Garmin | G1000: Piper PA-46 M350 Mirage | Garmin G1000: Piper PA-46 M350 Mirage G1000 Pilot's Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage

Garmin G1000: Piper PA-46 M350 Mirage G1000 Pilot's Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
G1000
®
Integrated Avionics System
Pilot’s Guide
®
G1000 Pilot’s Guide
Garmin AT, Inc.
2345 Turner Road SE
Salem, OR 97302, U.S.A.
p:503.391.3411
f:503.364.2138
Garmin (Europe) Ltd.
Liberty House, Houndsdown Business Park
Garmin Corporation
No. 68, Jangshu 2nd Road
Southampton, Hampshire SO40 9LR U.K. Shijr, Taipei County, Taiwan
p:886/02.2642.9199
p:44 (0) 23 8052 4000
f:886/02.2642.9099
f:44 (0) 23 8052 4004
Piper PA-46
Mirage
Garmin International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street
Olathe, KS 66062, U.S.A.
p:913.397.8200
f:913.397.8282
Aviation Support:44 (0) 87 0850 1243
www.garmin.com
190-01889-00
Revision A
Piper PA-46 Mirage
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
AUDIO PANEL & CNS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Copyright © 2015, 2016 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 2164.07 or later for the Piper Mirage. Some differences in operation may
be observed when comparing the information in this manual to earlier or later software versions.
Garmin International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street
Olathe, Kansas 66062, U.S.A.
Tel: 913.397.8200
Fax: 913.397.8282
Aircraft On Ground (AOG) Hotline: 913.397.0836
Aviation Dealer Technical Support: 888.606.5482
Garmin AT, Inc.
2345 Turner Road SE
Salem, OR 97302, U.S.A.
Tel: 503.581.8101
Fax 503.364.2138
Garmin (Europe) Ltd.
Liberty House, Hounsdown Business Park
Southampton, Hampshire SO40 9LR U.K.
Tel: +44 (0) 238 052 4000
Fax: +44 (0) 238 052 4004
Aviation Support: +44 (0) 370 850 1243
Garmin Corporation
No. 68, Zhangshu 2nd Road
Xizhi District, New Taipei City, Taiwan
Tel: 34-93-357-2608
Fax: 34-93-429-4484
Website Address: www.garmin.com
Except as expressly provided herein, no part of this manual may be reproduced, copied, transmitted, disseminated, downloaded or stored
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and provided further that any unauthorized commercial distribution of this manual or any revision hereto is strictly prohibited.
Garmin®, G1000®, WATCH®, FliteCharts®, and SafeTaxi® are registered trademarks of Garmin International, Inc. or its subsidiaries. Garmin
ESP™, Garmin SVT™, and Connext™ are trademarks of Garmin International, Inc. or its subsidiaries. These trademarks may not be used
without the express permission of Garmin.
Stormscope® is a registered trademark of L-3 Communications. AC-U-KWIK® is a registered trademark of Penton Business Media Inc.
Bendix/King® and Honeywell® are registered trademarks of Honeywell International, Inc. Becker® is a registered trademark of Becker
Flugfunkwerk GmbH. NavData® is a registered trademark of Jeppesen, Inc.; Wi-Fi® is a registered trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance;
SiriusXM Weather and SiriusXM Satellite Radio are provided by SiriusXM Satellite Radio, Inc.
AOPA Membership Publications, Inc. and its related organizations (hereinafter collectively “AOPA”) expressly disclaim all warranties,
with respect to the AOPA information included in this data, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties
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representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Under no circumstances including negligence, shall AOPA be liable for any
incidental, special or consequential damages that result from the use or inability to use the software or related documentation, even if
AOPA or an AOPA authorized representative has been advised of the possibility of such damages. User agrees not to sue AOPA and, to
the maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AOPA from any causes of action, claims or losses related to any actual
or alleged inaccuracies in the information. Some jurisdictions do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for
incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you.
AC-U-KWIK and its related organizations (hereafter collectively “AC-U-KWIK Organizations”) expressly disclaim all warranties with
respect to the AC-U-KWIK information included in this data, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
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maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AC-U-KWIK Organizations from any cause of action, claims or losses related
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do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations
or exclusions may not apply to licensee.
Printed in the U.S.A.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for maintaining separation
from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data from third party sources and cannot
independently verify the accuracy of the information.
WARNING: Always refer to current aeronautical charts and NOTAMs for verification of displayed aeronautical
information. Displayed aeronautical data may not incorporate the latest NOTAM information.
WARNING: Do not use geometric altitude for compliance with air traffic control altitude requirements. The
primary barometric altimeter must be used for compliance with all air traffic control altitude regulations,
requirements, instructions, and clearances.
WARNING: Do not use basemap information (land and water data) as the sole means of navigation. Basemap
data is intended only to supplement other approved navigation data sources and should be considered only
an aid to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate information
from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
WARNING: The displayed minimum safe altitude (MSAs) are only advisory in nature and should not be relied
upon as the sole source of obstacle and terrain avoidance information. Always refer to current aeronautical
charts for appropriate minimum clearance altitudes.
WARNING: Always obtain qualified instruction prior to operational use of this equipment.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not operate properly
with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height above mean sea level, or the
standard pressure setting, as applicable.
WARNING: Do not use GPS to navigate to any active waypoint identified as a ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ by a
system message. ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ waypoints are derived from an unknown map reference datum that
may be incompatible with the map reference datum used by GPS (known as WGS84) and may be positioned
in error as displayed.
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
i
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: When using the autopilot to fly an approach with vertical guidance, the autopilot will not level
the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the altitude preselect.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Because of variation in the earth’s magnetic field, do not rely on the accuracy of attitude and
heading indications (GRS 77 installations only) in the following geographic areas: North of 72° North
latitude at all longitudes; South of 70° South latitude at all longitudes; North of 65° North latitude between
longitude 75° W and 120° W. (Northern Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 70° W and
128° W. (Northern Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 85° E and 114° E. (Northern
Russia); South of 55° South latitude between longitude 120° E and 165° E. (Region south of Australia and
New Zealand).
WARNING: Do not rely on information from a lightning detection system display as the sole basis for hazardous
weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate or
incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
Garmin SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or
reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the Garmin SVT display or may
appear as a partial symbol.
WARNING: Do not use the Garmin SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of
the aircraft to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
the MPEL boundary.
WARNING: Always position the weather radar gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the actual intensity of
precipitation. Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity.
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain or obstacle avoidance. TAWS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
ii
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
CAUTION: Do not clean display surfaces with abrasive cloths or cleaners containing ammonia. They will
harm the anti-reflective coating.
CAUTION: Repairs should only be made by an authorized Garmin service center. Unauthorized repairs or
modifications could void both the warranty and affect the airworthiness of the aircraft.
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE: All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen images of the system panel
and displays, are subject to change and may not reflect the most current system and aviation databases.
Depictions of equipment may differ slightly from the actual equipment.
NOTE: The United States government operates the Global Positioning System and is solely responsible for
its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy and
performance of all GPS equipment. Portions of the system utilize GPS as a precision electronic NAVigation
AID (NAVAID). Therefore, as with all NAVAIDs, information presented by the system can be misused or
misinterpreted and, therefore, become unsafe.
NOTE: This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any
interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
NOTE: Interference from GPS repeaters operating inside nearby hangars can cause an intermittent loss of
attitude and heading displays while the aircraft is on the ground. Moving the aircraft more than 100 yards
away from the source of the interference should alleviate the condition.
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the flight displays to appear dim or blank.
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals known to the State of California
to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This notice is being provided in accordance with
California’s Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would like additional information, please refer to
our web site at www.garmin.com/prop65.
NOTE: Operating the system in the vicinity of metal buildings, metal structures, or electromagnetic fields
can cause sensor differences that may result in nuisance miscompare annunciations during start up, shut
down, or while taxiing. If one or more of the sensed values are unavailable, the annunciation indicates no
comparison is possible.
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
iii
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: The system responds to a terminal procedure based on data coded within that procedure in the
Navigation Database. Differences in system operation may be observed among similar types of procedures
due to differences in the Navigation Database coding specific to each procedure.
NOTE: The FAA has asked Garmin to remind pilots who fly with Garmin database-dependent avionics of the
following:
• It is the pilot’s responsibility to remain familiar with all FAA regulatory and advisory guidance and information
related to the use of databases in the National Airspace System.
• Garmin equipment will only recognize and use databases that are obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen. Databases
obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen are assured compliance with all data quality requirements (DQRs) by virtue
of a Type 2 Letter of Authorization (LOA) from the FAA. A copy of the Type 2 LOA is available for each database
and can be viewed at http://fly.garmin.com by selecting ‘Type 2 LOA Status.’
• Use of a current Garmin or Jeppesen database in your Garmin equipment is required for compliance with
established FAA regulatory guidance, but does not constitute authorization to fly any and all terminal procedures
that may be presented by the system. It is the pilot’s responsibility to operate in accordance with established
AFM(S) and regulatory guidance or limitations as applicable to the pilot, the aircraft, and installed equipment.
NOTE: The pilot/operator must review and be familiar with Garmin’s database exclusion list as discussed in
SAIB CE-14-04 to determine what data may be incomplete. The database exclusion list can be viewed at
www.flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Database Exclusions List.’
NOTE: The pilot/operator must have access to Garmin and Jeppesen database alerts and consider their
impact on the intended aircraft operation. The database alerts can be viewed at www.flygarmin.com by
selecting ‘Aviation Database Alerts.’
NOTE: If the pilot/operator wants or needs to adjust the database, contact Garmin Product Support.
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information.
These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles
and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go
to FlyGarmin.com and select ‘Aviation Data Error Report’.
NOTE: Operate G1000 system power through at least one cycle in a period of four days of continuous
operation to avoid an autonomous system reboot.
NOTE: Lamp(s) inside this product contain mercury (HG) and must be recycled or disposed of according to
local, state, or federal laws. For more information, refer to our website at www.garmin.com/aboutGarmin/
environment/disposal.jsp
iv
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: When using Stormscope, there are several atmospheric phenomena in addition to nearby thunderstorms
that can cause isolated discharge points in the strike display mode. However, clusters of two or more
discharge points in the strike display mode do indicate thunderstorm activity if these points reappear after
the screen has been cleared.
NOTE: The system supports approval of AC 120-76C Hardware Class 3, Software Type B Electronic Flight Bag
(EFB) electronic aeronautical chart applications. Possible additional requirements may make a secondary
source (traditional paper or additional electronic display) necessary onboard the aircraft. If the secondary
source is a Portable Electronic Device (PED), its use must be consistent with guidance in AC 120-76C.
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
v
REVISION INFORMATION
Record of Revisions
vi
Part Number
190-01889-00
Revision
A
Date
3/9/15
Page Range
Description
Initial Release with GDU SW Version 15.00
190-01889-00
B
4/7/15
All
Revised to add Emergency Descent Mode and Hypoxia Prevention
190-01899-01
A
12/28/16
All
Changes for GDU SW Version 15.12
Update CAS messages
Add GSR 56 Voice/Text only option
Add airway optional waypoints
Enable configuration of temperature units
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Description.................................................. 1
Line Replaceable Units (LRU).................................. 2
G1000 Controls......................................................... 5
PFD/MFD Controls......................................................... 5
MFD/PFD Control Unit.................................................... 7
AFCS Controls............................................................... 9
Audio Panel Controls................................................... 11
Secure Digital Cards.............................................. 13
System Power-up.................................................... 14
System Operation................................................... 15
Normal Operation........................................................ 15
Reversionary Mode...................................................... 16
AHRS Operation.......................................................... 17
G1000 System Annunciations....................................... 18
Softkey Function.......................................................... 19
GPS Receiver Operation............................................... 26
Accessing G1000 Functionality............................ 31
Menus........................................................................ 31
MFD Page Groups........................................................ 32
MFD System Pages...................................................... 36
Display Backlighting.............................................. 53
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 Flight Instruments.................................................. 58
Airspeed Indicator....................................................... 58
Attitude Indicator........................................................ 60
Altimeter.................................................................... 61
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)........................................ 64
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............................... 65
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)................................... 70
2.2 Supplemental Flight Data..................................... 77
Temperature Displays................................................... 77
Wind Data.................................................................. 78
Vertical Navigation (VNV) Indications............................ 79
2.3 PFD Annunciations and Alerting Functions......... 80
Marker Beacon Annunciations...................................... 80
Altitude Alerting.......................................................... 80
Low Altitude Annunciation........................................... 81
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height Alerting....... 81
190-01889-01 Rev. A
2.4 Abnormal Operations............................................ 83
Abnormal GPS Conditions............................................ 83
Heading Failure Modes................................................ 84
Unusual Attitudes........................................................ 84
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.1 Engine Indication System (EIS)............................. 89
Manifold Pressure Gauge............................................. 90
Propeller RPM Gauge................................................... 90
Turbine Inlet Temperature Gauge................................... 90
Fuel Flow.................................................................... 91
Cylinder Head Temperature........................................... 91
Oil Pressure and Temperature Gauges............................ 91
Cabin Pressurization.................................................... 92
Pulse Oximeter............................................................ 92
Fuel Quantity.............................................................. 93
Electrical..................................................................... 93
Flap Indicator.............................................................. 93
Landing Gear Indicator................................................. 94
3.2 Engine Page............................................................ 95
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 Overview................................................................. 97
PFD Controls and Frequency Display.............................. 98
Audio Panel Controls................................................. 100
MFD/PFD Control Unit................................................ 102
4.2 COM Operation..................................................... 104
COM Transceiver Selection and Activation.................... 104
COM Transceiver Manual Tuning................................. 105
Quick-tuning and Activating 121.500 MHz................... 107
Auto-tuning the COM Frequency................................. 108
Frequency Spacing..................................................... 113
Automatic Squelch..................................................... 114
Volume..................................................................... 114
4.3 NAV Operation...................................................... 115
NAV Radio Selection and Activation............................ 115
NAV Receiver Manual Tuning...................................... 116
Auto-tuning a NAV Frequency from the MFD................ 118
Auto-tuning NAV Frequencies on Approach Activation.. 122
Marker Beacon Receiver............................................. 122
ADF/DME Tuning....................................................... 123
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
4.4 GTX 33 ES Mode S Transponder(s)..................... 128
Transponder Controls................................................. 128
Transponder Mode Selection....................................... 129
Entering a Transponder Code...................................... 131
IDENT Function......................................................... 133
ADS-B TX.................................................................. 133
4.5 Additional Audio Panel Functions...................... 134
Power-Up.................................................................. 134
Mono/Stereo Headsets............................................... 134
Speaker.................................................................... 134
Passenger Address Mode (PA Mode)............................ 134
Clearance Recorder and Player.................................... 134
Intercom System (ICS) ............................................... 135
Split COM Mode........................................................ 140
Entertainment Inputs................................................. 141
4.6 Audio Panels Preflight Procedure....................... 142
Audio Panel Preflight................................................. 142
4.7 Abnormal Operation............................................ 143
Audio Panel Fail-safe Operation.................................. 143
Stuck Microphone...................................................... 143
COM Tuning Failure.................................................... 143
PFD Failure, Dual System............................................ 143
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 Introduction.......................................................... 145
Navigation Status Box and Data Bar............................ 146
5.2 Using Map Displays.............................................. 148
Map Orientation........................................................ 148
Map Range............................................................... 150
Map Panning............................................................. 152
Measuring Bearing and Distance................................. 158
Topography............................................................... 159
Map Symbols............................................................ 162
Airways.................................................................... 168
Track Vector.............................................................. 170
Wind Vector.............................................................. 171
Nav Range Ring........................................................ 172
Fuel Range Ring........................................................ 173
Field of View (SVT)..................................................... 174
Selected Altitude Intercept Arc.................................... 175
5.3 Waypoints.............................................................. 176
Airports.................................................................... 177
Intersections............................................................. 184
NDBs........................................................................ 186
viii
VORs........................................................................ 188
VRPs........................................................................ 190
User Waypoints......................................................... 192
5.4 Airspaces............................................................... 198
5.5 Direct-to-Navigation ........................................... 203
5.6 Flight Planning...................................................... 209
Flight Plan Creation................................................... 210
Adding Waypoints to an Existing Flight Plan................. 215
Adding Airways to a Flight Plan.................................. 218
Adding Procedures to a Stored Flight Plan................... 221
Flight Plan Storage.................................................... 228
Flight Plan Editing..................................................... 230
Along Track Offsets.................................................... 234
Parallel Track............................................................. 235
Activating a Flight Plan Leg........................................ 238
Inverting a Flight Plan................................................ 239
Flight Plan Views....................................................... 240
Closest Point of FPL................................................... 242
User-Defined Holding Patterns.................................... 243
5.7 Vertical Navigation.............................................. 248
Altitude Constraints................................................... 250
5.8 Procedures............................................................ 254
Departures................................................................ 255
Arrivals .................................................................... 258
Approaches .............................................................. 261
5.9 Trip Planning......................................................... 269
Trip Planning............................................................. 269
Weight Planning........................................................ 273
Weight Caution And Warning Conditions..................... 275
5.10 RAIM Prediction................................................... 276
5.11 Navigating a Flight Plan...................................... 280
5.12 Abnormal Operation............................................ 307
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 SiriusXM Weather................................................. 310
Activating Services.................................................... 310
Using SiriusXM Weather Products............................... 311
6.2 Garmin Connext Weather.................................... 345
Registering the system for Garmin Connext Weather..... 345
Accessing Garmin Connext Weather Products............... 347
Connext Weather Data Requests................................. 353
Garmin Connext Weather Products.............................. 357
Abnormal Operations................................................. 369
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
TABLE OF CONTENTS
6.3 Airborne Color Weather Radar........................... 371
System Description.................................................... 371
Principles of Pulsed Airborne Weather Radar................ 371
NEXRAD and Airborne Weather Radar ........................ 372
Antenna Beam Illumination........................................ 372
Safe Operating Distance............................................. 375
Basic Antenna Tilt Setup............................................. 376
Weather Mapping and Interpretation.......................... 378
Ground Mapping and Interpretation............................ 388
Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page.... 389
System Status............................................................ 391
6.4 Stormscope Lightning.......................................... 393
Setting Up Stormscope on the Navigation Map............ 394
Selecting the Stormscope Page................................... 397
6.5 Terrain Proximity.................................................. 399
Displaying Terrain Proximity Data................................ 400
Terrain Proximity Page................................................ 403
6.6 Terrain-SVS............................................................ 405
Displaying Terrain-SVS Data........................................ 406
Terrain-SVS Page....................................................... 408
Terrain-SVS Alerts...................................................... 411
System Status............................................................ 413
6.7 TAWS-B.................................................................. 415
Displaying TAWS-B Data............................................. 416
TAWS-B Page............................................................ 419
TAWS-B Alerts........................................................... 421
System Status............................................................ 427
6.8 Profile View Terrain.............................................. 429
Profile View Display................................................... 429
Profile Path............................................................... 431
6.9 Traffic Information Service (TIS)......................... 433
Displaying TRAFFIC Data............................................ 434
Traffic Map Page........................................................ 436
TIS Alerts.................................................................. 437
System Status............................................................ 439
6.10 TAS/TCAS I Traffic................................................. 441
Theory of Operation................................................... 441
Traffic Alerts.............................................................. 445
System Test............................................................... 446
Operation................................................................. 447
190-01889-01 Rev. A
6.11 Garmin ADS-B Traffic............................................ 455
ADS-B System Overview............................................. 455
ADS-B with TAS......................................................... 457
Conflict Situational Awareness & Alerting.................... 457
Airborne and Surface Applications............................... 460
Traffic Description...................................................... 461
Operation................................................................. 461
System Status............................................................ 470
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 AFCS Controls....................................................... 474
7.2 Flight Director Operation.................................... 476
Activating the Flight Director...................................... 476
AFCS Status Box........................................................ 477
Flight Director Modes................................................. 478
Switching Flight Directors........................................... 478
Command Bars.......................................................... 479
Underspeed Protection............................................... 480
7.3 Vertical Modes...................................................... 482
Pitch Hold Mode (PIT)................................................ 483
Selected Altitude Capture Mode (ALTS)........................ 484
Altitude Hold Mode (ALT)........................................... 485
Vertical Speed Mode (VS)........................................... 486
Flight Level Change Mode (FLC).................................. 487
Glideslope Mode (GS)................................................ 494
Take Off and Go Around Modes (TO/GA)...................... 495
Level Mode (LVL)....................................................... 496
7.4 Lateral Modes....................................................... 497
Roll Hold Mode (ROL)................................................ 498
Low Bank Mode........................................................ 498
Heading Select Mode (HDG)....................................... 499
Navigation Modes (GPS, VOR, LOC)............................. 500
Approach Modes (GPS, VAPP, LOC).............................. 501
Backcourse Mode (BC)............................................... 503
Level Mode (LVL)....................................................... 504
7.5 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Operation.............. 505
Flight Control............................................................ 505
Engagement.............................................................. 506
Control Wheel Steering.............................................. 506
Disengagement......................................................... 507
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS
7.6 Example Flight Plan............................................. 508
Intercepting a VOR Radial........................................... 510
Flying a Flight Plan/GPS Course.................................. 511
Descent.................................................................... 512
Approach.................................................................. 516
Go Around/Missed Approach...................................... 518
7.7 AFCS Annunciations and Alerts.......................... 520
AFCS Status Alerts..................................................... 520
Overspeed Protection................................................. 521
Emergency Descent Mode.......................................... 521
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
x
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT)...................... 524
SVT Operation........................................................... 525
SVT Features............................................................. 527
Field of View............................................................. 536
SafeTaxi................................................................. 538
SafeTaxi Database Cycle Number and Revision............. 541
ChartView.............................................................. 544
ChartView Softkeys.................................................... 545
Terminal Procedures Charts........................................ 546
Chart Options............................................................ 554
Day/Night View......................................................... 560
ChartView Cycle Number and Expiration Date.............. 562
FliteCharts............................................................. 565
FliteCharts Softkeys................................................... 566
Terminal Procedures Charts........................................ 567
Chart Options............................................................ 574
Day/Night View......................................................... 578
FliteCharts Cycle Number and Expiration Date.............. 580
Airport Directory.................................................. 583
Airport Directory Database Cycle Number and Revision.584
Satellite Telephone and SMS Messaging........... 586
Registering With Garmin Connext............................... 586
Contacts................................................................... 587
Telephone Communication......................................... 591
Text Messaging (SMS)................................................ 598
SiriusXM Satellite Radio Entertainment............ 610
Activating SiriusXM Satellite Radio Services................. 610
Using SiriusXM Satellite Radio.................................... 612
Scheduler............................................................... 615
Flight Data Logging............................................. 617
8.10 Electronic Stability & Protection (ESP™)............ 619
Roll Engagement....................................................... 620
Pitch Engagement..................................................... 622
High Airspeed Protection............................................ 622
8.11 Hypoxia Recognition & Automatic Descent Mode... 623
Determining Pilot Alertness........................................ 623
Automatic Descent Mode........................................... 624
8.12 Abnormal Operation............................................ 625
SVT Troubleshooting.................................................. 625
Reversionary Mode.................................................... 625
Unusual Attitudes...................................................... 626
APPENDICES
Annunciations and Alerts.............................................. 629
CAS Messages........................................................... 630
System Annunciations................................................ 635
System Messages...................................................... 637
Flight Plan Import/Export Messages............................ 650
Pilot Profile Import/Export Messages........................... 650
ADS-B Status Page Messages...................................... 651
AFCS Alerts............................................................... 652
Terrain-SVS Alerts...................................................... 653
TAWS-B Alerts........................................................... 654
TIS Annunciations...................................................... 655
TAS/TCAS Annunciations............................................ 656
ADS-B TAS Annunciations........................................... 657
GDL 69A SXM........................................................... 658
Weather Radar Annunciations..................................... 658
Database Management................................................. 661
Navigation Databases................................................ 662
Dual Navigation Database Feature ............................. 664
Garmin Databases..................................................... 666
Frequently Asked Questions......................................... 685
Map Symbols.................................................................. 689
Hazard Avoidance Features......................................... 691
INDEX
Index .................................................................................I-1
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
This section provides an overview of the G1000 Integrated Avionics System as installed in the Piper Mirage.
The G1000 system is an integrated flight control system that presents flight instrumentation, position, navigation,
communication, and identification information to the pilot through large-format displays. The system consists of
the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
GDU 1240A Multi Function Display (MFD)
GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Unit
GDC 74A Air Data Computer (ADC)
GEA 71 Engine/Airframe Unit
GMU 44 Magnetometer
GRS 77 Attitude and Heading Reference System
(AHRS)
• GTX 33/33D Extended Squitter Mode S
Transponder
• GCU 476 MFD/PFD Control Unit
• GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
• GTP 59 Outside Air Temperature (OAT) Probe
• GSA 80/81 AFCS Servos
• GSM 86 Servo Gearboxes
• GMA 350 Audio Panel with Integrated Marker
Beacon Receiver
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
•
•
•
•
•
•
EIS
• GDU 1040 Primary Flight Display (PFD)
A top-level G1000 system block diagram is shown in Figure 1-1 (it does not include the GSM 86). The G1000
is capable of interfacing with the following optional equipment:
•
•
•
•
KN 63 DME
Becker RA-3504 ADF
ARTEX ELT
WX-500 Stormscope
AFCS
GTX 33 Extended Squitter Mode S Transponder
GDL 69 SXM Satellite Data Link Receiver
GRC 10/GRT 10 Remote Control Transceiver
GWX 68 Weather Radar
GTS 825/855 Traffic Avoidance System
GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
•
•
•
•
•
•
NOTE: Refer to the AFCS section for details on the Garmin AFCS.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
In the Piper Mirage, the Garmin Automated Flight Control System (AFCS) provides the flight director (FD),
autopilot (AP), and yaw damper (YD) functions of the G1000 system.
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
1
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.2 LINE REPLACEABLE UNITS (LRU)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• GDU 1040 (2) – Each unit is configured as a PFD that features a 10.4-inch LCD with 1024 x 768 resolution.
The unit installed on the left/pilot side is designated as PFD1, and the one installed on the right/copilot side
is designated as PFD2. These units communicate with each other, the MFD, and with the on-side GIA 63W
Integrated Avionics Unit through a High-Speed Data Bus (HSDB) connection.
• GDU 1240A (1) – Features a 12-inch LCD with 1024 x 768 resolution and is configured as an MFD. This unit
is linked to both PFDs via HSDB connection.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
• GIA 63W (2) – Functions as the main communication hub, linking all LRUs with the on-side PFD. Each
GIA 63W contains a GPS SBAS receiver, VHF COM/NAV/GS receivers, a flight director (FD) and system
integration microprocessors. Each GIA 63W is paired with the on-side PFD via HSDB connection. The GIA
63Ws are not paired together and do not communicate with each other directly.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• GDC 74A (2) – Processes data from the pitot/static system as well as the OAT probe. This unit provides
pressure altitude, airspeed, vertical speed and OAT information to the G1000 system, and it communicates
with the on-side GIA 63W, on-side GDU 1040 and on-side GRS 77, using an ARINC 429 digital interface (it
also interfaces directly with the on-side GTP 59). The GDC 74A is designed to operate in Reduced Vertical
Separation Minimum (RVSM) airspace.
• GEA 71 (1) – Receives and processes signals from the engine and airframe sensors. This unit communicates
with both GIA 63Ws using an RS-485 digital interface.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• GRS 77 (2) – Provides aircraft attitude and heading information via ARINC 429 to both the on-side GDU 1040
and the on-side GIA 63W. The GRS 77 contains advanced sensors (including accelerometers and rate sensors)
and interfaces with the on-side GMU 44 to obtain magnetic field information, with the GDC 74A to obtain air
data, and with both GIA 63Ws to obtain GPS information. AHRS modes of operation are discussed later in this
document.
AFCS
• GMU 44 (2) – Measures local magnetic field. Data is sent to the GRS 77 for processing to determine aircraft
magnetic heading. This unit receives power directly from the GRS 77 and communicates with the GRS 77,
using an RS-485 digital interface.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• GMA 350 (1) – The Audio Panel integrates NAV/COM audio, intercom, telephone, and marker beacon controls
(refer to the Audio Panel & CNS Section). This unit communicates with both GIA 63Ws, using an RS-232
digital interface.
2
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• GTX 33/33D ES (1 or 2) – The GTX 33 ES is a solid-state transponder that provide Modes A, C, S and ADS-B
capability. Both transponders can be controlled from either PFD, and only one transponder can be active at a
time. Each transponder communicates with the on-side GIA 63W through an RS-232 digital interface.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• GCU 476 (1) – The Control Unit provides MFD/PFD and radio tuning control through an RS-232 digital
interface.
• GMC 710 (1) – Provides the controls for the Garmin AFCS through an RS-232 digital interface allowing
communication with both PFDs.
• GTP 59 (2) – Provides Outside Air Temperature (OAT) data to the on-side GDC 74A.
EIS
• GSA 80 (1), GSA 81 (3) and GSM 86 (4) – The GSA 80/81 servos are used for the automatic control of roll,
pitch, and yaw, and pitch trim. These units interface with each GIA 63W. The GSM 86 servo gearbox is
responsible for transferring the output torque of the GSA 81 servo actuator to the mechanical flight-control
surface linkage.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• GWX 68 (1)(optional) – Provides airborne weather and ground mapped radar data to the MFD, through the
GDL 69, via HSDB connection.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• GDL 69 SXM (1)(optional) – A satellite radio receiver that provides real-time weather information to the
G1000 MFD (and, indirectly, to the inset map of the PFD) as well as digital audio entertainment. The GDL 69
communicates with the MFD via HSDB connection. A subscription to the XM Satellite Radio service is required
to enable the GDL 69 digital audio entertainment capability.
GRC 10 Remote Control (optional with GDL 69)
GRT 10 Remote Control Transceiver (optional with GDL 69)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• GSR 56 (1)(optional) – The Iridium Transceiver provides voice communication by means of pilot and copilot
headsets. The unit can also send and receive data over the Iridium satellite network. The GSR 56 is connected
to the #2 GIA 63W with an RS-232 digital interface.
AFCS
• GTS 825/855 (1)(optional)– The GTS 825 Traffic Advisory System (TAS), and the GTS 855 TCAS I, use active
interrogations of Mode S and Mode C transponders to provide traffic information to the pilot independent of
the air traffic control system.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
3
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GRT 10/GRC 10
(XM Remote
Control)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
GMC 710
(AFCS Mode
Controller)
#1
GDU 1040
(PFD1)
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
#3
GDU 1240A
(MFD)
GCU 476
(Display
Controller)
GWX 68
(Weather
Radar)
GTS 825/855
(TAS/TCAS I)
GSR 56
(Iridium)
Reversionary
Switch
Reversionary
Switch
GMA 350
(Audio
Panel)
#1 GIA 63W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
#1 GDC 74A
(Air Data
Computer)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
GDL 69 SXM
(XM Weather/
Audio Datalink)
#2
GDU 1040
(PFD2)
#2 GIA 63W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
#2 GDC 74A
(Air Data
Computer)
#1 GMA 44
(Magnetometer)
#2 GMA 44
(Magnetometer)
VHF COM
VHF COM
GPS/SBAS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
GPS/SBAS
#1 GRS 77
(Attitude &
Heading)
VOR/LOC
G/S
#2 GRS 77
(Attitude &
Heading)
G/S
AFCS Mode
Logic
AFCS Mode
Logic
Flight
Director
Flight
Director
GEA 71
(Engine & Airframe
I/F)
Servo
Management
AFCS
VOR/LOC
Servo
Management
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
GSA 80(1)/81(3)
(Garmin AFCS
Servos)
INDEX
Garmin Equipment
#1 GTX 33 w/ES or
GTX 33D w/ES
(Transponder)
#2 GTX 33 w/ES
(Transponder)
RA-3504
(ADF)
KN-63
(DME)
WX-500
(Lightning
Detection)
ARTEX ELT
(ELT)
Non-Garmin Equipment
Optional
Garmin Equipment
Optional
Non-Garmin Equipment
Figure 1-1 G1000 System (LRU Configuration)
4
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1.3 G1000 CONTROLS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The Audio Panel (GMA 350) and AFCS controls (GMC 710) are described in the CNS & Audio Panel
and AFCS sections respectively.
The G1000 system controls are located on the PFD bezels, MFD/PFD Control Unit, AFCS Control Unit and
audio panel. The controls for the PFD and MFD are discussed within the following pages of this section.
PFD/MFD CONTROLS
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
EIS
1
9
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
11
14
12
15
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
13
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
10
16
AFCS
18
17
Figure 1-2 PFD Controls
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
INDEX
190-01889-01 Rev. A
APPENDICES
NAV VOL/ID Knob Turn to control NAV audio volume (shown in the NAV Frequency Box as a
percentage)
Press to toggle Morse code identifier audio ON/OFF
2 NAV Frequency
Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies
Transfer Key
3 NAV Knob
Turn to tune NAV receiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for kHz)
Press to toggle cyan tuning box between NAV1 and NAV2
4 Heading Knob
Turn to manually select a heading
Press to display a digital heading momentarily to the left of the HSI and synchronize
the Selected Heading to the and current heading
5
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
5
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
6
EIS
7
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
10
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
9
Turn to change map range
Press to activate Map Pointer for map panning
Turn large knob for altimeter barometric pressure setting
CRS/BARO Knob
Turn small knob to adjust course (only when HSI is in VOR or OBS Mode)
Press to re-center the CDI and return course pointer directly TO bearing of active
waypoint/station
Turn to tune COM transceiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for
COM Knob
kHz)
Press to toggle cyan tuning box between COM1 and COM2
The selected COM (green) is controlled with the COM MIC Key (Audio Panel).
Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies
COM Frequency
Transfer Key
Press and hold 2 seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically
(EMERG)
into the active frequency field
COM VOL/SQ Knob Turn to control COM audio volume level (shown as a percentage in the COM
Frequency Box)
Press to turn the COM automatic squelch ON/OFF
Direct-to Key ( ) Activates the direct-to function and allows the user to enter a destination waypoint
and establish a direct course to the selected destination (specified by identifier,
chosen from the active route)
Displays flight plan information
FPL Key
Joystick
12
CLR Key
(DFLT MAP)
13
MENU Key
14
PROC Key
15
ENT Key
16
FMS Knob
AFCS
11
Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus
Press and hold to display the MFD Navigation Map Page (MFD only).
Displays a context-sensitive list of options for accessing additional features or making
setting changes
Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs), and
approach procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan or selected airport
Validates/confirms menu selection or data entry
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press to turn the selection cursor ON/OFF.
(Flight Management Data Entry: With cursor ON, turn to enter data in the highlighted field (large
knob moves cursor location; small knob selects character for highlighted cursor
System Knob)
location)
Scrolling: When a list of information is too long for the window/box, a scroll bar
appears, indicating more items to view. With cursor ON, turn large knob to scroll
through the list.
Page Selection: Turn knob on MFD to select the page to view (large knob selects a
page group; small knob selects a specific page from the group)
17 Softkey Selection
Press to select softkey shown above the bezel key on the PFD/MFD display
Keys
18 ALT Knob
Sets the Selected Altitude, shown above the Altimeter (the large knob selects the
thousands, the small knob selects the hundreds)
6
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The NAV, CRS/BARO, COM, FMS, and ALT knobs are concentric dual knobs, each having small (inner)
and large (outer) control portion. When a portion of the knob is not specified in the text, either may be used.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Large (Outer) Knob
Small (Inner) Knob
EIS
Figure 1-3 Dual Concentric Knob
MFD/PFD CONTROL UNIT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The MFD/PFD Control Unit is a pedestal-mounted user interface allowing for ease of data entry, MFD/PFD
operation, and NAV/COM tuning. Many procedures in this Pilot’s Guide can be performed using the MFD/PFD
Control Unit rather than the display bezel controls. Indicators above the PFD, MFD, NAV, and COM keys are
illuminated when their respective control mode(s) are selected. The unit is in MFD control mode by default on
system power-up.
2
3
4
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NAV/COM radio tuning can be accomplished in either PFD or MFD control mode. The appropriate frequency
box on the selected display is outlined by a cyan selection box, which flashes for a few seconds to indicate
Control Unit activity (refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information about NAV/COM tuning).
Selection of a different display control or radio tuning mode results in cancelation of the previous radio tuning
mode.
5
19
AFCS
18
17
15
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
16
6
14
7
12
8
10
INDEX
11
APPENDICES
13
9
Figure 1-4 GCU 476 MFD/PFD Control Unit (Optional)
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
7
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1
FPL Key
2
Direct-to Key (
6
) Activates the direct-to function and allows the user to enter a destination waypoint
and establish a direct course to the selected destination (specified by identifier,
chosen from the active route)
Displays a context-sensitive list of options for accessing additional features or making
MENU Key
setting changes
Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs), and
PROC Key
approach procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan or selected airport
Turn to change map range
Joystick
Press to activate Map Pointer for map panning
Alphanumeric Keys Allow data entry (rather than using the FMS Knob to select characters/numbers)
7
BKSP Key
Moves cursor back one character space and removes last character entered
8
SPC Key
Adds a space character
9
ENT Key
Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry
10
CLR Key
11
SEL Key
Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus
Press and hold to display the MFD Navigation Map Page (MFD only).
Arrows move cyan Softkey Selection Box (Figure 1-10) on selected display
Press the center to activate the selected softkey
12
Decimal Key
13
Plus-Minus (±) Key Toggles entry between the + and - characters
14
NAV Key
Selects/deselects NAV radio tuning mode on the MFD/PFD Control Unit
15
COM Key
Selects/deselects COM radio tuning mode on the MFD/PFD Control Unit
16
Frequency Transfer Transfers between active and standby selected COM or NAV tuning frequencies
Key
Press and hold 2 seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically
(EMERG)
into the active frequency field
17
PFD Key
When selected, the MFD/PFD Control Unit can be used to access PFD functions
18
MFD Key
19
FMS/NAV-COM
Knob
When selected, the MFD/PFD Control Unit can be used to access MFD functions
(default display control mode)
NAV/COM Tuning Modes: Acts as the NAV or COM Knob
PFD/MFD Control Modes: Acts as the FMS Knob
3
4
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
5
Enters a decimal point character
INDEX
APPENDICES
Displays flight plan information
8
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AFCS CONTROLS
NOTE: With the exception of the FD and SPD Keys, if a key is selected, its respective annunciator is illuminated.
3
4
19
18
17
16
5
6
7
13
12
8
EIS
2
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1
14
11
10
9
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
15
Figure 1-5 AFCS Control Unit (GMC 710)
3
NAV Key – Selects/deselects Navigation Mode.
4
FD Key – Activates/deactivates the flight director in the default pitch and roll modes. If the autopilot is
engaged, the FD Key is disabled.
5
XFR Key – Switches the autopilot between the pilot-side and the copilot-side flight directors. This selection
also selects which air data computer is communicating with the active transponder. Upon power-up, the
pilot-side FD is selected.
6
ALT Key – Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode.
7
VS Key – Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode.
8
FLC Key – Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode.
9
CRS2 Knob – Sets the copilot-selected course on the HSI of PFD2 when the VOR1, VOR2, or OBS/SUSP
mode is selected. Pressing this knob centers the CDI on the currently selected VOR. The copilot-selected
course provides course reference to the copilot-side flight director when operating in Navigation and
Approach modes.
10
SPD Key (Disabled) – If pressed, “SPD KEY DISABLED The SPD key is disabled for this model aircraft.”
annunciation appears in the Messages window.
APPENDICES
APR Key – Selects/deselects Approach Mode.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2
AFCS
HDG Key – Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The GARMIN AFCS is mainly controlled through the GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit. The AFCS Control Unit
consists of the following controls:
INDEX
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
9
NOSE UP/DN Wheel – Controls the active mode reference for the Pitch, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level
Change modes.
12
VNV Key – Selects/deselects Vertical Navigation mode.
13
ALT SEL Knob – Sets the selected altitude in the Selected Altitude Box. In addition to providing the
standard G1000 altitude alerter function, selected altitude provides an altitude setting for the Altitude
Capture/Hold mode of the AFCS.
14
YD Key – Engages/disengages the yaw damper.
15
AP Key – Engages/disengages the autopilot.
16
BANK Key – Selects/deselects Low Bank Mode.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
17
CRS1 Knob – Sets the pilot-selected course on the HSI of PFD1 when the VOR1, VOR2, or OBS/SUSP mode
is selected. Pressing this knob centers the CDI on the currently selected VOR. The pilot-selected course
provides course reference to the pilot-side flight director when operating in Navigation and Approach
modes.
18
BC Key – Selects/deselects Back Course Mode.
19
HDG Knob – Sets the selected heading on the HSI. When operating in Heading Select mode, this knob
provides the heading reference to the flight director.
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
11
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ADDITIONAL AFCS CONTROLS
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The AP DISC (Autopilot Disconnect) Switch, CWS (Control Wheel Steering) Button, GO AROUND
Switch, and MEPT (Manual Electric Pitch Trim) Switch are additional AFCS controls and are located in the cockpit,
separately from the AFCS Control Unit. These are discussed in detail in the AFCS section.
10
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
10
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2
EIS
11
20
21
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 1-6 GMA 350 Controls
NOTE: When a key is selected, a triangular annunciator above the key is illuminated.
COM1 – When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard. Press and hold to enable/disable
monitored COM muting during primary COM reception.
3
COM2 – When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard. Press and hold to enable/disable
monitored COM muting during primary COM reception.
4
NAV1 – When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
5
NAV2 – When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
6
– Selects and deselects audio from a telephone or entertainment device connected to the Front Panel
Jack. Audio from a telephone connected to the rear of the audio panel is used if a device is not connected
muting during reception.
8
MUS2 – Selects and deselects music entertainment audio. Press and hold to enable/disable MUS2 muting
during reception.
9
MAN SQ – Manual Squelch annunciator. When lit, squelch is controlled manually.
10
Volume Indicator – Indicates volume/squelch setting relative to full scale.
11
Front Panel Jack – Used for an entertainment or telephone input.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
INDEX
MUS1 – Selects and deselects music entertainment audio. Press and hold to enable/disable MUS1 muting
during reception.
APPENDICES
7
190-01889-01 Rev. A
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
to the Front Panel Jack. Press and hold to enable/disable
AFCS
2
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
MKR/MUTE – Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker beacon receiver
audio. Deactivates automatically and marker beacon audio is heard when the next marker beacon signal
is received. Also, stops play of recorded COM audio.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1
11
12
MIC1 – Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously selected when this key
is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM receiver to be heard. COM2 receive can be added by
pressing the COM2 Key. Selection of a second MIC button initiates Split-COM mode. When in Split-COM
mode, the pilot is using COM1, the copilot is using the COM2.
13
MIC2 – Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously selected when this key
is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM receiver to be heard. COM1 receive can be added by
pressing the COM1 Key. Selection of a second MIC button initiates Split-COM mode. When in Split-COM
mode, the pilot is using COM1, the copilot is using the COM2.
14
PLAY – Press once to play the latest recorded memory block. Press while audio is playing begins playing
the previously recorded memory block. Each subsequent press thereafter plays the previous block of
memory.
15
AUX – When selected, audio from the ADF and DME (if equipped) can be heard.
16
PILOT – Controls the pilot intercom system. Press and hold to toggle 3D Audio on/off for all headset
positions.
17
COPLT – Controls the copilot intercom system. Press and hold to toggle copilot configuration between
crew and passenger.
18
PASS – Controls the passenger intercom system. Press and hold to enable/disable passenger muting
during reception.
19
SPKR – Selects and deselects the cabin speaker. COM, NAV, AUX, and MKR receiver audio can be heard
on the speaker. Press and hold for 2 seconds for Passenger Address (PA). The SPKR key flashes during
PA.
20
Cursor (CRSR) Control Knob – Turn to move the cursor (flashing white or cyan annunciator) to the
desired source.
21
Volume (VOL) Control Knob – Turn the smaller knob to control volume or squelch of the selected source
(indicated by the flashing white or cyan annunciator). When the volume control cursor is not active press
to switch to Blue-Select mode. If the volume control cursor is active, press twice (once to cancel the cursor,
twice to activate Blue-Select mode).
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
12
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1.4 SECURE DIGITAL CARDS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for instructions on updating the navigation database.
NOTE: Ensure that the G1000 system is powered off before inserting the SD card.
EIS
The GDU 1040 and GDU 1240A data card slots use Secure Digital (SD) cards and are located on the top right
portion of the display bezels. Each display bezel is equipped with two SD card slots. SD cards are used for
navigation database and system software updates as well as terrain database storage.
Install an SD card
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Insert the SD card in the SD card slot, pushing the card in until the spring latch engages. The front of the card
should remain flush with the face of the display bezel.
Remove an SD card
Gently press on the SD card to release the spring latch and eject the card.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
PFD
MFD
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SD Card Slots
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 1-7 Display Bezel SD Card Slots
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
13
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.5 SYSTEM POWER-UP
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for AHRS initialization bank angle limitations.
NOTE: See the Appendices for additional information regarding system-specific annunciations and alerts.
NOTE: See the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for specific procedures concerning avionics power
EIS
application and emergency power supply operation.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The G1000 system is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical
busses. The G1000 PFDs, MFD and supporting sub-systems include both power-on and continuous built-in test
features that exercise the processor, RAM, ROM, external inputs and outputs to provide safe operation.
During system initialization, test annunciations are displayed, as shown in Figure 1-8. All system annunciations
should disappear typically within one minute of power-up. Upon power-up, key annunciator lights also become
momentarily illuminated on the audio panels, the control units and the display bezels.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
On the PFD, the AHRS begins to initialize and displays ‘AHRS ALIGN: Keep Wings Level’. The AHRS should
display valid attitude and heading fields typically within one minute of power-up. The AHRS can align itself both
while taxiing in a straight line and during level flight.
When the MFD powers up (Figure 1-9), the MFD Power-up Page displays the following information:
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• System version
• Copyright
• Land database name and version
• Safe Taxi database name and effective dates
• Terrain database name and version
• Airport Terrain database name and version
• Obstacle database name and effective dates
• Navigation database name and effective dates
• Airport Directory name and effective dates
• FliteCharts/ChartView database information
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Current database information includes the valid operating dates, cycle number and database type. When this
information has been reviewed for currency (to ensure that no databases have expired), the pilot is prompted
to continue. Pressing the ENT Key acknowledges this information and displays the Auxiliary (AUX) Weight
Planning Page.
Figure 1-8 PFD Initialization
14
Figure 1-9 MFD Power-up Page
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1.6 SYSTEM OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The displays are connected together via multiple data busses, thus allowing for high-speed communication.
As shown in Figure 1-1, each GIA 63W is connected to the on-side PFD. This section discusses the normal and
reversionary modes of operation as well as the various AHRS modes of the G1000 system.
NORMAL OPERATION
PFD
EIS
In normal mode, the PFD presents graphical flight instrumentation (attitude, heading, airspeed, altitude
and vertical speed), thereby replacing the traditional flight instrument cluster. The PFD also offers control for
COM and NAV frequency selection.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
MFD
In normal mode, the right portion of the MFD displays a full-color moving map with navigation information,
while the left portion of the MFD is dedicated to the Engine Indication System (EIS).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 1-10 gives an example of the G1000 displays in normal mode.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PFD2
PFD1
MFD
Figure 1-10 Normal Operation
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
15
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
REVERSIONARY MODE
NOTE: The G1000 system alerts the pilot when backup paths are utilized by the LRUs. Refer to the Appendices
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
for further information regarding system-specific alerts.
Reversionary mode is a mode of operation in which all important flight information is presented identically
on at least one of the remaining displays (see Figure 1-11). Transition to reversionary mode should be
straightforward for the pilot, for flight parameters are presented in the same format as in normal mode.
EIS
In the event of an MFD failure, the G1000 system automatically switches to reversionary (backup) mode. In
reversionary mode, all important flight information is presented on the remaining display(s) in the same format
as in normal operating mode.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• PFD1 failure – MFD and PFD2 remain in normal mode.
• MFD failure – Both PFDs automatically switch to reversionary mode.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• PFD2 failure – MFD and PFD1 remain in normal mode.
AFCS
Figure 1-11 Reversionary Mode
Reversionary mode can be activated manually by pressing a dedicated reversionary switch installed in the
cockpit. Pressing this switch again deactivates reversionary mode.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Each display can be configured to operate in reversionary mode, as follows:
• PFD1 – By pressing the left reversionary switch.
• MFD – By pressing the left or right reversionary switch..
APPENDICES
• PFD2 – By pressing the right reversionary switch.
INDEX
Should the connection between a PFD and the on-side GIA 63W become inoperative, the on-side GIA 63W
can no longer communicate with the remaining PFD (refer to Figure 1-1). As a result, the NAV and COM
functions provided to the failed PFD by the on-side GIA 63W are flagged as invalid (red “X”) on the remaining
PFD (see Figure 1-12). The system reverts to backup paths for the AHRS, ADC, Engine/Airframe Unit, and
Transponder, as required. The change to backup paths is completely automated for all LRUs and no pilot action
is required.
Figure 1-12 Inoperative Input (NAV1 Shown)
16
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AHRS OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for specific AHRS alert information.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering while AHRS is not operating normally may degrade AHRS accuracy.
EIS
In addition to using internal sensors, the GRS 77 AHRS uses GPS information, magnetic field data and
air data to assist in attitude/heading calculations. In normal mode, the GRS 77 AHRS relies upon GPS and
magnetic field measurements (air data is not used). If one or more of these three external inputs is unavailable
or unreliable, the AHRS uses the remaining inputs for attitude/heading determination. Four AHRS modes of
operation are available (Figure 1-13) and depend upon the combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of air
data, GPS, or magnetometer sensor inputs is communicated to the pilot by message advisory alerts.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
YES
NO
Mag Data AND Air Data
Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
Mag Data Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
GPS Data Available and Reliable?
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The AHRS (GRS 77) corrects for shifts and variations in the Earth’s magnetic field by applying the Magnetic
Field Variation Database. The Magnetic Field Variation Database is derived from the International Geomagnetic
Reference Field (IGRF). The IGRF is a mathematical model that describes the Earth’s main magnetic field
and its annual rate of change. The database is updated approximately every 5 years. See the Appendices for
information on updating the Magnetic Field Variation Database. The system will prompt you on startup when
an update is available. Failure to update this database could lead to erroneous heading information being
displayed to the pilot.
AHRS no-Mag/
no-Air Mode
Heading Invalid
Heading Invalid
AHRS no-GPS
Mode
AHRS coast-on-gyros
until invalid
APPENDICES
AHRS no-Mag
Mode
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AHRS Normal
Mode
NO
YES
Air Data Available and Reliable?
Attitude/Heading Invalid
Figure 1-13 AHRS Operation
INDEX
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
17
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AHRS FAILURE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GPS INPUT FAILURE
Failure of the internal AHRS inertial sensors may result in loss of attitude and heading information (indicated
by red ‘X’ flags over the corresponding flight instruments).
EIS
The system provides two sources of GPS information. If a single GPS receiver fails, or if the information
provided from one of the GPS receivers is unreliable, the AHRS seamlessly transitions to using the other GPS
receiver. An alert message informs the pilot of the use of the backup GPS path. If both GPS inputs fail, the
AHRS continues to operate in reversionary No-GPS mode so long as the air data and magnetometer inputs
are available and reliable. Unavailable or unreliable air data or magnetometer data in addition to GPS failure
results in loss of all attitude and heading information.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: In-flight initialization of AHRS, when operating without any valid source of GPS data and at true
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
MAGNETOMETER FAILURE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
air speed values greater than approximately 200 knots, is not guaranteed. Under these rare conditions, it
is possible for in-flight AHRS initialization to take an indefinite amount of time which would result in an
extended period of time where valid AHRS outputs are unavailable.
AIR DATA INPUT FAILURE
If the magnetometer input fails, the AHRS transitions to one of the reversionary No-Magnetometer modes
and continues to output valid attitude information. However, if the aircraft is airborne, the heading output
on the PFD does become invalid (as indicated by a red “X”).
Failure of the air data input has no effect on the AHRS output while AHRS is receiving valid GPS information.
A failure of the air data input while the AHRS is operating in reversionary No-GPS mode results in invalid
attitude and heading information on the PFD (as indicated by red “X” flags).
AFCS
G1000 SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
NOTE: For a detailed description of all annunciations and alerts, refer to Appendix A. Refer to the POH for
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
additional information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
INDEX
APPENDICES
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red “X” is typically displayed on windows associated with
the failed data (Figure 1-14 displays all possible flags and responsible LRUs). Upon G1000 power-up, certain
windows remain invalid as equipment begins to initialize. All windows should be operational within one
minute of power-up. If any window remains flagged, the G1000 system should be serviced by a Garminauthorized repair facility.
18
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Units
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
GDC 74A Air
Data Computer
GRS 77 AHRS
Or
GMU 44
Magnetometer
EIS
GEA 71 Engine
Airframe Unit
Or
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Unit
GTX 33/33D Transponder Or GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Units
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
GDC 74A Air Data Computer
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
GIA 63W
Integrated Avionics
Units
Figure 1-14 G1000 System Failure Annunciations
SOFTKEY FUNCTION
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The softkeys are located along the bottoms of the displays. The softkeys shown depend on the softkey level
or page being displayed. The bezel keys below the softkeys can be used to select the appropriate softkey. When
a softkey is selected, its color changes to black text on gray background and remains this way until it is turned
off, at which time it reverts to white text on black background.
Softkey On
AFCS
Softkey Names (displayed)
Bezel-Mounted Softkeys (press)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 1-15 Softkeys (Second-Level PFD Configuration)
Another means of selecting softkeys on the MFD is by using the MFD/PFD Control Unit:
Selecting a softkey using the MFD/PFD Control Unit
APPENDICES
1) Move the softkey selection box to the desired softkey using the arrows of the SEL Key.
2) Press the center of the SEL Key to select the desired softkey.
INDEX
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
19
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
PFD SOFTKEYS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The CDI, IDENT, TMR/REF, NRST, and MSG Softkeys undergo a momentary change to black text on gray
background and automatically switch back to white text on black background when selected. If messages
remain after acknowledgement, the MSG Softkey is black on white.
The PFD softkeys provide control over flight management functions, including GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic,
and lightning (optional). Each softkey sublevel has a BACK Softkey which can be pressed to return to the
previous level. The MSG Softkey is visible in all softkey levels. For the top level softkeys and the transponder
(XPDR) levels, the IDENT Softkey remains visible.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
LVL1 LVL2 LVL3
INSET
OFF
DCLTR (3)
LVL4
Displays Inset Map in PFD lower left corner
Removes Inset Map
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through declutter levels:
DCLTR (No Declutter): All map features visible
DCLTR-1: Declutters land data
DCLTR-2: Declutters land and Special Use Airspace (SUA) data
DCLTR-3: Removes everything except for the active flight plan
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
WX LGND
TRAFFIC
Displays icon and age on the Inset Map for the selected weather products (optional)
Displays traffic information on Inset Map
TRAFFIC: No Traffic displayed on Inset Map
TRFC-1: Traffic displayed on Inset Map
TRFC-2: Traffic Only display shown
Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes) and elevation scale on
Inset Map
TOPO
AFCS
TERRAIN
STRMSCP
NEXRAD
or
PRECIP
Displays terrain information on Inset Map
Displays Stormscope® information on Inset Map (optional)
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and coverage on Inset Map (optional)
or
Displays Worldwide Weather precipitation on Inset Map (optional)
Displays XM lightning information on Inset Map (optional)
or
Displays Worldwide Weather lightning information on Inset Map (optional)
Displays METAR information on Inset Map (optional)
Displays softkeys for selecting the #1 and #2 AHRS and Air Data Computers
Selects the #1 Air Data Computer
Selects the #2 Air Data Computer
Selects the #1 AHRS
Selects the #2 AHRS
Displays second-level softkeys for additional PFD configurations
Displays the softkeys for enabling or disabling Synthetic Vision features
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
XM LTNG
or
DL LTNG
METAR
APPENDICES
SENSOR
ADC1
ADC2
AHRS1
AHRS2
INDEX
PFD
SYN VIS
LVL1
20
LVL2
LVL3
LVL4
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
HRZN HDG
Displays compass heading along the Zero-Pitch line
APTSIGNS
Displays position markers for airports within approximately 15 nm of the current aircraft
position. Airport identifiers are displayed when the airport is within approximately 9
nm.
Resets PFD to default settings, including changing units to standard
DFLTS
Press to display the BARO setting as hectopacals
STD BARO
190-01889-01 Rev. A
LVL3
INDEX
XPDR1
XPDR2
STBY
ON
ALT
APPENDICES
XPDR
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Sets barometric pressure to 29.92 in Hg (1013 hPa if metric units are selected)
Selects OBS mode on the CDI when navigating by GPS (only available with active leg)
Cycles through GPS, VOR1, and VOR2 navigation modes on the CDI
Displays the ADF/DME Tuning Window, allowing tuning and selection of the DME
(optional)
Displays transponder mode selection softkeys
Selects the #1 transponder as active
Selects the #2 transponder as active
Selects standby mode (transponder does not reply to any interrogations)
Selects Mode A (transponder replies to interrogations)
Selects Mode C – altitude reporting mode (transponder replies to identification and
altitude interrogations)
OBS
CDI
ADF/DME
LVL2
AFCS
HPA
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ALT UNIT
METERS
IN
Displays the softkeys for selecting the two HSI formats
Displays HSI as a 360° compass rose
Displays HSI as a 140° viewable arc
Cycles the Bearing 2 Information Window through NAV2 or GPS waypoint identifier and
GPS-derived distance information, and ADF/frequency.
Displays softkeys for setting the altimeter and BARO settings to metric units
When enabled, displays altimeter in meters
Press to display the BARO setting as inches of mercury
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HSI FRMT
360 HSI
ARC HSI
BRG2
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Displays softkeys to select wind data parameters
Headwind/tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed components
Wind direction arrow and numeric speed
Wind direction arrow with headwind/tailwind and crosswind numeric speed
components
Information not displayed
Displays/removes the DME Information Window (optional)
Cycles the Bearing 1 Information Window through NAV1, GPS/ waypoint identifier and
GPS-derived distance information, and ADF/frequency.
OFF
DME
BRG1
LVL1
EIS
WIND
OPTN 1
OPTN 2
OPTN 3
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYN TERR
Displays rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the
active flight plan
Enables synthetic terrain depiction
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
LVL1 LVL2 LVL3 LVL4
PATHWAY
LVL4
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
21
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
LVL2 LVL3 LVL4
VFR
CODE
0—7
BKSP
ADS-B TX
IDENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
LVL1
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
TMR/REF
NRST
MSG
LVL1 LVL2
LVL3
LVL4
PFD
SENSOR
OBS
CDI
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
INSET
Automatically enters the VFR code (1200 in the U.S.A. only)
Displays transponder code selection softkeys 0-7
Use numbers to enter code
Removes numbers entered, one at a time
Enables/disables automatic transmission of ADS-B position and speed.(optional)
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds, identifying the
transponder return on the ATC screen
Displays Timer/References Window
Displays Nearest Airports Window
Displays Messages Window
(optional)
DME
XPDR
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
MSG
CDI (NAV1)
CDI (NAV2)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
CDI (GPS)
Figure 1-16 Top Level PFD Softkeys
SENSOR
PFD
OBS
CDI
(optional)
ADF/DME
XPDR
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
MSG
AFCS
INSET
(optional) (optional)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
(optional)
APPENDICES
OFF
DCLTR
WX LGND TRAFFIC
DCLTR-1
TRFC-1
DCLTR-2
TRFC-2
TOPO
PRECIP
or
TERRAIN STRMSCP NEXRAD
DL LTNG
or
XM LTNG
(optional)
METAR
BACK
MSG
Select the BACK or OFF Softkey
to return to the top-level softkeys.
DCLTR-3
INDEX
Figure 1-17 INSET Softkeys
22
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SENSOR
PFD
OBS
CDI
(optional)
ADF/DME
XPDR
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
INSET
MSG
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Press the BACK Softkey to
return to the top level softkeys.
ADC1
ADC2
AHRS1
AHRS2
BACK
MSG
EIS
Figure 1-18 SENSOR Softkeys
PFD
OBS
CDI
DFLTS
WIND
DME1
BRG1
HSI FMT
GPS
OFF
OFF
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
MSG
ALT UNIT STD BARO
BACK
MSG
Select the BACK Softkey
to return to the top-level softkeys
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
GPS
ARC HSI
IN
HPA
BACK
MSG
BACK
MSG
BACK
MSG
APPENDICES
PATHWAY SYN TERR HRZN HDG APTSIGNS
MSG
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
OFF
BACK
AFCS
OPTN3
XPDR
BRG2
NAV2
METERS
OPTN2
ADF/DME
NAV1
360 HSI
OPTN1
(optional)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SENSOR
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SYN VIS
INSET
Figure 1-19 PFD Configuration Softkeys
INDEX
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
23
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
INSET
SENSOR
PFD
OBS
CDI
(optional)
ADF/DME
XPDR
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
MSG
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Press the BACK Softkey to return
to the top-level softkeys.
XPDR2
STBY
ON
ALT
VFR
EIS
XPDR1
CODE
IDENT
ADS-B TX
BACK
MSG
Selecting BACK returns to the previous softkey level.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
0
1
3
2
4
5
6
7
IDENT
BKSP
BACK
MSG
Figure 1-20 XPDR Softkeys
MFD SOFTKEYS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
LVL1
MAP
LVL2
LVL3
LVL4
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TRAFFIC
PROFILE
TOPO
AFCS
TERRAIN
AIRWAYS
(Default label is
dependent on map
setup option selected)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
STRMSCP
NEXRAD
or
INDEX
APPENDICES
PRECIP
XM LTNG
or
LVL1
24
DL LTNG
METAR
LEGEND
BACK
WX RADAR
LVL2 LVL3
Enables second-level Navigation Map softkeys
Displays traffic information on Navigation Map
Displays profile view on Navigation Map Page
Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes) and elevation scale on
Navigation Map
Displays terrain information on Navigation Map
Displays airways on the map; cycles through the following:
AIRWAYS: No airways are displayed
AIRWY ON: All airways are displayed
AIRWY LO: Only low altitude airways are displayed
AIRWY HI: Only high altitude airways are displayed
Displays Stormscope information on Navigation Map (optional)
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and coverage on Navigation Map (optional)
or
Displays Worldwide Weather precipitation on Navigation Map Page (optional)
Displays XM lightning information on Navigation Map Page (optional)
or
Displays Worldwide Weather lightning information on Navigation Map Page (optional)
Displays METAR information on Navigation Map Page (optional)
Displays legends for the displayed XM Weather products (optional)
Returns to top-level softkeys
Displays Airborne Weather Radar information on Navigation Map (optional)
LVL4
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
LVL4
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through declutter levels:
DCLTR (No Declutter): All map features visible
DCLTR-1: Declutters land data
DCLTR-2: Declutters land and SUA data
DCLTR-3: Removes everything except for the active flight plan
When available, displays optional airport and terminal procedure charts
When available, displays optional checklists
LVL3
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SHW CHRT
CHKLIST
LVL1 LVL2
LVL3
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
LVL1 LVL2
DCLTR (3)
LVL4
EIS
(optional)
DCLTR SHW CHRT CHKLIST
MAP
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
DCLTR
DCLTR-1
DCLTR-3
(optional) (optional)
(optional)
TRAFFIC
TOPO
TERRAIN
PRECIP
or
AIRWAYS STRMSCP NEXRAD
DL LTNG
or
XM LTNG
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
DCLTR-2
(optional) (optional)
METAR
LEGEND
(optional)
BACK
WX RADAR
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Press the BACK softkey to
return to the top-level softkeys.
AIRWAYS
AIRWY ON
AIRWY LO
AFCS
AIRWY HI
EXIT
EMERGCY
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
DONE
The DONE Softkey label changes to UNDO
when the checklist item is already checked.
Figure 1-21 MFD Softkeys
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
25
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
GPS RECEIVER OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GPS1 provides information to the pilot-side PFD and GPS2 provides data to the copilot-side PFD. Internal
system checking is performed to ensure both GPS receivers are providing accurate data to the PFDs. In some
circumstances, both GPS receivers may be providing accurate data, but one receiver may be providing a better
GPS solution than the other receiver. In this case the GPS receiver producing the better solution is automatically
coupled to both PFDs. “BOTH ON GPS 1” or “BOTH ON GPS 2” is displayed in the Reversionary Sensor
Window (see Appendix A) indicating which GPS receiver is being used. Both GPS receivers are still functioning
properly, but one receiver is performing better than the other at that particular time.
EIS
Each GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU) contains a GPS receiver. Information collected by the specified
receiver (GPS1 for the #1 IAU or GPS2 for the #2 IAU) may be viewed on the AUX - GPS Status Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
These GPS sensor annunciations are most often seen after system power-up when one GPS receiver has
acquired satellites before the other, or one of the GPS receivers has not yet acquired an SBAS signal. While
the aircraft is on the ground, the SBAS signal may be blocked by obstructions causing one GPS receiver to
have difficulty acquiring a good signal. Also, while airborne, turning the aircraft may result in one of the GPS
receivers temporarily losing the SBAS signal.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If the sensor annunciation persists, check for a system failure message in the Messages Window on the PFD.
If no failure message exists, check the GPS Status Page and compare the information for GPS1 and GPS2.
Discrepancies may indicate a problem.
Viewing GPS receiver status information
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Use the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group (see Section 1.7 for information on navigating MFD
page groups).
2) Use the small FMS Knob to select GPS Status Page.
Selecting the GPS receiver for which data may be reviewed
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - GPS Status Page.
AFCS
2) To change the selected GPS receiver:
a) Press the desired GPS Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
b) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the receiver which is not selected and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Satellite Signal
Information Status
GPS Receiver
Status
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Satellite Constellation
Diagram
RAIM
Availability
Prediction
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
SBAS
Selected
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Satellite Signal
Strength Bars
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SBAS Softkey
Selected
RAIM Softkey
Selected
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
GPS Selection
Softkeys
Figure 1-22 GPS Status Page (RAIM or SBAS Selected)
The GPS Status Page provides the following information:
• Satellite constellation diagram
AFCS
Satellites currently in view are shown at their respective positions on a sky view diagram. The sky view is
always in a north-up orientation, with the outer circle representing the horizon, the inner circle representing
45° above the horizon, and the center point showing the position directly overhead.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Each satellite is represented by an oval containing the Pseudo-random noise (PRN) number (i.e., satellite
identification number). Satellites whose signals are currently being used are represented by solid ovals.
• Satellite signal information status
APPENDICES
The accuracy of the aircraft’s GPS fix is calculated using Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU), Dilution
of Precision (DOP), and horizontal and vertical figures of merit (HFOM and VFOM). EPU is the radius of a
circle centered on an estimated horizontal position in which actual position has 95% probability of laying.
EPU is a statistical error indication and not an actual error measurement.
INDEX
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27
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
DOP measures satellite geometry quality (i.e., number of satellites received and where they are relative to
each other) on a range from 0.0 to 9.9, with lower numbers denoting better accuracy. HFOM and VFOM,
measures of horizontal and vertical position uncertainty, are the current 95% confidence horizontal and
vertical accuracy values reported by the GPS receiver.
The current calculated GPS position, time, altitude, ground speed, and track for the aircraft are displayed
below the satellite signal accuracy measurements.
• GPS receiver status
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The GPS solution type (ACQUIRING, 2D NAV, 2D DIFF NAV, 3D NAV, 3D DIFF NAV) for the active
GPS receiver (GPS1 or GPS2) is shown in the upper right of the GPS Status Page. When the receiver is
in the process of acquiring enough satellite signals for navigation, the receiver uses satellite orbital data
(collected continuously from the satellites) and last known position to determine the satellites that should be
in view. ACQUIRING is indicated as the solution until a sufficient number of satellites have been acquired
for computing a solution.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When the receiver is in the process of acquiring a 3D differential GPS solution, 3D NAV is indicated as the
solution until the 3D differential fix has finished acquisition. SBAS (Satellite-Based Augmentation System)
indicates INACTIVE. When acquisition is complete, the solution status indicates 3D DIFF NAV and SBAS
indicates ACTIVE.
• RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) Prediction (RAIM Softkey is selected)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
In most cases performing a RAIM prediction is not necessary. However, in some cases, the selected approach
may be outside the SBAS coverage area and it may be necessary to perform a RAIM prediction for the intended
approach.
AFCS
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to
calculate a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nautical miles for oceanic and enroute, 1.0
nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of
flight, RAIM is available nearly 100% of the time.
The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a specified date and time. RAIM
computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival date and time.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not available. The
G1000 automatically monitors RAIM and warns with an alert message when it is not available. If RAIM is not
predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become active, as indicated by
the messages “Approach is not active” and “RAIM not available from FAF to MAP”. If RAIM is not available
when crossing the FAF, the missed approach procedure must be flown.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, select the RAIM Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window.
5) Enter the desired waypoint:
EIS
Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired waypoint by identifier, facility, or city name and press the ENT Key.
Refer to Section 1.7 for instructions on entering alphanumeric data into the G1000.
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
a) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
b) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the NRST, RECENT, or AIRWAY waypoints, if required.
c) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint. The G1000 automatically fills in the
identifier, facility, and city fields with the information for the selected waypoint.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
d) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) With the cursor highlighting ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one
of the following is displayed:
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
AFCS
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
Predicting RAIM availability at present position
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, select the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
4) Press the MENU Key.
APPENDICES
5) With ‘Set WPT to Present Position’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
INDEX
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29
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
8) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
9) With the cursor highlighting ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one
of the following is displayed:
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’—RAIM calculation in progress
EIS
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• SBAS Selection (SBAS Softkey is selected)
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of the SBAS coverage area, it may
be desireable to disable SBAS (although it is not recommended). When disabled, the SBAS field in the GPS
Status box indicates DISABLED.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Disabling SBAS
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, press the SBAS Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Turn either FMS Knob to select ‘EGNOS’ or ‘MSAS’ or ‘WAAS’, as necessary.
5) Press the ENT Key to uncheck the box.
6) Repeat steps 4 & 5 as necessary, then press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
AFCS
• GPS Satellite Signal Strengths
The GPS Status Page can be helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due to poor satellite
coverage or installation problems. As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength bar is displayed
for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite PRN number (01-32 or 120-138 for SBAS) below each
bar. The progress of satellite acquisition is shown in three stages, as indicated by signal bar appearance:
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- No bar—Receiver is looking for the indicated satellite
- Hollow bar—Receiver has found the satellite and is collecting data
- Cyan bar—Receiver has collected the necessary data and the satellite signal can be used
- Green bar—Satellite is being used for the GPS solution
- Checkered bar—Receiver has excluded the satellite (Fault Detection and Exclusion)
- “D” indication—Denotes the satellite can be used as part of the differential computations
INDEX
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission that must be collected (signal strength bar is hollow) before
the satellite may be used for navigation (signal strength bar becomes solid).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1.7 ACCESSING G1000 FUNCTIONALITY
MENUS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G1000 has a MENU Key that, when pressed, displays a context-sensitive list of options. This options list
allows the user to access additional features or make settings changes which specifically relate to the currently
displayed window/page. There is no all-encompassing menu. Some menus provide access to additional
submenus that are used to view, edit, select, and review options. Menus display ‘NO OPTIONS’ when there are
no options for the window/page selected. The main controls used in association with all window/page group
operations are described in section 1.3. Softkey selection does not display menus or submenus.
EIS
Navigating the Page Menu Window
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Window.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through a list of available options (a scroll bar appears to the right of the window
when the option list is longer than the window).
3) Press the ENT Key to select the desired option.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) The CLR Key may be pressed to remove the menu and cancel the operation. Pressing the FMS Knob also
removes the displayed menu.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
No Options with
NRST Window
Displayed on the
PFD
AFCS
Options
with FPL
Window
Displayed
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 1-23 Page Menu Examples
APPENDICES
INDEX
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31
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD PAGE GROUPS
NOTE: Refer to the Flight Management, Hazard Avoidance, and Additional Features sections for details on
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
specific pages.
The page group and active page title box are displayed in the upper middle of the screen.
Page Group
Active Page Title
EIS
Figure 1-24 Page Title Box
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Information on the MFD is presented on pages which are grouped according to function. In the bottom right
corner of the screen, a page group window is displayed by turning either FMS Knob. The page group tabs are
displayed along the bottom of the window. The page titles are displayed in a list above the page group tabs. The
current page group and current page within the group are shown in cyan. For some of these pages (Airport/
Procedures/Weather Information, Weather Data Link, Procedure Loading), the active title of the page changes
while the page name in the list remains the same.
Active Page Title
Page Group
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
MFD
AFCS
Pages in
Current
Group
Page Groups
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 1-25 Page Title and Page Groups
The main page groups are navigated using the FMS Knob; specific pages within each group can vary depending
on the configuration of optional equipment.
APPENDICES
Selecting a page using the FMS Knob:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to display the list of page groups; continue turning the large FMS Knob until the
desired page group is selected
INDEX
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired page within a specific page group.There are also several pages
(Airport Information and XM Information pages) which are selected first from within a main page group with
the FMS Knobs, then with the appropriate softkey at the bottom of the page. In this case, the page remains set
to the selected screen until a different screen softkey is pressed.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Map Pages (MAP)
Navigation Map
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Traffic Map
Weather Radar
Stormscope®(optional)
Weather Data Link (service optional)
Terrain
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 1-26 Map Pages
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Waypoint Pages (WPT)
Airport Information pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Airport Information
(INFO-1 Softkey)
- Airport Directory Information
(INFO-2 Softkey)
- Departure Information
(DP Softkey)
AFCS
- Arrival Information
(STAR Softkey)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Approach Information
(APR Softkey)
- Weather Information
(WX Softkey)
Intersection Information
APPENDICES
NDB Information
VOR Information
Airport
Information
Pages
VRP Information
User Waypoint Information
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
INDEX
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Figure 1-27 Waypoint Pages
33
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Auxiliary Pages (AUX)
Weights and Fuel Planning
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Trip Planning
Utility
GPS Status
System Setup 1/2
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Weather Data Link (optional)
- XM Information
(INFO Softkey)
- XM Radio
(RADIO Softkey)
Satellite Comm (if installed)
- Telephone
(TEL Softkey)
- Text Messaging
(SMS Softkey)
Sat Comm
Pages
Weather Data Link
Pages
System Setup Pages
System Status
ADS-B Status
Figure 1-28 Auxiliary Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Maintenance data is continuously recorded by the Central Maintenance Computer (CMC). At the discretion
of the Aircraft Manufacturer, this data may be displayed on an OEM DIAGNOSTICS Page accessible from within
the AUX Page Group.
Nearest Pages (NRST)
AFCS
Nearest Airports
Nearest Intersections
Nearest NDB
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Nearest VOR
Nearest VRP
Nearest User Waypoints
APPENDICES
Nearest Frequencies
Nearest Airspaces
INDEX
Figure 1-29 Nearest Pages
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
In addition to the main page groups accessed exclusively using the FMS Knobs, there are pages for flight
planning (FPL) and loading procedures (PROC) which are accessed by a dedicated key. In some instances,
softkeys may be used to access the Procedure Pages.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Flight Plan Pages are accessed using the FPL Key. Main pages within this group are selected by turning
the small FMS Knob.
EIS
Flight Plan Pages (FPL)
Active Flight Plan
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Wide View, Narrow View (VIEW
Softkey)
Flight Plan Catalog
Stored Flight Plan (NEW Softkey)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Narrow and
Wide View
Figure 1-30 Flight Plan Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Procedure pages may be accessed at any time on the MFD by pressing the PROC Key. A menu is
initialized, and when a departure, approach, or arrival is selected, the appropriate Procedure Loading Page is
opened. Turning the FMS Knob does not scroll through the Procedure pages (note the single page icon in the
lower right corner).
