRD
expired
ºF
FA
FAA
FADEC
FAF
FAIL
FC
FCC
FCST
FD
FD
FDE
FFLOW
FIS-B
FISDL
190-00928-02 Rev. A
degrees Fahrenheit
Course From Fix to Altitude
Federal Aviation Administration
Full Authority Digital Engine Control
Final Approach Fix
failure
Course From Fix to Distance
Federal Communication Commission
forecast
Course From Fix to DME Distance
flight director
Fault Detection and Exclusion
fuel flow
Flight Information Services-Broadcast
Flight Information Service Data Link
FL
FLC
FM
FMS
FOB
FPL
fpm
FREQ
FRZ
FSS
ft
Fuel Flow
Fuel On
Board
G/S, GS
GA
gal, gl
GBOX
GDC
GDL
GDU
GEA
GEO
GFC
GFDS
GIA
GLS
GMA
GMT
GMU
GND
gph
GPS
flight level
Flight Level Change
Course From Fix to Manual Termination
Flight Management System
Fuel On Board
flight plan
feet per minute
frequency
freezing
Flight Service Station
foot/feet
The fuel flow rate, expressed in units of
fuel per hour.
The total amount of usable fuel on
board the aircraft.
glideslope
go-around
gallon(s)
gearbox
Garmin Air Data Computer
Garmin Satellite Data Link
Garmin Display Unit
Garmin Engine/Airframe Unit
geographic
Garmin Flight Control
Garmin Flight Data Services
Garmin Integrated Avionics Unit
Global Navigation Satellite Landing
System
Garmin Audio Panel System
Greenwich Mean Time
Garmin Magnetometer Unit
ground
gallons per hour
Global Positioning System
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Appendix C
Grid MORA
Grid Minimum Off-Route Altitude;
one degree latitude by one degree
longitude in size and clears the highest
elevation reference point in the grid by
1000 feet for all areas of the grid
Groundspeed The velocity that the aircraft is
travelling relative to a ground position.
Ground Track see Track
GRS
Garmin Reference System
GS
Ground speed
GTX
Garmin Transponder
HA
HDG
Heading
HF
HFOM
Hg
HI
HI SENS
HM
Horizontal
Figure of
Merit
hPa
HPL
hr
HSDB
HSI
HT
HUL
Hz
I
IAF
IAT
IAU
668
Hold Terminating at Altitude
heading
The direction an aircraft is pointed,
based upon indications from a
magnetic compass or a properly set
directional gyro.
Hold Terminating at Fix
Horizontal Figure of Merit
mercury
high
High Sensitivity
Hold with Manual Termination
A measure of the uncertainty in the
aircraft’s horizontal position.
hectopascal
Horizontal Protection Level
hour
High-Speed Data Bus
Horizontal Situation Indicator
heat
Horizontal Uncertainty Level
Hertz
Inner Marker
Initial Approach Fix
Indicated Air Temperature
Integrated Avionics Unit
ICAO
INFO
in HG
INT
INTEG
IrDA, IRDA
International Civil Aviation
Organization
Intercom System
Identification/Morse Code Identifier
identification
Initial Fix
Instrument Flight Rules
Imperial gallon
Instrument Landing System
Instrument Meteorological Conditions
inch
inactive
increase fuel
indicated
Information provided by properly
calibrated and set instrumentation on
the aircraft panel.
information
inches of mercury
intersection(s)
integrity (RAIM unavailable)
Infrared Data Association
KEYSTK
kg
kHz
km
kt
key stuck
kilogram
kilohertz
kilometer
knot
L
LAT
LBL
lb
LCD
LCL
LED
Left Over Fuel
On Board
left, left runway
latitude
label
pound
Liquid Crystal Display
local
Light Emitting Diode
The amount of fuel remaining on
board after the completion of one or
more legs of a flight plan or direct-to.
ICS
ID
IDENT, IDNT
IF
IFR
IG
ILS
IMC
in
INACTV
INC FUEL
IND
Indicated
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Appendix C
Left Over Fuel The amount of flight time remaining,
Reserve
based on the amount of fuel on board
after the completion of one or more
legs of a flight plan or direct-to, and a
known consumption rate.
