Garmin | G1000: Socata TBM 850 | Garmin G1000: Socata TBM 850 G1000 Pilot's Guide for TBM 850/900 - SSV 0719.16

Garmin G1000: Socata TBM 850 G1000 Pilot's Guide for TBM 850/900 - SSV 0719.16
G1000
®
Integrated Flight Deck
Pilot’s Guide
TBM 850 & TBM 900
Copyright © 2007, 2009-2012, 2014-2016 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 0719.16 or later for the Socata TBM 850/900. Some differences in operation may
be observed when comparing the information in this manual to earlier or later software versions.
Garmin International, Inc.
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Tel: 913.397.8200
Fax: 913.397.8282
Aircraft On Ground (AOG) Hotline: 913.397.0836
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Fax: 34.93.429.4484
Web Site Address: www.garmin.com
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April, 2016
190-00709-07 Rev. B
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
Printed in the U.S.A
Blank Page
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Navigation and terrain separation must NOT be predicated upon the use of the terrain avoidance
feature. The terrain avoidance feature is NOT intended to be used as a primary reference for terrain avoidance
and does not relieve the pilot from the responsibility of being aware of surroundings during flight. The
terrain avoidance feature is only to be used as an aid for terrain avoidance. Terrain data is obtained from
third party sources. Garmin is not able to independently verify the accuracy of the terrain data.
WARNING: The displayed minimum safe altitudes (MSAs) are only advisory in nature and should not be
relied upon as the sole source of obstacle and terrain avoidance information. Always refer to current
aeronautical charts for appropriate minimum clearance altitudes.
WARNING: Do not use outdated database information. Databases used in the system must be updated
regularly in order to ensure that the information remains current. Pilots using any outdated database do so
entirely at their own risk.
WARNING: Do not use basemap (land and water data) information for primary navigation. Basemap data
is intended only to supplement other approved navigation data sources and should be considered as an aid
to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate information
from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
WARNING: Do not rely on information from the lightning detection system display as the sole basis for
hazard weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate
or incomplete information. Refer to the documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer
for detailed information about the system.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
i
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: The system, as installed in the Socata TBM 850/900 aircraft, has a very high degree of functional
integrity. However, the pilot must recognize that providing monitoring and/or self-test capability for all
conceivable system failures is not practical. Although unlikely, it may be possible for erroneous operation
to occur without a fault indication shown by the system. It is thus the responsibility of the pilot to detect
such an occurrence by means of cross-checking with all redundant or correlated information available in the
cockpit.
WARNING: For safety reasons, system operational procedures must be learned on the ground.
WARNING: The United States government operates the Global Positioning System and is solely responsible
for its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy and
performance of all GPS equipment. Portions of the system utilize GPS as a precision electronic NAVigation
AID (NAVAID). Therefore, as with all NAVAIDs, information presented by the system can be misused or
misinterpreted and, therefore, become unsafe.
WARNING: Lamp(s) inside this product may contain mercury (HG) and must be recycled or disposed of
according to local, state, or federal laws. For more information, refer to our website at www.garmin.com/
aboutGarmin/environment/disposal.jsp.
WARNING: To reduce the risk of unsafe operation, carefully review and understand all aspects of the Pilot’s
Guide documentation and the Socata TBM 850/900 Airplane Flight Manual. Thoroughly practice basic
operation prior to actual use. During flight operations, carefully compare indications from the system to all
available navigation sources, including the information from other NAVAIDs, visual sightings, charts, etc. For
safety purposes, always resolve any discrepancies before continuing navigation.
WARNING: The illustrations in this guide are only examples. Never use the system to attempt to penetrate
a thunderstorm. Both the FAA Advisory Circular, Subject: Thunderstorms, and the Aeronautical Information
Manual (AIM) recommend avoiding “by at least 20 miles any thunderstorm identified as severe or giving an
intense radar echo.”
WARNING: Because of variation in the earth’s magnetic field, operating the system within the following
areas could result in loss of reliable attitude and heading indications. North of 72° North latitude at all
longitudes. South of 70° South latitude at all longitudes. North of 65° North latitude between longitude
75° W and 120° W. (Northern Canada). North of 70° North latitude between longitude 70° W and 128° W.
(Northern Canada). North of 70° North latitude between longitude 85° E and 114° E. (Northern Russia).
South of 55° South latitude between longitude 120° E and 165° E. (Region south of Australia and New
Zealand).
WARNING: Do not use GPS to navigate to any active waypoint identified as a ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ by a
system message. ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ waypoints are derived from an unknown map reference datum
that may be incompatible with the map reference datum used by GPS (known as WGS84) and may be
positioned in error as displayed.
ii
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not operate properly
with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height above mean sea level, or the
standard pressure setting, as applicable.
CAUTION: The PFD and MFD displays use a lens coated with a special anti-reflective coating that is very
sensitive to skin oils, waxes, and abrasive cleaners. CLEANERS CONTAINING AMMONIA WILL HARM THE
ANTI-REFLECTIVE COATING. It is very important to clean the lens using a clean, lint-free cloth and an
eyeglass lens cleaner that is specified as safe for anti-reflective coatings.
CAUTION: The system does not contain any user-serviceable parts. Repairs should only be made by an
authorized Garmin service center. Unauthorized repairs or modifications could void both the warranty and
the pilot’s authority to operate this device under FAA/FCC regulations.
NOTE: All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen images of the panel and
displays, are subject to change and may not reflect the most current system and databases. Depictions of
equipment may differ slightly from the actual equipment.
NOTE: This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any
interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
NOTE: The data contained in the terrain and obstacle databases comes from government agencies. Garmin
accurately processes and cross-validates the data, but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of
the data.
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals known to the State of California
to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This notice is being provided in accordance with
California’s Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would like additional information, please refer to
our web site at www.garmin.com/prop65.
NOTE: Interference from GPS repeaters operating inside nearby hangars can cause an intermittent loss of
attitude and heading displays while the aircraft is on the ground. Moving the aircraft more than 100 yards
away from the source of the interference should alleviate the condition.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
iii
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: Operating the system in the vicinity of metal buildings, metal structures, or electromagnetic fields can
cause sensor differences that may result in nuisance miscompare annunciations during start up, shut down,
or while taxiing. If one or both of the sensed values are unavailable, it will be annunciated as a ‘NO COMP’
(no compare).
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the flight displays to appear dim or blank.
NOTE: The FAA has asked Garmin to remind pilots who fly with Garmin database-dependent avionics of the
following:
• It is the pilot’s responsibility to remain familiar with all FAA regulatory and advisory guidance and information
related to the use of databases in the National Airspace System.
• Garmin equipment will only recognize and use databases that are obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen. Databases
obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen are assured compliance with all data quality requirements (DQRs) by virtue of a
Type 2 Letter of Authorization (LOA) from the FAA. A copy of the Type 2 LOA is available for each database and can
be viewed at http://fly.garmin.com by selecting ‘Type 2 LOA Status.’
• Use of a current Garmin or Jeppesen database in your Garmin equipment is required for compliance with established
FAA regulatory guidance, but does not constitute authorization to fly any and all terminal procedures that may
be presented by the system. It is the pilot’s responsibility to operate in accordance with established AFM(S) and
regulatory guidance or limitations as applicable to the pilot, the aircraft, and installed equipment.
NOTE: The pilot/operator must review and be familiar with Garmin’s database exclusion list as discussed in
SAIB CE-14-04 to determine what data may be incomplete. The database exclusion list can be viewed at www.
flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Database Exclusions List.’
NOTE: The pilot/operator must have access to Garmin and Jeppesen database alerts and consider their impact
on the intended aircraft operation. The database alerts can be viewed at www.flygarmin.com by selecting
‘Aviation Database Alerts.’
NOTE: If the pilot/operator wants or needs to adjust the database, contact Garmin Product Support to coordinate
the revised DQRs.
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information. These
discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles and fixes;
or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go to FlyGarmin.
com and select ‘Report An Aviation Data Error Report.’
iv
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
REVISION INFORMATION
Record of Revisions
Part Number
190-00709-01
Revision
A
Date
7/7/08
Page Range
All
190-00709-02
A
5/5/09
All
Added new page selection presentation
Added import/export flight plans
Added flight data logging
Added other GDU 9.14 parameters.
190-00709-03
B
A
7/30/09
4/10
53
All
Corrected discussion of setting Selected Altitude
Added GDU 11.01 parameters.
Added GTS 820
Added AOPA Airport Directory
Added dual navigation database capability
Added database synchronization
B
6/10
Page 7
Pages 411-413
Pages 106, 558
Page 579
Updated System Configuration Diagram
Added Flight ID discussion for GTS 820 Traffic Page
Added NG HI CAS message
Added “Airspeed, Airspeed” and GTS 820 aural alerts
A
10/11
All
Added Profile View
Added Standby Navigation Database
Added new database update procedures
Added Iridium Satellite Telephone & SMS messaging
Added GFDS Worldwide Weather
Added WX LGND, LEGEND, and METAR softkeys
Updated system messages
Added other GDU 12.01 parameters
190-00709-04
Description
Added Synthetic Vision System and other GDU 9.02 parameters
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
v
REVISION INFORMATION
Record of Revisions
Part Number
190-00709-05
190-00709-06
vi
Revision
A
Date
1/14
Page Range
All
Description
Added Maintenance Log feature
Added Auxiliary Video
Added CPDLC
Added AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory
Added User Defined Holding Patterns
Added temperature compensated altitude
Changed GFDS Weather to Connext™ Weather
Changed XM to SiriusXM
Changed Synthetic Vision System (SVS) to Synthetic Vision
Technology (SVT)
Added other GDU 14.01 parameters
B
2/14
All
Clerical
C
1/15
All
Added database use notes
Changed vacuum low pressure CAS message description
Changed oil pressure CAS message description
Added import/export of Pilot Profiles
Added discussion regarding system behavior when
automatically switching from GPS to LOC
Updated weather radar precipitation intensity table
Added QFE altimeter setting warning
D
A
1/15
11/15
All
All
Clerical
Updated Warnings, Cautions, and Notes
Added Flight Stream 210
Added Radar Altimeter
Added Nexrad C/Nexrad B
Added ADS-B Out
Added Smart Airspace
Added GDU 15.00 parameters
Updated CAS Messages
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
REVISION INFORMATION
Record of Revisions
Part Number
190-00709-07
Revision
A
Date
4/16
Page Range
All
B
4/16
All
Description
Added GDU 15.11 parameters
Added support for AOA indicator
Updated AFCS information
Added Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™)
Added Emergency Descent Mode (EDM)
Added Underspeed Protection (USP)
Updated Nexrad information
Updated CAS Messages
Updated Softkey Maps
Added Altitude Compensated Tilt information
Updated Database Procedures
Added Datalink Receiver Messages
Clerical
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
vii
REVISION INFORMATION
Blank Page
viii
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Description.................................................. 1
Line Replaceable Units (LRU).................................. 2
G1000 Controls......................................................... 8
PFD Controls................................................................. 8
Controls Associated With the MFD................................ 10
AFCS Controls............................................................. 11
Audio Panel Controls................................................... 13
Secure Digital Cards.............................................. 15
System Power-up.................................................... 16
System Operation................................................... 17
Normal Operation........................................................ 17
Reversionary Mode...................................................... 18
G1000 System Annunciations....................................... 21
Softkey Function.......................................................... 22
GPS Receiver Operation............................................... 30
Accessing G1000 Functionality............................ 35
Menus........................................................................ 35
MFD Page Groups........................................................ 35
MFD System Pages...................................................... 41
Display Backlighting.............................................. 53
Automatic Adjustment................................................. 53
Manual Adjustment..................................................... 53
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 Flight Instruments.................................................. 58
Airspeed Indicator....................................................... 58
Attitude Indicator........................................................ 60
Altimeter.................................................................... 61
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)........................................ 65
Vertical Deviation........................................................ 65
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............................... 66
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)................................... 71
Angle of Attack (AOA) Indicator.................................... 79
2.2 Supplemental Flight Data..................................... 80
Temperature Displays................................................... 80
Wind Data.................................................................. 82
Vertical Navigation (VNV) Indications............................ 83
2.3 PFD Annunciations and Alerting Functions......... 84
System Alerting........................................................... 84
Marker Beacon Annunciations...................................... 85
Traffic Annunciation..................................................... 85
Terrain Annunciations.................................................. 86
Altitude Alerting.......................................................... 87
Low Altitude Annunciation........................................... 87
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height Alerting....... 88
Radar Altimeter........................................................... 89
2.4 Abnormal Operations............................................ 91
Abnormal GPS Conditions............................................ 91
Heading Failure Modes................................................ 92
Unusual Attitudes........................................................ 92
SECTION 3 ENGINE AND AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
3.1 Engine Indication System (EIS)............................. 97
Engine Parameters....................................................... 98
Cabin Pressurization.................................................. 100
Fuel Information........................................................ 102
Electrical Information................................................. 102
Trim and Flap Indicators............................................. 103
3.2 Synoptics............................................................... 104
Electrical System........................................................ 106
Fuel System............................................................... 109
General Systems........................................................ 111
3.3 Crew Alerting System (CAS)................................ 112
CAS Messages and Prioritization................................. 113
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 Overview............................................................... 115
Audio Panel Volume Control....................................... 115
PFD Controls and Frequency Display............................ 116
Audio Panel Controls................................................. 118
4.2 COM Operation..................................................... 120
COM Transceiver Selection and Activation.................... 120
COM Transceiver Manual Tuning................................. 121
Quick-Tuning and Activating 121.500 MHz................... 122
Auto-Tuning the COM Frequency................................. 123
Frequency Spacing..................................................... 128
Automatic Squelch..................................................... 129
Volume..................................................................... 129
4.3 Controller Pilot Data Link Communications
(CPDLC).................................................................. 130
CPDLC Session Overview............................................ 130
CPDLC System Status................................................. 130
CPDLC Message Status Icons...................................... 131
Connecting to the CPDLC System................................ 132
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Creating a Message................................................... 135
Responding to an ATC Message.................................. 137
Viewing an ATC Message........................................... 138
Viewing CPDLC Message Dialogs................................ 138
Deleting Message Dialogs.......................................... 139
Disconnecting from the CPDLC System........................ 140
Enabling/Disabling Data Mode.................................... 140
CPDLC System Failure................................................ 140
4.4 NAV Operation...................................................... 141
NAV Radio Selection and Activation............................ 141
NAV Receiver Manual Tuning...................................... 142
Auto-Tuning a NAV Frequency from the MFD............... 144
Marker Beacon Receiver............................................. 149
ADF/DME Tuning....................................................... 150
4.5 Mode S Transponders........................................... 154
Transponder Controls................................................. 155
Transponder Mode Selection....................................... 156
Entering a Transponder Code...................................... 158
IDENT Function......................................................... 159
Flight ID Reporting.................................................... 160
4.6 Additional Audio Panel Functions...................... 161
Power-Up.................................................................. 161
Mono/Stereo Headsets............................................... 161
Speaker.................................................................... 161
Intercom................................................................... 162
Passenger Address (PA) System................................... 163
Simultaneous COM Operation..................................... 163
Clearance Recorder and Player.................................... 164
Entertainment Inputs................................................. 165
4.7 Audio Panels Preflight Procedure....................... 166
4.8 Abnormal Operation............................................ 168
Stuck Microphone...................................................... 168
COM Tuning Failure.................................................... 168
PFD Failure................................................................ 169
Audio Panel Fail-Safe Operation.................................. 170
Reversionary Mode.................................................... 170
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 Introduction.......................................................... 171
Navigation Status Box................................................ 172
5.2 Using Map Displays.............................................. 174
Map Orientation........................................................ 174
Map Range............................................................... 176
x
Map Panning............................................................. 178
Measuring Bearing and Distance................................. 184
Topography............................................................... 185
Map Symbols............................................................ 188
Airways.................................................................... 194
Track Vector.............................................................. 196
Wind Vector.............................................................. 197
Nav Range Ring........................................................ 198
Fuel Range Ring........................................................ 199
Field of View (SVT)..................................................... 200
Selected Altitude Intercept Arc.................................... 201
5.3 Waypoints.............................................................. 202
Airports.................................................................... 203
Intersections............................................................. 210
NDBs........................................................................ 212
VORs........................................................................ 214
VRPs........................................................................ 216
User Waypoints......................................................... 218
5.4 Airspaces............................................................... 224
5.5 Direct-to-Navigation ........................................... 229
5.6 Flight Planning...................................................... 235
Flight Plan Creation................................................... 236
Adding Waypoints to an Existing Flight Plan................. 244
Adding Airways to a Flight Plan.................................. 246
Adding Procedures to a Stored Flight Plan................... 249
Flight Plan Storage.................................................... 256
Flight Plan Editing..................................................... 258
Along Track Offsets.................................................... 262
Parallel Track............................................................. 263
Activating a Flight Plan Leg........................................ 266
Inverting a Flight Plan................................................ 267
Flight Plan Views....................................................... 268
Closest Point of FPL................................................... 270
User-Defined Holding Patterns.................................... 271
5.7 Vertical Navigation.............................................. 276
Altitude Constraints................................................... 278
5.8 Procedures............................................................ 282
Departures................................................................ 283
Arrivals .................................................................... 286
Approaches .............................................................. 289
5.9 Trip Planning......................................................... 297
Trip Planning............................................................. 297
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Weight Planning........................................................ 301
Weight Caution And Warning Conditions..................... 303
5.10 RAIM Prediction................................................... 304
5.11 Navigating a Flight Plan...................................... 308
5.12 Abnormal Operation............................................ 337
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SiriusXM Weather................................................. 340
Activating Services..................................................... 340
Using SiriusXM Weather Products............................... 342
Weather Softkeys on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.346
SiriusXM Weather Abnormal Operations...................... 376
Garmin Connext Weather.................................... 378
Registering the Iridium Satellite System....................... 378
Registering Garmin Connext Weather.......................... 379
Accessing Garmin Connext Weather Products............... 380
Connext Data Requests.............................................. 388
Garmin Connext Weather Products.............................. 392
Abnormal Operations................................................. 408