AFCS
Procedure Pages (PROC)
Departure Loading
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Arrival Loading
Approach Loading
APPENDICES
Figure 1-31 Procedure Pages
INDEX
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35
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD SYSTEM PAGES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In the Auxiliary (AUX) Page Group, there are three system pages: System Setup 1/2 and System Status. The
System Setup Page allows management of various system parameters, while the System Status Page displays the
status of all G1000 system LRUs.
AUX - SYSTEM SETUP 1/2 PAGE
G1000 system settings are managed from the System Setup 1/2 Page. The following settings can be changed:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
• Time display format (local or UTC )
• Displayed measurement units
• MFD Data Bar (Navigation Data Bar) fields (see
the Flight Management Section)
• Barometric Transition Alert (see the Flight Instruments Section)
• GPS Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) range
(see the Flight Instruments Section)
• Airspace alerts (see the Flight Management Section)
• COM transceiver channel spacing (see the Audio Panel and CNS Section)
• Arrival alert
• Displayed nearest airports (see the Flight Management Section)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Audio alert voice
• Flight Director Format (see the Flight Instruments Section)
• CDI/Baro Synchronization (see the Flight Instruments Section)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Page Navigation
Restoring system setup defaults:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the DFLTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Restore Defaults’, and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
Or:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Highlight ‘Restore Defaults’ and press the ENT Key.
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 1-32 System Setup Pages
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Date/Time
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The G1000 obtains the current Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) date and time directly from the GPS
satellite signals (shown on the AUX - GPS Status Page, Figure 1-22). System time (displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD) can be displayed in three formats: local 12-hr, local 24-hr, or UTC. Local time is
set by adding/subtracting an offset (hours:minutes) to/from UTC.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 1-33 System Time (Local 24-hr Format)
INDEX
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
37
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Configuring the system time:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Time Format’ field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired format and press the ENT Key to confirm selection. The ‘Time
Offset’ field is highlighted.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time offset (±HH:MM) and press the ENT Key to confirm selection.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 1-34 Date/Time Settings (System Setup Page)
Pilot Profiles
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
System settings may be saved under a pilot profile. When the system is powered on, the last selected pilot
profile is shown on the MFD Power-up Splash Screen. The G1000 can store up to 25 profiles; the currently
active profile, the amount of memory used, and the amount of memory available are shown at the top of
the System Setup Page in the box labeled ‘Pilot Profile’. From here, pilot profiles may be created, selected,
renamed, or deleted.
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 1-35 Display Unit Settings (System Setup Page)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Creating a profile:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
AFCS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CREATE’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Create Profile’ window is displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter a profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key. Pilot profile names
cannot begin with a blank as the first letter.
6) In the next field, use the small FMS Knob to select the desired settings upon which to base the new profile.
Profiles can be created based on Garmin factory defaults, default profile settings (initially based on Garmin
factory defaults unless edited by the pilot), or current system settings.
APPENDICES
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘CREATE’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to create the profile
Or:
Use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CREATE and ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to activate the new profile.
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
INDEX
9) To cancel the process, select ‘CANCEL’ with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key.
39
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Selecting an active profile:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the active profile field in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the pilot profile list and highlight the desired profile.
5) Press the ENT Key. The G1000 loads and displays the system settings for the selected profile.
Renaming a profile:
EIS
1) Select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘RENAME’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Rename Profile’ window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to rename.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter a new profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘RENAME’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
9) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Deleting a profile:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘DELETE’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
AFCS
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Delete Profile’ window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to delete.
6) Press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7) With ‘DELETE’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
8) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
If an SD card is inserted into the top slot of the MFD, pilot profiles may imported from the SD card into
the system, or exported from the system to the SD card.
INDEX
Because system settings may vary from one airframe to another, always verify system settings from an
imported profile are consistent with the desired settings.
40
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Importing a profile from an SD card:
1) Insert an SD card containing the pilot profile(s) into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Select the IMPORT Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Import Pilot Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
EIS
4) The system displays the Pilot Profile Importing window with ‘IMPORT’ highlighted. To change the selected
profile to be imported from the SD card (shown as ‘SELECT FILE’), turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the
profile file name, then turn the small FMS Knob to highlight a profile from the list, and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) If desired, the profile name to be used after profile has been imported can be changed by turning the FMS
Knob to highlight the ‘PROFILE NAME’ field, then use the large and small FMS Knobs to enter the name, and
press the ENT Key. Imported profile names cannot begin with a blank space or be named ‘DEFAULT’, ‘GARMIN
DEFAULTS’ or ‘DEFAULT SETTINGS’.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
6) With ‘IMPORT’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
7) If the imported profile name is the same as an existing profile on the system, the system displays an ‘Overwrite
existing file? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to replace profile on the system with the profile
imported from the SD card, or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to the
Pilot Profile Importing window.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) If successful, the system displays ‘Pilot profile import succeeded.’ in the IMPORT RESULTS window below. With
‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT or CLR Keys or press the FMS Knob to return to the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
The imported profile becomes the active profile.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Pilot Profile Importing and Import
Pilot Profiles Available for Import from
Results Window
SD Card (‘STEVE’S PROFILE’ Selected)
Figure 1-36 Pilot Profile Import (AUX - System Setup 1 Page)
Import Successful
INDEX
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41
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Exporting a profile to an SD card:
1) Insert the SD card for storing the Pilot Profile into the top card slot on the MFD.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
3) If necessary, activate the desired pilot profile to export. Only the currently active Pilot Profile can be exported.
4) Select the EXPORT Softkey. The system displays the Pilot Profile Exporting window.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
EIS
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Export Pilot Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) To export the pilot profile using the current supplied name, press the ENT Key with ‘EXPORT’ highlighted. To
change the profile file name turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘SELECT FILE’ field, then enter the new
name with the large and small FMS Knobs, then press the ENT Key. Then press the ENT Key with ‘EXPORT’
highlighted.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
6) If the profile name to be exported is the same as an existing profile file name on the SD card, the system displays
an ‘Overwrite existing file? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to replace the profile on the SD card
with the profile to be exported, or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to
the Pilot Profile Exporting window without exporting the profile.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
7) If successful, the EXPORT RESULTS window displays ‘Pilot profile export succeeded.’ With ‘OK’ highlighted,
press the ENT or CLR Keys, or press the FMS Knob to return to the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Pilot Profile Exporting Window, Enter a
Name to Use for Exported Profile
Export Successful
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 1-37 Pilot Profile Export on the AUX - System Setup 1 Page
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Display Units
Units in which various quantities are displayed on the G1000 screens are listed on the System Setup Page.
The Navigation Angle reference, the Temperature units, and the Position units can be set from here.
Pounds
N/A
HDDD°MM.MM’* All positions
HDDD°MM’SS.S”
Engine Indication System (EIS)
N/A
N/A
AFCS
Weight***
Position**
All temperatures on PFD
Total Air Temperature (Trip Planning Page)
Fuel parameters (Trip Planning Page)
Altimeter
Vertical Speed Indicator
VNV altitudes (Active Flight Plan)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Celsius
Fahrenheit*
Fuel and Fuel Flow*** Gallons
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Temperature
Airspeed Indicator
True Airspeed (PFD)
Wind speed vector
Map range (Traffic Page, Terrain
Proximity/TAWS Page)
CDI scaling (System Setup)
Fuel range calculation (EIS)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Altitude and Vertical
Speed
Exceptions
EIS
Distance and Speed
Settings
Affected Quantities
Magnetic (North)* Heading
True (North)
Course
Bearing
Track
Desired Track
Wind direction (Trip Planning Page)
Metric
Crosstrack error (HSI)
Nautical*
Bearing distances (information windows)
DME distance (information window)
Flight plan distances
Map ranges
DIS, GS, TAS, XTK fields (Navigation Data Bar
All distances on MFD
Altitude buffer distance (System Setup)
Arrival Alert trigger distance (System Setup)
All speeds on MFD
Feet*
All altitudes on MFD
Meters
All elevations on MFD
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Category
Navigation Angle
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
* Default setting
** Contact a Garmin-authorized service center to change this setting
*** Not configurable
Table 1-1 Display Units Settings (System Setup Page)
APPENDICES
Changing a display unit setting
1) While on the System Setup Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the Display Units Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired units.
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INDEX
4) Press the ENT Key. Press the CLR Key to cancel the action without changing the units.
43
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Airspace Alerts
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Airspace Alert feature provides a message alert when the aircraft is approaching or near a controlled
or special-use airspace. The altitude buffer setting increases the range above or below an airspace for which
an alert is generated; the default value is 200 feet. Alerts for the following airspaces can be turned on/off
from the System Setup Page:
• Class B/TMA
• Class D
• MOA (Military)
• Class C/TCA
• Restricted
• Other airspaces
EIS
Turning Airspace Alerts off does not affect the alerts listed on the Nearest Airspaces Page or the airspace
boundaries depicted on the Navigation Map Page.
Turning an airspace alert on or off:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the altitude buffer field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
Arrival Alerts
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The Arrival Alert Box on the System Setup Page allows arrival alerts to be turned on/off and the alert
trigger distance set. An arrival alert can be set to notify the pilot with a message upon reaching a userspecified distance from the final destination (the direct-to waypoint or the last waypoint in a flight plan).
Once the set distance (up to 99.9 units) has been reached, an “Arrival at [waypoint]” message is displayed
in the PFD Navigation Status Box.
Figure 1-38 Arrival Alert Settings (System Setup Page)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Enabling/disabling an arrival alert:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ON/OFF field in the Arrival Alert Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
Changing the arrival alert trigger distance:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
EIS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the distance field in the Arrival Alert Box.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
Audio Alerts
The Audio Alert Box on the System Setup Page allows the audio alert voice to be set to male or female.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Changing the audio alert voice
1) While on the System Setup Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the voice in the Audio Alert Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and highlight the desired voice and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Page Navigation
AFCS
The large FMS Knob displays the Page Group Tabs and navigates through the tabs. The small FMS Knob
navigates through the pages within a specific group. The number of clicks it takes to display the Page Group
Tabs and change to the next tab can be controlled from the Page Navigation box on the AUX - System Setup
1 Page.
OFF – Displays the Page Group Tabs with one click of the large FMS Knob.
ON – Displays the Page Group Tabs and navigates to the next tab with one click of the large FMS Knob.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The pilot can select, from the AUX - System Setup 1 Page, the amount of time the Page Group Tabs are
displayed (in the lower right corner of the MFD). The timeout can range from two to ten seconds.
Selecting page navigation settings:
APPENDICES
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Change On 1st Click’ field in the Page Navigation Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘OFF’ or ‘ON’.
INDEX
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Timeout Seconds’ field in the Page navigation Box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired number of seconds
7) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to remove the flashing cursor.
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AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Figure 1-37 Page Navigation Settings (AUX - System Setup 1 Page)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM STATUS PAGE
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The System Status Page displays the status and software version numbers for all detected system LRUs.
Pertinent information on all system databases is also displayed. Active LRUs are indicated by green check
marks and failed LRUs are indicated by red “X”s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center or Garmin
dealer informed.
Figure 1-39 Example System Status Page
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The LRU and ARFRM, Softkeys on the System Status Page select the applicable list (LRU INFO or
AIRFRAME window) through which the FMS Knob can be used to scroll information within the selected
window.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting the MFD1 DB Softkey (label background changes to grey indicting the softkey is selected) places
the cursor in the database window. Use the FMS Knob to scroll through database information for the MFD.
Selecting the softkey again will change the softkey label to PFD1 DB. PFD 1 database information is now
displayed in the database window. Selecting the softkey a third time will change the softkey label to PFD2
DB. PFD 2 database information is now displayed in the database window.
The ANN TEST Softkey, when pressed, causes an annunciation test tone to be played.
EIS
UTILITY PAGE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
For flight planning purposes, timers, trip statistics, and a scheduler feature are provided on the AUX Utility Page. The timers available include a stopwatch-like generic timer, a total time in flight timer, and a
record of the time of departure. Trip statistics—odometer, trip odometer, and average trip and maximum
groundspeeds—are displayed from the time of the last reset. Refer to the Additional Features section for a
dicussion on the Scheduler feature.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 1-40 Utility Page
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Timers
The G1000 timers available include:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Stopwatch-like generic timers (available from the PFD Timer/References Window and on the MFD AUX
- Utility Page)
• Total-time-in-flight timer (MFD AUX - Utility Page)
• Time since departure (MFD AUX - Utility Page)
EIS
The generic timer can be set to count up or down from a specified time (HH:MM:SS). When the
countdown on the timer reaches zero the digits begin to count up from zero. If the timer is reset before
reaching zero on a countdown, the digits are reset to the initial value. If the timer is counting up when
reset, the digits are zeroed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Setting the generic timer (PFD):
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the timer field (hh/mm/ss).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) With the UP/DN field highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (UP/DN) and
press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
8) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘RESET?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘START?’ and the
digits are reset.
6) With ‘START?’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to ‘STOP?’.
7) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘STOP?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘RESET?’.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
9) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
Figure 1-41 Generic Timer (PFD Timer/References Window)
Setting the generic timer (MFD AUX - Utility Page)
INDEX
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (UP/DN) and press the ENT Key.
4) If a desired starting time is desired:
a) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the HH:MM:SS field.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘START?’ and press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to
‘STOP?’.
6) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘STOP?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘RESET?’.
EIS
7) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘RESET?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘START?’ and the
digits are reset.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 1-42 Timers (MFD AUX - Utility Page)
The flight timer can be set to count up from zero starting at system power-up or from the time that the
aircraft lifts off; the timer can also be reset to zero at any time.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Setting the flight timer starting criterion
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
APPENDICES
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the flight timer.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (PWR-ON or IN-AIR) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the flight timer
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
INDEX
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Reset Flight Timer’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G1000 records the time at which departure occurs, depending on whether the pilot prefers the time
to be recorded from system power-up or from aircraft lift off. The displayed departure time can also be reset
to display the current time at the point of reset. The format in which the time is displayed is controlled
from the System Setup Page.
Setting the departure timer starting criterion
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the departure time.
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (PWR-ON or IN-AIR) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the departure time
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Reset Departure Time’ and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Trip Statistics
The odometer and trip odometer record the total mileage traveled from the last reset; these odometers can
be reset independently. Resetting the trip odometer also resets the average trip groundspeed. Maximum
groundspeed for the period of time since the last reset is also displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Resetting trip statistics readouts
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key. The following reset options for trip statistics are displayed:
• Reset Trip ODOM/AVG GS—Resets trip average ground speed readout and odometer
AFCS
• Reset Odometer—Resets odometer readout only
• Reset Maximum Speed—Resets maximum speed readout only
• Reset All—Resets flight timer, departure timer, odometers, and groundspeed readouts
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired reset option and press the ENT Key. The selected parameters are reset
to zero and begin to display data from the point of reset.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Scheduler
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G1000’s Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., “Change oil”,
“Switch fuel tanks”, “Overhaul”) in the Messages Window on the PFD. Messages can be set to display
based on a specific date and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero (one-time; default setting),
or recurrently whenever the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set to periodic alerting
automatically reset to the original timer value once the message is displayed. When power is cycled,
messages are retained until deleted, and message timer countdown is restarted.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 1-43 Scheduler (Utility Page)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty scheduler message naming field.
AFCS
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the message text to be displayed in the Messages Window and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the field next to ‘Type’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select set the message alert type:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
• One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
• Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
APPENDICES
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HHH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MMM-YYY) and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the name field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
5) Press the ENT Key to confirm message deletion.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Scheduler messages appear in the Messages Window on the PFD and cause the MSG Softkey label to
flash. Pressing the MSG Softkey opens the Messages Window, acknowledges the scheduler message, and
stops the softkey flashing. When pressed again, the Messages Window is removed from the display and the
scheduler message is deleted from the message queue.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 1-44 PFD Messages Window
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1.8 DISPLAY BACKLIGHTING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The PFD and MFD display backlighting, the PFD and MFD bezel, and the Audio Panel keys can be adjusted
manually in one of two ways:
• Using the individual dimmer bus control for the desired display, or
• Using the PFD Setup Menu and the following procedures. In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be
adjusted from the PFDs. In reversionary mode, adjustments can be made from any remaining displays.
Adjusting display backlighting:
EIS
1) Press either PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘AUTO’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD1 DSPL’. If
desired, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘AUTO’ next to ‘MFD DSPL’ or ‘PFD2 DSPL’.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MANUAL’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting then press the ENT Key.
4) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Adjusting key backlighting:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press either PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘AUTO’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD1 DSPL’.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘PFD DSPL’, ‘MFD DSPL’, or ‘PFD2 DSPL’, as desired.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘PFD1 KEY’, ‘MFD KEY’, or ‘PFD2
KEY’.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘AUTO’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MANUAL’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 1-45 PFD Setup Menu
INDEX
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INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The Garmin Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) provides additional readouts and bugs on
selected flight instruments. Refer to the AFCS Section for details on these bugs and readouts, as they appear
on the display during certain AFCS flight director modes.
EIS
The Garmin G1000 includes an easy-to-scan PFD featuring a large horizon, airspeed, attitude, altitude, vertical
speed, and course deviation information. In addition to the flight instruments, navigation, communication,
terrain, traffic, and weather information are also presented on the PFD and explained in other sections of this
Pilot’s Guide.
The following flight instruments and supplemental flight data are displayed on the PFD:
• Horizontal Situation Indicator, showing
– Turn Rate Indicator
– True airspeed
– Bearing pointers and information windows
– Airspeed awareness ranges
– Navigation source
– Vspeed reference bugs
– Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
• Attitude Indicator with slip/skid indication
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
– Indicated airspeed
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Airspeed Indicator, showing
– Bearing pointers and information windows
• Transponder Mode, Code, and Ident/Reply
• Altimeter, showing
• Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
– Barometric setting
• Timer/References Window, showing
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
– Trend vector
– Generic timer
– Selected Altitude
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope, and Glidepath
Indicators
• Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications
• Wind data
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Outside air temperature (OAT)
– Barometric or temperature compensated
minimum descent altitude (MDA) or decision
height (DH)
AFCS
• Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
– Vspeed values
• ISA temperature deviation
The PFD also displays various alerts and annunciations.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
21
20
18
19
1
17
16
15
EIS
2
3
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
14
13
12
4
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5
11
6
10
7
9
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8
1
NAV Frequency Box
12
Turn Rate Indicator
2
Airspeed Indicator
13
Barometric Altimeter Setting
3
True Airspeed
14
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
4
Current Heading
15
Selected Altitude Bug
5
Horizontal Situation Indicator ( HSI)
16
Selected Altitude
6
ISA Temperature Deviation
17
COM Frequency Box
7
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
18
Altimeter
8
Softkeys
19
Navigation Status Box
9
System Time
20
Slip/Skid Indicator
10
Transponder Data Box
21
Attitude Indicator
11
Heading Bug
INDEX
Figure 2-1 Primary Flight Display (Default)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
15
14
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1
13
12
11
EIS
10
2
9
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8
3
7
4
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5
6
9
Selected Course
2
Selected Heading
10
Required Vertical Speed Indicator
3
Wind Data Box
11
Vertical Deviation Indication
4
Inset Map
12
Reversionary Sensor Window
5
Bearing Information Windows
13
Comparator Window
6
Minimum Descent Altitude/ Decision Height
14
VNV Target Altitude
7
Flight Plan Window
15
Marker Beacon Annunciation
8
CAS Window
AFCS
Traffic Annunciation
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 2-2 Additional PFD Information
APPENDICES
INDEX
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57
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
NOTE: Refer to the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) for airspeed criteria and Vspeed values.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a rolling number gauge using a moving tape. The true airspeed
is displayed in knots below the Airspeed Indicator. The numeric labels and major tick marks on the moving
tape are shown at intervals of 10 knots, while minor tick marks on the moving tape are indicated at five knot
intervals between the major tick marks. Speed indication starts at 20 knots, with 60 knots of airspeed viewable
at any time. The indicated airspeed is displayed inside the black pointer. The pointer remains black until
reaching overspeed (VMO), at which point it is red.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Airspeed
Trend
Vector
Indicated
Airspeed
Vspeed
Reference
Bugs
Low
Speed
Range
Red
Pointer
at VMO
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Speed
Ranges
True
Airspeed
AFCS
Figure 2-3 Airspeed Indicator Ranges
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
A color-coded (white, green, and red) speed range strip is located on the moving tape. The colors denote
flaps operating range, normal operating range, and overspeed (VMO). A red range is also present for low speed
awareness.
APPENDICES
The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical, magenta line, extending up or down on the airspeed scale, shown
to the right of the color-coded speed range strip. The end of the trend vector corresponds to the predicted
airspeed in six seconds if the current rate of acceleration is maintained. If the trend vector crosses VMO, the text
of the indicated airspeed readout changes to amber. The trend vector is absent if the speed remains constant or
if any data needed to calculate airspeed is not available due to a system failure.
INDEX
Vspeed reference bug values cannot be changed, however the speed bugs can be enabled/disabled from the
Timer/References Window. When enabled (on), the speed bugs appear at their respective locations to the right
of the airspeed scale. If the airspeed is below 20 knots, the vspeed bugs and their values appear from highest
to lowest at the bottom of the airspeed scale when the bugs are enabled.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
VR
R
VX
X
VY
Y
VF10
F10
VF20
F20
VF36
F36
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Bug
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Vspeed
EIS
Table 2-1 Vspeed Bug Labels
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When the flaps setting is at least 20º, the VF20 speed bug provides additional indications when it is displayed.
If the Airspeed Trend Vector crosses VF20 in this configuration, this speed bug is amber. If the indicated airspeed
exceeds VF20 in this configuration, this speed bug and airspeed pointer are red.
Enabling/disabling Vspeed bugs:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ON/OFF field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ‘ON’ or counterclockwise to ‘OFF’.
4) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Timer/References Window
Timer/References Menu
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 2-4 Timer/References Window and Menu
Vspeed bugs can also be enabled or disabled all at once.
Enabling/disabling all Vspeeds (on, off):
APPENDICES
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight either ‘All References On’ or ‘All References Off’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
5) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
GENERIC TIMER
The generic timer can be accessed via softkeys on the PFD and allows for quick access for timing functions
(either counting up or down) for the pilot.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the timer field (HH:MM:SS).
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time.
4) Press the ENT Key. The UP/DN field is now highlighted.
EIS
5) urn the small FMS Knob to display the UP/DOWN window.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Up’ or ‘Dn’.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘START?’ is now highlighted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to ‘STOP?’. If the timer is counting DOWN, it will start
counting UP after reaching zero.
9) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘STOP?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘RESET?’.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
10) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘RESET?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘START?’ and the
digits are reset.
11) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
ATTITUDE INDICATOR
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a white horizon line. The
Attitude Indicator displays the pitch, roll, and slip/skid information.
9
8
AFCS
1
7
2
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6
3
APPENDICES
4
5
1
Roll Pointer
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
Aircraft Symbol
5
Land Representation
6
Pitch Scale
7
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
Figure 2-5 Attitude Indicator
INDEX
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Above and below the horizon line, major pitch marks and numeric
labels are shown for every 10˚, up to 80˚. Minor pitch marks are shown for intervening 5˚ increments, up to
25˚ below and 45˚ above the horizon line. Between 20˚ below to 20˚ above the horizon line, minor pitch marks
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
occur every 2.5˚. If the Synthetic Vision Technology system (SVT) is activated, the pitch scale is reduced to 10˚
up and 7.5˚ down; refer to the Additional Features section for more information about SVT.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚ and 60˚ and minor tick
marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the zero. Angle of bank is indicated by the position
of the pointer on the roll scale.
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the bar beneath the roll pointer. The indicator bar moves with the roll pointer and
moves laterally away from the pointer to indicate uncoordinated flight. Slip (inside the turn) or skid (outside
the turn) is indicated by the location of the bar relative to the pointer.
EIS
When the optional Garmin Electronic Stability and Protection (Garmin ESP™) system is available, additional
indications may appear on the roll scale; refer to the Additional Features section for more information about
Garmin ESP.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-6 Slip/Skid Indication
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ALTIMETER
The Altimeter displays 600 feet of barometric altitude values at a time on a moving tape rolling number gauge.
Numeric labels and major tick marks are shown at intervals of 100 feet. Minor tick marks are at intervals of 20
feet. The indicated altitude is displayed inside the black pointer.
AFCS
The Selected Altitude is displayed above the Altimeter in the box indicated by a selection bug symbol. A bug
corresponding to this altitude is shown on the tape. If the Selected Altitude exceeds the range shown on the
tape, the bug appears at the upper or lower edge of the tape. When the metric value is selected it is displayed
in a separate box above the Selected Altitude.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
A magenta Altitude Trend Vector extends up or down the left of the altitude tape, the end resting at the
approximate altitude to be reached in six seconds at the current vertical speed. The trend vector is not shown
if altitude remains constant or if data needed for calculation is not available due to a system failure.
Setting the Selected Altitude:
APPENDICES
T urn the ALT Knob to set the Selected Altitude. Turn the large knob for 1000-ft increments, small knob for 100ft increments. If set to Metric mode, the large knob adjusts the Selected Altitude in 500-meter increments; the
small knob adjusts the Selected Altitude in 50-meter increments..
If a Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height (MDA/DH) value has been set, this altitude is also available for
the Selected Altitude.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Reference
Altitude
Reference
Altitude
(Meters)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Altitude
Trend
Vector
Indicated
Altitude
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Indicated
Altitude
(Meters)
MDA/DH
Altitude
Bug
Barometric
Setting Box
(Hectopascals)
Barometric
Setting
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-7 Altimeter
Altitudes can also be displayed in meters in an overlay box on the Altimeter (Figure 2-7). Note that the
altitude tape does not change scale.
Displaying altitude in meters:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT UNIT Softkey.
3) Press the METERS Softkey to turn on metric altitude readouts.
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury (in Hg) or hectopascals
(hPa) when metric units are selected. Adjusting the altimeter barometric pressure setting creates discontinuities
in VNV vertical deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the
aircraft to re-establish on the descent patch. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target
Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not operate properly
APPENDICES
with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height above mean sea level, or the
standard pressure setting, as applicable.
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
Turn the BARO Knob to select the desired setting.
INDEX
Selecting standard barometric pressure (29.92 in Hg):
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the STD BARO Softkey.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Figure 2-8 Standard Barometric Setting
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units:
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT UNIT Softkey.
3) Press the IN Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in inches of mercury (in Hg).
EIS
Or, press the HPA Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in hectopascals (hPa).
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Barometric Transition Alert flashes the altimeter setting. This alert occurs when the aircraft is 200
below the barometric transition altitude, and the altimeter setting has not been changed to/from standard, as
applicable. The flashing alert stops when the pilot changes the altimeter setting.
Setting the Baro Transition Alert:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Altitude in the Baro Transition Alert box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘OFF’ or ‘ON’ as desired, and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to change the altitude and press the ENT Key.
6) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 2-9 Baro Transition Alert (AUX - System Setup Page)
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator is only available on GPS approaches supporting SBAS vertical guidance when
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SBAS is available.
EIS
The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) displays the aircraft vertical speed using a non-moving tape labeled at 2000
and 4000 fpm with minor tick marks every 1000 fpm. The current vertical speed is displayed in the pointer
along the tape. Digits appear in the pointer when the climb or descent rate is greater than 100 fpm. If the rate
of ascent/descent exceeds 4000 fpm, the pointer appears at the corresponding edge of the tape and the rate
appears inside the pointer.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
A magenta chevron bug is displayed as the Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) for reaching a VNV
Target Altitude once the “TOD [Top of Descent] within 1 minute” alert has been generated. See the Flight
Management Section for details on VNV features, and refer to Section 2.2, Supplemental Flight Data, for more
information about VNV indications on the PFD.
VERTICAL DEVIATION
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI; Figure 2-10) uses a magenta chevron to indicate the baro-VNV vertical
deviation when Vertical Navigation (VNV) is being used; the VDI appears in conjunction with the “TOD within
1 minute” alert. Full-scale deflection (two dots) is 1000 feet. The VDI is removed from the display if vertical
deviation becomes invalid. See the Flight Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features, and refer
to Section 2.2, Supplemental Flight Data, for more information about VNV indications on the PFD.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Glideslope Indicator (Figure 2-11) appears to the left of the Altimeter whenever an ILS frequency is tuned
in the active NAV field and the aircraft heading and selected course are within 107˚. A green diamond acts as
the Glideslope Indicator, like a glideslope needle on a conventional indicator. If a localizer frequency is tuned
and there is no glideslope, “NO GS” is displayed in place of the diamond.
AFCS
VNV Target
Altitude
Marker
Beacon
Annunciation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Vertical
Speed
Pointer
Glideslope
Indicator
APPENDICES
Required
Vertical
Speed
INDEX
Figure 2-10 Vertical Speed and
Deviation Indicator (VSI and VDI)
64
Figure 2-11 Glideslope Indicator
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The glidepath is analogous to the glideslope for GPS approach service levels supporting SBAS vertical
guidance (LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LPV, LP+V). When a GPS approach of one of these service levels is loaded
into the flight plan, GPS is the selected navigation source, and SBAS is used for vertical approach guidance, the
Glidepath Indicator appears as a magenta diamond (Figure 2-12). If the approach type downgrades past the
final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the diamond.
Glipepath
Indicator
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-12 Glidepath Indicator
Amber Glidepath
Indicator with
excessive vertical
deviation
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Glipepath
Indicator
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Excessive
Deviation
Indicator
EIS
While executing a GPS approach with an LNAV/VNAV service level between the FAF and MAP, excessive
deviation indicators appear as vertical amber lines (Figure 2-13) to indicate areas where the vertical deviation
exceeds ±75 feet. The “window” between the lines represents the area of acceptable deviation. The length of the
lines adjusts while progressing through the final approach. When these indicators are present, if the Glidepath
Indicator enters an area of excessive vertical deviation, the Glidepath Indicator becomes amber.
Figure 2-13 Glidepath Indicator with Vertical
Deviation Limit Indicators
AFCS
HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) displays a rotating compass card in a heading-up orientation. Letters
indicate the cardinal points with numeric labels every 30˚. Major tick marks are at 10˚ intervals and minor tick
marks are at 5˚ intervals. A digital reading of the current heading appears on top of the HSI, and the current
track is represented on the HSI by a magenta diamond connected to a gray dashed line. The HSI also presents
turn rate, course deviation, bearing, and navigation source information. The HSI is available in two formats, a
360˚ compass rose and a 140˚ arc.
APPENDICES
Changing the HSI display format:
1) Press the PFD Softkey
2) Press the HSI FRMT Softkey.
3) Press the 360 HSI or ARC HSI Softkey.
INDEX
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65
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The 360˚ HSI contains a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI), with a Course Pointer, To/From Indicator, and a
sliding deviation bar and scale. The course pointer is a single line arrow (GPS, VOR1, and LOC1) or a double
line arrow (VOR2 and LOC2) which points in the direction of the set course. The To/From arrow rotates with
the course pointer and is displayed when the active NAVAID is received.
15
14
13
1
12
EIS
2
11
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3
4
10
5
9
6
9
7
8
1
Turn Rate Indicator
9
Lateral Deviation Scale
2
Current Track Indicator
10
Flight Phase
3
To/From Indicator
11
Course Pointer
4
Navigation Source
12
Heading Bug
5
Aircraft Symbol
6
7
Course Deviation Indicator
(CDI)
Rotating Compass Card
Turn Rate and Heading
Trend Vector
14 Current Heading
8
OBS Mode Active
13
15
Lubber Line
Figure 2-14 Horizontal Situation Indicator (360˚ HSI)
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Arc HSI is a 140˚ expanded section of the compass rose. The Arc HSI contains a Course Pointer,
combined To/From Indicator and a sliding deviation indicator, and a deviation scale. Upon station passage, the
To/From Indicator flips and points to the tail of the aircraft, just like a conventional To/From flag. Depending
on the navigation source, the CDI on the Arc HSI can appear in two different ways, an arrowhead (GPS, VOR,
OBS) or a diamond (LOC).
Course Pointer
Current Track Indicator
Flight Phase
Annunciation
INDEX
Navigation
Source
Lateral
Deviation
Scale
Course
Deviation
and To/From
Indicator
Figure 2-15 Arc HSI
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The Current Track Indicator, represented by a magenta diamond on the HSI, is the current over the ground
track the aircraft is flying.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Selected Heading is shown to the upper left of the HSI for 3 seconds after being adjusted The cyan bug
on the compass rose corresponds to the Selected Heading. While the HSI is displayed as an arc, if the Heading
Bug is adjusted off the shown portion of the compass rose, the digital reading is displayed.
Adjusting the Selected Heading:
Turn the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading.
Press the HDG Knob to synchronize the bug to the current heading.
EIS
The Selected Course is shown to the upper right of the HSI for 3 seconds after being adjusted. While the
HSI is displayed as an arc, the Selected Course is displayed whenever the Course Pointer is not within the 140˚
currently shown.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Adjusting the Selected Course:
Turn the CRS Knob to set the Selected Course.
Current Track Indicator
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Press the CRS Knob to re-center the CDI and return the course pointer to the bearing of the active waypoint or
navigation station.
Current Heading
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selected
Course
Selected
Heading
Bug
Selected
Heading
Figure 2-16 Heading and Course Indications
AFCS
Navigation angles (track, heading, course, bearing) are corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag
Var) or referenced to true north (T), set on the AUX - System Setup Page. When an approach referenced to
true north has been loaded into the flight plan, the system generates a message to change the navigation angle
setting to True at the appropriate time.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 2-17 Heading and Course Indications (True)
INDEX
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67
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Changing the navigation angle true/magnetic setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Nav Angle in the Display Units box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
• TRUE - References angles to true north (T)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
• MAGNETIC - Angles corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag Var)
AFCS
Figure 2-18 Navigation Angle Settings (AUX - System Setup Page)
TURN RATE INDICATOR
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Turn Rate Indicator is located directly above the rotating compass card. Tick marks to the left and right
of the lubber line denote half-standard and standard turn rates. A magenta Turn Rate Trend Vector shows the
current turn rate. The end of the trend vector gives the heading predicted in 6 seconds, based on the present
turn rate. A standard-rate turn is shown on the indicator by the trend vector stopping at the standard turn
rate tick mark, corresponding to a predicted heading of 18˚ from the current heading. At rates greater than
4 deg/sec, an arrowhead appears at the end of the magenta trend vector and the prediction is no longer valid.
Arrow Shown
for Turn Rate
> 4 deg/sec
Standard
Turn Rate
Half-standard
Turn Rate
INDEX
Figure 2-19 Turn Rate Indicator and Trend Vector
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
BEARING POINTERS AND INFORMATION WINDOWS
NOTE: When the Arc HSI is displayed, the Bearing Information windows and pointers are disabled.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Two bearing pointers and associated information can be displayed on the HSI for NAV and GPS sources by
pressing the PFD Softkey then a BRG Softkey. The bearing pointers are cyan and are single-line (BRG1) or
double-line (BRG2). A pointer symbol is shown in the information window to indicate the navigation source.
The bearing pointers never override the CDI and are visually separated from the CDI by a white ring. Bearing
pointers may be selected but not necessarily visible due to data unavailability.
EIS
Tuning Mode
Distance
Bearing 2
Pointer
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Bearing 1
Pointer
Frequency
DME Information Window
No
Waypoint
Selected
Station
Identifier
Pointer
Bearing
Icon
Source
Bearing 2 Information Window
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Bearing
Pointer
Source
Icon
Bearing 1 Information Window
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Distance to
Bearing Source
Figure 2-20 HSI with Bearing and DME Information
• Pointer icon (BRG1 = single line, BRG2 = double line)
• GPS-derived great circle distance to bearing
source
• Station/waypoint identifier (NAV, GPS)
• Frequency (NAV)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Bearing source (NAV, GPS, or optional ADF)
AFCS
When a bearing pointer is displayed, the associated information window is also displayed. The Bearing
Information windows (Figure 2-20) are displayed at the lower sides of the HSI and give the following
information:
APPENDICES
When the NAV radio is tuned to an ILS frequency the bearing source and the bearing pointer is removed
from the HSI. When NAV1 or NAV2 is the selected bearing source, the frequency is replaced by the station
identifier when the station is within range. If GPS is the bearing source, the active waypoint identifier is
displayed instead of a frequency.
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
INDEX
The bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and NO DATA is displayed in the information window if
the NAV radio is not receiving a VOR station or if GPS is the bearing source and an active waypoint is not
selected.
69
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Selecting bearing display and changing sources:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press a BRG Softkey to display the desired bearing pointer and information window with a NAV source.
3) Press the BRG Softkey again to change the bearing source to GPS.
4) Press the BRG Softkey a third time to change the bearing source to ADF (note: ADF radio installation is optional).
5) To remove the bearing pointer and information window, press the BRG Softkey again.
EIS
DME INFORMATION WINDOW
NOTE: DME radio installation is optional.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The DME Information Window is displayed above the BRG1 Information Window and shows the DME
label, tuning mode (NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD), frequency, and distance. When a signal is invalid, the distance
is replaced by “–.– – NM”. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for information on tuning the radios.
Displaying the DME Information Window:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the DME Softkey to display the DME Information Window above the BRG1 Information Window.
3) To remove the DME Information Window, press the DME Softkey again.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
NOTE: During a heading change of greater than 105˚ with respect to the course, the CDI on the Arc HSI
switches to the opposite side of the deviation scale and displays reverse sensing.
AFCS
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer along a lateral deviation
scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data is not valid, the CDI is not
displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
360º HSI
Arc HSI
APPENDICES
Navigation
Source
Scale
Flight
Phase
Navigation
Source
Flight
Phase
CDI
CDI
Scale
CDI
INDEX
Crosstrack
Error
Figure 2-21 Course Deviation Indicator
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The CDI can display two sources of navigation, GPS or VOR/LOC. The color indicates the current navigation
source, magenta for GPS and green for VOR and LOC. The full scale limits for the CDI are defined by a GPSderived distance when navigating GPS. When navigating using a VOR or localizer (LOC), the CDI uses the
same angular deviation as a mechanical CDI. If the CDI exceeds the maximum deviation on the scale (two dots)
while navigating with GPS, the crosstrack error (XTK) is displayed below the white aircraft symbol.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-22 Navigation Sources
Changing navigation sources:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the CDI Softkey to change from GPS to VOR1 or LOC1. This places the cyan tuning box over the NAV1
standby frequency in the upper left corner of the PFD.
2) Press the CDI Softkey again to change from VOR1 or LOC1 to VOR2 or LOC2. This places the cyan tuning box
over the NAV2 standby frequency.
3) Press the CDI Softkey a third time to return to GPS.
NAV1 Selected for Tuning
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
LOC1
Selected
AFCS
GPS
Selected
NAV2 Selected for Tuning
VOR2
Selected
APPENDICES
Pressing the CDI Softkey
Cycles through
Navigation Sources
Figure 2-23 Selecting a Navigation Source
INDEX
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71
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The system automatically switches from GPS to LOC navigation source and changes the CDI scaling
accordingly when all of the following occur:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
• The final approach fix (FAF) is the active leg, the FAF is less than 15 nm away, and the aircraft is moving
toward the FAF
• A localizer or ILS approach has been loaded into the active flight plan
• A valid localizer frequency has been tuned
• The GPS CDI deviation is less than 1.2 times full-scale deflection
EIS
GPS steering guidance is still provided after the CDI automatically switches to LOC until LOC capture, up
to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) for an ILS approach, or until GPS information becomes invalid. Activating a
Vector-to-Final (VTF) also causes the CDI to switch to LOC navigation source. GPS steering guidance is not
provided after the switch.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
On some ILS approaches where the glideslope intercept point is at or in close proximity to the fix prior to
the FAF (see Figure 2-24), it is possible to be above the glideslope when the navigation source automatically
switches from GPS to LOC. The probability of this occurring varies based on air temperature.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Fix Prior to the FAF
Glideslope Intercept Point
AFCS
Figure 2-24 ILS Approach with Glideslope Intercept Point at Fix Prior to the FAF
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The current GPS CDI scale setting is displayed as System CDI on the AUX - System Setup Page and the fullscale deflection setting may also be changed (2.0 nm, 1.0 nm, 0.3 nm, or Auto) from this page. If the selected
scaling is smaller than the automatic setting for enroute and terminal phases, the CDI is scaled accordingly
and the selected setting is displayed rather than the flight phase annunciation.
INDEX
When GPS is the selected navigation source, the flight plan legs are sequenced automatically and
annunciations appear on the HSI for the flight phase. Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in
magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the color changes to amber. If the current leg in the flight plan
is a heading leg, HDG LEG is annunciated in magenta beneath the aircraft symbol.
APPENDICES
GPS CDI SCALING
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Changing the selected GPS CDI setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Selected in the GPS CDI box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
5) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-25 GPS CDI Setting (AUX - System Setup Page)
Terminal
Approach
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
0.3 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
2.0 nm
Enroute
APPENDICES
Terminal
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Departure
Refer to accompanying
approach CDI scaling figures
AFCS
When set to Auto (default), the GPS CDI scale automatically adjusts to the desired limits based upon the
current phase of flight (Figure 2-26, Table 2-1).
Missed
Approach
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INDEX
Figure 2-26 Automatic CDI Scaling
73
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
• Once a departure procedure is activated, the CDI is scaled for departure (0.3 nm).
• The system switches from departure to terminal CDI scaling (1.0 nm) under the following conditions:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not aligned with the departure runway.
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not a CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF (see
Glossary for leg type definitions).
- After any leg in the departure procedure that is not a CA or FA.
EIS
• At 30 nm from the departure airport, the enroute phase of flight is automatically entered and CDI scaling
changes to 2.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• If after completing the departure procedure the nearest airport is more than 200 nm away from the aircraft
and the approach procedure has not yet commenced, the CDI is scaled for oceanic flight (4.0 nm).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- When navigating with an active departure procedure, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change
until the aircraft arrives at the last departure waypoint (if more than 30 nm from the departure airport) or
the leg after the last departure waypoint has been activated or a direct-to waypoint is activated.
- Upon reaching the first waypoint of an arrival route that is more than 31 nm from the destination airport,
the flight phase changes to terminal and the CDI scale begins to transition down from 2.0 nm to 1.0 nm
over a distance of 1.0 nm.
• Within 31 nm of the destination airport (terminal area), the CDI scale gradually ramps down from 2.0 nm
to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• During approach, the CDI scale ramps down even further (Figures 2-27 and 2-28). This transition normally
occurs within 2.0 nm of the final approach fix (FAF). The CDI switches to approach scaling automatically
once the approach procedure is activated or if Vectors-To-Final (VTF) are selected.
- If the active waypoint is the FAF, the ground track and the bearing to the FAF must be within 45° of the
final approach segment course.
APPENDICES
INDEX
Landing
Threshold
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
Figure 2-27 Typical LNAV and LNAV+V Approach Service Level
CDI Scaling
74
FAF
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2 nm
FAF
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
angle based
on database
information
course width
2 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
angle set
by system
350 ft
CDI scale is set to the smaller of 0.3 nm
or an angle set by the system
1.0 nm
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
CDI Full-scale Deflection
AFCS
- If the active waypoint is part of the missed approach procedure, the active leg and the preceding missed
approach legs must be aligned with the final approach segment course and the aircraft must not have
passed the turn initiation point.
Figure 2-28 Typical LNAV/VNAV, LPV, LP, and LP+V Approach
Service Level CDI Scaling
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• When a missed approach is activated, the CDI scale changes to 0.3 nm.
• The system automatically switches back to terminal mode under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not aligned with the final approach path.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not a CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF.
- After any leg in the missed approach procedure that is not a CA or FA.
Approach
(Non-precision)
LNAV
1.0 nm decreasing to 350 feet depending on
variables (Figure 2-27)
LNAV + V
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
L/VNAV
LPV
LP
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1.0 nm decreasing to a specified course width, then
0.3 nm, depending on variables (Figure 2-28)
LP+V
MAPR
AFCS
Approach
(Non-precision with
Advisory Vertical
Guidance)
Approach
(LNAV/VNAV)
Approach
(LPV)
Approach
(LP)
Approach
(Non-precision with
Advisory Vertical
Guidance)
Missed Approach
Automatic CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Annunciation*
DPRT
TERM
ENR
OCN
EIS
Flight Phase
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
0.3 nm
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
* Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in magenta, but when cautionary
conditions exist the color changes to amber.
Table 2-1 Automatic GPS CDI Scaling
OBS MODE
APPENDICES
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
Enabling Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode suspends the automatic sequencing of waypoints in a GPS
flight plan (GPS must be the selected navigation source), but retains the current Active-to waypoint as the
navigation reference even after passing the waypoint. OBS is annunciated to the lower right of the aircraft
symbol when OBS Mode is selected.
INDEX
While OBS is enabled, a course line is drawn through the Active-to waypoint on the moving map. If
desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled, the GPS flight
plan returns to normal operation, with automatic sequencing of waypoints, following the course set in OBS
Mode. The flight plan on the moving map retains the modified course line.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
GPS
Selected
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Extended
Course
Line
OBS Mode
Enabled
EIS
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Enables
OBS Mode
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Again
Disables OBS Mode
Figure 2-29 Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Enabling/disabling OBS Mode while navigating a GPS flight plan:
1) Press the OBS Softkey to select OBS Mode.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the CRS Knob to select the desired course to/from the waypoint. Press the CRS Knob to synchronize the
Selected Course with the bearing to the next waypoint.
3) Press the OBS Softkey again to return to automatic waypoint sequencing.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
As the aircraft crosses the missed approach point (MAP), automatic approach waypoint sequencing is
suspended. SUSP appears on the HSI at the lower right of the aircraft symbol. The OBS Softkey label
changes to indicate the suspension is active as shown in Figure 2-30. Pressing the SUSP Softkey, deactivates
the suspension and resumes automatic sequencing of approach waypoints.
APPENDICES
SUSP
Softkey
SUSP
Annunciation
INDEX
Figure 2-30 Suspending Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
2.2 SUPPLEMENTAL FLIGHT DATA
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Pressing the DFLTS Softkey turns off metric Altimeter display, the Inset Map and wind data display.
In addition to the flight instruments, the PFD also displays various supplemental information, including
temperatures, wind data, and Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications.
TEMPERATURE DISPLAYS
EIS
The Outside Air Temperature (OAT) and deviation from International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) temperature
are displayed in the lower left corner of the PFD under normal conditions, or below the true airspeed in
Reversionary Display Mode. Both are displayed in degrees Celsius (°C).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Normal Display
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Reversionary Mode
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 2-31 Outside Air Temperature
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
WIND DATA
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
No Data
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Wind direction and speed in knots can be displayed relative to the aircraft in a window to the upper left of
the HSI. When the window is selected for display, but wind information is invalid or unavailable, the window
displays NO WIND DATA. Wind data can be displayed in three different ways.
Figure 2-32 Wind Data
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Displaying wind data:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the WIND Softkey to display wind data to the left of the HSI.
3) Press one of the OPTN softkeys to change how wind data is displayed:
• OPTN 1: Headwind/tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed components
AFCS
• OPTN 2: Wind direction arrow and speed
• OPTN 3: Wind direction arrow with headwind (H)/tailwind (T) and crosswind (X) components
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) To remove the window, press the OFF Softkey.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNV) INDICATIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When a VNV flight plan has been activated, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, RVSI, VDI) appear on the
PFD in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” message and “Vertical track” voice alert. See the Flight
Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features. VNV indications are removed from the PFD
according to the criteria listed in the table.
Top of Descent Message
EIS
VNV Target
Altitude
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
GPS is the
Selected
Navigation
Source
Phase of
Flight
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-33 Vertical Navigation Indications (PFD)
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
VNV Indication Removed
Criteria
Required Vertical
Vertical
VNV Target
Speed (RVSI)
Deviation (VDI)
Altitude*
Aircraft > 1 min before the next TOD due to flight plan change
X
X
X
VNV cancelled (CNCL VNV Softkey pressed on MFD)
X
X
X
Distance to active waypoint cannot be computed due to
unsupported flight plan leg type (see Flight Management
X
X
X
Section)
Aircraft > 250 feet below active VNV Target Altitude
X
X
X
Current crosstrack or track angle error has exceeded limit
X
X
X
Active altitude-constrained waypoint can not be reached within
X
X
maximum allowed flight path angle and vertical speed
APPENDICES
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
INDEX
Table 2-2 VNV Indication Removal Criteria
79
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.3 PFD ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTING FUNCTIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The following annunciations and alerting functions are displayed on the PFD. Refer to Appendix A for more
information on alerts and annunciations.
MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATIONS
EIS
Marker Beacon Annunciations are displayed on the PFD to the left of the Selected Altitude. Outer marker
reception is indicated in blue, middle in amber, and inner in white. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section
for more information on Marker Beacon Annunciations.
Middle Marker
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Outer Marker
Inner Marker
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Altimeter
Figure 2-34 Marker Beacon Annunciations
ALTITUDE ALERTING
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Altitude Alerting function provides visual and audio alerts when approaching the Selected Altitude.
Whenever the Selected Altitude is changed, Altitude Alerting is reset. Altitude Alerting is based on the altitude
information shown on PFD1. Altitude Alerting is independent of the AFCS, however, alerting tones and visual
alerts only occur in Garmin AFCS installations.
The following occur when approaching the Selected Altitude:
AFCS
• Upon passing through 1000 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude Box changes to black text on
a cyan background, flashes for 5 seconds, and an aural tone is generated.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• When the aircraft passes within 200 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude changes to cyan text
on a black background and flashes for 5 seconds.
• After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the aircraft flies outside the deviation band (±200 feet of the Selected
Altitude), the Selected Altitude Box changes to amber text on a black background, flashes for 5 seconds, and
an aural tone is generated.
APPENDICES
Within 1000 ft
Within 200 ft
Deviation of ±200 ft
INDEX
Figure 2-35 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
LOW ALTITUDE ANNUNCIATION
NOTE: The Low Altitude Annunciation requires SBAS. Terrain alerts from Terrain-SVS or TAWS-B systems will
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
appear instead of the Low Altitude Annunciation when these systems are operating and not inhibited.
When the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach using vertical guidance,
a Low Altitude Annunciation may appear if the current aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed
altitude at the FAF. A black-on-amber LOW ALT annunciation appears to the top left of the Altimeter, flashes
for several seconds, then remains displayed until the condition is resolved.
EIS
LOW ALT
Annunciation
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Altimeter
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-36 Low Altitude on GPS SBAS Approach
MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT ALERTING
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
For altitude awareness, a barometric Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH) can be set
in the REFERENCES Window.
If desired, the system can also compensate this altitude based on a pilot-supplied temperature at the
destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C, the system increases the
displayed MDA/DH accordingly.
AFCS
When active, the altitude setting is displayed to the bottom left of the Altimeter. Once the altitude is
within the range of the tape, a bug appears at the reference altitude on the Altimeter. The following visual
annunciations occur when approaching the MDA/DH:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• When the aircraft altitude descends to within 2500 feet of the MDA/DH setting, a box labeled ‘BARO MIN’
or ‘COMP MIN’ (based on the selected altitude source) appears with the altitude in cyan text (or magenta
for TEMP COMP). The bug appears in cyan (or magenta for TEMP COMP) on the altitude tape at the
corresponding altitude once in range.
• When the aircraft passes through 100 feet of the MDA/DH, the bug and text become white.
APPENDICES
• Once the aircraft reaches MDA/DH, the bug and text become amber and the audio alert, “Minimums.
Minimums”, is heard.
INDEX
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81
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Within 2500 ft
Within 100 ft
Altitude Reached
Barometric
Minimum
Bug
EIS
Barometric
Minimum
Box
Figure 2-37 Barometric MDA/DH Alerting Visual Annunciations
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Alerting is inhibited while the aircraft is on the ground and until the aircraft reaches 150 feet above the MDA.
If the aircraft proceeds to climb after having reached the MDA, once it reaches 50 feet above the MDA, alerting
is disabled.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The MDA/DH may be set from either PFD and is synchronized on both PFDs. The function is reset when the
power is cycled or a new approach is activated.
Setting the barometric minimum descent altitude and bug:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Minimums field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the barometric (BARO) or temperature compensated (TEMP COMP) barometric
altitude. OFF is selected by default. Press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field.
AFCS
4) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired altitude (BARO or TEMP COMP from zero to 16,000 feet). If TEMP
COMP is selected, a field for entering the temperature at the destination will appear. Press the ENT Key or turn
the large FMS Knob to highlight this field, and use the small FMS Knob to enter the temperature (from -59º C
to +59º C.) The system increases or decreases the displayed MDA/DH altitude based on this temperature.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or press the TMR/REF Softkey.
APPENDICES
Figure 2-38 BARO and TEMP COMP MDA/DH
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered in the REFERENCES Window on the PFD, or
INDEX
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION Window on the MFD. There is only one compensation temperature
for the system, therefore, changing the temperature will affect both the loaded approach altitudes and
the minimums. Refer to the Flight Management section for information about applying temperature
compensation to approach altitudes.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
2.4 ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
ABNORMAL GPS CONDITIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The annunciations listed in Table 2-3 can appear on the HSI when abnormal GPS conditions occur (Figure
2-39). Refer to the Flight Management Section for more information on Dead Reckoning Mode.
Annunciation
LOI
Loss of Integrity Monitoring–GPS integrity is insufficient for the current phase of flight
Integrity OK–GPS integrity has been restored to within normal limits (annunciation
displayed for five seconds)
Dead Reckoning–System is using projected position rather than GPS position to
compute navigation data and sequence active flight plan waypoints
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
DR
Description
EIS
INTEG OK
Location
Lower left of
aircraft symbol
Lower left of
aircraft symbol
Upper right of
aircraft symbol
Table 2-3 Abnormal GPS Conditions Annunciated on HSI
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-39 Example HSI Annunciations
AFCS
In Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode, the CDI appears amber when GPS is the selected navigation source, and is
removed after 20 minutes of operation in DR Mode. The following additional items on the PFD are then shown
in amber in DR Mode:
• Current Track Bug
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Wind Data
• Ground Speed
• Distances in the Bearing Information Windows
APPENDICES
• GPS bearing pointers
These items should be verified when operating in Dead Reckoning Mode, as they become increasingly
inaccurate over time.
INDEX
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83
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
HEADING FAILURE MODES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If the system is unable to determine the aircraft heading, but GPS-based track information is available, the
HSI displays the ground track instead of heading using HSI Track Mode. In this mode, a magenta ‘TRK’
annunciation and track readout appear on the HSI. In addition, a amber ‘HDG’ annunciation with a red X
appear above the ‘TRK’ annunciation to indicate the HSI is displaying track instead of heading.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
If both the heading and track are unavailable, the HSI displays a amber ‘HDG’ annunciation with a red X over
the heading readout box. The system also removes directional numbers and letters from the HSI.
HSI Track Mode (Heading Unavailable, Track Available)
Heading and Track Unavailable
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-40 Heading Failure Displays on the HSI
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When the aircraft enters an unusual pitch attitude, red chevrons pointing toward the horizon warn of extreme
pitch. The chevrons are displayed on the Attitude Indicator, starting at 50˚ above and 30˚ below the horizon
line.
Nose Low
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Nose High
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 2-41 Pitch Attitude Warnings
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• AFCS Annunciations
• PFD Setup Menu
• Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height readout
• Inset Map
• Outside air temperature (OAT)
• Windows displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD:
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope,
and Glidepath Indicators
• ISA temperature deviation
– Timer/References
• Altimeter Barometric Setting
• Wind data
– Nearest Airports
• Selected Altitude
• Selected Heading readout
– Flight Plan
• VNV Target Altitude
• Selected Course readout
– Messages
• Ground Speed
• Transponder Status Box
– Procedures
• True Airspeed
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• System Time
EIS
• Traffic Annunciations
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚, some information displayed on the PFD is removed. The
Altimeter and Airspeed, Attitude, Vertical Speed, and Horizontal Situation indicators remain on the display
and the Bearing Information, Alerts, and Annunciation windows can be displayed during such situations. The
following information is removed from each PFD and their softkeys are disabled when the aircraft experiences
unusual attitudes:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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85
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Blank Page
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for operating limitations.
The G1000 offers improved flight operations and reduces crew workload by automatically monitoring critical
system parameters and providing system alerts during all phases of flight.
The Engine Indication System (EIS) displays electrical, fuel, engine, pressurization, and flap position
information on the left side of the Multi Function Display (MFD).
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
EIS
Display
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 3-1 MFD
APPENDICES
INDEX
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87
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In the event of a display failure, depending on the failed display(s), the display(s) operating may be reconfigured to present Primary Flight Display (PFD) symbology together with engine information. (refer to the
System Overview for more information about Reversionary Mode). In Reversionary Mode, pressurization, fuel,
flap position and landing gear data are presented in an abbreviated format on the left of the display. Electrical
and Pulse Oximeter data do not appear in Reversionary Mode.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
EIS
Display
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 3-2 Reversionary Mode
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3.1 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM (EIS)
1
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1
9
2
2
10
EIS
3
3
11
4
12
5
13
6
14
6
7
15
8
16
8
9
17
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7
5
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4
10
14
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
18
15
16
18
17
AFCS
Reversionary Mode
Normal Mode
Figure 3-3 EIS Display
2
Propeller Speed
11
Destination Elevation
3
Turbine Inlet Temperature
12
Oxygen %
4
Fuel Flow
13
Heart Rate
5
Cylinder Head Temperature
14
Alternator Currents
6
Oil Pressure
15
Battery Current
7
Oil Temperature
16
Voltage
8
Fuel Quantity
17
Flap Position
9
Cabin Pressure Altitude and Change Rate
18
Landing Gear Position
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
INDEX
10 Differential Pressure
APPENDICES
Manifold Pressure
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
190-01889-01 Rev. A
1
89
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS information is presented using gauges, horizontal and vertical bar indicators, slide bars, and digital displays.
Green ranges on the instrument scales indicate normal ranges of operation; amber and red bands indicate caution
and warning ranges, respectively. During normal operating conditions, an instrument’s title appears in white and
the display text is green. When a potentially unsafe operating condition occurs, the title and display color change
to amber or flash red, indicating a caution or warning. If the sensor data for a parameter becomes invalid or
unavailable, a red “X” is displayed across the indicator and/or display.
MANIFOLD PRESSURE GAUGE
EIS
NOTE: Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for engine operating limitations.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Engine power is displayed in inches of mercury (in Hg) on the manifold pressure (MAP) gauge (Figure 3-4).
The red arc indicates maximum manifold pressure. If manifold pressure exceeds the maximum safe operating
range, the pointer will turn red and the digits will flash red.
Figure 3-4 Manifold Pressure Gauge
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PROPELLER RPM GAUGE
AFCS
Propeller speed is shown in revolutions per minute (rpm) (Figure 3-5), and is located below the MAP
gauge. If a propeller overspeed occurs, exceeds the maximum safe operating range, the pointer will turn red
and the digits will flash red.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 3-5 Propeller RPM Gauge
TURBINE INLET TEMPERATURE GAUGE
INDEX
APPENDICES
Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT) (Figure 3-6) is indicated in degrees Fahrenheit (°F) below the Propeller RPM
gauge. If the temperature pointer enters the red arc and exceeds the maximum safe operating range, the pointer
will turn red and the digits will flash red.
Figure 3-6 Turbine Inlet Temperature Gauge
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FUEL FLOW
Fuel Flow (Figure 3-7) is shown along a horizontal bar beneath the TIT gauge. Fuel flow is displayed in
gallons per hour (GPH).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 3-7 Fuel Flow Gauge
EIS
CYLINDER HEAD TEMPERATURE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) gauge (Figure 3-8) is shown below the fuel flow gauge. It displays
the head temperature of the hottest cylinder (number shown in the triangular pointer) in °F shown along a
horizontal bar.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The EIS - ENGINE Page (Figure 3-16) displays the CHT Bar Graph Display for all cylinders. To access the
EIS - ENGINE Page, select the ENGINE Softkey on the MFD (Figure 3-15). Head temperatures are shown in
°F; a display for each cylinder is shown at the top of the graph. A cylinder with a normal range CHT appears as
a white bar, while a caution or warning range in shown as an amber or red bar respectively.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 3-8 Cylinder Head Temperature Display
OIL PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE GAUGES
AFCS
Engine oil pressure and temperature (Figure 3-9) are shown along horizontal bar indicators below the
Cylinder Head Temperature display. Oil pressure is shown in pounds per square inch (psi) and temperature in
degrees Fahrenheit (°F). Red and amber bands indicate caution and warning ranges respectively.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 3-9 Oil Pressure and Temperature Gauges
APPENDICES
INDEX
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91
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CABIN PRESSURIZATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
Cabin altitude (ALT FT) is shown on a color-coded vertical scale with a display (in feet) displayed below.
Cabin altitude change rate (RATE FPM) is also shown on a vertical scale with a display (in fpm) displayed below.
Cabin pressure differential (DIFF PSI) is shown on a color-coded horizontal scale with a display (in pounds
per square inch; psi) displayed above. In Reversionary Mode, only displays for cabin altitude and differential
pressure are displayed.
EIS
Cabin pressurization information (cabin altitude, rate of change, differential cabin pressure and destination
elevation) is shown at the upper right area of the EIS display (Figure 3-10).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Cabin
Altitude
Pressure
Change
Rate
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pressure
Differential
Destination
Elevation
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 3-10 Cabin Pressurization Display
PULSE OXIMETER
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The Pulse Oximeter display shows a measurement of blood oxygen as a percentage (OXYGEN %) and heart
rate (HEART RATE) in beats per minute when a finger has been inserted into the Pulse Oximeter. The Pulse
Oximeter is not displayed in Reversionary Mode.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 3-11 Pulse Oximeter Display
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FUEL QUANTITY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Fuel Quantity display (Figure 3-12) is located beneath the Oil Temperature display. The fuel display
shows the fuel quantity in each tank in gallons. Fuel quantity for each tank is normally shown along a vertical
slider scale with corresponding displays below each gauge. Total fuel quantity is shown at the bottom of the
display between the fuel quantity gauges. In Reversionary Mode, only left and right fuel tank quantities are
displayed.
Tank Fuel
Quantities
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Total Fuel Quantity
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 3-12 Fuel Display
ELECTRICAL
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Electrical display is located below the Pulse Oximeter Display. DC current for each alternator (pointers
labeled “1” and “2”), battery voltage, and voltage for the DC bus are shown in digital displays. The ammeter
displays the battery load in amperes (amps) in a digital display. The Electrical Display does not appear in
Reversionary Mode.
AFCS
Alternator
Current
Battery Voltage
Bus Voltage
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 3-13 Electrical Display
FLAP INDICATOR
APPENDICES
Flap position (Figure 3-14) is normally displayed beneath the vacuum pressure indication using a rotating
pointer. Flap positions are labeled 0°, 10°, 20°, and 36°. In Reversionary Mode, a digital display is provided
for flap position.
INDEX
Figure 3-14 Flap Indicator
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93
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
LANDING GEAR INDICATOR
Landing gear statuses are shown using the indications in the following table.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Position
EIS
Engine Page
EIS
Up &
Locked
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In Transition
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Down and
Locked
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Warning
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Table 3-1 Landing Gear Indications
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3.2 ENGINE PAGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pressing the ENGINE Softkey accesses the EIS - Engine Page which displays the EIS display to the left. Cylinder
Head Temperature (CHT °F), Fuel Calculation, and Systems are not shown in on the EIS display and are displayed
to the right (Figure 3-16).
ENGINE
EIS
ENGINE
DEC FUEL INC FUEL RST FUEL
CO RST
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Select the ENGINE Softkey to
return to the top-level softkeys.
ENGINE
Figure 3-15 Engine Page Softkeys
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
DCLTR
CO RST
(optional)
Level 1
Level 2
ENGINE
ENGINE
LEAN
CO RST
Resets the carbon monoxide (CO) detector to zero.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Description
Displays full EIS-Engine
Page ASSIST
and second-level engine softkeys; press again to return
BACK to the
SYSTEM
CYL SLCT
EIS Display and top-level softkeys.
DEC FUEL Decreases the displayed fuel remaining (GAL REM) in 1 gal increments.
INC FUEL Increases the displayed fuel remaining (GAL REM) in 1 gal(optional)
increments.
LEAN
SYSTEM
DEC FUEL INC FUEL RST FUEL
BACK
ENGINE
CO RST
RST FUEL Resets displayed fuel remaining (GAL REM) to maximum fuel capacity. Resets fuel
used
(GAL USED) to zero.
AFCS
Select the BACK Softkey to
return to the top-level softkeys.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
95
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
1
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3
Figure 3-16 Engine Page
AFCS
1 Cylinder Head Temperature Displays cylinder head temperature in °F along vertical bars. If the temperature
of any cylinder exceeds the normal range, the bars will turn amber for caution
or red for warning.
Displays Oxygen %, Heart Rate, Carbon Monoxide parts per million (CO
PPM), and Vacuum suction in inches Mercury
(CHT °F)
2 Systems Group
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
(SYSTEMS)
3 Fuel Calculations Group
INDEX
APPENDICES
(FUEL CALC)
Displays calculated gallon of fuel remaining (GAL REM), endurance (ENDUR)
and range (in nautical miles, RANGE NM), nautical miles per gallon (NMPG)
based on the displayed fuel remaining and the fuel flow totalizer
96
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
4.1 OVERVIEW
The Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) system includes the audio panels, communication radios,
navigation radios, and Mode S transponders. The System Overview Section provides a block diagram description
of the Audio Panels and CNS system interconnection.
CNS operation in the Piper Mirage is performed by the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• Multifunction Display (MFD)
• Mode S Transponder (1 with 2 Optional)
• Integrated Avionics Unit (2)
• MFD/PFD Control Unit
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Audio Panel (1)
EIS
• Primary Flight Display (PFD) (2)
The PFD controls are used to tune the communication transceivers and navigation radios.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Audio Panel provides the traditional audio selector functions of microphone and receiver audio selection.
The Audio Panel includes an intercom system (ICS) between the pilot, copilot, and passengers, a marker beacon
system, and a COM clearance recorder. Ambient noise from the aircraft radios is reduced by a feature called
Master Avionics Squelch (MASQ). When no audio is detected, MASQ processing further reduces the amount of
background noise from the radios.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Mode S Transponder(s) are controlled with softkeys and the FMS Knob located on the Primary Flight
Display PFD. The Transponder Data Box is located to the left of the System Time Box. The data box displays the
active four-digit code, mode, and a reply status (Figure 4-1).
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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97
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
PFD CONTROLS AND FREQUENCY DISPLAY
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1
9
10
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
11
12
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 4-1 PFD Controls, COM/NAV Frequency Tuning Boxes, and DME Tuning Window
98
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
5
COM Frequency Box – Displays COM standby and active frequency fields and volume. The selected COM
transceiver frequency is displayed in green.
6
COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Press to move the tuning box (light blue box) and Frequency Transfer Arrow between COM1 and
COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this key
for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Press to turn the COM automatic squelch on
and off. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency field as a percentage.
9
ADF/DME Tuning Window – Displays ADF frequencies, volume setting, and modes, and DME tuning
selection. Display by pressing the ADF/DME Softkey.
10
ENT Key – Validates or confirms DME pairing mode and Auto-tune selection.
11
FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob, used to enter transponder codes, select DME modes, and
Auto-tune entries when DME Tuning Window or NRST Window is present. Press the FMS Knob to turn
the selection cursor on and off. The large knob moves the cursor in the window. The small knob selects
individual characters for the highlighted cursor location.
12
Transponder Data Box – Indicates the selected transponder code, operating mode, reply, and ident status
for the applicable transponder.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NAV Frequency Box – Displays NAV standby and active frequency fields, volume, and station ID. The
frequency of the NAV radio selected for navigation is displayed in green.
AFCS
4
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
Press to move the tuning box (light blue box) and Frequency Transfer Arrow between NAV1 and NAV2.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
EIS
2
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to turn the Morse code identifier audio on
and off. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1
APPENDICES
INDEX
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99
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
10
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
11
20
21
Figure 4-2 GMA 350 Controls
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: When a key is selected, a triangular annunciator above the key is illuminated.
1
MKR/MUTE – Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker beacon receiver
audio. Deactivates automatically and marker beacon audio is heard when the next marker beacon signal
is received. Also, stops play of recorded COM audio.
2
COM1 – When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard. Press and hold to enable/disable
monitored COM muting during primary COM reception.
3
COM2 – When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard. Press and hold to enable/disable
monitored COM muting during primary COM reception.
4
NAV1 – When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
5
NAV2 – When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
6
– Selects and deselects audio from a telephone or entertainment device connected to the Front Panel
Jack. Audio from a telephone connected to the rear of the audio panel is used if a device is not connected
INDEX
APPENDICES
to the Front Panel Jack. Press and hold to enable/disable
100
muting during reception.
7
MUS1 – Selects and deselects music entertainment audio. Press and hold to enable/disable MUS1 muting
during reception.
8
MUS2 – Selects and deselects music entertainment audio. Press and hold to enable/disable MUS2 muting
during reception.
9
MAN SQ – Manual Squelch annunciator. When lit, squelch is controlled manually.
10
Volume Indicator – Indicates volume/squelch setting relative to full scale.
11
Front Panel Jack – Used for an entertainment or telephone input.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUX – When selected, audio from the ADF and DME (if equipped) can be heard.
16
PILOT – Controls the pilot intercom system.
17
COPLT – Controls the copilot intercom system. Press and hold to toggle copilot configuration between
crew and passenger.
18
PASS – Controls the passenger intercom system. Press and hold to enable/disable passenger muting
during reception.
19
SPKR – Selects and deselects the cabin speaker. COM, NAV, AUX, and MKR receiver audio can be heard
on the speaker. Press and hold for 2 seconds for Passenger Address (PA). The SPKR key flashes during
PA.
20
Cursor (CRSR) Control Knob – Turn to move the cursor (flashing white or blue annunciator) to the
desired source.
21
Volume (VOL) Control Knob – Turn the smaller knob to control volume or squelch of the selected source
(indicated by the flashing white or blue annunciator). When the volume control cursor is not active press
to switch to Blue-Select mode. If the volume control cursor is active, press twice (once to cancel the cursor,
twice to activate Blue-Select mode).
AFCS
15
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PLAY – Press once to play the latest recorded memory block. Press while audio is playing begins playing
the previously recorded memory block. Each subsequent press thereafter plays the previous block of
memory.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
14
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
MIC2 – Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously selected when this key
is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM receiver to be heard. COM1 receive can be added by
pressing the COM1 Key. Selection of a second MIC button initiates Split-COM mode. When in Split-COM
mode, the pilot is using COM1, the copilot is using the COM2.
EIS
13
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
MIC1 – Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously selected when this key
is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM receiver to be heard. COM2 receive can be added by
pressing the COM2 Key. Selection of a second MIC button initiates Split-COM mode. When in Split-COM
mode, the pilot is using COM1, the copilot is using the COM2.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
12
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
101
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
MFD/PFD CONTROL UNIT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The MFD/PFD Control Unit is a pedestal-mounted interface allowing MFD/PFD operation, data entry, COM
and NAV tuning, and transponder control. The MFD/PFD Control Unit duplicates many PFD display bezel
controls. Annunciators above the PFD, MFD, NAV, and COM keys illuminate when their respective control
modes are selected. The unit is in MFD control mode by default on system power-up.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
13
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
EIS
Tune the COM and NAV radios in either MFD or PFD control mode. The appropriate frequency box on the
selected display is outlined by a light blue selection box, which flashes for a few seconds to indicate control
unit activity. Selection of a different display control or radio tuning mode results in cancellation of the previous
radio tuning mode.
10
1
12
11
9
2
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8
3
AFCS
7
6
5
4
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-3 MFD/PFD Control Unit
APPENDICES
Tuning Selection
Box
INDEX
Figure 4-4 Frequency Tuning with the MFD/PFD Control Unit
102
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
5
CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus.
6
SEL Key – Arrows move light blue Softkey Selection Box on selected display. Press the center to activate
the selected softkey
7
Decimal Key – Enters a decimal point.
8
NAV Key – Selects NAV radio tuning mode on the MFD/PFD Control Unit. The NAV tuning box is
outlined with a light blue selection line when the NAV frequency is active on the control unit.
9
COM Key – Selects COM radio tuning mode on the MFD/PFD Control Unit. The COM tuning box is
outlined with a light blue selection line when the COM frequency is active on the control unit.
10
Frequency Transfer Key (EMERG) – Transfers the standby and active COM or NAV frequencies. Press
and hold for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the COM
active frequency field.
11
PFD Key – When selected, the control unit is used to access PFD functions.
12
MFD Key – When selected, the control unit is used to access MFD functions (default control mode).
13
FMS/NAV-COM Knob – NAV/COM Tuning Modes: Acts as the NAV or COM Knob. MFD/PFD Control
Modes: Acts as the FMS Knob.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
BKSP Key – Moves cursor back one character space and removes last character entered.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Alphanumeric Keys – Allows data entry (rather than using the FMS Knob to select characters/
numbers).
EIS
2
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
MENU Key – Displays a list of options for accessing additional features or making setting changes.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
103
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.2 COM OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
COM TRANSCEIVER SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
NOTE: During PA Mode, the COM MIC Annunciator is extinguished and the COM active frequency color
changes to white, indicating that neither COM transmitter is active.
NOTE: When turning on the G1000 for use, the system remembers the last frequencies used and the active
EIS
COM transceiver state prior to shutdown.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the left side and the
two standby frequencies are on the right. The COM transceiver is selected for transmitting by pressing the
COM MIC Keys on the Audio Panel. During reception of audio from the COM radio selected for transmission,
audio from the other COM radio is muted.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
An active COM frequency displayed in green indicates that the COM transceiver is selected on the Audio
Panel (COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key). Both active COM frequencies appearing in white indicate that no COM
radio is selected for transmitting (PA Key is selected on the Audio Panel).
Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency in the tuning
box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
COM2 Radio is Selected
on the Audio Panel
Active
Fields
Standby
Fields
AFCS
Tuning Box
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-5 Selecting a COM Radio for Transmit
TRANSMIT/RECEIVE INDICATIONS
INDEX
APPENDICES
During COM transmission, a white TX appears by the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. On the Audio Panel, when the active COM is transmitting, the active transceiver COM MIC
Key Annunciator flashes approximately once per second.
104
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
During COM signal reception, a white RX appears by the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. Entertainment audio, if selected, is muted during active COM radio reception. Refer to
Additional Audio Panel Functions later in this section, and details on the Data Link Receiver in the Additional
Features Section.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Annunciator
Flashes During
Transmission
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Transmit and
Receive Indicators
Figure 4-6 COM Radio Transmit and Receive Indications
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When the same COM radio is selected on both Audio Panels, the pilot has transmit priority on COM1, the
copilot has transmit priority on COM2.
COM TRANSCEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The COM frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the right side of each PFD.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Manually tuning a COM frequency:
1) Turn the COM Knob to tune the desired frequency in the COM Tuning Box (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz).
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the COM VOL/SQ Knob.
AFCS
4) Press the COM VOL/SQ Knob to turn automatic squelch on and off.