Leg
The portion of a flight plan between
two waypoints.
LIFR
Low Instrument Flight Rules
LNAV
Lateral Navigation
LO
low
LOC
localizer
LOI
loss of integrity (GPS)
LON
longitude
LPV
Localizer Performance with Vertical
guidance
LRU
Line Replaceable Unit
LT
left
LTNG
lightning
LVL
level
M
m
MAG
MAG VAR
MAHP
MAN IN
MAN SQ
MAP
MASQ
MAX
MAXSPD
MDA
MET
METAR
MEPT
MFD
MGRS
MHz
MIC
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Middle Marker
meter
Magnetic
Magnetic Variation
Missed Approach Hold Point
manifold pressure (inches Hg)
Manual Squelch
Missed Approach Point
Master Avionics Squelch
maximum
maximum speed (overspeed)
barometric minimum descent altitude
manual electric trim
Meteorological Aviation Routine
manual electric pitch trim
Multi Function Display
Military Grid Reference System
megahertz
microphone
MIN
Minimum
Safe Altitude
MSAS
MKR
MOA
MOV
mpm
MSA
MSG
MSL
MT
mV
MVFR
N
NAV
NAVAID
NDB
NEXRAD
nm
NoPT
minimum
Uses Grid MORAs to determine a safe
altitude within ten miles of the aircraft
present position.
Multi-functional Satellite
Augmentation System
marker beacon
Military Operations Area
movement
meters per minute
Minimum Safe Altitude
message
Mean Sea Level
meter
millivolt(s)
Marginal Visual Flight Rules
NRST
north
navigation
NAVigation AID
Non-directional Beacon
Next Generation Radar
nautical mile(s)
No Procedure Turn Required
(Procdeure shall not be executed
without ATC clearance)
nearest
O
OAT
OBS
OFST
OXY
Outer Marker
Outside Air Temperature
Omni Bearing Selector
offset
oxygen
P ALT
PA
PA
PASS
PC
pressure altitude
Passenger Address
Proximity Advisory
passenger(s)
personal computer
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
669
Appendix C
PFD
PI
PIT, PTCH
POSN
PPM
P. POS
PRES, PRESS
PROC
psi
PT
PTK
PTT
PWR
Primary Flight Display
Procedure Turn to Course Intercept
pitch
position
parts per million
Present Position
pressure
procedure(s), procedure turn
pounds per square inch
Procedure Turn
parallel track
Push-to-Talk
power
RVRSNRY
RX
reversionary
receive
S
SA
SAT
SBAS
SCIT
SD
sec
SEL, SLCT
SFC
SIAP
QTY
quantity
R
RAD
RAIM
right, right runway
radial
Receiver Autonomous Integrity
Monitoring
random access memory
reference
remaining (fuel remaining above
Reserve)
required
reserve (fuel reserve entered by pilot)
reverse, revision, revise
Constant Radius Turn to Fix
Radio Magnetic Indicator
remote
range
runway
roll
read only memory
revolutions per minute
reset fuel
reserve (fuel reserve entered by pilot)
right
SID
SIGMET
Sim
SLP/SKD
SMBL
SPD
SPI
SPKR
SQ
SRVC, SVC
STAL
STAR
STATS
STBY
STD
STRMSCP
SUA
SUSP
SVS
SW
SYS
south
Selective Availability
Static Air Temperature
Satellite-Based Augmentation System
Storm Cell Identification and Tracking
Secure Digital
second(s)
select
surface
Standard Instrument Approach
Procedures
Standard Instrument Departure
Significant Meteorological Information
simulator
slip/skid
symbol
speed
Special Position Identification
speaker
squelch
service
stall
Standard Terminal Arrival Route
statistics
standby
standard
Stormscope
Special Use Airspace
suspend
Synthetic Vision System
software
system
T
TA
true
Traffic Advisory
RAM
REF
REM
REQ
RES
REV
RF
RMI
RMT
RNG
RNWY
ROL
ROM
rpm
RST FUEL
RSV
RT
670
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix C
TACAN
TAF
TAS
TAS
TAT
TAWS
TCA
TCAS
TEL
TEMP
TERM
TF
TFR
T HDG
TIS
TIT
TKE
TMA
TMR/REF
Topo
Track
Track Angle
Error
TRG
TRK
TRSA
TRUNC
TTL
TURN
TX
UNAVAIL
USR
UTC
UTM/UPS
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Tactical Air Navigation System
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
True Airspeed
Traffic Advisory System, true airspeed
Total Air Temperature
Terrain Awareness and Warning System
Terminal Control Area
Traffic Collision Avoidance System
telephone
temperature
terminal
Track Between Two Fixes
Temporary Flight Restriction
True Heading
Traffic Information System
Turbine Inlet Temperature
Track Angle Error
Terminal Maneuvering Area
Timer/Reference
topographic
Direction of aircraft movement relative
to a ground position; also ‘Ground
Track’
The angle difference between the
desired track and the current track.