Airborne Color Weather Radar........................... 410
System Description.................................................... 410
Principles of Pulsed Airborne Weather Radar................ 410
Safe Operating Distance............................................. 414
Basic Antenna Tilt Setup............................................. 415
Weather Mapping and Interpretation.......................... 417
Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page.... 429
System Status............................................................ 430
Stormscope........................................................... 432
Setting Up Stormscope on the Navigation Map............ 432
Selecting the Stormscope Page................................... 436
Terrain Proximity.................................................. 438
Displaying Terrain Proximity Data................................ 438
Terrain Proximity Page................................................ 441
Terrain-SVS............................................................ 443
Displaying Terrain-SVS Data........................................ 444
Terrain-SVS Page....................................................... 446
Terrain-SVS Alerts...................................................... 448
System Status............................................................ 451
TAWS-B.................................................................. 453
Displaying TAWS-B Data............................................. 454
TAWS-B Alerts........................................................... 458
System Status............................................................ 465
6.8 Profile View Terrain.............................................. 467
Profile View Display................................................... 468
6.9 Traffic Information Service (TIS)......................... 471
Displaying TRAFFIC Data............................................ 472
Traffic Map Page........................................................ 474
TIS Alerts.................................................................. 475
System Status............................................................ 477
6.10 GTS 820 Traffic...................................................... 479
Theory of operation................................................... 479
TAS Alerts................................................................. 482
System Test............................................................... 483
Operation................................................................. 484
6.11 KTA 870 Traffic...................................................... 492
TAS Symbology.......................................................... 492
Operation................................................................. 493
Altitude Display......................................................... 496
Traffic Map Page Display Range.................................. 496
TAS Alerts................................................................. 498
System Status............................................................ 498
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Basic Autopilot Operation........................................... 502
7.1 AFCS Controls....................................................... 503
7.2 Flight Director Operation.................................... 505
Activating the Flight Director...................................... 505
AFCS Status Box........................................................ 506
Flight Director Modes................................................. 507
Switching Flight Directors........................................... 507
Command Bars.......................................................... 508
Level Mode............................................................... 508
7.3 Vertical Modes...................................................... 509
Pitch Hold Mode (PIT)................................................ 510
Selected Altitude Capture Mode (ALTS)........................ 511
Altitude Hold Mode (ALT)........................................... 512
Vertical Speed Mode (VS)........................................... 513
Flight Level Change Mode (FLC).................................. 514
Vertical Navigation Modes (VPTH, ALTV)...................... 516
Glidepath Mode (GP)................................................. 520
Glideslope Mode (GS)................................................ 522
Takeoff (TO) and Go Around (GA) Modes..................... 523
7.4 Lateral Modes....................................................... 524
Roll Hold Mode (ROL)................................................ 525
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
xi
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Low Bank Mode........................................................ 525
Heading Select Mode (HDG)....................................... 526
Navigation Modes (GPS, VOR, LOC)............................. 526
Approach Modes (GPS, VAPP, LOC).............................. 528
Backcourse Mode (BC)............................................... 530
Intercepting and Flying a DME Arc.............................. 530
7.5 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Operation.............. 531
Flight Control............................................................ 531
Engagement.............................................................. 532
Control Wheel Steering.............................................. 532
Disengagement......................................................... 533
7.6 Example Flight Plan............................................. 534
Departure................................................................. 534
Intercepting a VOR Radial........................................... 536
Flying a Flight Plan/GPS Course.................................. 537
Descent.................................................................... 538
Approach.................................................................. 541
Go Around/Missed Approach...................................... 544
7.7 AFCS Annunciations and Alerts.......................... 546
AFCS Status Alerts..................................................... 546
7.8 Abnormal Operation............................................ 547
Suspected Autopilot malfunction................................. 547
Overpowering Autopilot Servos................................... 547
Overspeed Protection................................................. 548
Underspeed Protection............................................... 548
Emergency Descent Mode.......................................... 550
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
xii
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT)...................... 554
SVT Operation........................................................... 555
SVT Features............................................................. 557
Field of View............................................................. 566
SafeTaxi® .............................................................. 568
SafeTaxi Cycle Number and Revision........................... 571
ChartView.............................................................. 574
ChartView Softkeys.................................................... 575
Terminal Procedures Charts........................................ 576
Chart Options............................................................ 584
Day/Night View......................................................... 590
ChartView Cycle Number and Expiration Date.............. 592
FliteCharts® .......................................................... 594
FliteCharts Softkeys................................................... 596
Terminal Procedures Charts........................................ 597
Chart Options............................................................ 604
Day/Night View......................................................... 607
FliteCharts Cycle Number and Expiration Date.............. 609
8.5 Airport Directory.................................................. 612
Airport Directory Database Cycle Number and Revision.613
8.6 SiriusXM Radio Entertainment........................... 614
Activating SiriusXM Satellite Radio Services................. 615
Using SiriusXM Radio................................................. 616
8.7 Scheduler............................................................... 620
8.8 Electronic Checklists............................................ 622
8.9 Flight Data Logging............................................. 626
8.10 Satellite Telephone and SMS Messaging........... 628
Registering the Iridium Satellite System....................... 628
Disable/Enable Iridium Transceiver.............................. 629
Telephone Communication......................................... 630
Text Messaging (SMS)................................................ 643
8.11 Maintenance Logs................................................ 655
8.12 Auxiliary Video (Optional)................................... 656
Video Setup.............................................................. 657
Display Selection....................................................... 657
Input Selection.......................................................... 658
Zoom/Range............................................................. 659
8.13 Electronic Stability & Protection (ESP™)............ 660
Roll Engagement....................................................... 661
Pitch Engagement..................................................... 662
Angle of Attack Protection.......................................... 664
High Airspeed Protection............................................ 664
8.14 Bluetooth® Management.................................... 665
8.15 Abnormal Operation............................................ 667
SVT Troubleshooting.................................................. 667
Reversionary Mode.................................................... 667
Unusual Attitudes...................................................... 668
APPENDICES
Annunciations and Alerts.............................................. 671
CAS Messages........................................................... 671
Comparator Annunciations......................................... 674
Reversionary Sensor Annunciations............................. 675
System Annunciations................................................ 676
Message Advisories................................................... 679
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
TABLE OF CONTENTS
AFCS Alerts............................................................... 693
Terrain-SVT Alerts...................................................... 694
TAWS-B ALERTS......................................................... 695
Other G1000 Aural Alerts........................................... 696
Flight Plan Import/Export Messages............................ 697
GDL 69/GDL 69A/GDL 69A SXM Data Link
Receiver Messages.................................................... 698
Database Management................................................. 699
Navigation Databases................................................ 699
Jeppesen Chartview Database Update......................... 703
Garmin Databases..................................................... 704
Garmin Aviation Glossary............................................. 711
Frequently Asked Questions......................................... 721
Map Symbols.................................................................. 725
INDEX
Index .................................................................................I-1
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
This section is designed to provide an overview of the G1000 Integrated Flight Deck. The G1000 system is an
integrated flight control system that presents flight instrumentation, position, navigation, communication, and
identification information to the pilot through large-format displays. The system consists of the following Line
Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• GDU 1040A Primary Flight Display (PFD)
• GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver (optional)
• GDU 1500 Multi Function Display (MFD)
• GCU 475 MFD Control Unit
• GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Unit
• GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
• GDC 74B Air Data Computer (ADC)
• GTS 820 Traffic Avoidance System (optional)
• GEA 71 Engine/Airframe Unit
• GA 58 Directional Antenna
• GRS 77 Attitude and Heading Reference System
(AHRS)
• GA 36 and GA 37 GPS/SBAS Antennas
• GMU 44 Magnetometer
• GSM 85/86 Servo Gearboxes
• GMA 1347D Cabin Dual Audio System with
Integrated Marker Beacon Receiver
• GTA 82 Trim Adapter
• GTX 33/33D w/ES Mode S Transponder
• GRA 55 – Provides altitude above the ground to the
PFD, through the GIA 63W, via HSDB connection.
• GDL 69A or GDL 69SXM Data Link (optional)
• GWX 68 or GWX 70 Weather Radar (optional)
• GSA 81 AFCS Servos
• Flight Stream 210 Wireless Bluetooth® Gateway
• GDR 66 VHF Data Link Transceiver (optional)
A top-level G1000 system block diagram is shown in Figure 1-1 (it does not include the GA 36, GA 37, GA 58,
or GSM 85/86).
NOTE: Refer to the AFCS section for details on the Garmin AFCS.
In the aircraft, the Garmin Automated Flight Control System (AFCS) provides the Flight Director (FD), Autopilot
(AP), and Yaw Damper (YD) functions of the G1000 system.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.2 LINE REPLACEABLE UNITS (LRU)
• GDU 1040A – Each unit is configured as a PFD that features a 10.4-inch LCD with 1024 x 768 resolution.
The unit installed on the left/pilot side is designated as PFD1, and the one installed on the right/copilot side
is designated as PFD2. These units communicate with each other, the MFD, and with the on-side GIA 63W
Integrated Avionics Unit through a High-Speed Data Bus (HSDB) connection.
• GDU 1500 – Features a 15-inch LCD with 1024 x 768 resolution and is configured as an MFD. This unit is
linked to both PFDs via HSDB connection.
• GIA 63W – Functions as the main communication hub, linking all LRUs with the on-side PFD. Each GIA 63W
contains a GPS SBAS receiver, VHF COM/NAV/GS receivers, a flight director (FD) and system integration
microprocessors. Each GIA 63W is paired with the on-side PFD via HSDB connection. The GIA 63Ws are not
paired together and do not communicate with each other directly.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• GDC 74B – Processes data from the pitot/static system as well as the OAT probe. This unit provides pressure
altitude, airspeed, vertical speed and OAT information to the G1000 system, and it communicates with the onside GIA 63W, on-side GDU 1040A and on-side GRS 77, using an ARINC 429 digital interface (it also interfaces
directly with the OAT). The GDC 74B is designed to operate in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM)
airspace.
• GEA 71 – Receives and processes signals from the engine and airframe sensors. This unit communicates with
both GIA 63Ws using an RS-485 digital interface.
• GRS 77 – Provides aircraft attitude and heading information via ARINC 429 to both the on-side GDU 1040A
and the on-side GIA 63W. The GRS 77 contains advanced sensors (including accelerometers and rate sensors)
and interfaces with the on-side GMU 44 to obtain magnetic field information, with the GDC 74B to obtain air
data, and with both GIA 63Ws to obtain GPS information. AHRS modes of operation are discussed later in this
document.
• GMU 44 – Measures local magnetic field. Data is sent to the GRS 77 for processing to determine aircraft
magnetic heading. This unit receives power directly from the GRS 77 and communicates with the GRS 77,
using an RS-485 digital interface.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• GMA 1347D Cabin – Integrates NAV/COM digital audio, intercom system and marker beacon controls, and
is installed in dual configuration on the outboard side of PFD1 and PFD2. This unit also enables the manual
control of the display reversionary mode (red DISPLAY BACKUP button) and communicates with the on-side
GIA 63W, using an RS-232 digital interface.
• GTX 33 (1) and GTX 33D w/ES (1) – Solid-state transponders that provide Modes A, C, S, and optional
ADS-B out capability. The GTX 33D includes Mode S with diversity and is indicated as ‘XPDR2’. The GTX
33 is indicated as ‘XPDR1’. Both transponders can be controlled from either PFD, and only one transponder
can be active at a time. Each transponder communicates with the on-side GIA 63W through an RS-232 digital
interface.
• GDL 69A or GDL 69A SXM – A satellite radio receiver that provides real-time weather information to the
G1000 MFD (and, indirectly, to the inset map of the PFD) as well as digital audio entertainment. The Data Link
Receiver communicates with the MFD via HSDB connection. A subscription to the SiriusXM Satellite Radio
service is required to enable the GDL 69A capability.
• GDR 66 – Provides Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) connectivity. GDR 66 operation is
performed with the MFD through the HSDB. Connectivity with the GDR 66 is through the RS-422 bus.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• GSR 56 – The Iridium Transceiver operation for voice communication is by means of pilot and copilot headsets
in the cockpit. The system is also capable of SMS text messaging. Connection to the system is through the RS232 bus.
• GWX 68 or GWX 70 – Provides airborne weather and ground mapped radar data to the MFD, through the GDL
69A or directly linked to the MFD, via HSDB connection.
• GTS 820 – The GTS 820 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) uses active interrogations of Mode S and Mode C
transponders to provide Traffic Advisories to the pilot independent of the air traffic control system.
• GCU 475 – Provides the Flight Management System (FMS) controls for the MFD through an RS-232 digital
interface.
• GMC 710 – Provides the controls for the Garmin AFCS through an RS-232 digital interface allowing
communication with both PFDs.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• GSA 81, and GSM 85/86 – The GSA 81 servos are used for the automatic control of roll, yaw, pitch, and pitch
trim. These units interface with each GIA 63W.
The GSM 85/86 servo gearbox is responsible for transferring the output torque of the GSA 81 servo actuator to
the mechanical flight-control surface linkage.
• GTA 82 – The GTA 82 Trim Adapter is a remote mounted device that is used to allow the AFCS to drive the yaw
trim actuator.
• GA 36 and GA 37 – The GA 36 is a through-mount GPS/SBAS antenna. The GA 37 is a through-mount GPS/
SBAS antenna with SiriusXM/Datalink.
GA 36
GA 37
• GA 58 – The GA 58 is directional antenna for the Traffic Avoidance System. One top-mounted directional
antenna is required. Optional bottom mounted antenna offers better threat visibility.
• Flight Stream 210 – The Flight Stream 210 is optional and provides wireless Bluetooth connectivity between a
compatible tablet/mobile device and the avionics system.
• GRA 55 – The optional Radar Altimeter provides altitude above the ground information and rate of change of
radar altitude information.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GMC 710
GTS 820
GWX 68 or 70
GCU 475
GDU 1040A
(PFD #1)
GDU 1040A
GDL 69A or
69A SXM
(PFD #2)
FS 210
GDU 1500
(MFD)
GMA
1347D Cabin
#1
GMA
1347D Cabin
#2
GMU 44 #1
GMU 44 #2
GRS 77 #1
GRS 77 #2
GIA 63W #1
VHF COM
VHF NAV/LOC
GPS/WAAS
G/S
GDC 74B #1
GIA 63W #2
GTA 82
(Trim Adapter)
OAT Probe
GSA 81
(Pitch Trim)
AFCS Mode Logic
Flight Director
Servo Management
GDC 74B #2
OAT Probe
GSA 81
GRA 55
GTX 33D
GDR 66
VHF COM
VHF NAV/LOC
GPS/WAAS
G/S
AFCS Mode Logic
Flight Director
Servo Management
(Pitch)
AOA Computer
GSA 81
(Roll)
GTX 33
GSA 81
(Yaw)
GSR 56
GEA 71 #1
GEA 71 #2
Figure 1-1 Example G1000 System (LRU Configuration)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.3 G1000 CONTROLS
NOTE: The Audio Panel (GMA 1347D Cabin) and AFCS controls (GMC 710) are described in the CNS & Audio
Panel and AFCS sections respectively.
The G1000 system controls are located on the PFD and MFD bezels, MFD Control Unit, AFCS Control Unit and
audio panel. The controls for the PFD and MFD are discussed within the following pages of this section.
PFD CONTROLS
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
8
Figure 1-2 PFD Controls
9
13
10
14
11
15
12
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
The following list provides an overview of the controls located on the PFD bezel (see Figure 1-2).
1
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to switch the Morse code identifier audio
ON and OFF. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Switches the standby and active NAV frequencies.
3
Dual NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Press to switch the tuning box (cyan box) between NAV1 and NAV2.
4
Joystick – Changes the map range when rotated. Activates the map pointer when pressed.
5
BARO Knob – Sets the altimeter barometric pressure. Press to enter standard pressure (29.92in/1013 Hpa).
6
Dual COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small
knob for kHz). Press to switch the tuning box (cyan box) between COM1 and COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Switches the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this
key for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency
field as a percentage. Press to turn the COM automatic squelch ON and OFF.
9
Direct-to Key ( ) – Allows the user to enter a destination waypoint and establish a direct course to the
selected destination (the destination is either specified by the identifier, chosen from the active route, or
taken from the map pointer position).
10
FPL Key – Displays the active Flight Plan Page for creating and editing the active flight plan.
11
CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes page menus.
12
Dual FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob. Press the FMS Knob to turn the selection cursor
ON and OFF. When the cursor is ON, data may be entered in the applicable window by turning the small
and large knobs. The large knob moves the cursor on the page, while the small knob selects individual
characters for the highlighted cursor location.
13
MENU Key – Displays a context-sensitive list of options. This list allows the user to access additional
features or make setting changes that relate to particular pages.
14
PROC Key – Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs) and approach
procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan. If a flight plan is used, available procedures for the departure and/or
arrival airport are automatically suggested. These procedures can then be loaded into the active flight plan.
If a flight plan is not used, both the desired airport and the desired procedure may be selected.
15
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
CONTROLS ASSOCIATED WITH THE MFD
The controls for the MFD (GDU 1500) are located on both the MFD bezel and the MFD Control Unit (GCU
475). The bottom portion of the MFD bezel features 12 softkeys that are designed to perform various functions
depending upon the control display mode and the specific page being displayed. These softkeys are discussed
throughout the this documentation.
The following list provides an overview of the controls located on the MFD Control Unit (see Figure 1-3):
1
3
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
14
13
12
11
10
Figure 1-3 MFD Control Unit (GCU 475)
10
1
Dual FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob. This knob selects the MFD page to be viewed; the
large knob selects a page group (MAP, WPT, AUX, NRST), while the small knob selects a specific page
within the page group. Pressing the FMS Knob turns the selection cursor ON and OFF. When the cursor
is ON, data may be entered in the applicable window by turning the small and large knobs. In this case,
the large knob moves the cursor on the page, while the small knob selects individual characters for the
highlighted cursor location.
2
Direct-to Key ( ) – Allows the user to enter a destination waypoint and establish a direct course to the
selected destination (the destination is either specified by the identifier, chosen from the active route, or
taken from the map pointer position).
3
FPL Key – Displays the active Flight Plan Page for creating and editing the active flight plan, or for
accessing stored flight plans.
4
MENU Key – Displays a context-sensitive list of options. This list allows the user to access additional
features or make setting changes that relate to particular pages.
5
PROC Key – Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs) and approach
procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan. If a flight plan is used, available procedures for the departure and/or
arrival airport are automatically suggested. Theses procedures can then be loaded into the active flight
plan. If a flight plan is not used, both the desired airport and the desired procedure may be selected.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
190-00709-07 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
6
Joystick – Changes the map range when rotated. Activates the map pointer when pressed.
7
Alphanumeric Keys – Allow the user to enter data quickly, without having to select individual characters
with the FMS Knob.
8
Plus (+) Minus (-) Key – Switches between a (+) or (-) character.
9
Decimal Key – Enters a decimal point.
10
SEL Key – The center of this key activates the selected softkey, while the right and left arrows move the
softkey selection box to the right and left, respectively.
11
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
12
CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes page menus. Pressing and holding this key
displays the Navigation Map Page automatically.
13
SPC Key – Adds a space character.
14
BKSP Key – Moves the cursor back one character space.
AFCS CONTROLS
NOTE: With the exception of the FD and SPD Keys, if a key is selected, its respective annunciator is
illuminated.
1
2
3
4
19
18
17
16
5
15
14
6
7
13
12
8
11
10
9
Figure 1-4 AFCS Control Unit (GMC 710)
The Garmin AFCS is mainly controlled through the GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit. The AFCS Control Unit
consists of the following controls:
1
HDG Key – Selects/deselects the Heading Select mode.
2
APR Key – Selects/deselects the Approach mode.
3
NAV Key – Selects/deselects the Navigation mode.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
4
FD Key – Activates/deactivates the Flight Director in the default Pitch and Roll modes. If the Autopilot is
engaged, the FD Key is disabled.
5
XFR Key – Switches the Autopilot between the pilot and the copilot Flight Director. This selection also
selects which Air Data Computer is communicating with the active transponder. Upon power-up, the pilot
FD is selected.
6
ALT Key – Selects/deselects the Altitude Hold mode.
7
VS Key – Selects/deselects the Vertical Speed mode.