Press the Frequency Transfer
Key to Transfer COM
Frequencies Between Active
and Standby Frequency Boxes
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Turn the VOL/SQ Knob to adjust
volume. Press the Knob to Turn
Automatic Squelch On or Off
APPENDICES
Turn the COM Knob to
Tune the Frequency in
the Tuning Box
Figure 4-7 COM Frequency Tuning
INDEX
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
105
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Manual frequency tuning from the MFD/PFD Control Unit
1) Press the COM Key to select the COM frequency box.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the NAV/COM Knob to tune the desired frequency in the COM Tuning Box (large knob for MHz; small knob
for kHz).
3) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
EIS
Second, Turn the NAV/COM Knob
to Enter a Frequency into the
COM Standby Frequency Field
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Third, Press the Frequency
Transfer Key to Move the
Frequency to the Active Field
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
First, Press the COM Key to
Place the Tuning Selection
Box on the COM frequencies
Figure 4-8 Frequency Tuning from the MFD/PFD Control Unit
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SELECTING THE RADIO TO BE TUNED
AFCS
Press the small COM Knob to transfer the frequency tuning box and Frequency Transfer Arrow between the
upper and lower radio frequency fields.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press the COM Knob to
Switch the Tuning Box From
One COM Radio to the Other
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 4-9 Switching COM Tuning Boxes
106
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
QUICK-TUNING AND ACTIVATING 121.500 MHZ
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pressing and holding the COM Frequency Transfer Key for two seconds automatically loads the emergency
COM frequency (121.500 MHz) in the active field of the COM radio selected for tuning (the one with the
transfer arrow). In the example shown, pressing the Audio Panel COM2 MIC Key activates the transceiver.
Press for Two Seconds to
Load 121.500 MHz
EIS
Figure 4-10 Quickly Tuning 121.500 MHz
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
107
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUTO-TUNING THE COM FREQUENCY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
COM frequencies can be automatically tuned from the following:
• Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies Page (ARTCC, FSS, WX)
• WPT – Airport Information Page
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces Page
• NRST – Nearest Airports Page
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE PFD
EIS
COM frequencies for the nearest airports can be automatically tuned from the Nearest Airports Window on
the PFD. When the desired frequency is entered, it becomes a standby frequency. Pressing the Frequency
Transfer Key places this frequency into the COM Active Frequency Field.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Auto-tuning a COM frequency for a nearby airport from the PFD:
1) Select the NRST Softkey on the PFD to open the Nearest Airports Window. A list of 25 nearest airport identifiers
and COM frequencies is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the list and highlight the desired COM frequency.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the COM Standby Tuning Box.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
INDEX
Figure 4-11 Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
Select the NRST
Softkey to Open
the Nearest
Airports Window
108
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
190-01889-01 Rev. A
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE MFD
Load frequencies into the COM Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT page group by highlighting
the frequency and pressing the ENT Key (Figures 4-12, 4-13, and 4-14).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Auto-tuning a COM frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the COM frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the MFD Key and
the FMS Knob on the control unit or select the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency (Figure 4-14).
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key on either PFD to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency
Field.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Or
Press the COM Key to select the COM frequency box and then the Frequency Transfer Key on the control unit
to transfer the frequency.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Second, Press the FMS Knob to
Activate the Cursor. Then, Turn to
Scroll Through a List of Frequencies
First, Press the MFD
Key to Activate the
MFD Annunciator
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Last, Press the Frequency
Transfer Key to Move the
Frequency to the Active Field
AFCS
Press the COM Key to Move
the Light blue Outline to
the COM frequency Box
Third, Press the ENT Key to Load
a Highlighted Frequency into the
COM Standby Frequency Field
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-12 Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01889-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
109
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Or:
1) On the Nearest Airports, Frequencies, or Airspaces page, press the MENU Key to display the page menu.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor on the desired selection.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 4-13 Nearest Pages Menus
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
On the WPT - Airport Information Page, place the cursor on the frequency field by pressing the FMS Knob
and scrolling through the list. Transfer the frequency to the COM Standby Field with the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected Airport
Identifier and
Information
EIS
Runway
Information
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Press ENT Key to load
frequency into PFD1
COM Standby Field
Cursor then advances
to the next frequency
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Select INFO Softkey for
AIRPORT, RUNWAYS,
and FREQUENCIES
Windows
Figure 4-14 WPT – Airport Information Page
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Tune COM frequencies from the NRST – Nearest Airspaces, NRST – Nearest Frequencies, and
NRST – Nearest Airports Pages on the MFD in a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU
Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-15 NRST – Nearest Airspaces, NRST – Nearest Airports, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FREQUENCY SPACING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G1000 COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing
(118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel spacing
is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in the complete 3040-channel list.
COM channel spacing is set on the System Setup Page of the AUX Page Group.
25-kHz Channel
Spacing
EIS
8.33-kHz Channel
Spacing
Figure 4-16 COM Channel Spacing
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Changing COM frequency channel spacing:
1) Select the AUX – System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Channel Spacing Field in the COM Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired channel spacing.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the channel spacing selection.
While the COM CONFIG Window is selected, the G1000 softkeys are blank.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Select 8.33-kHz
or 25.0-kHz
COM Frequency
Channel Spacing
APPENDICES
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INDEX
Figure 4-17 AUX – System Setup Page
113
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUTOMATIC SQUELCH
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Automatic Squelch quiets unwanted static noise when no audio signal is received, while still providing good
sensitivity to weak COM signals. To disable Automatic Squelch, press the VOL/SQ Knob. While Automatic
Squelch is disabled, COM audio reception is continuous (static noise is heard over the headsets and speaker).
Pressing the VOL/SQ Knob again enables Automatic Squelch.
EIS
When Automatic Squelch is disabled, a white SQ appears next to the COM frequency.
Squelch
Indication
Press the COM VOL/
SQ Knob to turn off
Automatic Squelch.
Press again to restore
Automatic Squelch.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-18 Overriding Automatic Squelch
VOLUME
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Adjust COM radio volume level from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob. Turning the knob clockwise
increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume. When adjusting volume, the level is
displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication remains for two seconds after the change.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 4-19 COM Volume Level
COM Volume
Level Remains
for Two Seconds
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4.3 NAV OPERATION
NAV RADIO SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; two standby fields and two active fields. The active
frequencies are on the right side and the standby frequencies are on the left.
EIS
A NAV radio is selected for navigation by pressing the CDI Softkey located on the PFD. The active NAV
frequency selected for navigation is displayed in green. Pressing the CDI Softkey once selects NAV1 as the
navigation radio. Pressing the CDI Softkey a second time selects NAV2 as the navigation radio. Pressing the
CDI Softkey a third time activates GPS mode. Pressing the CDI Softkey again cycles back to NAV1
While cycling through the CDI Softkey selections, the NAV Tuning Box and the Frequency Transfer Arrow are
placed in the active NAV Frequency Field and the active NAV frequency color changes to green.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The three navigation modes that can be cycled through are:
• VOR1 (or LOC1) – If NAV1 is selected, a green single line arrow (not shown) labeled either VOR1 or LOC1
is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV1 frequency is displayed in green.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• VOR2 (or LOC2) – If NAV2 is selected, a green double line arrow (shown) labeled either VOR2 or LOC2 is
displayed on the HSI and the active NAV2 frequency is displayed in green.
• GPS – If GPS Mode is selected, a magenta single line arrow (not shown) appears on the HSI and neither NAV
radio is selected. Both active NAV frequencies are then displayed in white.
Active
Fields
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Standby
Fields
Tuning Box
AFCS
The NAV Radio is
Selected by Selecting
the CDI Softkey
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-20 Selecting a NAV Radio for Navigation
APPENDICES
See the Flight Instruments Section for selecting the DME and Bearing Information windows and using VOR
or ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code station identifier that is received from the
navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station identifier is still required, and can be accomplished
by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pressing the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NAV radios are selected for listening by pressing the corresponding keys on the Audio Panel. Pressing the
NAV1, NAV2, or AUX Key selects and deselects the navigation radio source. Pressing the AUX Key selects and
deselects the ADF and DME. Selected audio can be heard over the headset and the speakers (if selected).
Figure 4-21 Selecting a NAV Radio Receiver
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NAV RECEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The NAV frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the left side of the PFDs.
Manually tuning a NAV frequency:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Turn the NAV Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box.
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
4) Press the NAV VOL/ID Knob to turn the Morse code identifier audio on and off.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Turn VOL/ID Knob to adjust
volume. Press Knob to Turn
Morse Code On or Off.
Press the Frequency Transfer Key to
Transfer NAV Frequencies Between
Active and Standby Frequency Fields
APPENDICES
Turn the NAV Knob to
Tune the Frequency in
the Tuning Box
INDEX
Figure 4-22 NAV Frequency Tuning
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SELECTING THE RADIO TO BE TUNED
Press the small NAV Knob to transfer the frequency tuning box and Frequency Transfer Arrow between the
upper and lower radio frequency fields.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Press the NAV Knob to
Switch the Tuning Box From
One NAV Radio to the Other
EIS
Figure 4-23 Switching NAV Tuning Boxes
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
VOR/LOC ID
When the Morse code Identifier audio is on for a NAV radio, a white ID appears to the left of the active
NAV frequency.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Morse Code Identifier
for the GHM VOR is On
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
In the example shown, in order to listen to either station identifier, press the NAV1 or NAV2 Key on the
Audio Panel. Pressing the VOL/ID Knob turns off the Morse code audio only in the radio with the NAV
Tuning Box. To turn off both NAV IDs, transfer the NAV Tuning Box between NAV1 and NAV2 by pressing
the small NAV Knob and pressing the VOL/ID Knob again to turn the Morse code off in the other radio.
Station
Identifier
Figure 4-24 NAV Radio ID Indication
AFCS
VOLUME
NAV Radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/ID Knob. Turning the knob
clockwise increases volume, counterclockwise decreases volume.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When adjusting, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication remains
for two seconds after the change.
APPENDICES
NAV Volume
Level Remains
for Two Seconds
Figure 4-25 NAV Volume Levels
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTO-TUNING A NAV FREQUENCY FROM THE MFD
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
• WPT – VOR Information
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies (FSS, WX)
• NRST – Nearest Airports
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces
NAV frequencies can be selected and loaded from the following MFD pages:
• WPT – Airport Information
• NRST – Nearest VOR
EIS
The MFD provides auto-tuning of NAV frequencies from waypoint and nearest pages. During enroute
navigation, the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV standby frequency field. During approach
activation the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV active frequency field.
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Boxes from pages in the NRST or WPT page
group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key (Figures 4-26, 4-27, and 4-28).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Auto-tuning a NAV frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the NAV frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the MFD Key and the
FMS Knob on the MFD/PFD Control Unit or selecting the appropriate softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV identifier or NAV frequency.
3) On the Nearest VOR, Nearest Airspaces, and Nearest Airports pages, select the FREQ Softkey to place the cursor
on the NAV frequency (Figure 4-28).
4) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV radio.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Press the Frequency Transfer Key on either PFD to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field
or press the NAV Key on the control unit to select the NAV frequency box and then the Frequency Transfer
Key to transfer the frequency.
AFCS
Last, Press the Frequency
Transfer Key to Move the
Frequency to the Active Field.
APPENDICES
First, Press the MFD Key to
Activate the MFD Annunciator.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Second, Press the FMS Knob to
Activate the Cursor. Then Turn to
Scroll Through a List of NAV identifiers.
Third, Select the FREQ
Softkey, then Press the ENT
Key to Load a Highlighted
Frequency into the NAV
Standby Frequency Field.
INDEX
Press the NAV Key to Move
the Light blue Outline to
the NAV frequency Box.
Figure 4-26 Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Or:
1) When on the NRST pages, press the MENU Key to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor in the desired window.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV radio.
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Nearest VOR Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-27 Nearest Pages Menus
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In the example shown, the VOR list is selected with the VOR Softkey or from the page menu. The FMS Knob
or ENT Key is used to scroll through the list. The cursor is placed on the frequency with the FREQ Softkey and
loaded into the NAV Tuning Box with the ENT Key.
Press the ENT
Key to Load
the Frequency
into the NAV
Standby Field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Select the VOR Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Identifier
Select the FREQ Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Frequency
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 4-28 Loading the NAV Frequency from the NRST – Nearest VOR Page
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
While enroute, NAV frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST – Nearest Airports,
WPT – Airport Information, WPT – VOR Information, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages on the MFD in
a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 4-29 NRST – Nearest Frequencies, WPT – VOR Information, WPT – Airport Information, and
NRST – Nearest Airports Pages
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUTO-TUNING NAV FREQUENCIES ON APPROACH ACTIVATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The primary NAV frequency is auto-tuned upon loading a VOR or ILS/Localizer approach.
NOTE: When an ILS/LOC approach has been activated in GPS Mode, the system switches to NAV Mode as
the final approach course is intercepted (within 15 nm of the FAF). See the Flight Management Section for
details.
EIS
NAV frequencies are automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box on approach activation, on both PFD1
and PFD2.
When loading or activating a VOR or ILS/LOC approach, the approach frequency is automatically transferred
to a NAV frequency field as follows:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, the approach frequency is transferred to the NAV1 or NAV2
active frequency fields. The frequency that was previously in the NAV1 or NAV2 active frequency fields are
transferred to standby.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, and if the approach frequency is already loaded into the NAV1
or NAV2 standby frequency field, the standby frequency is transferred to active.
• If the current CDI navigation source is NAV1 or NAV2, the approach frequency is transferred to the standby
frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
MARKER BEACON RECEIVER
NOTE: The marker beacon indicators operate independently of marker beacon audio and cannot be turned
off.
AFCS
The marker beacon receiver is used as part of the ILS. The marker beacon receiver is always on and detects
any marker beacon signals within the reception range of the aircraft.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The receiver detects the three marker tones – outer, middle, and inner – and provides the marker beacon
annunciations located on the Audio Panel and to the left of the Altimeter on the PFD. Operation of the two
marker beacon indications may not be synchronized.
Middle Marker
Annunciation
Inner Marker
Annunciation
INDEX
APPENDICES
Outer Marker
Annunciation
Figure 4-30 Marker Beacon Annunciations on the PFD
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 4-31 Marker Beacon Key and Annunciator Lights
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Audio Panels provide three different states of marker beacon operation; On, Muted, and Deselected.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key selects and deselects marker beacon audio. The key annunciator indicates when
marker beacon audio is selected. Marker beacon audio is not heard when the annunciator is off or when the
annunciator is on with the marker beacon audio muted.
Turning Marker Beacon Audio On
With the MKR/MUTE annunciator off, press the MKR/MUTE Key to enable marker beacon audio.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Muting Marker Beacon Audio
During marker beacon audio reception, press the MKR/MUTE Key to mute the audio. The MKR/MUTE
annunciator remains lit, but the current marker tone is silenced. Audio muting deactivates automatically and
marker beacon audio is heard when the next marker beacon signal is received.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Deselecting Marker Beacon Audio
To deselect marker beacon audio, press the MKR/MUTE Key twice during marker beacon reception (once to
mute, once more to deselect) or once if a marker beacon signal is not detected.
ADF/DME TUNING
AFCS
NOTE: When another auxiliary window is turned on, the ADF/DME Tuning Window is replaced on the PFD.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
See the Flight Instruments Section for displaying the DME and bearing information windows (ADF) and
using the ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
The G1000 system tunes the ADF receiver (optional) and DME transceiver (optional). The ADF is tuned by
entering the frequency in the ADF standby frequency field of the ADF/DME Tuning Window. (The softkey may
be labeled ADF/DME, ADF, or DME, depending on installed equipment.)
APPENDICES
The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a VHF NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is automatic
and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
The following ADF/DME information is displayed in the ADF/DME Tuning Window:
• Active and standby ADF frequencies
INDEX
• ADF receiver mode
• ADF receiver volume
• DME tuning mode (DME transceiver pairing)
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
When the ADF/DME Tuning Window is displayed, the selection cursor is placed over the standby ADF
frequency field.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Turning the large FMS Knob moves the selection cursor through the various fields (standby ADF frequency,
ADF receiver mode, ADF radio volume, and DME tuning mode). Pressing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates
the selection cursor in the ADF/DME Tuning Window. The ADF frequency is entered using the FMS Knob and
the ENT Key.
Active ADF Frequency
Standby ADF Frequency
EIS
ADF
Mode
ADF
Volume
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
DME
Tuning
Mode
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 4-32 ADF/DME Tuning Window
ADF TUNING
ADF frequencies in the 190.0-kHz to 1799.5-kHz range are entered in the standby ADF frequency field of
the ADF/DME Tuning Window. The G1000 System does not tune the ADF emergency frequency, 2182.0‑kHz.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Tuning an ADF frequency:
1) Press the ADF/DME Softkey to display the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the standby ADF frequency field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to begin data entry and change each digit.
AFCS
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next digit position.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Press the ENT Key to complete data entry for the standby frequency.
APPENDICES
Turn the Small
FMS Knob to
Enter Data in
the Standby ADF
Frequency Field
Press the
ENT Key to
Complete ADF
Frequency Entry
Turn the Large
FMS Knob
to Move the
Cursor to the
Next Character
Figure 4-33 Entering ADF Standby Frequencies
INDEX
Pressing the CLR Key before completing frequency entry cancels the frequency change and reverts back to
the previously entered frequency.
Pressing the CLR Key when the cursor is flashing, clears the frequency and replaces the standby field with
0000.0.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Transferring the active and standby ADF frequencies:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the standby ADF frequency field.
2) Press the ENT Key to complete the frequency transfer.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Press the ENT
Key to Transfer
the ADF
Frequencies
EIS
Figure 4-34 Transferring ADF Frequencies
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SELECTING ADF RECEIVER MODE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The following modes can be selected: (In all modes NDB audio can be heard by selecting the ADF Key on
the Audio Panel.)
• ANT (Antenna) – The ADF bearing pointer parks on the HSI at 90 degrees. Best mode for listening to NDB
audio.
• ADF (Automatic Direction Finder) – The ADF pointer points to the relative bearing of the NDB station.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• ADF/BFO (ADF/Beat Frequency Oscillator) – The ADF pointer points to the relative bearing of the NDB
station and an audible tone confirms signal reception. This mode allows identification of the interrupted
carrier beacon stations used in various parts of the world.
• ANT/BFO (Antenna/Beat Frequency Oscillator) – The ADF bearing pointer parks on the HSI at 90 degrees
while an audible tone is provided when a signal is received. This mode also allows identification of the
interrupted carrier beacon stations and confirms signal reception.
AFCS
Selecting an ADF receiver mode:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the ADF mode field.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired ADF receiver mode.
APPENDICES
Turn the Small
FMS Knob
to Select the
Mode
Figure 4-35 Selecting ADF Receiver Mode
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
ADF receiver volume level can be adjusted in the tuning window from 0 to 100%. The default volume level
is set to 50%. The ADF volume level is the same for both Audio Panels.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Adjusting ADF receiver volume:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the ADF volume field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust volume as desired.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Turn the Small
FMS Knob
to Select the
Volume
Figure 4-36 Adjusting ADF Receiver Volume
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
DME TUNING
NOTE: When turning on the G1000 for use, the system remembers the last frequency used for DME tuning
and the NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD state prior to shutdown.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The DME transceiver is tuned by selecting NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD in the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
AFCS
DME
Modes
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-37 ADF/DME Tuning Window, DME Modes
The following DME transceiver pairing can be selected:
• NAV1 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV1 frequency.
APPENDICES
• NAV2 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV2 frequency.
INDEX
• HOLD – When in the HOLD position, the DME frequency remains paired with the last selected NAV
frequency.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting DME transceiver pairing:
1) Press the ADF/DME Softkey to display the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the DME tuning mode.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
Pressing the CLR Key or FMS Knob while in the process of DME pairing cancels the data entry and reverts
back to the previously selected DME tuning state. Pressing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates the cursor in
the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.4 GTX 33 ES MODE S TRANSPONDER(S)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The GTX 33 Extended Squitter Mode S Transponder provides Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S interrogation and
reply capabilities. Selective addressing or Mode Select (Mode S) capability includes the following features:
• Level-2 reply data link capability (used to exchange information between aircraft and ATC facilities)
• Surveillance identifier capability
• Flight ID (Flight Identification) reporting – The Mode S Transponder reports aircraft identification as either the
aircraft registration or a unique Flight ID (configured by the factory or a dealer).
EIS
• Altitude reporting
• Airborne status determination
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Transponder capability reporting
• Mode S Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) requirements
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Acquisition squitter – Acquisition squitter, or short squitter, is the transponder 24-bit identification address.
The transmission is sent periodically, regardless of the presence of interrogations. The purpose of acquisition
squitter is to enable Mode S ground stations and aircraft equipped with a Traffic Avoidance System (TAS) to
recognize the presence of Mode S-equipped aircraft for selective interrogation.
• Extended squitter – The extended squitter is transmitted periodically and contains information such as altitude
(barometric and GPS), GPS position, and aircraft identification. The purpose of extended squitter is to provide
aircraft position and identification to ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and other aircraft.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Hazard Avoidance Section provides more details on traffic avoidance systems.
TRANSPONDER CONTROLS
AFCS
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Mode Selection, and
Code Selection. When the top-level XPDR Softkey is selected, the Mode Selection softkeys appear: XPDR1,
XPDR2 (optional), STBY, ON, ALT, VFR, CODE, IDENT, ADS-B TX, and BACK.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When the CODE Softkey is selected, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, IDENT, BKSP,
BACK. The digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Selecting the numbered softkeys in sequence enters
the transponder code. If an error is made, selecting the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the
previous digit. Selecting the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous digit.
Selecting the BACK Softkey during code selection reverts to the Mode Selection Softkeys. Selecting the BACK
Softkey during mode selection reverts to the top-level softkeys.
APPENDICES
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on either PFD. Code entry must be completed with either
the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
Selecting the IDENT Softkey while in Mode or Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to the
top-level softkeys.
INDEX
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
CODE
IDENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
IDENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
XPDR
(Optional)
XPDR1
XPDR2
STBY
ON
ALT
VFR
ADS-B TX
BACK
MSG
Selecting the BACK Softkey
returns to the top-level softkeys.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
IDENT
BKSP
BACK
MSG
EIS
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns to the mode selection softkeys.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-38 Transponder Softkeys (PFD)
Selecting and activating Transponder 1 or Transponder 2 (Optional):
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Select the XPDR1 or XPDR2 Softkey to select and activate the other transponder.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When turning on the G1000 for use, the system activates Transponder 1 as the default unit, regardless of
which transponder was active prior to shutdown. When switching between Transponder 1 and Transponder 2,
the code and mode remain the same. If a new code is entered in the active transponder, switching transponders
does not bring back the previous code.
TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTION
AFCS
Mode selection can be automatic (Ground and Altitude Modes) or manual (Standby, ON, and Altitude Modes).
The STBY, ON, and ALT Softkeys can be accessed by selecting the XPDR Softkey.
Selecting a transponder mode:
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Select the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
STANDBY MODE (MANUAL)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the STBY Softkey. In Standby, the transponder
is powered and new codes can be entered, but no replies or squitters are transmitted.. When Standby is
selected, a white STBY indication and transponder code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data
Box. In all other modes, these fields appear in green.
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited.
EIS
STBY Mode (White
Code Number and
Mode)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-39 Standby Mode
MANUAL ON MODE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
ON Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the ON Softkey. ON Mode generates Mode A and Mode S
replies as well as transmission of acquisition and extended squitters, including ADS-B out. Mode C altitude
reporting is inhibited. In ON Mode, a green ON indication and transponder code appear in the mode field
of the Transponder Data Box.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ON Mode
(No Altitude
Reporting)
Figure 4-40 ON Mode
AFCS
ALTITUDE REPORTING MODES (AUTOMATIC OR MANUAL)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The white Altitude Reporting Mode is normally selected automatically when the aircraft is on the ground.
White Altitude Mode may also be selected manually by pressing the ALT Softkey while on the ground. White
Altitude Mode generates Mode S replies to discrete interrogations as well as transmission of acquisition and
extended squitters including ADS-B out. Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call replies are inhibited.
APPENDICES
If Altitude Mode is selected while on the ground, a white ALT indication and transponder code appear in
the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting)
INDEX
Figure 4-41 Altitude Mode
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The green Altitude Mode is automatically selected when the aircraft becomes airborne. Green Altitude
Mode may also be selected manually by pressing the ALT Softkey while airborne. Green Altitude Mode
generates Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S replies as well as transmissions of acquisition and extended squitters
including ADS-B out.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If Altitude Mode is selected while airborne, a green ALT indication and transponder code appear in the
mode field of the Transponder Data Box, and all transponder replies requesting altitude information are
provided with pressure altitude information.
EIS
ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting)
Figure 4-42 Altitude Mode
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
REPLY STATUS
When the transponder sends replies to interrogations, a white R indication appears momentarily in the
reply status field of the Transponder Data Box.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Reply to
Interrogation
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 4-43 Reply Indication
ENTERING A TRANSPONDER CODE
Entering a transponder code with softkeys:
AFCS
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Select the CODE Softkey to display the Transponder Code Selection Softkeys, for digit entry.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Select the digit softkeys to enter the code in the code field. When entering the code, the next softkey in sequence
must be selected within 10 seconds, or the entry is cancelled and restored to the previous code. Selecting the
BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the previous digit. Five seconds after the fourth digit has been
entered, the transponder code becomes active.
APPENDICES
Entering
a Code
Figure 4-44 Entering a Code with Softkeys
INDEX
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131
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Entering a transponder code with the PFD FMS Knob:
1) Select the XPDR and the CODE Softkeys as in the previous procedure to enable code entry.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the first two code digits.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
EIS
Pressing the CLR Key or small FMS Knob before code entry is complete cancels code entry and restores the
previous code. Waiting for 10 seconds after code entry is finished activates the code automatically.
Press the
ENT Key to
Complete
Code Entry
Turn the Large
FMS Knob
to Move the
Cursor to the
Next Code Field
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Turn the Small
FMS Knob to
Enter Two Code
Digits at a Time
Figure 4-45 Entering a Code with the FMS Knob
VFR CODE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Press the XPDR Softkey, then the VFR Softkey to display the pre-programmed VFR code in the code field of
the Transponder Data Box. Press the VFR Softkey again to restore the previous identification code.
The pre-programmed VFR Code is set at the factory to 1200. If a VFR code change is required, contact a
Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
AFCS
VFR Code
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-46 VFR Code
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
IDENT FUNCTION
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT Softkey is inoperative.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting the IDENT Softkey sends a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The indication
distinguishes the identing transponder from all the others on the air traffic controller’s screen. The IDENT
Softkey appears on all levels of transponder softkeys. When the IDENT Softkey is selected, a green IDNT
indication is displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for a duration of 18 seconds.
EIS
After the IDENT Softkey is selected while in Mode or Code Selection, the system reverts to the top-level
softkeys.
IDNT
Indication
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Select the
IDENT Softkey
to Initiate the
ID Function
Figure 4-47 IDENT Softkey and Indication
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
ADS-B TX
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Transmission of extended squitters containing ADS-B out information is enabled/disabled by pressing the
ADS-B TX Softkey. ADS-B transimssion defaults to enabled at each power cycle. Do not disable ADS-B
transmission unless requested by ATC.
Even with the ADS-B TX enabled, transmission of extended squitters containing ADS-B out information will
vary based on transponder mode.
AFCS
ADS-B Transmission
Enabled
Figure 4-48 Altitude Mode
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.5 ADDITIONAL AUDIO PANEL FUNCTIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
POWER-UP
The Audio Panel performs a self-test during power-up. During the self-test all Audio Panel annunciator lights
illuminate for approximately two seconds. Once the self-test is completed, most of the settings are restored to
those in use before the unit was last turned off.
MONO/STEREO HEADSETS
EIS
Stereo headsets are recommended for use in this aircraft.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Using a monaural headset in a stereo jack shorts the right headset channel output to ground. While this does
not damage the Audio Panel, a person listening on a monaural headset hears only the left channel in both ears.
If a monaural headset is used at one of the passenger positions, any other passenger using a stereo headset hears
audio in the left ear only.
SPEAKER
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
All of the radios can be heard over the cabin speaker. Pressing the SPKR Key selects and deselects the cabin
speaker. Speaker audio is muted when the PTT is pressed. Certain aural alerts and warnings (autopilot, traffic,
altitude) are always heard on the speaker, even when the speaker is not selected.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The speaker volume is adjustable within a nominal range. Contact a Garmin-authorized service center for
volume adjustment.
AFCS
Figure 4-49 Speaker Key
PASSENGER ADDRESS MODE (PA MODE)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press and hold the SPKR Key for 2 seconds to initiate Passenger Address Mode (if configured). PA Mode is
annunciated by a rapid blinking of the SPKR annunciator. When in PA Mode the crew can use the PTT “Pushto-Talk” button to deliver announcements over the speaker, to the passenger headsets, or both depending on
configuration.
APPENDICES
CLEARANCE RECORDER AND PLAYER
INDEX
The Audio Panel contains a digital clearance recorder that records up to 2.5 minutes of the selected COM
radio signal. Recorded COM audio is stored in separate memory blocks. Once 2.5 minutes of recording time
have been reached, the recorder begins recording over the stored memory blocks, starting from the oldest block.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The PLAY Key controls the play function. Pressing the PLAY Key once plays the latest recorded memory
block. Pressing the PLAY Key while audio is playing begins playing the previously recorded memory block.
Each subsequent press of the PLAY Key selects the previously recorded memory block.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key during play of a memory block stops play. If a COM input signal is detected
during play of a recorded memory block, play is halted.
Powering off the unit automatically clears all recorded blocks.
EIS
Figure 4-50 Play Key
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
INTERCOM SYSTEM (ICS)
The GMA 350 includes a six-position intercom system (ICS), two MUSIC inputs, and one telephone/
entertainment input for the pilot, copilot and passengers. The intercom provides Pilot, Copilot, and Passenger
audio isolation.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 4-51 Intercom Controls
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Press the PILOT, COPLT, and/or PASS Keys to enable intercom audio for the selected position. If the
annunciators are lit, those positions will share intercom audio. If an annunciator is NOT lit that position is
isolated from the others.
COPILOT CONFIGURED AS CREW OR PASSENGER
AFCS
NOTE: When the copilot position is configured as a passenger, the COPLT Key is disabled and the copilot
headset is treated as a ‘passenger’ for intercom and entertainment audio distribution.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The copilot position can be configured as crew (COPLT Key enabled) or as a passenger (COPLT Key
disabled). Pressing and holding the COPLT Key toggles the copilot position configuration between passenger
and crew. The aural message “Copilot Configured as Passenger” or “Copilot Configured as Crew” is
heard.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
INTERCOM MODES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: In the following modes the copilot position is configured as crew.
All Intercom Mode
In ‘All Intercom’ mode the Pilot, Copilot, and Passengers hear each other and hear the aircraft audio.
EIS
Aircraft Audio
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
PILOT
COPLT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
PASS
ICS Keys
Mode Operation
Figure 4-52 All Intercom Mode
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pilot Isolate Mode
In ‘Pilot Isolate’ mode the Pilot, Copilot, and Passengers hear the aircraft audio. The Copilot and
Passengers also hear each other.
AFCS
Aircraft Audio
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
PILOT
COPLT
APPENDICES
PASS
ICS Keys
Mode Operation
INDEX
Figure 4-53 Pilot Isolate Mode
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Passenger/Crew Isolate Mode
In ‘Passenger/Crew Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Copilot hear the aircraft audio and each other. The
Passengers hear each other.
PILOT
PASS
COPLT
EIS
ICS Keys
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Aircraft Audio
Mode Operation
Figure 4-54 Passenger/Crew Isolate Mode
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Copilot Isolate Mode
In ‘Copilot Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Passengers hear the aircraft audio and each other. The Copilot has
the option to use Split-COM mode.
Split-COM Mode
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Aircraft Audio
COPLT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PILOT
PASS
AFCS
ICS Keys
Mode Operation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-55 Copilot Isolate Mode
APPENDICES
INDEX
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137
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
All Isolate Mode
In ‘All Isolate’ mode the Pilot hears the aircraft audio. The Copilot has the option to use Split-COM
mode. The Passengers hear each other.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Aircraft Audio Split-COM
PILOT
EIS
ICS Keys
COPLT
PASS
Mode Operation
Figure 4-56 All Isolate Mode
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Pilot & Copilot Isolate Mode
In ‘Pilot & Copilot Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Passengers hear the aircraft audio. The Copilot has the
option to use Split-COM mode.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Aircraft Audio
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PILOT
ICS Keys
PASS
Split-COM
COPLT
Mode Operation
Figure 4-57 Pilot & Copilot Isolate Mode
Pilot & Passenger Isolate Mode
AFCS
In ‘Pilot & Passenger Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Copilot hear the aircraft audio. The Passengers hear
each other.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Aircraft Audio
APPENDICES
PILOT
ICS Keys
COPLT
PASS
Mode Operation
INDEX
Figure 4-58 Pilot & Passenger Isolate Mode
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Copilot & Passenger Isolate Mode
In ‘Copilot & Passenger Isolate’ mode the Pilot can hear the aircraft audio. The Copilot has the option to
use Split-COM mode. The Passengers hear each other.
PILOT
PASS
EIS
ICS Keys
COPLT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Aircraft Audio Split-COM
Mode Operation
Figure 4-59 Copilot & Passenger Isolate Mode
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
INTERCOM VOLUME AND SQUELCH
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The VOL/CRSR Knob controls selection and volume or manual squelch adjustment for audio sources that
may not be adjustable anywhere else in the system. The small knob controls the volume or squelch. Turning
the large knob activates and/or moves the cursor (flashing white annunciator/or flashing blue annunciator in
Blue-Select Mode) to select the audio source to adjust. The cursor will time-out after a few seconds and the
position of the cursor will always default back to the PILOT Key. Pressing the small knob cancels the cursor.
Blue-Select Mode (Telephone/Entertainment Distribution)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The music (MUS1/MUS2) and telephone/entertainment (
) audio are distributed using the BlueSelect Mode. The following example indicates that the pilot, copilot, and passengers will all hear the
telephone/entertainment audio.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-60 Blue-Select Mode (Telephone/Entertainment Distribution)
APPENDICES
The Blue-Select Mode is entered by pressing the small knob when the volume control cursor (flashing
white annunciator) is not active. If the volume control cursor is active, press the small knob twice. The first
press will cancel the volume control cursor, the second will activate Blue-Select Mode.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The annunciator over the
Key will be flashing blue. Any combination of the annunciators over the
PILOT, COPLT, and PASS buttons may be blue. Select the desired button to turn the blue annunciator on
or off to distribute the telephone/entertainment audio to selected crew/passenger positions. Turn the large
knob to select MUS1 or MUS2 and select the crew positions to receive the music audio.
Selecting any key other than PILOT, COPLT, PASS, MUS1, MUS2, or
will cancel Blue-Select
Mode. Pressing the small knob will also cancel Blue-Select Mode. After approximately ten seconds with no
input, the Blue-Select Mode will automatically cancel.
EIS
Adjusting Intercom Volume
When the cursor is on PILOT, COPLT, or PASS, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the intercom volume for
the listener.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Adjusting Speaker Volume
When the cursor is on SPKR, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the speaker volume of the selected
sources (COM, NAV, AUX, MKR). Alert volumes are not affected by the speaker volume control knob.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Adjusting MKR, AUX,
, and MUSIC Volume
When the cursor is on MKR, AUX,
volume of the selected source.
, MUS1 or MUS2, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the individual
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Adjusting Manual Squelch
When the cursor is on MAN SQ, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the ICS Squelch Threshold (the
volume level that must be exceeded to be heard over the intercom).
Relative Volume/
Squelch Scale
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Manual Squelch Annunciator; Off for
Automatic Squelch, On for Manual Squelch
Volume or Manual Squelch
Cursor
Figure 4-61 Volume/Squelch Control
APPENDICES
SPLIT COM MODE
NOTE: Split COM performance is affected by the distance between the COM antennas and the separation
INDEX
of the tuned frequencies. If the selected COM frequencies are too close together, interference may be heard
during transmission on the other radio.
During Split COM operation, both the pilot and the copilot can transmit simultaneously over separate
radios. In Split COM mode, the pilot is uses COM1 and the copilot is uses COM2.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pressing both MIC Keys simultaneously initiates Split COM Mode (i.e., COM1/COM2). The respective
COM1/MIC1 or COM2/MIC2 annunciators are illuminated indicating Split COM operation. Split COM
operation is cancelled by pressing one of the selected MIC Keys again.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Figure 4-62 Split COM Selected
ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The audio panel provides three stereo telephone/entertainment inputs:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• The telephone/entertainment (
) Key controls a telephone or entertainment device connected to the
rear of the audio panel or to the Front Panel Jack. For GSR 56 equipped aircraft, the Iridium phone audio
is connected to the rear input of the audio panel. To use the Iridium phone, ensure there is no other audio
source plugged into the Front Panel Jack.
• The MUS1 and MUS2 Key controls the Entertainment Music audio input. External audio jacks can also be
used as an entertainment input. GDL 69 (SiriusXM Radio) audio, if equipped, is wired to the MUS1 and
MUS2 inputs. The Front Panel Jack does not disable audio connected to the MUS1 and MUS2 inputs.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Front Panel Jack can be used as an entertainment input or a telephone input. Plugging a device into the
Front Panel Jack will disable any audio source connected to the rear telephone/entertainment jack (i.e. GSR
56, if so equipped). The Front Panel Jack is a 3.5-mm stereo jack that is compatible with popular portable
entertainment devices such as MP3s, CD players, and cell phones. The headphone outputs of the entertainment
devices are plugged into the Front Panel Jack.
AFCS
Distribution of the entertainment inputs are configured in Blue-Select Mode.
TELEPHONE AND ENTERTAINMENT MUTING
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Telephone and entertainment muting can be enabled or disabled by the user, however it is always muted
during alerts.
Enabling/Disabling Muting
APPENDICES
Press and hold the MUS1, MUS2, or (
) Key for two seconds to toggle muting on and off. The
aural message “Mute Music on Reception Enabled/Disabled” or “Mute Tel and Jack on Reception
Enabled/Disabled” is heard.
SIRIUSXM RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
INDEX
SiriusXM Radio audio from the Data Link Receiver may be heard by the pilot and passengers simultaneously
(optional: requires subscription to SiriusXM Radio Service). Refer to the Additional Features Section for more
details on the Data Link Receiver.
Connecting a stereo input to the Stereo Input jack removes the SiriusXM Radio Audio from that input.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.6 AUDIO PANELS PREFLIGHT PROCEDURE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: If the pilot and/or copilot are using headsets that have a high/low switch or volume control knob,
verify that the switch is in the high position and the volume control on the headsets are at maximum volume
setting. On single‑pilot flights, verify that all other headsets are not connected to avoid excess noise in the
audio system.
NOTE: When the MAN SQ Key is pressed, the ICS squelch can be set manually by the pilot and copilot.
EIS
If manual squelch is set to full open, background noise is heard in the ICS system as well as during COM
transmissions.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
AUDIO PANEL PREFLIGHT
After powering up the system, the following steps aid in maximizing the use of the Audio Panel as well as
prevent pilot and copilot induced issues. These preflight procedures should be performed each time a pilot
boards the aircraft to insure awareness of all audio levels in the Audio Panel and radios.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Manual Squelch Annunciator; Off for Automatic Squelch, Relative Volume/
Squelch Scale
On for Manual Squelch
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Volume or Manual
Squelch
Cursor
Intercom Annunciators
AFCS
Figure 4-63 Audio Panel Controls
Setting the Audio Panel during preflight:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Verify that the PILOT , COPLT and PASS annunciators are lit.
2) Adjust radio volume levels (COM, NAV) to a suitable level.
3) Use the Blue-Select Mode to distribute the telephone/entertainment (
), MUS1, and MUS2 appropriately.
APPENDICES
4) Use the VOL/CRSR Knobs to adjust the intercom volumes to the desired level.
INDEX
Once this procedure has been completed, the pilot and copilot can change settings, keeping in mind the notes
above.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4.7 ABNORMAL OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Abnormal operation of the G1000 includes equipment failures of the G1000 components and failure of
associated equipment, including switches and external devices.
AUDIO PANEL FAIL-SAFE OPERATION
If there is a failure of the Audio Panel, a fail-safe circuit connects the pilot’s headset and microphone directly
to the COM1 transceiver. Audio is not available on the speaker during fail-safe operation.
EIS
STUCK MICROPHONE
If the push-to-talk (PTT) Key becomes stuck, the COM transmitter stops transmitting after 35 seconds of
continuous operation. An alert appears on the PFD to advise the crew of a stuck microphone.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The MIC Key Annunciator on the Audio Panel flashes as long as the PTT Key remains stuck.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 4-64 Stuck Microphone Alert
COM TUNING FAILURE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
In case of a COM system tuning failure, the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) is automatically tuned in
the radio in which the tuning failure occurred. Depending on the failure mode, a red X may appear on the
frequency display.
Emergency Channel
Loaded Automatically
AFCS
Figure 4-65 COM Tuning Failure
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
PFD FAILURE, DUAL SYSTEM
If PFD1 fails, COM1 and NAV1 display a red X on both remaining displays. NAV1 is unavailable. COM1
automatically tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM1 emergency frequency is available
to both the copilot and pilot.
APPENDICES
Emergency Channel
Loaded Automatically
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INDEX
Figure 4-66 Frequency Section of PFD2 Display after PFD1 Failure
143
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If PFD2 fails, COM2 and NAV2 display a red X on the remaining PFD display. NAV2 is unavailable. COM2
tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM2 emergency frequency is available to both the
copilot and pilot.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 4-67 PFD1 Display after PFD2 Failure
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The G1000 is an integrated flight, engine, communication, navigation and surveillance system. This section of
the Pilot’s Guide explains flight management using the G1000.
EIS
The most prominent part of the G1000 are the full color displays: two Primary Flight Displays (PFD) and a
Multi Function Display (MFD). The information to successfully navigate the aircraft using the GPS sensors is
displayed on the PFD and the MFD. See examples in the Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2. Detailed descriptions of flight
management functions are discussed later in this section.
A brief description of the GPS navigation data on the PFD and MFD follows.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Navigation mode indicates which sensor is providing the course data (e.g., GPS, VOR) and the flight plan phase
(e.g., Departure (DPRT), Terminal (TERM), Enroute (ENR), Oceanic (OCN), RNAV Approach (LNAV, LNAV+V,
L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV), or Missed Approach (MAPR)). L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service levels are
only available with SBAS. Without the optional Baro VNAV, L/VNAV will be flown as LNAV when SBAS is not
available. With the optional Baro VNAV, L/VNAV approaches will be flown as a Baro VNAV approach when SBAS
is not available.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Inset Map is a small version of the MFD Navigation Map and can be displayed in the lower left corner of
the PFD. When the system is in reversionary mode, the Inset Map is displayed in the lower right corner. The
Inset Map is displayed by pressing the INSET Softkey. Pressing the INSET Softkey again, then pressing the OFF
Softkey removes the Inset Map.
AFCS
The Navigation Map displays aviation data (e.g., airports, VORs, airways, airspaces), geographic data (e.g.,
cities, lakes, highways, borders), topographic data (map shading indicating elevation), and hazard data (e.g.,
traffic, terrain, weather). The amount of displayed data can be reduced by pressing the DCLTR Softkey. The
Navigation Map can be oriented four different ways: North Up (NORTH UP), Track Up (TRK UP), Desired Track
Up (DTK UP), or Heading Up (HDG UP).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
An aircraft icon is placed on the Navigation Map at the location corresponding to the calculated present position.
The aircraft position and the flight plan legs are accurately based on GPS calculations. The basemap upon which
these are placed are from a source with less resolution, therefore the relative position of the aircraft to map features
is not exact. The leg of the active flight plan currently being flown is shown as a magenta line on the navigation
map. The other legs are shown in white.
APPENDICES
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 500 feet to 2000 nm. The current range is indicated in the
lower right corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. To change the map
range on any map, turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to zoom in ( -, decreasing), or clockwise to zoom out (+,
increasing).
The Direct-to Window, the Flight Plan Window, the Procedures Window, and the Nearest Airports Window
can be displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Details of these windows are discussed in detail later in
the section.
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Navigation Status Box
Navigation Mode
Inset Map
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Location of:
- Direct To Window
- Flight Plan Window
- Procedures Window
- Nearest Airports Window
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Navigation Data Bar
Map Orientation
Navigation Page Title
Navigation Map
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Aviation Data
- Geographic Data
- Topographic Data
- Hazard Data
Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Active Flight Plan Leg
Map Range
APPENDICES
Figure 5-2 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Page
NAVIGATION STATUS BOX AND DATA BAR
INDEX
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the PFD contains two fields displaying the following
information:
PFD Navigation Status Box
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• Active flight plan leg (e.g., ‘D-> KICT’ or ‘KIXD -> KCOS’) or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘Turn right to
021˚ in 8 seconds’)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Distance (DIS) and Bearing (BRG) to the next waypoint or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘TOD within 1
minute’)
The symbols used in the PFD status bar are:
Symbol
Description
Symbol
Description
Direct-to
Vector to Final
Right Procedure Turn
Right DME Arc/Radius to Fix Leg
Left Procedure Turn
Left DME Arc /Radius to Fix Leg
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Left Holding Pattern
EIS
Active Leg
Right Holding Pattern
Ground Speed
ISA Relative Temperature
ETA at Final Destination
Minimum Safe Altitude
True Air Speed
Track Angle Error
Track
Vertical Speed Required
Crosstrack Error
AFCS
GS
ISA
LDG
MSA
TAS
TKE
TRK
VSR
XTK
Bearing
Distance
Desired Track
Endurance
ETE to Final Destination
Enroute Safe Altitude
Estimated Time of Arrival
Estimated Time Enroute
Fuel on Board
Fuel over Destination
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
BRG
DIS
DTK
END
ENR
ESA
ETA
ETE
FOB
FOD
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Navigation Data Bar located at the top of the MFD contains four data fields, each displaying one of the
following items:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
MFD Navigation Data Bar
The navigation information displayed in the four data fields can be selected on the MFD Data Bar Fields Box
on the AUX - System Setup Page. The default selections (in order left to right) are GS, DTK, TRK, and ETE.
APPENDICES
Changing a field in the MFD Navigation Data Bar:
1) Select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
INDEX
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the MFD Data Bar Fields Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the data options list.
5) Select the desired data.
6) Press the ENT Key. Pressing the DFLTS Softkey returns all fields to the default setting.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.2 USING MAP DISPLAYS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Map displays are used extensively in the G1000 to provide situational awareness in flight. Most G1000 maps
can display the following information:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
• Airports, NAVAIDs, airspaces, airways,
land data (highways, cities, lakes, rivers,
borders, etc.) with names
• Map range
•Wind direction and speed
• Map orientation
• Icons for enabled map features
• Aircraft icon (representing present position)
• Nav range ring
• Fuel range ring
• Map Pointer information (distance and
bearing to pointer, location of pointer,
name, and other pertinent information)
• Flight plan legs
• User waypoints
• Track vector
• Topography scale
• Topography data
• Obstacle data
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The information in this section applies to the following maps unless otherwise noted:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• All Map Group Pages (MAP)
• All Waypoint Group Pages (WPT)
• AUX - Trip Planning
• All Nearest Group Pages (NRST)
• Flight Plan Pages (FPL)
• Direct-to Window
• PFD Inset Map
• Procedure Loading Pages
MAP ORIENTATION
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Maps are shown in one of four different orientation options, allowing flexibility in determining aircraft
position relative to other items on the map (north up) or for determining where map items are relative to where
the aircraft is going (track up, desired track up, or heading up). The map orientation is shown in the upper
right corner of the map.
INDEX
Figure 5-3 Map Orientation
• North up (NORTH UP) aligns the top of the map display to north (default setting).
• Track up (TRK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current ground track.
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OVERVIEW
• Desired track up (DTK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the desired course.
• Heading up (HDG UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current aircraft heading.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: When panning or reviewing active flight plan legs in a non-North Up orientation, the map does not
show the map orientation nor the wind direction and speed.
NOTE: Map orientation can only be changed on the Navigation Map Page. Any other displays that show
navigation data reflect the orientation selected for the Navigation Map Page:
EIS
Changing the Navigation Map orientation:
1) With the Navigation Map Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Map Setup
Selection
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-4 Navigation Map Page Menu Window
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Map Setup Window.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob, or press the ENT Key once, to select the ‘ORIENTATION’ field.
AFCS
Map Group Selection
Orientation Field
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Auto North Up
- On/Off
- Minimum Range
APPENDICES
Figure 5-5 Map Setup Menu Window - Map Group
INDEX
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired orientation.
5) Press the ENT Key to select the new orientation.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the base page.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
The map can be configured to switch automatically to a north up orientation when the map range reaches a
minimum range.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Enabling/disabling Auto North Up and selecting the minimum switching range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
EIS
5) Highlight the ‘AUTO NORTH UP’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’ using the small FMS Knob.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the range field.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select the desired range.
9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
MAP RANGE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 500 feet to 2000 nm. The current range is indicated in
the lower right corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. When the
map range is decreased to a point that exceeds the capability of the G1000 to accurately represent the map,
a magnifying glass icon is shown to the left of the map range. To change the map range turn the Joystick
counter-clockwise to decrease the range, or clockwise to increase the range.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Range Overzoom
APPENDICES
Figure 5-6 Map Range
AUTO ZOOM
INDEX
Auto zoom allows the system to change the map display range to the smallest range clearly showing the
active waypoint. Auto zoom can be overridden by adjusting the range with the Joystick, and remains until
the active waypoint changes, a terrain or traffic alert occurs, the aircraft takes off, or the manual override times
out (timer set on Map Setup Window). Auto zoom is suspended while the map pointer is active.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If a terrain caution or warning occurs, all navigation maps automatically adjust to the smallest map range
clearly showing the potential impact points If a new traffic advisory alert occurs, any map page capable of
displaying traffic advisory alerts automatically adjusts to the smallest map range clearly showing the traffic
advisory. When terrain or traffic alerts clear, the map returns to the previous auto zoom range based on the
active waypoint.
The auto zoom function can be turned on or off independently for the PFDs and MFD. Control of the
ranges at which the auto zoom occurs is done by setting the minimum and maximum ‘look forward’ times
(set on the Map Setup Window for the Map Group). These settings determine the minimum and maximum
distance to display based upon the aircraft’s ground speed.
EIS
• Waypoints that are long distances apart cause the map range to increase to a point where many details on
the map are decluttered. If this is not acceptable, lower the maximum look ahead time to a value that limits
the auto zoom to an acceptable range.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Waypoints that are very short distances apart cause the map range to decrease to a point where situational
awareness may not be what is desired. Increase the minimum look ahead time to a value that limits the auto
zoom to a minimum range that provides acceptable situational awareness.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Flight plans that have a combination of long and short legs cause the range to increase and decrease as
waypoints sequence. To avoid this, auto zoom can be disabled or the maximum/minimum times can be
adjusted.
• The ‘time out’ time (configurable on the Map Setup Page for the Map Group) determines how long auto
zoom is overridden by a manual adjustment of the range knob. At the expiration of this time, the auto
zoom range is restored. Setting the ‘time out’ value to zero causes the manual override to never time out.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• When the maximum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the upper limit becomes the maximum range available
(2000 nm).
• When the minimum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the lower limit becomes 1.5 nm.
Maximum Look Forward Time
Minimum Look Forward Time
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Manual Range Override
Expiration Time
AFCS
Auto Zoom:
Off, MFD Only, PFD Only, All On
APPENDICES
Figure 5-7 Map Setup Menu Window - Map Group, Auto Zoom
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Configuring automatic zoom:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘AUTO ZOOM’ field.
6) Select ‘Off’, ‘MFD Only’, ‘PFD Only’, or ‘ALL On’.
EIS
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘MAX LOOK FWD’ field.
Times are from zero to 999 minutes.
8) Use the FMS Knobs to set the time. Press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
9) Repeat step 8 for ‘MIN LOOK FWD’ (zero to 99 minutes) and ‘TIME OUT’ (zero to 99 minutes).
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
MAP PANNING
Map panning allows the pilot to:
• View parts of the map outside the displayed range without adjusting the map range
• Highlight and select locations on the map
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Review information for a selected airport, NAVAID or user waypoint
• Designate locations for use in flight planning
• View airspace and airway information
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
When the panning function is selected by pressing the Joystick, the Map Pointer flashes on the map display.
A window also appears at the top of the map display showing the latitude/longitude position of the pointer,
the bearing and distance to the pointer from the aircraft’s present position, and the elevation of the land at the
position of the pointer.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Map Pointer
Information
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Map
Pointer
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-8 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: The map is normally centered on the aircraft’s position. If the map has been panned and there has
been no pointer movement for about 60 seconds, the map reverts back to centered on the aircraft position
and the flashing pointer is removed.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When the Map Pointer is placed on an object, the name of the object is highlighted (even if the name was
not originally displayed on the map). When any map feature or object is selected on the map display, pertinent
information is displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Information about
Point of Interest
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Map Pointer on POI
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 5-9 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When the Map Pointer crosses an airspace boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace information
is shown at the top of the display. The information includes the name and class of airspace, the ceiling in feet
above Mean Sea Level (MSL), and the floor in feet MSL.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Information about
Airspace
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Map Pointer on
Airspace
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-10 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Airspace
Panning the map:
AFCS
1) Press the Joystick to display the Map Pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to move the Map Pointer around the map.
3) Press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and recenter the map on the aircraft’s current position.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Reviewing information for an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint:
1) Place the Map Pointer on a waypoint.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Waypoint Information Page for the selected waypoint.
EIS
3) Press the GO BACK Softkey, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the Waypoint Information Page and return to
the Navigation Map showing the selected waypoint.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NAVAID
Information
GO BACK Softkey
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Information Window - NAVAID
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Viewing airspace information for a special-use or controlled airspace:
1) Place the Map Pointer on an open area within the boundaries of an airspace.
2) Press the ENT Key to display an options menu.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) ‘Review Airspaces’ should already be highlighted, if not select it. Press the ENT Key to display the Airspace
Information Page for the selected airspace.
4) Press the CLR or ENT Key to exit the Airspace Information Page.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airspace
Information
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-12 Navigation Map - Information Window - Airspace
APPENDICES
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
MEASURING BEARING AND DISTANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Distance and bearing from the aircraft’s present position to any point on the viewable navigation map may be
calculated using the ‘Measure Bearing and Distance’ selection from Navigation Map page menu. The bearing
and distance tool displays a dashed Measurement Line and a Measure Pointer to aid in graphically identifying
points with which to measure. Lat/Long, distance and elevation data for the Measure Pointer is provided in a
window at the top of the navigation map.
Measuring bearing and distance between any two points:
1) Press the MENU Key (with the Navigation Map Page displayed).
EIS
2) Highlight the ‘Measure Bearing/Distance’ field.
3) Press the ENT Key. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present position.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Move the Joystick to place the reference pointer at the desired location. The bearing and distance are displayed
at the top of the map. Elevation at the current pointer position is also displayed. Pressing the ENT Key changes
the starting point for measuring.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance option, press the Joystick; or select ‘Stop Measuring’ from the Page
Menu and press the ENT Key.
Measurement
Information
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pointer Lat/Long
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Measurement Line
INDEX
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Measuring Bearing and Distance
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TOPOGRAPHY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
All navigation maps can display various shades of topography colors representing land elevation, similar
to aviation sectional charts. Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following
procedures.
Navigation Map
Topographic Data
Navigation Map
Black Background
EIS
TOPO Off
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
TOPO Softkey
Not Enabled
TOPO Softkey
Enabled
TOPO On
Figure 5-14 Navigation Map - Topographic Data
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Displaying/removing topographic data on all pages displaying navigation maps:
1) Press the MAP Softkey (the INSET Softkey for the PFD Inset Map).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the TOPO Softkey.
3) Press the TOPO Softkey again to remove topographic data from the Navigation Map. When topographic data
is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data (TOPO DATA) using the Navigation Map Page Menu:
AFCS
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘TOPO DATA’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
TOPO DATA
On/Off
TOPO DATA
Range
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-15 Navigation Map Setup Menu - TOPO DATA Setup
The topographic data range is the maximum map range on which topographic data is displayed.
NOTE: Since the PFD Inset Map is much smaller than the MFD navigation maps, items are removed on the
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PFD Inset Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the Map Setup pages (e.g., a setting
of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD navigation maps, while the PFD Inset Map
removes the same item at 50 nm).
Selecting a topographical data range (TOPO DATA):
AFCS
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘TOPO DATA’ range field. TOPO ranges are from 500 ft to 2000 nm.
6) To change the TOPO range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
APPENDICES
7) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
INDEX
In addition, the Navigation Map can display a topographic scale (located in the lower right hand side of the
map) showing a scale of the terrain elevation and current elevation values.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Maximum Displayed Elevation
Minimum Displayed Elevation
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Aircraft Altitude (MSL)
Range of
Displayed
Elevations
Ground Elevation at Pointer
Location (only visible when
Pointer is displayed)
EIS
Figure 5-16 Navigation Map - TOPO SCALE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Displaying/removing the topographic scale (TOPO SCALE):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group and press the ENT Key.
4) Highlight the ‘TOPO SCALE’ field.
5) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
TOPO SCALE
On/Off
APPENDICES
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INDEX
Figure 5-17 Navigation Map Setup Menu - TOPO SCALE Setup
161
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
MAP SYMBOLS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
This section discusses the types of land and aviation symbols that can be displayed. Each listed type of symbol
can be turned on or off, and the maximum range to display each symbol can be set. The decluttering of the
symbols from the map using the DCLTR Softkey is also discussed.
LAND SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the land menu:
Land Symbols
EIS
(Text label size can be None, Small, Medium (Med), or Large
(Lrg))
Symbol
Latitude/Longitude (LAT/LON)
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Off
2000
Interstate Highway (FREEWAY)
300
800
International Highway (FREEWAY)
300
800
US Highway (NATIONAL HWY)
30
80
State Highway (LOCAL HWY)
15
30
8
15
Railroads (RAILROAD)
15
30
LARGE CITY (> 200,000)
800
1500
MEDIUM CITY (> 50,000)
100
200
SMALL CITY (> 5,000)
States and Provinces (STATE/PROV)
20
800
50
1500
Rivers and Lakes (RIVER/LAKE)
200
500
USER WAYPOINT
150
300
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Highways and Roads
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Local Road (LOCAL ROAD)
N/A
INDEX
APPENDICES
Table 5-1 Land Symbol Information
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AVIATION SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the aviation menu:
Aviation Symbols
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
2000
500
150
300
50
100
3
Off
15
20
100
30
Non-directional Beacon (NDB WAYPOINT)
15
30
VOR (VOR WAYPOINT)
150
300
VRP (VRP WAYPOINT)
15
30
Class B Airspace/TMA (CLASS B/TMA)
200
500
Class C Airspace/TCA (CLASS C/TCA)
200
500
Class D Airspace (CLASS D)
150
300
Restricted Area (RESTRICTED)
200
500
Military Operations Area [MOA(MILITARY)]
200
500
Other/Air Defense Interdiction Zone (OTHER/ADIZ)
200
500
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
500
2000
See Airports, NAVAIDs
See Additional Features
N/A
APPENDICES
2000
250
Active Flight Plan Waypoint (ACTIVE FPL WPT)
Large Airports (LARGE APT) (Longest Runway ≥ 8100 ft)
Medium Airports (MEDIUM APT) (8100 ft > Longest
Runway ≥ 5000 ft)
Small Airports (SMALL APT) (Longest Runway < 5000 ft)
(Medium Airport if it has a tower frequency)
Taxiways (SAFETAXI)
Runway Extension (RWY EXTENSION)
Intersection (INT WAYPOINT)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2000
AFCS
2000
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Non-active Flight Plan Leg (ACTIVE FPL)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2000
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2000
EIS
Active Flight Plan Leg (ACTIVE FPL)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
(Text label size can be None, Small, Medium (Med),
or Large (Lrg))
Table 5-2 Aviation Symbol Information
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYMBOL SETUP
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
All pages with maps can display land symbols (roads, lakes, borders, etc). Land symbols can be removed
totally (turned off).
Displaying/removing all land symbols:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The Page Menu is displayed and the cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Group Menu is displayed and the cursor flashes on the ‘Map’ option.
EIS
3) Highlight the ‘LAND DATA’ field.
4) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
LAND DATA
On/Off
AFCS
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map Setup Menu - LAND DATA Setup
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The label size (TEXT) sets the size at which labels appear on the display (none, small, medium, and large).
The range (RNG) sets the maximum range at which items appear on the display.
Selecting a ‘Land’ or ‘Aviation’ group item text size and range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
APPENDICES
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Land’ or ‘Aviation’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Select the desired land option.
6) Select the desired text size.
INDEX
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected size.
8) Select the desired range.
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9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected range.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Maximum Display Range
EIS
Text Label Size
(None, Small, Med, or Lrg)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-19 Navigation Map Setup Menu - LAND GROUP Setup
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Text Label Size
(None, Small, Med, or Lrg)
Maximum Display Range
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-20 Navigation Map Setup Menu - AVIATION GROUP Setup
APPENDICES
NOTE: Since the PFD Inset Map is much smaller than the MFD navigation maps, items are removed on the
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INDEX
PFD Inset Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the Map Setup pages (e.g., a setting
of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD navigation maps, while the PFD Inset Map
removes the same item at 50 nm).
165
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
MAP DECLUTTER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The declutter feature allows the pilot to progressively step through four levels of removing map information.
The declutter level is displayed in the DCLTR Softkey and next to the Declutter Menu Option.
Declutter Level
EIS
DCLTR Softkey
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 5-21 Navigation Map - Declutter Level Indications
Decluttering the map:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Press the DCLTR Softkey with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The current declutter level is shown. With
each softkey selection, another level of map information is removed.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed.
2) Select ‘Declutter’. The current declutter level is shown.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the ENT Key.
Decluttering the PFD Inset Map:
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
2) Press the DCLTR Softkey. The current declutter level is shown. With each selection, another level of map
information is removed.
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OVERVIEW
Table 5-3 lists the items that are decluttered at each map detail level. The ‘X’ represents map items
decluttered for each level of detail.
Item
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Data Link Radar Precipitation
Data Link Lightning
Graphical METARs
Airports
Safe Taxi
Runway Labels
TFRs
Restricted
MOA (Military)
User Waypoints
Latitude/Longitude Grid
NAVAIDs (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Intersections (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Class B Airspaces/TMA
Class C Airspaces/TCA
Class D Airspaces
Other Airspaces/ADIZ
Obstacles
Cities
Roads
Railroads
State/Province Boundaries
Declutter-1 Declutter-2 Declutter-3
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
AFCS
Table 5-3 Navigation Map Items Decluttered for each Detail Level
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AIRWAYS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
This airways discussion is based upon the North American airway structure. The airway structure in places
other than North America vary by location, etc. and are not discussed in this book. Low Altitude Airways
(Victor Airways or T-Routes) start 1,200 feet above ground level (AGL) and extend up to 18,000 feet mean sea
level (MSL). Low Altitude Airways are designated with a “V” or a “T” before the airway number.
High Altitude Airways (Jet Routes or Q-Routes) start at 18,000 feet MSL and extend upward to 45,000 feet
MSL. High Altitude Airways are designated with a “J” or a “Q” before the airway number.
EIS
Low Altitude Airways are drawn in gray (the same shade used for roads). High Altitude Airways are drawn
in green. When both types of airways are displayed, High Altitude Airways are drawn on top of Low Altitude
Airways.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When airways are selected for display on the map, the airway waypoints (VORs, NDBs and Intersections) are
also displayed.
Low Altitude
Airway
(T-Route)
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Low Altitude
Airway
(Victor Airway)
High Altitude
Airway
(Q-Route)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
High Altitude
Airway
(Jet Route)
APPENDICES
Figure 5-22 Airways on MFD Navigation Map
Airways may be displayed on the map at the pilot’s discretion using either a combination of AIRWAY Softkey
presses, or menu selections using the MENU Key from the Navigation Map Page. The Airway range can also be
programmed to only display Airways on the MFD when the map range is at or below a specific number.
Displaying/removing airways:
INDEX
1) Press the MAP Softkey.
2) Press the AIRWAYS Softkey. Both High and Low Altitude Airways are displayed.
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OVERVIEW
3) Press the softkey again to display Low Altitude Airways only.
4) Press the softkey again to display High Altitude Airways only.
5) Press the softkey again to remove High Altitude Airways. No airways are displayed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ group, and press the ENT Key.
EIS
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘AIRWAYS’ field.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Off’, ‘All’, ‘LO Only’, or ‘HI Only’, and press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airway Display Selection
Low Altitude Airway Range
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Off, All, LO Only, HI Only
High Altitude Airway Range
Figure 5-23 Navigation Map Setup Menu - AIRWAYS Setup
The airway range is the maximum map range on which airways are displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selecting an airway range (LOW ALT AIRWAY or HI ALT AIRWAY):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ group, and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
4) Highlight the ‘LOW ALT AIRWAY’ or ‘HI ALT AIRWAY’ range field.
5) To change the range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
6) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
The following range items are configurable on the airways menu:
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Low Altitude Airway (LOW ALT AIRWAY)
200
500
High Altitude Airway (HI ALT AIRWAY)
300
500
APPENDICES
Airway Type
INDEX
Table 5-4 Airway Range Information
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
TRACK VECTOR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Navigation Map can display a track vector that is useful in minimizing track angle error. The track vector
is a solid cyan line segment extended to a predicted location. The track vector look-ahead time is selectable (30
sec, 60 sec (default), 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min) and determines the length of the track vector. The track
vector shows up to 90 degrees of a turn for the 30 and 60 second time settings. It is always a straight line for
the 2 min, 5 min, 10 min and 20 min settings.
EIS
Track Vector
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-24 Navigation Map -Track Vector
Displaying/removing the track vector:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Highlight the ‘TRACK VECTOR’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’. Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the look
ahead time field. Use the FMS Knob to select the desired time. Press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Wind Vector On/Off
APPENDICES
Nav Range Ring On/Off
SVT Field of View On/Off
INDEX
Selected Altitude Arc On/Off
Track Vector
- On/Off
- Look Ahead Time
Fuel Range
- On/Off
- Fuel Reserve Time
Figure 5-25 Navigation Map Setup Menu - WIND VECTOR On/Off, NAV RANGE RING On/Off, FIELD OF VIEW On/Off,
SEL ALT ARC On/Off, TRACK VECTOR Setup, FUEL RNG (RSV) Setup
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OVERVIEW
WIND VECTOR
Wind Direction
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The map displays a wind vector arrow in the upper right-hand portion of the screen. Wind vector information
is displayed as a white arrow pointing in the direction in which the wind is moving for wind speeds greater than
or equal to 1 kt.
Wind Speed
Figure 5-26 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
EIS
NOTE: The wind vector is not displayed until the aircraft is moving. It is not displayed on the Waypoint
Information pages.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Displaying/removing the wind vector:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘WIND VECTOR’ field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
NAV RANGE RING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Nav Range Ring shows the direction of travel (ground track) on a rotating compass card. The range is
determined by the map range. The range is 1/4 of the map range (e.g., 37.5 nm on a 150 nm map).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Range (radius)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Nav Range Ring
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-27 Navigation Map - Nav Range Ring
NOTE: The Nav Range Ring is not displayed on the Waypoint Information pages, Nearest pages, or Direct-to
Window map.
AFCS
Displaying/removing the Nav Range Ring:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘NAV RANGE RING’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
APPENDICES
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
NOTE: The Nav Range Ring is referenced to either magnetic or true north, based on the selection on the AUX
INDEX
- System Setup Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FUEL RANGE RING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The map can display a fuel range ring which shows the remaining flight distance. A dashed green circle
indicates the selected range to reserve fuel. A solid green circle indicates the total endurance range. If only
reserve fuel remains, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle.
Total Endurance Range
Time to Reserve Fuel
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Range to Reserve Fuel
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-28 Navigation Map - Fuel Range Ring
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Displaying/removing the fuel range ring and selecting a fuel range time:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
AFCS
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘FUEL RNG (RSV)’ field.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Highlight the fuel reserve time field. This time should be set to the amount of flight time equal to the amount
of fuel reserve desired.
APPENDICES
8) To change the reserve fuel time, enter a time (00:00 to 23:59; hours:minutes). The default setting is 00:45
minutes.
9) Press the ENT Key.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FIELD OF VIEW (SVT)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The map can display the boundaries of the PFD Synthetic Vision System (SVT) lateral field of view. The field
of view is shown as two dashed lines forming a V shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map. This is only
available if SVT is installed on the aircraft.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Lateral Field
of View
Boundaries
Figure 5-29 Navigation Map - Field of View
Displaying/removing the field of view:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
AFCS
5) Highlight the ‘FIELD OF VIEW’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SELECTED ALTITUDE INTERCEPT ARC
The map can display the location along the current track where the aircraft will intercept the selected altitude.
The location will be shown as a cyan arc when the aircraft is actually climbing or descending.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Range to
Altitude Arc
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-30 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
Displaying/removing the selected altitude intercept arc:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘SEL ALT ARC’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.3 WAYPOINTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Waypoints are predetermined geographical positions (internal database) or pilot-entered positions, and are
used for all phases of flight planning and navigation.
Communication and navigation frequencies can be tuned “automatically” from various Waypoint Information
(WPT) pages, Nearest (NRST) pages, and the Nearest Airports Window (on PFD). This auto-tuning feature
simplifies frequency entry over manual tuning. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS section for details on autotuning.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Waypoints can be selected by entering the ICAO identifier, entering the name of the facility, or by entering
the city name. See the System Overview section for detailed instructions on entering data in the G1000. As a
waypoint identifier, facility name, or location is entered, the G1000’s Spell’N’Find™ feature scrolls through the
database, displaying those waypoints matching the characters which have been entered to that point. A direct-to
navigation leg to the selected waypoint can be initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key on any of the waypoint
pages.
Identifier Entry Field
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
City Entry Field
Facility
Entry Field
Entered Waypoint on
Map
Map Area Showing
Entered Waypoint
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Waypoint Identifier
- Type (symbol)
- Facility Name
- City
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
If duplicate entries exist for the entered facility name or location, additional entries may be viewed by continuing
to turn the small FMS Knob during the selection process. If duplicate entries exist for an identifier, a Duplicate
Waypoints Window is displayed when the ENT Key is pressed.
INDEX
Figure 5-31 Waypoint Information Window
APPENDICES
AFCS
Waypoint Location
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Identifier with
Duplicates
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Duplicate
Waypoints
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Duplicate Message
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AIRPORTS
Figure 5-32 Waypoint Information Window - Duplicate Identifier
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: ‘North Up’ orientation on the Airport Information Page cannot be changed; the pilot needs to be
aware of proper orientation if the Navigation Map orientation is different from the Airport Information Page
Map.
AFCS
The Airport Information Page is the first page in WPT group and allows the pilot to view airport information,
load frequencies (COM, NAV, and lighting), review runways, and review instrument procedures that may be
involved in the flight plan. See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information on loading frequencies
(auto-tuning). After engine startup, the Airport Information Page defaults to the airport where the aircraft is
located. After a flight plan has been loaded, it defaults to the destination airport. On a flight plan with multiple
airports, it defaults to the airport which is the current active waypoint.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the Airport Information
Page displays airport information in three boxes labeled ‘AIRPORT’, ‘RUNWAYS’, and ‘FREQUENCIES’. For
airports with multiple runways, information for each runway is available. This information is viewed on the
Airport Information Page by pressing the INFO softkey until INFO-1 is displayed.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Airport Information
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Airport
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
- Lat/Long/Elev
- Fuel Available
- Time Zone (UTC Offset)
Runway Information
EIS
- Designation
- Length/Width/Surface
- Lighting Available
Airport/Runway
Diagram
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Identification
- Frequency
- Availability
- Additional Information
Softkeys
Figure 5-33 Airport Information Page
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the Airport Information Page:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Usage type: Public, Military, Private, or Heliport
• Runway surface type: Hard, Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft, Unknown, or Water
• Runway lighting type: No Lights, Part Time, Full Time, Unknown, or PCL Freq (for pilot-controlled
lighting)
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
• COM Availability: TX (transmit only), RX (receive only), PT (part time), i (additional information available)
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Airport Information
Airport Directory
Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Softkeys
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-34 Airport Directory Page Example
The airport directory information is viewed on the Airport Directory Page by pressing the INFO softkey
until INFO-2 is displayed. The following are types of airport directory information shown (if available) on the
Airport Directory Page:
• Services Available: Category,
Specific Service
• Notes: Airport Notes
• Pilot Controlled Lighting:
High/Med/Low Clicks/Second
• FBO:
Type, Frequencies,
Services, Fees, Fuel, Credit
Cards, Phone/Fax Numbers
APPENDICES
• Transportation:
Ground
Transportation Type Available
• Approach: Approach Facility
Name, Frequency, Frequency
Parameter
• Instrument
Approaches:
Published
Approach,
Frequency
• NAVAIDS: Type, Identifier,
Frequency, Radial, Distance
• Noise:
Noise Abatement
Procedures
• Charts: Low Altitude Chart
Number
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Frequencies: Type/Frequency
• Runway: Headings, Length,
Width, Obstructions, Surface
• Obstructions: General Airport
Obstructions
• Special
Operations
at
Airport
AFCS
• Hours: Facility Hours, Light
Hours, Tower Hours, Beacon
Hours
• Location: Sectional, Magnetic
Variation
• Traffic Pattern Altitudes
(TPA): Aircraft Class/Altitude
• Weather:
Service Type,
Frequency, Phone Number
• Flight Service Station (FSS):
FSS Name, Phone Numbers
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Airport:
Identifier, Site
Number, Name, City, State
• Phones: Phone/Fax Numbers
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Selecting an airport for review by identifier, facility name, or location:
1) From the Airport Information Page, press the FMS Knob.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Selecting a runway:
1) With the Airport Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
EIS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘RUNWAYS’ Box, on the runway designator.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired runway (if more than one) for the selected airport.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) To remove the flashing cursor, press the FMS Knob.
Viewing a destination airport:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
From the Airport Information Page press the MENU Key. Select ‘View Destination Airport’. The Destination
Airport is displayed.
The Airport Frequencies Box uses the descriptions and abbreviations listed in the following table:
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Communication Frequencies
Approach * Control
Pre-Taxi
Arrival *
CTA *
Radar
ASOS
Departure * Ramp
ATIS
Gate
Terminal *
AWOS
Ground
TMA *
Center
Helicopter
Tower
Class B *
Multicom
TRSA *
Class C *
Other
Unicom
Clearance
Navigation Frequencies
ILS
LOC
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
* May include Additional Information
Table 5-5 Airport Frequency Abbreviations
APPENDICES
A departure, arrival, or approach can be loaded using the softkeys on the Airport Information Page. See the
Procedures section for details. METARs or TAFs applicable to the selected airport can be selected for display (see
the Hazard Avoidance section for details about weather).
INDEX
The G1000 provides a NRST Softkey on the PFD, which gives the pilot quick access to nearest airport
information (very useful if an immediate landing is required). The Nearest Airports Window displays a list
of up to 25 nearest airports (three entries can be displayed at one time). If there are more than three they are
displayed in a scrollable list. If there are no nearest airports available, “NONE WITHIN 200NM” is displayed.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Bearing/Distance to Airport
Airport Identifier/
Type
Approach Available
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Length of Longest
Runway
COM Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Additional Airports
(within 200 nm)
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NRST Softkey
Figure 5-35 Nearest Airports Window on PFD
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pressing the ENT Key displays the PFD Airport Information Window for the highlighted airport. Pressing
the ENT Key again returns to the Nearest Airports Window with the cursor on the next airport in the list.