target
track
Terminal Radar Service Area
truncated
total
procedure turn
transmit
unavailable
user
Coordinated Universal Time
Universal Transverse Mercator /
Universal Polar Stereographic Grid
V, Vspeed
VA
VAPP
VAR
VD
Vdc
VERT
Vertical Figure
of Merit
Vertical Speed
Required
VPL
VPROF
VPTH
VR
VS
VSI
VSR
VTF
velocity (airspeed)
Heading Vector to Altitude
VOR approach
variation
Heading Vector to DME Distance
volts, direct current
vertical
A measure of the uncertainty in the
aircraft’s vertical position.
The vertical speed necessary to
descend/climb from a current position
and altitude to a defined target
position and altitude, based upon
current groundspeed.
Vertical Figure of Merit
Visual Flight Rules
Very High Frequency
Heading Vector to Intercept
VOR/Localizer Receiver
Heading Vector to Manual Termination
Visual Meteorological Conditions
vertical navigation
volume
VHF Omni-directional Range
very high frequency omnidirectional
range station and tactical air
navigation
Vertical Protection Level
VNV profile, vertical profile
VNV path, vertical path
Heading Vector to Radial
vertical speed
Vertical Speed Indicator
Vertical Speed Required
vector to final
W
WAAS
watt(s), west
Wide Area Augmentation System
VFOM
VFR
VHF
VI
VLOC
VM
VMC
VNAV, VNV
VOL
VOR
VORTAC
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
671
Appendix C
672
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix D
Frequently Asked Questions
If a particular aspect of G1000 operational capability is not addressed by these commonly asked questions or in
the index, contact Garmin (see the copyright page or back cover for contact information) or a Garmin-authorized
dealer. Garmin is dedicated to supporting its products and customers.
What is SBAS?
The Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) uses a system of ground stations to correct any GPS signal
errors. These ground stations correct for errors caused by ionospheric disturbances, timing, and satellite
orbit errors. It also provides vital integrity information regarding the health of each GPS satellite. The signal
correction is then broadcast through geostationary satellites. This correction information can then be received
by any SBAS-enabled GPS receiver.
SBAS is designed to provide the additional accuracy, availability, and integrity necessary to enable users to rely
on GPS for all phases of flight.
There are several SBAS systems serving different parts of the world. The Wide Area Augmentation System
(WAAS) is currently available in the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. The European Geostationary
Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) offers coverage of Europe, parts of the middle east and northern Africa. The
Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS) covers mainly Japan and parts of northern Australia.
How does SBAS affect approach operations?
Both LNAV/VNAV and LPV approaches use the accuracy of SBAS to include vertical (glide path) guidance
capability. The additional accuracy and vertical guidance capability allows improved instrument approaches to
an expanded number of airports throughout the U.S.
The implementation of LPV approaches further improves precision approach capabilities. LPV approaches
are designed to make full use of the improved GPS signal from the SBAS. This approach combines the LNAV/
VNAV vertical accuracy with lateral guidance similar to the typical Instrument Landing System (ILS). LPV
approaches allow lower approach minimums.
What is RAIM and how does it affect approach operations?