8
FLC Key – Selects/deselects the Flight Level Change mode.
9
CRS2 Knob – Sets the copilot-selected course on the HSI of PFD2 when the VOR1, VOR2, or OBS/SUSP
mode is selected. Pressing this knob centers the CDI on the currently selected VOR. The copilot-selected
course provides course reference to the copilot Flight Director when operating in Navigation and Approach
modes.
10
SPD Key – Switches the Flight Level Change mode reference speed between IAS and MACH number.
11
NOSE UP/DN Wheel – Controls the active mode reference for the Pitch, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level
Change modes.
12
VNV Key – Selects/deselects Vertical Navigation mode.
13
ALT SEL Knob – Sets the selected altitude in the Selected Altitude Box. In addition to providing the
standard G1000 altitude alerter function, selected altitude provides an altitude setting for the Altitude
Capture/Hold mode of the AFCS.
14
YD Key – Engages/disengages Yaw Damper.
15
AP Key – Engages/disengages the Autopilot.
16
BANK Key – Selects/deselects the Low Bank mode.
17
CRS1 Knob – Sets the pilot-selected course on the HSI of PFD1 when the VOR1, VOR2, or OBS/SUSP
mode is selected. Pressing this knob centers the CDI on the currently selected VOR. The pilot-selected
course provides course reference to the pilot Flight Director when operating in Navigation and Approach
modes.
18
BC Key – Selects/deselects the Back Course approach mode.
19
HDG Knob – Sets the selected heading on the HSI. When operating in Heading Select mode, this knob
provides the heading reference to the Flight Director.
ADDITIONAL AFCS CONTROLS
The AP DISC (Autopilot Disconnect) Button, CWS (Control Wheel Steering) Button, GO AROUND Button,
and MET (Manual Electric Trim) Switch are additional AFCS controls and are located in the cockpit, separately
from the AFCS Control Unit. These are discussed in detail in the AFCS section.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Figure 1-5 Audio Panel Controls (GMA 1347D Cabin)
NOTE: When a key is selected, a triangular annunciator above the key is illuminated.
1
COM1 MIC – Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the the #1 Com receiver to be heard. COM2 receiver
audio can be added by pressing the COM2 Key.
2
COM1 – When selected, audio from the #1 Com receiver can be heard.
3
COM2 MIC – Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 is simultaneously selected when this key
is pressed allowing received audio from the the #2 Com receiver to be heard. COM2 can be deselected by
pressing the COM2 Key, or COM1 can be added by pressing the COM1 Key.
4
COM2 – When selected, audio from the #2 Com receiver can be heard.
5
COM3 MIC – Not used on some aircraft..
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
14
6
COM3 – Not used on some aircraft.
7
PA – Selects the passenger address system. The selected Com transmitter is deselected when the PA Key
is pressed.
8
TEL – Not used on some aircraft.
9
MUSIC – Not used on some aircraft.
10
SPKR – Pressing this key selects and deselects the corresponding cockpit speaker. Com and Nav receiver
audio is heard on the speaker.
11
MKR/MUTE – Mutes the currently received Marker Beacon Receiver audio. Unmutes when new marker
beacon audio is received.
12
HI SENS – Press to increase Marker Beacon Receiver sensitivity. Press again to return to normal.
13
DME – Pressing turns DME audio on or off.
14
NAV1 – When selected, audio from the #1 Nav receiver can be heard.
15
ADF – Pressing turns on or off the audio from the ADF receiver.
16
NAV2 – When selected, audio from the #2 Nav receiver can be heard.
17
AUX – Not used on some aircraft.
18
MAN SQ – Pressing activates/deactivates intercom manual squelch operation.
19
PLAY – Press once to play the last recorded audio. Press during play to play the previously recorded memory
block. Each subsequent press of the PLAY Key begins playing the next previously recorded block.
20
INTR COM – Pressing selects/deselects the pilot/copilot intercom on both audio panels.
21
CABIN – Pressing activates/deactivates two-way communication between pilot/copilot and passengers.
22
ICS Knob – Turn to adjust intercom volume or squelch. Press to switch between volume and squelch
control as indicated by the ‘VOL’ or ‘SQ’ being illuminated. The MAN SQ Key must be selected to allow
squelch adjustment.
23
MSTR Knob – The Master Volume Control adjusts volume for the blended NAV, COM, and intercom
audio.
24
Reversionary Mode Button – Pressing manually selects Reversionary Mode.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.4 SECURE DIGITAL CARDS
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for instructions on updating the navigation database.
NOTE: Ensure that the G1000 system is powered off before inserting the SD card.
The GDU 1040A and GDU 1500 data card slots use Secure Digital (SD) cards and are located on the top
right portion of the display bezels. Each display bezel is equipped with two SD card slots. SD cards are used
for navigation database and system software updates as well as expanded basemap, terrain, obstacle, SafeTaxi,
FliteCharts, ChartView, and AOPA Airport Directory database storage.
Not all SD cards are compatible with the G1000. Use only SD cards supplied by Garmin or the aircraft
manufacturer.
To install an SD card:
• Insert the SD card in the SD card slot, pushing the card in until the spring latch engages. The front of
the card should remain flush with the face of the display bezel.
To remove an SD card:
• Gently press on the SD card to release the spring latch and eject the card.
MFD
PFD
SD Card Slots
Figure 1-6 Display Bezel SD Card Slots
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.5 SYSTEM POWER-UP
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for AHRS initialization bank angle limitations.
NOTE: See the Appendices for additional information regarding system-specific annunciations and alerts.
NOTE: See the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) for specific procedures concerning avionics power application
and emergency power supply operation.
The G1000 system is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical
busses. The G1000 PFDs, MFD and supporting sub-systems include both power-on and continuous built-in test
features that exercise the processor, RAM, ROM, external inputs and outputs to provide safe operation.
During system initialization, test annunciations are displayed, as shown in Figure 1-7. All system annunciations
should disappear typically within one (1) minute of power-up. Upon power-up, key annunciator lights also
become momentarily illuminated on the audio panels, the control units and the display bezels.
On the PFD, the AHRS begins to initialize and displays ‘AHRS ALIGN: Keep Wings Level’. The AHRS should
display valid attitude and heading fields typically within one (1) minute of power-up. The AHRS can align itself
both while taxiing and during level flight.
When the MFD powers up (Figure 1-8), the MFD Power-up Page displays the following information:
• System version
• Copyright
• Land database name and version
• Safe Taxi database information
• Terrain database name and version
• Airport Terrain database name and version
• Obstacle database name and version
• Navigation database name, version, and effective dates
• Airport Directory name, version and effective dates
• FliteCharts/ChartView database information
Current database information includes the valid operating dates, cycle number and database type. When this
information has been reviewed for currency (to ensure that no databases have expired), the pilot is prompted
to continue. Pressing the ENT Key acknowledges this information and displays the Auxiliary (AUX) Weight
Planning Page.
Figure 1-7 PFD Initialization
16
Figure 1-8 MFD Power-up Page - Example
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.6 SYSTEM OPERATION
The displays are connected together via a single Ethernet bus, thus allowing for high-speed communication.
As shown in Figure 1-1, each GIA 63W is connected to the on-side PFD. This section discusses the normal and
reversionary modes of operation as well as the various AHRS modes of the G1000 system.
NORMAL OPERATION
PFD
In normal mode, the PFD presents graphical flight instrumentation (attitude, heading, airspeed, altitude
and vertical speed), thereby replacing the traditional flight instrument cluster. The PFD also offers control for
COM and NAV frequency selection.
MFD
In normal mode, the right portion of the MFD displays a full-color moving map with navigation information,
while the left portion of the MFD is dedicated to the Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System (EICAS).
Figure 1-9 gives an example of the G1000 displays in normal mode.
PFD1
PFD2
MFD
Figure 1-9 Normal Operation
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
17
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
REVERSIONARY MODE
NOTE: The G1000 system alerts the pilot when backup paths are utilized by the LRUs. Refer to the Appendices
for further information regarding system-specific alerts.
Reversionary mode is a mode of operation in which all important flight information is presented identically
on at least one of the remaining displays (see Figure 1-10). Transition to reversionary mode should be
straightforward for the pilot, for flight parameters are presented in the same format as in normal mode.
Figure 1-10 Reversionary Mode (Manual)
Reversionary mode is activated by pressing the dedicated DISPLAY BACKUP button at the bottom of the
audio panel (see Figure 1-11 and refer to the Audio Panel section for further details). Pressing this button again
deactivates reversionary mode.
Pressing the DISPLAY
BACKUP button activates/
deactivates reversionary
mode for both the on-side
PFD and the MFD.
Figure 1-11 DISPLAY BACKUP Button
Each display can be configured to operate in reversionary mode, as follows:
• PFD1 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the left audio panel.
• MFD – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the left or the right audio panel.
• PFD2 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the right audio panel.
Should the connection between a PFD and the on-side GIA 63W become inoperative, the on-side GIA 63W
can no longer communicate with the remaining PFD (refer to Figure 1-1). As a result, the NAV and COM
functions provided to the failed PFD by the on-side GIA 63W are flagged as invalid (red “x”) on the remaining
PFD (see Figure 1-12).
Figure 1-12 Inoperative Input (NAV1 Shown)
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
190-00709-07 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AHRS OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for specific AHRS alert information.
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering while the AHRS is not operating normally can degrade AHRS accuracy.
In addition to using internal sensors, the GRS 77 AHRS uses GPS information, magnetic field data and air
data to assist in attitude/heading calculations. In normal mode, the AHRS relies upon GPS and magnetic
field measurements. If either of these external measurements is unavailable or invalid, the AHRS uses air
data information for attitude determination. Four AHRS modes of operation are available (see Figure 1-13)
and depend upon the combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of air data, GPS, or magnetometer sensor
inputs is communicated to the pilot by message advisory alerts.
The AHRS (GRS 77) corrects for shifts and variations in the Earth’s magnetic field by applying the Magnetic
Field Variation Database. The Magnetic Field Variation Database is derived from the International Geomagnetic
Reference Field (IGRF). The IGRF is a mathematical model that describes the Earth’s main magnetic field
and its annual rate of change. The database is updated approximately every 5 years. See the Appendices for
information on updating the Magnetic Field Variation Database. The system will prompt you on startup when
an update is available. Failure to update this database could lead to erroneous heading information being
displayed to the pilot.
YES
NO
Mag Data AND Air Data
Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
Mag Data Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
GPS Data Available and Reliable?
AHRS Normal
Mode
NO
YES
Air Data Available and Reliable?
AHRS no-Mag
Mode
AHRS no-Mag/
no-Air Mode
Heading Invalid
Heading Invalid
AHRS no-GPS
Mode
AHRS coast-on-gyros
until invalid
Attitude/Heading Invalid
Figure 1-13 AHRS Operation
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GPS INPUT FAILURE
NOTE: In-flight initialization of AHRS, when operating without any valid source of GPS data and at true
air speed values greater than approximately 200 knots, is not guaranteed. Under these rare conditions, it
is possible for in-flight AHRS initialization to take an indefinite amount of time which would result in an
extended period of time where valid AHRS outputs are unavailable.
The G1000 system provides two sources of GPS information. If a single GPS receiver fails, or if the
information provided from one of the GPS receivers is unreliable, the AHRS seamlessly transitions to using
the other GPS receiver. An alert message informs the pilot of the use of the backup GPS path. If both
GPS inputs fail, the AHRS continues to operate in reversionary No-GPS mode so long as the air data and
magnetometer inputs are available and valid.
AIR DATA INPUT FAILURE
A failure of the air data input has no effect on AHRS output while AHRS is operating in normal mode. A
failure of the air data input while the AHRS is operating in reversionary No-GPS mode results in invalid
attitude and heading information on the PFD (as indicated by red “x” flags).
MAGNETOMETER FAILURE
If the magnetometer input fails, the AHRS transitions to one of the reversionary No-Magnetometer modes
and continues to output valid attitude information. However, if the aircraft is airborne, the heading output
on the PFD does become invalid (as indicated by a red “x”).
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
190-00709-07 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
G1000 SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
NOTE: For a detailed description of all annunciations and alerts, refer to Appendix A. Refer to the Airplane
Flight Manual (AFM) for additional information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red ‘X’ is typically displayed on windows associated with
the failed data (Figure 1-14 displays all possible flags and responsible LRUs). Upon G1000 power-up, certain
windows remain invalid as equipment begins to initialize. All windows should be operational within one
minute of power-up. If any window remains flagged, the G1000 System should be serviced by a Garminauthorized repair facility.
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
GDC 74B Air
Data Computer
GEA 71 Engine
Airframe Unit
Or
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Unit
GRS 77 AHRS
Or
GMU 44
Magnetometer
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
GDC 74B Air
Data Computer
GTX 33 Transponder
Or
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
Figure 1-14 G1000 System Failure Annunciations
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
21
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SOFTKEY FUNCTION
The softkeys are located along the bottoms of the displays. The softkeys shown depend on the softkey level
or page being displayed. The bezel keys below the softkeys can be used to select the appropriate softkey. When
a softkey is selected, its color changes to black text on gray background and remains this way until it is turned
off, at which time it reverts to white text on black background.
Softkey On
Softkey Names (displayed)
Bezel-Mounted Softkeys (press)
Figure 1-15 Softkeys (Level 2 PFD Configuration)
Another means of selecting softkeys is by using the MFD/PFD Control Unit:
To select a softkey using the MFD Control Unit:
1) Move the softkey selection box to the desired softkey using the arrows of the SEL Key.
2) Press the center of the SEL Key to select the desired softkey.
PFD SOFTKEYS
The CDI, IDENT, TMR/REF, NRST, and MSG Softkeys undergo a momentary change to black text on gray
background and automatically switch back to white text on black background when selected. If messages
remain after acknowledgement, the MSG Softkey is black on white.
The PFD softkeys provide control over flight management functions, including GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic,
and lightning (optional). Each softkey sublevel has a BACK Softkey which can be pressed to return to the
previous level. The MSG Softkey is visible in all softkey levels. For the top level softkeys and the transponder
(XPDR) levels, the IDENT Softkey remains visible.
Level 1
INSET
Level 2
OFF
DCLTR (3)
WX LGND
22
Level 3
Level 4
Description
Displays Inset Map in PFD lower left corner
Removes Inset Map
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through
declutter levels:
DCLTR (No Declutter): All map features visible
DCLTR-1: Declutters land data
DCLTR-2: Declutters land and SUA data
DCLTR-3: Removes all except the active
flight plan
Displays icon and age on the Inset Map for the
selected weather products (optional)
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
190-00709-07 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
TRAFFIC
Level 3
TOPO
TERRAIN
STRMSCP
NEXRAD
or
PRECIP
Description
Cycles through traffic display options:
TRFC-1: Traffic displayed on inset map
TRFC-2: Traffic Map Page is displayed in the inset
map window
Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain,
rivers, lakes) and elevation scale on Inset Map
Displays terrain information on Navigation Map (not
available with TAWS-A)
Displays Stormscope information on Inset Map (optional)
Displays NEXRAD-B weather and coverage on Inset Map
(optional GDL 69)
Displays Connext precipitation on Inset Map (optional
with GSR 56)
Displays SiriusXM lightning information on Inset Map
(optional)
XM LTNG
or
DL LTNG
SYN TERR
Displays Connext Worldwide Weather lightning
information on Inset Map (optional)
Displays METAR flags on airport symbols shown on
the Inset Map (optional)
Displays softkeys selecting the #1 and #2 sensors
Selects the #1 Air Data Computer
Selects the #2 Air Data Computer
Selects the #1 AHRS
Selects the #2 AHRS
Displays second-level softkeys for additional PFD
configurations
Displays the softkeys for enabling or disabling
Synthetic Vision features
Displays rectangular boxes representing the
horizontal and vertical flight path of the active flight
plan
Enables synthetic terrain depiction
HRZN HDG
Displays compass heading along the Zero-Pitch line
APTSIGNS
Displays position markers for airports within
approximately 15 nm of the current aircraft position.
Airport identifiers are displayed when the airport is
within approximately 9 nm.
METAR
SENSOR
ADC1
ADC2
AHRS1
AHRS2
PFD
SYN VIS
PATHWAY
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Level 4
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
23
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
DFLTS
Level 3
AOA/WIND
WIND
AOA
DME
BRG1
HSI FRMT
360 HSI
ARC HSI
BRG2
ALT UNIT
METERS
IN
HPA
STD BARO
OBS
CDI
ADF/
DME
XPDR
24
Level 4
Description
Resets PFD to default settings, including changing
units to standard
Displays softkeys to select wind data or AOA
parameters
Displays softkeys to select wind data parameters
Wind direction arrows with headwind/tailwind and
OPTN 1
crosswind components
Wind direction arrow and speed
OPTN 2
Wind direction arrow with headwind/tailwind and
OPTN 3
crosswind components
Information not displayed
OFF
Displays softkeys to display AOA indicator.
AOA AUTO Displays AOA indicator on the PFD
Displays the DME information window
Cycles the Bearing 1 Information Window through
NAV1, GPS/ waypoint identifier and GPS-derived
distance information, and ADF/frequency.
Provides access to the HSI formatting softkeys
Displays the HSI in a 360 degree view
Displays the HSI as an arc
Cycles the Bearing 2 Information Window through
NAV2 or GPS waypoint identifier and GPS-derived
distance information, and ADF/frequency.
Displays softkeys for setting the altimeter and BARO
settings to metric units
When enabled, displays altimeter in meters
Select to display the BARO setting as inches of
mercury
Select to display the BARO setting as hectopacals
Sets barometric pressure to 29.92 in Hg (1013 hPa if
metric units are selected)
Selects OBS mode on the CDI when navigating by
GPS (only available with active leg)
Cycles through GPS, VOR1, and VOR2 navigation
modes on the CDI
Displays the ADF/DME Tuning Window, allowing
tuning of the ADF, ADF Mode selection, ADF volume
control, and selection of the DME
Displays transponder mode selection softkeys
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
190-00709-07 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
XPDR1
XPDR2
STBY
Level 3
ON
ALT
VFR
CODE
0—7
BKSP
IDENT
TMR/
REF
NRST
MSG
Level 4
Description
Selects the #1 transponder as active
Selects the #2 transponder as active
Selects standby mode (transponder does not reply to
any interrogations)
Selects Mode A (transponder replies to interrogations)
Selects Mode C – altitude reporting mode (transponder replies to identification and altitude interrogations)
Automatically enters the VFR code (1200 in the
U.S.A. only)
Displays transponder code selection softkeys 0-7
Use numbers to enter code
Removes numbers entered, one at a time
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI)
pulse for 18 seconds, identifying the transponder
return on the ATC screen
Displays Timer/References Window
Displays Nearest Airports Window
Displays Messages Window
Figure 1-16 Top Level PFD Softkeys
190-00709-07 Rev. B
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
25
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
(optional)
(optional)
PRECIP
or
STRMSCP NEXRAD
WX LGND
TRFC-1
DL LTNG
or
METAR
Select the BACK Softkey
to return to the top-level softkeys.
TRFC-2
Figure 1-17 INSET Softkeys
Press the BACK Softkey to
return to the top level softkeys.