Continued presses of the ENT Key sequences through the information pages for all airports in the Nearest
Airports list.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Airport Information
- ID/Type/City
- Facility
Airport Information
Airport Information
AFCS
- Usage/Time/Elev
- Region
- Lat/Long
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-36 Airport Information Window on PFD
APPENDICES
The Nearest Airports Page on the MFD is first in the group of NRST pages because of its potential use in
the event of an in-flight emergency. In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and
surrounding area, the page displays nearest airport information in five boxes labeled ‘NEAREST AIRPORTS’,
‘INFORMATION’, ‘RUNWAYS’, ‘FREQUENCIES’, and ‘APPROACHES’.
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The selected airport is indicated by a white arrow, and a dashed white line is drawn on the navigation map
from the aircraft position to the nearest airport. Up to five nearest airports, one runway, up to five frequencies,
and up to five approaches are visible at one time. If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled.
If there are no items for display in a boxed area, text indicating that fact is displayed. The currently selected
airport remains in the list until it is unselected.
181
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Navigation Map Showing Nearest Airport
Nearest Airport
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Nearest Airports
- ID/Type
- Bearing/Distance
Airport Information
EIS
- Facility/City/Elevation
Runway Information
- Designation/Surface
- Length/Width
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Approaches Available
LD APR Softkey (only
available if an approach is
highlighted)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Window Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-37 Nearest Airport Page
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the PFD:
AFCS
1) Press the NRST Softkey to display the Nearest Airports Window. Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the airport identifier with the FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to display the Airport Information
Window.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) To return to the Nearest Airports Window press the ENT Key (with the cursor on ‘BACK’) or press the CLR
Key. The cursor is now on the next airport in the nearest airports list. (Repeatedly pressing the ENT Key
moves through the airport list, alternating between the Nearest Airports Window and the Airport Information
Window.)
APPENDICES
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the MFD:
INDEX
4) Press the CLR Key or the NRST Softkey to close the PFD Nearest Airports Window.
3) Press the APT Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Airport Window’ and
press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘NEAREST AIRPORTS’ Box. The first airport in the nearest airports
list is highlighted.
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the NRST page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Nearest Airports Page (it is the first page of the group, so it may already
be selected). If there are no Nearest Airports available, “NONE WITHIN 200 NM” is displayed.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport. (Pressing the ENT Key also moves to the next airport.)
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Viewing runway information for a specific airport:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) With the Nearest Airports Page displayed, press the RNWY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select
Runway Window’; and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘RUNWAYS’ Box.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
EIS
See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for frequency selection and the Procedures section for approaches.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Nearest Airports Box on the System Setup Page defines the minimum runway length and surface type
used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on the MFD Nearest Airports Page. A minimum
runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways or runways that are
not appropriately surfaced from being displayed. Default settings are 0 feet (or meters) for runway length and
“HARD/SOFT” for runway surface type.
Selecting nearest airport surface matching criteria:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the runway surface field in the Nearest Airports Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (ANY, HARD ONLY, HARD/SOFT).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Selecting nearest airport minimum runway length matching criteria:
AFCS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the minimum length field in the Nearest Airport Box.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the minimum runway length (zero to 25,000 feet) and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
APPENDICES
Nearest Airport Criteria
- Type of Runway Surface
- Minimum Runway Length
INDEX
Figure 5-38 System Setup Page - Nearest Airport Selection Criteria
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INTERSECTIONS
NOTE: The VOR displayed on the Intersection Information Page is the nearest VOR, not necessarily the VOR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
used to define the intersection.
The Intersection Information Page is used to view information about intersections. In addition to displaying
a map of the currently selected intersection and surrounding area, the Intersection Information Page displays
intersection information in three boxes labeled ‘INTERSECTION’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘NEAREST VOR’.
EIS
Selected Intersection
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Intersection Identifier
Intersection Info
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Region
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR Info
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Intersection
Figure 5-39 Intersection Information Page
Selecting an intersection:
APPENDICES
1) With the Intersection Information Page displayed, enter an identifier in the Intersection Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
INDEX
Or:
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OVERVIEW
1) With the Nearest Intersections Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest Intersection Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Nearest Intersections Page can be used to quickly find an intersection close to the flight path. In addition
to displaying a map of the surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest intersections in
three boxes labeled ‘NEAREST INT’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘REFERENCE VOR’.
EIS
The selected intersection is indicated by a white arrow. Up to fifteen Intersections are visible at a time. If
there are more than can be shown, the list can be scrolled. If there are no items for display, text indicating that
fact is displayed.
NOTE: The list only includes waypoints that are within 200 nm.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Nearest Intersection
Navigation Map Showing Nearest Intersection
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Intersection Information
- Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to
intersection from
aircraft position
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Intersection Lat/Long
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Reference VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- VOR Frequency
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
APPENDICES
Figure 5-40 Nearest Intersections Page
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
NDBS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The NDB Information Page is used to view information about NDBs. In addition to displaying a map of
the currently selected NDB and surrounding area, the page displays NDB information in four boxes labeled
‘NDB’, ‘INFORMATION’, ‘FREQUENCY’, and ‘NEAREST AIRPORT’.
Selected NDB
Navigation Map Showing Selected NDB
NDB Identifier/Type
EIS
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
NDB Information
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Type
- Region
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Nearest Airport Info
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-41 NDB Information Page
NOTE: Compass locator (LOM, LMM): a low power, low or medium frequency radio beacon installed in
conjunction with the instrument landing system. When LOM is used, the locator is at the Outer Marker;
when LMM is used, the locator is at the Middle Marker.
APPENDICES
Selecting an NDB:
1) With the NDB Information Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the NDB, or the city in which it’s
located in the NDB Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
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OVERVIEW
1) With the Nearest NDB Page displayed, press the FMS Knob
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest NDB Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Nearest NDB Page can be used to quickly find a NDB close to the flight path. In addition to displaying
a map of the surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest NDBs in three boxes labeled
‘NEAREST NDB’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘FREQUENCY’.
Navigation Map Showing Selected NDB
EIS
A white arrow before the NDB identifier indicates the selected NDB. Up to fifteen NDBs are visible at a time.
If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. The list only includes waypoints that are within
200nm. If there are no NDBs in the list, text indicating that there are no nearest NDBs is displayed. If there are
no nearest NDBs in the list, the information and frequency fields are dashed.
Nearest NDB
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NDB Identifier/Symbol
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Bearing/Distance to
NDB from aircraft
position
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
NDB Information
- Facility Name/City
- Type
- Lat/Long
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NDB Frequency
APPENDICES
Figure 5-42 Nearest NDB Page
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
VORS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The VOR Information Page can be used to view information about VOR and ILS signals (since ILS signals
can be received on a NAV receiver), or to quickly auto-tune a VOR or ILS frequency. Localizer information
cannot be viewed on the VOR Information Page. If a VOR station is combined with a TACAN station it is
listed as a VORTAC on the VOR Information Page and if it includes only DME, it is displayed as VOR-DME.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected VOR and surrounding area, the VOR Information
Page displays VOR information in four boxes labeled ‘VOR’, ‘INFORMATION’, ‘FREQUENCY’, and ‘NEAREST
AIRPORT’.
EIS
Selected VOR
Navigation Map Showing Selected VOR
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
VOR Identifier/Type
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
VOR Information
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Region
- Lat/Long
VOR Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
Figure 5-43 VOR Information Page
APPENDICES
The VOR classes used in the VOR information box are: LOW ALTITUDE, HIGH ALTITUDE, and
TERMINAL.
Selecting a VOR:
1) With the VOR Information Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the VOR, or the city in which it’s
located in the VOR Box.
INDEX
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1) With the Nearest VOR Page displayed, press the FMS Knob or press the VOR Softkey.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VOR Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Or:
1) With the Nearest VOR Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Select VOR Window’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VOR Box.
EIS
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Nearest VOR Page can be used to quickly find a VOR station close to the aircraft. Also, a NAV frequency
from a selected VOR station can be loaded from the Nearest VOR Page. In addition to displaying a map of
the surrounding area, the Nearest VOR Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VOR stations in three
boxes labeled ‘NEAREST VOR’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘FREQUENCY’. The list only includes waypoints that
are within 200 nm.
Nearest VOR
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
A white arrow before the VOR identifier indicates the selected VOR. Up to fifteen VORs are visible at a time.
If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. If there are no VORs in the list, text indicating
that there are no nearest VORs is displayed. If there are no nearest VORs in the list, the information is dashed.
Navigation Map Showing Nearest VOR
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
VOR Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
from aircraft position
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
VOR Information
- Facility Name/City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Lat/Long
APPENDICES
VOR Frequency
INDEX
Figure 5-44 Nearest VOR Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
VRPS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The VRP Information Page is used to view information about visual reporting points (VRPs). In addition to
displaying a map of the currently selected VRP and surrounding area, the VRP Information Page displays VRP
information in two boxes labeled ‘VRP’ and ‘INFORMATION’’.
Selected VRP
Navigation Map Showing Selected VRP
VRP Identifier/Symbol
EIS
- VRP Name
VRP Information
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Country
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-45 VRP Information Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selecting a VRP:
1) With the VRP Information Page displayed, enter the identifier or the name of the VRP in the VRP Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest VRP Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VRP Box.
INDEX
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The Nearest VRP Page can be used to quickly find a VRP close to the aircraft. In addition to displaying a
map of the surrounding area, the Nearest VRP Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VRPs in two
boxes labeled ‘NEAREST VRP’ and ‘INFORMATION’. The list only includes VRPs that are within 200 nm.
Navigation Map Showing Nearest VOR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A white arrow before the VRP identifier indicates the selected VRP. Up to fifteen VRPs are visible at a time.
If there are more than can be shown, the list can be scrolled. If there are no VRPs in the list, text indicating
that there are no nearest VRPs is displayed. If there are no nearest VRPs in the list, the information is dashed.
Nearest VRP
EIS
VRP Identifier/Symbol
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
VRP Information
- VRP Name
- Country
- Lat/Long
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-46 Nearest VRP Page
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
USER WAYPOINTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G1000 can create and store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. User waypoints can be created from any
map page (except PFD Inset Map, AUX-Trip Planning Page, or Procedure Pages) by selecting a position on the
map using the Joystick, or from the User Waypoint Information Page by referencing a bearing/distance from an
existing waypoint, bearings from two existing waypoints, or latitude and longitude. Once a waypoint has been
created, it can be renamed, deleted, or moved. Temporary user waypoints are erased upon system power down.
Navigation Map Showing Selected User Waypoint
EIS
Selected User Waypoint
User Waypoint Info
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Identifier
- Temporary/Normal
- Waypoint Type
User Wpt Comment
Reference Wpt Info
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
User Waypoint List
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Identifier
- Comment
AFCS
# User Wpts Used
Softkeys
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-45 User Waypoint Information Page
Selecting a User Waypoint:
APPENDICES
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, enter the name of the User Waypoint, or scroll to the
desired waypoint in the User Waypoint List using the large FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
INDEX
1) With the Nearest User Waypoints Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest USR Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Navigation Map Showing Selected User Waypoint
Selected User Waypoint
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Nearest User Wpt List
- Identifier
- Bearing/Distance from
aircraft position
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
User Waypoint Info
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Comment
- Lat/Long
Reference Wpt Info
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-46 Nearest User Waypoint Page
CREATING USER WAYPOINTS
AFCS
User waypoints can be created from the User Waypoint Information Page in the following ways:
Creating user waypoints from the User Waypoint Information Page:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Press the NEW Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Create New User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The current aircraft position is the default location of the new waypoint.
4) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
APPENDICES
Select ‘RAD/RAD’ using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint identifiers
and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
INDEX
Select ‘RAD/DIS’ using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier, the
radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select ‘LAT/LON’ using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into the
INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
6) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to ‘TEMPORARY’ or ‘NORMAL’ by moving the cursor to
‘TEMPORARY’ and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Are you sure you want to create the new User Waypoint AAAAAA?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select ‘RAD/RAD’ using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint identifiers
and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Select ‘RAD/DIS’ using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier, the
radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Select ‘LAT/LON’ using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into the
INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to ‘TEMPORARY’ or ‘NORMAL’ by moving the cursor to
‘TEMPORARY’ and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
INDEX
Figure 5-47 User Waypoint Information Page Menu
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Creating user waypoints from map pages:
1) Press the Joystick to activate the panning function and pan to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key. The User Waypoint Information Page is displayed with the captured position.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: If the pointer has highlighted a map database feature, one of three things happens upon pressing
the ENT Key: 1) information about the selected feature is displayed instead of initiating a new waypoint,
2) a menu pops up allowing a choice between ‘Review Airspaces’ or ‘Create User Waypoint’, or 3) a new
waypoint is initiated with the default name being the selected map item.
EIS
3) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected name. The first reference waypoint box is highlighted.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Select ‘RAD/RAD’ using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint identifiers
and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Select ‘RAD/DIS’ using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier, the
radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Select ‘LAT/LON’ using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into the
INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to ‘TEMPORARY’ or ‘NORMAL’ by moving the cursor to
‘TEMPORARY’ and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AFCS
9) Press the GO BACK Softkey to return to the map page.
EDITING USER WAYPOINTS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Editing a user waypoint comment or location:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Select a user waypoint in the User Waypoint List, if required, and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
3) Move the cursor to the desired field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to make any changes.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Renaming user waypoints:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
2) Enter a new name.
1) Highlight a user waypoint in the User Waypoint List. Press the RENAME Softkey, or press the MENU Key and
select ‘Rename User Waypoint’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Do you want to rename the user waypoint AAAAAA to BBBBBB?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
EIS
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing the location of an existing waypoint to the aircraft present position:
1) Enter a waypoint name or select the waypoint in the User Waypoint List, then press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Use Present Position’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice. The new waypoint’s location is saved.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
A system generated comment for a user waypoint incorporates the reference waypoint identifier, bearing,
and distance. If a system generated comment has been edited, a new comment can be generated.
Resetting the comment field to the system generated comment:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Enter a waypoint name or select the waypoint in the User Waypoint List, then press the ENT Key.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Auto Comment’.
4) Press the ENT Key. The generated comment is based on the reference point used to define the waypoint.
AFCS
The default type of user waypoint (normal or temporary) can be changed using the user waypoint information
page menu. Temporary user waypoints are automatically deleted upon the next power cycle.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Changing the user waypoint storage duration default setting:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Move the cursor to select ‘Waypoint Setup’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Select ‘NORMAL’ or ‘TEMPORARY’ as desired, and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor and return to the User Waypoint Information Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DELETING USER WAYPOINTS
Deleting a single user waypoint:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List, or enter a waypoint in the User Waypoint field.
2) Press the DELETE Softkey or press the CLR Key. ‘Yes’ is highlighted in the confirmation window.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
EIS
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List, or enter a waypoint in the User Waypoint field.
2) Press the MENU Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Select ‘Delete User Waypoint’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: The option to ‘Delete All User Waypoints’ is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all user waypoints:
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete All User Waypoints’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.4 AIRSPACES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G1000 can display the following types of airspaces: Class B/TMA, Class C/TCA, Class D, Restricted, MOA
(Military), Other Airspace, Air Defense Interdiction Zone (ADIZ), and Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR).
Class D Airspace
EIS
MOA (Military)
Class B Airspace
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Restricted Area
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TFR
Alert Area
AFCS
Class C Airspace
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
ADIZ
APPENDICES
Warning Area
Figure 5-48 Airspaces
INDEX
The Nearest Airspaces Page, Airspace Alerts Window, and Airspace Alerts on the PFD provide additional
information about airspaces and the location of the aircraft in relationship to them.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The Airspace Alerts Box allows the pilot to turn the controlled/special-use airspace message alerts on or off.
This does not affect the alerts listed on the Nearest Airspaces Page or the airspace boundaries depicted on the
Navigation Map Page. It simply turns on/off the warning provided when the aircraft is approaching or near an
airspace.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below an airspace. For example,
if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/below an airspace, an alert message is
not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below an airspace and projected to enter it, the pilot
is notified with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
EIS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the altitude buffer field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Turning an airspace alert on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Airspace Alerts Box
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
- Airspace Altitude Buffer
- Alert On/Off
(Default Settings Shown)
DFLTS Softkey
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-49 System Setup Page - Airspace Alerts
Map ranges for the airspace boundaries are selected from the Aviation Group in the Map Setup Menu. See Table
5-2 for the default and maximum ranges for each type of airspace and the symbol used to define the airspace
area.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The Nearest Airspaces Page can be used to quickly find airspaces close to the flight path. In addition, a selected
frequency associated with the airspace can be loaded from the Nearest Airspaces Page. In addition to displaying
a map of airspace boundaries and surrounding area, the Nearest Airspaces Page displays airspace information in
four boxes labeled ‘AIRSPACE ALERTS’, ‘AIRSPACE, AGENCY’, ‘VERTICAL LIMITS’, and ‘FREQUENCIES’.
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Airspace 2
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Airspace 1
Airspace 3
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Airspace Alerts Info
- Name
- Proximity (Ahead, Inside,
Ahead < 2nm, Within 2nm)
- Time till Intercept (only if
Ahead or Ahead < 2nm)
EIS
Airspace/Agency Info
- Airspace Type
- Controlling Agency
Airspace Vertical Limits
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Ceiling
- Floor
Associated Frequencies
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Type
- Availability/Info
- Frequency
Softkeys
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-50 Nearest Airspaces Page
Airspace alerts and associated frequencies are shown in scrollable lists on the Nearest Airspaces Page. The
ALERTS and FREQ softkeys place the cursor in the respective list. The FREQ Softkey is enabled only if one or
more frequencies exist for a selected airspace.
AFCS
Selecting and viewing an airspace alert with its associated information:
1) Select the Nearest Airspaces Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the ALERTS Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Alerts Window’,
and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘AIRSPACE ALERTS’ Box.
3) Select the desired airspace.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Pressing the PFD MSG Softkey displays the message window on the PFD. The following airspace alerts are
displayed in the message window:
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead –
less than 10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and
ahead.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near –
less than 2 nm.
Comments
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft penetrates the airspace within 10
minutes.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Table 5-6 PFD Airspace Alert Messages
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Smart Airspace function de-emphasizes airspaces above or below the current aircraft altitude. The function
does not require the aircraft present position or flight path to enter the lateral boundaries of the airspace. If the
current aircraft altitude is within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace, the airspace boundary is
shown normally. If the current aircraft altitude is not within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace,
the airspace boundary is shown subdued.
APPENDICES
Smart Airspace Off
Figure 5-51 Smart Airspace
Smart Airspace On
Turning smart airspace on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘GROUP’ Box.
INDEX
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Aviation’ in the ‘GROUP’ Box and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘SMART AIRSPACE’ field in the Aviation Map Setup Window.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn smart airspace ON or counterclockwise to turn smart airspace OFF.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5.5 DIRECT-TO-NAVIGATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Direct-to method of navigation, initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key on either the MFD or PFD, is
quicker to use than a flight plan when the desire is to navigate to a single point such as a nearby airport.
Once a direct-to is activated, the G1000 establishes a point-to-point course line from the present position to the
selected direct-to destination. Course guidance is provided until the direct-to is replaced with a new direct-to or
flight plan, or cancelled.
EIS
A vertical navigation (VNV) direct-to creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the current altitude to a selected altitude at the direct-to waypoint. Vertical navigation is based on barometric
altitudes, not on GPS altitude, and is used for cruise and descent phases of flight.
The Direct-to Window allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation. The Direct-to Window displays
selected direct-to waypoint data on the PFD and the MFD.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Direct-to Point Info
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Identifier/Symbol/Region
- Facility Name
- City
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Map of Selected Point
Location of Destination
AFCS
- Bearing/Distance
Desired Course
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-52 Direct-to Window - MFD
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/City
- Facility Name
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Direct-to Point Info
- Bearing/Distance
- Desired Course
EIS
Activation Command
Figure 5-53 Direct-to Window - PFD
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Any waypoint can be entered as a direct-to destination from the Direct-to Window.
Entering a waypoint identifier, facility name, or city as a direct-to destination:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed (with the active flight plan wayoint as the default
selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it counter-clockwise brings
up the waypoint selection submenu - press the CLR Key to remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the
facility name, or city field and turn the small FMS Knob to begin entering a facility name or city. If duplicate
entries exist for the entered facility or city name, additional entries can be viewed by turning the small FMS
Knob during the selection process.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the direct-to.
AFCS
Any waypoint contained in the active flight plan can be selected as a direct-to waypoint from the Direct-to
Window, the Active Flight Plan Page, or the Active Flight Plan Window.
Waypoint Submenu
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Flight Plan Waypoints
- Nearest Airports
- Recent Waypoints
- User Waypoints
- Airway Waypoints
(only available when
active leg is part of an
airway)
INDEX
Figure 5-54 Waypoint Submenu
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting an active flight plan waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) While navigating an active flight plan, press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the
active flight plan waypoint as the default selection.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
3) Select the desired waypoint.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
EIS
Or:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, or the Active Flight Plan Window on the PFD.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Select the desired waypoint.
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Any NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoint can be selected as a direct-to destination in the Direct-to
Window.
Selecting a NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoint as a direct-to destination:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed (with the active flight plan destination as the
default selection or a blank destination if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of FPL waypoints (the FPL list is populated only
when navigating a flight plan, and the AIRWAY list is available only when the active leg is part of an airway).
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoints.
AFCS
4) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Direct-to Window can be displayed from any page and allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation.
If the direct-to is initiated from any page except the WPT pages, the default waypoint is the active flight plan
waypoint (if a flight plan is active) or a blank waypoint field. Direct-to requests on any WPT page defaults to the
displayed waypoint.
APPENDICES
Selecting any waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Select the page or window containing the desired waypoint type and select the desired waypoint.
2) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window with the selected waypoint as the direct-to
destination.
INDEX
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
4) Press ENT again to activate the direct-to.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
2) Select the desired airport (the nearest one is already selected).
1) Press the NRST Softkey on the PFD; or turn the FMS Knob to display the Nearest Airports Page and press the
FMS Knob.
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
EIS
Direct-to destinations may also be selected by using the pointer on the navigation map pages. If no airport,
NAVAID, or user waypoint exists at the desired location, a temporary waypoint named ‘MAPWPT’ is automatically
created at the location of the map arrow.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selecting a waypoint as a direct-to destination using the pointer:
1) From a navigation map page, press the Joystick to display the pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to place the pointer at the desired destination location.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) If the pointer is placed on an existing airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint, the waypoint name is highlighted.
4) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window with the selected point entered as the direct-to
destination.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Cancelling a Direct-to:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
3) With ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. If a flight plan is still active, the G1000 resumes
navigating the flight plan along the closest leg.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Page Menu
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
- Cancel Direct-To Navigation
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-55 Direct-to Window - Cancelling Direct-to Navigation
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When navigating a direct-to, the G1000 sets a direct great circle course to the selected destination. The course
to a destination can also be manually selected using the course field (‘COURSE’) on the Direct-to Window.
Selecting a manual direct-to course:
AFCS
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the destination field highlighted.
2) Highlight the course field.
3) Enter the desired course.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Reselecting the direct course from the current position:
APPENDICES
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the destination field highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
3) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
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INDEX
A direct-to with altitude constraints creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the aircraft’s current altitude to the altitude of the direct-to waypoint. The altitude is reached at the waypoint,
or at the specified distance along the flight path if an offset distance has been entered. All VNV altitudes prior
to the direct-to destination are removed from the active flight plan upon successful activation of the direct-to.
207
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
All VNV altitudes following the direct-to waypoint are retained. See the section on Vertical Navigation for more
information regarding the use and purpose of VNV altitudes and offset distances.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Entering a VNV altitude and along-track offset for the waypoint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor over the ‘VNV’ altitude field.
3) Enter the desired altitude.
4) Press the ENT Key. The option to select MSL or AGL is now displayed.
EIS
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now flashing in the VNV offset distance field.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7) Enter the desired along-track distance before the waypoint.
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
9) Press the ENT Key to activate.
Removing a VNV altitude constraint:
2) Press the MENU Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) With ‘Clear Vertical Constraints’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Page Menu
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
- Clear Vertical Navigation
Constraints
Figure 5-56 Direct-to Window - Clearing Vertical Constraints
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5.6 FLIGHT PLANNING
Flight Plan Leg Type
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Flight planning on the G1000 consists of building a flight plan by entering waypoints one at a time, adding
waypoints along airways, and inserting departures, airways, arrivals, or approaches as needed. The G1000 allows
flight planning information to be entered from either the MFD or PFD. The flight plan is displayed on maps using
different line widths, colors, and types, based on the type of leg and the segment of the flight plan currently being
flown (departure, enroute, arrival, approach, or missed approach).
Symbol
EIS
Active non-heading Leg (TOPO On)
Active non-heading Leg (TOPO Off)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Active heading Leg (TOPO On)
Active heading Leg (TOPO Off)
Non-heading Leg in the current flight segment (TOPO On)
Non-heading Leg in the current flight segment (TOPO Off)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO On)
Heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO Off)
Non-heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO On)
Non-heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO Off)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Turn Anticipation Arc (TOPO On/TOPO Off)
AFCS
Table 5-7 Flight Plan Leg Symbols
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Up to 99 flight plans with up to 100 waypoints each can be created and stored in memory. One flight plan can
be activated at a time and becomes the active flight plan. The active flight plan is erased when the system is turned
off and overwritten when another flight plan is activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, departure,
or arrival, the G1000 uses the waypoint information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the
database is changed or updated, the G1000 automatically updates the information if the procedure has not been
modified. If an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is no longer available, the procedure is deleted from the
affected stored flight plan(s), and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A) advising that
one or more stored flight plans need to be edited.
APPENDICES
Whenever an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach,
departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan along with a header line describing the loaded
instrument procedure. The original enroute portion of the flight plan remains active (unless an instrument
procedure is activated) when the procedure is loaded.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When the database is updated, the airways need to be reloaded also. Each airway segment is reloaded from
the database given the entry waypoint, the airway identifier and the exit waypoint. This reloads the sequence of
waypoints between the entry and exit waypoints (the sequence may change when the database is updated). The
update of an airway can fail during this process. If that happens, the airway waypoints are changed to regular
(non-airway) flight plan waypoints, and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A).
The following could cause the airway update to fail:
• Airway identifier, entry waypoint or exit waypoint not found in the new database.
EIS
• Airway entry/exit waypoint is not an acceptable waypoint for the airway – either the waypoint is no longer on
the airway, or there is a new directional restriction that prevents it being used.
• Loading the new airway sequence would exceed the capacity of the flight plan.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT PLAN CREATION
There are three methods to create or modify a flight plan:
• Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• Active Flight Plan Window on the PFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Flight Plan Catalog Page on the MFD (create/modify a stored flight plan)
Active FPL Waypoint List
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Comment
- Procedure Header
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
AFCS
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Vertical Navigation Profile
- Active Vertical WPT Alt/ID
- Vertical Speed Target
- Flight Path Angle
- Vertical Speed Target
- Time to Top of Descent
- Vertical Deviation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Turn Anticipation
Arc
APPENDICES
Non-Active,
Flight Plan Leg
INDEX
Figure 5-57 Active Flight Plan Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Active Flight Plan Comment
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Waypoint List
- Waypoint ID
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Airway Identifier
EIS
Figure 5-58 Active Flight Plan Window on PFD
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Catalog Contents
- # Used
- # Empty
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Flight Plan List
- Comment
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selected Flight Plan Map
AFCS
Selected FPL Info
- Departure Waypoint
- Destination Waypoint
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Softkeys
Figure 5-59 Flight Plan Catalog Page
APPENDICES
The active flight plan is listed on the active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, and in the Active Flight Plan
Window on the PFD. It is the flight plan to which the G1000 is currently providing guidance, and is shown
on the navigation maps. Stored flight plans are listed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page, and are available for
activation (becomes the active flight plan).
NOTE: The system supports AFCS lateral guidance for all leg types (using NAV or FMS APPR mode). The
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INDEX
system does not support course deviation for any heading leg types (VA, VD, VI, VM, or VR).
211
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Creating an active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (only on MFD).
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window with a
waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
4) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
EIS
5) Repeat step numbers 3 and 4 to enter each additional flight plan waypoint.
6) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Creating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the NEW Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create New Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key to
display a blank flight plan for the first empty storage location.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key.
6) Repeat step numbers 4 and 5 to enter each additional flight plan waypoint.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
7) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to return to the Flight Plan Catalog Page. The new
flight plan is now in the list.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Flight plans can be imported from an SD Card or exported to an SD Card from the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Importing a Flight Plan from an SD Card
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Insert the SD card containing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight an empty or existing flight plan.
EIS
6) Press the IMPORT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Import Flight Plan”, and press the ENT Key.
If an empty slot is selected, a list of the available flight plans on the SD card will be displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Or:
If an existing flight plan is selected, an “Overwrite existing flight plan? OK or CANCEL” prompt is displayed.
Press the ENT Key to choose to overwrite the selected flight plan and see the list of available flight plans on the
SD card. If overwriting the existing flight plan is not desired, select “CANCEL” using the FMS Knob, press the
ENT Key, select another flight plan slot, and press the IMPORT Softkey again.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan for importing.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the import.
9) Press the ENT Key again to confirm the import.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
List of Flight Plans to Import &
Details for the Selected File
APPENDICES
Import/Export Softkeys
Import Successful
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INDEX
Figure 5-60 Flight Plan Import
213
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
NOTE: If the imported flight plan contains a waypoint with a name that duplicates the name of a waypoint
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
already stored on the system, the system compares the coordinates of the imported waypoint with those of
the existing waypoint. If the coordinates are different, the imported waypoint is automatically renamed by
adding characters to the end of the name.
Exporting a Flight Plan to an SD Card
1) Insert the SD card into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
EIS
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be exported.
6) Press the EXPORT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Export Flight Plan”.
7) If desired, change the name for the exported file by turning the large FMS Knob to the left to highlight the
name, then use the small and large FMS knobs to enter the new name, and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the export.
9) Press the ENT Key to confirm the export.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: The exported flight plan will not contain any procedures or airways.
Import/Export Softkeys
Stored Flight Plan to be Exported &
Exported Flight Plan Name
Export Successful
INDEX
Figure 5-61 Flight Plan Export
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDING WAYPOINTS TO AN EXISTING FLIGHT PLAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose the flight plan, select the
desired point of insertion, enter the waypoint, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. Flight plans are
limited to 100 waypoints (including waypoints within airways and procedures). If the number of waypoints in
the flight plan exceeds 100, the message “Flight plan is full. Remove unnecessary waypoints.” appears and the
new waypoint(s) are not added to the flight plan.
Stored Flight Plan Selected
EIS
- Memory Slot
- Comment
- Procedure Identifier
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Softkeys
AFCS
Figure 5-62 Stored Flight Plan Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Flight Plan Full Message
Figure 5-63 Active Flight Plan Page - FPL Full
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Adding a waypoint to a stored flight plan:
1) On the Flight Plan Catalog Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select “EDIT” and press the
ENT Key. The Stored Flight Plan Page is displayed.
4) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly in front of the
highlighted waypoint.
AFCS
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The new waypoint now exists in the flight plan.
NOTE: If the identifier entered in the Waypoint Information Window has duplicates, a Duplicate Waypoint
INDEX
APPENDICES
Window is displayed. Use the FMS Knob to select the correct waypoint.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Figure 5-64 Duplicate Waypoints Window
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Adding a waypoint to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Select the point in the flight plan before which to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly
in front of the highlighted waypoint.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
Creating and adding user waypoints to the active flight plan:
AFCS
1) Press the Joystick to activate the panning function on the Active Flight Plan Page and pan to the map location
of the desired user waypoint.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the LD WPT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The user
waypoint is created with a name of USRxxx (using the next available in sequence) and is added to the end of
the active flight plan.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
ADDING AIRWAYS TO A FLIGHT PLAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Airways can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose a flight plan (add the desired
airway entry point if not already in the flight plan), select the waypoint after the desired airway entry point,
select the airway, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. An airway can only be loaded if there is a
waypoint in the flight plan that is part of the desired airway and is not part of an arrival or approach procedure.
The G1000 also anticipates the desired airway and exit point based on loaded flight plan waypoints.
EIS
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airways Available at TOP
Airway Waypoint Sequence
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Preview of Selected Airway
Figure 5-65 Select Airway Page - Selecting Airway
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Adding an airway to a flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
INDEX
APPENDICES
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint after the desired airway entry point. If this waypoint is not
a valid airway entry point, a valid entry point should be entered at this time.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and press the LD AIRWY Softkey, or press the MENU Key and
select “Load Airway”. The Select Airway Page is displayed. The LD AIRWY Softkey or the “Load Airway” menu
item is available only when a valid airway entry waypoint has been chosen (the waypoint ahead of the cursor
position).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways are
shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is
highlighted.
7) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Selected Exit Point
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Airway Exit Points
Available
Preview of
Selected Airway
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-66 Select Airway Page - Selecting Exit Point
APPENDICES
INDEX
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219
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Inserted Airway Header
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
- Airway Identifier: [airway
identifier].[exit waypoint identifier]
(e.g., V4.SLN)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-67 Active Flight Plan Page - Airway Inserted
RESTRICTIONS ON ADDING AIRWAYS
Some airways have directional restrictions on all or part of the route. Airway “A2” in Europe has a directional
restriction over the whole route such that it can be flown only in the direction MTD-ABB-BNE-DEVAL.
AFCS
Airway “UR975” in North Africa has more complicated directional restrictions within the list of airway
waypoints AMANO, VAKOR, LIBRO, NELDA, DIRKA, GZO, KOSET, and SARKI:
• Starting from AMANO, the airway can be flown only to LIBRO.
• Starting from SARKI, the airway can be flown only to LIBRO.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Between NELDA and GZO, the airway can be flown in either direction.
In the US, airways that are “one-way” for specified hours of operation are not uncommon. These airways
are always bidirectional in the G1000 database.
INDEX
APPENDICES
The system only allows correct airway sequences to be inserted. If the pilot subsequently inverts the flight
plan, the system inverts the airway waypoint sequence and removes the airway header.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDING PROCEDURES TO A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G1000 allows the pilot to insert pre-defined instrument procedures from the navigation database into a
flight plan. The procedures are designed to facilitate routing of traffic leaving an airport (departure), arriving at
an airport (arrival), and landing at an airport (approach). See the procedures section for more details.
Flight Plan Name
EIS
Flight Plan Waypoint
List
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Softkeys
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- New Waypoint
- Load Departure
- Load Arrival
- Load Approach
- Activate Flight Plan
AFCS
Figure 5-68 Stored Flight Plan Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
DEPARTURE (DP)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can
be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
EIS
Departure Airport
Selected Departure
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Departures Available
at KMKC
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Departure Waypoint
Sequence
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Preview of Selected
Departure
AFCS
Figure 5-69 Departure Loading Page - Selecting the Departure
Loading a departure procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD DP Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Departure”, and press the ENT Key. The
Departure Loading Page is displayed.
APPENDICES
4) Select a departure. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a runway served by the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition for the selected departure. Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected departure procedure.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Departure Airport
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected Departure
Selected Runway
Selected Transition
EIS
Departure Transition Points
Available
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Preview of
Selected Departure
Selected Departure End
Point
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-70 Departure Loading Page - Selecting Transition
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Inserted Departure Header
AFCS
- Departure Identifier: [departure
airport]-[departure runway].
[departure transition].
[departure end point]
(e.g., KMKC-ALL.WLDCT2.SLN)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
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INDEX
Figure 5-71 Stored Flight Plan Page - Departure Inserted
223
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
ARRIVAL (STAR)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) is loaded at the destination airport in the flight plan. Only one arrival
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
EIS
Destination Airport
Selected Arrival
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Arrivals Available at KCOS
Selected Runway
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Preview of
Selected Arrival
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-72 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Arrival
Loading an arrival procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD STAR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Arrival”, and press the ENT Key. The Arrival
Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select an arrival. Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
5) Select a transition for the selected arrival. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway served by the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected arrival procedure.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Destination Airport
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected Arrival
Selected Transition
Transitions Available with
DBRY3
EIS
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Preview of
Selected Arrival
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-73 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Inserted Arrival Header
AFCS
- Arrival Identifier:
[arrival airport]-[arrival transition].
[arrival].[arrival runway]
(e.g., KCOS-TBE.DBRY3.ALL)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-74 Stored Flight Plan Page - Arrival Inserted
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
APPROACH (APPR)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has an approach available. Only one
approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route for a selected approach is defined by designating
transition waypoints.
EIS
Destination Airport
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Approaches Available at
KCOS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Approach
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Preview of
Selected
Approach
AFCS
Figure 5-75 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Approach
Loading an approach procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The
Approach Loading Page is displayed.
APPENDICES
4) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
INDEX
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the ‘APPROACH CHANNEL’ field.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
5) Select a transition for the selected approach. Press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
6) Press the ENT Key to load the selected approach procedure.
Destination Airport
EIS
Selected Approach
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selected Transition
Transitions Available with
Selected Approach
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Preview of Selected
Approach
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Load Approach?
Figure 5-76 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Inserted Approach Header
- Approach Identifier: [approach
airport].[runway and approach type]
(e.g., KCOS-RNAVGPS 35R LPV)
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 5-77 Stored Flight Plan Page - Approach Inserted
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT PLAN STORAGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G1000 can store up to 99 flight plans, numbered 1 through 99. The active flight plan is erased when
the G1000 is powered off or when another flight plan is activated. Details about each stored flight plan can be
viewed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page and on the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Viewing information about a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
EIS
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
4) The Flight Plan Information is displayed showing departure, destination, total distance, and enroute safe altitude
information for the selected Flight Plan.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Press the EDIT Softkey to open the Stored Flight Plan Page and view the waypoints in the flight plan.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
6) Press the FMS Knob to exit the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Flight Plan Name
(Comment)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selected Flight Plan
AFCS
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Stored Flight Plan Info
APPENDICES
- Departure Airport
- Destination Airport
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
INDEX
Figure 5-78 Stored Flight Plan Information
Stored FPL Editing
Softkeys
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Storing an active flight plan from the Active Flight Plan Page or the Active Flight Plan Window:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. The flight plan is stored in the next available position in the flight
plan list on the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
ACTIVATE A FLIGHT PLAN
EIS
Activating a stored flight plan erases the active flight plan and replaces it with the flight plan being activated.
Inverting a stored flight plan reverses the waypoint order, erases the active flight plan, and replaces it with the
flight plan being activated (the stored flight plan is not changed).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the ACTIVE Softkey; or press the ENT Key twice; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’,
and press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Stored Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
AFCS
3) Press the INVERT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key.
The ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
COPY A FLIGHT PLAN
The G1000 allows copying a flight plan into a new flight plan memory slot, allowing editing, etc., without
affecting the original flight plan. This can be used to duplicate an existing stored flight plan for use in creating
a modified version of the original stored flight plan.
APPENDICES
Copying a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
INDEX
3) Press the COPY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Copy Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Copy
to Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to copy the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
DELETE A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
Individual or all stored flight plans can be deleted from the G1000 memory.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Deleting a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the DELETE Softkey; press the CLR Key; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
EIS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: The option to delete all stored flight plans is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all stored flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Delete All’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all flight plans. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT PLAN EDITING
The active flight plan or any stored flight plan can be edited. The edits made to the active flight plan affect
navigation as soon as they are entered.
AFCS
DELETING THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
The G1000 allows deletion of an active flight plan. Deleting the active flight plan suspends navigation by
the G1000.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Deleting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete all waypoints in flight
plan?’ window is displayed.
INDEX
APPENDICES
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the active flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DELETING FLIGHT PLAN ITEMS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Individual waypoints, entire airways, and entire procedures can be deleted from a flight plan. Some waypoints
in the final approach segment (such as the FAF or MAP) can not be deleted individually. Attempting to delete
a waypoint that is not allowed results in a window displaying ‘Invalid flight plan modification.’
Deleting an individual waypoint from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint to be deleted.
EIS
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire airway from the active flight plan:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the white header of the airway to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name>?’ window is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
AFCS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the white header of the procedure to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
APPENDICES
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove <procedure>’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
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INDEX
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
231
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Deleting an individual waypoint from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be deleted.
EIS
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire airway from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the airway to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name>?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
AFCS
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
APPENDICES
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the procedure to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
INDEX
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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OVERVIEW
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove <procedure>’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
EIS
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
CHANGING FLIGHT PLAN COMMENTS (NAMES)
The comment field (or name) of each flight plan can be changed to something that is useful for identification.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Changing the active flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
3) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing a stored flight plan comment:
AFCS
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
APPENDICES
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
ALONG TRACK OFFSETS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A waypoint having an “along track offset” distance from an existing waypoint can be entered into a flight plan.
Along track offset waypoints lie along the path of the existing flight plan, and can be used to make the system
reach a specified altitude before or after reaching the specified flight plan waypoint. Offset distances can be
entered from 1 to 999 nm in increments of 1 nm. Entering a negative offset distance results in an along track
offset waypoint inserted before the selected waypoint, whereas entering a positive offset distance results in an
along track offset waypoint inserted after the selected waypoint. Multiple offset waypoints are allowed.
EIS
A waypoint must be adjacent to its parent waypoint in the flight plan, so the system limits the along-track
distance to less than the length of the leg before or after the selected waypoint. If the selected waypoint is the
active waypoint, the distance is limited to less than the distance to go to the active waypoint. Assigning an along
track offset to a leg with indeterminate length is not permitted. An along track offset is not allowed at or after
the final approach fix of an approach.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
An along track offset distance cannot be modified once entered. If the along track offset distance must be
changed, the existing along track offset waypoint must be deleted and a new one created with the new offset
distance.
AFCS
Along Track Offset
Waypoint and Distance
from Flight Plan Waypoint
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Along Track
Offset Waypoint
and Distance
Figure 5-79 Along Track Offset
Entering an along track offset distance:
INDEX
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the along track offset.
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3) Press the ATK OFST Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create ATK Offset Waypoint’, and
press the ENT Key.
4) Enter a positive or negative offset distance in the range of +/- 1 to 999 nm (limited by leg distances).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5) Press the ENT Key to create the offset waypoint.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
PARALLEL TRACK
EIS
The Parallel Track (PTK) feature allows creation of a parallel course offset of 1 to 50 nm left or right of the
current flight plan. When Parallel Track is activated, the course line drawn on the map pages shows the parallel
course, and waypoint names have a lower case “p” placed after the identifier.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Using direct-to, loading an approach, a holding pattern, or editing and activating the flight plan automatically
cancels Parallel Track. Parallel Track is also cancelled if a course change occurs greater than 120° or the parallel
tracks overlap as a result of the course change.
NOTE: Vertical navigation is unavailable while the Parallel Track feature is active.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Active Flight Plan prior to Parallel Track
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selecting Parallel Track
AFCS
Figure 5-80 Active Flight Plan Window - Selecting Parallel Track
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Activating parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
APPENDICES
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The Parallel Track Window is displayed
with the direction field highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Left’ or ‘Right’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘DISTANCE’ field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a distance from 1-99 nm and press the ENT Key. ‘ACTIVATE PARALLEL
TRACK’ is highlighted.
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INDEX
5) Press the ENT Key to activate parallel track. Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to cancel the parallel track
activation.
235
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Offset Direction
Offset Distance
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Activation Prompt
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-81 Parallel Track Window
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Original Track
Parallel Track Waypoints
AFCS
- TIFTO-p
- TOP-p
- ...
- LAA-p
Activating Parallel Track
affects the active flight plan
from the current position on
(will not affect an approach)
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Parallel Track
Figure 5-82 Parallel Track Active
INDEX
If the parallel track proposed by the offset direction and distance is not allowed by the system, the activation
prompt is displayed, but disabled. Parallel Track cannot be activated if a course is set using direct-to or if the
active leg is the first leg of the departure procedure. Attempting to activate parallel track with these conditions
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OVERVIEW
results in the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable Invalid Route Geometry’. If an approach leg is active the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track with the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable
Approach Leg Active’. If the offset direction and distance results in an unreasonable route geometry the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because of invalid geometry.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Subdued Prompt
EIS
(Unavailable)
Unavailable Status
Invalid
Geometry
Approach
Active
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-83 Parallel Track Unavailable
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If the active leg is not a track between two fixes (TF) or a course to a fix (DF) leg, the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because parallel track is not available for the
active leg type.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Offset Direction &
Distance Subdued
(Unavailable)
Cancel Prompt
AFCS
Active Status
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-84 Cancelling Parallel Track
APPENDICES
Cancelling parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The Parallel Track Window is displayed
with ‘CANCEL PARALLEL TRACK?’ highlighted.
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INDEX
3) Press the ENT Key.
237
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ACTIVATING A FLIGHT PLAN LEG
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Activating a flight plan leg:
The G1000 allows selection of a highlighted leg as the “active leg” (the flight plan leg which is currently
used for navigation guidance).
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the destination waypoint for the desired leg.
EIS
3) Press the ACT LEG Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Leg’, and press the ENT Key.
A confirmation window is displayed with ‘ACTIVATE’ highlighted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan leg. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press
the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Current
Active Leg
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Selected Destination
Waypoint
APPENDICES
Activate Leg Softkey
INDEX
Figure 5-85 Active Flight Plan Page - Selecting the Leg Destination Waypoint
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
New Active
Flight Plan Leg
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Confirmation Window
Figure 5-86 Active Flight Plan Page - New Active Leg
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
INVERTING A FLIGHT PLAN
Any flight plan may be inverted (reversed) for navigation back to the original departure point.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Inverting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. An ‘Invert Active Flight Plan?’
confirmation window is displayed.
AFCS
3) Select ‘OK’.
4) Press the ENT Key to invert and activate the active flight plan. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
APPENDICES
3) Press the INVERT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key.
The ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Information about flight plans can be viewed in more than one way. The active flight plan can be configured
to show cumulative distance over the length of the flight plan or the distance for each leg of the flight plan;
and the active flight plan can be viewed in a narrow or wide view. In the wide view, additional information is
displayed: Fuel Remaining (FUEL REM), Estimated Time Enroute (ETE), Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA), and
Bearing to the waypoint (BRG).
Switching between leg-to-leg waypoint distance and cumulative waypoint distance:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
EIS
2) Press the VIEW Softkey to display the CUM and LEG-LEG Softkeys.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Press the CUM Softkey to view cumulative waypoint distance, or press the LEG-LEG Softkey to view leg-to-leg
waypoint distance.
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
Active Flight Plan Cumulative Distance
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Active Flight Plan Leg to Leg Distance
WIDE Softkey,
NARROW Softkey,
LEG-LEG Softkey,
CUM Softkey
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 5-87 Active Flight Plan - Leg to Leg vs. Cumulative Distance
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OVERVIEW
Switching between wide and narrow view:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Press the VIEW Softkey to display the WIDE and NARROW Softkeys.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the WIDE Softkey to display the wide view, or press the NARROW Softkey to display the narrow view.
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
Active Flight Plan Narrow View
Active Flight Plan Wide View
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NARROW Softkey,
LEG-LEG Softkey,
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
WIDE Softkey,
CUM Softkey
Figure 5-88 Active Flight Plan - Wide vs. Narrow View
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
COLLAPSING AIRWAYS
The G1000 allows airways on the active flight plan to be collapsed or expanded from the Active Flight Plan
Page/Window. When airways have been collapsed, it is indicated on the airway heading.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When airways are collapsed, leg-to-leg computed values such as DIS or ETE shown for the exit waypoint
reflect the total of all the legs on the airway that have been hidden in the collapsed display. The DTK value is
inhibited because it is not usable in this context.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The Active Flight Plan Page always keeps the following three waypoints visible: “From” waypoint, “To”
waypoint, and “Next” waypoint. To prevent one or more of these waypoints from being hidden in a collapsed
airway segment, the airway segment that contains either the “To” or the “Next” waypoint is automatically
expanded. When an airway is loaded, airways are automatically expanded to facilitate flight plan review.
Q3.FEPOT Airway
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Collapsed View
Expanded View
Figure 5-89 Expanded/Collapsed Airways
Collapsing/expanding the airways in the active flight plan:
AFCS
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Collapse Airways’ or ‘Expand Airways’, and press the ENT Key. The airways are
collapsed/expanded.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
CLOSEST POINT OF FPL
‘Closest Point of FPL’ calculates the bearing and closest distance at which a flight plan passes a reference
waypoint, and creates a new user waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to a chosen reference
waypoint.
APPENDICES
Determining the closest point along the active flight plan to a selected waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Closest Point Of FPL’’, and press the ENT Key. A window appears with the
reference waypoint field highlighted.
INDEX
3) Enter the identifier of the reference waypoint and press the ENT Key. The G1000 displays the bearing (BRG) and
distance (DIS) to the closest point along the flight plan to the selected reference waypoint and creates a user
waypoint at this location. The name for the new user waypoint is derived from the identifier of the reference
waypoint.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
USER-DEFINED HOLDING PATTERNS
A holding pattern can be defined at any active flight plan waypoint, at the aircraft present position, or at a
direct-to waypoint.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Creating a user-defined hold at an active flight plan waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the hold.
EIS
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The HOLD AT window appears with
the course field highlighted.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘INBOUND’ or ‘OUTBOUND’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘TIME’ or ‘DIST’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘RIGHT’ or ‘LEFT’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC TIME), and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted to add the hold into the flight plan.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Hold At
Waypoint
Menu
Selection
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Waypoint
Selected
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
(INBOUND or OUTBOUND)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Leg Length Mode Button
(TIME or DIST))
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
(RIGHT or LEFT)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further Clearance Time
APPENDICES
Load Hold in Active Flight Plan
INDEX
Figure 5-90 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at an Active Flight Plan Waypoint
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OVERVIEW
Creating a user-defined hold at the aircraft present position:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Present Position’, and press the ENT Key. The HOLD AT window appears
with the course field highlighted.
3) If desired, use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘INBOUND’ or ‘OUTBOUND’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘TIME’ or ‘DIST’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
EIS
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘RIGHT’ or ‘LEFT’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC TIME), and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
9) Press the ENT Key while ‘ACTIVATE?’ is highlighted to create an Offroute Direct-to hold waypoint at the aircraft
present position and activate the hold.
Creating a user-defined hold at a direct-to waypoint:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press a Direct-to Key and set up the direct-to waypoint as desired, but select ‘HOLD?’ instead of ‘ACTIVATE?’
when finished (MFD or PFD).
2) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘INBOUND’ or ‘OUTBOUND’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘TIME’ or ‘DIST’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘RIGHT’ or ‘LEFT’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC TIME), and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
8) Press the ENT Key while ‘ACTIVATE?’ is highlighted to activate the direct-to with the user-defined hold defined
at the direct-to waypoint. (If the direct-to wayoint is part of the active flight plan, the HOLD is inserted into
the active flight plan. If the direct-to waypoint is not part of the active flight plan, an off-route direct-to hold is
created.)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Exiting a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
Press the SUSP Softkey. The system will provide guidance to follow the holding pattern to the inbound course
and resume automatic waypoint sequencing.
APPENDICES
Removing a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the HOLD waypoint.
INDEX
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove Holding Pattern?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed from the active flight plan. Select ‘CANCEL’
and press the ENT Key to cancel the removal of the holding pattern.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Removing a user-defined hold at an off-route direct-to:
1) Press a Direct To Key to display the DIRECT TO Window (PFD or MFD).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU with the cursor on the ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ selection.
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Hold At
Present
Position
Menu
Selection
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
(INBOUND or OUTBOUND)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Leg Length Mode Button
(TIME or DIST))
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
AFCS
(RIGHT or LEFT)
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further Clearance Time
INDEX
Activate Hold
Figure 5-91 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at the Aircraft Present Position
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Waypoint
Selected
EIS
Hold Entry Course
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Location of Hold
Course Direction
(INBOUND or OUTBOUND)
Leg Length
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
(Time in nm or
Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(RIGHT or LEFT)
Leg Length Mode Button
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
(TIME or DIST))
Map of Hold Location
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Expect Further
Clearance Time
APPENDICES
Hold At Direct To
Waypoint selection
Load Hold and
Activate Direct To
Figure 5-92 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at a Direct To Waypoint
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.7 VERTICAL NAVIGATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The system supports vertical path guidance and altitude constraints for the following leg types: AF,
CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FC, FD, PI, RF, and TF. Altitude constraints are not retained in stored flight plans.
EIS
The G1000 system Vertical Navigation (VNV) feature provides vertical profile guidance during the enroute
and teminal phases of flight. Guidance based on specified altitudes at waypoints in the active flight plan or to a
direct-to waypoint is provided. It includes vertical path guidance to a descending path, which is provided as a
linear deviation from the desired path. The desired path is defined by a line joining two waypoints with specified
altitudes or as a vertical angle from a specified waypoint/altitude. The vertical waypoints are integrated into the
active flight plan.
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Enabled (valid data)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Disabled (fields dashed)
ENBL VNV Softkey
CNCL VNV Softkey
Figure 5-93 Enabling/Disabling Vertical Navigation
APPENDICES
Enabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
INDEX
2) Press the ENBL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Enable VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is enabled, and vertical guidance begins with the waypoint shown in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box
(defaults first waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude enabled for vertical navigation (e.g., HABUK)).
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Disabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the CNCL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Cancel VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is disabled.
Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ), and time
to top of descent/bottom of descent (TIME TO TOD/BOD) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI)
and Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) on the PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ, and TIME TO
TOD items displayed in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box are dashed. VNV remains disabled until manually
enabled. Vertical guidance in reversionary mode can only be enabled for a direct-to waypoint.
EIS
Prior to VNV Direct-to
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The G1000 allows a vertical navigation direct-to to any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV Direct-to Softkey on the Active Flight Plan Page
allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV direct-to
waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan from current
position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with
altitude constraint activated by pressing the Direct-to Key also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass
flight plan waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent
(TOD) point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached.
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
After VNV Direct-to
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
VNV Direct-To Softkey
VNV PROF Softkey
Figure 5-94 Vertical Navigation Direct-To
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Activating a vertical navigation direct-to:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint.
NOTE: The selected waypoint must have a designated altitude constraint (cyan number) to be used. If not,
the first waypoint in the flight plan with a designated altitude constraint is selected.
3) Press the VNV Direct-To Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘VNV Direct-To’, and press the ENT Key.
An ‘Activate vertical Direct-to to: NNNNNFT at XXXXXX?’ confirmation window is displayed.
EIS
4) Press the ENT Key. Vertical guidance begins to the altitude constraint for the selected waypoint.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The vertical navigation profile can be modified by directly entering a vertical speed target (VS TGT) and/or flight
path angle (FPA) in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box.
Modifying the VS TGT and FPA:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the VNV PROF Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select VNV Profile Window’, and press the ENT
Key. The cursor is now located in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs as needed to edit the values.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ALTITUDE CONSTRAINTS
AFCS
The G1000 system can use altitude constraints associated with lateral waypoints to give guidance for vertical
navigation. These altitudes are, depending on the specific instance, manually entered or retrieved from the
published altitudes in the navigation database. The navigation database only contains altitudes for procedures
that call for “Cross at” altitudes. If the procedure states “Expect to cross at,” then the altitude is not in the
database. In this case the altitude may be entered manually.
Displayed Text
Examples
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Cross AT
or ABOVE
5,000 ft
Large White Text
Large Cyan Text
APPENDICES
Cross AT
2,300 ft
Small Cyan Text
Cross AT
or BELOW
3,000 ft
Small Cyan Subdued
Text
INDEX
Altitude Constraint
Examples
Small White Text with
Altitude Restriction Bar
Figure 5-95 Waypoint Altitude Constraints
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Cyan Text
Cyan Subdued Text
The system cannot use this
altitude in determining vertical
speed and deviation guidance
because of an invalid constraint
condition.
Small
Text
Altitude is designated for use in giving
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude has been retrieved from the
navigation database or has been entered
manually and matches a published
altitude in the navigation database.
The system cannot use this
altitude in determining vertical
speed and deviation guidance
because of an invalid constraint
condition.
EIS
Altitude has been entered manually.
Altitude is designated for use in giving
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude does not match the published
altitude in navigation database or no
published altitude exists.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Large Altitude calculated by the system
Text estimating the altitude of the aircraft as
it passes over the navigation point. This
altitude is provided as a reference and is
not designated to be used in determining
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude is not designated to be used in
determining vertical speed and deviation
guidance. Altitude has been retrieved
from the navigation database and is
provided as a reference.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
White Text
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Table 5-8 Altitude Constraint Size and Color Coding
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Altitudes associated with approach procedures are “auto-designated”. This means the system will automatically
use the altitudes loaded with the approach for giving vertical speed and deviation guidance. Note that these
altitudes are displayed as cyan text up to, but not including, the FAF. The FAF is always a “reference only”
altitude and cannot be designated, unless the selected approach does not provide vertical guidance. In this case,
the FAF altitude can be designated.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Altitudes that are not designated for use in vertical guidance can be “designated” using the ENT Key. The
altitude is now displayed as cyan text and is used to give vertical guidance. Other displayed altitudes may
change due to re-calculations or be rendered invalid as a result of manually changing an altitude to a designated
altitude.
Altitudes that have been designated for use in vertical guidance can be “un-designated” using the CLR Key.
The altitude is now displayed only as a reference. It is not used to give vertical guidance. Other displayed
altitudes may change due to re-calculations or be rendered invalid as a result of manually changing an altitude
to a non-designated altitude.
AFCS
Designating an altitude from the navigation database to be used for vertical guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude.
3) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical guidance.
Designating an altitude not from the navigation database value to be used for vertical guidance:
APPENDICES
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter editing mode.
4) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical guidance.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Altitude constraints are displayed and entered in feet mean sea level (MSL) values to the nearest hundred. An
altitude constraint in feet above ground level (AGL) format is supported for airports. When a database altitude
restriction is displayed, the G1000 allows entry of a different altitude when creating a waypoint, effectively
overriding the database restriction (only before the FAF). When a database altitude restriction of type “AT or
ABOVE” or “AT or BELOW” is activated, the system uses the “AT” portion of the restriction to define the vertical
profile.
An altitude constraint is invalid if:
• Meeting the constraint requires the aircraft to climb
EIS
• Meeting the constraint requires the maximum flight path angle or maximum vertical speed to be exceeded
• The altitude constraint results in a TOD behind the aircraft present position
• The constraint is within a leg type for which altitude constraints are not supported
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• The altitude constraint is added to the FAF of an approach that provides vertical guidance (i.e., ILS or GPS
SBAS approach)
• The altitude constraint is added to a waypoint past the FAF.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Entering/modifiying an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Enter an altitude constraint value using the FMS Knobs. To enter altitudes as a flight level, turn the small
FMS Knob counter-clockwise past zero or clockwise past 9 on the first character, and the system automatically
changes to show units of Flight Level. Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight the first zero and enter
the three digit flight level.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport, an additional choice
is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Altitude constraints can be modified or deleted after having been added to the flight plan. In the event
an altitude constraint is deleted and the navigation database contains an altitude restriction for the lateral
waypoint, the G1000 displays the altitude restriction from the database provided no predicted altitude
can be provided. The G1000 also provides a way to reinstate a published altitude constraint that has been
edited.
Deleting an altitude constraint provided by the navigation database:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
APPENDICES
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove VNV altitude constraint?’ confirmation window is displayed.
INDEX
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Deleting an altitude constraint that has been manually entered:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘REMOVE’ and press the ENT Key. The manually entered altitude is deleted (it is replaced by a system
calculated altitude, if available).
Reverting a manually entered altitude constraint back to the navigation database value:
EIS
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘REVERT’ and press the ENT Key. The altitude is changed to the navigation database value.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Modifying a system calculated altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the CLR Key. An ‘Edit or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘EDIT’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Edit the value using the FMS Knobs, and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.8 PROCEDURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G1000 can access the whole range of instrument procedures available. Departures (DPs), arrivals (STARs),
and non-precision and precision approaches (APPRs) are stored within the database and can be loaded using the
Procedures (PROC) Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The selected procedure for the departure or arrival airport is added to the active flight plan. No waypoints are
required to be in the active flight plan to load procedures; however, if the departure and arrival airport are already
loaded, the procedure loading window defaults to the appropriate airport, saving some time selecting the correct
airport on the Procedure Loading Page. Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “load” or “activate”
is given. “Loading” adds the approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation
guidance. This allows continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps
the procedure available on the Active Flight Plan Page for quick activation when needed. “Activating” also adds
the procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in
the approach.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The system adds terminal procedures to the flight plan based on leg types coded within that procedure in the
navigation database. If the terminal procedure in the flight plan contains an identifier like ‘6368ft’, that indicates
a leg that terminates when the specified altitude (6368 feet) has been exceeded. A heading leg in the flight plan
displays ‘hdg’ preceding the DTK (e.g. ‘hdg 008°’). A flight plan leg requiring the pilot to manually intitiate
sequencing to the next leg displays ‘MANSEQ’ as the identifier.
Heading Leg Terminating at the
Specified Altitude
AFCS
Manually Sequenced Heading Leg
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-96 Procedure Leg Identifiers
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DEPARTURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can be
loaded at a time in a flight plan. If a departure is loaded when another departure is already in the active flight
plan, the new departure replaces the previous departure. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
LOADING A DEPARTURE INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading a departure into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
EIS
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT DEPARTURE’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Departure Loading Page is displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select a departure from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure.
Available Procedure Actions
Departure Airport
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Loaded Procedures
Departure Preview
Figure 5-97 Departure Selection
Departure Choices
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Loaded Departure
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected Departure
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-98 Departure Loading
Viewing available departures at an airport:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the DP Softkey. The Departure Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on the map.
AFCS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The cursor
moves to the Runway box. The departure is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The departure is previewed on the map.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The departure is previewed on the map.
INDEX
APPENDICES
7) Press the INFO-1 Softkey or the INFO-2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Loading a departure into the active flight plan from the Departure Information Page:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the DP Softkey. The Departure Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Select a different departure, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on the map.
EIS
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The
cursor moves to the Runway box. The departure is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The departure is previewed on the map.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the Sequence box. The departure is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the Departure Information Page Menu.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Departure’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure into the active flight plan.
REMOVING A DEPARTURE FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, departures can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Removing a departure procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Departure’.
AFCS
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the departure header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
APPENDICES
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
ARRIVALS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available. Only one arrival
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an arrival is loaded when another arrival is already in the active
flight plan, the new arrival replaces the previous arrival. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
LOADING AN ARRIVAL INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
EIS
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT ARRIVAL’.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the ENT Key. The Arrival Loading Page is displayed.
7) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted.
5) Select an arrival from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure.
Destination Airport
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Available Procedure Actions
Arrival Preview
Arrival Choices
INDEX
Loaded Procedures
Figure 5-99 Arrival Selection
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selected Arrival
Loaded Arrival
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-100 Arrival Loading
Viewing available arrivals at an airport:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the STAR Softkey. The Arrival Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport Information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Arrival. The arrival is previewed on the map.
AFCS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor moves
to the Transition box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Runway box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
7) Press the INFO-1 Softkey or the INFO-2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan from the Arrival Information Page:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the STAR Softkey. The Arrival Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
3) Select a different arrival, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the arrival. The arrival is previewed on the map.
EIS
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor
moves to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The arrival is previewed on the map.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the Runway box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the Arrival Information Page Menu.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Arrival’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure into the active flight plan.
REMOVING AN ARRIVAL FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When plans change while flying IFR, arrivals can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing an arrival from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Arrival’.
AFCS
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the arrival header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
APPENDICES
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
INDEX
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPROACHES
NOTE: If certain GPS parameters (SBAS, RAIM, etc.) are not available, some published approach procedures
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
for the desired airport may not be displayed in the list of available approaches.
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available, and provides guidance
for non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach procedures.
Only one approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an approach is loaded when another approach
is already in the active flight plan, the new approach replaces the previous approach. The route is defined by
selection of an approach and the transition waypoints.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “load” or “activate” is given. “Loading” adds the
approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This allows
continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps the procedure
available on the Active Flight Plan Page for quick activation when needed. “Activating” also adds the procedure
to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in the approach.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When selecting an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure name indicates the procedure
can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures do not have this designation, meaning the GPS
receiver can be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. If the GPS receiver cannot be used for
primary guidance, the appropriate navigation receiver must be used for the selected approach (e.g., VOR or
ILS). The final course segment of ILS approaches, for example, must be flown by tuning the NAV receiver to
the proper frequency and selecting that NAV receiver on the CDI.
APPENDICES
LP
(available only if SBAS available)
LP+V
(available only if SBAS available)
LPV
(available only if SBAS available)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
L/VNAV
(available only if SBAS available)
Description
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV minima
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV minima. Advisory vertical guidance
is provided
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV/VNAV minima (without optional
Baro VNAV, downgrades to LNAV if SBAS unavailable; with optional Baro VNAV,
flown as LNAV/Baro VNAV if SBAS unavailable)
RNAV GPS approach using published LP minima (downgrades to LNAV if SBAS
unavailable)
RNAV GPS approach using published LP minima. Advisory vertical guidance is
provided (downgrades to LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
RNAV GPS approach using published LPV minima (without optional Baro VNAV,
downgrades to LNAV if SBAS unavailable; with optional Baro VNAV, flown as
LNAV/Baro VNAV if SBAS unavailable)
AFCS
HSI Annunciation
LNAV
LNAV+V
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The G1000 SBAS GPS allows for flying LNAV, LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LP+V and LPV approach service
levels according to the published chart. The ‘+V’ designation adds advisory vertical guidance for assistance in
maintaining a constant vertical glidepath similar to an ILS glideslope on approach. This guidance is displayed
on the system PFD in the same location as the ILS glideslope using a magenta diamond. The active approach
service level is annunciated on the HSI as shown in the following table:
INDEX
Approach Service Level
- LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV
Table 5-9 Approach Types
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
LOADING AN APPROACH INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading an approach into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT APPROACH’, and press the ENT Key. The Approach Loading Page is displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
EIS
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the APPROACH CHANNEL field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
4) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Minimums
a) To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’, and press the ENT Key.
Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
AFCS
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘LOAD?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
NOTE: When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV
receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Available Procedure Actions
Destination Airport
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Approach Preview
Approach Choices
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Loaded Procedures
Figure 5-101 Approach Selection
Selected Approach
Loaded Approach
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
LOAD or ACTIVATE? Annunciation
Figure 5-102 Approach Loading
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Viewing available approaches at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the APR Softkey. The Approach
Information Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Approach. The approach is previewed on
the map.
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available approaches. Press the ENT Key to select the approach. The
cursor moves to the Transition box. The approach is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Minimums box. The approach is previewed on the map.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select minimums on or off. Press the ENT Key.
a) When minimums are selected on, the cursor moves to the minimum altitude field . Use the small FMS Knob
to select the altitude. Press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
b) If temperature compensated minimums was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Use the
small FMS Knob to select the temperature. Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the Sequence box. The
approach is previewed on the map.
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When minimums are selected off, the cursor moves to the Sequence box. The approach is previewed on the
map.
7) Press the INFO-1 or the INFO-2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
Loading an approach into the active flight plan from the Nearest Airport Page:
1) Select the Nearest Airports Page.
AFCS
2) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired nearest airport. The airport is
previewed on the map.
3) Press the APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Approach Window’, and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired approach.
5) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Load Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The
Approach Loading Page is displayed with the transitions field highlighted.
APPENDICES
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired transition, and press the ENT Key.
7) Minimums
a) To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’, and press the ENT Key.
Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key. The ‘LOAD?’ field is highlighted.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
8) Press the ENT Key with ‘LOAD?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure. The system continues
navigating the current flight plan until the approach is activated. When GPS is not approved for the selected
final approach course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the
approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
ACTIVATING AN APPROACH
A previously loaded approach can be activated from the Procedures Window.
Activating a previously loaded approach:
EIS
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed with ‘Activate Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In many cases, it may be easiest to “load” the full approach while still some distance away, enroute to the
destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, use the steps above to select ‘Activate Vector-To-Final’ — which
makes the inbound course to the FAF waypoint active.
Activating a previously loaded approach with vectors to final:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the PROC Key to display the Procedures Window.
2) Highlight ‘ACTIVATE VECTOR-TO-FINAL’ and press the ENT Key.
Loading and activating an approach using the MENU Key:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) From the Approach Loading Page, press the MENU Key. The page menu is displayed with ‘Load & Activate
Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT
APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to
a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
AFCS
REMOVING AN APPROACH FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, approaches can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Removing an approach from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
APPENDICES
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the approach header in the active flight plan.
INDEX
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
MISSED APPROACH
Activating a missed approach in the active flight plan:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘ACTIVATE MISSED APPROACH’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The aircraft automatically sequences to the MAHP.
Or:
EIS
Press the TO/GA Switch.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6368ft’) is
not part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along
the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded.
This altitude is provided by the navigation database, and may be below, equal to, or above the published
minimums for this approach. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,368 feet)
after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of
6,368 feet is reached. After reaching 6,368 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case
MOGAL). If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established
to the published fix (MOGAL) to begin the missed approach procedure..
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Course to Altitude Leg
Figure 5-103 Course to Altitude
INDEX
APPENDICES
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed Approach
Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if the
aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to Altitude leg
when the missed approach procedure is activated.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED ALTITUDE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If desired, the system can compensate the loaded approach altitudes based on a pilot-supplied temperature
at the destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C, the system increases
the approach altitudes accordingly. A temperature compensated altitude is displayed in slanted text.
Activating temperature compensated altitude:
1) From the Active Flight Plan Page, press the MENU Key. The Page Menu is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key. The TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION Window is displayed.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select the temperature at the <airport>. The compensated altitude is computed as
the temperature is selected.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered in the TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION Window
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
on the MFD, or in the REFERENCES Window on the PFD. There is only one compensation temperature for
the system, therefore, changing the temperature will affect both the loaded approach altitudes and the
minimums. Refer to the Flight Instruments section for information about applying temperature compensation
to the MDA/DH.
5) Press the ENT Key. ‘ACTIVATE COMPENSATION?’ is highlighted.
6) Press the ENT Key. The compensated altitudes for the approach are shown in the flight plan.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Selected
Temperature
FAF Altitude
Compensated
Altitude
Temperature
Compensation
Selected
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-104 Temperature Compensation
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
ACTIVATE
COMPENSATION?
Highlighted
CANCEL
COMPENSATION?
Highlighted
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Figure 5-105 Activating/Cancelling Temperature Compensation
Uncompensated
Altitudes
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Compensated
Altitudes
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-106 Temperature Compensation in the Active Flight Plan
Cancelling temperature compensated altitude:
1) From the Active Flight Plan Page, press the MENU Key. The Page Menu is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
AFCS
3) Press the ENT Key. The TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION Window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘CANCEL COMPENSATION?’ is highlighted.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Press the ENT Key. The temperature compensated altitudes for the approach are cancelled.
NOTE: Activating/cancelling temperature compensation for the loaded approach altitudes does not select/
INDEX
APPENDICES
deselect temperature compensated minimums (MDA/DH), nor does selecting/deselecting temperature
compensated minimums activate/cancel temperature compensated approach altitudes.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5.9 TRIP PLANNING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G1000 allows the pilot to view trip planning information, fuel information, and other information for
a specified flight plan or flight plan leg based on automatic data, or based on manually entered data. Weight
planning is also available, based on fuel data and the active flight plan (to estimate remaining fuel).
TRIP PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the statistics is done on the Trip Planning Page
located in the AUX Page Group.
EIS
Selected Flight Plan Segment
- FPL Number/Cumulative Legs (CUM or REM) or Leg Number (NN)
- Waypoints Defining Selected Flight Plan/Flight Plan Leg
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Trip Planning Page Mode
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan/
Flight Plan Leg
- Automatic/Manual
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Trip Input Data (sensor/pilot)
Trip Statistics
Desired Track Distance Est. Time Enroute Est. Time of Arrival Enroute Safe Altitude Sunrise Time (local) Sunset Time (local) -
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Departure Time (local)
- Ground Speed
- Fuel Flow
- Fuel On Board Aircraft
- Calibrated Airspeed
- Indicated Altitude
- Barometric Pressure
- Total Air Temperature
Other Statistics
- Density Altitude
- True Airspeed (TAS)
Fuel Statistics
AFCS
Efficiency Total Endurance Remaining Fuel Remaining Endurance Fuel Required Total Range -
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Softkeys
- Automatic/Manual Page Mode
- Flight Plan/Waypoint Mode
Figure 5-107 Trip Planning Page
APPENDICES
The trip planning inputs are based on sensor inputs (automatic page mode) or on pilot inputs (manual page
mode). Some additional explanation of the sources for some of the inputs is as follows:
• Departure time (DEP TIME) - This defaults to the current time in automatic page mode. The computations
are from the aircraft present position, so the aircraft is always just departing.
INDEX
• Calibrated airspeed (CALIBRATED AS) - The primary source is from the air data system, and the secondary
source of information is GPS ground speed.
• Indicated altitude (IND ALTITUDE) - The primary source is the barometric altitude, and the secondary source
of information is GPS altitude.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRIP STATISTICS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and the entire flight plan (CUM) selected,
the waypoints are the starting and ending waypoints of the selected flight plan.
The trip statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
waypoints are the endpoints of the selected leg.
EIS
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and the remaining flight plan (REM)
selected, the ‘from’ waypoint is the present position of the aircraft and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the
active flight plan.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
‘from’ waypoint is the current aircraft position and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the selected leg.
In waypoint (WPTS) mode these are manually selected waypoints (if there is an active flight plan, these
default to the endpoints of the active leg).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has already
been flown.
• Desired Track (DTK) - DTK is shown as nnn° and is the desired track between the selected waypoints.
It is dashed unless only a single leg is selected.
• Distance (DIS) - The distance is shown in tenths of units up to 99.9, and in whole units up to 9999.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Estimated time enroute (ETE) - ETE is shown as hours:minutes until less than an hour, then it is shown
as minutes:seconds.
• Estimated time of arrival (ETA) - ETA is shown as hours:minutes and is the local time at the
destination.
AFCS
- If a flight plan other than the active flight plan is selected it shows the ETA by adding to the departure
time all of the ETEs of the legs up to the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA
is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- If in waypoint mode then the ETA is the ETE added to the departure time.
- If the active flight plan is selected the ETA reflects the current position of the aircraft and the current leg
being flown. The ETA is calculated by adding to the current time the ETEs of the current leg up to the
selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg of the flight
plan was selected.
APPENDICES
• Enroute safe altitude (ESA) - The ESA is shown as nnnnnFT
INDEX
• Destination sunrise and sunset times (SUNRISE, SUNSET) - These times are shown as hours:minutes
and are the local time at the destination.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FUEL STATISTICS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The fuel statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs. Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has
already been flown.
• Fuel efficiency (EFFICIENCY) - This value is calculated by dividing the current ground speed by the
current fuel flow.
• Time of fuel endurance (TOTAL ENDUR) - This time is shown as hours:minutes. This value is obtained
by dividing the amount of fuel on board by the current fuel flow.
EIS
• Fuel on board upon reaching end of selected leg (REM FUEL) - This value is calculated by taking the
amount of fuel onboard and subtracting the fuel required to reach the end of the selected leg.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Fuel endurance remaining at end of selected leg (REM ENDUR) - This value is calculated by taking the time
of fuel endurance and subtracting the estimated time enroute to the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel required for trip (FUEL REQ) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time to go by the fuel
flow.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Total range at entered fuel flow (TOTAL RANGE) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time of fuel
endurance by the ground speed.