RAIM is an acronym for Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring. RAIM is a GPS receiver function that
performs the following functions:
• Monitors and verifies integrity and geometry of tracked GPS satellites
• Notifies the pilot when satellite conditions do not provide the necessary coverage to support a certain phase
of flight
• Predicts satellite coverage of a destination area to determine whether the number of available satellites is
sufficient to satisfy requirements
NOTE: If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become
active, as indicated by the “RAIM not available from FAF to MAP” message and the LOI annunciation
flagging on the HSI.
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
673
Appendix D
For RAIM to work correctly, the GPS receiver must track at least five satellites. A minimum of six satellites is
required to allow RAIM to eliminate a single corrupt satellite from the navigation solution.
RAIM ensures that satellite geometry allows for a navigation solution calculation within a specified protection
limit (2.0 nm for oceanic and en route, 1.0 nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). The
G1000 System monitors RAIM and issues an alert message when RAIM is not available (see Appendix A).
Without RAIM, GPS position accuracy cannot be monitored. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF,
the pilot must fly the missed approach procedure.
Why are there not any approaches available for a flight plan?
Approaches are available for the final destination airport in a flight plan or as a direct-to (keep in mind
that some VOR/VORTAC identifiers are similar to airport identifiers). If a destination airport does not have a
published approach, the G1000 indicates “NONE” for the available procedures.
What happens when an approach is selected? Can a flight plan with an approach, a departure, or an
arrival be stored?
When an approach, departure, or arrival is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach, departure,
or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan, along with a header line showing the title of the selected
instrument procedure. The original en route portion of the flight plan remains active, unless the instrument
procedure is activated. This may be done either when the procedure is loaded or at a later time.
Flight plans can also be stored with an approach, a departure, or an arrival. Note that the active flight plan
is erased when the system is turned off. Also, the active flight plan is overwritten when another flight plan is
activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, a departure, or an arrival, the G1000 uses the waypoint
information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the database is changed or updated, the
G1000 System automatically updates the information, provided the procedure has not been modified. Should
an approach, departure, or arrival procedure no longer be available, the flight plan becomes locked until the
procedure is deleted from the flight plan.
Can “slant Golf” (“/G”) be filed using the G1000?
“/G” may be filed for a flight plan. The G1000 System meets the requirements of TSO-C145a Class 3 and
ETSO-C145 Class 3 installations. GPS approaches are not to be flown with an expired database. See the
approved AFM/POH as well as the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) for more information.
What does the OBS Softkey do?
The OBS Softkey is used to select manual sequencing of waypoints. Activating OBS mode sets the current
active-to waypoint as the primary navigation reference and prevents the system from sequencing to the next
waypoint in a flight plan. When OBS mode is cancelled, automatic waypoint sequencing is continued, and
the G1000 automatically activates the next waypoint in the flight plan once the aircraft has crossed the present
active waypoint.
•
•
•
•
674
Normal (OBS not activated)
Automatic sequencing of waypoints
Manual course change on HSI not possible
Always navigates ‘TO’ the active waypoint
Must be in this mode for final approach course
•
•
•
•
OBS
Manual sequencing - ‘holds’ on selected waypoint
Manually select course to waypoint from HSI
Indicates ‘TO’ or ‘FROM’ waypoint
Cannot be set for final approach course or published holding patterns
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix D
When OBS mode is active, the G1000 allows the pilot to set a desired course to/from a waypoint using the
CRS/BARO Knob and HSI (much like a VOR).
The most common application for using the OBS Softkey is the missed approach. The G1000 suspends
automatic waypoint sequencing (indicated by a ‘SUSP’ annunciation placed on the HSI) when the missed
approach point (MAP) is crossed. This prevents the G1000 from automatically sequencing to the missed
approach holding point (MAHP). During this time, the OBS Softkey designation changes to SUSP. Pressing
the SUSP Softkey reactivates automatic waypoint sequencing. The OBS Softkey then resumes its normal
functionality.
Why does the G1000 not automatically sequence to the next waypoint?
The G1000 only sequences flight plan waypoints when automatic sequencing is enabled (i.e., no “OBS” or
‘SUSP’ annunciation). For automatic sequencing to occur, the aircraft must also cross the “bisector” of the turn
being navigated. The bisector is a line passing through the waypoint common to two flight plan legs at an
equal angle from each leg.