ADC1
ADC2
AHRS1
AHRS2
BACK
MSG
Figure 1-18 SENSOR Softkeys
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
190-00709-07 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
ADF/DME
SENSOR
SYN VIS
AOA/WIND
ALT UNIT
HSI FMT
Select the BACK Softkey
to return to the top-level softkeys
360 HSI
METERS
AOA
PATHWAY
BACK
ARC HSI
IN
HPA
WIND
SYN TERR HRZN HDG APTSIGNS
AOA AUTO
Figure 1-19 PFD Configuration Softkeys
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
27
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Press the BACK Softkey to return
to the top-level softkeys.
MSG
Press the BACK Softkey to return
to the previous level softkeys.
MSG
Figure 1-20 XPDR Softkeys
MFD SOFTKEYS
Level 1
SYSTEM
or
CAS
Level 2
Description
Accesses the Synoptics page softkeys and the Landing Field Elevation
softkeys
Scroll up or down (Displayed only when a sufficient number of items are
CAS ↑
displayed in the Crew Alerting System Display to warrant scrolling)
and
CAS ↓
MAN LFE Displays the manual Landing Field Elevation softkeys.
(TBM 900)
FMS
LFE Sets the Landing Field Elevation to the destination airport elevation.
(TBM 900)
ELEC
FUEL
GEN
CPDLC
LOGON
LOGOFF
NEW
DELETE
DEL ALL
BACK
MAP
TRAFFIC
28
Displays the Electrical Synoptics Page
Displays the Fuel Synoptics Page
Displays the General Synoptics Page for the anti-ice system and doors
When available, accesses CPDLC softkeys.
Displays Logon screen for the CPDLC system
Displays Logoff screen for the CPDLC system
Accesses New CPDLC message screen
Delete selected CPDLC message.
Delete all CPDLC messages.
Returns display to previous softkey level
Enables second-level Navigation Map softkeys
Displays traffic information on Navigation Map
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
190-00709-07 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
PROFILE
TOPO
TERRAIN
AIRWAYS
STRMSCP
NEXRAD
or
PRECIP
XM LTNG
or
DL LTNG
METAR
LEGEND
Description
Displays/removes Vertical Situation Display on Navigation Map Page
(Vertical Situation Display is not available when equipped with an
optional GDL 69A SXM.)
Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes) and
elevation scale on Navigation Map
Displays terrain information on Navigation Map
Displays airways on the map; cycles through the following:
AIRWAYS: No airways are displayed
AIRWY ON: All airways are displayed
AIRWY LO: Only low altitude airways are displayed
AIRWY HI: Only high altitude airways are displayed
Displays Stormscope weather and coverage information on Navigation
Map (optional feature)
Displays NEXRAD weather and coverage on Inset Map (optional GDL 69)
Displays Connext precipitation on Inset Map (optional with GSR 56)
Displays SiriusXM lightning information on the Navigation Map (optional)
Displays Connext Worldwide Weather lightning information on the
Navigation Map (optional)
Displays METAR flags on airport symbols shown on the Navigation Map
Displays the legend for the selected weather products. Available only
when NEXRAD, XM LTNG, and/or METAR softkeys are selected.
WX RADAR Displays the weather radar scan on the Navigation Map (optional)
Returns to top-level softkeys
BACK
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through declutter levels:
DCLTR (3)
DCLTR (No Declutter): All map features visible
DCLTR-1: Declutters land data
DCLTR-2: Declutters land and SUA data
DCLTR-3: Removes everything except the active flight plan
When available, displays optional airport and terminal procedure charts
SHW CHRT
When available, displays optional checklists
CHKLIST
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
29
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
or
CAS
CPDLC
DCLTR
MAP
(optional)
(optional)
SHW CHRT
CHKLIST
DCLTR-1
CAS↑
CAS↓
DCLTR-2
DCLTR-3
TRAFFIC
PROFILE
TOPO
TERRAIN
AIRWAYS
STRMSCP
(optional)
(optional)
PRECIP
or
DL LTNG
or
NEXRAD
XM LTNG
Select the BACK Softkey on this level
to return to the top softkey level.
(optional)
(optional)
(optional)
METAR
LEGEND
WX RADAR
BACK
AIRWY ON
AIRWY LO
AIRWAY HI
(optional)
SYSTEM
SYSTEM
CPDLC
CPDLC
LOGON
MAP
LOGOFF
NEW
(TBM 900)
MAN LFE
(TBM 900)
FMS LFE
+250 FT
-250 FT
DELETE
DEL ALL
BACK
CHKLIST
(optional)
ELEC
+25 FT
FUEL
GEN
-25 FT
CHKLIST
ACCEPT
BACK
Figure 1-21 MFD Softkeys
GPS RECEIVER OPERATION
Each GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU) contains a GPS receiver. Information collected by the specified
receiver (GPS1 for the #1 IAU or GPS2 for the #2 IAU) may be viewed on the AUX - GPS Status Page.
GPS1 provides information to the pilot-side PFD and GPS2 provides data to the copilot-side PFD. Internal
system checking is performed to ensure both GPS receivers are providing accurate data to the PFDs. In some
circumstances, both GPS receivers may be providing accurate data, but one receiver may be providing a better
GPS solution than the other receiver. In this case the GPS receiver producing the better solution is automatically
coupled to both PFDs. “BOTH ON GPS 1” or “BOTH ON GPS 2” are then displayed in the Reversionary Sensor
Window (see Appendix A) indicating which GPS receiver is being used. Both GPS receivers are still functioning
properly, but one receiver is performing better than the other at that particular time.
These GPS sensor annunciations are most often seen after system power-up when one GPS receiver has
acquired satellites before the other, or one of the GPS receivers has not yet acquired an SBAS (Satellite Based
Augmentation System) signal. While the aircraft is on the ground, the SBAS signal may be blocked by
obstructions causing one GPS receiver to have difficulty acquiring a good signal. Also, while airborne, turning
the aircraft may result in one of the GPS receivers temporarily losing the SBAS signal.
If the sensor annunciation persists, check for a system failure message in the Messages Window on the PFD.
If no failure message exists, check the GPS Status Page and compare the information for GPS1 and GPS2.
Discrepancies may indicate a problem.
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Viewing GPS receiver status information
1) Use the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group (see Section 1.7 for information on navigating MFD
page groups).
2) Use the small FMS Knob to select GPS Status Page.
Selecting the GPS receiver for which data may be reviewed
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - GPS Status Page.
2) To change the selected GPS receiver:
a) Select the desired GPS Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the receiver which is not selected and press the ENT Key.
Satellite Constellation
Diagram
Satellite Signal
Information Status
GPS Receiver
Status
RAIM
Availability
Prediction
Enabled
SBAS
Options
Satellite Signal
Strength Bars
GPS Selection
Softkeys
RAIM Softkey
Selected
SBAS Softkey
Selected
Figure 1-22 GPS Status Page (RAIM or SBAS Selected)
190-00709-07 Rev. B
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
31
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
The GPS Status Page provides the following information:
• Satellite constellation diagram
Satellites currently in view are shown at their respective positions on a sky view diagram. The sky view is
always in a north-up orientation, with the outer circle representing the horizon, the inner circle representing
45° above the horizon, and the center point showing the position directly overhead.
Each satellite is represented by an oval containing the Pseudo-random noise (PRN) number (i.e., satellite
identification number). Satellites whose signals are currently being used are represented by solid ovals.
• Satellite signal information status
The accuracy of the aircraft’s GPS fix is calculated using Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU), Dilution
of Precision (DOP), and horizontal and vertical figures of merit (HFOM and VFOM). EPU is the radius of a
circle centered on an estimated horizontal position in which actual position has 95% probability of laying.
EPU is a statistical error indication and not an actual error measurement.
DOP measures satellite geometry quality (i.e., number of satellites received and where they are relative to
each other) on a range from 0.0 to 9.9, with lower numbers denoting better accuracy. HFOM and VFOM,
measures of horizontal and vertical position uncertainty, are the current 95% confidence horizontal and
vertical accuracy values reported by the GPS receiver.
The current calculated GPS position, time, altitude, ground speed, and track for the aircraft are displayed
below the satellite signal accuracy measurements.
• GPS receiver status
The GPS solution type (ACQUIRING, 2D NAV, 2D DIFF NAV, 3D NAV, 3D DIFF NAV) for the active
GPS receiver (GPS1 or GPS2) is shown in the upper right of the GPS Status Page. When the receiver is
in the process of acquiring enough satellite signals for navigation, the receiver uses satellite orbital data
(collected continuously from the satellites) and last known position to determine the satellites that should be
in view. ACQUIRING is indicated as the solution until a sufficient number of satellites have been acquired
for computing a solution.
When the receiver is in the process of acquiring a 3D differential GPS solution, 3D NAV is indicated as the
solution until the 3D differential fix has finished acquisition. SBAS (Satellite-Based Augmentation System)
indicates INACTIVE. When acquisition is complete, the solution status indicates 3D DIFF NAV and SBAS
indicates ACTIVE.
• RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) Prediction (RAIM Softkey is selected)
In most cases performing a RAIM prediction is not be necessary. However, in some cases, the selected
approach may be outside the SBAS coverage area and it may be necessary to perform a RAIM prediction for
the intended approach.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to
calculate a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nautical miles for oceanic and enroute, 1.0
nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of
flight, RAIM is available nearly 100% of the time.
The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a specified date and time. RAIM
computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival date and time.
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not available. The
G1000 automatically monitors RAIM and warns with an alert message when it is not available. If RAIM is not
predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become active, as indicated by
the messages “Approach is not active” and “RAIM not available from FAF to MAP”. If RAIM is not available
when crossing the FAF, the missed approach procedure must be flown.
Predicting RAIM availability
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, select the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window.
5) Enter the desired waypoint:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired waypoint by identifier, facility, or city name and press the ENT Key. Refer
to Section 1.7 for instructions on entering alphanumeric data into the G1000.
Or:
a) Use the large FMS Knob to scroll to the Most Recent Waypoints List.
b) Use the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint in the list and press the ENT Key. The G1000
automatically fills in the identifier, facility, and city fields with the information for the selected waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
8) With the cursor highlighting ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one
of the following is displayed:
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
Predicting RAIM availability at present position
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, select the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) With ‘Set WPT to Present Position’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
8) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
9) With the cursor highlighting ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one
of the following is displayed:
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• SBAS Selection (SBAS Softkey is pressed)(WAAS, EGNOS, or MSAS capable systems only)
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of the WAAS, EGNOS, or MSAS
coverage area, it may be desirable to disable the reception of the applicable SBAS signal (although it is not
recommended). When disabled, the SBAS field in the GPS Status box indicates DISABLED. There may be a
small delay for the GPS Status box to be updated upon WAAS, EGNOS, and MSAS enabling/disabling.
Disabling WAAS, EGNOS or MSAS
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, select the SBAS Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to hightlight the desired SBAS system.
4) Press the ENT Key to uncheck the box.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
• GPS Satellite Signal Strengths
The GPS Status Page can be helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due to poor satellite
coverage or installation problems. As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength bar is displayed
for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite PRN number (01-32 or 120-138 for WAAS) below
each bar. The progress of satellite acquisition is shown in three stages, as indicated by signal bar appearance:
- No bar—Receiver is looking for the indicated satellite
- Hollow bar—Receiver has found the satellite and is collecting data
- Cyan bar—Receiver has collected the necessary data and the satellite signal can be used
- Green bar—Satellite is being used for the GPS solution
- Checkered bar—Receiver has excluded the satellite (Fault Detection and Exclusion)
- “D” indication—Denotes the satellite is being used as part of the differential computations
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission that must be collected (signal strength bar is hollow) before
the satellite may be used for navigation (signal strength bar becomes solid).
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1.7 ACCESSING G1000 FUNCTIONALITY
MENUS
The G1000 has a MENU Key that, when pressed, displays a context-sensitive list of options. This options list
allows the user to access additional features or make settings changes which specifically relate to the currently displayed
window/page. There is no all-encompassing menu. Some menus provide access to additional submenus that are used
to view, edit, select, and review options. Menus display ‘NO OPTIONS’ when there are no options for the window/page
selected. The main controls used in association with all window/page group operations are described in section
1.3. Softkey selection does not display menus or submenus.
To navigate the Page Menu Window:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Window.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through a list of available options (a scroll bar appears to the right of the window
when the option list is longer than the window).
3) Press the ENT Key to select the desired option.
4) The CLR Key may be pressed to remove the menu and cancel the operation. Pressing the FMS Knob also
removes the displayed menu.
No Options with
NRST Window
Displayed on the
PFD
Options
with FPL
Window
Displayed
Figure 1-23 Page Menu Examples
MFD PAGE GROUPS
NOTE: Refer to the Flight Management, Hazard Avoidance, and Additional Features sections for details on
specific pages.
Information on the MFD is presented on pages which are grouped according to function. The page group
and active page title are displayed in the upper center of the screen, below the Navigation Status Box. In the
bottom right corner of the screen, a page group window is displayed by turning either FMS Knob. The page
group tabs are displayed along the bottom of the window. The page titles are displayed in a list above the page
group tabs. The current page group and current page within the group are shown in cyan. For some of these
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pages (Airport/Procedures/Weather Information, XM, Procedure Loading), the active title of the page changes
while the page name in the list remains the same.
Page Group
MFD
Active Page Title
Pages in
Current
Group
Page Groups
Figure 1-24 Page Title and Page Groups
The main page groups are navigated using the FMS Knob; specific pages within each group can vary depending
on the configuration of optional equipment.
Selecting a page using the FMS Knob:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to display the list of page groups; continue turning the large FMS Knob until the
desired page group is selected
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired page within a specific page group.
There are also several pages (Airport/Procedures/Weather Information and XM pages) which are selected first
from within a main page group with the FMS Knob, then with the appropriate softkey at the bottom of the page
(or from the page menu). In this case, the page remains set to the selected page until a different page softkey is
selected, even if a different page group is selected.
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Map Pages (MAP)
Navigation Map
Traffic Map
Stormscope®
Weather Radar
Weather Data Link
(service optional)
Terrain Proximity,
Terrain-SVS, or
TAWS-B/TAWS-A
Figure 1-25 Map Pages
Waypoint Pages (WPT)
Airport Information screens
- Airport Information
(INFO-1 Softkey)
- Airport Directory
(INFO-2 Softkey)
- Departure Information
(DP Softkey)
- Arrival Information
(STAR Softkey)
- Approach Information
(APR Softkey)
- Weather Information
(WX Softkey)
Intersection Information
NDB Information
Airport
Information
Screens
VOR Information
User Waypoint Information
Figure 1-26 Waypoint Pages
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Auxiliary Pages (AUX)
Weight Planning
Trip Planning
Utility
GPS Status
System Setup 1 and 2
XM Radio
- XM Information
(INFO Softkey)
- XM Radio
(RADIO Softkey)
SiriusXM
Satellite
Screens
Satellite Phone
Maintenance Logs
System Status
Video
Bluetooth Management
Figure 1-27 Auxiliary Pages
The Flight Plan Pages may also be accessed using the FPL Key on the MFD.
Maintenance data is continuously recorded by the Central Maintenance Computer (CMC). At the discretion
of the Aircraft Manufacturer, this data may be displayed on an OEM DIAGNOSTICS Page accessible from within
the AUX Page Group.
Flight Plan Pages (FPL)
Active Flight Plan
- Wide View, Narrow View
(VIEW Softkey)
Flight Plan Catalog
- Stored Flight Plan (NEW
Softkey)
Figure 1-28 Flight Plan Pages
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System Pages (SYS)
System Synoptic Displays
- Electrical System
(also select ELEC Softkey)
- Fuel System
(also select FUEL Softkey)
- General System Information
(also select GEN Softkey)
Figure 1-29 System Pages
The System Pages may also be accessed by selecting the SYSTEM Softkey when viewing the other page
groups. Main pages within this group are shown by selecting the applicable softkey or turning the small FMS
Knob.
Nearest Pages (NRST)
Nearest Airports
Nearest Intersections
Nearest NDB
Nearest VOR
Nearest User Waypoints
Nearest Frequencies
Nearest Airspaces
Figure 1-30 Nearest Pages
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The Procedure pages may be accessed at any time on the MFD by pressing the PROC Key. A menu is
initialized, and when a departure, approach, or arrival is selected, the appropriate Procedure Loading Page is
opened. Turning the FMS Knob does not scroll through the Procedure pages (note the single page icon in the
lower right corner).
Procedure Pages
(PROC)
Departure Loading
Arrival Loading
Approach Loading
Figure 1-31 Procedure Pages
For some of these pages (Airport Information screens, SiriusXM Satellite screens, Procedure Pages), the title
of the page may change while the page icon remains the same.
The CPDLC pages are accessed by selecting the CPDLC Softkey on MFD.
NOTE: Press the SYSTEM Softkey or the BACK Softkey to exit the CPDLC Page.
CPDLC Page
(CPDLC Softkey)
Figure 1-32 CPDLC Page
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MFD SYSTEM PAGES
In the Auxiliary (AUX) Page Group, there are two system pages: System Setup and System Status. The System
Setup Page allows management of various system parameters, while the System Status Page displays the status
of all G1000 System LRUs.
SYSTEM SETUP PAGE
The System Setup Page allows management of the following system parameters:
• Pilot Profiles
• Page Navigation
• Date/time
• MFD Data Bar Fields (Navigation Status Box)
(see Flight Management Section)
• Display Units
(see Flight Instruments Section)
• Baro Transition Alert (see Flight Instruments
Section)
• Airspace Alerts (see Flight Management Section)
• Arrival Alerts
• Audio Alerts
• Flight Director
• GPS CDI scaling for GPS navigation source
(see Flight Instruments Section)
• COM Configuration
(see Audio Panel and CNS Section)
• Nearest Airports display criteria
(see Flight Management Section)
• Synchronization of Baro and CDI between PFDs
• Electronic Stability and Protection
Pilot Profile
Setup
Airspace
Alerts Box
MFD Data Bar
Fields Box
Date/Time Box
GPS CDI Box
Display Units
Box
COM
Configuration
Box
Nearest
Airports Box
Audio Alert Voice
Selection
Select Baro
Transition Alert
CDI and Altimeter
Baro Sync
Select Waypoint
Arrival Alert
Flight Director
Command Bar Format
Page Navigation
Figure 1-33 System Setup 1 Page
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Date/Time
The Date/Time Box on the System Setup 1 Page displays the current date and time and allows the pilot
to set the time format (local 12-hr, local 24-hr, or UTC) and offset. The time offset is used to define
current local time. UTC (also called “GMT” or “Zulu”) date and time are calculated directly from the GPS
satellites signals and cannot be changed. When using a local time format, designate the offset by adding or
subtracting the desired number of hours.
To set the system time format:
1) While on the System Setup 1 Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the time format field in the Date/Time Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired system time format (local 12hr, local 24hr, UTC) and press the
ENT Key.
To set the current time offset:
1) While on the System Setup 1 Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the time offset field in the Date/Time Box.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter the time offset and press the ENT Key.
Display Units
The Display Units Box on the System Setup 1 Page allows configuration of the measurement units used
for the following displayed data:
• Nav angle (magnetic, true)
Affects the BRG field in the PFD Navigation Status Box.