OTHER STATISTICS
These statistics are calculated based on the system sensor inputs or the manual trip planning inputs.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Density altitude (DENSITY ALT)
• True airspeed (TRUE AIRSPEED)
The pilot may select automatic (AUTO) or manual (MANUAL) page mode, and flight plan (FPL) or waypoint
(WPTS) mode. In automatic page mode, only the FPL, LEG, or waypoint IDs are editable (based on FPL/WPTS
selection).
AFCS
Selected Flight Plan NN -
Selected Leg(s)
00 is Active FPL
01-99 are Stored FPLs
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Starting and Ending Waypoint of
Selected Flight Plan Segment
Stored Flight Plan
- CUM: Beginning to End of FPL
- NN: Beginning to End of Selected Leg
Active Flight Plan
- REM: Pres. Pos. to End of FPL
- NN: Pres. Pos. to End of Selected Leg
Figure 5-108 Trip Planning Page - Flight Plan Mode
APPENDICES
Selected Flight Plan
Selected Leg(s)
Not Available
Not Available
Selected Starting and Ending Waypoints
INDEX
Figure 5-109 Trip Planning Page - Waypoint Mode
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting automatic or manual page mode:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Selecting flight plan or waypoint mode:
Press the AUTO Softkey or the MANUAL Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Auto Mode’ or ‘Manual
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Press the FPL Softkey or the WPTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Flight Plan Mode’ or ‘Waypoints
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting a flight plan and leg for trip statistics:
EIS
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the flight plan number field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired flight plan number.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CUM’ or ‘REM’. The statistics for each leg can be viewed by turning the
small FMS Knob to select the desired leg. The Inset Map also displays the selected data.
Selecting waypoints for waypoint mode:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the WPTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the ENT Key. The
cursor is positioned in the waypoint field directly below the FPL field.
2) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint (or select from the Page Menu ‘Set WPT to Present Position’
if that is what is desired), and press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the second waypoint field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint, and press the ENT Key. The statistics for the selected leg
are displayed.
In manual page mode, the other eight trip input data fields must be entered by the pilot, in addition to flight
plan and leg selection.
Entering manual data for trip statistics calculations:
AFCS
1) Press the MANUAL Softkey or select ‘Manual Mode’ from the Page Menu, and press the ENT Key. The cursor
may now be positioned in any field in the top right two boxes.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to move the cursor onto the DEP TIME field and enter the desired value. Press the ENT Key.
The statistics are calculated using the new value and the cursor moves to the next entry field. Repeat until all
desired values have been entered.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
WEIGHT PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the data is done on the Weight and Fuel
Planning Page located in the AUX Page Group.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: All weight planning data fields display data rounded to the nearest 10 pounds.
Fuel Weight Calculator
A/C Payload Calculator
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Fuel Calculations:
EIS
- Zero Fuel Weight Calculation
- Fuel on Board Entry (or sync)
- Aircraft Weight Calculation
- Est. Landing Weight Calculation
- Estimated Landing Fuel Calculation
- Fuel Reserve Entry
- Excess Fuel Calculation
Basic Empty Weight Entry Pilot & Stores Weight Entry Basic Operating Weight Calc. Passenger(s) Weight Entry Cargo Weight Entry Zero Fuel Weight Calculation -
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Current Fuel Remaining Fuel Used (since last sync) Total Fuel Range Time to Destination Fuel over Destination Total Fuel Endurance -
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Empty Weight Softkey
Fuel On Board Sync Softkey
(sets FOB to sensor actual)
(selects Basic Empty
Weight)
Figure 5-110 Weight Planning Page
AFCS
Entering basic empty weight:
1) Select the EMPTY WT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Basic Empty Weight’, and press the ENT
Key to select the ‘BASIC EMPTY WEIGHT’ field.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the basic empty weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
APPENDICES
Entering a pilot and stores weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘PILOT AND STORES’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the pilot and stores weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
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INDEX
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
273
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
The basic operating weight is calculated by adding the basic empty weight and the pilot and stores weight.
Entering the number of passengers:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘PASSENGERS #’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the number of passengers.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
EIS
Entering the average passenger weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the passenger weight field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the average passenger weight.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The total weight of passengers is calculated by multiplying the number of passengers by the average passenger
weight.
Entering the cargo weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘CARGO’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the cargo weight.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The ‘ZERO FUEL WEIGHT’ is calculated by adding the basic empty, pilot and stores, passenger, and cargo
weights.
AFCS
Entering a fuel on board weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘FUEL ON BOARD’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel on board.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering fuel reserve:
APPENDICES
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘FUEL RESERVES’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel reserves amount.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor
INDEX
Synchronizing the fuel on board with the actual measured fuel on board:
Select the FOB SYNC Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Synchronize Fuel on Board’, and press the
ENT Key. The actual measured fuel on board is displayed in the ‘FUEL ON BOARD’ field.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When the aircraft is in the air and a destination waypoint has been entered, the fuel calculations can be
completed.
• Estimated landing weight = zero fuel weight + estimated landing fuel weight.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Estimated landing fuel weight = fuel on board weight - (fuel flow x ETE)
• Excess fuel weight = estimated landing fuel weight - fuel reserves weight
If the aircraft is on the ground or a destination waypoint has not been entered, the following fields display
invalid values consisting of six dashes:
• Estimated landing weight
EIS
• Estimated landing fuel weight
• Excess fuel weight
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
WEIGHT CAUTION AND WARNING CONDITIONS
If the zero fuel weight is greater than the maximum allowable zero fuel weight, then the zero fuel weight is
displayed in amber.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If the aircraft weight is greater than the maximum allowable takeoff weight, then the aircraft weight is displayed
in amber.
If the estimated landing weight is greater than the maximum allowable landing weight, then the estimated
landing weight is displayed in amber.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If the estimated landing fuel weight is positive, but less than or equal to the fuel reserves weight, the following
values are displayed in amber:
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
If the estimated landing fuel weight is zero or negative, then the following values are displayed in red:
AFCS
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.10 RAIM PREDICTION
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to calculate
a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nm for oceanic, 2.0 nm for enroute, 1.0 nm for terminal,
and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of flight, RAIM is
available nearly 100% of the time. The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a
specified date and time. RAIM computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival
date and time. Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not
available. RAIM prediction must be initiated manually if there is concern over SBAS coverage at the destination
or some other reason that compromises navigation precision. If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the
final approach course, the approach does not become active. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the
missed approach procedure must be flown.
RAIM PREDICTION Box
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Prediction Waypoint
- Arrival Time
- Arrival Date
- RAIM Status
RAIM Softkey
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 5-111 RAIM Prediction
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. The RAIM Prediction ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window with a
waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
4) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint; or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
EIS
5) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
7) Press the ENT Key with ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ highlighted to begin the computation.
Predicting RAIM availability at the aircraft present position:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the FMS Knob. The RAIM Prediction ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set WPT to Present Position’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key with ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ highlighted to begin the computation.
Status of the RAIM computation for the selected waypoint, time, and date is displayed at the bottom of the
RAIM PREDICTION Box as follows:
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ - RAIM has not been computed.
AFCS
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’ - RAIM calculation is in progress.
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’ - RAIM is predicted to be available.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’ - RAIM is predicted to be unavailable.
The Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) provides increased navigation accuracy when available. SBAS
can be enabled or disabled manually on the GPS Status Page.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SBAS Status
SBAS SELECTION Box
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
- EGNOS Enable/Disable
- MSAS Enable/Disable
- WAAS Enable/Disable
RAIM Softkey
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-112 SBAS Display - Active
Enabling/Disabling SBAS:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
AFCS
2) Press the SBAS softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘EGNOS’, ‘MSAS’ or ‘WAAS’.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the ENT Key to disable SBAS. Press the ENT Key again to enable SBAS.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SBAS Status
SBAS SELECTION Box
- EGNOS Enable/Disable
- MSAS Enable/Disable
- WAAS Enable/Disable
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
RAIM Softkey
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-113 SBAS Display - Inactive
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.11 NAVIGATING A FLIGHT PLAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The following discussion is an example of navigating a flight plan with the SBAS capable GPS system while the
G1000 provides vertical guidance through descents. A lateral flight plan (LNAV) would be navigated in much the
same way, but would not include vertical guidance when the final approach course is active.
NOTE: The following example flight plan is for instructional purposes only. All database information depicted
should be considered not current.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Prior to departure, the TIFTO4 departure, the airways, and the DBRY3 arrival at KCOS are loaded. See the
Procedures section for loading departures and arrivals. Note the magenta arrow in Figure 5-114 indicating the
active departure leg.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
EIS
The example is a flight plan from KMKC to KCOS filed using the TIFTO4 departure, various Victor Airways,
and the DBRY3 arrival with the transition at TBE. The flight plan includes an enroute altitude of 12,000 feet, an
LPV (WAAS) approach selected for runway 35R, and a missed approach executed at the Missed Approach Point
(MAP). A few enroute changes are demonstrated.
2) Figure 5-114 shows the aircraft on the assigned heading of 240º. ‘TERM’ (Terminal) is the current CDI flight
phase displayed on the HSI indicating 1.0 nm CDI scaling.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
After takeoff, ATC assigns a heading of 240º.
INDEX
Figure 5-114 Assigned Heading of 240º
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3) ATC now assigns routing to join V4. A heading of 290º is assigned to intercept V4. The aircraft turns to heading
290° as seen in Figure 5-115.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-115 Assigned Heading of 290º
4) Enter V4 into the flight plan.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
b) The desired entry point for V4 (TOP) must be entered. Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired
flight plan insertion point (SLN) as shown in Figure 5-116. When the V4 entry point (TOP) is inserted, it is
placed immediately above the highlighted waypoint (SLN).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-116 Begin Adding V4 to the Flight Plan
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. Enter the desired entry point for
V4, Topeka VOR (TOP), as shown in Figure 5-117.
INDEX
Figure 5-117 Entering V4 Entry Point
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
d) Press the ENT Key. TOP is inserted into the flight plan as in Figure 5-118.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-118 TOP Inserted into the Flight Plan
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
e) With SLN still highlighted as in Figure 5-118, turn the small FMS Knob clockwise. The Waypoint Information
Page is displayed and the LD AIRWY Softkey is now available.
f) Press the LD AIRWY Softkey to display the list of available airways for TOP as seen in Figure 5-119.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-119 List of Available Airways for TOP
g) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight V4 in the list as seen in Figure 5-119.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
h) Press the ENT Key. The list of available exits for V4 is now displayed as in Figure 5-120.
i)
If necessary, turn either FMS Knob to select the desired exit. In this case Salina VOR (SLN) is selected as in
Figure 5-120.
j)
Press the ENT Key. The selected airway and exit are displayed, and the prompt “LOAD?” highlighted as in
Figure 5-121.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-120 List of Available Exits for V4
INDEX
Figure 5-121 Ready to Load V4
k) Press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
l)
V4 is now loaded into the flight plan as shown in Figure 5-122.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-122 V4 is Loaded in the Flight Plan
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Making V4 the active leg of the flight plan.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ULNAZ. The TO waypoint of the leg is selected in order to activate
the leg.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
c) Press the ACT LEG Softkey. The confirmation window is now displayed as in Figure 5-123 Note the TOP
to ULNAZ leg is actually part of V4.
AFCS
Figure 5-123 Comfirm Active Leg
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
d) Verify the displayed leg is the desired leg and press the ENT Key. Note in Figure 5-124, the magenta arrow
in the flight plan window and magenta line on the map indicating V4 is now the active flight plan leg. Note
the phase of flight remained in Terminal (TERM) mode up to this point because a departure leg was active.
Since a leg after the departure is now active, the current CDI flight phase is ENR (Enroute) and CDI scaling
has changed to 2.0 nm.
Figure 5-124 V4 Now Active Leg
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
6) The aircraft continues on heading 290º. When crosstrack distance is less than 2.0 nm, the XTK disappears from
the HSI and the CDI is positioned on the last dot indicating a 2.0 nm distance from the centerline of the next
course.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
7) As the CDI approaches center, the aircraft turns onto the active leg as seen in Figure 5-125.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-125 Turn on to Active Leg
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) At SLN, Victor Airway 244 (V244) is intercepted. Turn prompts are displayed in the PFD Navigation Status Box
as seen in Figure 5-126.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-126 Turn to Intercept V244
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
9) As seen in Figure 5-127, V244 is now the active flight plan leg.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-127 V244 Now Active Leg
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
10) At Lamar VOR (LAA) V263 is intercepted. See Figure 5-128.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-128 HYS to LAA Leg Active
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
11) ATC grants clearance to proceed direct to the OPSHN intersection to begin the arrival procedure. ATC advises
to expect an altitude of 10,000 feet at OPSHN.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to select OPSHN in the flight plan list.
c) Press the Direct-to (
) Key. The Direct-to Window is now displayed as shown in Figure 5-129.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 5-129 Direct To OPSHN
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
d) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the VNV altitude field as shown in Figure 5-130.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-130 Enter VNV Altitude
e) An altitude of 10,000 feet is entered as requested by ATC.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
f) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the VNV offset field as shown in Figure 5-131.
APPENDICES
Figure 5-131 Enter VNV Offset Distance
INDEX
g) Enter the offset, or distance from the waypoint at which to reach the selected altitude. In this case, three
miles prior to OPSHN is entered. In other words, the G1000 gives vertical guidance so the aircraft arrives
at an altitude of 10,000 feet three miles prior to OPSHN.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
h) Press the ENT Key twice to activate the direct-to. Note, in Figure 5-132, the magenta arrow indicating
the direct-to OPSHN after the offset waypoint for OPSHN. The preceding offset waypoint indicates the
offset distance and altitude that were previously entered. The remaining waypoints in the loaded arrival
procedure have no database specified altitudes, therefore, dashes are displayed. Keep the CDI centered
and maintain a track along the magenta line to OPSHN.
Note the Direct-to waypoint is within the loaded arrival procedure, therefore, phase of flight scaling for the
CDI changes to Terminal Mode and is annunciated by displaying ‘TERM’ on the HSI.
NOTE: If the loaded arrival procedure has waypoints with altitude constraints retrieved from the database
EIS
that will be used as is, the altitude must be manually accepted by placing the cursor over the desired
altitude, then pressing the ENT Key. The altitude is now displayed as cyan meaning it will be used by the
system to determine vertical speed and deviation guidance.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-132 Direct-to Active
APPENDICES
12) The aircraft is proceeding to OPSHN. The expected approach is the RNAV LPV approach to runway 35R, so it is
selected.
a) Press the PROC Key to display the Procedures Window.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
b) ‘SELECT APPROACH’ should be highlighted as shown in Figure 5-133.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-133 Procedures Window
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
c) Press the ENT Key. A list of available approaches for the destination airport is displayed as in Figure 5-134.
APPENDICES
Figure 5-134 List of Available Approaches
INDEX
d) Turn either FMS Knob to select the LPV approach for 35R as shown in Figure 5-134.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
e) Press the ENT Key. A list of available transitions for the selected approach is displayed as in Figure 5-135.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-135 List of Available Transitions
f) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired transition. In this case, the Initial Approach Fix (IAF) at HABUK
is used.
g) Press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
h) Barometric Minimums (Figure 5-136)
To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, and press the ENT Key. Turn the small
FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
AFCS
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 5-136 Barometric Minimums Set
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
With ‘LOAD?’ highlighted, again press the ENT Key. The selected approach is added to the flight plan as
seen in Figure 5-137.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
i)
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-137 Loaded Approach
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
13) Note the altitude constraints associated with each of the approach waypoints as seen in Figure 5-138. The
altitudes loaded from the database are displayed as cyan text if they are “designated” for use in computing
vertical deviation guidance. The system is using baro corrected altitude when giving vertical guidance to these
waypoints.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Note: To no longer use the database altitude for calculating vertical deviation guidance, perform the following:
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired altitude.
c) Press the CLR Key.
EIS
d) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
After making the altitude “non-designated”, it is displayed as white text.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Note: The altitudes loaded from the database displayed as white text are not used in computing vertical
deviation guidance. These altitude values must be designated for use by the pilot if they are to be used in
computing vertical guidance. To use the database altitude for calculating vertical deviation guidance, perform
the following:
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the altitude field associated with the waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key. Note the altitude is now displayed as cyan text, indicating that the value is now used
in computing vertical guidance.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Altitude constraint values associated with the Final Approach Fix (FAF) and waypoints beyond the FAF cannot be
designated for vertical guidance. These altitude values are always displayed as white text, as in Figure 5-138.
Vertical guidance from the FAF and on to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) is given using the SBAS GPS altitude
source, therefore, the displayed altitude values are for reference only.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-138 Vertical Guidance is Active to the FAF
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
14) As the aircraft approaches OPSHN, it may be desirable to adjust the speed, or steepness of the upcoming
descent. The default Flight Path Angle (FPA) is -3.0 degrees and a required vertical speed is computed to
maintain the -3.0 FPA. To change the vertical flight path, perform the following steps.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
a) Press the VNV PROF Softkey to place the cursor in the target vertical speed field (VS TGT) as shown in
Figure 5-139.
b) At this point, the descent vertical speed can be selected, or the FPA can be selected. Turn the large FMS
Knob to select the desired selection field, then turn the small FMS Knob to enter the desired value.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Note the information now displayed in the ‘CURRENT VNV PROFILE’ box. Also, note the offset waypoint
(orange box) and gray circle are now displayed on the map. The gray circle marks the Top of Descent (TOD).
In this example, vertical guidance is provided at the TOD that results in a -3.0 degree FPA descent to an
altitude of 10,000 feet upon reaching the offset waypoint.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-139 Adjusting the Descent
INDEX
APPENDICES
c) Press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
15) As seen in Figure 5-140, the aircraft is approaching TOD. Note the target vertical speed required to reach the
selected altitude. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) and the Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) are
now displayed on the PFD as shown in Figure 5-141. When the aircraft is within one minute of the TOD, it is
annunciated as shown in Figure 5-141, and an aural alert ‘Vertical track’ will be heard.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-140 Approaching Top of Descent (TOD)
AFCS
Target Altitude
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
APPENDICES
Required Vertical
Speed Indicator
(RVSI)
Figure 5-141 VDI & RVSI Upon Reaching Top of Descent (TOD)
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
16) Upon reaching TOD, a descent vertical speed is established by placing the VSI pointer in line with the RVSI as
shown in Figure 5-142.
EIS
Keep Vertical Deviation
Pointer Centered
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Align Actual Vertical Speed
with
Required Vertical Speed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-142 VDI & RVSI Showing Established Descent
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
17) When the aircraft is one minute from the bottom of descent (BOD) it is annunciated as shown in Figure 5-143.
Upon reaching the offset waypoint for OPSHN, the aircraft is at 10,000 feet.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 5-143 Approaching Bottom of Descent (BOD) at OPSHN Offset Waypoint
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
18) The aircraft is approaching OPSHN. The upcoming turn and next heading are annunciated at the top left of the
PFD as seen in Figure 5-144. Initiate the turn and maneuver the aircraft on a track through the turn radius to
intercept the magenta line for the OPSHN to FSHER leg and center the CDI.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-144 Turn to intercept OPSHN to FSHER Leg
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
19) After passing OPSHN, the next leg of the arrival turns magenta as shown in Figure 5-145. The magenta arrow
in the flight plan list now indicates the OPSHN to FSHER leg of the arrival procedure is now active.
Figure 5-145 Tracking the OPSHN to FSHER Leg
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
20) The flight continues through the arrival procedure to FSHER. At a point 31 nm from the destination airport, the
phase of flight scaling for the CDI changes to Terminal Mode and is annunciated by displaying ‘TERM’ on the
HSI.
Annunciations for the upcoming turn and descent, as well as the VDI and RVSI, appear on the PFD as the flight
progresses.
AFCS
21) The approach may be activated at any point to proceed directly to the IAF. After FSHER, ATC approves approach
activation. Manually activate the approach procedure:
a) Press the PROC Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘ACTIVATE APPROACH’ as shown in Figure 5-146.
APPENDICES
c) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
INDEX
Figure 5-146 Manually Activate Approach
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
22) The active leg is now the course direct to HABUK iaf (see Figure 5-147).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-147 Approach is Now Active
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
23) The IAF is the next waypoint. At the TOD, establish a descent vertical speed as previously discussed in Step 16.
The aircraft altitude is about 9,900 feet upon reaching HABUK.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The descent continues using the Glidepath Indicator, as one would use a glideslope indicator, to obtain an
altitude of 8,100 feet at FALUR (Figure 5-149).
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 5-149 Descending Turn to the Initial Approach Fix (IAF)
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24) After crossing FALUR the next waypoint is the FAF. The flight phase changes to LPV on the HSI indicating the
current phase of flight is in Approach Mode and the approach type is LPV. CDI scaling changes accordingly and is
used much like a localizer when flying an ILS approach. The RVSI is no longer displayed and the VDI changes to
the Glidepath Indicator (as shown in Figure 5-150) when the final approach course becomes active.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-150 Descending to the FAF
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The descent continues through the FAF (CEGIX) using the Glidepath Indicator, as one would use a glideslope
indicator, to obtain an altitude “AT or ABOVE” 8,100 feet at the FAF. Note the altitude restriction lines under
(At or Above) the altitude in the ‘ALT’ field in Figure 5-150.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
25) After crossing CEGIX, the aircraft continues following the glidepath to maintain the descent to “AT or ABOVE”
6,600 feet at the Missed Approach Point (MAP) (RW35R) as seen in Figure 5-151.
Figure 5-151 Descending to the Missed Approach Point
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6600ft’) is not
part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along
the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded.
This altitude is provided by Jeppesen, and may be below, equal to, or above the published minimums for
this approach. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,600 feet) after crossing
the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of 6,600 feet is
reached. After reaching 6,600 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case MOGAL).
If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to the
published fix (MOGAL) to begin the missed approach procedure.
INDEX
APPENDICES
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed
Approach Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’.
Again, if the aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to
Altitude leg when the missed approach procedure is activated.
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26) Upon reaching the MAP, it is decided to execute a missed approach. Automatic waypoint sequencing is
suspended past the MAP. Press the SUSP Softkey on the PFD to resume automatic waypoint sequencing
through the missed approach procedure.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A direct-to is initiated to ADANE, which is the Missed Approach Hold Point (MAHP) as seen in Figure 5-152.
The aircraft is climbing to 9,000 feet. The CDI flight phase now changes from LPV to MAPR as seen on the
HSI.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 5-152 Missed Approach Active
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
27) The aircraft continues climbing to “AT or ABOVE” 9,000 feet at ADANE. A holding pattern is established at the
MAHP (ADANE) as shown in Figure 5-153.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-153 Establishing the Holding Pattern
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
28) The aircraft maintains 9,000 feet while following the magenta line through the hold as in Figure 5-154.
Figure 5-154 Hold Established
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5.12 ABNORMAL OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The Inset Map is removed from the PFD any time aircraft pitch is greater than +30° or less than –20°,
or when a 65° bank angle is reached.
This section discusses the Dead Reckoning mode of operation and the subsequent indications.
NOTE: Dead Reckoning Mode only functions in Enroute (ENR) or Oceanic (OCN) phase of flight. In all other
EIS
phases, an invalid GPS solution produces a “NO GPS POSITION” annunciation on the map and the G1000
stops using GPS.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
While in Enroute or Oceanic phase of flight, if the G1000 detects an invalid GPS solution or is unable to
calculate a GPS position, the system automatically reverts to Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode. In DR Mode, the G1000
uses its last-known position combined with continuously updated airspeed and heading data (when available) to
calculate and display the aircraft’s current estimated position.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the G1000 in DR Mode may become increasingly
unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. If while in DR Mode airspeed and/or heading data
is also lost or not available, the DR function may not be capable of accurately tracking estimated position and,
consequently, the system may display a path that is different than the actual movement of the aircraft. Estimated
position information displayed by the G1000 through DR while there is no heading and/or airspeed data available
should not be used for navigation.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
DR Mode is inherently less accurate than the standard GPS/SBAS Mode due to the lack of satellite measurements
needed to determine a position. Changes in wind speed and/or wind direction compound the relative inaccuracy
of DR Mode. Because of this degraded accuracy, other navigation equipment must be relied upon for position
awareness until GPS-derived position data is restored.
AFCS
DR Mode is indicated on the G1000 by the appearance of the letters ‘DR’ superimposed in amber over the
‘own aircraft’ symbol as shown in Figure 5-155. In addition, ‘DR’ is prominently displayed in amber on the HSI
slightly above and to the right of the aircraft symbol on the CDI as shown in Figure 5-155. The CDI deviation
bar remains, but is removed from the display after 20 minutes in DR Mode. The autopilot will remain coupled
in DR mode as long as the deviation info is available (20 min.) Lastly, but at the same time, a ‘GPS NAV LOST’
alert message appears on the PFD. Normal navigation using GPS/SBAS source data resumes automatically once
a valid GPS solution is restored.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
As a result of operating in DR Mode, all GPS-derived data is computed based upon an estimated position and
is displayed as amber text on the display to denote degraded navigation source information as shown in Figure
5-155.
Also, while the G1000 is in DR Mode, both TAWS and Terrain Proximity are disabled. Additionally, the accuracy
of all nearest information (airports, airspaces, and waypoints) is questionable. Finally, airspace alerts continue to
function, but with degraded accuracy.
INDEX
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Distance &
Bearing
EIS
Current
Track
Indicator
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Wind Data
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
GPS Navigation
Lost Message
Bearing
Pointer/
Distance
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Nav Data Bar
All data except
Active Leg,
TAS, and DTK
are in amber
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Wind Data
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
APPENDICES
Subdued Aircraft
Symbol
INDEX
Figure 5-155 Dead Reckoning Mode - GPS Derived Data Shown in Amber
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SYSTEM
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SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Hazard avoidance features available for the G1000 are designed to aid situational awareness and provide advisory
information with regard to potential hazards to flight safety associated with weather, terrain, and air traffic.
Weather
• GDL 69/69A SXM SiriusXM Weather (Subscription Optional)
• GSR 56 Garmin Connext Weather (Subscription Optional)
• GWX 68 Airborne Color Weather Radar
EIS
• L-3 WX-500 Stormscope Lightning Detection System (Optional)
Terrain Avoidance
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Terrain Proximity
• Terrain-SVS (included with SVT option)
• Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B (TAWS-B) (Optional)
Traffic
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Traffic Information Service (TIS)
• Garmin GTS 825 Traffic Advisory System I (TAS) (Optional)
• Garmin GTS 855 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System I (TCAS I) (Optional)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Garmin GTS 825 Automatic Dependent Surveillance- Broadcast (ADS-B) Traffic (Optional)
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 SIRIUSXM WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
EIS
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The optional GDL 69/69A SXM is a remote-mounted satellite data link receiver which provides SiriusXM
Weather information. The system shows received graphical weather information and associated text on the Multi
Function Display (MFD) and the Primary Flight Display (PFD) Inset Map. The GDL 69A SXM can also receive
SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment services. Both weather data and audio entertainment programming
operate in the S-band frequency range to provide continuous reception capabilities at any altitude throughout
North America.
Services from SiriusXM are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit www.
siriusxm.com.
ACTIVATING SERVICES
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Before SiriusXM Weather can be used, the service must be activated by providing SiriusXM’s customer service
the coded IDs unique to the installed data link receiver. The SiriusXM Weather service has a coded Data Radio
ID. The Data Radio ID must be provided to activate the weather service. This ID is in the following locations:
• The XM Information Page on the MFD (Figure 6-1)
AFCS
• The SiriusXM Activation Instructions included with the Data Link Receiver
• The label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
Contact the installer if the Audio and Data Radio IDs cannot be located.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
SiriusXM uses the coded IDs to send an activation signal that allows the system to provide weather data and/
or audio entertainment programming provided through the data link receiver.
Establishing an account for SiriusXM services:
1) Select the XM Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
APPENDICES
2) Select the INFO Softkey to display the AUX - XM Information Page.
3) Note the Data Radio ID (for SiriusXM Weather) and/or the Audio Radio ID (for SiriusXM Satellite Radio).
4) Contact SiriusXM customer service through the phone number listed on its website, www.siriusxm.com.
INDEX
5) Provide SiriusXM customer service the Data Radio ID and/or Audio Radio ID, in addition to payment information,
and desired weather product subscription package.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Activating the SiriusXM Weather service:
1) Once a SiriusXM Weather account has been established, select the XM Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Select the INFO Softkey to display the XM Information Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Observe the list of Weather Products. A white empty box appears next to an unavailable weather product; a
green filled box appears next to an available weather product. During activation, it may take several minutes
for weather products in the chosen subscription package to become available.
4) When the available weather products displayed match the weather products offered in the chosen SiriusXM
Weather product subscription package, press the LOCK Softkey.
EIS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘YES’.
6) To complete activation, press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Data Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Weather)
Audio Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Satellite Radio)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Weather Products
(Available Products
for Service Class
Indicated in Green)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Select to Display XM
Information page
AFCS
Select to Lock
Subscription
Information
Figure 6-1 XM Information Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
USING SIRIUSXM WEATHER PRODUCTS
The principal map page for viewing SiriusXM Weather data is the Weather Data Link (XM) Page in the Map
Page Group. Most SiriusXM Weather products can be shown on this page.
APPENDICES
Viewing the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT) Page.
3) If the page title contains ‘CNXT’, it will be necessary to change the data link weather source from Garmin
Connext to SiriusXM Weather. Refer to the next procedure to change the source.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Changing the weather data link source (SiriusXM or Garmin Connext):
1) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) If necessary, turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT) Page.
3) Press the MENU Key.
EIS
4) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display XM Weather’ or ‘Display Connext Weather’ and press
the ENT Key. Weather Data Link Page title and softkeys change to correspond to selected data link weather
source.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NEXRAD
Weather
Product Symbol
and Product
Ages (U.S. and
Canada)
NEXRAD
Weather Product
Selected for
Display
AFCS
Figure 6-2 Weather Data Link (XM) Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
For each enabled SiriusXM Weather product, the system displays a weather product icon and product age.
The product age is the elapsed time (in minutes) since the weather data provider compiled the weather product.
The product age display does not indicate the age of the information contained within the weather product,
which can be significantly older than the displayed weather product age.
APPENDICES
The SiriusXM Weather service broadcasts weather products at specific intervals (defined in the Broadcast
Rate column in Table 6-1). If for any reason, a product is not broadcast within the Expiration Time intervals
(see Table 6-1), the system removes the expired data from the display, and shows dashes instead of the product
age. This ensures the displayed information is consistent with what is currently being transmitted by the
SiriusXM Weather service. If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age
changes to yellow. If data for a weather product is not available, the system displays ‘N/A’ next to the weather
product symbol instead of the product age.
INDEX
Table 6-1 shows the weather product symbols, the expiration times and the broadcast rates. The broadcast
rate represents the interval at which the SiriusXM Weather service transmits new signals that may or may not
contain updated weather products. It does not represent the rate at which the weather information is updated
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
or when the Data Link Receiver receives new data. SiriusXM and its weather data suppliers define and control
the data update intervals, which are subject to change.
Product
Symbol
Next-generation Radar (NEXRAD)
Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
Expiration Time Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
(Minutes)
5 (U.S.)
30
10 (Canada)
15 (69/69A)
60
30 (69/69A SXM)
30
12
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
60
12
Meteorological Aerodrome Report (METARs)
90
12
City Forecast (CITY)
90
12
Surface Analysis (SFC)
60
12
Freezing Levels (FRZ LVL)
120
12
Winds Aloft (WIND)
90
12
County Warnings (COUNTY)
60
5
Cyclone Warnings (CYCLONE)
60
12
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD) (ICNG)
90
22
Pilot Weather Report (PIREPs)
90
12
Air Report (AIREPs)
90
12
Turbulence (TURB)
180
12
no product image
30
5
Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs)
Terminal Aerodrome Reports (TAFs)
no product image
no product image
60
60
12
12
INDEX
No Radar Coverage
APPENDICES
Cell Movement (CELL MOV)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5
AFCS
30
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SiriusXM Lightning (XM LTNG)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7.5
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
30
EIS
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SiriusXM Weather Product
Table 6-1 SiriusXM Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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SYSTEM
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Navigation Map Page
Weather Data Link
(XM) Page
AUX - Trip Planning
Page
Nearest Page Group
Flight Plan Pages
NEXRAD
+
+
+
+
+
+
No Radar Coverage
+
+
+
+
+
+
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
SiriusXM Weather Product
Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
+
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
+
SiriusXM Lightning (XM LTNG)
+
+
+
+
+
+
Cell Movement (CELL MOV)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
METAR
+
+
AFCS
+
+
City Forecast (CITY)
+
Surface Analysis (SFC)
+
Freezing Levels (FRZ LVL)
+
Winds Aloft (WIND)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Weather Information
Page
PFD Inset Map
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Table 6-2 shows which SiriusXM Weather products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on specific
maps.
+*
+
County Warnings (COUNTY)
+
Cyclone Warnings (CYCLONE)
+
Icing Potential (ICNG)
+
PIREPs
+
AIREPs
+
Turbulence (TURB)
+
TFRs
TAFs
+
+
+
+
* Winds Aloft data on the Navigation Map Page available inside the Profile View Window.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Table 6-2 SiriusXM Weather Product Display Maps
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Softkeys control the display of weather information on most MFD pages and the PFD Inset Map (Figure
6-3 shows the weather product softkeys for the Weather Data Link (XM) Page). When a weather product is
selected for display, the corresponding softkey label changes to gray to indicate the product is enabled.
CYCLONE SFC OFF
FRZ LVL
SIG/AIR
METAR
LEGEND MORE WX CHKLIST
WIND OFF ICNG OFF TURB OFF AIREPS
PIREPS
COUNTY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NEXRAD ECHO TOP CLD TOP XM LTNG CELL MOV
BACK
SFC Softkey label changes
to reflect current selection.
WIND/ICNG/TURB Softkey labels
change to reflect current selection.
CURRENT
12 HR
24 HR
36 HR
48 HR
LEGEND
BACK
EIS
OFF
Select the BACK Softkey
to move up one level.
SFC
3000
6000
9000
12000
15000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
36000
39000
42000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
1000
3000
6000
9000
12000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
39000
42000
45000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
15000
36000
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
OFF
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
PREV
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
PREV and NEXT Softkeys cycle through Winds Aloft,
Icing, and Turbulence altitude selection softkeys.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-3 Weather Data Link (XM) Page Weather Product Softkeys
Displaying SiriusXM Weather products on the PFD Inset Map:
APPENDICES
1) On the PFD, press the INSET Softkey.
2) If the PFD Inset Map is showing the traffic map, press the TFRC-2 Softkey to display the navigation map.
3) Press the desired weather product softkey(s) to enable/disable the display of SiriusXM Weather products on the
Inset Map.
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INDEX
4) To display or remove the weather product icon and age box for displayed weather products on the inset map,
press the WX LGND Softkey.
315
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link (XM) Page control the map range
settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the
weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The menus
also provide the ability to enable/disable the display of weather products, and provide the equivalent to using
the softkeys.
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
EIS
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-4).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘PRODUCT GROUP 1’ or ‘PRODUCT GROUP 2’, and press the ENT Key (Figure
6-5).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, maximum map range settings,
etc.).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the changed settings.
APPENDICES
Figure 6-4 Weather Data Link (XM)
Page Menu
INDEX
Figure 6-5 Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Setup Menu
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Restoring default Weather Data Link (XM) Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Highlight the desired default(s) to restore (all or for selection) and press ENT Key.
EIS
Maps besides the Weather Data Link (XM) Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map
Page.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-6).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-7).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-8).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, maximum map range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 6-6 Navigation Map Page Menu
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
190-01889-01 Rev. A
INDEX
Figure 6-7 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-8 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
317
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
If multiple data link weather services are installed, surch as the optional GSR 56 Garmin Connext Weather
service, customizing the display settings for the corresponding weather products shown in Table 6-3 will result
in identical settings for a comparable weather product from another service provider.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Garmin Connext Weather
Product (CNXT)
Precipitation
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD)
(PRECIP)
Cloud Top
Infrared Satellite
(CLD TOP)
(IR SAT)
SiriusXM Lightning
Garmin Connext Data Link
Lightning (DL LTNG)
(XM LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
(PIREPs)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
SiriusXM Weather Product
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Table 6-3 Corresponding Weather Data Link Product Settings
Each active weather product has an associated legend which can be displayed on the Weather Data Link (XM)
Page and on most MFD pages displaying a navigation map.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products (on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page):
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
AFCS
2) Select the LEGEND Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the window.
APPENDICES
4) To remove the XM Weather Legends Window, select the LEGEND Softkey, or press the ENT or the CLR Keys, or
press the FMS Knob.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products (on the Navigation Map Page):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the MAP Softkey.
INDEX
3) Select the LEGEND Softkey (available if one or more SiriusXM Weather products are enabled for display).
4) To remove the Legend Window, select the LEGEND Softkey, or press the ENT or the CLR Keys, or press the FMS
Knob.
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Additional information about the following can be displayed by panning over the display on the map:
• METARs
• Cloud Tops
• County Warnings
• Cell Movement
• TFRs
• SIGMETs
• AIREPs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPs
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Echo Tops
EIS
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Additional
Information
on Weather
Feature
Selected with
Map Pointer
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Flash Flood
Warning
Selected with
Map Pointer
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 6-9 Panning on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NEXRAD
NOTE: NEXRAD cannot be displayed simultaneously with terrain, echo tops, turbulence, or airborne weather
radar data on the same map.
APPENDICES
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
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Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider compiles the available
individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time to indicate when
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual images--gathered from
each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The
data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the SiriusXM Weather service, whose satellites transmit this
information during the next designated refresh time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be older than the current radar synopsis and may not
depict the current weather conditions. The NEXRAD weather product should never be used as a basis for
maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
EIS
The system displays either base or composite NEXRAD imagery, depending on the model of data link
receiver installed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
For radar sites in the United States, the NEXRAD wether product shows a composite reflectivity image. It
represents the highest radar energy received from multiple antenna tilt angles at various altitudes. For radar
sites based in Canada, the NEXRAD weather product shows radar returns from the lowest antenna tilt angle,
known as base reflectivity. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate the intensity of the echoes
and the type or precipitation, if known.
Figure 6-10 NEXRAD Data on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
APPENDICES
Displaying NEXRAD weather information:
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
INDEX
All weather product legends can be viewed on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page. For the NEXRAD legend
(Figure 6-11), select the LEGEND Softkey when NEXRAD is selected for display.
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INSTRUMENTS
No Radar Coverage
EIS
Figure 6-11 NEXRAD Data with Legend
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The display of no radar coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is enabled. Areas
where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information are not currently available or are not being
collected are indicated in gray shade of purple.
Reflectivity
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
AFCS
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• NEXRAD base reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine cloud layers or precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet snow, wet
hail, and rain.
APPENDICES
• NEXRAD base reflectivity is sampled at the minimum antenna elevation angle. An individual NEXRAD
site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information about storms directly over
the site.
• When zoomed in to a range of 30 nm, each square block on the display represents an area of four square
kilometers. The intensity level reflected by each square represents the highest level of NEXRAD data
sampled within the area (Figure 6-12).
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• Unknown precipitation occurring below 52ºN is displayed as rain, regardless of the actual precipitation
type.
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EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Block Area is 4 km2
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-12 NEXRAD Data - Zoomed
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
AFCS
NEXRAD Limitations (Canada)
• Radar coverage extends to 55ºN.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Any precipitation displayed between 52ºN and 55ºN is displayed as mixed regardless of actual precipitation
type.
INDEX
APPENDICES
• Below 52ºN, if the type of precipitation is unavailable, the system displays the precipitation using the
color codes associated with rain.
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No Coverage Above 55ºN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Precipitation
Above 52ºN
Displays as
Mixed
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-13 NEXRAD Data - Canada
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ECHO TOPS
NOTE: Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time as Cloud Tops or NEXRAD data on the Weather Data
Link (XM) Page.
AFCS
The Echo Tops weather product (Figure 6-14) shows the location, elevation, and direction of the highest
radar echo. The highest radar echo does not indicate the top of a storm or clouds; rather it indicates the
highest altitude at which precipitation is detected. Information is derived from NEXRAD data.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
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FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-14 Echo Tops Weather Product
Displaying Echo Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Select the ECHO TOP Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
To display the Echo Tops legend (Figure 6-15), select the LEGEND Softkey when Echo Tops is selected for
display. Since Echo Tops and Cloud Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Echo Tops is enabled on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page,
the system disables the NEXRAD and Cloud Tops weather products.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-15 Echo Tops Legend
INDEX
APPENDICES
The display of No Radar Coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is enabled. Areas
where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is not being collected
are indicated in gray shade of purple.
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CLOUD TOPS
NOTE: Cloud Tops and Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Cloud Tops weather product (Figure 6-16) depicts cloud top altitudes as determined from satellite
imagery.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-16 Cloud Tops Weather Product
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
AFCS
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the CLD TOP Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To display the Cloud Tops legend (Figure 6-17), select the LEGEND Softkey when Cloud Tops is selected for
display. Since Cloud Tops and Echo Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Cloud Tops is activated on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page,
the system disables the Echo Tops weather product.
APPENDICES
Figure 6-17 Cloud Tops Legend
INDEX
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SIRIUSXM LIGHTNING
NOTE: SiriusXM Lightning data cannot be displayed at the same time as optional WX-500 Stormscope
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
lightning is selected for display.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The SiriusXM Lightning weather product (Figure 6-18) shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground
lightning strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. The exact
location of the lightning strike is not displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Lightning
Strikes
AFCS
Figure 6-18 SiriusXM Lightning Weather Product
Displaying SiriusXM Lightning information:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the XM LTNG Softkey (LTNG Softkey on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page).
APPENDICES
To display the SiriusXM Lightning legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page (Figure 6-19), select the
LEGEND Softkey when SiriusXM Lightning is selected for display.
INDEX
Figure 6-19 Lightning Legend
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CELL MOVEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Cell Movement weather product (Figure 6-20) shows the location and movement of storm cells as
identified by the ground-based system. Cells are represented by yellow squares, with direction of movement
indicated with short, orange arrows.
EIS
Storm Cells
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-20 Cell Movement Weather Product
On most applicable maps, Cell Movement appears when the NEXRAD weather product is enabled. On
the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, Cell Movement data can be selected independently from NEXRAD. Cell
Movement data can be displayed on the following maps:
• AUX - Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map
• Nearest Pages
AFCS
• PFD Inset Map
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: The Storm Cell base height is not available if a GDL 69A SXM data link receiver is installed. In this
case, the Storm Cell base height is displayed as 0 feet when the map pointer selects a storm cell.
Displaying Cell Movement information:
APPENDICES
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
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INDEX
2) Select the NEXRAD Softkey (CEL MOV Softkey on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page). For Cell Movement to
be displayed on maps other than the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, Cell Movement must be enabled in the
Navigation Map Setup Menu (see the procedure ‘Setting up and customizing weather data for the Navigation
Map Page’).
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
To display the Cell Movement legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, (Figure 6-21), select the
LEGEND Softkey when Cell Movement is selected for display.
Figure 6-21 Cell Movement Legend
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The National Weather Service (NWS) issues SIGMETs (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and
AIRMETs (AIRmen’s METeorological Information) for potentially hazardous weather. The NWS issues
Convective SIGMETs for hazardous convective weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A
localized SIGMET indicates a SIGMET affecting a small geographic area.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AIRMET IFR
AFCS
AIRMET Turbulence
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-22 SIGMET/AIRMET Data
NOTE: If a 69A SXM receiver installed, the SIGMET and AIRMET weather products are not available unless
APPENDICES
at least one SIGMET or AIRMET has been received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no
SIGMET or AIRMET is available.
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the SIG/AIR Softkey.
INDEX
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map Pointer over the icon.
4) Press the ENT key. Figure 6-23 shows sample SIGMET text.
To display the SIGMET and AIRMET legend (Figure 6-24), select the LEGEND Softkey when SIGMETs and
AIRMETs are selected for display.
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INSTRUMENTS
Figure 6-23 Sample SIGMET Text
Figure 6-24 SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
EIS
METARS AND TAFS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure as reported for METARs is given in hectopascals (hPa), except for in the United
States, where it is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are reported in Celsius.
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service area.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud base heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an
airport or observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and
other critical data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the
report. METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
Instructions for
Viewing METAR
and TAF Text
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selected Airport
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 6-25 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
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METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR data is displayed first in a
decoded fashion, followed by its original text. The original text may contain information not found in the
decoded version. The system displays TAF information only in its original form, when a TAF is available.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Displaying METAR and TAF text:
1) On the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, select the METAR Softkey.
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
EIS
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
b) Select the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that the METAR text must
be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
METAR Text for the
Selected Airport
METAR Symbol
INDEX
APPENDICES
TAF Text for the
Selected Airport
Figure 6-26 METAR and TAF Text on the Weather Information Page
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OVERVIEW
Original METAR text is also accessible while panning the map cursor over a METAR flag on any map page
on which a METAR is displayed. The METAR text is shown in a box near the METAR flag.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In addition, METAR flags and their associated text are displayed on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
METAR flags appears next to waypoints in the flight plan with an associated METAR.
Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
EIS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint. The METAR text will appear in the ‘SELECTED
WAYPOINT WEATHER’ window below.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the Active Flight Plan
Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page (Figure 6-27), select the LEGEND
Softkey when METARs are enabled for display.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Information in the METAR text determines the color of the METAR flag. A gray METAR flag appears for
a reporting station when its METAR text does not contain adequate information to determine the METAR
category (e.g. VFR, IFR).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-27 METAR Legend
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CITY FORECAST
NOTE: Surface Analysis and City Forecast data are displayed only within the installed navigation database
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
coverage area.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Surface Analysis and City Forecast information is available for current and forecast weather conditions.
Forecasts are available for intervals of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours.
Figure 6-28 12 Hour Surface Analysis and City Forecast Data
AFCS
Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Select the SFC Softkey.
4) Select the desired forecast time: CURRENT, 12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, or 48 HR. The SFC Softkey label changes
to reflect the forecast time selected.
INDEX
APPENDICES
To display the Surface Analysis and City Forecast legend (Figure 6-29), select the LEGEND Softkey when the
Surface Analysis and City Forecast weather product is displayed.
Figure 6-29 Surface Analysis Legend
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FREEZING LEVELS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Freezing Level weather product shows the color-coded contour lines for the altitude and location at
which the first isotherm is found (Figure 6-30). When no data is displayed for a given altitude, the data for
that altitude has not been received, or is out of date and has been removed from the display. New data will
appear when it becomes available.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-30 Freezing Level Data
Displaying Freezing Level information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
AFCS
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the FRZ LVL Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To display the Freezing Level legend (Figure 6-31), select the LEGEND Softkey when Freezing Level data is
displayed.
APPENDICES
Figure 6-31 Freezing Level Legend
INDEX
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WINDS ALOFT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Winds Aloft weather product (Figure 6-32) shows the predicted wind speed and direction at the
surface and at selected altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3,000-foot increments from the surface up to
42,000 feet MSL.
Displaying Winds Aloft data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
EIS
3) Select the WIND Softkey.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Select the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Select the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The WIND Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-32 Winds Aloft Weather Product at 24,000 Feet
APPENDICES
To display the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-33), select the LEGEND Softkey when Winds Aloft is selected
for display.
Figure 6-33 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
INDEX
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the optional Profile View feature on the
Navigation Map Page (Figure 6-34). The displayed wind components are relative to current aircraft altitude
and track, but not to aircraft speed.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Altitude Scale
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Weather Product
Age
Wind Component
Velocity and
Direction Arrows
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-34 Winds Aloft Weather Product with Profile View (Navigation Map Page)
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in Table 6-4.
Tailwind Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Headwind Symbol
5 knots
10 knots
AFCS
50 knots
Table 6-4 Profile View Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Showing/Hiding Profile View (containing winds aloft data)
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the PROFILE Softkey.
Or:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page
2) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current
state) and press the ENT Key.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Winds Aloft data inside the Profile View is enabled by default when the Profile View is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display in Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-35).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Profile Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-36).
EIS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Profile Winds’ (Figure 6-37).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-35 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-37 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-36 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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OVERVIEW
COUNTY WARNINGS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The County Warnings weather product (Figure 6-38) provides specific public awareness and protection
weather warnings from the National Weather Service (NWS). This can include information on tornadoes,
severe thunderstorms, and flood conditions.
EIS
Additional
Information
on Flood
Warning
Selected
with Map
Pointer
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Flood
Warning
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-38 County Flood Warning
AFCS
Displaying County Warning information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the COUNTY Softkey.
To display the County Warnings legend (Figure 6-39), select the LEGEND Softkey when County Warnings
are selected to be displayed.
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 6-39 County Warnings Legend
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
CYCLONE
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Cyclone weather product (Figure 6-40) shows the current location of cyclones (hurricanes), tropical
storms, and their projected tracks. The system displays the projected track information in the form of
DD/HH:MM.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Cyclone
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-40 Cyclone Weather Product Selected for Display
NOTE: If a GDL 69/69A SXM receiver is installed, the Cyclone weather product is not available unless at
least one cyclone or tropical storm has been received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no
cyclone or tropical storm has been received.
AFCS
Displaying cyclone (hurricane) track information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Select the CYCLONE Softkey.
APPENDICES
To display the Cyclone legend (Figure 6-41), select the LEGEND Softkey when Cyclones are selected to be
displayed.
INDEX
Figure 6-41 Cyclone Legend
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ICING (CIP & SLD)
NOTE: Icing data cannot be displayed at the same time as NEXRAD data is selected for display.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Current Icing Product (CIP) data shows a graphical view of the icing environment (Figure 6-42). Icing
severity is displayed in four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extreme (not specific to aircraft type). The
CIP product is not a forecast, but a presentation of the conditions at the time of the analysis.
EIS
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing conditions are characterized by the presence of relatively large,
super cooled water droplets indicative of freezing drizzle and freezing rain aloft. SLD threat areas are depicted
as magenta dots over the CIP colors. SLD conditions may be extremely hazardous to all aircraft.
Displaying Icing data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the ICNG Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Select the desired altitude level: 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet. Press the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle through
the altitude softkeys. The ICNG Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Icing
Potential
SLD
Threat
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 6-42 Icing Data at 21,000 Feet
To display the Icing Potential legend (Figure 6-43), press the LEGEND Softkey when Icing is selected for
display.
INDEX
Figure 6-43 Icing Potential Legend
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TURBULENCE
NOTE: Turbulence data cannot be displayed at the same time the NEXRAD weather product is selected for
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
display.
The Turbulence weather product (Figure 6-44) identifies the potential for erratic movement of high-altitude
air mass associated winds. Turbulence is classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme, at altitudes between
21,000 and 45,000 feet. Turbulence data is intended to supplement AIRMETs and SIGMETs.
EIS
Displaying Turbulence data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Select the TURB Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Select the desired altitude level: 21,000 feet up to 45,000 feet. Select the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The TURB Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Severe
Turbulence
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Moderate
Turbulence
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Light
Turbulence
Figure 6-44 Turbulence Weather Product at 21,000 Feet
APPENDICES
To display the Turbulence legend (Figure 6-45), select the LEGEND Softkey when Turbulence is selected
for display.
INDEX
Figure 6-45 Turbulence Legend
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OVERVIEW
PIREPS AND AIREPS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) describe in-flight weather conditions encountered by pilots. When
significant weather conditions are reported or forecast, Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities are required to solicit
PIREPs. A PIREP may contain adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions,
windshear, turbulence, and type of aircraft flown. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Another type of PIREP is an Air Report (AIREP). Commercial airlines typically generate AIREPs.
EIS
Instructions for
Viewing PIREP
and AIREP Text
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Urgent
PIREP
Routine
PIREP
Selected
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AIREP
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-46 AIREPs and PIREPs on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
AFCS
Displaying PIREP and AIREP text:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the AIREPS or PIREPS Softkey.
APPENDICES
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle appears around the weather report
when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with PIREP or AIREP text. The data is first displayed
in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information
not present in the decoded version.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP or AIREP text.
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INDEX
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Age of report in HH:MM
Decoded PIREP Text
Original PIREP Text
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Selected PIREP
Figure 6-47 PIREP Text on the Weather Information Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
To display the PIREP or AIREP legend (Figure 6-48), select the LEGEND Softkey when PIREPs or AIREPs
are selected for display.
AFCS
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-48 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
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TFRS
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
In the United States, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issues Temporary Flight Restrictions
(TFRs) to designate areas where flight is restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons
including national security, law enforcement, fire suppression, natural disasters., airshows, and large sporting
events. TFRs may be issued at any time, and TFR data displayed is only intended to supplement official TFR
information obtained from Flight Service Stations (FSS), and air traffic control.
EIS
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system displays
‘TFR N/A’ in the upper-left corner of maps on which TFRs can be displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
TFR Summary
Data
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TFR
Selected
with Map
Pointer
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-49 TFR Data on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying TFR Data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page or Navigation Map Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the Joystick and pan the map pointer to highlight a TFR border. The system displays TFR summary
information for the highlighted TFR above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
INDEX
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Review Airspaces’ and press the ENT Key. The system displays the
TFR Information window.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the TFR Information window.
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INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-50 Full Text for Selected TFR
EIS
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page control the map range settings above which TFR data is
decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is selected, the
TFR product data is removed from the map.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Maps other than the Navigation Map Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be displayed:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-51).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-52).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product maximum map range setting (Figure 6-53).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (range settings or ‘Off’ to disable display of TFRs).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-51 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-52 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
344
Figure 6-53 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6.2 GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
EIS
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
NOTE: The availability of specific Garmin Connext Weather products varies by region. For product coverage
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
information, refer to https://fly.garmin.com/fly-garmin/connext/worldwide-weather/.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The optional Garmin GSR 56 provides the Garmin Connext data link weather service to the system. The system
displays graphical weather information and associated text on the Multi Function Display (MFD) and on the
Primary Flight Display (PFD) Inset Map.
The system provides Garmin Connext Weather information after the flight crew selects either a manual or
automatic Connext Data Request on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page on the MFD.
Before the Garmin Connext weather service can be used, an account must first be established. Refer to the
Additional Features section for more information.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
REGISTERING THE SYSTEM FOR GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
When an account is established, Garmin customer service provides an Access Code which must be entered
on the system in order to complete the registration process.
Registering the system to receive Garmin Connext Weather:
AFCS
1) Ensure the aircraft is outside and has a clear view of the sky.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the MAP page group.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the MAP - WEATHER DATA LINK (CNXT or XM) Page. If ‘XM’ is displayed in
the page title, it will be necessary to change the data link source to Garmin Connext (CNXT) before continuing.
Refer to ‘Viewing the Weather Data Link Page’ procedure to change the data link source to Garmin Connext
Weather prior to registration.
APPENDICES
4) If the system displays the ‘Connext Registration’ window, proceed to step 7. Otherwise, press the MENU Key.
The Page Menu appears as seen in Figure 6-54.
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
EIS
Figure 6-54 Select ‘Register With Connext’
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Register With Connext’ in the menu list.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Press the ENT Key. The Connext Registration Window is displayed as shown in Figure 6-55.
APPENDICES
Figure 6-55 Enter Access Code
7) Enter the access code provided by customer service in the ACCESS CODE field.
8) Press the ENT Key. ‘REGISTER’ is highlighted as in Figure 6-55.
INDEX
9) Press the ENT Key. The GSR 56 contacts the Garmin Connext service using the Iridium satellite network.
Registration is complete when the STATUS field displays ‘REGISTERED’.
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OVERVIEW
ACCESSING GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER PRODUCTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The principal map for viewing Garmin Connext Weather information is the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
in the Map Page Group (Figure 6-56). Most Garmin Connext weather products can be displayed on this page.
No weather data appears until an initial Connext Data Request has been completed successfully.
Viewing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT) Page.
EIS
3) If the page title contains ‘XM’, it will be necessary to change the data link weather source from SiriusXM
Weather to Garmin Connext Weather. Refer to the next procedure to change the source.
Changing the weather data link source (Garmin Connext or SiriusXM):
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) If necessary, turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT) Page.
3) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display Connext Weather’ or ‘Display XM Weather’ and press
the ENT Key. Weather Data Link Page title and softkeys change to correspond to selected data link weather
source.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Precipitation
Weather
Product Symbol
and Product
Age in Minutes
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Precipitation
Weather Product
Selected for
Display
Figure 6-56 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
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INDEX
When a weather product is selected for display on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page, a box containing a
symbol or name for the product and its age (in minutes) are shown in the upper right (Figure 6-56) of the page.
If weather data has not been requested, or is not available from the source, ‘N/A’ is shown next to the product
symbol instead of the product age. The age of the weather product is based on the time difference between
347
SYSTEM
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
when the requested data was assembled on the ground and the current GPS time. The Garmin Connext
Weather service updates its weather products continuously, or refreshes them at specific intervals, depending
on the product (defined in the Refresh Rate column in Table 6-5). The product age display does not indicate
the age of the information contained within the weather product, which can be significantly older than the
displayed weather product age.
If for any reason, a weather product is not refreshed within the defined Expiration Time intervals (see Table
6-5), the product is considered expired and is removed from the display. The age of the expired product is
replaced by dashes. If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age changes
from white to yellow.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Table 6-5 shows the Garmin Connext weather product symbols, the expiration times and the refresh rates.
The refresh rate represents the interval at which the Garmin Connext ground-based servers make available the
most current known weather data. It does not represent the rate at which new content is received from various
weather sources around the world.
NOTE: The availability of specific Garmin Connext Weather products varies by region. For product coverage
information, refer to https://fly.garmin.com/fly-garmin/connext/worldwide-weather/.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
Symbol
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Radar Precipitation
(PRECIP)
30
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Infrared Satellite
(IR SAT)
Garmin Connext Data Link
Lightning (DL LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Temporary Flight Restrictions
no product image
(TFRs)
Terminal Aerodrome Reports
no product image
(TAFs)
APPENDICES
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Refresh Rate
(Minutes)
U.S.: 3*
Canada: 3*†
Europe: 15
Australia: 15ˆ
60
30
30
Continuous
60
Continuous
90
Continuous
90
Continuous
90
Continuous
60
Continuous
60
Continuous
INDEX
* The composite precipitation image is updated every 3 minutes, but individual radar sites may take
between 3 and 10 minutes to provide new data.
†
Canadian radar precipitation data provided by Environment Canada.
ˆ Australian radar precipitation data provided by the Australia Bureau of Meteorology
Table 6-5 Garmin Connext Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Nearest Page Group
Flight Plan Pages
Infrared Satellite (IR SAT)
AUX - Trip Planning
Page
Weather Data Link
(CNXT) Page
+
Weather Information
Page
Navigation Map Page
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
EIS
+
Precipitation (PRECIP)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Garmin Connext Weather Product
PFD Inset Map
Table 6-6 shows which Garmin Connext Weather products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on
specific maps.
+
+
+
+
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning (DL LTNG)
+
METARs
+
Winds Aloft (WIND)
+
+
+*
+
+
+
+
+
TFRs
+
+
+
TAFs
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
PIREPs
No Radar Coverage
+
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
* Winds Aloft data on the Navigation Map Page available inside the Profile View Window.
Table 6-6 Garmin Connext Weather Product Display Maps
PRECIP
IR SAT
DL LTNG
SIG/AIR
LEGEND MORE WX CHKLIST
PIREPS
BACK
WIND Softkey label changes
to reflect current selection.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
WIND OFF
METAR
AFCS
Softkeys control the display of weather information on most MFD pages and the PFD Inset Map (Figure 6-57
shows the weather product softkeys for the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page). When a weather product is
selected for display, the corresponding softkey label changes to gray to indicate the product display is enabled.
Press the BACK Softkey
to move up one level.
OFF
SFC
3000
6000
9000
12000
15000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
36000
39000
42000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
INDEX
PREV
APPENDICES
PREV and NEXT Softkeys cycle through Winds Aloft
altitude selection softkeys.
Figure 6-57 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Softkeys (MFD)
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page control the map
range settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the maximum weather product map range setting is selected, the system removes the weather product from the
map. The menus also provide controls for enabling/disabling the display of weather products, in addition to
using the softkeys.
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
EIS
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-58).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired weather product group, and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-59).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, maximum map range settings,
etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page with the changed settings.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-58 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Menu
APPENDICES
Figure 6-59 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Setup Menu
Restoring default Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) ‘PRODUCT GROUP 1’ is highlighted. To restore default settings to all the weather products displayed below,
press the MENU Key
5) If needed, turn the small FMS Knob to highlight a weather product setting, or weather product group name.
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OVERVIEW
6) Highlight the product group name (to restore default settings to the entire product group) or an individual
weather product, then press the ENT Key.
7) Highlight ‘Restore All Defaults’ or ‘Restore Selection Default’, and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If both Garmin Connext Weather and SiriusXM weather services are installed, customizing the display settings
for the corresponding weather products shown in Table 6-7 will result in identical settings for both services.
Garmin Connext Weather
Product (CNXT)
Precipitation
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD)
(PRECIP)
Cloud Top
Infrared Satellite
(CLD TOP)
(IR SAT)
SiriusXM Lightning
Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning
(DL LTNG)
(XM LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
(PIREPs)
SiriusXM Weather Product
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Table 6-7 Corresponding Weather Data Link Product Settings
Maps besides the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation
Map Page.
AFCS
Setting up and customizing weather data for the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-60).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-61).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-62).
APPENDICES
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, maximum map range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
INDEX
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INSTRUMENTS
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Figure 6-60 Navigation Map Page Menu
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-61 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-62 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
Each active weather product has an associated legend which can be displayed on the Weather Data Link
(CNXT) Page. If no weather product softkeys are selected, the LEGEND Softkey will be unavailable.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Select the LEGEND Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
AFCS
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the window.
4) To remove the Legend Window, select the LEGEND Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Viewing legends for displayed weather products (on the Navigation Map Page):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the MAP Softkey.
APPENDICES
3) Select the LEGEND Softkey (available if one or more weather products are enabled for display).
INDEX
4) To remove the Connext Weather Legends Window, select the LEGEND Softkey, or press the ENT or the CLR
Key, or press the FMS Knob.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Additional information about the following can be displayed by panning over the display on the map:
• METARs
• SIGMETs
• TFRs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPs
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Infrared Satellite (IR SAT)
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
EIS
Additional
information for
selected PIREP
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
PIREP selected
with Map
Pointer
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 6-63 Panning on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
CONNEXT WEATHER DATA REQUESTS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Connext Data Request window provides the flight crew with the options to enable or disable the requested
weather coverage area(s), choose automatic weather update intervals (if desired), and the ability to send or
cancel weather data requests. The status of the Garmin Connext data request process is also displayed.
APPENDICES
Before a Garmin Connext data request can occur, a valid request coverage area must be defined from which
all currently available Garmin Connext weather products will be retrieved. At a minimum, either the aircraft’s
present position or a waypoint (as part of a flight plan or entered directly in the ‘WAYPOINT’ coverage field) must
be part of the request coverage area, otherwise the request status window will indicate ‘INVALID COVERAGE
AREA’ and the system will not allow a request to occur.
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INDEX
It is not necessary for a destination (based on an active flight plan), a flight plan, or waypoint to be specified
prior to enabling these coverage areas; however no weather data will be retrieved for these option(s) until a
flight plan or waypoint is provided, respectively.
353
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Requesting Garmin Connext weather data manually:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-64).
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired coverage option(s) and press the ENT Key to add or remove
a check from one of more of the following coverage selections (Figures 6-65, 6-66):
• PRESENT POSITION – Requests data based on current location.
EIS
• DESTINATION – Requests data based on the active flight plan destination (Direct-To destinations excluded).
See the Flight Management section for more information about entering and activating flight plans.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• FPL – Requests data along an active flight plan, if one exists. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired
flight plan look-ahead distance option (or choose ‘REMAINING FPL’ to request the remainder of the flight
plan), then press the ENT Key.
• WAYPOINT – Requests data based on a waypoint (which may be off-route). Turn the large and small FMS
Knobs to enter a waypoint, then press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Turn the large FMS Knob highlight to the ‘DIAMETER / RTE WIDTH’ (diameter/route width) distance field and
turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired diameter and route width of the request, then press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Turn the large FMS Knob until the ‘SEND REQ’ button is highlighted. Press the ENT Key to initiate the request
immediately or press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page without requesting
weather data.
APPENDICES
Figure 6-64 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Menu
INDEX
Figure 6-65 Connext Data Request Window
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Destination Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
EIS
Present Position Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Next 80 nm of Flight Plan
Selected, 200 nm Route
Width Requested
Off-Route Waypoint
Selected, 200 nm Diameter
Requested
Figure 6-66 Connext Weather Data Request Results with Precipitation Displayed
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
During a Connext Data Request, the REQUEST STATUS window initially displays “Contacting Connext...”.
Once a connection is established, the REQUEST STATUS window displays “Receiving Wx Data... Time
Remaining:” with an estimated data transfer time (either in minutes or seconds). If desired, the Connext Data
Request window may be closed while the data request is processing by pressing the FMS Knob; the data request
will continue to process in the background. Connext Data Requests typically take between 1 to 4 minutes to
complete depending on the size of the selected weather coverage area(s), the amount of weather activity present
(such as precipitation), and the Iridium signal strength.
APPENDICES
The system retrieves all available Garmin Connext weather products within the selected coverage area(s)
during an initial Connext Data Request. Enabling or disabling the display of the weather product does not affect
which weather products are retrieved during a Connext Data Request.
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INDEX
To reduce data usage during subsequent requests, the system retains previously retrieved textual weather
products such as METARs and TAFs, so long as they have not expired. The system also retrieves any new
textual weather products matching the current coverage area, and all graphical weather products during each
data request.
355
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
If the Connext Data Request was successful, the REQUEST STATUS window (if shown) indicates ‘OK’. Refer
to the Abnormal Operations discussion later in this section for more information on the messages received if the
request is unsuccessful, with possible causes.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Cancelling Connext Data Request in Progress:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
EIS
4) With the ‘CANCEL REQ’ option highlighted, press the ENT Key. The REQUEST STATUS window indicates ‘Request
Canceled’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The flight crew can schedule Connext Data Requests to recur automatically. Auto requests remain enabled
until the flight crew disables them, or the system power is cycled. When an automatic data request is enabled,
the REQUEST STATUS Window displays the number of minutes or seconds until the automatic data request
occurs.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to the system entering Reversionary Mode,
the automatic weather data requests continue in Reversionary Mode, however the Connext Data Request
window and its associated options will not be available.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Enabling/disabling automatic Connext Data Requests:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
AFCS
4) Choose the desired weather coverage options.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘UPDATE RATE’ setting. Then turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the
desired automatic update frequency (Off, 5 Min, 10 Min, 15 Min, 20 Min, 30 Min, 45 Min, or 60 Min).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) The ‘SEND REQ” button is highlighted and a countdown timer is displayed in the ‘REQUEST STATUS’ based
on the currently selected update rate. Press the ENT Key to immediately send an immediate Connext Data
Request.
Or:
INDEX
APPENDICES
Press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER PRODUCTS
PRECIPITATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Precipitation data cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain data.
EIS
The Precipitation weather product provides radar precipitation information in selected radar coverage areas.
This information comes from individual weather radar sites and weather data sources such as government
agencies. Each radar site or source may provide weather data at differing rates and times. Periodically,
the Garmin Connext service compiles the available information to form a composite image, and assigns a
single time to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the Precipitation weather product.
Individual images--gathered from each radar site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed
Precipitation weather product age.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the Precipitation weather product, the
displayed weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current
radar synopsis and may not depict the current weather conditions. The Precipitation weather product should
never be used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the
information it contains.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Boundary of
Connext Data
Request area
(shown for
Precipitation
weather product)
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
No Radar Coverage
within requested
within request area
APPENDICES
Figure 6-67 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page with Precipitation
The system displays either base or composite radar precipitation imagery, depending on the region.
Reflectivity Type
United States
Australia, Canada, Western Europe
Composite Reflectivity
Base Reflectivity
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INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The base reflectivity radar data shows the radar returns from the perspective of a single antenna tilt angle.
The composite reflectivity radar data shows the highest radar energy received from multiple antenna tilt
angles. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate the intensity of the echoes and the type of
precipitation. For the Precipitation legend (Figure 6-68), select the LEGEND Softkey when Precipitation is
selected for display.
No Radar Coverage
Boundary of Connext
Data Request
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-68 Precipitation Data Legend
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The display of no radar coverage is enabled when Precipitation is selected for display. Areas where
precipitation radar coverage is not currently available or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of
purple. A white boundary line with white tick marks depicts the selected coverage area of the Connext Data
Request. The boundary encloses the precipitation data when this weather product is displayed.
Reflectivity
AFCS
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the Precipitation
display directly correlate to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous weather
can be very complex.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different radar echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). Weather
radars measure the reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
APPENDICES
Precipitation Limitations
Radar images may have certain limitations:
INDEX
• Radar composite reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet snow, wet
hail, and rain.
• An individual radar site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information about
storms directly over the site.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• At smaller map ranges, individual blocks of radar data are viewable. Each block of radar information
represents approximately four square kilometers and depicts the highest level of reflectivity detected
within that area.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
EIS
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
Displaying Precipitation weather information:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Select the PRECIP Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
INFRARED SATELLITE
The Infrared Satellite (IR SAT) weather product (Figure 6-69) depicts cloud top temperatures from satellite
imagery. Brighter cloud top colors indicate cooler temperatures occurring at higher altitudes.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Temperature
range of
selected data
AFCS
Map Pointer
on selected
Infrared Satellite
Information
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 6-69 Infrared Satellite Data on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
INDEX
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Select the IR SAT Softkey.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
To display the Infrared Satellite legend (Figure 6-70), select the LEGEND Softkey when Infrared Satellite data
is selected for display.
Figure 6-70 Infrared Satellite Legend
EIS
GARMIN CONNEXT DATA LINK LIGHTNING
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning (DL LTNG) weather product (Figure 6-71) shows the approximate
location of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a twokilometer region. Neither cloud-to-cloud nor the exact location of the lightning strike is displayed.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Lightning
Strikes
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-71 Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning
Displaying Lightning information:
APPENDICES
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Select the DL LTNG Softkey.
INDEX
To display the lightning legend on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page (Figure 6-72), select the LEGEND
Softkey when the Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning weather product is enabled for display.
Figure 6-72 Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning Legend
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SIGMETs (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMETs (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET can be displayed when significant
weather conditions are not widespread.
The entire SIGMET or AIRMET is displayed as long as any portion of it is issued within the coverage area
of the Connext Data Request.
EIS
Additional information
for selected SIGMET/
AIRMET
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AIRMET selected
with Map Pointer
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-73 SIGMET/AIRMET Data
AFCS
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Select the SIG/AIR Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map Pointer to highlight the
border of the desired SIGMET/AIRMET.
4) Press the ENT key. Figure 6-74 shows sample SIGMET text.
APPENDICES
To display the SIGMET and AIRMET legend (Figure 6-75), select the LEGEND Softkey when SIGMETs and
AIRMETs are selected for display.
INDEX
Figure 6-74 Sample SIGMET Text
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Figure 6-75 SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
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SYSTEM
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METARS AND TAFS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud base heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an
airport or observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and
other critical data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the
report. METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service area.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Instructions for
Viewing METAR
and TAF Text
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selected
Airport
AFCS
Figure 6-76 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR text appears first in a decoded
fashion, followed by the original METAR text. Note the original text may contain additional information not
found in the decoded version. When a TAF is available, information is displayed only in its original form.
APPENDICES
Displaying METAR and TAF text:
1) On the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page, select the METAR Softkey.
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
INDEX
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
Or:
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Select the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note the METAR text must be
completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Decoded METAR
Text
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Original METAR
Text
METAR
Symbol
TAF
Available
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-77 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
AFCS
Original METAR text is also accessible while panning the map cursor over a METAR flag on any map page
on which a METAR is displayed. The METAR text is shown in a box near the METAR flag.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
In addition, METAR flags and their associated text are displayed on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
METAR flags appears next to waypoints in the flight plan with an associated METAR.
Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
APPENDICES
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint. The METAR text will appear in the ‘SELECTED
WAYPOINT WEATHER’ window below.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the Active Flight Plan
Page.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page (Figure 6-78), select the LEGEND
Softkey when METARs are enabled for display.
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Information in the METAR text determines the color of the METAR flag. A gray METAR flag appears for
a reporting station when its METAR text does not contain adequate information to determine the METAR
category (e.g. VFR, IFR).
Figure 6-78 METAR Legend
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
WINDS ALOFT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Winds Aloft weather product (Figure 6-79) shows the predicted wind speed and direction at the
surface and at selected altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3,000-foot increments from the surface up to
42,000 feet MSL.
Displaying Winds Aloft data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the WIND Softkey.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
4) Select the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Select the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The WIND Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Figure 6-79 Winds Aloft Data at 33,000 Feet
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
To display the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-80), select the LEGEND Softkey when Winds Aloft is selected
for display.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 6-80 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
EIS
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Profile View on the Navigation Map Page
(Figure 6-81). The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track, but not to aircraft
speed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Weather Product
Age
Wind Component
Velocity and
Direction Arrows
Altitude Scale
AFCS
Figure 6-81 Winds Aloft Weather Product with Profile View (Navigation Map Page)
Headwind Symbol
Tailwind Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in Table 6-8.
APPENDICES
5 knots
10 knots
INDEX
50 knots
Table 6-8 Profile View Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Showing/Hiding Profile View (containing winds aloft data)
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Select the MAP Softkey.
3) Select the PROFILE Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
EIS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current
state) and press the ENT Key.
Winds Aloft data inside the Profile View is enabled by default when the Profile View is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display in Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-82).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Profile Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-83).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Profile Winds’ (Figure 6-84).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-82 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-83 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-84 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PIREPS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) describe in-flight weather encountered by pilots. A PIREP may contain
adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions, wind shear, turbulence, and type
of aircraft flown. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Instructions for
Viewing PIREP
Text
EIS
Urgent
PIREP
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Routine
PIREP
Selected
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-85 PIREPs on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
AFCS
Displaying PIREP text:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the PIREPS Softkey.
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather report
when it is selected.
APPENDICES
5) Press the ENT Key. The PIREP is first displayed in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the
original text may contain additional information not found in the decoded version.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to close the PIREP text window and return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT)
Page.
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
EIS
Decoded PIREP Text
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Original PIREP Text
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-86 PIREP Text on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
To display the PIREP legend (Figure 6-87), select the LEGEND Softkey when PIREPs are selected for display.
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-87 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
If the system cannot complete a Connext Data Request, one or more messages will appear in the request status
window.
Auto requests inhibited
Send manual request to reset.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Weather Request Status
Message
Description
The system has disabled automatic weather data requests due to excessive errors.
Automatic weather data requests have stopped. Send a manual weather data request to
resume automatic updates.
EIS
Connext Server Temporarily
Inop
Connext Server Inop
Invalid Coverage Area
No Connext Subscription
Reduce Request Area
Transfer Preempted
APPENDICES
Request Cancelled
Request Failed - Try Again
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
INDEX
A ground-based server error has occurred or invalid data received.
There is a problem with the Garmin Connext registration. In the United States, contact
Garmin at 1-866-739-5687. Outside the United States, call 913-397-8200, wait for the
operator, and request extension 1135.
The Garmin Connext weather data server is temporarily out of service, but is expected to
return to service in less than 30 minutes.
The Garmin Connext weather data server will be out of service for at least 30 minutes.
The Connext Data Request does not sufficiently define a coverage area on which to
retrieve weather data. Verify the selections in the Connext Weather Coverage Window,
then issue another Connext Data Request.