How can a waypoint be skipped in an approach, a departure, or an arrival?
The G1000 allows the pilot to manually select any approach, departure, or arrival leg as the active leg of
the flight plan. This procedure is performed on the MFD from the Active Flight Plan Page by highlighting the
desired waypoint and selecting the ACT LEG Softkey then the ENT Key to approve the selection. The GPS
then provides navigation along the selected flight plan leg.
When does turn anticipation begin?
The G1000 smooths adjacent leg transitions based on a normal 15° bank angle (with the ability to roll up to
30°) and provides three pilot cues for turn anticipation:
• A waypoint alert (‘Next DTK ###° in # seconds’ or ‘Next HDG ###° in # seconds’) appears on the PFD 10
seconds before the turn point and flashes as it counts down to zero.
• A flashing turn advisory (‘Turn [right/left] to ###° in # seconds’) appears on the PFD 10 seconds before the
turn and flashes as it counts down to zero. ‘Turn [right/left] to ###° now’ or ‘Next [DTK/HDG] to ###° now’
is displayed when the pilot is to begin the turn and the HSI (GPS mode) automatically sequences to the next
DTK or HDG value.
• The To/From indicator on the HSI flips momentarily to indicate that the midpoint of the turn has been
crossed.
When does the CDI scale change?
Once a departure is activated, the G1000 Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) full scale deflection is set to 0.3
nm. The CDI scale changes to 1.0 nm (terminal mode) then ramps up to 2.0 nm (enroute mode) at 30 nm
from the departure airport. When 31 nm from the destination, the CDI scale smoothly transition from 2.0 nm
back to 1.0 nm (terminal mode). At 2.0 nm before the FAF during an active approach, the CDI scale transitions
down further based on the type of approach activated (LNAV, LNAV/VNAV, LPV). When a missed approach is
activated, the CDI is set to 0.3 nm. See the Flight Instruments Section for more details on CDI scaling.
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
675
Appendix D
Why does the HSI not respond like a VOR when OBS mode is active?
Unlike a VOR, the CDI scale used on GPS equipment is based on the crosstrack distance to the desired
course, not on the angular relationship to the destination. Therefore, the CDI deflection on the GPS is constant
regardless of the distance to the destination and does not become less sensitive when further away from the
destination.
What is the correct missed approach procedure? How is the missed approach holding point selected?
To comply with TSO specifications, the G1000 does not automatically sequence past the MAP. The first
waypoint in the missed approach procedure becomes the active waypoint when the SUSP Softkey is selected
after crossing the MAP. All published missed approach procedures must be followed, as indicated on the
approach plate.
To execute the missed approach procedure prior to the MAP (not recommended), select the Active Flight Plan
Page and use the ACT LEG Softkey to activate the missed approach portion of the procedure.
After a missed approach, how can the same approach be re-selected? How can a new approach be
activated?
NOTE: Do not attempt to reactivate the current approach prior to crossing the missed approach point
(MAP). If an attempt to do so is made, an alert message “Are you sure you want to discontinue the current
approach?” appears. The G1000 directs the pilot back to the transition waypoint and does not take into
consideration any missed approach procedures, if the current approach is reactivated.
After flying the missed approach procedure, the pilot may reactivate the same approach for another attempt by
pressing the PROC Key. Once the clearance is given for another attempt, activate the approach by highlighting
‘Activate Approach’ using the large FMS Knob and pressing the ENT Key. The G1000 provides navigation
along the desired course to the waypoint and rejoins the approach in sequence from that point.
To activate a new approach for the same airport, select the new procedure by pressing the PROC Key. Choose
‘Select Approach’, select the desired approach from the list shown, and press the ENT Key. Select the
desired transition, then activate the approach using the ENT Key.
To activate a new approach to a different airport, press the Direct-to Key and select the desired airport using
the FMS Knobs. Press the ENT Key to accept the selected airport, then follow the steps in the preceding
paragraph to select an approach for the new airport.
676
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix E
Map Symbols
NOTE: Refer to the Flight Management Section for the topography legend and the Hazard Avoidance
Section for XM Weather Product legends.