Affects the BRG, DTK, TKE, TRK, and XTK fields in the MFD Navigation Status Box.
When set to ‘AUTO’, magnetic variation is figured into the displayed value. When ‘TRUE’ is selected,
no magnetic variation is calculated and a ‘T’ is displayed next to the value.
• Distance and speed (metric, nautical)
Affects the DIS field in the PFD Navigation Status Box and the range setting of the Inset Map.
Affects all distance and speed displays on the MFD with the exception of the displayed wind speed
displayed on the Navigation Map Page. Wind speed is affected on the Trip Planning Page.
• Altitude and vertical speed (feet, meters)
Affects the Altitude and Vertical Speed References in the AFCS Status Box on the PFD.
Affects all altitude and elevation displays on the MFD, with the exception of VNAV altitudes on the
Active Flight Plan Page.
• Barometric pressure (inches of mercury, hectopascals)
Affects the altimeter setting on the PFD and the pressure display on the Trip Planning Page.
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• Temperature (Celsius, Fahrenheit)
Affects all temperature displays on the PFD.
Affects the temperature display on the Trip Planning Page. Does not affect the Engine Indicating
System display.
• Fuel and fuel flow (gallons, imperial gallons, liters, pounds, kilograms)
Affects all fuel and fuel flow displays.
• Weight (pounds, kilograms)
Affects aircraft weights on the Weight Planning Page.
• Position (HDDD°MM.MM’, HDDD°MM’SS.S”, MGRS, UTM/UPS)
Affects all position displays.
To change a Display Units setting:
1) While on the System Setup 1 Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the Display Units Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select from a list of measurement units and press the ENT Key when the desired
unit is highlighted. Press the CLR Key to cancel the action without changing the units.
BARO Transition Alert
See the Flight Instruments section for a discussion on setting the Baro Transition Alert.
Airspace Alerts
The Airspace Alerts Box allows the pilot to turn the controlled/special-use airspace message alerts on
or off. This does not affect the alerts listed on the Nearest Airspaces Page or the airspace boundaries
depicted on the MFD Navigation Map Page. It simply turns on/off the warning provided when the aircraft
is approaching or near an airspace.
Alerts for the following airspaces can be turned on/off in the Airspace Alerts Box:
• Class B/TMA
• Restricted
• Class C/TCA
• MOA (Military)
• Class D
• Other airspaces
An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below an airspace. For
example, if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/below an airspace, an
alert message is not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below an airspace and projected
to enter it, the pilot is notified with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200
feet.
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To change the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) While on the System Setup 1 Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the altitude buffer field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
To turn an airspace alert on or off:
1) While on the System Setup 1 Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
Arrival Alerts
The Arrival Alert Box on the System Setup 1 Page allows arrival alerts to be turned on/off and the alert
trigger distance set. An arrival alert can be set to notify the pilot with a message upon reaching a userspecified distance from the final destination (the direct-to waypoint or the last waypoint in a flight plan).
Once the set distance (up to 99.9 units) has been reached, an “Arrival at [waypoint]” message is displayed
in the PFD Navigation Status Box.
Enabling/disabling an arrival alert:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ON/OFF field in the Arrival Alert Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
5) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
Changing the arrival alert trigger distance:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the distance field in the Arrival Alert Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
Audio Alerts
The Audio Alert Box on the System Setup 1 Page allows the audio alert voice to be set to male or female.
To change the audio alert voice:
1) While on the System Setup 1 Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the voice in the Audio Alert Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and highlight the desired voice and press the ENT Key.
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Flight Director
Not pilot selectable.
Page Navigation
The large FMS Knob displays the Page Group Tabs and navigates through the tabs. The small FMS Knob
navigates through the pages within a specific group. The number of clicks it takes to display the Page Group
Tabs and change to the next tab can be controlled from the Page Navigation box on the AUX - System Setup
1 Page.
OFF – Displays the Page Group Tabs with one click of the large FMS Knob.
ON – Displays the Page Group Tabs and navigates to the next tab with one click of the large FMS Knob.
The pilot can select, from the AUX - System Setup 1 Page, the amount of time the Page Group Tabs are
displayed (in the lower right corner of the MFD). The timeout can range from two to ten seconds.
Selecting page navigation settings:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Change On 1st Click’ field in the Page Navigation Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘OFF’ or ‘ON’.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Timeout Seconds’ field in the Page navigation Box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired number of seconds
7) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to remove the flashing cursor.
MFD Data Bar Fields
The MFD Data Bar Fields Box on the System Setup 1 Page displays the current configuration of the MFD
Navigation Status Box. By default, the Navigation Status Bar is set to display ground speed (GS), distance
to next waypoint (DIS), estimated time en route (ETE), and en route safe altitude (ESA).
To change the information shown in an MFD Navigation Status Bar field:
1) While on the System Setup 1 Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the MFD Data Bar Fields Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the data options list and press the ENT Key when the
desired data selection is highlighted.
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The following data may be selected for display in each of the four fields of the Navigation Status Box.
• Bearing (BRG)
• Track (TRK)
• Distance (DIS)
• Vertical Speed Required (VSR)
• Desired Track (DTK)
• Crosstrack Error (XTK)
• En Route Safe Altitude (ESA)
• Fuel Over Destination (FOD)
• Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA)
• Fuel On Board (FOB)
• Estimated Time En Route (ETE)
• Endurance (END)
• Ground Speed (GS)
• Enroute (ENR)
• Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA)
• International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)
• True Air Speed (TAS)
• Landing Time (LDG)
• Track Angle Error (TKE)
GPS CDI
The GPS CDI Box on the System Setup Page allows the pilot to define the range for the on-screen course
deviation indicator (CDI). The range values represent full range deflection for the CDI to either side. The
default setting is ‘AUTO’. At this setting, leaving the departure airport the CDI range is set to 1.0 nm and
gradually ramps up to 2 nm beyond 30 nm from the departure airport. The CDI range is set to 2.0 nautical
miles during the en route phase of flight. Within 30 nm of the destination airport, the CDI range gradually
ramps down to 1.0 nm (terminal area). During approach operations, the CDI range ramps down even
further to 0.3 nm. This transition normally occurs within 2.0 nm of the final approach fix (FAF).
If a lower CDI range setting is selected (i.e., 1.0 or 0.3 nm), the higher range settings are not selected
during any phase of flight. For example, if 1.0 nm is selected, the system uses this for en route and terminal
phases and ramps down to 0.3 nm during an approach. Note that the Receiver Autonomous Integrity
Monitoring (RAIM) protection limits follow the selected CDI range and corresponding flight phases.
The GPS CDI Box on the System Setup 1 Page displays the following:
• Selected CDI range (auto, 2 nm, 1 nm, 0.3 nm)
• Current system CDI range (2 nm, 1 nm, 0.3 nm)
Changing the CDI range:
1) While on the System Setup 1 Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the selected field in the GPS CDI Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the range list and press the ENT Key when the desired
selection is highlighted.
4) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
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COM Configuration
NOTE: 8.33 kHz VHF communication frequency channel spacing is not approved for use in the United States.
Select the 25.0 kHz channel spacing option for use in the United States.
The COM Configuration Box on the System Setup 1 Page allows the pilot to select 8.33 kHz or 25.0 kHz
COM frequency channel spacing.
To change COM channel spacing:
1) While on the System Setup 1 Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the channel spacing field in the COM Configuration Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired spacing and press the ENT Key.
Electronic Stability and Protection
Garmin Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) is an optional feature intended to discourage the
exceedance of attitude, airspeed, and angle of attack (AOA) parameters. This feature will only operate when
the aircraft is above 200 feet AGL and the autopilot is not engaged. The pilot can enable/disable ESP on the
System Setup Pages on the MFD.
Enabling/disabling ESP:
1) While on the System Setup 2 Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the status field of the Stability & Protection Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘ENABLE’ or ‘DISABLE’ and press the ENT Key when the desired selection is
highlighted.
Nearest Airports
The Nearest Airports Box on the System Setup 1 Page defines the minimum runway length and surface
type used when determining the nine nearest airports to display on the MFD Nearest Airports Page. A
minimum runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways or
runways that are not of appropriate surface from being displayed. Default settings are zero feet (or meters)
for runway length and “HARD/SOFT” for runway surface type.
To select nearest airport surface matching criteria (any, hard only, hard/soft, water):
1) While on the System Setup 1 Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the runway surface field in the Nearest Airports Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the runway options (any, hard only, hard/soft, water) and
press the ENT Key when the desired selection is highlighted.
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To select nearest airport minimum runway length matching criteria:
1) While on the System Setup 1 Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the minimum length field in the Nearest Airport Box.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter the minimum runway length (zero to 99,999 feet) and press the ENT Key.
CDI/BARO Synchronization
See the Flight Instruments section for a discussion on synchronizing both PFD’s Course Deviation
Indicators and the altimeter barometric settings.
Pilot Profiles
System settings may be saved under a pilot profile. When the system is powered on, the last selected pilot
profile is shown on the MFD power-up screen (Figure 1-8). The G1000 can store up to 25 profiles; the
currently active profile, the amount of memory used, and the amount of memory available are shown at the
top of the System Setup 1 Page in the box labeled ‘Pilot Profile’. From here, pilot profiles may be created,
selected, renamed, or deleted.
Figure 1-34 Pilot Profiles (System Setup 1 Page)
Creating a profile:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CREATE’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Create Profile’ window is displayed.
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter a profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key. Pilot profile names
cannot begin with a blank as the first letter.
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6) In the next field, use the small FMS Knob to select the desired settings upon which to base the new profile.
Profiles can be created based on Garmin factory defaults, default profile settings (initially based on Garmin
factory defaults unless edited by the pilot), or current system settings.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘CREATE’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to create the profile
Or:
Use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CREATE and ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to activate the new profile.
9) To cancel the process, select ‘CANCEL’ with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key.
Selecting an active profile:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the active profile field in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the pilot profile list and highlight the desired profile.
5) Press the ENT Key. The G1000 loads and displays the system settings for the selected profile.
Renaming a profile:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘RENAME’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Rename Profile’ window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to rename.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter a new profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘RENAME’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
9) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting a profile:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘DELETE’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Delete Profile’ window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to delete.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) With ‘DELETE’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
8) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
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Importing a profile from an SD card:
1) Insert an SD card containing the pilot profile(s) into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
3) Select the IMPORT Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Import Pilot Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
4) The system displays the Pilot Profile Importing Window with ‘IMPORT’ highlighted. To change the selected
profile to be imported from the SD card (shown as ‘SELECT FILE’), turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the
profile file name, then turn the small FMS Knob to highlight a profile from the list, and press the ENT Key.
5) If desired, the profile name to be used after profile has been imported can be changed by turning the FMS
Knob to highlight the ‘PROFILE NAME’ field, then use the large and small FMS Knobs to enter the name, and
press the ENT Key. Imported profile names cannot begin with a blank space or be named ‘DEFAULT’, ‘GARMIN
DEFAULTS’ or ‘DEFAULT SETTINGS’.
6) With ‘IMPORT’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
7) If the imported profile name is the same as an existing profile on the system, the system displays an ‘Overwrite
existing file? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to replace profile on the system with the profile
imported from the SD card, or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to the
Pilot Profile Importing Window.
8) If successful, the system displays ‘Pilot profile import succeeded.’ in the IMPORT RESULTS window below. With
‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT or CLR Keys or press the FMS Knob to return to the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
The imported profile becomes the active profile.
Pilot Profile Importing and Import
Results Window
Pilot Profiles Available for Import from
SD Card (‘STEVE’S PROFILE’ Selected)
Import Successful
Figure 1-35 Pilot Profile Importing Window (AUX - System Setup 1 Page)
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Exporting a profile to an SD card:
1) Insert the SD card for storing the Pilot Profile into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
3) If necessary, activate the desired pilot profile to export. Only the currently active Pilot Profile can be exported.
4) Select the EXPORT Softkey. The system displays the Pilot Profile Exporting Window.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Export Pilot Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
5) To export the pilot profile using the current supplied name, press the ENT Key with ‘EXPORT’ highlighted. To
change the profile file name turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘SELECT FILE’ field, then enter the new
name with the large and small FMS Knobs, then press the ENT Key. Then press the ENT Key with ‘EXPORT’
highlighted.
6) If the profile name to be exported is the same as an existing profile file name on the SD card, the system displays
an ‘Overwrite existing file? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to replace the profile on the SD card
with the profile to be exported, or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to
the Pilot Profile Exporting Window without exporting the profile.
7) If successful, the EXPORT RESULTS window displays ‘Pilot profile export succeeded.’ With ‘OK’ highlighted,
press the ENT or CLR Keys, or press the FMS Knob to return to the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
Pilot Profile Exporting Window, Enter a
Name to Use for Exported Profile
Export Successful
Figure 1-36 Pilot Profile Exporting Window (AUX - System Setup 1 Page)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM STATUS PAGE
The System Status Page displays the status and software version numbers for all detected system LRUs.
Pertinent information on all system databases is also displayed. Active LRUs are indicated by green check marks
and failed LRUs are indicated by red ‘X’s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center informed.
Figure 1-37 Example System Status Page
The LRU and ARFRM, Softkeys on the System Status Page select the applicable list (LRU INFO or
AIRFRAME window) through which the FMS Knob can be used to scroll information within the selected
window.
Selecting the MFD1 DB Softkey (label background changes to grey indicting the softkey is selected) places
the cursor in the DATABASE window. Use the FMS Knob to scroll through database information for the
MFD. Selecting the softkey again will change the softkey label to PFD1 DB. PFD 1 database information is
now displayed in the DATABASE window. Selecting the softkey a third time will change the softkey label to
PFD2 DB. PFD 2 database information is now displayed in the DATABASE window.
The ANN TEST Softkey, when selected, causes an annunciation test tone to be played.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.8 DISPLAY BACKLIGHTING
The G1000 display and control backlighting can be adjusted either automatically or manually. Backlighting
intensity ranges from 0.22% to 100% on the PFDs and 0.80% to 100.00% on the MFD.
AUTOMATIC ADJUSTMENT
The existing instrument panel dimmer bus normally controls the PFD and MFD bezels, MFD Control Unit,
AFCS Control Unit and audio panel key annunciator lighting. When the dimmer bus is not used by the G1000
system, photocell technology automatically controls backlighting adjustments. Photocell calibration curves are
pre-configured to optimize display appearance through a broad range of cockpit lighting conditions.
MANUAL ADJUSTMENT
NOTE: In normal mode, backlighting can only be adjusted from PFD1 or PFD2. In reversionary mode, it can
also be adjusted from the MFD.
NOTE: No other window can be displayed on the PFD while the PFD Setup Menu Window is displayed.
Backlighting may also be adjusted manually for all of the displays and the associated bezels. The audio panel
key backlighting is directly tied to the on-side PFD key backlighting setting.
To adjust display backlighting manually:
1) Press the MENU Key on the PFD to display the PFD Setup Menu Window. ‘AUTO’ becomes highlighted to the
right of ‘PFD1 DSPL’.
Figure 1-38 Manual Display Backlighting Adjustment
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the selection box. Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘MANUAL’, then press the
ENT Key. The intensity value becomes highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired backlighting, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘AUTO’ to the right of ‘MFD DSPL’ or ‘PFD2 DSPL’, respectively, and
repeat steps 2 and 3.
5) Press the CLR or MENU Key to remove the PFD Setup Menu Window from the display.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
To adjust key backlighting manually:
1) Press the MENU Key on the PFD to display the PFD Setup Menu Window. ‘AUTO’ becomes highlighted to the
right of ‘PFD1 DSPL’.
Figure 1-39 Manual Key Lighting Adjustment
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘PFD1 DSPL’. Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green
arrowhead to display ‘PFD1 KEY’.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘AUTO’ and turn the small FMS Knob to display the selection box.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘MANUAL’, then press the ENT Key. The intensity value becomes highlighted.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired backlighting, then press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘MFD DSPL’ or ‘PFD2 DSPL’ and turn the small FMS Knob in the direction
of the green arrowhead to display ‘MFD KEY’ or ‘PFD2 KEY’, respectively.
7) Repeat steps 3 to 5.
8) Press the CLR or MENU Key to remove the PFD Setup Menu Window from the display.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: If the airspeed, attitude, altitude, or heading indications become unusable, refer to the backup
instruments.
NOTE: The Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) provides additional readouts and bugs on selected flight
instruments. Refer to the AFCS Section for details on these bugs and readouts, as they appear on the display
during certain AFCS flight director modes.
Increased situational awareness is provided by replacing the traditional instruments on the panel with two easyto-scan Primary Flight Displays (PFDs) that feature large horizons, airspeed, attitude, altitude, vertical speed, and
course deviation information. In addition to the flight instruments, navigation, communication, terrain, traffic,
and weather information are also presented on the PFDs and are explained in other sections of this Pilot’s Guide.
The following flight instruments and supplemental flight data are displayed on the PFDs:
• Airspeed Indicator, showing
• Outside air temperature (OAT)
• Horizontal Situation Indicator, showing
– Indicated airspeed
– Airspeed awareness ranges
– Turn Rate Indicator
– Vspeed reference flags
– Bearing pointers and information windows
– True airspeed (TBM 850 only)
– Navigation source
– Mach number (TBM 900 only)
– Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
• Attitude Indicator with slip/skid indication
– Bearing pointers and information windows
• Altimeter, showing
– DME Information Window
– Trend vector
• Transponder Mode, Code, and Ident/Reply
– Barometric setting
• Timer/References Window, showing
– Selected altitude
– Generic timer
– Vspeed values
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope, and Glidepath
Indicators
– Barometric minimum descent altitude (MDA)
• Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
• Wind data
• Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications
Angle of Attack (AOA) Indicator
The PFDs also displays various alerts and annunciations.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
23
22
21
20
1
19
18
17
2
16
15
3
14
4
13
5
12
6
11
7
10
8
9
Figure 2-1 Primary Flight Display (Default)
56
1
NAV Frequency Box
12
Selected Heading Bug
2
Airspeed Indicator
13
Turn Rate Indicator
3
14
Barometric Altimeter Setting
4
True Airspeed (TBM 850) or Mach
number (TBM 900)
Current Heading
15
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
5
Current Track Indicator
16
Selected Altitude Bug
6
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
17
Altimeter
7
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
18
Selected Altitude
8
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
19
COM Frequency Box
9
Softkeys
20
Navigation Status Box
10
System Time
21
AFCS Status Box
11
Transponder Data Box
22
Slip/Skid Indicator
23
Attitude Indicator
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
16
15
1
14
13
2
3
12
4
11
5
10
9
6
7
8
Figure 2-2 Primary Flight Display (Additional Information)
190-00709-07 Rev. B
1
Traffic Annunciation
8
Flight Plan Window
2
Vspeed Reference
9
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height
3
Angle of Attack Indicator
10
Selected Course
3
Selected Heading
11
Radar Altimeter
4
Wind Data
12
Current Vertical Speed
5
Inset Map
13
Glidepath Indicator
6
DME Information Window
14
Terrain Annunciation
7
Bearing Information Windows
15
AFCS Status Annunciation
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
NOTE: Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for airspeed criteria and Vspeed values.