The system is not currently subscribed to the Garmin Connext Weather service, or the
access code is incorrect. Verify the access code. In the United States, contact Garmin at
1-866-739-5687. Outside the United States, call 913-397-8200, wait for the operator,
and request extension 1135.
The weather data request area exceeds size limits. Reduce weather coverage area and
re-send data request.
The user has cancelled a weather data request.
The ground-based server halted the weather data request due to excessive delays. Re-send
data request.
The Iridium voice telephone has interrupted the weather data request. Retry request when
Iridium voice telephone is not in use.
AFCS
Connext Comm Error [8]
Connext Login Invalid
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The system halted the weather data request due to excessive delays while receiving
weather data. Verify Iridium signal strength and re-try data request.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Connext Comm Error [7]
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Auto update retry: ## Seconds The system will attempt another automatic weather data request after an error occurred
during the previous request. Displays estimated time until next automatic request occurs.
Connext Comm Error [2]
A communications error has occurred with the GIA or GDL 59.
Connext Comm Error [4]
This occurs if multiple weather data requests have recently failed, or the GIA or GDL 59 is
off-line. If this error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [5]
The Iridium or Garmin Connext services are not accessible. Check Iridium signal strength.
If this error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [6]
A communications error has occurred. If this error persists, the system should be serviced.
Table 6-9 Abnormal Weather Data Request Status Messages
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER IN REVERSIONARY MODE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When the system is operating in Reversionary Mode, only those weather products which can be displayed
on the PFD Inset Map will be available for display (see Table 6-6 for a list of weather products and their
associated map availability).
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
If manual weather data requests were enabled prior to entering Reversionary Mode, no new Garmin Connext
Weather data can be retrieved while operating in Reversionary Mode. If automatic weather data requests
were enabled prior to Reversionary Mode operation, the system will continue the automatic data requests in
Reversionary Mode (provided automatic requests have not been inhibited due to a system error).
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6.3 AIRBORNE COLOR WEATHER RADAR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
the MPEL boundary.
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
EIS
The Garmin GWX 68 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a 4-color digital pulsed radar with 6.5 kilowatts
of output power. It combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with a high-definition target
display. The pulse width is four microseconds (µs) on all ranges except the 2.5 nm range. The GWX 68 uses a
one µs pulse width at this range to reduce the targets smearing together on the display for better target definition
at close range.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Piper PA-46 Mirage uses a 10-inch phased array antenna that is fully stabilized to accommodate 30º of
pitch and roll.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
To focus radar scanning on specific areas, Sector Scanning offers pilot-adjustable horizontal scan angles of
20º, 40º, 60º, or 90º. A vertical scanning function helps to analyze storm tops, gradients, and cell buildup
activity at various altitudes.
Radar features include:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Extended Sensitivity Time Constant (STC) logic that automatically correlates distance of the return echo with
intensity, so cells do not suddenly appear to get larger as they get closer.
• WATCH® (Weather ATtenuated Color Highlight) helps identify possible shadowing effects of short-range cell
activity, identifying areas where radar return signals are weakened or attenuated by intense precipitation (or
large areas of lesser precipitation) and may not fully reflect the weather behind a storm.
• Weather Alert that looks ahead for intense cell activity in the 80-320 nm range, even if these ranges are not
being displayed.
AFCS
PRINCIPLES OF PULSED AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The term RADAR is an acronym for RAdio Detecting And Ranging. Pulsed radar locates targets by transmitting
a microwave pulse beam that, upon encountering a target, is reflected back to the radar receiver as a return
echo. The microwave pulses are focused and radiated by the antenna, with the most intense energy in the
center of the beam and decreasing intensity near the edge. The same antenna is used for both transmitting and
receiving. The returned signal is then processed and displayed on the MFD.
APPENDICES
Radar detection is a two-way process that requires 12.36 µs for the transmitted microwave pulses to travel out
and back for each nautical mile of target range. It takes 123.6 µs for a transmitted pulse to make the round trip
if a target is ten nautical miles away.
INDEX
Airborne weather radar should be used to avoid severe weather, not for penetrating severe weather. The
decision to fly into an area of radar targets depends on target intensity, spacing between the targets, aircraft
capabilities, and pilot experience. Pulse type weather radar detects only precipitation, not clouds or turbulence.
The display may indicate clear areas between intense returns, but this does not necessarily mean it is safe to fly
between them. Only Doppler radar can detect turbulence.
Airborne weather radar has other capabilities beyond weather detection. It also has the ability to detect and
provide distance to cities, mountains, coastlines, rivers, lakes, and oceans.
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
NEXRAD AND AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Both Airborne Weather Radar and NEXRAD measure weather reflectivity in decibels (dB). A decibel is a
logarithmic expression of the ratio of two quantities. Airborne Weather Radar measures the ratio of power
against the gain of the antenna, while NEXRAD measures the energy reflected back to the radar, or the radar
reflectivity ratio.
Both systems use colors to identify the different echo intensities, but the colors are not interchangeable.
Airborne color radar values used by Garmin Airborne Color Weather Radar should not be confused with
NEXRAD radar values.
EIS
ANTENNA BEAM ILLUMINATION
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The radar beam is much like the beam of a spotlight. The further the beam travels, the wider it becomes.
The radar is only capable of seeing what is inside the boundaries of the beam. The figure below depicts a radar
beam’s characteristics. The figure illustrates vertical dimensions of the radar beam, although the same holds
true for the horizontal dimensions. In other words, the beam is as wide as it is tall. Note that it is possible to
miss areas of precipitation on the radar display because of the antenna tilt setting. With the antenna tilt set to
zero in this illustration, the beam overshoots the precipitation at 15 nautical miles.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Altitude (x1000 ft.)
80
Antenna at Zero Tilt
18,000 ft.
10°
0
0
15
Half Power at
es
Beam Sidelob
Max Power at Beam Center
18,000 ft.
30
45
60
75
90
AFCS
Range (nautical miles)
Figure 6-88 Radar Beam from a 10 inch Antenna
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The curvature of the earth can also be a factor in missing areas of precipitation, especially at range settings of
150 nautical miles or more. Here the beam overshoots the precipitation at less than 320 nautical miles.
INDEX
320 nm
Figure 6-89 Radar Beam in Relation to the Curvature of the Earth
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OVERVIEW
RADAR SIGNAL ATTENUATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The phenomenon of radar signal attenuation affects the operation of weather radar. When the radar signal
is transmitted, it is progressively absorbed and scattered, making the signal weaker. This weakening, or
attenuation, is caused by two primary sources, distance and precipitation.
Attenuation because of distance is due to the fact that the radar energy leaving the antenna is inversely
proportional to the square of the distance. The reflected radar energy from a target 40 miles away that fills
the radar beam is one fourth the energy reflected from an equivalent target 20 miles away. This would appear
to the operator that the storm is gaining intensity as the aircraft gets closer. Internal signal processing within
the GWX 68 system compensates for much of this distance attenuation.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Attenuation due to precipitation is not as predictable as distance attenuation. It is also more intense. As the
radar signal passes through moisture, a portion of the radar energy is reflected back to the antenna. However,
much of the energy is absorbed. If precipitation is very heavy, or covers a large area, the signal may not
reach completely through the area of precipitation. The weather radar system cannot distinguish between an
attenuated signal and an area of no precipitation. If the signal has been fully attenuated, the radar displays
a radar shadow. This appears as an end to the precipitation when, in fact, the heavy rain may extend much
further. A cell containing heavy precipitation may block another cell located behind the first, preventing it
from being displayed on the radar. Never fly into these shadowed areas and never assume that all of the heavy
precipitation is being displayed unless another cell or a ground target can be seen beyond the heavy cell. The
WATCH® feature of the GWX 68 Weather Radar system can help in identifying these shadowed areas. Areas
in question appear as shadowed or gray on the radar display. Proper use of the antenna tilt control can also
help detect radar shadows.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Attenuation can also be due to poor maintenance or degradation of the radome. Even the smallest amount
of wear and scratching, pitting, and pinholes on the radome surface can cause damage and system inefficiency.
RADAR SIGNAL REFLECTIVITY
Precipitation
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Precipitation or objects more dense than water, such as the surface of the earth or solid structures, are
detected by the weather radar. The weather radar does not detect clouds, thunderstorms, or turbulence
directly. It detects precipitation associated with clouds, thunderstorms, and turbulence. The best radar
signal reflectors are raindrops, wet snow, or wet hail. The larger the raindrop, the better the reflectivity. The
size of the precipitation droplet is the most important factor in radar reflectivity. Because large drops in a
small concentrated area are characteristic of a severe thunderstorm, the radar displays the storm as a strong
return. Ice crystals, dry snow, and dry hail have low levels of reflectivity as shown in the illustration, and
often not displayed by the radar. Additionally, a cloud that contains only small raindrops, such as fog or
drizzle, does not reflect enough radar energy to produce a measurable target return.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Ground Returns
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The intensity of ground target returns depends upon the angle at which the radar beam strikes the
ground target (Angle of Incidence) and the reflective properties of that target. The gain can be adjusted so
shorelines, rivers, lakes, and cities are well defined. Increasing the gain too much causes the display to fill
in between targets, thus obscuring some landmarks.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Cities normally provide a strong return signal. While large buildings and structures provide good returns,
small buildings can be shadowed from the radar beam by the taller buildings. As the aircraft approaches
and shorter ranges are selected, details become more noticeable as the highly reflective regular lines and
edges of the city become more defined.
AFCS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, and oceans are not good reflectors and normally do not provide good
returns. The energy is reflected in a forward scatter angle with inadequate energy being returned. They
can appear as dark areas on the display. However, rough or choppy water is a better reflector and provides
stronger returns from the downwind sides of the waves.
Figure 6-90 Precipitation Type and Reflectivity
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Mountains also provide strong return signals to the antenna, but also block the areas behind. However,
over mountainous terrain, the radar beam can be reflected back and forth in the mountain passes or off
canyon walls, using up all or most of the radar energy. In this case, no return signal is received from this
area, causing the display to show a dark spot which could indicate a pass where no pass exists.
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OVERVIEW
Angle of Incidence
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The angle at which the radar beam strikes the target is called the Angle of Incidence. The figure illustrates
the incident angle (‘A’). This directly affects the detectable range, the area of illumination, and the intensity
of the displayed target returns. A large incident angle gives the radar system a smaller detectable range and
lower display intensity due to minimized reflection of the radar energy.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-91 Angle of Incidence
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
A smaller incident angle gives the radar a larger detectable range of operation and the target display shows
a higher intensity. Since more radar energy is reflected back to the antenna with a low incident angle, the
resulting detectable range is increased for mountainous terrain.
SAFE OPERATING DISTANCE
AFCS
The following information establishes a minimum safe distance from the antenna for personnel near
operating weather radar. The minimum safe distance is based on the FCC’s exposure limit at 9.3 to 9.5 GHz for
general population/uncontrolled environments, which is 1 mW/cm2. See Advisory Circular 20-68B for more
information on safe distance determination.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVEL (MPEL)
The zone in which the radiation level exceeds the US Government standard of 1 mW/cm2 is the semicircular
area of at least 12 feet from the 12-inch antenna. All personnel must remain outside of this zone. This
recommendation slightly exceeds the calculation methods defined in Advisory Circular 20-68B. With a
scanning or rotating beam, the averaged power density at the MPEL boundary is significantly reduced.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
MPEL
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Boundary
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
9.16 ft. for 10”
antenna
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-92 MPEL Boundary
BASIC ANTENNA TILT SETUP
AFCS
The following discussion is a simple method for setting up the weather radar antenna tilt for most situations.
It is not to be considered an all encompassing setup that works in all situations, but this method does provide
good overall parameters for the monitoring of threats. Ultimately, it is desired to have the antenna tilted so that
the bottom of the radar beam is four degrees below parallel with the ground. The following example explains
one way of achieving this.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
With the aircraft flying level, adjust the antenna tilt so ground returns are displayed at a distance that equals
the aircraft’s current altitude (AGL) divided by 1,000. For example, if the aircraft is at 14,000 feet, adjust the
tilt so the front edge of ground returns are displayed at 14 nautical miles. Note this antenna tilt angle setting.
Now, raise the antenna tilt 6 degrees above this setting. The bottom of the radar beam is now angled down 4º
from parallel with the ground.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PRACTICAL APPLICATION USING THE BASIC TILT SETUP
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
With the antenna tilt set as previously described, any displayed target return should be scrutinized when
flying at altitudes between 2,000 feet AGL and higher. If the displayed target advances on the screen to within
five nautical miles of the aircraft, avoid it. This may be either weather or ground returns that are 2,000 feet
or less below the aircraft. Raising the antenna tilt 4 degrees can help separate ground returns from weather
returns in relatively flat terrain. This aligns the bottom of the radar beam parallel with the ground. Return
the antenna tilt to the previous setting after a few sweeps.
If the aircraft is above 29,000 feet, be cautious of any target return that gets to within 30 nautical miles.
This is likely a thunderstorm that has a top high enough that the aircraft cannot fly over it safely.
EIS
If the aircraft altitude is 15,000 feet or lower, setting the displayed range to 60 miles may be more helpful.
Closely monitor anything that enters the display.
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
10 nm
4000
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
+4°
+3°
+2°
+1°
0°
-1°
-2°
-3°
-4°
3000
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Change in Antenna Tilt
Vertical Change of Radar Beam (feet)
4000
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Also, after setting up the antenna tilt angle as described previously, ground returns can be monitored for
possible threats. The relationship between antenna tilt angle, altitude, and distance is one degree of tilt equals
100 feet of altitude for every one nautical mile.
Figure 6-93 Vertical Change in Radar Beam per Nautical Mile
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Therefore, with the antenna tilt set so that the bottom of the beam is four degrees below parallel with
the ground, a target return at 10 nm is approximately 4,000 feet below the aircraft; at 20 nm, 8,000 feet;
at 50 nm, 20,000 feet. In other words, at this tilt setting, a ground return (such as a mountain peak) being
displayed at 10 nm would have a maximum distance below the aircraft of 4,000 feet. A ground target return
being displayed at 5 nm would have a maximum distance below the aircraft of 2,000 feet.
This setup provides a good starting point for practical use of the airborne weather radar. There are many
other factors to consider in order to become proficient at using weather radar in all situations.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
WEATHER MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
WEATHER DISPLAY INTERPRETATION
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When evaluating various target returns on the weather radar display, the colors denote precipitation
intensity and rates shown in the table.
Weather Mode Color
Intensity
Black
Green
Yellow
Red
Magenta
< 23 dBZ
23 dBZ to < 32 dBZ
32 dBZ to < 41 dBZ
41 dBZ to < 50 dBZ
50 dBZ and greater
Approximate
Precipitation Rate
(in/hr.)
< .01.
.01 - 0.1.
0.1 - 0.5
0.5 - 2
>2
Table 6-10 Precipitation Intensity Levels
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Thunderstorms
Updrafts and downdrafts in thunderstorms carry water through the cloud. The more severe the drafts, the
greater the number and size of the precipitation droplets. With this in mind, the following interpretations
can be made from what is displayed on the weather radar. Avoid these areas by an extra wide margin.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• In areas where the displayed target intensity is red or magenta (indicating large amounts of precipitation),
the turbulence is considered severe.
• Areas that show steep color gradients (intense color changes) over thin bands or short distances suggest
irregular rainfall rate and strong turbulence.
AFCS
• Areas that show red or magenta are associated with hail or turbulence, as well as heavy precipitation.
Vertical scanning and antenna tilt management may be necessary to identify areas of maximum intensity.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Along squall lines (multiple cells or clusters of cells in a line) individual cells may be in different stages
of development. Areas between closely spaced, intense targets may contain developing clouds not having
enough moisture to produce a return. However, these areas could have strong updrafts or downdrafts.
Targets showing wide areas of green are generally precipitation without severe turbulence.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Irregularities in the target return may also indicate turbulence, appearing as hooks, fingers, or scalloped
edges. These irregularities may be present in green areas with no yellow, red, or magenta areas and should
be treated as highly dangerous areas. Avoid these areas as if they are red or magenta.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Squall Line
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Steep Gradient
Hook or Finger
Scalloped Edge
EIS
Figure 6-94 Cell Irregularities
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Thunderstorm development is rapid. A course may become blocked within a short time. When displaying
shorter ranges, periodically select a longer range to see if problems are developing further out. That can
help prevent getting trapped in a blind alley or an area that is closed at one end by convective weather.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-95 The Blind Alley - Horizontal Scan
AFCS
In areas of multiple heavy cells, use the Vertical Scan feature along with antenna tilt management to
examine the areas. Remember to avoid shadowed areas behind targets.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
The Blind Alley at Close Range
The Large Storm Behind
Figure 6-96 The Blind Alley
INDEX
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Tornadoes
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
• A narrow, finger-like portion extends and in a short time curls into a hook and closes on itself.
There are no conclusive radar target return characteristics which identify a tornado. However, tornadoes
may be present if the following characteristics are observed:
• A hook, which may be in the general shape of the numeral 6 (numeral 9 in the southern hemisphere),
especially if bright and projecting from the southwest quadrant (northeast quadrant in the southern
hemisphere) of a major thunderstorm.
• V-shaped notches.
EIS
• Doughnut shapes.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
These shapes do not always indicate tornadoes, and tornado returns are not limited to these characteristics.
Confirmed radar observations of tornadoes most often have not shown shapes different from those of a
normal thunderstorm display.
Hail
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Hail results from updrafts carrying water high enough to freeze. Therefore, the higher the top of a
thunderstorm, the greater the probability that it contains hail. Vertically scanning the target return can
give the radar top of a thunderstorm that contains hail. Radar top is the top of a storm cell as detected by
radar. It is not the actual top, or true top of the storm. The actual top of a storm cell is seen with the eyes
in clear air and may be much higher than the radar top. The actual top does not indicate the top of the
hazardous area.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Hail can fall below the minimum reflectivity threshold for radar detection. It can have a film of water on
its surface, making its reflective characteristics similar to a very large water droplet. Because of this film of
water, and because hail stones usually are larger than water droplets, thunderstorms with large amounts
of wet hail return stronger signals than those with rain. Some hail shafts are extremely narrow (100 yards
or less) and make poor radar targets. In the upper regions of a cell where ice particles are dry (no liquid
coating), target returns are less intense.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Hail shafts are associated with the same radar target return characteristics as tornados. U-shaped cloud
edges three to seven miles across can also indicate hail. These target returns appear quite suddenly along
any edge of the cell outline. They also change in intensity and shape in a matter of seconds, making vigilant
monitoring essential.
OPERATION IN WEATHER MODE
APPENDICES
WARNING: Begin transmitting only when it is safe to do so. When transmitting while the aircraft is on the
ground, no personnel or objects should be within 12 feet of the antenna.
CAUTION: In Standby mode, the antenna is parked at the center line. It is always a good idea to put the
INDEX
radar in Standby mode before taxiing the aircraft to prevent the antenna from bouncing on the bottom stop
and possibly causing damage to the radar assembly.
When the weather radar system is in the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically switches
to Standby mode on landing.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system automatically switches to Standby mode. The system
remains in Standby mode until both displays are restored. In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system
cannot be controlled.
Scan Line
Antenna Stabilization Status
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Radar Mode
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-97 Horizontal Scan Display
Displaying weather on the Weather Radar Page:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Select the Weather Radar Page in the Map Page Group with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the MODE Softkey.
3) While on the ground, select the STANDBY Softkey. A one-minute warm-up period is initiated (countdown is
displayed on the screen). After the warm-up is complete, the radar enters the Standby Mode.
AFCS
a) Select the WEATHER Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-98 Confirming Activating Radar
APPENDICES
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight YES and press the ENT Key to continue radar activation.
Or:
INDEX
If the aircraft is airborne, select the WEATHER Softkey. A 1 minute warm-up period is initiated (countdown
is displayed on the screen). After the warm-up is complete, the radar begins transmitting.
4) Turn the Joystick to select the desired map range.
5) The horizontal scan is initially displayed (Figure 6-97). If desired, select the VERTICAL Softkey to change to
vertical scanning.
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Vertically scanning a storm cell:
NOTE: Vertical scanning of a storm cell should be done with the aircraft wings level to avoid constant
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
adjustment of the Bearing Line.
1) While in the Horizontal Scan view, select the BRG Softkey. This places the cursor in the BEARING field and
displays the Bearing Line.
If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Bearing
Line. Press the ENT Key.
EIS
2) Press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line on the desired storm cell or other area to be vertically
scanned.
Bearing Line
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Scan Line
Figure 6-99 Bearing Line on Horizontal Scan
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Select the VERTICAL Softkey. A vertical scan of the selected area is displayed (Figure 6-100).
5) The small FMS Knob may be used to move the scanned bearing line a few degrees right or left.
6) Turn the Joystick to adjust the range.
APPENDICES
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
8) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, select the HORIZON Softkey to return to the Horizontal Scan view
and repeat the previous steps.
INDEX
The Joystick can also be used to adjust bearing from left to right.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-100 Vertical Scan Display
Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
In order to make an accurate interpretation of a storm cell, the radar beam should be pointed at the wet
part of the weather cell to record the proper rainfall intensity (color level). The ideal aiming point is just
below the freezing level of the storm. The best way to find this point is to use the Vertical Scan feature. The
antenna tilt angle can be centered on the strongest return area in the vertical scan to get a more accurate
view of the coverage and intensity of the target in the horizontal scan.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Horizontal Scan display:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the TILT field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired antenna tilt angle.
AFCS
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt up and down.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Vertical Scan display:
1) Select the TILT Softkey to activate the cursor in the TILT field and display the Tilt Line.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If the Tilt Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Tilt Line. Press
the ENT Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the antenna tilt angle. The selected tilt angle is implemented when Horizontal
Scan is selected again.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Tilt Line
Scan Line
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-101 Adjusting Tilt on Vertical Scan Display
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Enabling/disabling manual gain adjustment:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity. Remember to return the gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the
actual intensity of precipitation.
1) Select the GAIN Softkey to activate the cursor in the GAIN field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the gain for the desirable level. The gain setting is visible in the GAIN field
as a movable horizontal bar in a flashing box. The line pointer is a reference depicting the calibrated position.
EIS
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
4) Select the GAIN Softkey again to recalibrate the gain. ‘CALIBRATED’ is displayed in the GAIN field.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Manual Gain Set Below Calibrated
AFCS
Calibrated Gain
Figure 6-102 Gain Calibration
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Enabling/disabling Sector Scanning:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) While in horizontal scan mode, select the BRG Softkey to display the Bearing Line and place the cursor in the
BEARING field. If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select
Show Bearing Line.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
2) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-103 Selecting Sector Scan Position
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line in the desired position. The location of the Bearing Line
becomes the center point of the Sector Scan.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the SECTOR SCAN field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select FULL, 60˚, 40˚, or 20˚ scan.
6) If desired, readjust the Bearing Line as discussed previously to change the center of the Sector Scan.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
7) Select the BRG Softkey again to remove the Bearing Line and cursor. The bearing reference is reset to 0º.
Figure 6-104 40˚ Sector Scan
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OVERVIEW
Antenna Stabilization
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When radar stabilization is active, the radar tilt is corrected for pitch and roll, and therefore is kept steady
with respect to the horizon. The commanded tilt angle is kept constant with respect to the earth. When the
stabilization is disabled, corrections are no longer made for pitch and roll, and the radar tilt angle is kept
constant with respect to the aircraft reference system.
Enabling/Disabling Antenna Stabilization:
1) To activate or deactivate the antenna stabilization, select the MODE Softkey.
EIS
2) Select the STAB ON Softkey to activate antenna stabilization or select the STAB OFF Softkey to deactivate. The
current stabilization condition is shown in the upper right of the weather radar display.
Weather Attenuated Color Highlight (WATCH®)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Displayed intensity is questionable.
Potentially stronger than displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
WATCH® identifies deceptively strong or unknown intensity parts of a storm. While in horizontal scan
mode, this feature can be used as a tool to determine areas of possible inaccuracies in displayed intensity due
to weakening of the radar energy. This weakening is known as attenuation. The radar energy weakens as
it passes through areas of intense precipitation, large areas of lesser precipitation, and distance. Issues with
the radome attenuates the radar energy. All these factors have an effect on the return intensity. The more
energy that dissipates, the lesser the displayed intensity of the return. Accuracy of the displayed intensity
of returns located in the shaded areas are suspect. Make maneuvering decisions with this information in
mind. Proper antenna tilt management should still be employed to determine the extent of attenuation in
a shaded area.
To activate or deactivate the WATCH® feature, select the WATCH Softkey.
Areas of
Attenuated Signal
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Horizontal Scan With WATCH®
INDEX
Horizontal Scan Without WATCH®
Figure 6-105 Horizontal Scan Without and With WATCH®
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Weather Alert Target Bands and Weather Alert PFD Message
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Weather Alert feature indicates the presence of heavy precipitation between the ranges of 80 and 320
nm regardless of the currently displayed range. Weather Alert targets appear as red bands along the outer
range ring at the approximate azimuth of the detected returns.
If a Weather Alert is detected within ±10° of the aircraft heading, and the WX ALRT Softkey is enabled
on the Weather Radar Page, the system also displays ‘WX ALERT - Possible severe weather ahead.’ on the
PFD in the Messages Window.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Weather Alert Target Bands
Figure 6-106 Weather Alert Indications
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
If the antenna tilt is adjusted too low, a weather alert can be generated by ground returns. To prevent
weather alerts from appearing on the PFD in the Messages Window, deselect the WX ALRT Softkey on
the Weather Radar Page on the MFD. The system continues to display weather alert target bands on the
Weather Radar Page even if the PFD weather alert message is disabled.
Figure 6-107 Weather Alert on PFD
APPENDICES
GROUND MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
A secondary use of the weather radar system is for the presentation of terrain. This can be a useful tool for
verifying aircraft position. A picture of the ground is represented much like a topographical map that can be
used as a supplement to the navigation map on the MFD.
INDEX
Ground Map mode uses a different gain range than Weather mode. Different colors are also used to represent
the intensity levels. The displayed intensity of ground target returns are defined in the table below. Use of the
GAIN and TILT controls help improve contrast so that specific ground targets can be recognized more easily.
As previously discussed, the type and orientation of the target in relation to the aircraft affects the intensity
displayed.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When the weather radar system is in either the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby mode upon landing.
Black
Cyan
Yellow
Magenta
0 dB
> 0 dB to < 9 dB
9 dB to < 18 dB
18 dB to < 27 dB
27 dB and greater
EIS
Blue
Intensity
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Ground Map
Mode Color
Table 6-11 Ground Target Return Intensity Levels
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Operation in Ground Map Mode
1) Select the MODE Softkey.
2) Select the GROUND Softkey to place the radar in Ground Map mode.
3) Select the BACK Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Select the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the TILT field.
6) Adjust the antenna tilt angle by turning the small FMS Knob to display ground returns at the desired distance.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
WEATHER RADAR OVERLAY ON THE NAVIGATION MAP PAGE
AFCS
The Map - Weather Radar Page is the principal map page for viewing airborne weather radar information.
Weather radar information may also be shown as an overlay on the Navigation Map Page on the MFD as an
additional reference.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When the airborne weather radar overlay is enabled, a weather radar information box appears in the upperright corner of the Navigation Map Page. It indicates the selected weather mode, radar bearing, and antenna
tilt angle. The overlay is capable of showing radar information while the radar is in horizontal scan mode.
If the radar is operating in vertical scan mode while the overlay is enabled, the system indicates ‘N/A’ in the
information box to indicate the airborne weather radar overlay is not available until the horizontal scan mode
is selected on the Weather Radar Page.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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Radar Overlay Enabled Icon
Radar Mode
Selected
Radar
Bearing
Radar Range
Scan Line
Antenna Tilt
Angle
Boundary of
Selected Radar
Scan
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Navigation Map
Range
Figure 6-108 Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Enabling/Disabling Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the MAP Softkey.
3) Select the WX RADAR Softkey.
AFCS
Or:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the product selections and highlight the WX RADAR overlay selection
(‘On’ or ‘Off’). Turn the small FMS knob to highlight the desired selection.
APPENDICES
5) To remove the menu, press the FMS Knob or CLR Key.
INDEX
Weather radar controls on the Navigation Map Page are limited to adjustment of the radar range, bearing,
and antenna tilt angle. The airborne weather radar overlay is viewable at Navigation Map Ranges between five
and 800 nautical miles (ten to 1,500 kilometers). At map ranges beyond these limits, the system removes the
weather radar information from the map. Adjusting the range on the Navigation Map Page simultaneously
adjusts the range of the weather radar proportionally. This radar range is annunciated on the range arc that
appears when the overlay is enabled and a radar scan is active. When the radar range is adjusted on the
Navigation Map Page, system synchronizes the same range to the Weather Radar Page.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The radar bearing is adjustable in one degree increments on the Navigation Map Page by pushing the Joystick
left or right when the overlay is enabled. A left or right arrow next to the bearing readout indicates the direction
of the selected bearing. The cyan radar bearing line is only viewable on the Weather Radar Page. While the
bearing line is not shown on the Navigation Map Page, adjusting the bearing on the Navigation Map Page while
Sector Scan is enabled centers the radar scan on the selected bearing, and the radar scan boundaries adjust
accordingly on the Navigation Map Page.
EIS
Radar antenna tilt angle is adjustable in 0.25 degree increments on the Navigation Map Page. Push the
Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward. Push the Joystick down to adjust the antenna tilt angle
upward. An up or down arrow next to the antenna tilt angle setting indicates the direction of the antenna tilt
angle.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The weather radar overlay uses the same colors as those shown on the Weather Radar Page to indicate the
intensity of radar returns. However, the display of gray WATCH radar attenuation and red weather alert
target bands is exclusive to the Weather Radar Page. Because data link radar precipitation and terrain present
information using similar colors, enabling the airborne weather radar overlay on the Navigation Map Page
disables the display of the data link radar and terrain information for this page.
SYSTEM STATUS
Standby
STANDBY
STANDBY
Standby (During Warm-Up)
STANDBY
WARM-UP
XX
(XX indicates number of
seconds remaining in warm-up)
Weather
WEATHER
None
Ground Mapping
Off
Radar Failed*
GROUND MAPPING
OFF
FAIL
None
OFF
RADAR FAIL
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Weather Radar Page Center
Banner Annunciation
AFCS
Radar Mode Annunciation Box (Weather
Radar Page and Navigation Map Page)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Radar Mode
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The system displays the radar mode annunciation in the upper left corner of the Weather Radar Page. It
also appears in the upper right corner of the Navigation Map Page when the Weather Radar overlay is enabled.
Additional information may be displayed in the center of the Weather Radar Page as a banner annunciation.
* See Table 6-14 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-12 Radar Modes on the Weather Radar Page
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The system displays the status of the radar antenna stabilization feature in the upper right corner of the
Weather Radar Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Radar Antenna
Description
Stabilization Status
STAB ON
Antenna stabilization is selected on.
STAB OFF
Antenna stabilization is selected off.
The radar is not receiving pitch and roll information.
STAB INOP
The antenna stabilization feature is inoperative.
EIS
Table 6-13 Antenna Stabilization Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
If the unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown as a banner in the center of the Weather
Radar Page
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Weather Radar
Page Center Banner
Description
Annunciation
BAD CONFIG
The radar configuration is invalid. The radar should be serviced.
RDR FAULT
The radar unit is reporting a fault. The radar should be serviced.
The system is not receiving valid data from the radar unit. The system
RADAR FAIL
should be serviced.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Table 6-14 Abnormal Radar Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6.4 STORMSCOPE LIGHTNING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not rely on information from the lightning detection system display as the sole basis for
hazardous weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate
or incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
NOTE: The optional L-3 WX-500 Stormscope® system is not intended for hazardous thunderstorm
EIS
penetration. Weather information on the G1000 MFD is approved for weather avoidance only. Refer to the
WX-500 User’s Guide for a detailed description of Stormscope operation.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: Stormscope Lightning cannot be displayed at the same time as data link lightning products from
SiriusXM or Garmin Connext Weather.
NOTE: When using Stormscope, there are several atmospheric phenomena in addition to nearby thunderstorms
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
that can cause isolated discharge points in the strike display mode. However, clusters of two or more
discharge points in the strike display mode do indicate thunderstorm activity if these points reappear after
the screen has been cleared.
The following pages can display Stormscope data:
• AUX - Trip Planning Page
• Nearest Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• PFD Inset Map
• Stormscope Page
• Navigation Map
Lightning Age
AFCS
The Map - Stormscope Page is the principal page for viewing Stormscope data. Stormscope data can be displayed
on other map pages as an additional reference. To display Stormscope data on any map besides the Stormscope
Page, press the MAP Softkey (or the INSET Softkey for the PFD Inset Map), then press the STRMSCP Softkey.
These pages can also display cell or strike data using the yellow lightning strike symbology shown in Table 6-15.
Symbol
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Strike is less than 6 seconds old
Strike is between 6 and 60 seconds old
APPENDICES
Strike is between 1 and 2 minutes old
Strike is between 2 and 3 minutes old
INDEX
Table 6-15 Lightning Age and Symbols
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SETTING UP STORMSCOPE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
Setting up Stormscope options on the Navigation Map:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Setup’ selected (Figure 6-109), press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the group selection window. Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Weather’,
and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight and move between the product selections (Figure 6-110).
EIS
5) When an item is highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the option.
6) Press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page (Figure 6-111).
The following Stormscope options are available (Figure 6-110):
• STRMSCP LTNG – Turns the display of Stormscope data on or off.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• STRMSCP MODE – Selects the CELL or STRIKE mode of lightning activity. Cell mode identifies clusters
or cells of electrical activity. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• STRMSCP SMBL – Selects the range at which Stormscope data displays. Stormscope data is removed
when a map range greater than the STRMSCP SMBL value is selected.
INDEX
Figure 6-109 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-110 Map Setup Menu
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CELL AND STRIKE MODE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
On the Navigation Map, cell mode identifies cells of lightning activity. Stormscope identifies clusters of
electrical activity that indicate cells. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting the ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Setup’ selected, press the ENT Key.
3) Select the ‘Weather’ group.
EIS
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on ‘STRMSCP LTNG’.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘STRMSCP MODE’.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to change between ‘CELL’ and ‘STRIKE’ options. When an item is selected, press the
ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Stormscope
Lightning Strikes
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Stormscope
Enabled
Icon
Figure 6-111 Navigation Map Page with Stormscope Lightning Data
APPENDICES
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn
(Figure 6-112). This is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to
the nose of the aircraft.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Manually clearing Stormscope data on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Select ‘Clear Stormscope® Lightning’.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-112 Navigation Map Page Options Menu
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
ZOOM RANGE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Stormscope lightning data can be displayed up to 800 nm zoom range (in North Up orientation) on the
Navigation Map Page. However, in Track Up orientation at the 500 nm range, a portion of Stormscope lightning
data can be behind the aircraft and therefore not visible on the Navigation Map. Since the range for Stormscope
data is 400 nm diameter total (200 nm in front and 200 nm behind), the 500 nm range in North Up orientation
shows all the data.
At a map range of less than 25 nm, Stormscope lightning data is not displayed, but can still be present.
The maximum zoom range can also be set on the Navigation Map. Note that Stormscope data above the
selected maximum zoom range is decluttered.
AFCS
Selecting a Stormscope range on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Select ‘MAP SETUP’.
3) Select the ‘Weather’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘STRMSCP SMBL’.
APPENDICES
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the maximum display range.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
INDEX
To change the display range on the Navigation Map Page, turn the Joystick clockwise to zoom out or
counter-clockwise to zoom in.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SELECTING THE STORMSCOPE PAGE
Stormscope lightning data can be displayed at the ranges of 25 nm, 50 nm, 100 nm, and 200 nm.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Adjusting the Stormscope Map Range:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Stormscope Page.
3) To change the map range, turn the Joystick clockwise to zoom out or counter-clockwise to zoom in.
EIS
Lightning Strikes Per
Minute
Stormscope
Operating Mode
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Map Range
Indicators
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 6-113 Stormscope Page
Changing between ‘cell’ and ‘strike’ mode:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Select the MODE Softkey. The CELL and STRIKE softkeys are displayed.
3) Select the CELL Softkey to display ‘CELL’ data or select the STRIKE Softkey to display ‘STRIKE’ data. ‘CELL’ or
‘STRIKE’ is displayed in the mode box in the upper left corner of the Stormscope Page.
APPENDICES
4) Select the BACK Softkey to return to the Stormscope Page.
Or:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between ‘CELL’ and ‘STRIKE’ options.
4) When an item is selected, press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn
(Figure 6-114). This is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the
nose of the aircraft.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Manually clearing Stormscope data:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Clear Lightning Data’ (Figure 6-114).
EIS
4) Press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the CLEAR Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-114 Stormscope Page Options Menu
Changing the viewing mode between 360˚ and 120˚:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Select the VIEW Softkey. The 360 and ARC softkeys are displayed.
AFCS
3) Select the 360 Softkey to display a 360˚ viewing area or select the ARC Softkey to display a 120˚ viewing area.
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the Stormscope Page.
Or:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between ‘View Arc’ and ‘View 360˚ options.
INDEX
APPENDICES
4) When an item is selected, press the ENT Key.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6.5 TERRAIN PROXIMITY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not use Terrain Proximity information for primary terrain avoidance. Terrain Proximity is
intended only to enhance situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed if the aircraft is outside of the terrain database coverage area.
EIS
NOTE: The optional Terrain-SVS or TAWS-B systems will take precedence over Terrain Proximity.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
G1000 Terrain Proximity is a terrain awareness system that does not comply with TSO-C151b certification
standards. It increases situational awareness and aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). Do not
confuse Terrain Proximity with a Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS). TAWS is more sophisticated
and robust, and it is TSO-C151b certified. Terrain Proximity does not provide warning annunciations or voice
alerts. It only provides color indications on map displays when terrain and obstacles are within a certain altitude
threshold from the aircraft. Although the terrain and obstacle color map displays are the same, TAWS uses more
sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Terrain Proximity requires the following components to operate properly:
• Valid 3-D GPS position
• Valid terrain/obstacle database
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Terrain Proximity displays altitudes of terrain and obstructions relative to the aircraft position and altitude with
reference to a database that may contain inaccuracies. Terrain and obstructions are shown only if they are in the
database. Terrain and obstacle information should be used as an aid to situational awareness. They should never
be used to navigate or maneuver around terrain.
AFCS
Note that all obstructions may not be available in the terrain and obstacle database. No terrain and obstacle
information is shown without a valid 3-D GPS position.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The G1000 GPS receiver provides the horizontal position and altitude. GPS altitude is derived from satellite
position. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above
mean sea level calculated geometrically. GSL altitude is used to determine terrain and obstacle proximity. GSL
altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that
normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL
altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source.
APPENDICES
Terrain and obstacle databases are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position and altitude, the Terrain Proximity
feature portrays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and altitude of the
aircraft. GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and predict the aircraft’s flight path in relation to
the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this way, the pilot can view predicted dangerous terrain and obstacle
conditions.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
DISPLAYING TERRAIN PROXIMITY DATA
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Map - Terrain Proximity Page is the principal page for viewing terrain and obstacle information. The
system uses the symbols and colors in Figure 6-115 and Table 6-16 to represent obstacles and aircraft altitude
on the Terrain Proximity Page. Terrain Proximity uses black, yellow, and red to represent terrain information
relative to aircraft altitude. The color of each obstacle is associated with the altitude of the aircraft.
Terrain Above Aircraft Altitude
Red terrain is above
or within 100 ft below
the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude
EIS
100 ft Threshold
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Yellow terrain is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1000 ft
On the Terrain Proxmity Page only, a gray shade of purple indicates no terrain data is
available.
Black terrain is more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-115 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain Proximity
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
AFCS
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Gray obstacle* is more than 1000 ft below
aircraft altitude
* Gray obstacles not shown on the Terrain Proximity‑ Page.
Table 6-16 Terrain Proximity Obstacle Colors and Symbology
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Page
INDEX
APPENDICES
Display of terrain and obstacle information is available as an additional reference on the following maps and
pages:
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps other than the Terrain Proximity Page):
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey).
2) Select the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When Terrain Proximity is selected on maps other than the Terrain Proximity Page, an icon to indicate the
feature is enabled for display and a legend for Terrain Proximity colors are shown (Figure 6-119).
EIS
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD, while the
range setting also affects the PFD Inset Map.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles recognized by
Terrain Proximity as yellow or red are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within
the setting limit.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Maps besides the Terrain Proximity Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
The maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the
Navigation Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20
nm, the highest obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-116).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-117).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-118).
AFCS
• TERRAIN DATA – Turns the display of terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
• OBSTACLE DATA – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Figure 6-116 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-117 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-118 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Map Group
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Additional information about obstacles can be displayed by panning over the display on the map. The map
panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the Joystick. If the
map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
Additional Information
on Obstacle Selected
with Map Pointer
AFCS
Red Terrain Area
(Above or Within 100’
Below Aircraft Altitude)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Yellow Terrain Area
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below Aircraft Altitude)
Red Lighted Obstacles
(Above or Within 100’
Below Aircraft Altitude)
APPENDICES
Lighted Obstacle Selected
with Map Pointer
Terrain Display
Enabled Icon
INDEX
Terrain Legend
Figure 6-119 Terrain Information on the Navigation Map Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TERRAIN PROXIMITY PAGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Map - Terrain Proximity Page is the principal page for showing terrain and obstacle data in relation to the
aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs)
can be displayed for reference.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the Joystick from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
EIS
In addition to the terrain colors discussed previously, a gray shade of purple on the Terrain Proximity Page to
represent areas where terrain database information is unavailable.
Displaying the Terrain Proximity Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain Proximity Page.
3) To change the view,
a) Press the VIEW Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
b) Press the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘View Arc’ or ‘View 360º’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key to change the view.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Showing/hiding aviation information on the Terrain Proximity Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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INSTRUMENTS
Aircraft Altitude
Above Geodetic Sea
Level (GSL)
Map Range Rings
Yellow obstacle is
between 100’ and
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude
Red Terrain
(Terrain Above
or Within 100’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Red obstacle is
above or within
100’ below the
aircraft altitude
Black Terrain
(Terrain More than
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Yellow Terrain
(Terrain Between
100’ and 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Figure 6-120 Terrain Proximity Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Red Terrain
(Terrain Above
or Within 100’
Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Aircraft Altitude
Above Geodetic
Sea Level (GSL)
AFCS
Map Range Arc
Black Terrain
(Terrain More
than 1000’
Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Yellow Terrain
(Terrain
Between
100’ and
1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Yellow obstacle
is between
100’ and 1000’
below the
aircraft altitude
APPENDICES
Terrain Legend
INDEX
Figure 6-121 Terrain Proximity Page (Arc View)
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OVERVIEW
6.6 TERRAIN-SVS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
Garmin SVS is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or
reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
WARNING: Do not use Terrain-SVS information for primary terrain avoidance. Terrain-SVS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
EIS
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed if the aircraft is outside of the terrain database coverage area.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: Terrain-SVS is included with the Synthetic Vision System (SVS). If equipped with TAWS-B, the TAWS-B
option will take precedence over Terrain-SVS.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
G1000 Terrain-SVS is a terrain awareness system available with the Synthetic Vision System (SVS). SVS
functionality is offered as an optional enhancement. Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B (TAWS-B)
(if equipped) or standard Terrain-SVS is integrated within SVS to provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the
presence of threatening terrain relevant to the projected flight path. For detailed information regarding SVS, refer
to the Synthetic Vision System (SVS) section of the G1000 Pilot’s Guide.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Terrain-SVS does not comply with TSO-C151b certification standards. It increases situational awareness and
aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). Do not confuse Terrain-SVS with TAWS-B. TAWS-B is more
sophisticated and robust, and it is TSO-C151b certified. Although the terrain and obstacle color map displays
are the same, TAWS-B uses more sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles.
Terrain-SVS does not provide the following:
• Premature Descent Alerting (PDA)
AFCS
• Excessive Descent Rate (EDR)
• Negative Climb Rate (NCR)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Descent to 500 Feet Callout (DFC)
Terrain-SVS requires the following components to operate properly:
• Valid 3-D GPS position
• Valid terrain/obstacle database
APPENDICES
Terrain-SVS displays altitudes of terrain and obstructions relative to the aircraft position and altitude with
reference to a database that may contain inaccuracies. Terrain and obstructions are shown only if they are in the
database. Terrain and obstacle information should be used as an aid to situational awareness. They should never
be used to navigate or maneuver around terrain.
INDEX
Note that all obstructions may not be available in the terrain and obstacle database. No terrain and obstacle
information is shown without a valid 3-D GPS position.
The G1000 GPS receiver provides the horizontal position and altitude. GPS altitude is derived from satellite
position. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above
mean sea level calculated geometrically. GSL altitude is used to determine terrain and obstacle proximity. GSL
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altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that
normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL
altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Terrain and obstacle databases are referenced to GSL. Using the GPS position and altitude, the Terrain-SVS
feature portrays a 3-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and altitude of the
aircraft. GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and predict the aircraft’s flight path in relation to
the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this way, the pilot can view predicted dangerous terrain and obstacle
conditions.
EIS
DISPLAYING TERRAIN-SVS DATA
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Terrain-SVS uses yellow (caution) and red (warning) to depict terrain and obstacles with heights greater than
200 feet above ground level, AGL. Alerts are given relative to aircraft altitude. Colors are adjusted automatically
as the aircraft altitude changes. The colors and symbols shown in the figure and tables below are used to
represent terrain, obstacles, and potential impact points.
Potential Impact Point
Terrain above or
within 100 ft
below the aircraft
altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Unlighted Obstacle
1000 ft
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Terrain between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the
aircraft altitude
Terrain more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
AFCS
On the Terrain-SVS Page only, a gray shade of purple indicates no terrain data is available.
Figure 6-122 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain-SVS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
APPENDICES
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Gray obstacle* is more than 1000 ft below
aircraft altitude
INDEX
* Gray obstacles not shown on the Terrain-SVS Page.
Table 6-17 Terrain-SVS Obstacle Colors and Symbology
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Alert Type
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Potential Impact Point Symbol
Example Annunciation
Warning
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Caution
Table 6-18 Terrain-SVS Potential Impact Point Symbols with Alert Types
The Map - Terrain-SVS Page is the principal page for viewing terrain and obstacle information. In addition,
Terrain-SVS information can be displayed on the following pages and maps for reference:
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Pages
EIS
• PFD Inset Map
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps other than the Terrain-SVS Page):
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey).
2) Select the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When Terrain-SVS is selected on maps other than the Terrain-SVS Page, an icon to indicate the feature is
enabled for display and a legend for Terrain-SVS terrain colors is shown.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD, while the
range setting also affects the PFD Inset Map.
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles for which warnings
and cautions are issued are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting
limit.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Maps other than the Terrain-SVS Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The
maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the Navigation
Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20 nm, the highest
obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
APPENDICES
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-123).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Map Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-124).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-125).
• TERRAIN DATA – Turns the display of terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
INDEX
• OBSTACLE DATA – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
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6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-123 Navigation Map
Page Menu
Figure 6-124 Navigation Map Page
Setup Menu
Figure 6-125 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu,
Map Group
AFCS
TERRAIN-SVS PAGE
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Terrain-SVS Page is specialized to show terrain, obstacle, and potential impact point data in relation
to the aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other
NAVAIDs) can be displayed for reference. If an obstacle and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect,
the display automatically zooms in to the closest potential point of impact on the Terrain-SVS Page.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft; the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the Joystick from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings or arcs.
APPENDICES
In addition to the terrain colors discussed previously, a gray shade of purple on the Terrain-SVS Page to
represent areas where terrain database information is unavailable.
Displaying the Terrain-SVS Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
INDEX
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain-SVS Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Changing the Terrain-SVS Page view:
1) Select the VIEW Softkey.
2) Press the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘View Arc’ or ‘View 360º’, dependent on current state, and press the ENT Key to change the view.
Showing/hiding aviation information on the Terrain-SVS Page:
EIS
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’, dependent on current state, and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Aircraft Altitude
Above Geodetic Sea
Level (GSL)
Red Terrain
(Terrain Above
or Within 100’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Map Range Rings
Yellow obstacle is
between 100’ and
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Red obstacle is
above or within
100’ below the
aircraft altitude
Black Terrain
(Terrain More than
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Yellow Terrain
(Terrain Between
100’ and 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
AFCS
Annunciation Window
Figure 6-126 Terrain-SVS Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Aircraft Altitude
Above Geodetic Sea
Level (GSL)
Map Range Rings
Red Terrain
(Terrain Above
or Within 100’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
Yellow obstacle is
between 100’ and
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Red obstacle is
above or within
100’ below the
aircraft altitude
Black Terrain
(Terrain More than
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Yellow Terrain
(Terrain Between
100’ and 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Annunciation Window
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-127 Terrain-SVS Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TERRAIN-SVS ALERTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within Terrain-SVS software algorithms.
Terrain-SVS alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an alert is
issued, visual annunciations are displayed and aural alerts are simultaneously issued. Table 6-19 shows TerrainSVS alert types with corresponding annunciations and aural messages.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The Terrain-SVS Alert Annunciation is
shown to the upper left of the Altimeter on the PFD and below the Terrain Legend on the MFD. If the TerrainSVS Page is not displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the MFD pop-up
alert:
EIS
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the Terrain-SVS Page)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Alert Annunciation
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-129 Navigation Map Page
TAWS-B Pop-up Alert
AFCS
Figure 6-128 TAWS-B PFD Alert Annunciation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Terrain Display Enabled
Terrain Legend
INDEX
Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-130 Navigation Map Page
(After TAWS-B Pop-up Alert Acknowledgment)
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TERRAIN-SVS INHIBIT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLTA aural and visual alerts can be manually inhibited. Use caution when inhibiting Terrain-SVS as the
system should be enabled when appropriate. When Terrain-SVS is inhibited, the alert annunciation ‘TER
INH’ is shown on the PFD and in the annunciation window on the MFD.
Figure 6-131 Terrain-SVS Alerting Disabled (Terrain-SVS Inhibited) Annunciation
EIS
Inhibiting/enabling Terrain-SVS alerting:
1) Select the Terrain-SVS Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Select the INHIBIT Softkey to inhibit or enable Terrain-SVS (choice dependent on current state).
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
b) Select ‘Inhibit Terrain-SVS’ or ‘Enable Terrain-SVS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT
Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If Terrain-SVS alerts are inhibited when the Final Approach Fix is the active waypoint during a GPS SBAS
approach, a LOW ALT annunciation may appear on the PFD next to the altimeter if the current aircraft
altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed altitude at the Final Approach Fix. See the Flight Instruments
Section for details.
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Alert Type
MFD
Pop-Up Alert (except
Terrain-SVS Page)
Aural Message
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning (IOI)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution (IOI)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
INDEX
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-19 Terrain-SVS Alerts Summary
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OVERVIEW
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values in Figure 6-132. When an RTC alert is issued, a potential impact point is displayed on the
Terrain-SVS Page.
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is below the elevation of a terrain or obstacle cell in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts are
accompanied by a potential impact point displayed on the Terrain-SVS Page. The alert is annunciated when
the projected vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes in Figure 6-132.
EIS
Required Terrain Clearance
RTC Level (FT)
RTC Descending (FT)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
700
600
500
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
400
300
200
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Required Terrain ClearanceClearance
(FT)
Minimum Terrain/Obstacle
(FT)
800
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Distance From Runway (NM)
Distance
From Runway (NM)
Figure 6-132 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
AFCS
FLTA alerts are automatically inhibited when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination runway
elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
SYSTEM STATUS
During power-up, Terrain-SVS conducts a system test of its aural and visual annunciations. An aural alert is
issued at test completion.
PFD/MFD* Alert Annunciation
Aural Message
System Test in Progress
System Test Pass
APPENDICES
Alert Type
None
None
Terrain System Test Fail
“Terrain System Test OK”
“Terrain System Failure”
INDEX
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-20 Terrain-SVS System Test Status Annunciations
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Terrain-SVS continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status,
and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert, “Terrain System Failure” is
generated along with the ‘TER FAIL’ alert annunciation.
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Terrain-SVS requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should
the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TER N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the Terrain-SVS Page. The voice alert, “Terrain
System Not Available” is generated. When the GPS signal is re-established and the aircraft is within the
database coverage area, the voice alert “Terrain System Available” is generated.
Alert Cause
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable
or invalid. Terrain-SVS
operating with PFD Terrain or
Obstacle databases
Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid, invalid
software configuration, audio
fault
No GPS position
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
None
Terrain-SVS Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Aural Message
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
TERRAIN FAIL
“Terrain System Failure”
NO GPS POSITION
“Terrain System Not Available”
“Terrain System Available” when
GPS position returns
“Terrain System Not Available”
“Terrain System Available” when
sufficient GPS signal is received
“Terrain System Not Available”
“Terrain System Available” when
aircraft re-enters coverage area
Excessively degraded GPS
signal
None
Out of database coverage
area
None
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Table 6-21 Terrain-SVS Status Annunciations
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6.7 TAWS-B
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain or obstacle avoidance. TAWS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle information is not displayed if the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain
database coverage area.
EIS
NOTE: The data contained in the TAWS databases comes from government agencies. Garmin accurately
processes and cross-validates the data but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
TAWS-B (Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B) provides increased situational awareness and aids
in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). TAWS-B provides visual annunciations and voice alerts when
terrain and obstacles are within the given altitude threshold from the aircraft. The displayed alerts and warnings
are advisory in nature only.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TAWS-B satisfies TSO-C151b Class B requirements for certification.
TAWS-B requires the following to operate properly:
• A valid terrain/obstacle/airport terrain database
• A valid 3-D GPS position solution
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TAWS-B uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. Terrain information is based
on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may be
shown if available in the database. Garmin verifies the data to confirm accuracy of the content, per TSO-C151b.
However, the displayed information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and data may be inaccurate.
AFCS
TAWS-B uses information provided from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude. GPS
altitude is derived from satellite measurements. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic
sea level (GSL), which is the height above mean sea level (MSL) calculated geometrically. The system uses GSL
altitude to determine TAWS-B alerts. GSL altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject
to variations in pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not
require local altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source. Therefore,
GSL altitude provides a highly accurate and reliable MSL altitude source to calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
The terrain and obstacle databases used by TAWS-B are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position and GSL
altitude, TAWS-B displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and
altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the system uses the GPS position and GSL altitude to calculate and “predict”
the aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this manner, TAWS-B can provide
advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain and obstacle conditions.
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INDEX
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
from the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude shown on the TAWS-B Page.
415
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
DISPLAYING TAWS-B DATA
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TAWS-B uses yellow (caution) and red (warning) to depict terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than
200 feet above ground level, AGL) alerts relative to aircraft altitude. Colors are adjusted automatically as the
aircraft altitude changes. The colors and symbols in the figure and tables below are used to represent terrain,
obstacles, and potential impact points.
Potential Impact Point
Terrain above or
within 100 ft
below the aircraft
altitude
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
EIS
Unlighted Obstacle
1000 ft
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Terrain between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the
aircraft altitude
Terrain more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
On the TAWS-B Page only, a gray shade of purple indicates no terrain data is available.
Figure 6-133 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for TAWS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
AFCS
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Gray obstacle* is more than 1000 ft below
aircraft altitude
* Gray obstacles not shown on the TAWS-B Page.
Table 6-22 TAWS-B Obstacle Colors and Symbology
APPENDICES
Potential Impact
Point Symbol
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
Warning
INDEX
Caution
Table 6-23 TAWS-B Potential Impact Point Symbols with Alert Types
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TAWS-B information can be displayed on the following maps:
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Pages
• TAWS-B Page
• System Pages (when terrain is enabled on the
Navigation Map Page)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• PFD Inset Navigation Map
TAWS-B relative terrain and obstacle information is also available for display in the optional Profile View
Window on the Navigation Map Page. Refer to the Profile View Terrain discussion in this section for more
information.
EIS
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps except the TAWS-B Page or PFD Inset Navigation
Map):
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press the MAP Softkey.
2) Press the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
Displaying terrain and obstacle information on the PFD Inset Navigation Map:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) On the PFD, press the INSET Softkey.
2) If the PFD Inset Map is showing the traffic map, press the TFRC-2 Softkey to display the navigation map.
3) Press the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The system displays a TAWS-B icon with the terrain legend when terrain and obstacles are enabled on MFD
maps. The legend appears without the terrain icon on the dedicated TAWS-B Page.
AFCS
Figure 6-134 TAWS-B Icon and Legend
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If the crew selects a map range larger than the selected map
range setting, the data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to
the MFD, while the range setting also affects the PFD Inset Map.
APPENDICES
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles for which warnings
and cautions are issued are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting
limit.
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INDEX
Maps besides the TAWS-B Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The
maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the Navigation
Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20 nm, the highest
obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
417
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-135).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-136).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-137).
• TERRAIN DATA – Enables/disables display of terrain data and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
EIS
• OBSTACLE DATA – Enables/disables display off obstacle data and sets maximum range at which obstacles are
shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-135 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-137 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Map Group
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-136 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TAWS-B PAGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Map - TAWS-B Page is specialized to show terrain, obstacle, and potential impact point data in relation
to the aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. It is the principal map page for viewing
TAWS-B information. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs) can be displayed for reference. If an
obstacle and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the display automatically zooms in to the closest
potential point of impact on the TAWS-B Page.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the Joystick from one to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
EIS
In addition to the terrain colors discussed previously, a gray shade of purple on the TAWS-B Page to represent
areas where terrain database information is unavailable.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Displaying the TAWS-B Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the TAWS-B Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Changing the TAWS-B Page view:
1) Select the VIEW Softkey.
2) Select the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘View Arc’ or ‘View 360º’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key to change the view
Showing/hiding aviation information on the TAWS-B Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
AFCS
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Red Terrain
(Terrain Above
or Within 100’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
Aircraft Altitude
Above Geodetic Sea
Level (GSL)
Black Terrain
(Terrain More than
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
EIS
Red obstacle is
above or within
100’ below the
aircraft altitude
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Yellow Terrain
(Terrain Between
100’ and 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
Map Range Rings
Terrain Legend
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Yellow obstacle is
between 100’ and
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude
Annunciation Window
Figure 6-138 TAWS-B Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Red Terrain
(Terrain Above
or Within 100’
Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Aircraft Altitude
Above Geodetic
Sea Level (GSL)
Black Terrain
(Terrain More
than 1000’
Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
AFCS
Map Range Arc
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Yellow Terrain
(Terrain
Between
100’ and
1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Yellow obstacle
is between
100’ and 1000’
below the
aircraft altitude
Terrain Legend
APPENDICES
Red obstacle is
above or within
100’ below the
aircraft altitude
Annunciation Window
INDEX
Figure 6-139 TAWS-B Page (ARC View)
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TAWS-B ALERTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within TAWS-B software algorithms.
TAWS-B alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an alert is
issued, the system provides visual annunciations and voice alerts. Table 6-24 shows TAWS-B alert types with
corresponding annunciations and voice alerts.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The TAWS-B Alert Annunciation is
shown to the upper left of the Altimeter on the PFD and below the Terrain Legend on the MFD. If the TAWS-B
Page is not displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up alert:
EIS
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the TAWS-B Page)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Alert Annunciation
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-140 TAWS-B PFD Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-141 Navigation Map Page
TAWS-B Pop-up Alert
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Terrain Display Enabled
Terrain Legend
Alert Annunciation
INDEX
Figure 6-142 Navigation Map Page
(After TAWS-B Pop-up Alert Acknowledgment)
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Alert Type
PFD/MFD†
MFD Pop-Up Alert
Alert
(Except TAWS-B Page)
Annunciation
Voice Alert
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Excessive Descent Rate
Warning (EDR)
“Pull Up”
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Warning (RTC)
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
*
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
or
Imminent Terrain Impact
Caution (ITI)
or
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Caution (ROC)
AFCS
*
or
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Caution (RTC)
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Caution (IOI)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Warning (IOI)
APPENDICES
*
or
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Warning (ROC)
Negative Climb Rate
Caution (NCR)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
or
Imminent Terrain Impact
Warning (ITI)
Premature Descent Alert
Caution (PDA)
Altitude Callout “500”
Excessive Descent Rate
Caution (EDR)
*
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
“Sink Rate”
*
or
“Don’t Sink”*
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
INDEX
† Annunciation is shown on TAWS-B Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
* Alerts with multiple messages are configurable at installation and are installation-dependent. Alerts for the default
configuration are indicated with asterisks.
Table 6-24 TAWS-B Alerts Summary
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide suitable notification when the
aircraft is determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain at an excessive speed. Figure 6-143 shows the
parameters for the alert as defined by TSO-C151b.
6000
5500
5000
4000
NK
: “SI
ion
Caut
3500
”
RATE
EIS
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
3000
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
Descent Rate (FPM)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
0
0
500
Figure 6-143 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE (FLTA)
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance feature of TAWS-B compares the aircraft’s projected flight path
with known terrain and obstacles in their respective databases and issues four types of alerts as either a
caution or a warning:
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values in Figure 6-144. When an RTC alert is issued, a potential impact point is displayed on the
TAWS-B Page.
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is below the elevation of a terrain or obstacle cell in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts
are accompanied by a potential impact point displayed on the TAWS-B Page. The alert is annunciated when
the projected vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes in Figure 6-144.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Required Terrain Clearance
RTC Level (FT)
RTC Descending (FT)
800
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
700
EIS
Required Terrain Clearance (FT)
600
500
400
300
200
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Distance From Runway (NM)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-144 FLTA Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Values
FLTA alerts are automatically inhibited when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination runway
elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends.
PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway (Figure 6-145).
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
AFCS
800
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
600
500
400
300
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
INDEX
Figure 6-145 PDA Alerting Threshold
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PDA and FLTA visual annunciations and voice alerts can be manually inhibited. Discretion should be used
when inhibiting these alerts, and the system should be enabled when appropriate. When PDA and FLTA
alerts are inhibited, the alert annunciation ‘TAWS INH’ is shown on the PFD and MFD (Figure 6-146).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 6-146 TAWS Alerting Disabled (TAWS-B Inhibited) Annunciation
Inhibiting/enabling TAWS-B PDA and FLTA alerting:
EIS
1) Select the TAWS-B Page.
2) Select the INHIBIT Softkey to inhibit or enable TAWS (choice dependent on current state).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Inhibit TAWS’ or ‘Enable TAWS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If TAWS-B alerts are inhibited when the Final Approach Fix is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach,
a ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation may appear on the PFD next to the Altimeter if the current aircraft altitude is at
least 164 feet below the prescribed altitude at the Final Approach Fix. See the Flight Instruments Section for
details.
FIVE HUNDRED ALTITUDE VOICE CALLOUT ALERT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The purpose of the voice alert “Five-hundred” is to provide an advisory alert of when the aircraft descends
to within 500 feet above the terrain or runway threshold. When the aircraft is within 5 nm of an airport, the
“Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the nearest runway threshold elevation. When the aircraft is more
than 5 nm of the nearest airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the height above terrain.
There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the “Five Hundred” voice alert.
AFCS
NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff.
The voice alert “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by an annunciation and a pop-up terrain
alert on the display. NCR alerting is only active when departing from an airport and when the following
conditions are met:
• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
APPENDICES
• Distance from the departure airport is 2 nm or less
• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
Figures 6-114 and 6-115 shows the NCR alerting parameters based on altitude loss and sink rate, respectively,
as defined by TSO-C151b.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
1000
EIS
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
900
800
700
600
500
“DON’T SINK”
400
300
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-147 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
1000
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
500
400
“DON’T SINK”
300
200
100
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-148 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM STATUS
PFD/MFD Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
System Test in Progress
None
TAWS-B System Test Fail
Voice Alert
TAWS TEST
None
None
“TAWS System Test OK”
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
EIS
System Test Pass
TAWS-B
Page Center
Annunciation
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
During power-up, TAWS-B conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts. The system test
can also be manually initiated. The system issues a voice alert when the test has concluded. TAWS-B System
Testing is disabled when ground speed exceeds 30 knots.
Table 6-25 TAWS-B System Test Status Annunciations
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Manually testing the TAWS-B System:
1) Select the TAWS-B Page.
2) Press the MENU Key (Figure 6-149).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Select ‘Test TAWS System’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the selection.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 6-149 TAWS-B Page Menu
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
TAWS-B continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status, and
GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert “TAWS System Failure” is generated
along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
APPENDICES
TAWS-B requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should the
navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TAWS N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the TAWS-B Page. The voice alert “TAWS Not
Available” is generated. When sufficient GPS signal is received and the aircraft is within the terrain database
coverage area, the voice alert “TAWS Available” is generated.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
PFD/MFD*
Annunciation
TAWS-B Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Voice Alert
None
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
No GPS position
NO GPS POSITION
“TAWS Not Available”
Excessively degraded GPS signal, aircraft
outside of terrain database coverage area
None
“TAWS Not Available”
Alert Cause
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
MFD Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid. TAWS operating with
PFD Terrain or Obstacle databases
Terrain or Obstacle database unavailable
or invalid on all displays, invalid software
configuration, TAWS audio fault
*Annunciation appears on MFD pages when terrain is displayed.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Table 6-26 TAWS-B Abnormal Conditions
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6.8 PROFILE VIEW TERRAIN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The system offers a Profile View of terrain and obstacles relative to the aircraft’s current flight path and altitude
on the Navigation Map Page of the MFD. This Profile View does not provide terrain or obstacle caution or
warning annunciations or voice alerts, nor does it display potential impact points inside the Profile View. The
Profile View uses the same colors for obstacle and relative terrain information as the Terrain Proxmity, Terrain-SVS
or TAWS-B systems; refer to those discussions for more information on relative terrain colors and symbols.
Enabling/Disabling Profile View:
EIS
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the PROFILE Softkey to enable or disable Profile View.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Enabling/Disabling Profile View Terrain on the Navigation Map (when Profile View is enabled):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the TERRAIN Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PROFILE VIEW DISPLAY
When the Profile View is enabled, it is displayed in a window below the Navigation Map. Altitude is shown
along a vertical scale, with an aircraft icon positioned at the current altitude. Distance is represented horizontally
along the bottom of the Profile View, and increases from left (present position) to right.
AFCS
When the Navigation Map range is adjusted with the Joystick, the horizontal distance of the Profile View is
adjusted proportionately to be 1/2 of the Navigation Map range distance down to one nautical mile, at which
point Profile View is no longer available (‘PROFILE NOT AVAILABLE’ is displayed).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When terrain and obstacles are shown on the Navigation Map Page, this information also appears in the
Profile View Window. If the Navigation Map range is adjusted beyond the maximum map range for terrain and
obstacle data appear on the Navigation Map, this information is also removed from the Profile View Window.
Refer to the terrain discussions for information selecting the maximum map range to display terrain and
obstacles on navigation maps.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Profile Path
EIS
Range
Markers
Terrain Legend
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Navigation Map
Range
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Altitude Scale
Profile View Length
is One Half of the
Navigation Map
Range
Distance Scale
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-150 Profile View on Navigation Map with Terrain Display Enabled
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Obstacles with heights greater than 200 feet AGL appear relative to aircraft altitude along the altitude scale.
The top of the obstacle symbol on the scale represents the obstacle’s height AGL. If the obstacle’s height AGL
is higher than can be represented by the obstacle symbol itself (e.g. for unusually tall obstacles), a vertical line
appears below the obstacle symbol in order to depict the top of the obstacle symbol at its height AGL, as shown
in Figure 6-151.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-151 Profile View with Tall Obstacles
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PROFILE PATH
Flight Phase
Total Profile
View Width
0.6 nm
0.6 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
4.0 nm
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Approach
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The contents of the Profile View Window are based on the current aircraft track (or heading if track is
unavailable), and the system shows the highest known terrain or obstacles within a predetermined width from
the present position to the end of the profile range inside the Profile View Window. This width is determined by
the phase of flight, as annunciated on the HSI, and is widest during enroute and oceanic phases, and narrowest
during approach and departure phases (Table 6-27).
Table 6-27 Profile View Width Scale
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Profile Path display is a visual cue which represents the horizontal and lateral boundaries of the Profile
View on the Navigation Map Page. This path is depicted as a white rectangle and is only available when Profile
View is enabled. White range markers both edges of the Profile Path match the range markers along the
distance scale inside the Profile View Window. The Profile View distance must be at least four nautical miles
(or 7.5 km if configured for metric units) in order for the path display to appear on the Navigation Map Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The pilot can enable or disable the Profile Path display on the Navigation Map. The pilot can also select
the maximum navigation map range to show the Profile Path. If a map range is selected beyond the selected
maximum range, the system removes the Profile Path display.
Customizing the Profile Path display on the Navigation Map Page:
AFCS
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-152).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Profile’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-153).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-154).
• PROFILE PATH – Turns the display of the Profile Path on or off and sets maximum range at which Profile Path
is shown
APPENDICES
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Figure 6-152 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-154 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu,
Profile Group
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-153 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6.9 TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE (TIS)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: The Traffic Information Service (TIS) is intended for advisory use only. TIS is intended to help the
pilot locate traffic visually. It is the responsibility of the pilot to see and maneuver to avoid traffic.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the displays.
EIS
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
NOTE: TIS is available only when the aircraft is within the service volume of a TIS-capable terminal radar
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
site. Aircraft without an operating transponder are invisible to Traffic Advisory Systems (TAS), Traffic Alert
and Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS), and to TIS. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown
without altitude separation data or climb descent indication.
NOTE: TIS is disabled if another traffic system is installed.
Description
AFCS
TIS Symbol
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Traffic Information Service (TIS) assists the flight crew in detection and avoidance of other aircraft. TIS uses the
Mode S transponder for the traffic data link. TIS receives traffic information from ground stations, and provides
updates every five seconds. The system displays up to eight traffic targets within a 7.5-nm radius, from 3000
feet below to 3500 feet above the requesting aircraft. The system displays traffic with the following symbology:
Non-Threat Traffic
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-28 TIS Traffic Symbols
APPENDICES
A Traffic Advisory (TA) indicates that the current track of the intruder could result in a collision. When traffic
meets the advisory criteria for the TA, a solid yellow circle symbol appears. A TA which is detected, but is outside
the range of the map, causes a banner message to appear in the lower left corner of the map and a half TA symbol
to appear at the relative bearing of the intruder.
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INDEX
TIS also provides a vector line showing the direction in which the traffic is moving, to the nearest 45°. Traffic
information for which TIS is unable to determine the bearing (non-bearing traffic) is displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map Page (Figure 6-159) or in a banner at the lower left corner of maps other than the Traffic Map Page
on which traffic can be displayed.
433
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The altitude difference between the requesting aircraft and other intruder aircraft is displayed above/below the
traffic symbol in hundreds of feet. If the other aircraft is above the requesting aircraft, the altitude separation
appears above the traffic symbol; if below, the altitude separation appears below. Altitude trend is displayed as
an up/down arrow (for vertical speeds at least 500 feet per minute in either direction) to the right of the target
symbol. Traffic symbols for aircraft without altitude reporting capability appear without altitude separation or
climb/descent information.
DISPLAYING TRAFFIC DATA
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps (when TIS is operating):
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option is
installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Displaying traffic information (maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Select the MAP Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, an the system displays a status icon to
indicate the feature is enabled for display.
AFCS
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Traffic
Advisory,
500’ Below,
Climbing
APPENDICES
Non-Threat
Traffic,
Altitude Not
Reported
Traffic Display
Enabled Icon
INDEX
TIS Banner
Annunciations
Figure 6-155 TIS Traffic on the Navigation Map Page
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Displaying traffic information (PFD Inset Map):
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data on the inset map (TRFC-1).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the softkey again to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
4) Press the softkey again to remove traffic data.
EIS
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of traffic. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which traffic data (symbols
and labels) are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use settings based on those selected for the
Navigation Map Page.
Customizing traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-156).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Traffic’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-157).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-158).
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA ONLY - Displays Traffic Advisories only
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown (with the option to turn off)
AFCS
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Figure 6-156 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-157 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-158 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The Traffic Map Page is specialized to show surrounding TIS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current
position and altitude, without clutter from the basemap. It is the principal map page for viewing TIS traffic
information. Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range
is adjustable with the Joystick from two to 12 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
AFCS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is on the
ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. Once the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches from Standby to
Operating Mode and the system begins to display traffic information. Refer to the System Status discussion for
more information.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
APPENDICES
3) Confirm TIS is in Operating Mode:
Select the OPERATE Softkey to begin displaying traffic.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ (shown if TIS is in Standby Mode) and press the ENT Key.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Traffic Mode Annunciation
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
“TIS Not Available”
Voice Alert Status
Traffic Advisory
500’ Below,
Climbing
EIS
“Non-Bearing”
Traffic
(System Unable to
Determine Bearing)
Distance is 4.0 nm,
500’ Above,
Descending
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Traffic
Advisory OffScale, 400’
Below, Level
Traffic Status
Banners
Figure 6-159 Traffic Map Page
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Non-Threat
Traffic, Altitude
Not Reported
Select to
Mute “TIS Not
Available” Voice
Alert
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TIS ALERTS
When the number of TAs on the Traffic Map Page increases from one scan to the next, the following occur:
• A single “Traffic” voice alert is generated.
AFCS
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears to the top left of the Attitude Indicator on the PFD, flashing for 5 seconds
and remaining displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with traffic.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To reduce the number of nuisance alerts due to proximate aircraft, the “Traffic” voice alert is generated only
when the number of TAs increases. For example, when the first TA is displayed, a voice and visual annunciation
are generated. As long as a single TA remains on the display, no additional voice alerts are generated. If a second
TA appears on the display or if the number of TAs initially decreases and then subsequently increases, another
voice alert is generated.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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437
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-160 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
A “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert occurs when the TIS service becomes unavailable or is out of range.
TIS may be unavailable in the radar coverage area due to the following:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Radar site TIS Mode S sensor is not operational or is out of service
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is beyond the maximum range of the TIS-capable Mode S radar site.
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is above the radar site in the cone of silence and out of range of an adjacent site.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is below radar coverage. In flat terrain, the coverage extends from about 3000
feet upward at 55 miles. Terrain and obstacles around the radar site can further decrease radar coverage in all
directions.
• Traffic does not have an operating transponder.
AFCS
The “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert can be manually muted to reduce nuisance alerting. TNA muting
status is shown in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Muting the “TIS Not Available” voice alert:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Select the TNA MUTE Softkey. The status is displayed in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
b) Select ‘‘’Not Available” Mute On’ (shown if TNA muting is currently off) and press the ENT Key.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM STATUS
Description
Data is not being received from the transponder*
Data is being received from the transponder, but a failure is detected in the data stream*
The transponder has failed*
TIS is unavailable or out of range
EIS
Traffic Map Page Center
Banner Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
UNAVAILABLE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The system performs an automatic test of TIS during power-up. If TIS passes the test, TIS enters Standby
Mode (on the ground) or Operating Mode (in the air). If TIS fails the power up test, the system displays an
annunciation in the center of the Traffic Map Page.
* Contact a service center or Garmin dealer for corrective action
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Table 6-29 TIS Failure Annunciations
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
System Test
has Failed
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Data Not
Received from
Transponder
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-161 TIS Power-up Test Failure
APPENDICES
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INDEX
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is on the
ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. If traffic is selected for display on another map while Standby
Mode is selected, the traffic display enabled icon is crossed out (also the case whenever TIS has failed). Once
the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches to Operating Mode and traffic information is displayed. The mode can be
changed manually using softkeys or the page menu.
439
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Mode
OPERATING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TIS Operating
TIS Standby
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
FAIL
TIS Failed
EIS
Table 6-30 TIS Modes
Switching between TIS modes:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Select the STANDBY or OPERATE Softkey select a mode. The mode is displayed in the upper left corner of the
Traffic Map Page.