Airport
Line Symbols
Item
Symbol
Unknown Airport
Item
ICAO Control Area
Class B Airspace
Symbol
Mode C Tower Area
Non-towered, Non-serviced Airport
Warning Area Prohibited Area
Alert Area
Restricted Area
Caution Area Training Area
Danger Area
Unknown Area
Class C
Terminal Radar Service Area
Mode C Area
Towered, Non-serviced Airport
Non-towered, Serviced Airport
Towered, Serviced Airport
Military Operations Area (MOA)
Restricted (Private) Airport
State or Province Border
Heliport
International Border
NAVAIDS
Road
Item
Symbol
Intersection
LOM (compass locator at outer marker)
Railroad
Latitude/Longitude
NDB (non-directional radio beacon)
VOR
VOR/DME
VOR/ILS
VORTAC
TACAN
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
677
Appendix E
Miscellaneous
Item
Stormscope Lightning Strikes
Symbol
ARTCC Frequency or FSS Frequency
Item
Symbol
Lightning Strike (0-6 sec ago)
Lightning Strike (6-20 sec ago)
Default Map Pointer
Lightning Strike (20-60 sec ago)
Elevation Pointer
Lightning Strike (60-120 sec ago)
Traffic
Wind Vector
Item
Measuring Pointer
Symbol
Non-threat Traffic (hollow diamond)
Overzoom Indicator
Proximity Advisory
User Waypoint
Traffic Advisory, Out of Range
Vertical Navigation Along Track Waypoint
Traffic Advisory
Parallel Track Waypoint
Unanchored Flight Path Waypoint
Top of Descent (TOD)
Bottom of Descent (BOD)
Navigating using Dead Reckoning
678
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Appendix E
Terrain Avoidance Colors and Symbols
Potential Impact Point
Terrain Above Aircraft Altitude
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
1000 ft
Unlighted Obstacle
Terrain Color
Terrain Location
Red (WARNING) Terrain above, or within 100 ft below the aircraft altitude
Yellow (CAUTION) Terrain between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Black
Terrain more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Figure E-1 TAWS Color Chart
Figure E-2 TAWS Potential Impact Points
Obstacle Symbol
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
Height < 1000 ft AGL > 1000 ft AGL < 1000 ft AGL > 1000 ft AGL
Obstacle
Color
Obstacle Location
Red
(WARNING)
Obstacle within 100 ft of
or above aircraft altitude
Yellow
(CAUTION)
Obstacle within 1000 ft of
aircraft altitude
Gray
Obstacle more than 1000
ft below aircraft altitude
Obstacle Symbols and Colors
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
679
Appendix E
Hazard Avoidance Features
Feature
This table identifies the symbols displayed in the
lower right corner of PFD or MFD maps to indicate
which hazard avoidance features are activated for
display.
Feature
City Forecast display enabled
Surface Analysis display enabled
Freezing Levels display enabled
TAWS display enabled
Winds Aloft display enabled
Traffic display enabled
County Warnings display enabled
NEXRAD display enabled
Cyclone Warnings display enabled
Cloud Top display enabled
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD) (ICNG)
Echo Top display enabled
Pilot Weather Report (PIREPs)
XM Lightning display enabled
Air Report (AIREPs)
Cell Movement display enabled
SIGMETs/AIRMETs display enabled
METARs display enabled
680
Symbol
Symbol
Turbulence (TURB)
Loss of hazard avoidance feature, (a
white X is shown over the symbol to
indicate not available; e.g., traffic)
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Index
A
Access code--------------------------------------------------575
Activate a Flight Plan---------------------------------------226
Active database-------------------------------- 655, 656, 660
Active frequency------------------------------------- 108, 118
ADF audio----------------------------------------------------119
ADS-B---------------------------------------------------------424
AFCS Status Box--------------------------------------- 54, 459
AHRS---------------------------------------- 20, 645, 646, 647
Aircraft Symbol----------------------------------------------461
Air Data Computer--------------------------------------1, 636
Airport
Information-----------------------------------------------182
Airspace Alerts--------------------------------- 198, 199, 297
Airspeed Indicator----------------------------------54, 56–57
Airspeed Reference----------------------------456, 469–470
Airways
Collapsed--------------------------------------------------239
Expanded--------------------------------------------------239
Alerting System-------------------------------------- 631, 636
Audio------------------------------------------------------632
Alerts---------------------------------------------------------631
AFCS-------------------------------------------------------651
Aircraft-----------------------------------------------------633
Arrival------------------------------------------------------- 44
Audio voice------------------------------------------------ 44