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The numeric labels and
major tick marks on the moving tape are shown at intervals of 10 knots. The minor tick marks on the moving
tape are marked at intervals of five knots. Speed indication starts at 20 knots, with 60 knots of airspeed
viewable at any time. The indicated airspeed is displayed inside the black pointer. The pointer remains black
until reaching maximum operating speed (VMO), at which point it becomes red. For the TBM 850, the true
airspeed appears in knots below the Airspeed Indicator. For the TBM 900, the Mach number appears below
the Airspeed Indictor at or above Mach 0.3. The Mach number appears in a red background when the airspeed
enters VMO.
Approach
Reference
Indicated
Airspeed
True Airspeed
(TBM 850 only)
Speed
Ranges
Airspeed
Trend
Vector
Vspeed
References
Mach Number
(TBM 900
only)
Figure 2-3 Airspeed Indicator
Mach Number
during
Overspeed
(TBM 900
only)
Figure 2-4 Overspeed/Minimum Speed Indications
A color-coded (white, green, and red/white barber pole) speed range strip is located on the moving tape. The
colors denote flaps operating range, normal operating range, and maximum operating speed (VMO). A red range
is also present for low speed awareness.
The Approach Reference is a hollow green circle controlled by the AOA computer. It indicates an approximate
airspeed of 1.3 times the stall speed for the current weight, g loading and aircraft configuration. The Approach
Reference may be used as a general reference for Vref. It is not actually Vref, but will indicate approximately
what Vref is. This approximation is most accurate when the airplane is near approach speed. The Approach
Reference will move based on aircraft attitude and flap position. When the aircraft turns, it indicates a speed
that provides a safety margin over stall speed, as approach speed provides in level flight.
The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical magenta line that appears to the right of the color-coded speed range
strip when airspeed is either accelerating or decelerating. One end of the magenta line is anchored to the
tip of the airspeed pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down corresponding to the rate of
acceleration or deceleration. For any constant rate of acceleration or deceleration, the moving end of the line
shows approximately what the indicated airspeed value will be in six seconds. If the Airspeed Trend Vector
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
enters VMO, the indicated airspeed (and Mach number on the TBM 900) appear in yellow. The trend vector is
absent if the speed remains constant or if any data needed to calculate the trend vector is not available due to
a system failure.
Vspeeds (VR, VX, VY, and VAPP,) can be changed and the Vspeed flags can be turned on/off from the Timer/
References Window. When active (on), the Vspeeds are displayed at their respective locations to the right of
the airspeed scale. All Vspeed values are reset and all Vspeed flags are turned off during power up.
Changing Vspeeds and turning Vspeed flags on/off:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field of the desired Vspeed to be changed.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to change the Vspeed in 1-kt increments. When a speed has been changed from a
default value, an asterisk appears next to the speed.
4) Press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ON/OFF field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ON or counterclockwise to OFF.
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
Figure 2-5 Timer/References Window
Figure 2-6 Timer/References Menu
Turning all Vspeed flags on/off:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) To activate all Vspeed flags, press the ENT Key with All References On highlighted.
4) To remove all Vspeed flags, turn the FMS Knob to highlight All References Off and press the ENT Key.
Restoring all defaults:
1) Presst the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight Restore Defaults and press the ENT Key.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ATTITUDE INDICATOR
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a white horizon line. The
Attitude Indicator displays the pitch, roll, and slip/skid information.
9
8
1
7
2
6
3
4
5
1
Roll Pointer
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
Aircraft Symbol
5
Land Representation
6
Pitch Scale
7
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
Figure 2-7 Attitude Indicator
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Above and below the horizon line, major pitch marks and numeric
labels are shown for every 10˚, up to 80˚. Minor pitch marks are shown for intervening 5˚ increments, up to
25˚ below and 45˚ above the horizon line. Between 20˚ below to 20˚ above the horizon line, minor pitch marks
occur every 2.5˚.
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚ and 60˚ and minor tick
marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the zero. Angle of bank is indicated by the position
of the pointer on the roll scale.
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the bar beneath the roll pointer. The indicator bar moves with the roll pointer and
moves laterally away from the pointer to indicate uncoordinated flight. Slip (inside the turn) or skid (outside
the turn) is indicated by the location of the bar relative to the pointer.
When the optional Garmin Electronic Stability and Protection (Garmin ESP™) system is available, additional
indications may appear on the pitch and roll scales; refer to the Additional Features and AFCS Sections for more
information about Garmin ESP.
Figure 2-8 Slip/Skid Indication
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ALTIMETER
The Altimeter displays 1,000 feet of barometric altitude values at a time on a moving tape rolling number
gauge Numeric labels and major tick marks are shown at intervals of 100 feet. Minor tick marks are at intervals
of 20 feet. The current altitude is displayed in the black pointer.
The Altimeter also displays a reference to the height above the ground; refer to Radar Altimeter discussion
later in this section for more information.
The Selected Altitude is displayed above the Altimeter in the box indicated by a selection bug symbol. A bug
corresponding to this altitude is shown on the tape; if the Selected Altitude exceeds the range shown on the
tape, the bug appears at the upper or lower edge of the tape. See the AFCS Section for more information about
Selected Altitude.
Setting the Selected Altitude:
T urn the ALT SEL Knob to set the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments (increments reduce to 10 feet for
approach) up to the aircraft’s service ceiling. When meters are displayed, Selected Altitude is adjusted in 50
meter increments.
If set, the Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height (MDA/DH) value is also available for the Selected Altitude.
If desired, press the ALT SEL Knob to synchronize the selected altitude to the displayed altitude to the nearest
10 ft.
Selected
Altitude
Altitude
Trend
Vector
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Selected
Altitude
(Meters
Overlay)
Indicated
Altitude
(Meters
Overlay)
Indicated
Altitude
Barometric
Minimums
Bug
Barometric
Setting
Barometric
Setting
(Hectopascals)
Figure 2-9 Altimeter (Standard and Metric)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Altitudes can also be displayed in meters as an overlay (Figure 2-9). Note that the altitude tape does not
change scale.
Displaying metric altitude overlay:
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT UNIT Softkey.
3) Press the METERS Softkey to enable metric altitude overlay.
4) Select the BACK Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
A magenta Altitude Trend Vector extends up or down the left of the altitude tape. The end extends to the
approximate altitude to be reached in six seconds at the current vertical speed. The trend vector is not shown
if altitude remains constant or if data needed for calculation is not available due to a system failure.
The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury (in Hg) or hectopascals
(hPa). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNV vertical deviation, moving the
descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to re-establish on the descent
path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target Altitude, the aircraft may not reestablish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not operate properly
with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QHN altimeter setting for the height above mean sea level, or the
standard pressure setting, as applicable.
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
Turn the BARO Knob to select the desired setting.
Selecting standard barometric pressure (STD BARO):
Press the BARO Knob to select standard pressure.
Or:
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the STD BARO Softkey.
Figure 2-10 Standard Barometric Altimeter Setting
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units:
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Select the ALT UNIT Softkey.
3) Select the IN Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in inches of mercury (in Hg).
Or, select the HPA Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in hectopascals (hPa).
4) Select the BACK Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
If the barometric altimeter settings differ between PFDs by more than 0.02 in Hg, the readouts turn yellow
(Figure 2-11). The settings can be synchronized from the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD. Once the
settings are synchronized (BARO SYNCHRONIZATION turned on), they remain synchronized for the entire
flight.
Synchronizing the altimeter barometric pressure settings:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup Page using the FMS Knob.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Baro in the Synchronization box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ON or counterclockwise to OFF.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Barometric Settings
not Synchronized on PFD
Figure 2-11 Baro Synchronization Setting
(AUX - System Setup Page)
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
A Baro Transition Alert is provided to alert the pilot to change the barometric pressure setting when crossing
the transition altitude in either direction. This is displayed by the barometric pressure setting flashing cyan
when crossing the transition altitude. The flashing stops when the barometric pressure setting is changed.
Setting the Baro Transition Alert:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Altitude in the Baro Transition Alert box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to turn the alert OFF or ON and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to change the altitude and press the ENT Key.
6) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob.
Figure 2-12 Baro Transition Alert
(AUX - System Setup Page)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) displays the aircraft vertical speed on a fixed scale with labels at 2000 and
4000 fpm and minor tick marks every 1000 fpm (Figure 2-13). Digits appear in the pointer when the climb or
descent rate is greater than 100 fpm. If the rate of ascent/descent exceeds 4000 fpm, the pointer appears at the
edge of the tape and the rate appears inside the pointer.
A magenta chevron is displayed on the VSI as the Required Vertical Speed for reaching a VNV Target Altitude
once the “TOD [Top of Descent] within 1 minute” alert has been generated. See the Flight Management
and AFCS sections for details on VNV features, and refer to Section 2.2, Supplemental Flight Data, for more
information about VNV indications on the PFD.
VERTICAL DEVIATION
The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) is a magenta chevron to indicate the baro-VNV vertical deviation when
Vertical Navigation (VNV) is being used. The VDI (Figure 2-13) appears in conjunction with the “TOD within
1 minute” alert. Full-scale deflection (two dots) is 1000 feet. The VDI is removed from the display if vertical
deviation becomes invalid. See the Flight Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features, and refer
to Section 2.2, Supplemental Flight Data, for more information about VNV indications on the PFD.
The Glideslope Indicator (Figure 2-14) appears to the left of the Altimeter whenever an ILS frequency is tuned
in the active NAV field and the aircraft heading and selected course are within 107˚. A green diamond acts as
the Glideslope Indicator, like a glideslope needle on a conventional indicator. If a localizer frequency is tuned
and there is no glideslope, “NO GS” is annunciated in place of the diamond.
The glidepath is analogous to the glideslope for GPS approach service levels supporting SBAS vertical guidance
(LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LPV, LP+V). When an approach of one of these service levels is loaded into the flight
plan and GPS is the selected navigation source, the Glidepath Indicator (Figure 2-15) appears as a magenta
diamond when the aircraft reaches a point prior to the FAF. If the approach type changes past the final approach
fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the diamond.
Marker
Beacon
Annunciation
VNV
Target
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Vertical
Speed
Pointer
Figure 2-13 Vertical Speed and
Deviation Indicators (VSI and VDI)
190-00709-07 Rev. B
Glideslope
Indicator
Figure 2-14 Glideslope Indicator
Glidepath
Indicator
Figure 2-15 Glidepath Indicator
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) displays a rotating compass in a heading-up orientation. Letters
indicate the cardinal points and numeric labels occur every 30˚. Major tick marks are at 10˚ intervals and minor
tick marks at 5˚ intervals. A digital reading of the current heading appears on top of the HSI, and the current
track is represented on the HSI by a magenta diamond bug. The HSI also presents turn rate, course deviation,
bearing, and navigation source information and is available in two formats (360˚ compass rose and 140˚ arc).
Changing the HSI display format:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the HSI FRMT Softkey.
3) Press the 360 HSI or ARC HSI Softkey.
The 360˚ HSI contains a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI), with a Course Pointer, To/From Indicator, and a
sliding deviation bar and scale. The course pointer is a single line arrow (GPS, VOR1, and LOC1) or a double
line arrow (VOR2 and LOC2) which points in the direction of the set course. The To/From arrow rotates with
the course pointer and is displayed when the active NAVAID is received.
15
14
13
1
2
3
4
12
5
11
6
10
7
9
8
Figure 2-16 Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
66
1
Turn Rate Indicator
9
To/From Indicator
2
Current Track Indicator
10
Course Pointer
3
Lateral Deviation Scale
11
Heading Bug
4
Navigation Source
12
Flight Phase
5
Aircraft Symbol
13
6
7
Course Deviation Indicator
(CDI)
Rotating Compass Rose
15
8
OBS Mode Active
Turn Rate/Heading
Trend Vector
14 Current Heading
Lubber Line
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
The Arc HSI is a 140˚ expanded section of the compass rose. The Arc HSI contains a Course Pointer,
To/From Indicator, a sliding deviation indicator (the To/From and deviation indicators are combined), and a
deviation scale. Upon station passage, the To/From Indicator flips and points to the tail of the aircraft, just like
a conventional To/From flag. Depending on the navigation source, the CDI on the Arc HSI can appear in two
different ways: an arrowhead (GPS, VOR, OBS) or a diamond (LOC).
Flight Phase Annunciation
Course Pointer
Navigation
Source
Course Deviation
and To/From
Indicator
Lateral
Deviation
Scale
Figure 2-17 Arc HSI
The Selected Heading is shown to the upper left of the HSI for three seconds after being adjusted The cyan
bug on the compass rose corresponds to the Selected Heading. While the HSI is displayed as an arc, if the
Selected Heading Bug is adjusted off the shown portion of the compass rose, the digital reading displayed.
Adjusting the Selected Heading:
Turn the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading.
Press the HDG Knob to synchronize the bug to the current heading.
The Selected Course is shown to the upper right of the HSI for three seconds after being adjusted. While the
HSI is displayed as an arc, the Selected Course is displayed whenever the Course Pointer is not within the 140˚
currently shown.
Adjusting the Selected Course:
Turn the CRS Knob to set the Selected Course.
Press the CRS Knob to re-center the CDI and return the course pointer to the bearing of the active waypoint or
navigation station (see OBS Mode for adjusting a GPS course).
Current Track Indicator
Current Heading
Selected
Course
Selected
Heading
Selected
Heading
Bug
Figure 2-18 Heading and Course Indications
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Navigation angles (track, heading, course, bearing) are corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag
Var) or referenced to true north (T), set on the AUX - System Setup Page. When an approach referenced to
true north has been loaded into the flight plan, the system generates a message to change the navigation angle
setting to True at the appropriate time.
Figure 2-19 Heading and Course Indications (True)
Changing the navigation angle setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Nav Angle in the Display Units box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
• TRUE - References angles to true north (T)
• MAGNETIC - Angles corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag Var)
Figure 2-20 Navigation Angle Settings
(AUX - System Setup Page)
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TURN RATE INDICATOR
The Turn Rate Indicator is located directly above the rotating compass card. Tick marks to the left and right
of the lubber line denote half-standard and standard turn rates. A magenta Turn Rate Trend Vector shows the
current turn rate. The end of the trend vector gives the heading predicted in six seconds, based on the present
turn rate. A standard-rate turn is shown on the indicator by the trend vector stopping at the standard turn
rate tick mark, corresponding to a predicted heading of 18˚ from the current heading. At rates greater than 4
deg/sec, an arrowhead appears at the end of the magenta trend vector and the prediction is no longer valid.
Half-standard
Turn Rate
Arrow Shown
for Turn Rate
> 4 deg/sec
Standard
Turn Rate
Figure 2-21 Turn Rate Indicator and Trend Vector
BEARING POINTERS AND INFORMATION WINDOWS
NOTE: When the Arc HSI is displayed, the Bearing Information windows and pointers are disabled.
Two bearing pointers and associated information can be displayed on the HSI for the NAV, GPS, and ADF
sources. The bearing pointers are cyan and are single-line (BRG1) or double-line (BRG2). A pointer symbol
is shown in the information window to indicate the navigation source. The bearing pointers never override
the CDI and are visually separated from the CDI by a white ring. Bearing pointers may be selected but not
necessarily visible due to data unavailability.
Tuning Mode
Bearing 1
Pointer
Frequency
Distance
Bearing 2
Pointer
DME Information Window
Distance to
Bearing Source
No
Waypoint
Selected
Station
Identifier
Bearing
Pointer
Source
Icon
Bearing 1 Information Window
Pointer
Bearing
Icon
Source
Bearing 2 Information Window
Figure 2-22 HSI with Bearing and DME Information
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When a bearing pointer is displayed, its associated information window is also displayed. The Bearing
Information windows (Figure 2-22) are displayed to the lower sides of the HSI and give the following
information:
• Bearing source (NAV, GPS, ADF)
• Pointer icon (single line for BRG1, double line for BRG2)
• Frequency (NAV, ADF)
• Station/waypoint identifier (NAV, GPS)
• GPS-derived great circle distance to bearing source
When the NAV radio is tuned to an ILS frequency the bearing source and the bearing pointer are removed
from the HSI and the frequency is replaced with “ILS”. When NAV1 or NAV2 is the selected bearing source,
the frequency is replaced by the station identifier when the station is within range. If GPS is the bearing
source, the active waypoint identifier is displayed instead of a frequency.
The bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and NO DATA is displayed in the information window if: the
NAV radio is not receiving the tuned VOR station or if GPS is the bearing source and an active waypoint is
not selected.
When the Arc HSI is displayed, the Bearing Information windows and pointers are disabled.
Selecting bearing display and changing sources:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press a BRG Softkey to display the desired bearing pointer and information window with a NAV source.
3) Press the BRG Softkey again to change the bearing source to GPS.
4) Press the BRG Softkey a third time to change the bearing source to ADF (note: ADF radio installation is
optional).
5) To remove the bearing pointer and information window, press the BRG Softkey again.
DME INFORMATION WINDOW
NOTE: DME radio installation is optional.
The DME Information Window (Figure 2-22) is displayed above the BRG1 Information Window and shows
the DME label, tuning mode (NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD), frequency, and distance. When a signal is invalid,
the distance is replaced by “–.– – NM”. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for information on tuning
the radios.
Displaying the DME Information Window:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the DME Softkey to display the DME Information Window above the BRG1 Information Window.
3) To remove the DME Information Window, press the DME Softkey again.
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COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
NOTE: During a heading change of greater than 105° with respect to the course, the CDI on the Arc HSI
switches to the opposite side of the deviation scale and displays reverse sensing.
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer along a lateral deviation
scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data is not valid, the CDI is not
displayed.
360° HSI
Navigation
Source
Flight
Phase
Arc HSI
Navigation
Source
Flight
Phase
CDI
CDI
Scale
Scale
Crosstrack
Error
CDI
Figure 2-23 Course Deviation Indicator
The CDI can display two sources of navigation: GPS or NAV (VOR/LOC). The color indicates the current
navigation source: magenta for GPS or green for VOR and LOC. The full scale limits for the CDI are defined
by a GPS-derived distance when navigating GPS. When navigating using a VOR or localizer (LOC), the CDI
has the same angular limits as a mechanical CDI. If the CDI exceeds the maximum deviation on the scale (two
dots) while navigating with GPS, the crosstrack error (XTK) is displayed below the white aircraft symbol.
Navigation
Source Selected
on Both PFDs
Figure 2-24 Navigation Sources
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Changing navigation sources:
1) Press the CDI Softkey to change from GPS to VOR1 or LOC1. This places the cyan tuning box over the NAV1
standby frequency in the upper left corner of the PFD.
2) Press the CDI Softkey again to change from VOR1 or LOC1 to VOR2 or LOC2. This places the cyan tuning box
over the NAV2 standby frequency.
3) Press the CDI Softkey a third time to return to GPS.