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the MENU Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
AFCS
3) Select ‘Operate Mode’ or ‘Standby Mode’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key. The
annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner
of maps on which traffic can be displayed (Table 6-31).
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TA OFF SCALE
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AGE MM:SS
TRFC COAST
APPENDICES
TRFC RMVD
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
TRFC UNAVAIL
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending)
Appears if traffic data is not refreshed within 6 seconds
If after another 6 seconds data is not received, traffic is removed from the display
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced as the age increases
The displayed data is not current (6 to 12 seconds since last message)
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced when this message is displayed
Traffic is removed because it is too old for coasting (12 to 60 seconds since last message)
Traffic may exist within the selected display range, but it is not displayed
Traffic data has failed
Traffic has not been detected
The traffic service is unavailable or out of range
INDEX
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-31 TIS Traffic Status Annunciations
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6.10 TAS/TCAS I TRAFFIC
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate information
from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
EIS
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
NOTE: Pilots should be aware of on-board traffic system limitations. These systems require transponders
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
of other aircraft to respond to system interrogations. If the transponders do not respond to interrogations
due phenomena such as antenna shading or marginal transponder performance, traffic may be displayed
intermittently, or not at all. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude
separation data or climb descent indication. Pilots should remain vigilant for traffic at all times.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: TIS is disabled when a TAS or TCAS I system is installed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The optional Garmin GTS 825 is a Traffic Advisory System (TAS). The optional Garmin GTS 855 is a Traffic
Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS I). The traffic system enhances flight crew situational awareness by
displaying traffic information for transponder-equipped aircraft. The system also provides visual annunciations
and voice traffic alerts to assist the crew in visually acquiring traffic. Differences between the TAS and TCAS I
system are noted where applicable.
AFCS
The traffic system is capable of tracking up to 45 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode A or C transponders,
and up to 30 intruders equipped with Mode S transponders. A maximum of 30 aircraft with the highest threat
potential can be displayed simultaneously. No traffic surveillance is provided for aircraft without operating
transponders.
THEORY OF OPERATION
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When the traffic system is in Operating Mode, the unit interrogates the transponders of aircraft in its vicinity
while monitoring transponder replies. The traffic system uses this information to determine the distance,
relative bearing, and if reported, the altitude vertical trend, and other information for each aircraft within its
surveillance range. The traffic system then calculates a closure rate to each intruder based on the projected
Closest Point of Approach (CPA). If the closure rate meets the threat criteria for a Traffic Advisory (TA), visual
and aural alerting is provided.
APPENDICES
SURVEILLANCE VOLUME AND SYMBOLOGY
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INDEX
The traffic surveillance system monitors the airspace within ±10,000 feet of own altitude. Under ideal
conditions, the unit scans transponder traffic up to 40 nm in the forward direction. Range is somewhat
reduced to the sides and aft of own aircraft due to the directional interrogation signal patterns. In areas of
greater transponder traffic density or when TCAS II systems from other aircraft are detected, the on-board
traffic system automatically reduces its interrogation transmitter power (and therefore range) in order to limit
potential interference from other signals.
441
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When paired with a 1090 MHz extended squitter transponder, the traffic system uses Automatic Dependent
Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) data from participating airborne aircraft transponders to enhance the
positional accuracy and display of traffic within the TAS/TCAS I surveillance range.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
NOTE: Do not confuse this functionality with full ADS-B capability, which can provide traffic information
from ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and ADS-B traffic outside of the TAS/TCAS I surveillance
volume. This system is limited to displaying ADS-B information from suitably equipped airborne aircraft
within the TAS/TCAS I surveillance volume.
EIS
Symbol
Description
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Traffic Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Proximity Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Non-threat traffic with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Non-threat traffic without directional information.
AFCS
Traffic located on the ground with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track. Ground traffic is only displayed
when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Ground traffic without directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is
on the ground.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Non-aircraft ground traffic. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Table 6-32 TAS/TCAS I Traffic with ADS-B Symbology
INDEX
APPENDICES
A Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as a yellow circle or triangle, alerts the crew to a potentially hazardous
intruding aircraft, if the closing rate, distance, and vertical separation meet TA criteria. A Traffic Advisory
that is beyond the selected display range (off scale) is indicated by a half TA symbol at the edge of the screen
at the relative bearing of the intruder.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
A Proximity Advisory (PA), displayed as a solid white diamond or triangle, indicates the intruding aircraft
is within ±1200 feet and is within a 6 nm range, but is still not considered a TA threat.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Non-threat Advisory, shown as an open white diamond or triangle, is displayed for traffic beyond 6 nm
that is neither a TA or PA.
A solid white rounded arrow indicates either a PA or Non-Threat traffic with ADS-B directional information,
but the position of the traffic is shown with degraded accuracy.
Relative altitude, when available, is displayed above or below the corresponding intruder symbol in
hundreds of feet (Figure 6-162). When this altitude is above own aircraft, it is preceded by a ‘+’ symbol; a
minus sign ‘-’ indicates traffic is below own aircraft.
EIS
A vertical trend arrow to the right of the intruder symbol (Figure 6-162) indicates climbing or descending
traffic with an upward or downward-pointing arrow respectively.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Relative Altitude
Vertical trend arrow
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-162 Intruder Altitude and Vertical Trend Arrow
If the intruding aircraft is providing ADS-B track information, this is displayed as a vector line extending
beyond the traffic symbol in the direction of the track (Figure 6-163).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Vector Line indicates
intruder aircraft track
Figure 6-163 Intruder Traffic with ADS-B Directional Information and Track
AFCS
Flight IDs may also be displayed with traffic symbols; see the Flight IDs discussion in this section for more
information.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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443
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TA ALERTING CONDITIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The traffic system automatically adjusts its TA sensitivity level to reduce the likelihood of nuisance TA
alerting during flight phases likely to be near airports. The system uses Level A TA sensitivity when the
landing gear is extended; Level B TA sensitivity applies in all other conditions.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Sensitivity Intruder Altitude
Level
Available
A
Yes
A
No
B
Yes
B
No
TA Alerting Conditions
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of horizontal separation and vertical
separation is within 600 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 nm and vertical separation is within 600 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of separation.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of horizontal separation and vertical
separation is within 800 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 nm and vertical separation is within 800 feet.
Intruder range is less than 20 seconds.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Table 6-33 TA Sensitivity Level and TA Alerting Criteria
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRAFFIC ALERTS
When the traffic system detects a new TA, the following occur:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• A single “Traffic!” voice alert is generated, followed by additional voice information about the bearing, relative
altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table 6-34). The announcement
“Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” indicates the traffic is in front of own aircraft, above own altitude,
and approximately four nautical miles away.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears at the top right of the airspeed on the PFD, flashes for five seconds, and
remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area (Figure 6-164).
EIS
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with TA traffic.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined (Figures 6-166 and 6-169), a yellow text banner will be
displayed in the center of the Traffic Map Page and in the lower-left of maps with traffic displayed instead of
a TA symbol. The text will indicate “TA” followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow
for the TA traffic, if known.
A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the conditions that initially triggered the TA are no
longer present.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Relative Altitude
Distance
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
APPENDICES
Bearing
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-164 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
Table 6-34 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
INDEX
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445
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM TEST
NOTE: Traffic surveillance is not available during the system test. Use caution when performing a system
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
test while in-flight.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The traffic system provides a system test mode to verify the system is operating normally. The test takes about
ten seconds to complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols is displayed on the
Traffic Map Page (Figure 6-165). The traffic system issues a voice alert when the test is completed. If the system
passes the test, the traffic system enters Standby Mode. If the system test fails, the system enters Failure Mode.
Traffic System
Test Passed
Test Failed
GTS 825 (TAS)
“TAS System Test Passed.”
“TAS System Test Failed.”
GTS 855 (TCAS I)
“TCAS One System Test Passed.
“TCAS One System Test Failed.”
Table 6-35 GTS 825 and 855 System Test Voice Alerts
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Turn the Joystick to set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full traffic test pattern display.
4) Select the TEST Softkey.
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Test Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key.
Test Mode Annunciation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Operating
Mode
Non-Threat
Traffic at
11 o’clock,
Distance 3.6
nm, 1000’
Above, Level
Proximity
Traffic at
1 o’clock,
Distance
3.6 nm,
1000’ Below,
Descending
INDEX
APPENDICES
TA at 9 o’clock,
Distance 2.0
nm, 200’ Below,
Climbing
Figure 6-165 System Test in Progress with Test Pattern
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
OPERATION
NOTE: The traffic system automatically transitions from STANDBY to OPERATE mode eight seconds after
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
takeoff. The system automatically transitions from OPERATE to STANDBY mode 24 seconds after landing.
After power-up, the traffic system is in Standby Mode. The unit must be in Operating Mode for traffic to be
displayed and for TAs to be issued.
Selecting the OPERATE Softkey allows the traffic system to switch from Standby Mode to Operating Mode
as necessary. Selecting the STANDBY Softkey forces the unit into Standby Mode.
EIS
Switching from Operating Mode to Standby Mode:
On the Traffic Page, select the STANDBY Softkey
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Standby Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Switching from Standby Mode to Operating Mode:
On the Traffic Page, select the OPERATE Softkey
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Operate Mode’.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the ENT Key. The GTS 850 switches from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as necessary.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
AFCS
The Map - Traffic Map Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position
and altitude, without basemap clutter. It is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Aircraft
orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick
from two to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner of the page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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447
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Operating
Mode
Traffic Display
Range
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Altitude
Mode
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
EIS
Traffic Advisory,
500’ Below,
Climbing
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
“No Bearing”
Traffic (Bearing
Undetermined),
Distance 4.0
nm, 500’ Above,
Descending
Traffic
Advisory OffScale, 400’
Below, Level
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Proximity Traffic,
900’ Above,
Level, Flight ID
Displayed
Non-Threat
Traffic,
Altitude Not
Reported
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-166 Traffic Map Page
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
AFCS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Select the OPERATE Softkey to begin displaying traffic. ‘OPERATING’ is displayed in the Traffic mode field.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Select the STANDBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. ‘STANDBY’ is displayed in the Traffic
mode field.
INDEX
APPENDICES
5) Turn the Joystick clockwise to display a larger area or counter-clockwise to display a smaller area.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Altitude Display
The Pilot can select the volume of airspace in which non-threat and proximity traffic is displayed. TAs
occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, select the ALT MODE Softkey.
2) Select one of the following Softkeys:
EIS
• ABOVE: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 9000 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• NORMAL: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below
the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
•
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• BELOW: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9000 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the Traffic Page, select the BACK Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following (see softkey description in step 2 above):
ABOVE
•
NORMAL
•
BELOW
•
UNRESTRICTED
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
•
3) Select the ENT Softkey.
AFCS
Flight ID Display
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: This feature requires the installation of a transponder with the Automatic Dependent Surveillance -
Broadcast (ADS-B) Out capability.
APPENDICES
The Flight IDs of other aircraft (when available) can displayed on the Traffic Map Page (Figure 6-167).
When a flight ID is received, it will appear above or below the corresponding traffic symbol on the Traffic
Map Page when this option is enabled.
INDEX
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EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Flight ID
Figure 6-167 Traffic Map Page with Flight IDs Enabled
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Enabling/Disabling Flight ID Display:
On the Traffic Map Page, select the FLT ID Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
AFCS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Show Flight IDs’ or ‘Hide Flight IDs’ (choice dependent on current state)
(Figure 6-168).
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
Figure 6-168 Traffic Map Page Menu
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable with the
Joystick from two to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Changing the display range on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the Joystick.
2) The following range options are available:
2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm
•
24 and 40 nm
EIS
•
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
• Trip Planning Page
• System Pages
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps on the MFD when the unit is operating:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option
is installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Displaying traffic information (MFD maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
AFCS
1) Select the MAP Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, a traffic icon is shown to indicate traffic
is enabled for display (Figure 6-169).
Displaying traffic on the Navigation Map
1) Ensure the traffic system is operating. With the Navigation Map displayed, select the MAP Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map as shown in the figure.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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451
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Non-Threat
Traffic
EIS
Traffic
Advisory
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Proximity
Traffic
Proximity
Traffic
TA Off Scale
Banner
Traffic Icon
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
“No Bearing”
Traffic Advisory
Figure 6-169 Traffic on Navigation Map
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-170).
AFCS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-171).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections (Figure 6-172).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
APPENDICES
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
- TA ONLY - Displays Traffic Advisories only
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
INDEX
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 6-170 Navigation Map Page Menu
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-171 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-172 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD Inset Map by pressing the INSET Softkey. A traffic map
will appear in heading up orientation. Traffic information can also be overlaid with navigation, topographic
and optional data link weather information.
AFCS
Displaying traffic information (PFD Inset Map):
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data on the inset map (TRFC-1).
3) Press the softkey again to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
4) Press the softkey again to remove traffic data.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Traffic System
Mode
Self-test Initiated
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
TEST
(also shown in white in center of page)
OPERATING
EIS
Operating
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
Standby
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
Failed*
FAIL
* See Table 6-38 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-36 Traffic System Modes
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Traffic Map Page Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure
Incorrect data format received from the traffic unit
Table 6-37 Traffic Failure Annunciations
AFCS
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
TA OFF SCALE
APPENDICES
Traffic Status Banner Annunciation
TRFC FAIL
TA X.X ± XX ↕
NO TCAS DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending).
Traffic system has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly
formatted data)
Data is not being received from the traffic system.
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
INDEX
Table 6-38 Traffic Status Annunciations
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6.11 GARMIN ADS-B TRAFFIC
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
EIS
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The optional Garmin GTS 825 is a Traffic Advisory System (TAS) that is capable of receiving ADS-B traffic
advisories with its 1090 MHz Extended Squitter (1090 ES) receiver. The system provides visual annunciations
and voice traffic alerts to help the pilot visually acquire potentially conflicting traffic. This discussion covers the
traffic features of the Garmin GTS 825 ADS-B Traffic.
ADS-B SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
ADS-B is a core technology in the FAA NextGen air traffic control system. It includes air-to-air, air-to-ground,
and ground-to-air transmission of aircraft position and velocity data to provide pilots and controllers with a
more comprehensive view air traffic to improve flight safety and efficiency.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ADS-B relies on the automatic broadcast of position reports by aircraft, surface vehicles, and transmitters on
fixed objects. These broadcasts contain information such as GPS position, identity (Flight ID, Call Sign, Tail
Number, ICAO registration number, etc), ground track, ground speed, pressure altitude, and emergency status.
1090 ES
UAT
RADAR
Composite
GPS
AFCS
1090 ES
18,000 FT
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
10,000 FT
Mode A/C
ATC
UAT
UAT
1090 ES
APPENDICES
RADAR
UAT
ADS-B
Ground
Station
Figure 6-173 ADS-B System
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
For the purpose of distinguishing between levels of ADS-B service, there are three classifications of aircraft or
system capability: ADS-B In, ADS-B Out, and ADS-B participating. ADS-B In refers to the capability to receive
ADS-B information. ADS-B Out refers to the capability to transmit ADS-B information. ADS-B participating
refers to the capability to both send and receive ADS-B information. Aircraft lacking either ADS-In, ADS-B Out,
or both ADS-B capabilities may also be referred to as ADS-B nonparticipating aircraft.
AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE-REBROADCAST (ADS-R)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Because it is not required that ADS-B In capable aircraft be able to receive ADS-B data on both the 1090
MHz and 978 MHz data links, a method exists to get data from one data link to the other. ADS-R is the
rebroadcast of ADS-B data by FAA ground stations, which provide this service by taking data from one link
and rebroadcasting it on the other link. For example, two aircraft are in the service volume for a ground
station, and one is transmitting on 1090 MHz and the other on 978 MHz, the ground station retransmits the
data from each aircraft on the other link to ensure the two aircraft can “see” each other.
TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE-BROADCAST (TIS-B)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TIS-B provides the bridge between the radar-based ATC system and the ADS-B-based system. When an
ADS-B In or Out capable aircraft is within the service volume of an FAA ADS-B ground station, the ground
station broadcasts a portion of the ATC radar data to the aircraft. This aircraft is then included in the list of
aircraft being provided TIS-B service and is then considered a “TIS-B participant.”
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TIS-B coverage is available when the aircraft is within ground station coverage, in Secondary Surveillance
Radar coverage, and the other aircraft is also in Secondary Surveillance Radar coverage, and is transmitting
its altitude.
The ground station provides ATC radar information for other aircraft within ±3,500 feet and 15 NM of the
participant, to include altitude, position, ground speed, and ground track. TIS-B broadcasts occur once every
three to thirteen seconds, depending on the characteristics of the ground station providing the TIS-B service.
AFCS
The following table describes the aircraft that are observed by a GTS 825 ADS-B IN-equipped aircraft
according to the level of equipment installed in the other aircraft.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Other Aircraft Equipment
Viewable by GTS 825 Equipped Aircraft
1090ES Out Equipped
Yes
UAT Receive Only Capable
No
UAT Transmit Equipped
Yes*
No Transponder, No ADS-B
No
Non ADS-B Equipped, but with Mode C or S Transponder
Yes*
* Only when in ADS-B ground station coverage and when the other aircraft is in ATC radar coverage.
INDEX
Table 6-39 Aircraft Available for Viewing by an ADS-B Equipped Own Aircraft
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADS-B WITH TAS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When an optional Garmin GTS 825 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) is also installed and operating with the
optional ADS-B Traffic, the GTS 825 TAS will receive traffic information and attempt to match (or “correlate”)
this traffic with the corresponding ADS-B traffic information. When a correlation is made, only the traffic
with the most accurate information is displayed to the flight crew. Any traffic that is not correlated (i.e., only
detected by one system but not the other) will also displayed for the flight crew. This correlation of traffic by
the ADS-B improves the accuracy of the traffic displayed, while reducing the occurrence of the same aircraft
being displayed twice.
EIS
NOTE: When operating on the edges of ATC radar coverage or when using an optional active traffic system
providing intermittent traffic data, a single aircraft may be briefly or periodically depicted as two aircraft on
the display.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Either the TAS or the ADS-B unit can issue a traffic alert.
CONFLICT SITUATIONAL AWARENESS & ALERTING
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA) is an alerting algorithm which provides ADS-B traffic alerting similar to
the TAS systems discussed previously.
The GTS 825 ADS-B issues a voice alert when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is displayed, for example “Traffic! Two
O’clock, Low, Two Miles.”
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The own aircraft altitude above terrain determines the sensitivity of the CSA algorithm to minimize nuisance
alerts. Radar Altitude (if available), Height Above Terrain, and Geodetic Sea Level (GSL) altitude are used to
adjust the sensitivity of the CSA algorithm in accordance with the following table:
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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457
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
4
Up to 1000 (RA
or HAT)
Any
Any
Any
Lookahead
time
(sec)
20
4
4
Unavailable
Unavailable
Any
Unavailable
Any
Approach
Any
Any
20
20
850
850
0.20
0.20
5
>1000
<=2350
Unavailable
Any
Any
Any
25
850
0.20
Any
Any
25
850
0.20
Terminal
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
Any
<=5000
25
30
850
850
0.20
0.35
>5000
<=10,000
40
850
0.55
>10,000
<=20,000
45
850
0.80
>20,000
<=42,000
48
850
1.10
> 42,000
48
1200
1.10
GPS Phase
of Flight
Own Altitude
(Feet)
Unavailable
Unavailable or
>2350
7
Unavailable or
>2350
Unavailable or
>2350
8
Unavailable or
>2350
Unavailable or
>2350
9
Unavailable or
>2350
Unavailable or
>2350
10
Unavailable or
>2350
Unavailable or
>2350
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5
6
>1000
<=2350
Unavailable
Unavailable or
>2350
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5
Height Above
Terrain (HAT)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Sensitivity Radar Altitude
Level
(Feet)
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
Vertical
Threshold
for Alert
(feet)
850
Protected
Volume
(NM)
0.20
INDEX
Table 6-40 CSA Alerting Thresholds for ADS-B Traffic
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When the system detects a new Traffic Advisory (TA), the following occur:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• The system issues a single “Traffic!” voice alert, followed by additional voice information about the bearing,
relative altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table 6-41). For example,
the announcement “Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the traffic is in front of own
aircraft, above own altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears at the top right of the airspeed on the PFD, flashes for five seconds, and
remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area (Figure 6-174).
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with TA traffic.
EIS
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, an amber text banner will be displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map Page and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA symbol. The text will indicate ‘TA’
followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA traffic, if known.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that initially triggered the TA are no
longer a factor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
AFCS
Figure 6-174 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
Relative Altitude
Approximate Distance (nm)
“One o’clock” through “Twelve
o’clock”or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if within
200 feet of own altitude), or “Altitude not
available”
“Zero miles”, “Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Bearing
APPENDICES
Table 6-41 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
NOTE: ADS-B traffic voice alerts are suppressed when below 500 feet.
INDEX
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459
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AIRBORNE AND SURFACE APPLICATIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The GTS 825 can help the pilot visually acquire traffic both in the air and on-the-ground. There are two ADS-B
applications or modes: Airborne Situational Awareness (AIRB) and Surface Situational Awareness (SURF). The
system automatically selects the appropriate application based on conditions.
The AIRB application is on when the aircraft is more than five NM and 1,500 feet above the nearest airport.
When the AIRB application is active, the system only displays traffic which is airborne.
EIS
The SURF application is on when the aircraft is within five NM and less than 1,500 feet above field elevation.
When the SURF applications is on, the system displays airborne and on the ground traffic. At a Traffic Map
Page range of two nm or less, the airport environment (including taxiways and runways) appears in addition to
traffic. The airport displays are derived from the SafeTaxi database. Refer to the Additional Features section for
more information about SafeTaxi displays.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: Do not rely on the solely on the traffic display to determine the runway alignment of traffic, especially
when runways are in close proximity to each other.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Due to the varying precision of the data received via ADS-B, ADS-R, and TIS-B, all traffic information may not
be depicted on the traffic display. Because higher data precision is required for display in the SURF environment,
some traffic eligible for AIRB will not be displayed while SURF is on. Individual eligibility for AIRB and SURF
is depicted on the AUX-ADS-B Status Page, discussed later in this section.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SURF Application
On
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Aircraft traffic is
on the ground
APPENDICES
Ground Vehicles
INDEX
Figure 6-175 Traffic Map Page with SURF Mode On
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRAFFIC DESCRIPTION
Symbol
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The symbols used to display ADS-B traffic are shown in Table 6-42. Above or below the traffic symbol is the
traffic identifier, and altitude. A small up or down arrow next to the traffic symbol indicates that the traffic is
climbing or descending at a rate of at least 500 feet per minute.
Description
Traffic Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
EIS
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Proximity Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Non-threat traffic with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Non-threat traffic without directional information.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Traffic located on the ground with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Ground traffic without directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own
aircraft is on the ground.
AFCS
Non-aircraft ground traffic. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the
ground.
Table 6-42 ADS-B Traffic Symbology
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
OPERATION
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
APPENDICES
The Traffic Map Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and altitude,
without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map
range is adjustable with the Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner of the page.
INDEX
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461
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Airborne
Application On
Altitude
Mode
Traffic Display
Range
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Traffic Advisory
with Directional
Information
200’ Above,
Descending
Non-Threat
Traffic with
Directional
Information
10000’ Below,
Climbing
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
“No Bearing”
Traffic (Bearing
Undetermined),
Distance 4.0
nm, 500’ Below,
Climbing
Non-Threat
Traffic,
Altitude Not
Reported
Proximity
Advisory with
Directional
Information,
500’ Above,
Level
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Off-Scale Traffic
Advisory
Figure 6-176 Traffic Map Page
Enabling/disabling the display of ADS-B traffic.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the ADS-B Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘ADS-B On’ or ‘ADS-B Off’.
AFCS
b) Press the ENT Key.
Testing the display of ADS-B traffic:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) If necessary, turn the Joystick to select a map range of 2 and 6 nm to ensure full test pattern display.
2) Ensure the ADS-B Softkey is disabled.
3) If an optional TAS is installed, ensure the TAS STBY Softkey is enabled.
APPENDICES
4) Press the Test Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Test Mode’.
INDEX
c) Press the ENT Key.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
A test pattern of traffic symbols appears during the test, and a ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears on the PFDs.
At the conclusion of the test, the system issues the voice alert “Traffic System Test”. If the test pattern is
displayed and the voice alert is heard, the system has passed the test.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-177 Traffic Map Page with Test Mode Enabled
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which non-threat and proximity traffic is displayed. TA’s
occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
AFCS
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, select the ALT MODE Softkey.
2) Press one of the following Softkeys:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• ABOVE: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 9000 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• NORMAL: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below
the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
•
APPENDICES
• BELOW: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9000 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the Traffic Map Page, press the BACK Softkey.
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INDEX
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Mirage
463
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
1) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following (see softkey description in the previous step 2):
•
Above
•
Normal
•
Below
•
Unrestricted
3) Press the ENT Key.
EIS
DISPLAYING MOTION VECTORS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When Absolute Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors extending from the traffic symbols depict the
traffic’s reported track and speed over the ground. When Relative Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors
extending from the traffic symbols display how the traffic is moving relative to own aircraft. These vectors
are calculated using the traffic’s track and ground speed and own aircraft’s track and ground speed. These two
values are combined to depict where the traffic is moving purely with respect to own aircraft, and provide a
forecast of where the traffic will be, relative to own aircraft, in the near future.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Absolute Motion
Vectors
Figure 6-178 Traffic Map Page with Absolute Motion Vectors Enabled
Enabling/disabling the Motion Vector display:
INDEX
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Select the MOTION Softkey.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3) Select one of the following softkeys:
ABS:
Displays the motion vector pointing in the absolute direction.
•
REL:
Displays the motion vector relative to own aircraft
•
OFF:
Disables the display of the motion vector.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
•
Or:
a) Select the Traffic Map Page.
b) Press the MENU Key.
EIS
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Relative Motion’, ‘Absolute Motion’ or ‘Motion Vector Off’.
d) Press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Relative Motion
Vectors
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-179 Traffic Map Page with Relative Motion Vectors Enabled
Adjusting the duration for the Motion Vector projected time:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
APPENDICES
2) Select the MOTION Softkey.
3) Select the DURATION Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired duration (30 SEC, 1 MIN, 2 MIN, 5 MIN).
5) When finished, press the BACK Softkey to return to the Traffic Map Page.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Flight ID Display
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Flight IDs of other aircraft (when available) can be enabled for display on the Traffic Map Page
(Figure 6-180). When a flight ID is received, it will appear above or below the corresponding traffic symbol
on the Traffic Map Page when this option is enabled.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Flight ID
Figure 6-180 Traffic Map Page with Flight IDs Enabled
Enabling/Disabling Flight ID Display:
AFCS
On the Traffic Map Page, press the FLT ID Softkey.
Displaying Additional Traffic Information
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Traffic Map Page can display additional information for a selected aircraft symbol. This may include
the aircraft tail number/Flight ID, type of aircraft (e.g., glider, small/medium/large aircraft, service vehicle,
unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV)), course, track, groundspeed), and other information.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Showing additional traffic information:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob. A cyan bracket highlights the first selected traffic symbol. Additional information appears
in a window in the upper-right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
3) To select a different aircraft symbol, turn the FMS Knob to move the cyan bracket until the selected aircraft
traffic symbol is highlighted.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob again to remove the cyan selection bracket.
EIS
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable with the
Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Changing the display range on the Traffic Map Page:
Turn the Joystick clockwise to increase the range of the traffic map, or counter-clockwise to decrease the range.
ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Map - Traffic Map Page is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Traffic information
can also be displayed on the following other maps for additional reference on the MFD when the traffic unit
is operating:
• Nearest Pages
• Navigation Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
• Trip Planning Page
• AUX - Video Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• PFD Inset Map
AFCS
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option
is installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Displaying traffic information (MFD maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Press the MAP Softkey.
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, a traffic icon is shown to indicate traffic
is enabled for display (Figure 6-181).
APPENDICES
Displaying traffic on the Navigation Map
1) Ensure the traffic system is operating. With the Navigation Map displayed, press the MAP Softkey.
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map as shown in Figure 6-181.
INDEX
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467
Proximity Advisory
without Directional
Information
Traffic Advisory
with Directional
Information
Non-Threat Traffic
with Directional
Information
Proximity Advisory
with Directional
Information
TA Off Scale
Banner
Traffic Overlay
Enabled Icon
Non-Bearing
Traffic
Advisory
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-181 ADS-B Traffic on the Navigation Map Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-182).
AFCS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-183).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections (Figure 6-184).
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
- TA ONLY - Displays Traffic Advisories only
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
INDEX
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Figure 6-182 Navigation Map
Page Menu
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-183 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-184 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
The PFD can display traffic on either the inset navigation map or a traffic inset map. The traffic inset map
resembles the Traffic Map Page and is shown in a heading-up orientation.
AFCS
Displaying traffic information on the PFD inset maps:
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic information on the PFD inset navigation map (TRFC-1).
3) Press the TRFC-1 Softkey to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
4) Press the TRFC-2 Softkey to remove traffic information from the PFD inset navigation map.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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469
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM STATUS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Mode
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Traffic Map Page Center
Banner Annunciation
ADS-B System Test
Initiated
ADS-B: TEST
TEST MODE
ADS-B Operating in
Airborne Mode
ADS-B: AIRB
ADS-B: AIRB
ADS-B Operating in
Surface Mode
ADS-B: SURF
ADS-B: SURF
ABD-B Traffic Off
ADS-B: OFF
ADS-B TRFC OFF
ADS-B Traffic Not
Available
ADS-B: N/A
ADS-B TRFC N/A
ADS-B Failed*
ADS-B: FAIL
ADS-B TRFC FAIL
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
* See Table 6-41 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-42 Traffic Modes
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
AFCS
Traffic Map Page Center Annunciation
Description
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
DATA FAILED
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure
ADS-B TRFC FAIL
Incorrect data format received from the traffic unit
Table 6-43 Traffic Failure Annunciations
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TA OFF SCALE
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending).
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TA X.X ± XX ↕
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
EIS
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-44 Traffic Status Annunciations
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Additional information about the status of ADS-B traffic products is available on the AUX - ADS-B Status Page.
Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AUX - ADS-B Status Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 6-185 ADS-B Traffic Status on ADS-B Status Page
INDEX
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471
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ADS-B Status Page
Item
Traffic Application
Status: AIRBORNE
(AIRB), SURFACE
(SURF), AIRBORNE
ALERTS (CSA)
Status Message
Description
ON
Traffic application is currently on. Required input data is available, and it meets
performance requirements.
Traffic application is not currently active, but application is ready to run when
condition(s) determine the application should be active. Required input data is
available, and it meets performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is available, but it does
not meet performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is not available or the
application has failed.
Traffic application is not available, because it has not been configured. If this
annunciation persists, the system should be serviced.
Traffic application status is invalid or unknown.
The system is receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA ground station.
The system is not receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA ground station.
ADS-R coverage is invalid or unknown.
The GDL 88 is using the #1 GPS receiver for the GPS position source.
The GDL 88 is using the #2 GPS receiver for the GPS position source.
The GPS source is invalid or unknown.
Displays the number of minutes since the last uplink from a ground station
occurred. If no uplink has been received, or the status is invalid, dashes appear
instead of a number of minutes.
AVAILABLE TO RUN
NOT AVAILABLE
EIS
FAULT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOT CONFIGURED
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TIS-B/ADS-R Coverage
GPS Status: GPS
Source
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Ground Uplink Status:
Last uplink
---------------AVAILABLE
NOT AVAILABLE
--------------External #1
External #2
--------Number of minutes, or
‘------’
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Table 6-45 AUX-ADS-B Status Page Messages for ADS-B Traffic
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The approved Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) always supersedes this Pilot’s Guide.
The Garmin AFCS is a digital Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), fully integrated within the G1000
System avionics architecture. The System Overview section provides a block diagram to support this system
description. Garmin AFCS functionality in the Piper PA-46 Mirage is distributed across the following Line
Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• GSA 81 AFCS Servos (4)
• GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
• GSM 85 Servo Gearboxes (4)
EIS
• GDU 1040 Primary Flight Displays (PFDs) (2)
• GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Units (IAUs) (2)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Garmin AFCS can be divided into these main operating functions:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Flight Director (FD) — The Piper PA-46 Mirage has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU and
referred to as pilot-side and copilot-side. Commands for the selected flight director are displayed on both PFDs.
The flight directors provide:
– Command Bars showing pitch/roll guidance
– Vertical/lateral mode selection and processing
– Autopilot communication
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Autopilot (AP) — Autopilot operation occurs within the pitch, roll, and pitch trim servos and yaw trim
adapter. It also provides servo monitoring and automatic flight control in response to flight director steering
commands, Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) attitude and rate information, and airspeed.
• Yaw Damper (YD) — The yaw servo is self-monitoring and provides Dutch roll damping and turn coordination
in response to yaw rate, roll angle, lateral acceleration, and airspeed.
AFCS
• Manual Electric Pitch Trim (MEPT) — The pitch trim servo provides manual electric pitch trim capability
when the autopilot is not engaged.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 AFCS CONTROLS
The AFCS Control Unit is positioned above the MFD, and has the following controls:
HDG Key
APR Key
Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode
4
NAV Key
FD Key
5
XFR Key
Selects/deselects Navigation Mode
Activates/deactivates the flight director only
Pressing once turns on the selected flight director in the default vertical and lateral
modes. Pressing again deactivates the flight director and removes the Command
Bars. If the autopilot is engaged, the key is disabled.
Transfers between the pilot and copilot flight directors and controls which flight
director the autopilot is tracking
Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode
Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode
Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode
Adjust the Selected Course (while in VOR, LOC, or OBS Mode) in 1° increments on
the Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) of the corresponding PFD
Press to re-center the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) and return course pointer
directly TO the bearing of the active waypoint/station
Speed function disabled. If pressed, “SPD KEY DISABLED - The SPD key is disabled
for this model aircraft” is sent to the message window.
Adjusts the reference in Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change
modes
Selects/deselects Vertical Path Tracking Mode for Vertical Navigation flight control
Controls the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments (a finer resolution of 10 feet is
available under approach conditions)
Engages/disengages the yaw damper
Engages/disengages the autopilot
Manually selects/deselects Low Bank Mode
Selects/deselects Backcourse Mode
Adjusts the Selected Heading and bug in 1° increments on the HSI (both PFDs)
Press to synchronize the Selected Heading to the current heading on the pilot-side PFD
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1
2
EIS
3
Selects/deselects Approach Mode
ALT Key
7 VS Key
8 FLC Key
17 CRS Knobs
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
9
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
11
AFCS
10
14
SPD Key
NOSE UP/DN
Wheel
12 VNV Key
13 ALT SEL Knob
15
16
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
18
INDEX
APPENDICES
19
YD Key
AP Key
BANK Key
BC Key
HDG Knob
1
2
3
4
19
18
17
16
5
15
14
6
7
13
12
8
11
10
Annunciator Light
9
Figure 7-1 GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The following AFCS controls are located separately from the AFCS Control Unit:
An AP DISC Switch is located on each control wheel.
This switch may be used to acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the
associated aural tone.
While pressed, allows manual control of the aircraft while the autopilot is engaged and
synchronizes the flight director’s Command Bars with the current aircraft pitch (if
not in a Vertical Navigation, Glideslope, or Glidepath Mode) and roll (if in Roll Hold
Mode)
EIS
CWS Button
(Control Wheel
Steering)
Disengages the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director and interrupts pitch trim
operation
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AP DISC Switch
(Autopilot
Disconnect)
A CWS Button is located on each control wheel.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TO/GA Switch
(Takeoff/Go
Around)
Upon release of the CWS Button, the flight director may establish new pitch and roll
references, depending on the current vertical and lateral modes. CWS operation
details are discussed in the respective mode sections of this manual.
Selects flight director Takeoff (on ground) or Go Around (in air) Mode
If an approach procedure is loaded this button also activates the missed approach when
the selected navigation source is GPS or when the navigation source is VOR/LOC and
a valid frequency has been tuned.
The TO/GA Switch is located on the left throttle.
Used to command manual electric pitch trim
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
MEPT Switch
(Manual Electric An MEPT Switch is located on each control wheel.
Pitch Trim)
This composite switch is split into left and right sides. The left switch is the ARM
contact and the right switch controls the DN (forward) and UP (rearward) contacts.
Pushing the MEPT ARM Switch disengages the autopilot, if currently engaged, but
does not affect yaw damper operation. The MEPT ARM Switch may be used to
acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the associated aural tone.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Manual trim commands are generated only when both sides of the switch are operated
simultaneously. If either side of the switch is active separately for more than three
seconds, MEPT function is disabled and ‘PTRM’ (Pitch Trim Failure) is displayed as
the AFCS Status Annunciation on the PFDs. The function remains disabled until
both sides of the switch are inactivated.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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475
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.2 FLIGHT DIRECTOR OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The flight director function provides pitch and roll commands to the AFCS and displays them on the PFDs.
With the flight director active, the aircraft can be hand-flown to follow the path shown by the Command Bars.
Maximum commanded pitch (-14°, +16°) and roll (22°) angles, vertical acceleration, and roll rate are limited to
values established during AFCS certification. The flight director also provides commands to the autopilot.
ACTIVATING THE FLIGHT DIRECTOR
EIS
An initial press of a key listed in Table 7-1 (when the flight director is not active) activates the pilot-side flight
director in the listed modes. The flight director may be turned off and the Command Bars removed from the
displays by pressing the FD Key again. The FD Key is disabled when the autopilot is engaged.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Control Pressed
ALT Key
VS Key
FLC Key
VNV Key
Lateral
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Go Around (in air)
Takeoff (on ground)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default
Roll Hold (default)
NAV Key
Navigation**
BC Key
Backcourse***
APR Key
Approach**
HDG Key
Heading Select
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
FD Key
AP Key
CWS Button
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TO/GA Switch
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Modes Selected
ROL
ROL
ROL
TO
GA
ROL
ROL
ROL
ROL
GPS
VOR
LOC
BC
GPS
VOR
LOC
HDG
Vertical
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Go Around (in air)
TO
Takeoff (on ground)
GA
Altitude Hold
ALT
Vertical Speed
VS
Flight Level Change
FLC
Vertical Path Tracking* VPTH
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
*Valid VNV flight plan must be entered before VNV Key press activates flight director.
**The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS
course before NAV or APR Key press activates flight director.
APPENDICES
***The selected navigation receiver must have a valid LOC signal before BC Key press
activates flight director.
INDEX
Table 7-1 Flight Director Activation
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AFCS STATUS BOX
Lateral Modes
Yaw
Autopilot Damper
Status
Status
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Flight director mode annunciations are displayed on the PFDs when the flight director is active. Flight
director selection and autopilot and yaw damper statuses are shown in the center of the AFCS Status Box.
Lateral flight director modes are displayed on the left and vertical on the right. Armed modes are displayed in
white and active in green.
Vertical Modes
EIS
Armed
Active
Flight Director Active
Indicator Arrow
Mode
Reference
Armed
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
AFCS Status Box
Selected
Altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Command
Bars
Vertical
Speed
Reference
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Bug
Crosstrack
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 7-2 PFD AFCS Display
APPENDICES
INDEX
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477
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Flight director modes are normally selected independently for the pitch and roll axes. Unless otherwise
specified, all mode keys are alternate action (i.e., press on, press off). In the absence of specific mode selection,
the flight director reverts to the default pitch and/or roll mode(s). Mode keys on the AFCS controller are
accompanied by annunciator lights (Figure 7-1) which are illuminated when their respective modes are armed
or active.
EIS
Armed modes are annunciated in white and active in green in the AFCS Status Box. Under normal operation,
when the control for the active flight director mode is pressed, the flight director reverts to the default mode(s)
for the axis(es). Automatic transition from armed to active mode is indicated by the white armed mode
annunciation moving to the green active mode field and flashing for 10 seconds.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
If the information required to compute a flight director mode becomes invalid or unavailable, the flight
director automatically reverts to the default mode for that axis. A flashing yellow mode annunciation and
annunciator light indicate loss of sensor (ADC) or navigation data (VOR, LOC, GPS, VNV, SBAS) required to
compute commands. When such a loss occurs, the system automatically begins to roll the wings level (enters
Roll Hold Mode) or maintain the pitch angle (enters Pitch Hold Mode), depending on the affected axis. The
flashing annunciation stops when the affected mode key is pressed or another mode for the axis is selected. If
after 10 seconds no action is taken, the flashing annunciation stops.
Figure 7-3 Loss of VOR Signal
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The flight director is automatically disabled if the attitude information required to compute the default flight
director modes becomes invalid or unavailable.
SWITCHING FLIGHT DIRECTORS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The Garmin AFCS in the Piper PA-46 Mirage has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU. Only
one flight director is active (selected) at a time. Flight directors may be switched by pressing the XFR Key.
Both PFDs display the selected flight director, indicated by an arrow pointing toward either the pilot or copilot
side, in the center of the AFCS Status Box. The annunciator light arrow for the selected flight director is also
illuminated beside the XFR Key. When the flight directors are switched, the vertical and lateral modes revert
to default.
Pilot-side Flight Director
APPENDICES
Copilot-side Flight Director
INDEX
Figure 7-4 Flight Director Selection Indications
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
COMMAND BARS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Upon activation of the Flight Director, Command Bars are displayed in magenta on the PFDs as single cue
or cross pointer. The aircraft symbol changes to accommodate the Command Bar format; the Command Bars
do not override the aircraft symbol. The single cue Command Bars (Figure 7-5) move together vertically to
indicate pitch commands and bank left or right to indicate roll commands. Command Bars displayed as a cross
pointer (Figure 7-6) move independently to indicate pitch (horizontal bar) and roll (vertical bar) commands.
Both PFDs show the same Command Bar format.
Command Bars (Autopilot Engaged)
EIS
Command Bars (Pilot Hand Flying Aircraft)
Command Bars
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Aircraft Symbol
Figure 7-5 Single Cue Command Bars
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Command Bars
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Aircraft Symbol
Figure 7-6 Cross Pointer Command Bars
AFCS
If the attitude information being sent to the flight director becomes invalid or unavailable, the Command Bars
are removed from the display. The flight director Command Bars also disappear if the pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚
or bank exceeds 65˚.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
UNDERSPEED PROTECTION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Underspeed Protection is available when the optional Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) system is
installed and the autopilot is on. It is designed to discourage aircraft operation below minimum established
airspeeds.
EIS
When aircraft airspeed reaches 100 knots IAS, a yellow MINSPD annunciation (Figure 7-7) will appear above
the airspeed indicator. When the airspeed trend vector (specific to each flap setting) reaches a predetermined
airspeed, a single aural “AIRSPEED” will sound, alerting the pilot to the impending underspeed condition.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airspeed
Indicator
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 7-7 MINSPD Annunciation
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If the aircraft continues to decelerate, Underspeed Protection functionality depends on which vertical flight
director mode is selected. For the purpose of this discussion, the vertical flight director modes can be divided
into two categories: Those in which it is important to maintain altitude for as long as possible (altitude-critical
modes), and those in which maintaining altitude is less crucial (non-altitude critical modes).
ALTITUDE-CRITICAL MODES (ALT, GS, GP, TO, GA, FLC)
If the aircraft decelerates to stall warning, the lateral and vertical flight director modes will change from
active to armed (Figure 7-8), and the autopilot will provide input causing the aircraft to pitch down and the
wings to level.
AFCS
Lateral and
Vertical FD
Modes Armed
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 7-8 Lateral and Vertical Flight Director Modes Armed
INDEX
APPENDICES
An aural “AIRSPEED” alert will sound every five seconds and a red CAS message “USP ACTIVE” annunciation
(Figure 7-9) will appear to the right of the vertical speed indicator. The pitch down force will continue until
the aircraft reaches a pitch attitude at which IAS equals the IAS at which stall warning turns off, plus two
knots.
Figure 7-9 Underspeed Protect Active Annunciation
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to above the IAS at which stall warning turns
off, plus two knots, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical reference and
the vertical and lateral flight director modes will change from armed to active.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NON-ALTITUDE CRITICAL MODES (VS, VNAV, IAS,)
If the aircraft decelerates to an IAS below the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed, a red “UNDERSPEED
PROTECT ACTIVE” annunciation (Figure 7-9) will appear to the right of the vertical speed indicator. The
vertical flight director mode will change from active to armed (Figure 7-10), and the autopilot will cause
the aircraft to pitch down until reaching a pitch attitude at which IAS equals the minimum commandable
autopilot airspeed.
EIS
Vertical FD
Mode Armed
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 7-10 Vertical Flight Director Mode Armed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to an IAS above the minimum commandable
autopilot airspeed, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical reference and
the vertical flight director mode will change from armed to active.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.3 VERTICAL MODES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Table 7-2 lists the vertical modes with their corresponding controls and annunciations. The mode reference is
displayed next to the active mode annunciation for Altitude Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes.
The NOSE UP/DN Wheel can be used to change the vertical mode reference while operating under Pitch Hold,
Vertical Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode. Increments of change and acceptable ranges of values for each of
these references using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel are also listed in the table.
EIS
Vertical Mode
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Pitch Hold
Selected Altitude Capture
Altitude Hold
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Vertical Speed
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Flight Level Change
Vertical Path Tracking
VNV Target Altitude Capture
AFCS
Glidepath
Glideslope
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Go Around
APPENDICES
Takeoff
Level
Description
Holds the current aircraft pitch
attitude; may be used to climb/
descend to the Selected Altitude
Captures the Selected Altitude
Holds the current Altitude Reference
Maintains the current aircraft vertical
speed; may be used to climb/descend
to the Selected Altitude
Maintains the current aircraft
airspeed while the aircraft is climbing/
descending to the Selected Altitude
Captures and tracks descent legs of
an active vertical profile
Captures the Vertical Navigation
(VNV) Target Altitude
Captures and tracks the SBAS
glidepath on approach
Captures and tracks the ILS glideslope
on approach
Commands a constant pitch angle
and wings level in the air
Commands a constant pitch angle
and wings level on the ground in
preparation for takeoff
Autopilot engages and commands
pitch angle necessary to establish
zero vertical fpm
Reference
Range
Reference
Change
Increment
-14° to
+16°
0.5°
nnnn fpm
-2000 to
+2000 fpm
100 fpm
nnn kt
78 to
183 kts
1 kt
Control Annunciation
(default)
PIT
*
ALTS
ALT Key ALT nnnnn ft
VS Key
VS
FLC Key FLC
VNV
Key
VPTH
**
ALTV
APR
Key
TO/GA
Switch
***
GP
GS
GA
9.0°
TO
7.0°
LVL
N/A
* ALTS armed automatically when PIT, VS, FLC, or GA active, and under VPTH when Selected Altitude is to be captured instead
of VNV Target Altitude
** ALTV armed automatically under VPTH when VNV Target Altitude is to be captured instead of Selected Altitude
INDEX
*** Level mode can only become activated as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the Additional
Features section for a detailed discussion of the optional ESP feature.
Table 7-2 Flight Director Vertical Modes
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PITCH HOLD MODE (PIT)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When the flight director is activated (the FD Key is pressed) or switched (the XFR Key is pressed), Pitch Hold
Mode is selected by default. Pitch Hold Mode is indicated as the active vertical mode by the ‘PIT’ annunciation.
This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter), since
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Pitch Hold Mode is activated.
In Pitch Hold Mode, the flight director maintains a constant pitch attitude, the pitch reference. The pitch
reference is set to the aircraft pitch attitude at the moment of mode selection. If the aircraft pitch attitude
exceeds the flight director pitch command limitations, the flight director commands a pitch angle equal to the
nose-up/down limit.
EIS
CHANGING THE PITCH REFERENCE
When operating in Pitch Hold Mode, the pitch reference can be adjusted by:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new pitch reference, then releasing the
CWS Button
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selected
Altitude
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Command Bars Maintain
Desired Pitch Reference
Figure 7-11 Pitch Hold Mode
APPENDICES
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SELECTED ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTS)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed with activation of the following modes:
• Pitch Hold
• Go Around
• Vertical Speed
• Vertical Path Tracking (if the Selected Altitude is to
be captured instead of the VNV Target Altitude)
• Flight Level Change
EIS
The white ‘ALTS’ annunciation indicates Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed (see Figure 7-11 for
example). The ALT SEL Knob is used to set the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter) until Selected
Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to Selected Altitude
Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed (Figure 7-12). This automatic transition is indicated by the
green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation.
The Selected Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTS’ annunciation.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
At 50 feet from the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from Selected Altitude
Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and holds the Selected Altitude (shown as the Altitude Reference). As Altitude
Hold Mode becomes active, the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes
green for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic transition.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Altitude Reference
(in this case, equal to
Selected Altitude)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
AFCS
Figure 7-12 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
CHANGING THE SELECTED ALTITUDE
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in Selected Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Use of the ALT SEL Knob to change the Selected Altitude while Selected Altitude Capture Mode is active
causes the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode with Selected Altitude Capture Mode armed for the
new Selected Altitude.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ALTITUDE HOLD MODE (ALT)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Altitude Hold Mode can be activated by pressing the ALT Key; the flight director maintains the current aircraft
altitude (to the nearest 10 feet) as the Altitude Reference. The flight director’s Altitude Reference, shown in the
AFCS Status Box, is independent of the Selected Altitude, displayed above the Altimeter. Altitude Hold Mode
active is indicated by a green ‘ALT’ annunciation in the AFCS Status Box.
Altitude Hold Mode is automatically armed when the flight director is in Selected Altitude Capture Mode
(see Figure 7-12). Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically transitions to Altitude Hold Mode when
the altitude error is less than 50 feet. In this case, the Selected Altitude becomes the flight director’s Altitude
Reference.
EIS
CHANGING THE ALTITUDE REFERENCE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: Turning the ALT SEL Knob while in Altitude Hold Mode changes the Selected Altitude, but not the
flight director’s Altitude Reference, and does not cancel the mode.
With the CWS Button depressed, the aircraft can be hand-flown to a new Altitude Reference. When the
CWS Button is released at the desired altitude, the new altitude is established as the Altitude Reference.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Altitude
Reference
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selected
Altitude
AFCS
Selected
Altitude
Bug
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
to Maintain Altitude Reference
Figure 7-13 Altitude Hold Mode
APPENDICES
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
VERTICAL SPEED MODE (VS)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In Vertical Speed Mode, the flight director acquires and maintains a Vertical Speed Reference. Current aircraft
vertical speed (to the nearest 100 fpm) becomes the Vertical Speed Reference at the moment of Vertical Speed
Mode activation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the
Altimeter) since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Vertical Speed Mode is selected.
EIS
When Vertical Speed Mode is activated by pressing the VS Key, ‘VS’ is annunciated in green in the AFCS Status
Box along with the Vertical Speed Reference. The Vertical Speed Reference is also displayed above the Vertical
Speed Indicator. A Vertical Speed Reference Bug corresponding to the Vertical Speed Reference is shown on
the indicator.
CHANGING THE VERTICAL SPEED REFERENCE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Vertical Speed Reference (shown both in the AFCS Status Box and above the Vertical Speed Indicator)
may be changed by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Vertical Speed Reference, then releasing
the CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Vertical Speed
Mode Active
Vertical Speed
Reference
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selected
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Reference
APPENDICES
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Bug
INDEX
Command Bars Indicate Climb to
Attain Vertical Speed Reference
Figure 7-14 Vertical Speed Hold Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT LEVEL CHANGE MODE (FLC)
NOTE: The Selected Altitude should be set before selecting Flight Level Change Mode.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Flight Level Change Mode is selected by pressing the FLC Key. This mode acquires and maintains the
Airspeed Reference while climbing or descending to the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter). When
Flight Level Change Mode is active, the flight director continuously monitors Selected Altitude, airspeed, and
altitude.
EIS
The Airspeed Reference is set to the current airspeed upon mode activation. Flight Level Change Mode is
indicated by a green ‘FLC’ annunciation beside the Airspeed Reference in the AFCS Status Box. The Airspeed
Reference is also displayed directly above the Airspeed Indicator, along with a bug corresponding to the Airspeed
Reference along the tape.
Airspeed
Reference
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Flight Level Change
Mode Active
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Engine power must be adjusted to allow the autopilot to fly the aircraft at a pitch attitude corresponding
to the desired flight profile (climb or descent) while maintaining the Airspeed Reference. The flight director
maintains the current altitude until either engine power or the Airspeed Reference are adjusted and does not
allow the aircraft to climb or descend away from the Selected Altitude.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selected
Altitude
Airspeed
Reference
AFCS
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to Attain Selected Altitude
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 7-15 Flight Level Change Mode
CHANGING THE AIRSPEED REFERENCE
APPENDICES
The Airspeed Reference (shown in both the AFCS Status Box and above the Airspeed Indicator) may be
adjusted by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Airspeed Reference, then releasing the
CWS Button
INDEX
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
VERTICAL NAVIGATION MODES (VPTH, ALTV)
NOTE: VNV is disabled when parallel track or Dead Reckoning Mode is active. Refer to the Flight Management
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Section for more information on VNV flight plans.
NOTE: The Selected Altitude takes precedence over any other vertical constraints.
Vertical Navigation (VNV) flight control is available for enroute/terminal cruise and descent operations when
VNV flight planning is available. Conditions for availability include, but are not limited to:
EIS
• The selected navigation source is GPS.
• A VNV flight plan (with at least one altitude-constrained waypoint) or vertical direct-to is active.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• VNV is enabled (VNV ENBL Softkey pressed on the MFD).
• Crosstrack error is valid and within certain limits.
• Desired/actual track are valid or track angle error is within certain limits.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• The VNV Target Altitude of the active waypoint is no more than 250 ft above the current aircraft altitude.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The flight director may be armed for VNV at any time, but no target altitudes are captured during a climb.
The Command Bars provide vertical profile guidance based on specified altitudes (entered manually or loaded
from the database) at waypoints in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to. The appropriate VNV flight control
modes are sequenced by the flight director to follow the path defined by the vertical profile. Upon reaching
the last waypoint in the VNV flight plan, the flight director transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and cancels any
armed VNV modes.
VERTICAL PATH TRACKING MODE (VPTH)
NOTE: If another vertical mode key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is selected, Vertical Path
AFCS
Tracking Mode reverts to armed.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
autopilot guides the aircraft back to the descent path upon release of the CWS Button.
INDEX
APPENDICES
When a vertical profile (VNV flight plan) is active and the VNV Key is pressed, Vertical Path Tracking
Mode is armed in preparation for descent path capture. ‘VPTH’ (or ‘/V’ when Glidepath or Glideslope Mode
is concurrently armed) is annunciated in white in addition to previously armed modes. If applicable, the
appropriate altitude capture mode is armed for capture of the next VNV Target Altitude (ALTV) or the Selected
Altitude (ALTS), whichever is greater.
Figure 7-16 Vertical Path Tracking Armed Annunciations
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Prior to descent path interception, the Selected Altitude must be set below the current aircraft altitude by
at least 75 feet. For the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path Tracking Mode,
acknowledgment is required within five minutes of descent path interception by:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Pressing the VNV Key
• Adjusting the Selected Altitude
EIS
If acknowledgment is not received within 1 minute of descent path interception, the white ‘VPTH’
annunciation starts to flash. Flashing continues until acknowledged or the descent path is intercepted. If
the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed and the
descent is not captured.
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In conjunction with the “TOD [top of descent] within 1 minute” annunciation in the PFD Navigation Status
Box and the “Vertical track” voice message, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, vertical deviation, and
vertical speed required) appear on the PFDs in magenta (Figure 7-17).
Vertical Path Tracking
Armed, (Flashing Indicates
Acknowledgment Required)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
VNV Target
Altitude
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selected
Altitude
Below VNV
Target
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Terminal
Phase of
Flight
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
AFCS
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
APPENDICES
Figure 7-17 Vertical Path Capture
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
When a descent leg is captured (i.e., vertical deviation becomes valid), Vertical Path Tracking becomes
active and tracks the descent profile (Figure 7-18). An altitude capture mode (‘ALTS’ or ‘ALTV’) is armed as
appropriate.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Vertical Path
Tracking Active
VNV Target Altitude
Capture Armed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
VNV Target
Altitude
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Terminal
Phase of
Flight
Required
Vertical
Speed
Indication
(RVSI)
Command Bars Indicate Descent to
Maintain Required Vertical Speed
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
Figure 7-18 Vertical Path Tracking Mode
AFCS
If the altimeter barometric setting is adjusted while Vertical Path Tracking is active, the flight director
increases/decreases the descent rate by up to 500 fpm to re-establish the aircraft on the descent path (without
commanding a climb). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNV vertical
deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to reestablish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target Altitude,
the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Automatic Reversion to Pitch Hold Mode
Several situations can occur while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active which cause the flight director to
revert to Pitch Hold Mode:
APPENDICES
• Vertical deviation exceeds 200 feet during an overspeed condition.
• Vertical deviation experiences a discontinuity that both exceeds 200 feet in magnitude and results in the
vertical deviation exceeding 200 feet in magnitude. Such discontinuities are usually caused by flight plan
changes that affect the vertical profile.
• Vertical deviation becomes invalid (the Vertical Deviation Indicator is removed from the PFD).
INDEX
• A display enters Reversionary Mode (this does not apply to an active vertical direct-to).
Unless VNV is disabled, Vertical Path Tracking Mode and the appropriate altitude capture mode become
armed following the reversion to Pitch Hold Mode to allow for possible profile recapture.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Non-Path Descents
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes can also be used to fly non-path descents
while VNV flight control is selected. If the VS or FLC Key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is
selected, Vertical Path Tracking Mode reverts to armed along with the appropriate altitude capture mode to
allow profile re-capture.
Figure 7-19 Flight Level Change VNV Non-Path Descent
EIS
To prevent immediate profile re-capture, the following must be satisfied:
• At least 10 seconds have passed since the non-path transition was initiated
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Vertical deviation from the profile has exceeded 250 feet, but is now less than 200 feet
Pressing the VNV Key twice re-arms Vertical Path Tracking for immediate profile re-capture.
VNV TARGET ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTV)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: Armed VNV Target Altitude and Selected Altitude capture modes are mutually exclusive. However,
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed implicitly (not annunciated) whenever VNV Target Altitude Capture
Mode is armed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
VNV Target Altitude Capture is analogous to Selected Altitude Capture Mode and is armed automatically
after the VNV Key is pressed and the next VNV Target Altitude is to be intercepted before the Selected
Altitude. The annunciation ‘ALTV’ indicates that the VNV Target Altitude is to be captured. VNV Target
Altitudes are shown in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to, and can be entered manually or loaded
from a database (see the Flight Management Section for details). At the same time as “TOD within 1 minute”
is annunciated in the Navigation Status Box, the active VNV Target Altitude is displayed above the Vertical
Speed Indicator (see Figure 7-17).
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to VNV Target
Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic transition is indicated by the green
‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation. The
VNV Target Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTV’ annunciation and remains displayed
above the Vertical Speed Indicator. The Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) is removed once VNV
Target Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
At 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from VNV Target
Altitude Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and tracks the level leg. As Altitude Hold Mode becomes active, the
white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes green for 10 seconds to indicate
the automatic transition. The flight director automatically arms Vertical Path Tracking, allowing upcoming
descent legs to be captured and subsequently tracked.
Altitude Reference (In
This Case, Equal To
VNV Altitude Target)
EIS
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 7-20 VNV Altitude Capture
Changing the VNV Target Altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Changing the current VNV Target Altitude while VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode is active causes the
flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode. Vertical Path Tracking and the appropriate altitude capture
mode are armed in preparation to capture the new VNV Target Altitude or the Selected Altitude, depending
on which altitude is to be intercepted first.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
VNV target altitudes can be changed while editing the active flight plan (see the Flight Management
Section for details).
GLIDEPATH MODE (GP)
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glidepath Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
AFCS
guides the aircraft back to the glidepath upon release of the CWS Button.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Glidepath Mode is used to track the SBAS-based glidepath. When Glidepath Mode is armed, ‘GP’ is
annunciated in white in the AFCS Status Box.
Selecting Glidepath Mode:
1) Ensure a GPS approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V) is loaded into the active flight plan.
The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan (cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
APPENDICES
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
NOTE: Some RNAV (GPS) approaches provide a vertical descent angle as an aid in flying a stabilized
INDEX
approach. These approaches are NOT considered Approaches with Vertical Guidance (APV). Approaches
that are annunciated on the HSI as LNAV or LNAV+V are considered Nonprecision Approaches (NPA) and
are flown to an MDA even though vertical glidepath (GP) information may be provided.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
WARNING: When flying an LNAV approach (with vertical descent angle) with the autopilot coupled, the
aircraft will not level off at the MDA even if the MDA is set in the altitude preselect.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Upon reaching the glidepath, the flight director transitions to Glidepath Mode and begins to capture and
track the glidepath.
Figure 7-21 Glidepath Mode Armed
EIS
Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured:
• The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF).
• Vertical deviation is valid.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• The CDI is at less than full scale deviation
• Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
Glidepath
Mode Active
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
GPS Approach
Mode Active
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Command Bars Indicate
Descent on Glidepath
Glidepath
Indicator
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 7-22 Glidepath Mode
AFCS
GPS is
LNAV/VNAV
Selected
Approach
Navigation
Active
Source
APPENDICES
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
GLIDESLOPE MODE (GS)
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glideslope Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
guides the aircraft back to the glideslope upon release of the CWS Button.
Glideslope Mode is available for LOC/ILS approaches to capture and track the glideslope. When Glideslope
Mode is armed (annunciated as ‘GS’ in white), LOC Approach Mode is armed as the lateral flight director mode.
Selecting Glideslope Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
EIS
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Or:
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the APR Key.
Figure 7-23 Glideslope Mode Armed
Once LOC is the navigation source, the localizer and glideslope can be captured. Upon reaching the glideslope,
the flight director transitions to Glideslope Mode and begins to capture and track the glideslope.
Approach
Mode Active
Glideslope
Mode Active
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Active ILS
Frequency Tuned
NAV2 (localizer) is Selected
Navigation Source
Command Bars Indicate Descent
on Localizer/Glideslope Path
INDEX
Figure 7-24 Glideslope Mode
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TAKE OFF AND GO AROUND MODES (TO/GA)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In Takeoff and Go Around modes, the flight director commands a constant set pitch attitude. The TO/GA
Switch is used to select both modes. The mode entered by the flight director depends on whether the aircraft
is on the ground. Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when the aircraft is at least 400 feet
below the Selected altitude at the time Takeoff or Go Around Mode is selected.
Takeoff Mode provides an attitude reference during rotation and takeoff. This mode can be selected only
while on the ground by pushing the TO/GA Switch. The flight director Command Bars assume a wings-level,
pitch-up attitude. Autopilot engagement while Takeoff Mode is active is inhibited while the aircraft is on the
ground.
EIS
Pressing the TO/GA Switch while in the air activates the flight director in a wings-level, pitch-up attitude,
allowing the execution of a missed approach or a go around. Attempts to modify the aircraft attitude (i.e., with
the NOSE UP and NOSE DN Keys or CWS Button) result in reversion to Pitch Hold Mode.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Go Around Mode Active
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Autopilot Disconnect Annunciation
Flashes Yellow for 5 seconds
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Command Bars
Indicate Climb
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Takeoff Mode Active
APPENDICES
Figure 7-25 Takeoff and Go Around Mode
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
LEVEL MODE (LVL)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
When the normal flight envelope thresholds have been exceeded for more than 50% of the last 20 seconds,
Level mode is activated. The autopilot will engage and provide input to bring the aircraft back into straight
and level flight based on zero degrees roll angle and zero feet per minute vertical speed. An aural “ENGAGING
AUTOPILOT” alert sounds and the lateral and vertical flight director annunciations will display “LVL”. The
AFCS will remain in Level mode until the pilot selects another mode.
EIS
Level (LVL) mode becomes active only as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the
Additional Features section for a detailed discussion of the optional ESP feature.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 7-26 Level Mode
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
7.4 LATERAL MODES
The following table relates each Garmin AFCS lateral mode to its respective control and annunciation. Refer to
the vertical modes section for information regarding Go Around mode.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The Garmin AFCS may generate a lower bank angle than the maximum roll command limit in degrees
indicated in Table 7-3 by the amount needed to produce a turn rate equal to or less than standard rate.
Lateral Mode
Description
Control Annunciation
Roll Hold
Heading Select **
Navigation, VOR Enroute Capture/Track **
Navigation, LOC Capture/Track
(No Glideslope)
Captures and tracks the selected
navigation source (GPS, VOR,
LOC)
NAV
Key
GPS
22°
22° Capture
10° Track
22° Capture
10° Track
22° Capture
10° Track
22°
22° Capture
10° Track
22° Capture
10° Track
VOR
LOC
BC
Approach, LOC Capture/Track
(Glideslope Mode automatically armed)
Captures and tracks the selected
navigation source (GPS, VOR, APR Key
LOC)
VAPP
LOC
GA
Wings Level
TO
Wings Level
LVL
Wings Level
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Commands a constant pitch
angle and wings level in the air
TO/GA
Commands a constant pitch angle Switch
and wings level on the ground in
preparation for takeoff
Autopilot engages and commands
***
wings level
AFCS
22°
GPS
Approach, VOR Capture/Track
Level
HDG
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Approach, GPS
Takeoff
15°
Captures and tracks a localizer
BC Key
signal for backcourse approaches
Backcourse Capture/Track
Go Around
*
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Navigation, GPS **
22°
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Low Bank
ROL
EIS
Holds the current aircraft roll
attitude or rolls the wings level,
(default)
depending on the commanded
bank angle
Limits the maximum commanded BANK
roll angle
Key
Captures and tracks the Selected HDG
Heading
Key
Maximum Roll
Command Limit
* No annunciation appears in the AFCS Status Box. The acceptable bank angle range is indicated in green along the Roll Scale
of the Attitude Indicator.
** The Heading, Navigation GPS and Navigation VOR mode maximum roll command limit will be limited to the Low Bank
mode value if it is engaged.
INDEX
*** Level mode can only become activated as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the Additional
Features section for a detailed discussion of the optional ESP feature.
Table 7-3 Flight Director Lateral Modes
The CWS Button does not change lateral references for Heading Select, Navigation, Backcourse, or Approach
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading/Course upon release of the CWS Button.
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OVERVIEW
ROLL HOLD MODE (ROL)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
When the flight director is activated or switched, Roll Hold Mode is selected by default. This mode is
annunciated as ‘ROL’ in the AFCS Status Box. The current aircraft bank angle is held, subject to the bank angle
condition.
NOTE: If Roll Hold Mode is activated as a result of a mode reversion, the flight director rolls the wings level.
EIS
Figure 7-27 Roll Hold Mode Annunciation
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Bank Angle
< 6°
6 to 22°
> 22°
Flight Director Response
Rolls wings level
Maintains current aircraft roll attitude
Limits bank to 30°
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Table 7-4 Roll Hold Mode Responses
CHANGING THE ROLL REFERENCE
The roll reference can be changed by pressing the CWS Button, establishing the desired bank angle, then
releasing the CWS Button.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
LOW BANK MODE
When in Low Bank Mode, the flight director limits the maximum commanded roll angle to 15°. Low bank
arc limits are displayed in green along the Roll Scale.
AFCS
Low Bank Mode can be manually selected/deselected by pressing the BANK Key while in Heading Select or
Navigation Modes (GPS and VOR). The annunciator light next to the BANK Key illuminates while Low Bank
Mode is selected.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Low Bank Arc
INDEX
Figure 7-28 Low Bank Mode Limits
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HEADING SELECT MODE (HDG)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Heading Select Mode is activated by pressing the HDG Key. Heading Select Mode acquires and maintains the
Selected Heading. The Selected Heading is shown by a light blue bug on the HSI and in the box to the upper
left of the HSI.
CHANGING THE SELECTED HEADING
NOTE: Pressing the HDG Knob synchronizes the Selected Heading to the current heading.
EIS
The Selected Heading is adjusted using the HDG Knob. Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the
aircraft does not change the Selected Heading. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading
upon release of the CWS Button.
Heading Select
Mode Active
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Turns are commanded in the same direction as Selected Heading Bug movement, even if the bug is turned
more than 180° from the present heading (e.g., a 270° turn to the right). However, Selected Heading changes
of more than 330° at a time result in turn reversals.
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Selected
Heading
Bug
Command Bars Track
Selected Heading
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selected
Heading
Figure 7-29 Heading Select Mode
APPENDICES
INDEX
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
NAVIGATION MODES (GPS, VOR, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
flight director to enter Navigation Mode.
EIS
Pressing the NAV Key selects Navigation Mode. Navigation Mode acquires and tracks the selected navigation
source (GPS, VOR, LOC). The flight director follows GPS roll steering commands when GPS is the selected
navigation source. When the navigation source is VOR or LOC, the flight director creates roll steering commands
from the Selected Course and deviation. Navigation Mode can also be used to fly non-precision GPS and LOC
approaches where vertical guidance is not required.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
If the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) shows greater than one dot when the NAV Key is pressed, the selected
mode is armed. If the CDI is less than one dot, Navigation Mode is automatically captured when the NAV Key
is pressed. The armed annunciation appears in white to the left of the active lateral mode.
Figure 7-30 GPS Navigation Mode Armed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When the CDI has automatically switched from GPS to LOC during a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation
Mode remains active, providing GPS steering guidance until the localizer signal is captured. LOC Navigation
Mode is armed automatically when the navigation source switch takes place if the APR Key is not pressed prior
to the automatic source switch.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If Navigation Mode is active and either of the following occur, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode
(wings rolled level):
• Different VOR tuned while in VOR Navigation Mode (VOR Navigation Mode reverts to armed)
• Navigation source manually switched (with the CDI Softkey)
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
• During a LOC/ILS approach, the FAF is crossed while in GPS Navigation Mode after the automatic navigation
source switch from GPS to LOC
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CHANGING THE SELECTED COURSE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Navigation Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS flight plan) when the
CWS Button is released.
GPS Navigation
Mode Active
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Command Bars Indicate Left
Turn to Track GPS Course and Climb
to Intercept Selected Altitude
GPS is Selected
Navigation Source
Figure 7-31 Navigation Mode
AFCS
APPROACH MODES (GPS, VAPP, LOC)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
flight director to enter Approach Mode.
APPENDICES
Approach Mode is activated when the APR Key is pressed. Approach Mode acquires and tracks the selected
navigation source (GPS, VOR, or LOC), depending on loaded approach. This mode uses the selected navigation
receiver deviation and desired course inputs to fly the approach. Pressing the APR Key when the CDI is greater
than one dot arms the selected approach mode (annunciated in white to the left of the active lateral mode). If
the CDI is less than one dot, the LOC is automatically captured when the APR Key is pressed.
VOR Approach Mode (VAPP) provides greater sensitivity for signal tracking than VOR Navigation Mode.
INDEX
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Selecting VOR Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid VOR frequency is tuned
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Ensure that VOR is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
When GPS Approach Mode is armed, Glidepath Mode is also armed.
Selecting GPS Approach Mode:
EIS
1) Ensure a GPS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan
(cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 7-32 GPS Approach Mode Armed
LOC Approach Mode allows the autopilot to fly a LOC/ILS approach with a glideslope. When LOC Approach
Mode is armed, Glideslope Mode is also armed automatically. LOC captures are inhibited if the difference
between aircraft heading and localizer course exceeds 105°.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selecting LOC Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
AFCS
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
APPENDICES
4) Press the APR Key.
If the following occurs, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level):
• Approach Mode is active and a Vectors-To-Final is activated
• Approach Mode is active and Navigation source is manually switched
INDEX
• During a LOC/ILS approach GPS Navigation Mode is active and the FAF is crossed after the automatic
navigation source switch from GPS to LOC
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CHANGING THE SELECTED COURSE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Approach Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS flight plan) when the
CWS Button is released.
BACKCOURSE MODE (BC)
EIS
NOTE: When making a backcourse approach, set the Selected Course to the localizer front course.
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Backcourse
Mode Active
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Backcourse Mode captures and tracks a localizer signal in the backcourse direction. The mode may be
selected by pressing the BC Key. Backcourse Mode is armed if the CDI is greater than one dot when the mode
is selected. If the CDI is less than one dot, Backcourse Mode is automatically captured when the BC Key is
pressed. The flight director creates roll steering commands from the Selected Course and deviation when in
Backcourse Mode.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
LOC2 is Selected
Navigation Source
Figure 7-33 Backcourse Mode
APPENDICES
CHANGING THE SELECTED COURSE
INDEX
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not reset any reference data while in Backcourse
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course when the CWS Button is released.
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OVERVIEW
LEVEL MODE (LVL)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
When the normal flight envelope thresholds have been exceeded for more than 50% of the last 20 seconds,
Level mode is activated. The autopilot will engage and provide input to bring the aircraft back into straight
and level flight based on zero degrees roll angle and zero feet per minute vertical speed. An aural “ENGAGING
AUTOPILOT” alert sounds and the lateral and vertical flight director annunciations will display “LVL”. The
AFCS will remain in Level mode until the pilot selects another mode.
EIS
Level (LVL) mode becomes active only as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the
Additional Features section for a detailed discussion of the optional ESP feature.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 7-34 Level Mode
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OVERVIEW
7.5 AUTOPILOT AND YAW DAMPER OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the POH for specific instructions regarding emergency procedures.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Piper PA-46 Mirage autopilot and yaw damper operate the flight control surface servos to provide automatic
flight control. The autopilot controls the aircraft pitch and roll attitudes following commands received from the
flight director. Pitch and yaw autotrim provide trim commands to the pitch trim servo and yaw trim adapter to
relieve any sustained effort required by the pitch and yaw servos, respectively. Autopilot operation is independent
of the yaw damper
EIS
The yaw damper reduces Dutch roll tendencies and coordinates turns. It can operate independently of the
autopilot and may be used during normal hand-flight maneuvers. Yaw rate commands are limited to 6 deg/sec
by the yaw damper.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT CONTROL
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pitch and roll commands are provided to the servos based on the active flight director modes. Yaw damping
is provided by the yaw servo. Servo motor control limits the maximum servo speed and torque. The servo
gearboxes are equipped with slip-clutches set to certain values. This allows the servos to be overridden in case
of an emergency.
PITCH AXIS AND TRIM
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The autopilot pitch axis uses pitch rate to stabilize the aircraft pitch attitude during flight director maneuvers.
Flight director pitch commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with pitch damper control, and sent
to the pitch servo motor. The pitch servo measures the output effort (torque) and provides this signal to the
pitch trim servo. The pitch trim servo commands the motor to reduce the average pitch servo effort.
AFCS
When the autopilot is not engaged, the pitch trim servo may be used to provide manual electric pitch
trim (MEPT). This allows the aircraft to be trimmed using a control wheel switch rather than the trim
wheel. Manual trim commands are generated only when both halves of the MEPT Switch are operated
simultaneously. Trim speeds are scheduled with airspeed to provide more consistent response.
ROLL AXIS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The autopilot roll axis uses roll rate to stabilize aircraft roll attitude during flight director maneuvers. The
flight director roll commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with roll damper control, and sent to
the roll servo motor.
YAW AXIS
APPENDICES
The yaw damper uses yaw rate and roll attitude to dampen the aircraft’s natural Dutch roll response.
It also uses lateral acceleration to coordinate turns. Yaw damper operation is independent of autopilot
engagement.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
ENGAGEMENT
NOTE: Autopilot engagement/disengagement is not equivalent to servo engagement/disengagement. Use
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
the CWS Button to disengage the pitch and roll servos while the autopilot remains active.