Aural-------------------------------------------------------634
Levels------------------------------------------------------632
TAWS-------------------------------------------------------652
Alerts Window------------------------------------------------ 81
Along Track Offset------------------------------------------231
ALT------------------------------------------------------------293
Altimeter---------------------------------------------54, 61–62
Altimeter barometric setting------------------------------- 54
Altitude
Constraints----------------------------------------- 242, 280
Altitude alerting---------------------------------------------- 84
Altitude Hold Mode----------------------------------------467
Altitude Reference----------------------------- 466, 467, 475
Annunciations
Comparator-----------------------------------------------635
G1000 System--------------------------------------- 22, 636
Reversionary Sensor-------------------------------------636
Test tone---------------------------------------------- 45, 632
Annunciations, softkey-------------------------------------- 81
Annunciation Window-------------------------------------- 81
Annunciator lights------------------------------------------136
AOPA Airport Directory----------- 513, 570, 571, 572, 658
AP-------------------------------------------------------------651
Approach-----------------------------------------------------674
Activating-------------------------------------------------255
ILS----------------------------------------------------------504
Loading--------------------------------------- 223, 252, 254
190-00928-02 Rev. A
Missed-----------------------------------------------------508
Removing--------------------------------------------------255
WAAS------------------------------------------------------506
Approach Mode-------------------------------- 486, 504, 506
APR softkey------------------------------------------- 254, 260
Arc HSI--------------------------------------------------------- 66
Arrival procedure------207, 221, 249, 251, 277, 280, 289
Attitude---------------------------------------------------------- 1
Attitude & Heading Reference System-------------------636
Attitude Indicator-----------------------------------54, 59–60
Audio Panel Fail-Safe Operation--------------------------144
Automatic Dependent Surveilence - Broadcast--------424
Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)--------- 455–512
Alerts and annunciations------------------------ 510–511
Controls-------------------------------------------- 456–457
Status Annunciations------------------------------------510
Status Box-------------------------------------------------459
Automatic squelch------------------------------------------117
Autopilot--------------------------------- 455, 490–492, 651
Autopilot Disconnect-------------------------------- 457, 492
Auto-tuning--------------------------------------------------126
Auto-tuning, COM------------------------------------------112
Auto-tuning, NAV-------------------------------------------122
Auto Zoom---------------------------------------------------150
Auxiliary Pages (AUX)--------------------------------------- 36
AUX - system status page-530, 532, 551, 552, 567, 568,
569, 572
Aviation Symbols------------------------------------- 162, 207
B
Backcourse Mode-------------------------------------------488
Backlighting-------------------------------------------------- 52
Barometric setting, Altimeter----------------------54, 62–63
Basic Empty Weight----------------------------------------261
Basic Operating Weight------------------------------------261
Bearing/distance, measuring------------------------------157
Bearing information------------------------------------ 68–69
Bearing Information Windows----------------------------- 55
Bearing line-------------------------------367, 368, 370, 371
Bearing source----------------------------------------------- 69
C
Calibrated Airspeed-----------------------------------------258
Cargo---------------------------------------------------------262
CDI---------------------------- 251, 268, 280, 288, 295, 649
Chart Not Available---------------------------------- 534, 554
Chart options----------------------------------------- 542, 561
CHART SETUP box----------------------------------- 548, 565
ChartView--------------------------------------- 513, 533, 551
CLD TOP Softkey--------------------------------------------345
Clearance Recorder-----------------------------------------139
Closest Point-------------------------------------------------239
COM channel spacing--------------------------------------116
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
I-1
Index
COM Frequency Box----------------------------------------108
Command Bars----------------------------------------------461
Communication (COM) Frequency Box------------------- 54