NAV1 Selected for Tuning
NAV2 Selected for Tuning
VOR1
Selected
GPS
Selected
LOC2
Selected
Pressing the CDI
Softkey Cycles through
Navigation Sources
Figure 2-25 Selecting a Navigation Source
The system automatically switches from GPS to LOC navigation source and changes the CDI scaling
accordingly when all of the following occur:
• A localizer or ILS approach has been loaded into the active flight plan
• The final approach fix (FAF) is the active leg, the FAF is less than 15 nm away, and the aircraft is moving
toward the FAF
• A valid localizer frequency has been tuned
• The GPS CDI deviation is less than 1.2 times full-scale deflection
GPS steering guidance is still provided after the CDI automatically switches to LOC until LOC capture, up
to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) for an ILS approach, or until GPS information becomes invalid. Activating
a Vector-to-Final (VTF) also causes the CDI to switch to LOC navigation source. GPS steering guidance is not
provided after this switch.
On some ILS approaches where the glideslope intercept point is at or in close proximity to the fix prior to
the FAF (see Figure 2-26), it is possible to be above the glideslope when the navigation source automatically
switches from GPS to LOC. The probability of this occurring varies based on air temperature.
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Fix Prior to the FAF
Glideslope Intercept Point
Figure 2-26 ILS Approach with Glideslope Intercept Point at Fix Prior to the FAF
If the same VOR/LOC navigation source is selected on both PFDs, the navigation source annunciation turns
yellow on both displays (unless synchronized). Once the CDIs are synchronized (CDI Synchronization turned
on), they remain synchronized until the setting is changed. When turning on the G1000 for use, the system
remembers the last CDI synchronization setting.
Synchronizing the CDIs:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup Page using the FMS Knob.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor. Time Format is highlighted.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the CDI Synchronization ON/OFF field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ON or counterclockwise to OFF.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
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Figure 2-27 CDI Synchronization Setting
(AUX - System Setup Page)
GPS CDI SCALING
When GPS is the selected navigation source, the flight plan legs are sequenced automatically and
annunciations appear on the HSI for the flight phase. Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in
magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the color changes to yellow. If the current leg in the flight plan
is a heading leg, HDG LEG is annunciated in magenta beneath the aircraft symbol.
The current GPS CDI scale setting is displayed as System CDI on the AUX - System Setup Page and the fullscale deflection setting may also be changed (2.0 nm, 1.0 nm, 0.3 nm, or Auto) from this page. If the selected
scaling is smaller than the automatic setting for enroute and terminal phases, the CDI is scaled accordingly
and the selected setting is displayed rather than the flight phase annunciation.
Changing the selected GPS CDI setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Selected in the GPS CDI box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
5) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
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Figure 2-28 GPS CDI Settings
(AUX - System Setup Page)
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Terminal
Refer to accompanying
approach CDI scaling figures
Approach
(Oceanic 4.0 nm if >200 nm
from nearest airport)
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
1.0 nm
0.3 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
When set to Auto (default), the GPS CDI scale automatically adjusts to the desired limits based upon the
current phase of flight (Figure 2-29, Table 2-1).
Missed
Approach
Figure 2-29 Automatic CDI Scaling
• Once a departure procedure is activated, the CDI is scaled for departure (0.3 nm).
• The system switches from departure to terminal CDI scaling (1.0 nm) under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not aligned with the departure runway
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not a CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF (see
Glossary for leg type definitions)
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- After any leg in the departure procedure that is not a CA or FA
• At 30 nm from the departure airport, the enroute phase of flight is automatically entered and CDI scaling
changes to 2.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
- When navigating with an active departure procedure, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change
until the aircraft arrives at the last departure waypoint (if more than 30 nm from the departure airport) or
the leg after the last departure waypoint has been activated or a direct-to waypoint is activated.
• If after completing the departure procedure the nearest airport is more than 200 nm away from the aircraft
and the approach procedure has not yet commenced, the CDI is scaled for oceanic flight (4.0 nm).
• Within 31 nm of the destination airport (terminal area), the CDI scale gradually ramps down from 2.0 nm
to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm; except under the following conditions:
- Upon reaching the first waypoint of an arrival route that is more than 31 nm from the destination airport,
the flight phase changes to terminal and the CDI scale begins to transition down from 2.0 nm to 1.0 nm
over a distance of 1.0 nm.
• During approach, the CDI scale ramps down even further (see Figures 2-29 and 2-30). This transition
normally occurs within 2.0 nm of the final approach fix (FAF). The CDI switches to approach scaling
automatically once the approach procedure is activated or if Vectors-To-Final (VTF) are selected.
- If the active waypoint is the FAF, the ground track and the bearing to the FAF must be within 45° of the
final approach segment course.
FAF
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2 nm
FAF
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
angle based
on database
information
course width
2 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
angle set
by system
350 ft
CDI scale is set to the smaller of 0.3 nm
or an angle set by the system
1.0 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
- If the active waypoint is part of the missed approach procedure, the active leg and the preceding missed
approach legs must be aligned with the final approach segment course and the aircraft must not have
passed the turn initiation point.
Landing
Threshold
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
Figure 2-30 Typical LNAV and LNAV+V Approach Service Level
CDI Scaling
Figure 2-31 Typical LNAV/VNAV, LP, LP+V and LPV Approach
Service Level CDI Scaling
• When a missed approach is activated, the CDI scale changes to 0.3 nm.
• The system automatically switches back to terminal mode under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not aligned with the final approach path
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not a CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF
- After any leg in the missed approach procedure that is not a CA or FA
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Flight Phase
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Annunciation*
DPRT
TERM
ENR
OCN
Approach
(Non-precision)
LNAV
Approach
(Non-precision with
Vertical Guidance)
Approach
(LNAV/VNAV)
Approach
(LP)
Approach
(LP+V)
Approach
(LPV)
Missed Approach
Automatic CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
1.0 nm decreasing to 350 feet depending on
variables (see Figure 2-30)
LNAV + V
L/VNAV
LP
LP+V
1.0 nm decreasing to a specified course width, then
0.3 nm, depending on variables (see Figure 2-31)
LPV
MAPR
0.3 nm
* Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in magenta, but when cautionary
conditions exist the color changes to yellow.
Table 2-1 Automatic GPS CDI Scaling
OBS MODE
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
Enabling Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode suspends the automatic sequencing of waypoints in a GPS
flight plan (GPS must be the selected navigation source), but retains the current “active-to” waypoint as the
navigation reference even after passing the waypoint. OBS is annunciated to the lower right of the aircraft
symbol when OBS Mode is selected.
While OBS Mode is enabled, a course line is drawn through the Active-to waypoint on the moving map. If
desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled, the GPS flight
plan returns to normal operation with automatic sequencing of waypoints, following the course set in OBS
Mode. The flight path on the moving map retains the modified course line.
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OBS Course
GPS
Selected
OBS
Mode
Enabled
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Enables OBS
Mode
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Again Disables
OBS Mode
Figure 2-32 Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode
Enabling/disabling OBS Mode while navigating a GPS flight plan:
1) Press the OBS Softkey to select OBS Mode.
2) Turn a CRS Knob to select the desired course to/from the waypoint. Press the CRS Knob to synchronize the
Selected Course with the bearing to the next waypoint.
3) Press the OBS Softkey again to return to automatic waypoint sequencing.
As the aircraft crosses the missed approach point (MAP), automatic approach waypoint sequencing is
suspended. SUSP appears on the HSI at the lower right of the aircraft symbol. The OBS Softkey label changes
to indicate the suspension is active as shown in Figure 2-33. Selecting the SUSP Softkey deactivates the
suspension and resumes automatic sequencing of approach waypoints.
SUSP
Softkey
SUSP Annunciation
Figure 2-33 Suspending Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
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ANGLE OF ATTACK (AOA) INDICATOR
The Angle of Attack (AOA) Indicator (Figure 2-34) appears on the PFD to the left of the airspeed indicator
and displays the normalized angle of attack. White and red arcs indicate AOA ranges. The pointer color
matches the color of the arc associated with the current AOA value.
The pilot can enable/disable the display of the AOA Indicator on the PFD. If any of the GDU’s are in
revisionary mode, the AOA Indicator is removed.
Figure 2-34 Angle of Attack (AOA) Indicator
Enabling/disabling the AOA Indicator display mode:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press AOA/WIND Softkey.
3) Press the AOA Softkey.
4) To turn the function on or off, press the AOA AUTO Softkey.
If the angle of attack is within four degrees of a stall condition, a Pitch Limit Indicator (Figure 2-35) appears on
the Attitude Indicator at the corresponding pitch attitude. The Pitch Limit Indicator is subsequently removed
when the angle of attack is five dergrees or greater from a stall condition.
Pitch Limit Indicator
Figure 2-35 Pitch Limit Indicator
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2.2 SUPPLEMENTAL FLIGHT DATA
NOTE: Selecting the DFLTS Softkey turns off metric altimeter display, Hpa Baro Setting, the Inset Map, and
wind data display.
In addition to the flight instruments, the PFD also displays various supplemental information, including
temperatures, wind data, and Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications.
TEMPERATURE DISPLAYS
The Outside Air Temperature (OAT) is displayed in degrees Celsius (°C) by default in the lower left of the PFD
under normal display conditions, or below the true airspeed in reversionary mode.
Normal Display
Reversionary Mode
Figure 2-36 Outside Air Temperature
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Changing temperature display units:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD using the FMS Knob.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the TEMP field in the Display Units box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight either CELSIUS or FAHRENHEIT and press the ENT Key to confirm the
selection.
5) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
Figure 2-37 Temperature Selection Setting
(AUX - System Setup Page)
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WIND DATA
Wind direction and speed in knots can be displayed relative to the aircraft in a window to the upper left of
the HSI. When the window is selected for display, but wind information is invalid or unavailable, the window
shows NO WIND DATA. Wind data can be displayed in three different ways.
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
No Data
Figure 2-38 Wind Data
Displaying wind data:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the WIND Softkey to display wind data to the left of the HSI.
3) Press one of the OPTN softkeys to change how wind data is displayed:
• OPTN 1: Wind direction arrows with numeric headwind/tailwind and crosswind components
• OPTN 2: Wind direction arrow with numeric speed
• OPTN 3: Wind direction arrow with numeric direction and speed
4) To remove the window, select the OFF Softkey.
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VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNV) INDICATIONS
When a VNV flight plan has been activated, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, RVSI, VDI) appear on the
PFD in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute message” and “Vertical track” voice alert. See the Flight
Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features. VNV indications are removed from the PFD
according to the criteria listed in Table 2-2.
Top of Descent Message
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Enroute
Phase of
Flight
Figure 2-39 Vertical Navigation Indications (PFD)
VNV Indication Removed
Required Vertical
Vertical
VNV Target
Speed (RVSI)
Deviation (VDI)
Altitude
Aircraft > 1 min before the next TOD due to flight plan change
X
X
X
VNV cancelled (CNCL VNV Softkey selected on MFD)
X
X
X
Distance to active waypoint cannot be computed due to
unsupported flight plan leg type (see Flight Management
X
X
X
Section)
Aircraft > 250 feet below active VNV Target Altitude
X
X
X
Current crosstrack or track angle error has exceeded limit
X
X
X
Active altitude-constrained waypoint can not be reached within
X
X
maximum allowed flight path angle and vertical speed
Criteria
Table 2-2 VNV Indication Removal Criteria
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2.3 PFD ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTING FUNCTIONS
The following annunciations and alerting functions are displayed on the PFD. Refer to the Engine/Airframe
Systems Section for information on the Crew Alerting System (CAS) and to Appendix A for more information on
alerts and annunciations.
SYSTEM ALERTING
The System Messages Window conveys messages to the flight crew regarding problems with the G1000
System. When a new message is issued, the MSG Softkey flashes to alert the flight crew. It continues to flash
until pressed, which opens the System Messages Window and acknowledges the message(s) which initiated the
flashing. When the window is open, messages for conditions which are no longer active turn gray. Messages
generated while the window is open are not automatically displayed, but cause the MSG Softkey to begin
flashing again. Pressing the MSG Softkey while the System Messages Window is open closes the window unless
the MSG Softkey is flashing.
Critical values generated by redundant sensors are monitored by comparators. If differences in the sensors
exceed a specified amount, the Comparator Window appears in the upper right corner of the PFD and the
discrepancy is annunciated in the Comparator Window as a MISCOMP (miscompare). If one or both of the
sensed values are unavailable, it is annunciated as a NO COMP (no compare).
Reversionary sensor selection is annunciated in a window on the right side of the PFD. These annunciations
reflect reversionary sensors selected on one or both PFDs. Pressing the SENSOR Softkey accesses the ADC1,
ADC2, AHRS1, and AHRS2 softkeys. These softkeys allow switching of the sensors being viewed on each
PFD. With certain types of sensor failures, the system may make some sensor selections automatically. The GPS
sensor cannot be switched manually.
Comparator
Window
Reversionary
Sensor
Window
Messages
Window
Softkey
Flashes for
New System
Message
Figure 2-40 G1000 Alerting System
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MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATIONS
Marker Beacon Annunciations are displayed on the PFD to the left of the Selected Altitude. Outer marker
reception is indicated in blue, middle in yellow, and inner in white. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section
for more information on Marker Beacon Annunciations.
Outer Marker
Middle Marker
Inner Marker
Altimeter
Figure 2-41 Marker Beacon Annunciations
TRAFFIC ANNUNCIATION
Traffic is displayed symbolically on the Inset Map (PFD), the Navigation Map Page (MFD), and various other
MFD page maps. Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section and Appendix F for more details about Traffic alerts.
When a Traffic Advisory (TA) is detected, the following automatically occurs:
• The PFD Inset Map is enabled, displaying traffic
• A flashing black-on-yellow TRAFFIC annunciation appears to the top left of the Attitude Indicator for five
seconds and remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area
• The traffic system issues a voice alert.
If additional TAs appear, new aural and visual alerts are generated.
Traffic
Symbols
PFD Traffic Annunciation
PFD Inset Map with Traffic Displayed
Figure 2-42 Traffic Annunciation and Inset Map with Traffic Displayed
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TERRAIN ANNUNCIATIONS
Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) or Terrain-SVS annunciations appear on the PFD to the
upper left of the altimeter. Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section and Appendix A for information on terrain
alerts and annunciations.
Figure 2-43 Traffic and Example Terrain Annunciations
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ALTITUDE ALERTING
The Altitude Alerting function provides visual alerts when approaching the Selected Altitude, and visual and
audio alerts when deviating from the selected altitude. Whenever the Selected Altitude on the PFD is changed,
Altitude Alerting is reset. Altitude Alerting is independent of the AFCS.
The following occur when approaching the Selected Altitude:
• Upon passing through 1000 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude Box changes to black text on
a cyan background and flashes for five seconds.
• When the aircraft passes within 200 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude changes to cyan text
on a black background and flashes for five seconds.
• After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the aircraft flies outside the deviation band (±200 feet of the Selected
Altitude), the Selected Altitude Box changes to yellow text on a black background, flashes for five seconds,
and an aural tone is generated.
Within 1000 feet
Within 200 feet
Deviation of ±200 feet
Figure 2-44 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
LOW ALTITUDE ANNUNCIATION
NOTE: The Low Altitude Annunciation requires SBAS. Terrain alerts from Terrain-SVS or TAWS-B systems will
appear instead of the Low Altitude Annunciation when these systems are operating and not inhibited.
When the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach using vertical guidance,
a Low Altitude Annunciation may appear if the current aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed
altitude at the FAF. A black-on-yellow LOW ALT annunciation appears to the top right of the Altimeter, flashing
for several seconds then remaining displayed until the condition is resolved.
LOW ALT
Annunciation
Altimeter
Figure 2-45 Low Altitude on GPS SBAS Approach
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MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT ALERTING
For altitude awareness, a Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH), based on barometric
altitude, temperature compensated altitude or radar altitude, can be set. When active, the altitude setting is
displayed to the lower left of the altimeter and with a bug at the corresponding altitude along the altimeter (once
the altitude is within the visible range of the tape). The following visual annunciations alert the pilot when
approaching the MDA or DH:
• When the aircraft altitude descends to within 2500 feet of the MDA/DH setting, a box labeled BARO MIN,
RA MIN, or COMP MIN (based on the selected altitude source) appears with the altitude in cyan text (or
magenta for TEMP COMP). The bug appears in cyan (or magenta for TEMP COMP) on the altitude tape at
the corresponding altitude once in range.
• When the aircraft passes through 100 feet of the MDA or DH, the bug and text turn white.
• Once the aircraft reaches the MDA/DH, the bug and text turn yellow and the aural alert, “Minimums
Minimums”, is generated. When the radar altimeter is selected as the altitude source for the Minimum
Descent Altitude alerting function, the color of the current radar height changes to yellow.
Within 2500 feet
Within 100 feet
Altitude Reached
MDA/DH
Bug
MDA/DH
Setting
Figure 2-46 Barometric MDA/DH Alerting Visual Annunciations
Alerting is inhibited while the aircraft is on the ground and until the aircraft reaches 150 feet above the setting
for the alert. If the aircraft proceeds to climb after having reached the MDA/DH, once it reaches 50 feet above
the MDA/DH, alerting is disabled.
The MDA/DH may be set from either PFD and is synchronized on both PFDs. The function is reset when the
power is cycled.
Setting the barometric minimum descent altitude and bug:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Minimums field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired altitude source: barometric (BARO), temperature compensated
(TEMP COMP), or radar altimeter (RAD ALT). OFF is selected by default. Press the ENT Key or turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the next field.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired altitude (from zero to 16,000 feet).
5) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or press the TMR/REF Softkey.
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Figure 2-47 BARO and TEMP COMP MDA/DH
RADAR ALTIMETER
When the radar height (the aircraft altitude above ground level detected by the radar altimeter) is between
zero and 2500 feet, the current value is displayed in green to the upper right of the HSI (Figure 2-48). Display
of radar height becomes more sensitive as the height above ground decreases (Table 2-3).
Radar Altimeter
Figure 2-48 Current Radar Height
Radar Height Range
Shown to Nearest
0 to 200 feet
5 feet
200 to 1500 feet
10 feet
1500 to 2500 feet
50 feet
Table 2-3 Radar Altimeter Sensitivity
When the radar altimeter is selected as the altitude source for the minimum descent altitude alerting function
(Figure 2-49), the color of the radar height changes to yellow upon reaching (or descending below) the altitude
entered. (Figure 2-50).
Figure 2-49 RAD ALT Setting
(Timer/References Window)
Figure 2-50 RA as Altitude Source for MDA/DH
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A ground line with diagonal stripes below it (Figure 2-51) appears on the Altimeter to show the aircraft’s
height above the ground. If the radar altimeter data becomes invalid, the message “RA FAIL” is displayed in
yellow in place of the current radar height (Figure 2-52). The Radar Altimeter test is done on the MFD, and the
‘RA TEST’ annunciation appears on the PFD directly above the Radar Altimeter box (Figure 2-53).
Ground
Line
Radar Altimeter
Radar Altimeter
Minimums Box
Figure 2-51 Altimeter Displaying the Ground Line (RAD ALT)
Figure 2-52 Radar Altimeter Invalid Data
Testing the Radar Altimeter (KRA 405B only):
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page on the MFD.
2) Select the RA TEST Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Enable RA Test Mode’ and press the ENT Key.
The ‘RA TEST’ annunciation is displayed above the RA box (Figure 2-52). To cancel the test, select the RA TEST
Softkey again, or turn the FMS Knob to exit the AUX - System Status Page.