When the AP Key is pressed, the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director (if not already active) are activated
and the annunciator lights on the AFCS controller for the autopilot and yaw damper are illuminated. The flight
director engages in Pitch and Roll Hold Modes when initially activated.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Autopilot
Engaged
Yaw
Damper
Engaged
Figure 7-35 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Engaged
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When the YD Key is pressed, the system engages the yaw damper independently of the autopilot and the yaw
damper annunciator light is illuminated.
Autopilot and yaw damper status are displayed in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Engagement is indicated
by green ‘AP’ and ‘YD’ annunciations, respectively.
CONTROL WHEEL STEERING
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
During autopilot operation, the aircraft may be hand-flown without disengaging the autopilot. Pressing and
holding the CWS Button disengages the pitch and roll servos from the flight control surfaces and allows the
aircraft to be hand-flown. At the same time, the flight director is synchronized to the aircraft attitude during
the maneuver. CWS activity has no effect on yaw damper engagement.
The ‘AP’ annunciation is temporarily replaced by ‘CWS’ in white for the duration of CWS maneuvers.
AFCS
Control Wheel Steering
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 7-36 CWS Annunciation
INDEX
APPENDICES
In most scenarios, releasing the CWS Button reengages the autopilot with a new reference. Refer to flight
director mode descriptions for specific CWS behavior in each mode.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DISENGAGEMENT
NOTE: Pressing the AP Key does not disengage the yaw damper.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The autopilot may be manually disengaged by pushing the AP DISC, TO/GA, or MEPT ARM Switch, or the
AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit. Manual disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow ‘AP’
annunciation and a three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert. The AP DISC or MEPT ARM Switch may be
used to cancel the aural alert.
EIS
Figure 7-37 Manual Autopilot Disengagement
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The YD Key and AP DISC Switches can be used to disengage the yaw damper (the autopilot, if engaged, also
disengages when the AP DISC Switch is pressed). The ‘YD’ and ‘AP’ annunciations turn yellow and flash for 5
seconds upon disengagement.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 7-38 Yaw Damper Disengagement
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Automatic autopilot disengagement is indicated by a flashing red and white ‘AP’ annunciation and by the
autopilot disconnect aural alert, which continue until acknowledged by pushing the AP DISC or MEPT ARM
Switch. Automatic autopilot disengagement occurs due to:
• System failure
• Invalid sensor data
• Inability to compute default flight director modes (FD also disengages automatically)
AFCS
Yaw damper disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow ‘YD’ annunciation. Automatic yaw
damper disengagement occurs when autopilot disengagement is caused by failure in a parameter also affecting
the yaw damper. This means the yaw damper can remain operational in some cases where the autopilot
automatically disengages. A localized failure in the yaw damper system or invalid sensor data also cause yaw
damper disengagement.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 7-39 Automatic Autopilot and
Yaw Damper Disengagement
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.6 EXAMPLE FLIGHT PLAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The following example flight plan and diagrams (not to be used for navigation) in this section are
for instructional purposes only and should be considered not current. Numbered portions of accompanying
diagrams correspond to numbered procedure steps.
EIS
This scenario-based set of procedures (based on the example flight plan found in the Flight Management
Section) shows various Garmin AFCS modes used during a flight. In this scenario, the aircraft departs Charles B.
Wheeler Downtown Airport (KMKC), enroute to Colorado Springs Airport (KCOS). After departure, the aircraft
climbs to 12,000 ft and airway V4 is intercepted, following ATC vectors.
0
33
27
30
24
24
21
27
24
27
15
12
21
18
15
18
9
24
21
12
6
Lamar
VOR
(LAA)
18
Hays
VOR
(HYS)
Topeka
VOR
(TOP)
12
V 244
Salina
VOR
(SLN)
9
3
V4
9
V 244
9
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
30
27
30
6
6
0
33
KMKC
30
3
KCOS
3
3
6
0
33
0
33
15
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airway V4 is flown to Salina VOR (SLN) using VOR navigation, then airway V244 is flown using a GPS flight
plan. The ILS approach for runway 35L and LPV (WAAS) approach for runway 35R are shown and a missed
approach is executed.
12
21
18
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
15
Figure 7-40 Flight Plan Overview
DEPARTURE
AFCS
Climbing to the Selected Altitude and flying an assigned heading:
1) Before takeoff, use the ALT SEL Knob to set the Selected Altitude to 12,000 feet.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) In this example, Vertical Speed Mode is used to capture the Selected Altitude (Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, or
Flight Level Change Mode may be used).
APPENDICES
a) Press the VS Key to activate Vertical Speed Mode.
The Vertical Speed Reference may be adjusted after Vertical Speed Mode is selected using the NOSE UP/
DN Wheel or pushing the CWS Button while hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new Vertical Speed
Reference.
INDEX
b) Press the AP Key to engage the autopilot in a climb using Vertical speed Mode.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3) Use the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading, complying with ATC vectors to intercept Airway V4.
Press the HDG Key to activate Heading Select Mode while the autopilot is engaged in the climb. The autopilot
follows the Selected Heading Bug on the HSI and turns the aircraft to the desired heading.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
4) As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
EIS
GM
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HD
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
At 50 feet from the Selected Altitude, the green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds; the autopilot
transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft.
od
e
3
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selected Altitude of 12,000 MSL
ALT Mode
4
1
2
VS
AFCS
KMKC
e
Mod
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 7-41 Departure
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
INTERCEPTING A VOR RADIAL
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
During climb-out, the autopilot continues to fly the aircraft in Heading Select Mode. Airway V4 to Salina
VOR (SLN) should now be intercepted. Since the enroute flight plan waypoints correspond to VORs, flight
director Navigation Mode using either VOR or GPS as the navigation source may be used. In this scenario, VOR
Navigation Mode is used for navigation to the first VOR waypoint in the flight plan.
Intercepting a VOR radial:
1) Arm VOR Navigation Mode:
EIS
a) Tune the VOR frequency.
b) Press the CDI Softkey to set the navigation source to VOR.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
c) Use the CRS1 or CRS2 Knob to set the Selected Course to the desired value, 255°. Note that at this point,
the flight director is still in Heading Select Mode and the autopilot continues to fly the Selected Heading,
290°.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
d) Press the NAV Key. This arms VOR Navigation Mode and the white ‘VOR’ annunciation appears to the left
of the active lateral mode.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) As the aircraft nears the Selected Course, the flight director transitions from Heading Select to VOR Navigation
Mode and the ‘VOR’ annunciation flashes green. The autopilot begins turning to intercept the Selected
Course.
AFCS
3) The autopilot continues the turn until the aircraft is established on the Selected Course.
0
33
3
30
Hd
29 g
0o
V4
6
o
255
Salina
VOR
(SLN)
24
VO
R
9
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
27
3
NA
V
Mo
de
2
HD
G
12
od
e,
VO
R
Ar
m
15
21
APPENDICES
M
ed
1
18
INDEX
Figure 7-42 Intercepting a VOR Radial
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLYING A FLIGHT PLAN/GPS COURSE
NOTE: Changing the navigation source cancels Navigation Mode and causes the flight director to revert
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
back to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level).
As the aircraft closes on Salina VOR, GPS is used to navigate the next leg, airway V244. The aircraft is
currently tracking inbound on Airway V4.
Flying a GPS flight plan:
EIS
1) Transition from VOR to GPS Navigation Mode:
a) Press the CDI Softkey until GPS is the selected navigation source.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
b) Press the NAV Key to activate GPS Navigation Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft along the active
flight plan leg.
0
33
V4
6
3
o
075
30
e
V Mod
PS NA
6
27
G
o
12
15
21
18
12
AFCS
24
9
Hays
VOR
(HYS)
Salina
VOR
(SLN)
V 244
2
24
27
076
1
9
o
260
e
d
AV Mo
VOR N
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
33
3
30
0
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Following the flight plan, the autopilot continues to steer the aircraft under GPS guidance. Note that in GPS
Navigation Mode, course changes defined by the flight plan are automatically made without pilot action
required.
15
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
21
18
Figure 7-43 Transition to GPS Flight Plan
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DESCENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
• Flight Level Change descent – Flight Level Change Mode can be used to descend to the Selected Altitude at a
constant airspeed. This descent method does not account for flight plan waypoint altitude constraints.
While flying the arrival procedure, the aircraft is cleared for descent in preparation for the approach to KCOS.
Three methods are presented for descent:
• Vertical Path Tracking descent – Vertical Path Tracking Mode is used to follow the vertical descent path
defined in the GPS flight plan. Altitude constraints correspond to waypoints in the flight plan. Before VNV
flight control can provide vertical profile guidance, a VNV flight plan must be entered and enabled.
EIS
• Non-path descent in a VNV scenario – A VNV flight plan is entered and enabled, however Pitch Hold, Vertical
Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode can be used to descend to the VNV Target Altitude prior to reaching the
planned TOD. Flight Level Change Mode is used in the example.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Flight Level Change descent:
1) Select Flight Level Change Mode:
a) Using the ALT SEL Knob, set the Selected Altitude to 10,000 feet.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
b) Press the FLC Key to activate Flight Level Change Mode. The annunciation ‘FLC’ appears next to the
Airspeed Reference, which defaults to the current aircraft airspeed. Selected Altitude Capture Mode is
armed automatically.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Use the NOSE UP/DN Wheel or push the CWS Button while hand-flying the aircraft to adjust the commanded
airspeed while maintaining the same power, or reduce power to allow descent in Flight Level Change Mode
while the autopilot maintains the current airspeed.
AFCS
3) As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the Selected Altitude; the
autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft.
APPENDICES
1
Cruise Altitude of 12,000 MSL
ALT Mode
2
FLC
Mod
e
3
Selected Altitude of 10,000 MSL
ALT Mode
INDEX
Figure 7-44 FLC Descent
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Vertical Path Tracking descent to VNV Target Altitude:
1) Select VNV flight control:
a) Press the VNV Key to arm Vertical Path Tracking Mode. The white annunciation ‘VPTH’ appears.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
b) Using the ALT SEL Knob, set the Selected Altitude below the flight plan’s VNV Target Altitude of 10,000
feet.
EIS
If the Selected Altitude is not at least 75 feet below the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director captures
the Selected Altitude rather than the VNV Target Altitude once Vertical Path Tracking Mode becomes active
(ALTS becomes armed rather than ALTV).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
c) If Vertical Path Tracking Mode is armed more than 5 minutes prior to descent path capture, acknowledgment
is required for the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path Tracking Mode. To proceed
with descent path capture if the white ‘VPTH’ annunciation begins flashing, do one of the following
• Press the VNV Key
• Turn the ALT SEL Knob to adjust the Selected Altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed and the
descent is not captured.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) When the top of descent (TOD) is reached, the flight director transitions to Vertical Path Tracking Mode and
begins the descent to the VNV Target Altitude. Intention to capture the VNV Target Altitude is indicated by the
white ‘ALTV’ annunciation.
3) As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director transitions to VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
AFCS
1
ALT Mode
TOD
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude;
the autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft at the vertical waypoint.
Cruise Altitude of 12,000 MSL
VPT
APPENDICES
2
HM
ode
3
VNAV Target Altitude of 10,000 MSL
BOD
ALT Mode
INDEX
Selected Altitude (set below VNAV Target Altitude)
Along-track Offset, 3 nm before OPSHN
3 nm
Figure 7-45 VPTH Descent
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Non-path descent using Flight Level Change Mode:
1) Command a non-path descent to an intermediate altitude above the next VNV flight plan altitude. Use Flight
Level Change Mode:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
a) Using the ALT SEL Knob, set the Selected Altitude below the current aircraft altitude to an altitude (in this
case, 9,400 feet) at which to level off between VNV flight plan altitudes.
EIS
b) Press the FLC Key before the planned TOD during an altitude hold while VPTH is armed. The Airspeed
Reference defaults to the current aircraft airspeed. Vertical Path Tracking and Selected Altitude Capture
Mode are armed automatically.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Reduce power to allow descent in Flight Level Change Mode. The autopilot maintains the Airspeed Reference.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the Selected Altitude; the
autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft. After leveling off, reset the Selected Altitude
at or below 9000 ft.
AFCS
4) When the next TOD is reached, Vertical Path Tracking becomes active (may require acknowledgment to allow
descent path capture).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director transitions to VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
INDEX
APPENDICES
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude;
the autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft at the vertical waypoint.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
VP
TH
M
EIS
od
e
Planned
TOD
2
BOD
ALT Mode
1
FL
Pla
nn
M
od
e
Selected Altitude of 9,400 MSL
3
ed
De
sce
nt
ALT Mode
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
C
VNAV Target Altitude of 10,000 MSL
Pa
th
TOD
4
VP
TH
VNAV Target Altitude of 9,000 MSL
Mo
de
5
BOD
ALT Mode
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Altitude
3 nm
OPSHN
HABUK
Figure 7-46 Non-path Descent
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
APPROACH
Flying an ILS approach:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Transition from GPS Navigation Mode to Heading Select Mode.
a) Select the Runway 35L ILS approach for KCOS and select ‘VECTORS’ for the transition. Load and activate
the approach into the flight plan.
b) Use the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading after getting vectors from ATC.
c) Press the HDG Key. The autopilot turns the aircraft to the desired heading.
EIS
d) Use Heading Select Mode to comply with ATC vectors as requested.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Arm LOC Approach and Glideslope modes.
a) Ensure the appropriate localizer frequency is tuned.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
b) Press the APR Key when cleared for approach to arm Approach and Glideslope modes. ‘LOC’ and ‘GS’
appear in white as armed mode annunciations.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
c) T he navigation source automatically switches to LOC. After this switch occurs, the localizer signal can
be captured and the autopilot and flight director determine when to begin the turn to intercept the final
approach course. The flight director now provides guidance to the missed approach point.
3) There are two options available at this point, as the autopilot flies the ILS approach:
•
Push the AP DISC Switch at the decision height and land the aircraft.
•
Use the TO/GA Switch to execute a missed approach.
AFCS
KCOS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
LOC APR/
GS Mode
3
PETEY
2
G
HD
M
APPENDICES
e
od
PYNON
1
INDEX
GPS NAV Mode
Figure 7-47 ILS Approach to KCOS
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Flying a RNAV GPS approach with vertical guidance:
1) Arm flight director modes for a RNAV GPS approach with vertical guidance:
a) Make sure the navigation source is set to GPS (use CDI Softkey to change navigation source).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
b) Select the Runway 35R LPV approach for KCOS. Load and activate the approach into the flight plan.
2) Press the APR Key once clearance for approach has been received. GPS Approach Mode is activated and
Glidepath Mode is armed.
EIS
3) Once the glidepath is captured, Glidepath Mode becomes active. The flight director now provides guidance to
the missed approach point.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) There are two options available at this point, as the autopilot flies the approach:
Push the AP DISC Switch at the decision height and land the aircraft.
•
Use the TO/GA Switch to execute a missed approach.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
•
KCOS
3
GPS APR/
GP Mode
CEGIX
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4
AFCS
2
FALUR
HABUK
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
PYNON
1
APPENDICES
GPS NAV Mode
INDEX
Figure 7-48 LPV Approach to KCOS
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
GO AROUND/MISSED APPROACH
NOTE: As a result of calculations performed by the system while flying the holding pattern, the display may
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
re-size automatically and the aircraft may not precisely track the holding pattern as depicted on the PFD and
MFD.
Flying a missed approach:
EIS
1) Push the TO/GA Switch at the Decision height and apply go around power to execute a missed approach. The
flight director Command Bars establish a nose-up climb to follow. If flying an ILS or LOC approach the CDI also
switches to GPS as the navigation source.
Note that when the TO/GA Switch is pushed, the missed approach is activated.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Flashes 5 sec
2) Start the climb to the prescribed altitude in the published Missed Approach Procedure (in this case, 10,000 ft).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Press the NAV Key to have the autopilot fly to the hold.
3) Use the ALT SEL Knob to set a Selected Altitude to hold.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
To hold the current airspeed during the climb, press the FLC Key.
AFCS
As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the Selected Altitude; the
autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft.
INDEX
APPENDICES
4) The autopilot flies the holding pattern after the missed approach is activated. Annunciations are displayed in
the Navigation Status Box, above the AFCS Status Box.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
MOGAL
EIS
GPS NAV Mode
3
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2
GA Mode
KCOS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 7-49 Go Around/Missed Approach
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.7 AFCS ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
AFCS STATUS ALERTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The annunciations in Table 7-5 (listed in order of increasing priority) can appear on the PFDs (Figure 7-50)
above the Airspeed and Attitude indicators. Only one annunciation may occur at a time, and messages are
prioritized by criticality.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
AFCS Status
Annunciation
Figure 7-50 AFCS Status Annunciation
Alert Condition
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Rudder Mistrim Right
Rudder Mistrim Left
Aileron Mistrim Right
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Aileron Mistrim Left
Elevator Mistrim Down
Elevator Mistrim Up
AFCS
Emergency Descent
Mode
Pitch Trim Failure
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
(or stuck MEPT Switch)
APPENDICES
Yaw Damper Failure
Description
Yaw servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
Roll servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
Pitch servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
AP engaged when cabin pressurization is above 14,900 feet MSL or, upon loss
of cabin altitude information when the aircraft is above 14,900 feet pressure
altitude with the Autopilot engaged.
If AP engaged, take control of the aircraft and disengage AP
If AP disengaged, move MEPT switches separately to unstick
YD control failure
Roll Failure
Roll axis control failure; AP inoperative
Pitch Failure
Pitch axis control failure; AP inoperative
System Failure
Preflight Test
INDEX
Annunciation
AP and MEPT are unavailable; FD may still be available
Performing preflight system test; aural alert sounds at completion
Do not press the AP DISC Switch during servo power-up and preflight system tests
as this may cause the preflight system test to fail or never to start (if servos fail
their power-up tests). Power must be cycled to the servos to remedy the situation.
Preflight system test failed; aural alert sounds at failure
Table 7-5 AFCS Status Alerts
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
OVERSPEED PROTECTION
NOTE: Overspeed protection is not active in Altitude Hold, Glideslope or Glidepath modes.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
While Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, Flight Level Change, Vertical Path Tracking, or an altitude capture mode is
active, airspeed is monitored by the flight director. Overspeed protection is provided to limit the flight director’s
pitch command in situations where the flight director cannot acquire and maintain the mode reference for the
selected vertical mode without exceeding the certified maximum autopilot airspeed.
EIS
When Overspeed Protection is active, the Airspeed Reference appears in a box above the Airspeed Indicator,
flashing a yellow ‘MAXSPD’ annunciation. Engine power should be reduced and/or the pitch reference adjusted
to slow the aircraft. The annunciation disappears when the overspeed condition is resolved.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airspeed
Indicator
Figure 7-51 Overspeed Annunciation
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
EMERGENCY DESCENT MODE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Emergency Descent Mode (EDM) is available during high-altitude flight while the autopilot is engaged. EDM
is automatically activated when the Autopilot is engaged and cabin pressurization is above 14,900 feet MSL
or, upon loss of cabin altitude information when the aircraft is above 14,900 feet pressure altitude with the
Autopilot engaged. EDM is annunciated as the AFCS Status Annunciation with a audible triple chime and the
following AFCS modes are selected:
• IAS mode active with a target speed of Mmo/Vmo.
AFCS
• Selected Altitude set to 14,000 feet. After 4 minutes at 14,000 feet, selected altitude is set to 12,500 feet.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Blank Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
NOTE: With the availability of SafeTaxi®, ChartView, or FliteCharts®, it may be necessary to carry another
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
source of charts on-board the aircraft.
Additional features of the system include the following:
• SafeTaxi® diagrams
• Scheduler
• ChartView and FliteCharts® electronic charts
• Flight Data Logging
• AOPA or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory
• Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) System
• Satellite telephone and SMS messaging (Optional)
• Hypoxia Recognition System with Automatic Descent
Mode
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment
EIS
• Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) (Optional)
The optional Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) provides a three-dimensional forward view of terrain features
on the PFD. SVT imagery shows the pilot’s view of relevant features in relation to the aircraft attitude, as well as
the flight path pertaining to the active flight plan.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SafeTaxi diagrams provide detailed taxiway, runway, and ramp information at more than 700 airports in the
United States. By decreasing range on an airport that has a SafeTaxi diagram available, a close up view of the
airport layout can be seen.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The FliteCharts and optional ChartView provide on-board electronic terminal procedures charts. Electronic
charts offer the convenience of rapid access to essential information. Either ChartView or FliteCharts may be
configured in the system, but not both.
The AOPA and AC-U-KWIK Airport Directories offer detailed information for a selected airport, such as available
services, hours of operation, and lodging options.
AFCS
Iridium Telephone Service and SMS messaging is an optional subscription service offered through Garmin Connext
and Iridium Satellite LLC.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment audio feature of the GDL 69A SXM Data Link Receiver
handles more than 170 channels of music, news, and sports. SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers more entertainment
choices and longer range coverage than commercial broadcast stations.
The Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display short term or long term reminder messages such as
Switch fuel tanks, Phase 1 inspection, or Altimeter/Transponder Check in the Alerts Window on the PFD.
APPENDICES
The Flight Data Logging feature automatically stores critical flight and engine data on an SD data card.
Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each 1GB of available space on the card.
The Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) system discourages aircraft operation outside the normal flight
envelope.
The Hypoxia Recognition System with Automatic Descent Mode provides protection to aircraft occupants from
succumbing to the debilitating affects of hypoxia.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.1 SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY (SVT)
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or reliability
upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) is a visual enhancement to the G1000 Integrated Flight Deck. SVT
depicts a forward-looking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The field of
view is 30 degrees to the left and 35 degrees to the right. SVT information is shown on the Primary Flight Display
(PFD), or on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode (Figure 8‑115). The depicted imagery is
derived from the aircraft attitude, heading, GPS three-dimensional position, and a nine arc-second database of
terrain, obstacles, and other relevant features. The terrain data resolution of nine arc-seconds, meaning that
the terrain elevation contours are stored in squares measuring nine arc-seconds on each side, is required for the
operation of SVT. Loss of any of the required data, including temporary loss of the GPS signal, will cause SVT to
be disabled until the required data is restored.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The SVT terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical map display),
large water features, towers, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are included in the obstacle database. Cultural
features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad tracks, cities, and state boundaries are not displayed even
if those features are found on the MFD map. The terrain display also includes a north–south east–west grid with
lines oriented with true north and spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation relative to the terrain.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The optional Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) or standard Terrain-SVT is integrated within
SVT to provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the presence of terrain and obstacle threats relevant to the
projected flight path. Terrain alerts are displayed in red and yellow shading on the PFD.
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or fidelity on
which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must not be predicated
solely upon the use of the Terrain–SVS or TAWS terrain or obstacle data displayed by the SVT.
• Pathways
• Airport Signs
• Flight Path Marker
• Runway Display
• Horizon Heading Marks
• Terrain Alerting
• Traffic Display
• Obstacle Alerting
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The following SVT enhancements appear on the PFD:
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-1 Synthetic Vision Imagery
SVT OPERATION
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SVT is activated from the PFD using the softkeys located along the bottom edge of the display. Selecting the
softkeys turns the related function on or off. When SVT is enabled, the pitch scale increments are reduced to
10 degrees up and 7.5 degrees down.
AFCS
SVT functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. The PFD Softkey leads into the PFD function
Softkeys, including synthetic vision. Selecting the SYN VIS Softkey displays the SVT feature softkeys. The
softkeys are labeled PATHWAY, SYN TERR, HRZN HDG, and APTSIGNS. The BACK Softkey returns to
the previous level of softkeys. Synthetic Terrain must be active before any other SVT feature may be activated.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS, and PATHWAY Softkeys are only available when the SYN TERR Softkey is
activated (gray with black characters). After activating the SYN TERR Softkey, the HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS,
and PATHWAY softkeys may be activated in any combination to display desired features. When system power
is cycled, the last selected state (on or off) of the SYN TERR, HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS, and PATHWAY
softkeys is remembered by the system.
APPENDICES
• PATHWAY Softkey enables display of rectangular boxes that represent course guidance.
• SYN TERR Softkey enables synthetic terrain depiction.
• HRZN HDG Softkey enables horizon heading marks and digits.
• APTSIGNS Softkey enables airport signposts.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
PFD
SYN VIS
BACK
Pressing the BACK Softkey
returns to the top-level softkeys.
BACK
EIS
PATHWAY SYN TERR HRZN HDG APTSIGNS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Pressing the BACK Softkey returns to the previous level of softkeys.
Figure 8-2 SVT Softkeys
Activating and deactivating SVT:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Select the PFD Softkey.
2) Select the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Select the SYN TERR Softkey. The SVT display will cycle on or off with the SYN TERR Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Activating and deactivating Pathways:
1) Select the PFD Softkey.
2) Select the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Select the PATHWAY Softkey. The Pathway feature will cycle on or off with the PATHWAY Softkey.
AFCS
Activating and deactivating Horizon Headings:
1) Select the PFD Softkey.
2) Select the SYN VIS Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Select the HRZN HDG Softkey. The horizon heading display will cycle on or off with the HRZN HDG Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Airport Signs:
1) Select the PFD Softkey.
APPENDICES
2) Select the SYN VIS Softkey.
INDEX
3) Select the APTSIGNS Softkey. Display of airport signs will cycle on or off with the APTSIGNS Softkey.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SVT FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected
Altitude
Airport
Runway
Pathways
Color
Matches CDI
Indicating
NAV Source
Flight
Path
Marker
EIS
Zero
Pitch Line
(ZPL) with
Compass
Heading
Marks
Airplane
Symbol
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Synthetic
Terrain
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SVT
Softkeys
Figure 8-3 SVT on the Primary Flight Display
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude deviation
information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
AFCS
PATHWAYS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Pathways provide a three-dimensional perspective view of the selected route of flight shown as colored
rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active flight plan. The box
size represents 700 feet wide by 200 feet tall during enroute, oceanic, and terminal flight phases. During
an approach, the box width is 700 feet or one half full scale deviation on the HSI, whichever is less. The
height is 200 feet or one half full scale deviation on the VDI, whichever is less. The altitude at which the
pathway boxes are displayed is determined by the higher of either the selected altitude or the VNAV altitude
programmed for the active leg in the flight plan (Figure 8-4).
APPENDICES
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INDEX
The color of the rectangular boxes may be magenta, green, or white depending on the route of flight and
navigation source selected. The active GPS or GPS overlay flight plan leg is represented by magenta boxes
that correspond to the Magenta CDI. A localizer course is represented by green boxes that correspond to a
green CDI. An inactive leg of an active flight plan is represented by white boxes corresponding to a white line
drawn on the Inset map or MFD map indicating an inactive leg.
527
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected
Altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Programmed
Altitudes
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-4 Programmed and Selected Altitude
AFCS
Pathways provide supplemental glidepath information on an active ILS, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, and some LNAV
approaches. Pathways are intended as an aid to situational awareness and should not be used independent
of the CDI, VDI, glide path indicator, and glide slope indicator. They are removed from the display when
the selected navigation information is not available. Pathways are not displayed beyond the active leg when
leg sequencing is suspended and are not displayed on any portion of the flight plan leg that would lead to
intercepting a leg in the wrong direction.
Departure and Enroute
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Prior to intercepting an active flight plan leg, pathways are displayed as a series of boxes with pointers at
each corner that point in the direction of the active waypoint. Pathways are not displayed for the first leg
of the flight plan if that segment is a Heading-to-Altitude leg. The first segment displaying pathways is the
first active GPS leg or active leg with a GPS overlay. If this leg of the flight plan route is outside the SVT
field of view, pathways will not be visible until the aircraft has turned toward this leg. While approaching
the center of the active leg and prescribed altitude, the number of pathway boxes decreases to a minimum
of four.
INDEX
Pathways are displayed along the flight plan route at the highest of either the selected altitude or the
programmed altitude for the leg. Climb profiles cannot be displayed due to the variables associated with
aircraft performance. Flight plan legs requiring a climb are indicated by pathways displayed at a level above
the aircraft at the altitude selected or programmed.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Descent and Approach
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pathways are shown descending only for a programmed descent (Figures 8-5, 8-6). When the flight plan
includes programmed descent segments, pathways are displayed along the descent path provided that the
selected altitude is lower than the programmed altitude.
EIS
During a Vectors-to-Final (VTF) approach transition, pathways are displayed along the final approach
course inbound to the Missed Approach Point (MAP). Pathways are shown level at the selected altitude
or at the next programmed crossing altitude, whichever is higher, up to the point along the final approach
course where the altitude intercepts the extended vertical descent path, glidepath, or glideslope. From
the vertical path descent, glidepath, or glideslope intercept point, the pathways are shown inbound to the
Missed Approach Point (MAP) along the published lateral and vertical descent path.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
During an ILS approach, the initial approach segment is displayed in magenta at the segment altitudes
if GPS is selected as the navigation source on the CDI. When switching to localizer inbound with LOC
selected as the navigation source on the CDI, pathways are displayed in green along the localizer and glide
slope.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
VOR, LOC BC, and ADF approach segments that are approved to be flown using GPS are displayed in
magenta boxes. Segments that are flown using other than GPS or ILS, such as heading legs or VOR final
approach courses are not displayed.
Selected Altitude
set for Enroute
Selected Altitude
set for Departure
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Climbs NOT
displayed
by pathway
Non-programmed descents NOT displayed by pathway
TOD
AFCS
Selected Altitude
for Step Down
Programmed descent
displayed by pathway
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Selected Altitude or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
Figure 8-5 SVT Pathways, Enroute and Descent
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Missed Approach
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Upon activating the missed approach, pathways lead to the Missed Approach Holding Point (MAHP) and
are displayed as a level path at the published altitude for the MAHP, or the selected altitude, whichever is
the highest. If the initial missed approach leg is a Course-to-Altitude (CA) leg, the pathways boxes will
be displayed level at the altitude published for the MAHP. If the initial missed approach leg is defined by
a course using other than GPS, pathways are not displayed for that segment. In this case, the pathways
displayed for the next leg may be outside the field of view and will be visible when the aircraft has turned
in the direction of that leg.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Pathways are displayed along each segment including the path required to track course reversals that are
part of a procedure, such as holding patterns. Pathways boxes will not indicate a turn to a MAHP unless a
defined geographical waypoint exists between the MAP and MAHP.
FAF
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Descent displayed
by pathway
Selected Altitude
or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
MAP Climbs NOT displayed
by pathway
Turn Segment
NOT displayed
by pathway
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
MAHP
INDEX
Figure 8-6 SVT Pathways, Approach, Missed Approach, and Holding
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT PATH MARKER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at groundspeeds
above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft accounting for wind speed
and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM is always available when the Synthetic Terrain feature is in operation. The FPM represents the
direction of the flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display, while the airplane symbol
represents the aircraft heading.
EIS
The FPM works in conjunction with the Pathways feature to assist the pilot in maintaining desired altitudes
and direction when navigating a flight plan. When on course and altitude the FPM is aligned inside the
pathway boxes as shown (Figure 8-7).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The FPM may also be used to identify a possible conflict with the aircraft flight path and distant terrain or
obstacles. Displayed terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s flight path extending above the FPM could indicate
a potential conflict, even before an alert is issued by TAWS. However, decisions regarding terrain and/or
obstacle avoidance should not be made using only the FPM.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
AFCS
Wind
Vector
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-7 Flight Path Marker and Pathways
ZERO PITCH LINE
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INDEX
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the horizon when the terrain
horizon is difficult to distinguish from other terrain being displayed. It may not align with the terrain
horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or when the aircraft is flown at high altitudes.
531
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
HORIZON HEADING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows approximately 60 degrees of compass
heading in 30‑degree increments on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and digits appearing
on the zero pitch line are not visible behind either the airspeed or altitude display. Horizon Heading is used
for general heading awareness, and is activated and deactivated by selecting the HRZN HDG Softkey.
TRAFFIC
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the SVT display or may appear as a
EIS
partial symbol.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic systems.
Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting closer, and smaller
when they are further away. Traffic within 250 feet laterally of the aircraft will not be displayed on the SVT
display. Traffic symbols and coloring are consistent with that used for traffic displayed in the Inset map or
MFD traffic page. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not be displayed on the SVT display. For
more details refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard Avoidance section.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AIRPORT SIGNS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic terrain
display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately 15 nm from
an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the identifier until
the aircraft is approximately eight nautical miles from the airport. Airport signs are not shown behind the
airspeed or altitude display. Airport signs are activated and deactivated by selecting the APTSIGNS Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Traffic
Airport
Sign
without
Identifier
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
INDEX
APPENDICES
Airport
Sign with
Identifier
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
Figure 8-8 Airport Signs
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
RUNWAYS
WARNING: Do not use SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of the aircraft
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these runways are not
displayed.
EIS
Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding terrain. All
runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database. In some situations,
where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be layered. As runways are
displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are displayed in white. Other runways will be gray
in color. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that runway will appear brighter and be outlined
with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft gets closer
to the runway, more detail such as runway numbers and centerlines will be displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Runway
Selected for
Approach
Other
Runway
on Airport
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-9 Airport Runways
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TERRAIN-SVS AND TAWS ALERTING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward-looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA)
alerts, and corresponds to the red and yellow X symbols on the Inset Map and MFD map displays. For more
detailed information regarding Terrain-SVS and TAWS, refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section.
In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on the
synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVT field of view to the left or right of the aircraft.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
TERRAIN
Annunciation
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Terrain
Caution
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Potential
Impact
Point
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-10 Terrain Alert
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower symbols found
on the Inset map and MFD maps and charts. Obstacle symbols appear in the perspective view with relative
height above terrain and distance from the aircraft. Unlike the Inset map and MFD moving map display,
obstacles on the synthetic terrain display do not change colors to warn of potential conflict with the aircraft’s
flight path until the obstacle is associated with an actual FLTA alert. Obstacles greater than 1000 feet below the
aircraft altitude are not shown. Obstacles are shown behind the airspeed and altitude displays.
EIS
Obstacle
Annunciation
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Obstacle
Warning
Potential
Impact
Point
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-11 Obstacle
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FIELD OF VIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The PFD field of view can be represented on the MFD Navigation Map Page. Two dashed lines forming a
V‑shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map, represent the forward viewing area shown on the PFD.
Configuring field of view:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Map Setup and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Field of
View
AFCS
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Map Setup Menu, Map Group, Field of View Option
Figure 8-12 Option Menus
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Map Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Map Group options to FIELD OF VIEW.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select On or Off.
INDEX
APPENDICES
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The following figure compares the PFD forward looking depiction with the MFD plan view and FIELD OF
VIEW turned on.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Lines
Depict
PFD Field
of View
EIS
Field of View on the MFD
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SVT View on the PFD
Figure 8-13 PFD and MFD Field of View Comparison
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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537
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.2 SAFETAXI
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The SafeTaxi feature gives greater map detail when viewing airports at close range. The maximum map ranges
for enhanced detail are pilot configurable. When viewing at ranges close enough to show the airport detail,
the map reveals taxiways with identifying letters/numbers, airport Hot Spots, and airport landmarks including
ramps, buildings, control towers, and other prominent features. Resolution is greater at lower map ranges. When
the MFD display is within the SafeTaxi ranges, the airplane symbol on the airport provides enhanced position
awareness.
EIS
Designated Hot Spots are recognized at airports with many intersecting taxiways and runways, and/or complex
ramp areas. Airport Hot Spots are outlined to caution pilots of areas on an airport surface where positional
awareness confusion or runway incursions happen most often. Hot Spots are defined with a magenta circle or
outline around the region of possible confusion.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Any map page that displays the navigation view can also show the SafeTaxi airport layout within the maximum
configured range. The following is a list of pages where the SafeTaxi feature can be seen:
• Navigation Map Page
• VOR Information Page
• Inset Map (PFD)
• User Waypoint Information Page
• Weather Datalink Page
• Trip Planning Page
• Airport Information Page
• Nearest Pages
• Intersection Information Page
• Active and Stored Flight Plan Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• NDB Information Page
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
During ground operations the aircraft’s position is displayed in reference to taxiways, runways, and airport
features. In the example shown, the aircraft is on taxiway Bravo inside the High Alert Intersection boundary
on KSFO airport. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta. When panning over the airport, features such as
runway holding lines and taxiways are shown at the cursor.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Taxiway
Identification
EIS
Aircraft
Position
Airport Hot
Spot Outline
DCLTR Softkey
Removes
Taxiway
Markings
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The DCLTR Softkey (declutter) label advances to DCLTR-1, DCLTR -2, and DCLTR-3 each time the softkey is
selected for easy recognition of decluttering level. Selecting the DCLTR Softkey removes the taxiway markings
and airport feature labels. Selecting the DCLTR-1 Softkey removes VOR station ID, the VOR symbol, and
intersection names if within the airport plan view. Selecting the DCLTR-2 Softkey removes the airport runway
layout, unless the airport in view is part of an active route structure. Selecting the DCLTR-3 Softkey cycles back
to the original map detail. Refer to Map Declutter Levels in the Flight Management Section.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-14 SafeTaxi Depiction on the Navigation Map Page
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airport
Features
AFCS
Configuring SafeTaxi range:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Map Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 8-15 Navigation Map PAGE MENU, Map Setup Option
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539
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Aviation Group options to SAFETAXI.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the range of distances.
6) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired distance for maximum SafeTaxi display range.
7) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
SAFETAXI
Option
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SafeTaxi
Range
Options
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-16 MAP SETUP Menu, Aviation Group, SAFETAXI Range Options
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SAFETAXI DATABASE CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SafeTaxi database is revised every 56 days. SafeTaxi is always available for use after the expiration date.
When turning on the system, the Power-up Page indicates whether the databases are current, out of date, or
not available.
SafeTaxi Database
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-17 Power-up Page, SafeTaxi Database
Power-up Page Display
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Definition
Normal operation. SafeTaxi database is valid and within current cycle.
SafeTaxi database has expired.
Database card contains no SafeTaxi data.
AFCS
Table 8-1 SafeTaxi Annunciation Definitions
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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541
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The SafeTaxi Region, Version, Cycle, Effective date and Expires date of the database cycle can also be found
on the AUX - System Status page, as seen in Figure 8-18.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is
shown.
The SafeTaxi database cycle number 16S4, is deciphered as follows:
16 – Indicates the year 2016
S – Indicates the data is for SafeTaxi
EIS
4 – Indicates the fourth issue of the SafeTaxi database for the year
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The SafeTaxi EFFECTIVE date 21–JUL–15 is the beginning date for the current database cycle. SafeTaxi
EXPIRES date 15–SEP–15 is the revision date for the next database cycle.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
SafeTaxi Data
APPENDICES
SafeTaxi information appears in blue and yellow text. The EFFECTIVE date appears in blue when data is
current and in yellow when the current date is before the effective date. The EXPIRES date appears in blue
when data is current and in yellow when expired (Figures 8‑18 and 8-19). NOT AVAILABLE appears in blue
in the REGION field if SafeTaxi data is not available on the database card (Figure 8‑19). An expired SafeTaxi
database is not disabled and will continue to function indefinitely.
INDEX
Figure 8-18 AUX – System Status Page, SafeTaxi Current Information
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey a second time. The softkey label will change to PFD1 DB. The DATABASE
window will now be displaying database information for PFD1. As before, scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is shown.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Select the PFD1 DB Softkey. The softkey label will change to PFD2 DB. The DATABASE window will now
display database information for PFD2. Again, scroll through the listed information by turning the FMS Knob
or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is shown.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for instructions on revising the SafeTaxi database.
Figure 8-19 illustrates possible SafeTaxi database conditions that may appear on the AUX - System Status
Page. The EFFECTIVE date is the beginning date for this database cycle. If the present date is before the
effective date, the EFFECTIVE date appears in yellow and the EXPIRES date appears in blue. The EXPIRES date
is the revision date for the next database cycle. NOT AVAILABLE indicates that SafeTaxi is not available on the
database card or no database card is inserted.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SafeTaxi Database has Expired
SafeTaxi Database Not Installed
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Current Date is before Effective Date
Figure 8-19 AUX – System Status Page, SafeTaxi Database Status
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.3 CHARTVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ChartView resembles the paper version of Jeppesen terminal procedures charts. The charts are displayed in full
color with high-resolution. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft position on the moving map in the planview
of approach charts and on airport diagrams. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Inset boxes (Figure 8-20) are not considered within the chart
boundaries. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol reaches a chart boundary line, or inset box, the aircraft symbol
is removed from the display.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Figure 8-20 shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, the grey shading is for
illustrative purposes only and will not appear on the published chart or MFD display. These off-scale areas
appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted geographical position of this
information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when the aircraft
symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart planview, not to
the off-scale area.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Inset Box
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Off-Scale
Area
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Off-Scale
Areas
Figure 8-20 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
APPENDICES
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
The ChartView database subscription is available from Jeppesen, Inc. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Airport Diagrams
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• NOTAMs
INDEX
• Approaches
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CHARTVIEW SOFTKEYS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ChartView functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey displays the available terminal chart and
advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT OPT, CHRT, INFO, DP, STAR, APR, WX, NOTAM,
and GO BACK. The chart selection softkeys shown below appear on the Airport Information Page.
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey advances to the next level of softkeys: ALL, HEADER, PLAN, PROFILE,
MINIMUMS, FIT WDTH, FULL SCN, and BACK.
EIS
While viewing the CHRT OPT Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
SHW CHRT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
CHRT OPT
CHRT
INFO-1
DP
PLAN
WX
NOTAM
GO BACK
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HEADER
APR
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey returns
to the top-level softkeys and previous page.
INFO-2
ALL
STAR
PROFILE
MINIMUMS FIT WDTH FULL SCN
BACK
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns
to the Chart Selection Softkeys.
Figure 8-21 ChartView SHW CHRT, Chart Selection, and Chart Option Softkeys
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Nearest Airport Page, or Flight Plan Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the OPTIONS Menu to Show Chart.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page OPTIONS Menu
Figure 8-22 Option Menus
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
When no terminal procedure chart is available for the nearest airport or the selected airport, the banner
CHART NOT AVAILABLE appears on the screen. The CHART NOT AVAILABLE banner does not refer to
the Jeppesen subscription, but rather the availability of a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a
selected airport.
APPENDICES
Figure 8-23 Chart Not Available Banner
INDEX
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the banner
UNABLE TO DISPLAY CHART is then displayed.
Figure 8-24 Unable To Display Chart Banner
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When a chart is not available by selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts
may be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, selecting the
SHW CHRT Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is the one associated with the WPT – Airport Information page. Usually this is the airport
runway diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are
available, that page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport
is shown.
EIS
Selecting a chart:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Flight Plan Page, or Nearest Airports Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the Airport Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the Approach Box. (Select the APR Softkey
if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Approach Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
AFCS
Chart Scale
Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Scroll Through
Entire Chart
With the
Joystick
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 8-25 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
While the APPROACH Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. Once the desired chart
is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart page can be scrolled using the Joystick. Pressing the
Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The aircraft symbol is shown on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft position is within
the boundaries of the chart. The aircraft symbol is not displayed when the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears
(Figure 8‑29). If the Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, the aircraft symbol is not shown. The
Aircraft Not Shown Icon may appear at certain times, even if the chart is displayed to scale.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Selecting the CHRT Softkey switches between the ChartView diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the CHRT Softkey switches between the DeKalb Peachtree (KPDK) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the WPT – Airport Information page.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press CHRT Softkey
to Switch Between
ChartView and WPT Airport Information Page
Figure 8-26 CHRT Softkey, Airport Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram chart when the view is on a terminal
procedure chart. If the displayed chart is the airport diagram chart, pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey
returns to the Airport Information Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The aircraft position is shown in magenta on the ChartView diagrams when the location of the aircraft is
within the chart boundaries. In the example shown, the aircraft is turning onto Taxiway Bravo on the Charlotte,
NC (KCLT) airport.
EIS
Another source for additional airport information is from the INFO Box above the chart for certain airports.
This information source is not related to the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey. When the INFO Box is selected
using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. The Charlotte, NC airport has five additional charts offering
information; the Airport Diagram, Take-off Minimums, Class B Airspace, Airline Parking Gate Coordinates, and
Airline Parking Gate Location. (The numbers in parentheses after the chart name are Jeppesen designators.)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 8-27 Airport Information Page, INFO View, Full Screen Width
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In the example shown in Figure 8-27, the Class B Chart is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays the
Charlotte Class B Airspace Chart (Figure 8-28).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-28 Airport Information Page, Class B Chart Selected from INFO View
Selecting the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Chart Not
To Scale
INDEX
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-29 Departure Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Chart Not
To Scale
EIS
Change Range
and Scroll
Through the
Chart With the
Joystick
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-30 Arrival Information Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selecting the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
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INDEX
Figure 8-31 Approach Information Page
551
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, and includes weather data such
as METAR and TAF from the XM Data Link Receiver, when available. Weather information is available only
when an XM Data Link Receiver is installed and the SiriusXM Weather subscription is current.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
WX Info
When
Available
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
WX Softkey
Selected
Figure 8-32 Weather Information Page
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Recent NOTAMS applicable to the current ChartView cycle are included in the ChartView database. Selecting
the NOTAM Softkey shows the local NOTAM information for selected airports, when available. When NOTAMS
are not available, the NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled. The NOTAM Softkey may appear
on the Airport Information Page and all of the chart page selections.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-33 NOTAM Softkey Enabled
NOTAM Softkey
Appears When
NOTAMS are
Available for
Selected Airport
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Local
NOTAM on
Selected
Airport
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
NOTAM Softkey
Selected
Figure 8-34 Airport Information Page, Local NOTAMs
INDEX
Selecting the NOTAM Softkey again removes the NOTAMS information.
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page, Nearest Pages, or Flight
Plan Page).
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CHART OPTIONS
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level (Figure 8-21).
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting the ALL Softkey shows the entire approach chart on the screen.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Entire Chart
Shown
Figure 8-35 Approach Information Page, ALL View
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Selecting the HEADER Softkey shows the header view (approach chart briefing strip) on the screen.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Approach
Chart
Briefing Strip
Figure 8-36 Approach Information Page, Header View
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting the PLAN Softkey shows the approach chart two dimensional plan view.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Approach
Chart Plan
View
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-37 Approach Information Page, Plan View
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selecting the PROFILE Softkey displays the approach chart descent profile strip.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Approach
Chart Descent
Profile Strip
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 8-38 Approach Information Page, Profile View, Full Screen Width
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting the MINIMUMS Softkey displays the minimum descent altitude/visibility strip at the bottom of the
approach chart.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Minimum
Descent
Altitude/
Visibility Strip
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-39 Approach Information Page, Minimums View, Full Screen Width
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
If the chart scale has been adjusted to view a small area of the chart, selecting the FIT WIDTH Softkey
changes the chart size to fit the available screen width.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Select FIT WDTH
Softkey to Show
Full Chart Width
Figure 8-40 Airport Information Page, FIT WDTH Softkey Selected
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the FULL SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
Selecting Additional Information:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, select the FULL SCN Softkey to display the information windows
(AIRPORT, INFO).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the AIRPORT, INFO, RUNWAYS, or FREQUENCIES Box (INFO Box shown).
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the INFO Box choices. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired
choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Available
Information
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Select FULL SCN
Softkey to Switch
Between Full Screen
and Chart with Info
Window
INDEX
Figure 8-41 Airport Information Page, Full Screen and Info Window
Selecting the BACK Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the FULL SCREEN and COLOR SCHEME Options.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the On and Off Full Screen Options.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Chart Setup Option
Full Screen On/Off Selection
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-42 Page Menus
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ChartView can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a dark
environment. When the CHART SETUP Box is selected the softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-43 Waypoint Information Page, OPTIONS Menu
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the COLOR SCHEME Option (Figure 8‑44).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between Day, Auto, and Night Options.
AFCS
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
INDEX
APPENDICES
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the Chart Setup Menu.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-44 Arrival Information Page, Day View
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-45 Arrival Information Page, Night View
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CHARTVIEW CYCLE NUMBER AND EXPIRATION DATE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The ChartView database is revised every 14 days. Charts are still viewable during a period that extends from
the cycle expiration date to the disables date. ChartView is disabled 70 days after the expiration date and is no
longer available for viewing. After the expiration date, the ChartView database is no longer current, however,
data displayed on the actual charts may still be current. When viewing charts after the ChartView database has
expired, ensure the displayed chart is current before using.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
When turning on the system, the Power-up Page displays the current status of the ChartView database. See
the table below for the various ChartView Power-up Page displays and the definition of each.
ChartView Database
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-46 Power-up Page, ChartView Database
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Blank Line. system is not configured for ChartView. Contact a Garminauthorized service center for configuration.
System is configured for ChartView but no chart database is installed.
Contact Jeppesen for a ChartView database.
Normal operation. ChartView database is valid and within current
cycle.
ChartView database is within 1 week after expiration date. A new cycle
is available for update.
ChartView database is beyond 1 week after expiration date, but still
within the 70 day viewing period.
ChartView database has timed out. Database is beyond 70 days after
expiration date. ChartView database is no longer available for viewing.
System time is not available. GPS satellite data is unknown or the
system has not yet locked onto satellites. Check database cycle number
for effectivity.
System is verifying chart database when new cycle is installed for the
first time.
After verifying, chart database is found to be corrupt. ChartView is not
available.
Table 8-2 ChartView Power-up Page Annunciations and Definitions
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The ChartView time critical information can also be found on the AUX - System Status page. The database
CYCLE number, EXPIRES, and DISABLES dates of the ChartView subscription appear in either blue or yellow
text. When the ChartView EXPIRES date is reached, ChartView becomes inoperative 70 days later. This is
shown as the DISABLES date. When the DISABLES date is reached, charts are no longer available for viewing.
The SHW CHRT Softkey label then appears subdued and is disabled until a revised issue of ChartView is
installed.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
EIS
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the ChartView database information is
shown.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The ChartView database cycle number shown in the figure, 1503, is deciphered as follows:
15 – Indicates the year 2015
03 – Indicates the third issue of the ChartView database for the year
The EXPIRES date 17–FEB–15 is the date that this database should be replaced with the next issue.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The DISABLES date 28–APR–15 is the date that this database becomes inoperative.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
ChartView
Data
APPENDICES
Figure 8-47 AUX – System Status Page, ChartView Current and Available
The ChartView database is obtained directly from Jeppesen. Refer to Updating Jeppesen Databases in
Appendix B for instructions on revising the ChartView database.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Other possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown in Figure 8-48. The EXPIRES date, in yellow,
is the revision date for the next database cycle. The DISABLES date, in yellow, is the date that this database
cycle is no longer viewable. CYCLE NOT AVAILABLE in blue, indicates no ChartView data is available on the
database card or no database card is inserted.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
ChartView has Expired, but is not Disabled
ChartView Database is Disabled
ChartView Database is Not Available
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-48 AUX – System Status Page, ChartView Database Status
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.4 FLITECHARTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FliteCharts resemble the paper version of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts. The charts are displayed
with high-resolution and in color for applicable charts. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft position on the
moving map in the planview of approach charts.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. An aircraft symbol may be displayed within an off-scale area
depicted on some charts.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Departure Procedures (DP)
EIS
Figure 8-49 shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, these areas are not shaded on
the published chart. These off-scale areas appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the
depicted geographical position of this information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual geographic
position. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is
relative to the chart planview, not to the off-scale area.
The FliteCharts database subscription is available from Garmin. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Approaches
• Airport Diagrams
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Off-Scale
Areas
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Off-Scale
Area
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Off-Scale
Areas
Off-Scale
Area
INDEX
Figure 8-49 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLITECHARTS SOFTKEYS
FliteCharts functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey displays the available terminal chart
and advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT OPT, CHRT, INFO, DP, STAR, APR, WX, and
GO BACK. The chart selection softkeys appear on the Airport Information Page.
EIS
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the available terminal chart and advances to the next level of
softkeys: ALL, FIT WDTH, FULL SCN, and BACK.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
While viewing the CHRT OPT Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
NOTAMs are not available with FliteCharts. The NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SHW CHRT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
CHRT OPT
CHRT
INFO-1
INFO-2
AFCS
ALL
DP
STAR
WX
APR
GO BACK
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey returns
to the top-level softkeys and previous page.
FIT WDTH
FULL SCN
BACK
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns
to the Chart Selection Softkeys.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-50 FliteCharts SHW CHRT, Chart Selection, and Chart Option Softkeys
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Nearest Airport Page, or Flight Plan Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the OPTIONS Menu to Show Chart.
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page OPTIONS Menu
Figure 8-51 Option Menus
AFCS
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner CHART NOT AVAILABLE appears on the screen.
The CHART NOT AVAILABLE banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability
of a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-52 Chart Not Available Banner
APPENDICES
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the banner
UNABLE TO DISPLAY CHART is then displayed.
INDEX
Figure 8-53 Unable To Display Chart Banner
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
When a chart is not available by selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts
may be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, selecting the
SHW CHRT Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is one associated with the WPT – Airport Information page. Usually this is the airport runway
diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are available, that
page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport is shown.
EIS
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Flight Plan Page, or Nearest Airports Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the Airport Information Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the Approach Box. (Select the APR Softkey
if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Approach Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
AFCS
Chart Not
To Scale
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
APPENDICES
Pan Entire
Chart With
the Joystick
INDEX
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-54 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
While the APPROACH Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. Once the desired chart is
selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart can be panned using the Joystick. Pressing the Joystick
centers the chart on the screen.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE.
Selecting the CHRT Softkey switches between the FliteCharts diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the CHRT Softkey switches between the Charlotte, NC (KCLT) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the WPT – Airport Information page.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Select CHRT Softkey
to Switch Between
FliteCharts and WPT Airport Information Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-55 CHRT Softkey, Airport Information Page
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram chart when the view is on a terminal
procedure chart. If the displayed chart is the airport diagram chart, pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey
returns to the Airport Information Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Another source for additional airport information is from the INFO Box above the chart (Figure 8-55) or to
the right of the chart (Figure 8-56) for certain airports. This information source is not related to the INFO-1 or
INFO-2 Softkey. When the INFO Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. The Charlotte,
NC airport has three additional charts offering information; the Airport Diagram, Alternate Minimums, and
Take-off Minimums.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Info Box
Selected
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-56 Airport Information Page, INFO View with Airport Information
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
In the example shown in Figure 8-56, TAKE OFF MINIMUMS is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays the
IFR Alternate Minimums Chart (Figure 8-57).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-57 Airport Information Page, ALTERNATE MINIMUMS Selected from INFO View
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selecting the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 8-58 Departure Information Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
Figure 8-59 Arrival Information Page
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pressing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available. The aircraft symbol is shown
on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft position is within the boundaries of the chart. The
aircraft symbol is not displayed when the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears. If the Chart Scale Box displays a
banner NOT TO SCALE, the aircraft symbol is not shown.
Figure 8-60 Approach Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, when available, and includes
weather data such as METAR and TAF from the XM Data Link Receiver. Weather information is available only
when an XM Data Link Receiver is installed and the SiriusXM Weather subscription is current.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting Additional Information:
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, select the WX Softkey to display the information windows (AIRPORT,
INFO).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the INFO Box.
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the INFO Box choices. When the INFO Box is selected the softkeys are blank.
If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to
complete the selection.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Info Available
on This Airport
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
WX Info
When
Available
AFCS
Chart Not
To Scale
Figure 8-61 Weather Information Page, WX Softkey Selected
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Softkeys are
Blank during
Info Box
Selection
WX Softkey
Selected
APPENDICES
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page or Flight Plan Page).
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CHART OPTIONS
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level (Figure 8-50).
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting the ALL Softkey shows the entire chart on the screen.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Entire Chart
Shown
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-62 Airport Information Page, ALL View Selected
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting the FIT WIDTH Softkey fits the width of the chart in the display viewing area. In the example
shown, the chart at close range is replaced with the full width chart.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Select FIT WDTH
Softkey to Show
Full Chart Width
Figure 8-63 Approach Information Page, FIT WDTH Softkey Selected
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting the FULL SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Select FULL SCN
Softkey to Switch
Between Full Screen
Chart and Chart with
Info Window
Figure 8-64 Airport Information Page, Full Screen and Info Window
INDEX
APPENDICES
Selecting the BACK Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the FULL SCREEN and COLOR SCHEME Options.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the On and Off Full Screen Options.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Chart Setup Option
Full Screen On/Off Selection
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-65 Page Menus
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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577
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FliteCharts can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a dark
environment. When the CHART SETUP Box is selected the softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-66 Waypoint Information Page, OPTIONS Menu
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the COLOR SCHEME Option (Figure 8‑67).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between Day, Auto, and Night Options.
AFCS
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
INDEX
APPENDICES
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the Chart Setup Menu.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-67 Approach Information Page, Day View
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-68 Approach Information Page, Night View
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLITECHARTS CYCLE NUMBER AND EXPIRATION DATE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FliteCharts data is revised every 28 days. Charts are still viewable during a period that extends from the cycle
expiration date to the disables date. FliteCharts is disabled 180 days after the expiration date and are no longer
available for viewing upon reaching the disables date. After the expiration date, the FliteCharts database is no
longer current, however, data displayed on the actual charts may still be current. When viewing charts after the
FliteCharts database has expired, ensure the displayed chart is current before using.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
When turning on the system, the Power-up Page displays the current status of the FliteCharts database. See
the table below for the various FliteCharts Power-up Page displays and the definition of each.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FliteCharts Database
Figure 8-69 Power-up Page, FliteCharts Database
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Blank Line. system is not configured for FliteCharts. Contact a Garminauthorized service center for configuration.
System is configured for FliteCharts but no chart database is installed.
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for the FliteCharts
database
Normal operation. FliteCharts database is valid and within current
cycle.
FliteCharts database is beyond the expiration date, but still within the
180 day viewing period.
FliteCharts database has timed out. Database is beyond 180 days
after expiration date. FliteCharts database is no longer available for
viewing.
Table 8-3 FliteCharts Power-up Page Annunciations and Definitions
INDEX
Other possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown in Figure 8-71. ‘FliteCharts Expires’ plus a
date in white, indicates the chart database is current. ‘Chart data is out of date!’ in yellow, indicates charts are
still viewable, but approaching the disable date.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When the 180 day grace period has expired, ‘Chart data is disabled.’ in yellow indicates that the FliteCharts
database has expired and is no longer viewable. ‘Chart Data: N/A’ appears in white if no FliteCharts data is
available on the database card or no database card is inserted.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FliteCharts time critical information can also be found on the AUX - System Status page. The FliteCharts
database REGION, CYCLE number, EFFECTIVE, EXPIRES, and DISABLES dates of the subscription appear in
either blue or yellow text. Dates shown in blue are current data. Dates shown in yellow indicate the data is not
within the current subscription period.
EIS
FliteCharts becomes inoperative 180 days after the FliteCharts EXPIRES date is reached, and is no longer
available for viewing. This date is shown as the DISABLES date. After the disable date the SHW CHRT Softkey
label appears subdued and is unavailable until a revised issue of FliteCharts is installed.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the FliteCharts database information is
shown.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The FliteCharts database cycle number shown in the figure, 1405, is deciphered as follows:
14 – Indicates the year 2014
05 – Indicates the fifth issue of the FliteCharts database for the year
The FliteCharts EFFECTIVE date 07–MAY–14 is the first date that this database is current.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The FliteCharts EXPIRES date 04–JUN–14 is the last date that this database is current.
The DISABLES date 01–DEC–14 is the date that this database becomes inoperative.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
FliteCharts
Data
INDEX
Figure 8-70 AUX – System Status Page, FliteCharts Current and Available
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The FliteCharts database is provided from Garmin. Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for
instructions on revising the FliteCharts database.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The other four possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown here. The EFFECTIVE date, in
yellow, indicates the current date preceeds the date the FliteCharts database becomes effective. The EXPIRES
date, in yellow, is the revision date for the next database cycle. The DISABLES date, in yellow, is the date that
this database cycle is no longer viewable. NOT AVAILABLE in blue, indicate the FliteCharts database is not
available on the database card or no database card is inserted.
FliteCharts Expired, but is not Disabled
FliteCharts Database is Disabled
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Current Date is Before Effective Date
FliteCharts Database is Not Available
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 8-71 AUX – System Status Page, FliteCharts Datbase Status
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.5 AIRPORT DIRECTORY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) and optional AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory databases
offer detailed information regarding services, hours of operation, lodging options, and more. This information
is viewed on the Airport Information Page by selecting the INFO Softkey until INFO-2 is displayed as shown in
Figure 8-72.
Both Airport Directories are available for downloading at flygarmin.com. However, copy only one of the
databases to the Supplemental Data Card. The system cannot recognize both databases simultaneously.
EIS
Selecting the Airport Directory Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT’ page group.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AIRPORT INFORMATION Page. Initially, information for the airport closest
to the aircraft’s present position is displayed.
3) If necessary, select the INFO softkey until INFO-2 is displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-72 AOPA Information on the Airport Information Page
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
AIRPORT DIRECTORY DATABASE CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Airport Directory databases are revised every 56 days. Check fly.garmin.com for the current database.
The Airport Directory is always available for use after the expiration date. When turning on the system, the
Power-up Page indicates whether the databases are current, out of date, or not available.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Airport Directory Database
Figure 8-73 Power-up Page, Airport Directory Database
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Normal operation. Airport Directory database is valid and within
current cycle.
Airport Directory database has expired.
AFCS
Database card contains no Airport Directory data.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 8-4 Airport Directory Annunciation Definitions
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The Airport Directory Region, Version, Cycle, Effective date and Expires date of the database cycle can also be
found on the AUX - System Status page, as seen in Figure 8-74.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the Airport Directory database information
is shown.
The Airport Directory database cycle number shown in the figure, 15D1, is deciphered as follows:
15 – Indicates the year 2015
D – Indicates the data is for Airport Directory
EIS
1 – Indicates the first issue of the Airport Directory database for the year
The Airport Directory EFFECTIVE date 13–JAN–15 is the beginning date for the current database cycle. The
Airport Directory EXPIRES date 10–MAR–15 is the revision date for the next database cycle.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Airport Directory
Data
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-74 AUX – System Status Page, Airport Directory Current Information
APPENDICES
Airport Directory information appears in blue and yellow text. The EFFECTIVE date appears in blue when
data is current and in yellow when the current date is before the effective date. The EXPIRES date appears in
blue when data is current and in yellow when expired (Table 8-4). NOT AVAILABLE appears in blue in the
REGION field if Airport Directory data is not available on the database card. An expired Airport Directory
database is not disabled and will continue to function indefinitely.
INDEX
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585
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.6 SATELLITE TELEPHONE AND SMS MESSAGING
NOTE: Separate accounts must be established to access the Iridium satellite network for voice and Garmin
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Connext for data transmission of maintenance reports.
The optional GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver provides Iridium Satellite Telephone service and SMS text messaging.
Iridium telephone and text messaging are available to the flight crew through the Multi-function Display, audio
panel and headset. The system provides a telephone handset interface to be used for voice communication
between the aircraft cabin and the cockpit and for Iridium telephone service in the aircraft cabin.
EIS
Operation of these features in the cockpit is accomplished through the AUX-TELEPHONE and AUX-TEXT
MESSAGING Pages. For operation using the cabin handset, consult the instructions provided with the handset.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
REGISTERING WITH GARMIN CONNEXT
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
A subscriber account must be established prior to using the Iridium Satellite System. Before setting up an
Iridium account, obtain the serial number of the Iridium Transceiver (GSR1, if installed) and the System ID by
selecting the AUX- SYSTEM STATUS Page as shown in Figure 8-75. Contact Garmin Connext at 1-866-739-5687
in the United States or 913-397-8200, ext. 1135.
APPENDICES
Iridium Transceiver Serial Number
System ID Number
INDEX
Figure 8-75 Identification Needed for Iridium Registration
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CONTACTS
Up to 250 names, telephone numbers, and email addresses may be entered and stored. These contacts may
be used to place telephone calls or send email and text messages.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Creating a new contact:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select SATELLITE PHONE.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-76 Contacts List
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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587
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
3) Create the new contact by using one of the following series of steps:
a) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘NEW ENTRY’ as seen in Figure 8-77.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
c) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-77 New Contact Entry
Or:
AFCS
a) Press the MENU Key on the MFD or MFD Controller to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Create New Contact’ as in Figure 8-78.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
c) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-78 Create a New Contact
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4) The cursor is displayed in the NAME field as shown in Figure 8-79. Use the FMS Knobs or the alphanumeric
keys on the MFD Controller to enter the contact name.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-79 Enter Contact Name
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the PHONE NUMBER field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs or the numeric keys on the MFD Controller to enter the telephone number.
7) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the EMAIL field.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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589
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8) Use the FMS Knobs or the numeric keys on the MFD Controller to enter the email address.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
9) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is displayed on the SAVE Button as in Figure 8-80.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-80 New Contact Entry
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
10) Press the ENT Key to save the new contact entry. The new contact is displayed in the SAVED CONTACTS List of
contacts as shown in Figure 8-81. Select CANCEL to delete the new entry.
Figure 8-81 Contact List Contains New Entry
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Edit a saved contact:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select SATELLITE PHONE.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact in the SAVED CONTACTS List.
5) Select the EDIT Softkey.
6) Use the FMS Knobs and/or the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller to edit the desired contact information.
EIS
7) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is displayed on the SAVE Button.
8) Press the ENT Key to save the changes.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION
The pilot or copilot can place and answer calls on the Iridium satellite network. Control and monitoring of
telephone functions are accomplished through the AUX-TELEPHONE Page.
Viewing the Telephone Page:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select SATELLITE PHONE.
3) If necessary, press the TEL Softkey to display the AUX-TELEPHONE Page.
AFCS
Internal
Phones
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Satellite
Signal
Strength
External
Phone
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The PHONE STATUS display, as shown in Figure 8-82, gives a graphical representation of the current
disposition of voice and/or data transmissions. Table 8-5 describes symbology used on Phone Status display.
APPENDICES
Figure 8-82 Phone Status Display
INDEX
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591
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Internal
Phone
External
Phone
Description
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Phone is Idle
Phone is ringing
EIS
Phone has a dial tone (off hook) or connected to another phone
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Phone dialed is busy
Phone is dialing another phone
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Phone has failed
Phone status not known
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Phone is disabled
Phone is reserved for data transmission
AFCS
Calling other phone or incoming call from other phone
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Other phone is on hold
Phones are connected
INDEX
APPENDICES
Table 8-5 Telephone Symbols
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENABLE/DISABLE THE IRIDIUM TELEPHONE SYSTEM
The Iridium Satellite Telephone System may be turned on or off by using the page menu.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 8-83 Enable Iridium Telephone System
To enable the Iridium telephone system:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) With the AUX-TELEPHONE Page displayed, select the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Enable Iridium Transmission’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
To disable the Iridium telephone system:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) With the AUX-TELEPHONE Page displayed, select the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable Iridium Transmission’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
AFCS
INCOMING CALLS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When viewing MFD pages other than the AUX-TELEPHONE Page, a pop-up alert similar to Figure 8-84
will be displayed and an aural alert “Incoming Call” will be heard. The pop-up alert may be inhibited at
times, such as during takeoff. In addition to the pop-up alert, a ringing phone symbol will be displayed to
the right of the MFD page title as shown in Figure 8-84. Also, the voice alert “Incoming Call” will be heard
on the selected cockpit audio.
APPENDICES
INDEX
Incoming Call Pop-up
Incoming Call Symbol on MFD Page
Figure 8-84 Incoming Call
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OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Answering an incoming call in the cockpit:
1) Press the
Key on the audio panel.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Select the ANSWER Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
While viewing the AUX-TELEPHONE Page:
NOTE: The Push-to-Talk switch is not utilized for telephone communication. The microphone is active after
EIS
selecting the ANSWER Softkey, and stays active until the call is terminated.
1) Press the
Key on the audio panel.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Answer Incoming Call’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selecting the IGNORE Softkey will extinguish the pop-up window and leave the current call unanswered.
Selecting the IGNRE ALL Softkey will extinguish the pop-up window for the current and all future incoming
calls and leave the current call unanswered. Selecting the TEL Softkey will display the AUX-TELEPHONE
Page allowing additional call information to be viewed before answering.
Disabling incoming call alerts:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) With the AUX-TELEPHONE Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable Incoming Call Alerts’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The voice and pop-up alert will not be displayed now when an incoming call is received.
OUTGOING CALLS
AFCS
Voice calls can be made from the cockpit to an external phone through the Iridium Satellite Network.
NOTE: The Push-to-Talk switch is not utilized for telephone communication. The microphone is active after
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
selecting the ANSWER Softkey, and stays active until the call is terminated.
Making a call by entering the number:
1) Press the
Key on the audio panel.
APPENDICES
2) Select the DIAL Softkey on the MFD. A display similar to Figure 8-85 will be shown.
INDEX
Or:
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
While viewing the AUX-TELEPHONE Page:
a) Press the
Key on the audio panel.
b) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
c) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Dial a Phone Call’.
d) Press the ENT Key.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-85 Enter Phone Number
AFCS
3) Enter the desired telephone number by selecting the number softkeys on the MFD or by pressing the numeric
keys on the MFD Control Unit. The International dialing sequence is necessary to place a call from the cockpit
to an external phone: Country Code + City/Area Code (if any) + Telephone Number.
The following country codes may be used when calling other satellite telephone systems.
Country Code
870
8810 or 8811
8812 or 8813
8816 or 8817
8818 or 8819
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Satellite System
Inmarsat
ICO
Ellipso
Iridium
Globalstar
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘OK’ is highlighted as in Figure 8-86.
Figure 8-86 Make the Call
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Press the ENT Key. The system will begin calling the number, as in Figure 8-87.
INDEX
Figure 8-87 System is Making the Connection
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When the phone is answered, the connection is established as shown in Figure 8-88. To exit the call, select
the HANGUP Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When numeric entries are required while a call is connected, such as selecting menu items like “dial zero to
get an operator”, select the KEYPAD Softkey to access the numeric softkeys.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-88 Phone is Answered, Connection Complete
Making a call by selecting a saved contact:
1) Press the
Key on the audio panel.
AFCS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact in the SAVED CONTACTS List.
Select the DIAL Softkey on the MFD.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Call Selected Contact’.
APPENDICES
c) Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
PLACING A CALL ON HOLD
Placing a call on hold:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Select the HOLD Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Put Current Call On Hold’.
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The cockpit phone is now isolated from the call as seen in Figure 8-89. Select the HOLD Softkey again to
resume the call.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-89 Cockpit Phone on Hold
TEXT MESSAGING (SMS)
APPENDICES
The pilot or copilot can send and receive text messages on the Iridium satellite network. Messages may be
sent to an email address or text message capable cellular telephone. Message length is limited to 160 characters,
including the email address.
The text messaging user interface is mainly through the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page.
Viewing the Text Messaging Page:
INDEX
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the SATELLITE PHONE.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3) If necessary, select the SMS Softkey to display the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page as shown in Figure 8-90.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-90 Text Messaging Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Message Symbol
Description
Received text message that has not been opened
AFCS
Received text message that has been opened
Saved text message, draft not sent
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
System is sending text message
Text message has been sent
APPENDICES
System failed to send text message
Predefined text message
Table 8-6 Text Message Symbols
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
VIEWING A TEXT MESSAGE WHEN RECEIVED
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When viewing MFD pages other than the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, a pop-up alert similar to Figure
8-91 will be displayed when a new text message is received.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
New Text Message Pop-up
New Text Message Symbol on MFD Page
Figure 8-91 New Text Message Received
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Select the VIEW Softkey to view the message (Figure 8-92). Selecting the IGNORE Softkey will extinguish
the pop-up window and leave the text message unopened. Selecting the IGNR ALL Softkey will extinguish
the pop-window and ignore all future incoming text messages. Selecting the SMS Softkey will display the
AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page.
INDEX
Figure 8-92 Text Message Displayed from Pop-Up Alert
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The pop-up alerts may be enabled or disabled through the Page Menu.
Enabling/disabling incoming text message pop-up alerts:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) With the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable New Message Popups’ or ‘Enable New Message
Popups’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The pop-up alert will not be displayed when an incoming text message is received.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-93 Disabling New Text Message Pop-Ups
REPLY TO A TEXT MESSAGE
After reading a text message, a reply may be sent.
AFCS
Replying to a text message:
While viewing the text message, select the REPLY Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Reply To Message’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
SENDING A TEXT MESSAGE
Text messages may be sent from the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page.
Sending a new text message:
INDEX
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the NEW Softkey.
Or:
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Message’.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
c) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-94 Composing a New Text Message
AFCS
2) The TEXT MESSAGE DRAFT Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘TO’ field. Enter the desired
telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used
to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by selecting the NUMBERS Softkey.
Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters. Special characters can be
accessed by selecting the SYMBOLS Softkey. See Figure 8-94.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘MESSAGE’ field.
4) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 2.
5) Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
6) Select the SEND Softkey to send the message immediately, or select the SAVE Softkey to save the message in
Outbox for sending at a later time. Select the CANCEL Softkey to delete the message.
PREDEFINED TEXT MESSAGES
INDEX
Time and effort can be saved in typing text messages that are used repeatedly by saving these messages as
a predefined message.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Creating a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 8-95 Creating/Editing Predefined Messages
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select ‘Edit Predefined Messages’ as shown in Figure 8-95.
3) Press the ENT Key. The PREDEFINED MESSAGES view is now displayed.
4) Select the NEW Softkey.
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Predefined Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The PREDEFINED SMS TEXT MESSAGE Window is now displayed as shown in Figure 8-96.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 8-96 Composing a Predefined Message
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5) The cursor is displayed in the ‘TITLE’ field. Enter the desired message title. Entry can be accomplished through
the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys
on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD
by selecting the NUMBERS Softkey. Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha
characters. Special characters can be accessed by selecting the SYMBOLS Softkey.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘MESSAGE’ field.
7) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 5.
8) Press the ENT Key.
EIS
9) Select the SAVE Softkey. The new predefined message is now shown in the displayed list. Selecting the
CANCEL Softkey will delete the message without saving.
10) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
11) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Stop Editing Predefined Message’.
12) Press the ENT Key.
Sending a predefined text message:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the NEW Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) The TEXT MESSAGE DRAFT Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘TO’ field. Enter the desired
telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used
to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by selecting the NUMBERS Softkey.
Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters. Special characters can be
accessed by selecting the SYMBOLS Softkey. See Figure 8-97.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘MESSAGE’ field (Figure 8-97).
Figure 8-97 Composing a New Text Message
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4) Select the PREDEFD Softkey. The PREDEFINED MESSAGE MENU Window is displayed as seen in Figure 8-98.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 8-98 Predefined Message List
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired predefined message.
6) Press the ENT Key. The predefined message text is inserted into the message field. If desired, the message can
be edited by using the FMS Knobs.
7) Press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) Select the SEND Softkey to transmit the message.
TEXT MESSAGE BOXES
AFCS
Received text messages reside in the Inbox as ‘Read’ or ‘Unread’ messages. The Outbox contains ‘Sent” and
‘Unsent’ text messages. Saved messages that are meant to be sent later are stored as Drafts. Each text message
box may be viewed separately, or together in any combination.
Showing Inbox messages:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the INBOX Softkey
(Figure 8-99).
Or:
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Inbox Messages’.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
Figure 8-99 Text Message Inbox
Showing Outbox messages:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the OUTBOX
Softkey.
AFCS
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Outbox Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
Showing Draft messages:
APPENDICES
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the DRAFTS
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Draft Messages’.
INDEX
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
606
Garmi