Figure 2-53 Radar Altimeter Test Display (KRA 405B)
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2.4 ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
ABNORMAL GPS CONDITIONS
The annunciations listed in Table 2-4 can appear on the HSI when abnormal GPS conditions occur (Figure
2-54). Refer to the Flight Management Section for more information on Dead Reckoning Mode.
Annunciation
LOI
INTEG OK
DR
Location
Lower left of
aircraft symbol
Lower left of
aircraft symbol
Upper right of
aircraft symbol
Description
Loss of Integrity Monitoring–GPS integrity is insufficient for the current
phase of flight
Integrity OK–GPS integrity has been restored to within normal limits
(annunciation displayed for five seconds)
Dead Reckoning–System is using projected position rather than GPS position
to compute navigation data and sequence active flight plan waypoints
Table 2-4 Abnormal GPS Conditions Annunciated on HSI
Figure 2-54 Example of HSI Annunciations
Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode causes the following items on the PFD to be shown in yellow when GPS is the
selected navigation source:
• CDI (removed after 20 minutes)
• Current Track Bug
• Wind Data (calculated based on GPS information)
• Distances in the Bearing Information windows
• GPS bearing pointers
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the G1000 in DR Mode may become
increasingly unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. See the Flight Management section
for more information about DR mode.
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HEADING FAILURE MODES
If the system is unable to determine the aircraft heading, but GPS-based track information is available, the
HSI displays the ground track instead of heading using HSI Track Mode. In this mode, a magenta ‘TRK’
annunciation and track readout appear on the HSI. In addition, a yellow ‘HDG’ annunciation with a red X
appear above the ‘TRK’ annunciation to indicate the HSI is displaying track instead of heading.
If both the heading and track are unavailable, the HSI displays a yellow ‘HDG’ annunciation with a red X over
the heading readout box. The system also removes directional numbers and letters from the HSI.
HSI Track Mode (Heading Unavailable, Track Available)
Heading and Track Unavailable
Figure 2-55 Heading Failure Displays on the HSI
NOTE: When heading information is unavailable, the system removes the bearing pointers from the HSI, and
removes wind data from the PFD and navigation maps.
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
When the aircraft enters an unusual pitch attitude, red extreme pitch warning chevrons pointing toward the
horizon are displayed on the Attitude Indicator, starting at 50˚ above and 30˚ below the horizon line.
Nose High
Nose Low
Figure 2-56 Pitch Attitude Warnings
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If pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚, some information displayed on the PFD is removed. The
Altimeter and Airspeed, Attitude, Vertical Speed, and Horizontal Situation indicators remain on the display
and the Bearing Information, Alerts, and Annunciation windows can be displayed during such situations. The
following information is removed from the PFD (and corresponding softkeys are disabled) when the aircraft
experiences unusual attitudes:
• Traffic Annunciations
• System Time
• AFCS Annunciations
• PFD Setup Menu
• Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height readout
• Flight director Command Bars
• Inset Map
• Windows displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD:
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope,
and Glidepath Indicators
• Outside air temperature (OAT)
– Timer/References
• Altimeter Barometric Setting
• DME Information Window
– Nearest Airports
• Selected Altitude
• Wind data
– Flight Plan
• VNV Target Altitude
• Selected Heading readout
– Messages
• Selected Course readout
– Procedures
• Transponder Status Box
– ADF/DME Tuning
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SECTION 3 ENGINE AND AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
NOTE: Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for limitations.
The G1000 offers improved flight operations and reduces crew workload by automatically monitoring critical
system parameters and providing system alerts during all phases of flight using the following:
• The Engine Indication System (EIS) displays electrical, fuel, engine, pressurization, and flight control
information on the left side of the Multi Function Display (MFD).
• Synoptics pages are provided for monitoring the status of the doors, de-icing systems, electrical, and fuel.
• The Crew Alerting System (CAS) displays advisories, cautions, and warnings to communicate conditions,
statuses, and system failures. CAS messages are grouped by level of importance and color-coded based on
urgency and appear on the left side of the MFD.
In combination with these, aural alerts, additional avionics messages, and master indicators are used to inform
the crew of aberrant flight conditions. The system also provides an improved level of maintenance data for the
ground crew.
EICAS Display
Figure 3-1 Multi Function Display
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In the event of a display failure, depending on the failed display(s), the functioning display(s) may be reconfigured to present Primary Flight Display (PFD) symbology together with engine and CAS information
(refer to the System Overview for more information about Reversionary Mode). In Reversionary Mode, engine,
pressurization, fuel, electrical, and trim data is presented in an abbreviated format on the left of the display.
CAS messages appear in a window on the right of the display. Synoptics are not available while in Reversionary
Mode.
EIS
Display
CAS
Window
Figure 3-2 Reversionary Mode
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3.1 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM (EIS)
1
1
8
2
2
9
10
3
3
11
4
4
12
5
5
13
6
6
14
7
8
15
9
16
12
16
13
14
15
Figure 3-4 EIS Display (Reversionary Mode)
Figure 3-3 EIS Display (Normal Mode)
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1
Torque
9
Differential Pressure
2
Propeller Speed
10
3
Generator Speed
Selected Cabin Altitude (TBM 850) or LFE
(TBM 900)
11 Oxygen Pressure
4
Interturbine Temperature
12
Fuel Quantity
5
Oil Pressure
13
Fuel Flow
6
Oil Temperature
14
Battery and Generator Currents
7
CAS Display
15
Battery and Essential Bus Voltages
8
Cabin Pressure Altitude and Change Rate
16
Elevator, Aileron, and Rudder Trim and Flap
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EIS information is presented using gauges, horizontal and vertical bar indicators, slide bars, and digital displays.
Green ranges on the instrument scales indicate normal ranges of operation; amber and red bands indicate caution
and warning, respectively. During normal operating conditions, an instrument’s pointer appears in white and the
display text is green. When data is out of the range of the indicator or gauge, the pointer moves to the end of the
scale; digital displays are shown as “---” (dashes).
When an unsafe operating condition occurs, the pointer and display color change to amber or flash red,
indicating a caution or warning. If a cautionary time limit is exceeded, the sliders, pointers, and digits may flash
red, even if the parameter is still within in the cautionary range (refer to each display description for details). If
the sensor data for a parameter becomes invalid or unavailable, a red “X” is shown across the indicator and/or
display.
ENGINE PARAMETERS
The EIS displays torque, propeller speed, generator speed, and interturbine temperature using arc gauges.
TORQUE GAUGE
The Torque Gauge displays values from 0 to 130% of maximum safe torque. If the torque remains above
122% (TBM 850) or 100% (TBM 900) for more than 5 seconds or exceeds the value indicated by the red tick
mark, a warning condition occurs. The maximum climb torque is displayed as a white triangle (bug) while
the optimum cruise range is displayed as a white band on the Torque Gauge. When bleed pressure reaches
its upper limit, ‘BLEED HI’ is annunciated above the Torque Gauge.
Maximum Climb Torque
Optimum Cruise Range
Figure 3-5 Torque Gauge (TBM 850)
Maximum Climb Torque
Optimum Cruise Range
Figure 3-6 Torque Gauge (TBM 900)
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PROPELLER RPM GAUGE
Propeller speed is shown in revolutions per minute (rpm) from zero to 2200. If propeller speed slows
to where the gauge pointer enters the amber range, a caution is issued. A propeller overspeed warning is
indicated if propeller speed exceeds the maximum safe operating speed.
Figure 3-7 Propeller RPM Gauge (TBM 850) Figure 3-8 Propeller RPM Gauge (TBM 900)
GENERATOR SPEED GAUGE
Generator speed is indicated as a percentage of maximum safe operating speed (rpm), from 0 to 120%. If
generator speed exceeds 104% a warning condition occurs.
Figure 3-9 Generator Speed Gauge
ITT GAUGE
The Interturbine Temperature (ITT) Gauge ranges differ for engine off/start and running conditions. Values
between 200 and 1200 degrees Celsius (°C) are shown at engine start; values change to 200 to 900°C when
the engine starts running. When the engine is not running, ‘OFF’ is annunciated above the ITT display; this
changes to ‘STRT’ upon engine start. No annunciation is shown when the engine is running normally.
Engine Off
Engine Start
Normal
Figure 3-10 Interturbine Temperature Gauge Status Annunciations
Temperatures above which warnings occur are indicated by red tick marks along the ITT Gauge. Refer to
comments for the ‘ITT’ CAS message in Table 3-5 for warning issuance criteria.
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OIL PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE GAUGES
Engine oil pressure and temperature are shown along horizontal bar indicators below the engine gauges.
Oil pressure is shown in pounds per square inch (psi) and temperature in degrees Celsius (°C).
Figure 3-11 Oil Pressure and Temperature Gauges
CABIN PRESSURIZATION
Cabin pressurization information (cabin altitude, rate of change, and differential cabin pressure) is shown
at the top of the right EICAS column. Only displays for cabin altitude and pressure differential are shown in
Reversionary Mode.
Cabin altitude (ALT FT) is shown on a color-coded scale labeled in 5,000-ft increments with a display (in feet)
below. Cabin altitude change rate (RATE FPM) is displayed on a scale in terms of 2,000 fpm increments with
a display (in fpm) below. Cabin pressure differential (DIFF PSI), in pounds per square inch (psi), is indicated
on a color-coded scale with a display. Selected Cabin Altitude is shown in the TBM 850 as a digital display (in
100 ft increments) with a range from -1,000 to 11,000 feet.
Pressure
Change
Rate
Pressure
Altitude
Pressure
Differential
Selected Cabin Altitude
(TBM 850)
OR
LFE (TBM 900)
Oxygen
Pressure
Figure 3-12 Cabin Pressure Display
The pressure (in psi) for the oxygen system is shown below the cabin pressurization display under normal
display conditions.
LANDING FIELD ELEVATION (LFE) (TBM 900)
The optional Landing Field Elevation is set automatically based on the destination in the active flight plan
by pressing the FMS LFE Softkey, but can also be adjusted manually by the pilot using the MAN LFE Softkey.
An automatically entered LFE displays the landing field elevation and the airport identifier. A red “X” is
displayed if the LFE is out of range or the data source is invalid.
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Landing Field Elevation /
Destination Airport Identifier
Figure 3-13 FMS LFE on the Cabin Pressure Display
Landing
Field
Elevation
Figure 3-14 Manual LFE on the Cabin Pressure Display
Setting the displayed landing field elevation to the value for the destination airport:
1) Select the SYSTEM Softkey.
2) Select the FMS LFE Softkey to set the LFE to the value for the destination airport in the current flight plan.
Manually adjusting the displayed landing field elevation:
1) Select the SYSTEM Softkey.
2) Select the MAN LFE Softkey.
3) Use the ±250 and ±25 FT softkeys to set the desired elevation.
4) To confirm the new LFE value, select the ACCEPT Softkey.
NOTE: Manual adjustments to the landing field elevation are done from the previously selected or default
LFE value.
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FUEL INFORMATION
The fuel display is located beneath the oxygen pressure display and shows the fuel quantity in each tank (in
United States gallons, USG), fuel flow (gallons per hour, gph), and optional fuel pressure (psi) (if installed).
Fuel quantity for each tank is normally shown along a slider scale. Displays for fuel quantity and fuel flow are
shown in Reversionary Mode.
Tank Fuel
Quantities
Fuel
Flow
Figure 3-15 Fuel Display
Fuel Pressure (If Installed,
TBM 850 Only)
ELECTRICAL INFORMATION
Currents for the battery (pointers labeled “B”) and generator (pointer labeled “G” for primary generator and
“S” for standby generator) and voltages for the battery and essential bus (pointer labeled “E”) are shown along
color-coded scales, with displays to the right.
Battery
Current
Generator
Current
Figure 3-16 Electrical Display
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Voltage
Essential
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TRIM AND FLAP INDICATORS
Elevator, rudder, and aileron trim indications are shown along slide bar scales next to the CAS messages
in normal display mode. Flap deflection is normally displayed beneath the trim indications using a rotating
pointer. Flap positions for takeoff, landing, and up positions are labeled. In Reversionary Mode, only elevator
trim is indicated and flap position (UP, T/O, LDG) is provided as a digital display.
Figure 3-17 Trim and Flap Indications
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3.2 SYNOPTICS
The Synoptics pages show current conditions of certain aircraft functionality on aviation system diagrams,
reducing workload by allowing the flight crew to rapidly analyze the situation. Aircraft systems graphically
depicted in the synoptic diagrams include:
• Electrical system
• De-ice system
• Fuel system
• Doors
Once the SYSTEM Softkey is selected, the Synoptics pages can be accessed using softkeys or the small FMS
Knob. To return to the previously displayed page when a Synoptics Page has been displayed, select the SYSTEM
Softkey or CLR Key, or turn the large FMS Knob.
SYSTEM
SYSTEM
CPDLC
MAP
ELEC
FUEL
GEN
CHKLIST
FUEL
GEN
CHKLIST
Figure 3-18 TBM 850 Synoptic Pages Softkeys
SYSTEM
SYSTEM
CPDLC
MAP
MAN LFE
FMS LFE
ELEC
Figure 3-19 TBM 900 Synoptic Pages Softkeys
• SYSTEM
104
Accesses the Synoptics page softkeys and LFE softkeys
• ELEC Displays the Electrical Synoptics Page
• FUEL Displays the Fuel Synoptics Page
• GEN Displays the General Synoptics Page for the de-ice system and doors
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
EICAS
Map
Synoptic Page
Figure 3-20 MFD Layout (TBM 850 Example)
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ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
The Electrical Synoptics Page uses a diagram of the aircraft’s electrical system to display the system status. The
generators, ground power supply (GPU), batteries, and buses are shown in green to denote normal operation.
Color of the units change depending on the condition.
1
2
3
4
5
6
11
7
9
10
8
1
Standby Generator
7
Essential Bus
2
Main Generator
8
Battery Bus Voltage
3
Ground Power Unit Door
9
Essential Bus Voltage
4
Battery
10 DC Buses 1 through 4
5
Amperage
11 Main Bus
6
Battery Bus
Figure 3-21 Electrical Synoptics Page
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Active generator currents are displayed below the generator icons. A disconnected generator is indicated in
gray; the current is removed from the display and the switch symbol is closed.
Connected
Disconnected
Connected
Disconnected
Figure 3-22 Generator Status
GPU status information is removed from the electrical diagram when the GPU door is closed. If the GPU door
is open and selected, the GPU status is shown in green; when the door is open, but not selected, the status is
shown in gray with the switch closed. A CAS message, ‘GPU DOOR’ is generated if the GPU door is open.
GPU Door Open
Selected
Not Selected
GPU Door Closed
Figure 3-23 GPU Door Status
Battery connection status to the main bus is indicated in green; direction of current flow is indicated with an
arrow next to the current display. If the battery is disconnected from the main bus, the switch is closed. Battery
overheating is indicated in red with a ‘BAT OVHT’ annunciation; a CAS message is also generated.
Connected
Disconnected
Battery Overheat
Figure 3-24 Battery Status
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Battery and essential bus voltages are displayed using gauges. DC buses are shown in green when energized.
When not energized, the connection line to the main bus is removed and the bus label is displayed in red.
Figure 3-25 Battery and Essential Bus Low Voltage
Bus Not Energized
Figure 3-26 DC Bus Status
The Emergency Buses switch has two positions, UP (open) and DN (ground). If the switch is in the UP
position, the essential bus is connected to the battery bus. If the switch is in the DN position, the essential bus
is connected to the main bus.
Essential Bus Connected
to the Battery Bus
Essential Bus Connected
to the Main Bus
Figure 3-27 Essential Bus Connections
A red “X” over a component indicates invalid data or a failed unit.
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FUEL SYSTEM
The Fuel Synoptics Page displays the status of the fuel tanks and feed system. Fuel quantity is depicted
graphically; the color changes to amber if the fuel quantity drops below the threshold level.
3
Fuel Pressure Display (if installed)
4
5
2
6
1
7
8
9
1
Left Fuel Tank
6
Fuel Selector
2
Left Fuel Line
7
Right Fuel Tank
3
Fuel Pressure (if installed)
8
Right Fuel Line
4
Engine Driven Boost Pump
9
Fuel Flow Data
5
Auxiliary Boost Pump
Figure 3-28 Fuel Synoptics Page
FUEL PRESSURE (IF INSTALLED)
Fuel Pressure is displayed using a gauge. If fuel pressure is low the display will be red.
Figure 3-29 Fuel Pressure Low
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Status of the fuel selector is indicated between the fuel tank symbols. The mode, automatic (AUTO) or
manual (MAN) is shown beneath the fuel selector symbol.
Left Fuel Tank
Selected
Switching Fuel
Tank Selection
Right Fuel Tank
Selected
Manual or
Unknown Fuel
Tank Selection
Fuel Selector
Off
Table 3-1 Fuel Selector Status
If the auxiliary fuel boost pump is on, the symbol is displayed in green. The mode, automatic (AUTO) or
manual (MAN) is displayed next to the pump symbol. If the boost pump is off, the symbol is shown in cyan
(automatic mode) or red (manual mode).
Fuel Boost Pump Fuel Boost Pump Fuel Boost Pump
On
Off (Auto)
Off (Manual)
Table 3-2 Auxiliary Boost Pump Status
Fuel used and remaining are based on the fuel flow. The aircraft’s gross weight (GW) is entered on the
AUX - Weight Planning Page (see the Flight Management Section).
Figure 3-30 Fuel Flow Data
A red “X” over a component indicated invalid data or a failed unit.
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GENERAL SYSTEMS
The General Synoptics Page aircraft diagram displays open doors in red (CAS messages also generated).
Statuses of stall sensor, propeller, pitot probes, and windshield heat are also indicated on the diagram:
• White indicates that heat is off (propeller and windshield)
• Cyan indicates heat has been selected (windshield)
• Green indicates heat is on
• Amber indicates heat has failed (stall sensor, propeller and pitot tube).
Invalid sensor information is indicated with a red ‘X’.
5
6
7
8
4
9
3
2
1
1
Rear Cargo Door Open
6
Propeller Heaters
2
Cabin Door Open
7
Right Windshield Heat On
3
Pilot Door Open
8
Pitot Probe 2
4
Pitot Probe 1
9
Stall Warning Sensor
5
Forward Cargo Door Open
Figure 3-31 General Synoptics Page
Windshield
Heat On
Windshield
Heat Off
Left Windshield Heat On
Right Windshield Heat Selected
Figure 3-32 Windshield Heat Status
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3.3 CREW ALERTING SYSTEM (CAS)
NOTE: Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for emergency procedures.
NOTE: Aural alerts associated with abnormal conditions and advisories are managed through the audio
panels. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information.
The Crew Alerting System (CAS) Display is located in the lower left corner of the EICAS Display (on the MFD)
under normal display conditions. Up to 14 messages can be displayed; when more than 14 messages accumulate,
the CAS softkey becomes available.
When CAS messages are present while in Reversionary Mode, the CAS Window appears on the display along
with the flight instruments and EIS. The window size increases to fit up to 14 CAS messages; if more than 14
messages are generated, the messages can be scrolled through using the CAS softkey.
Normal Mode
Reversionary Mode
CAS
Display
CAS
Window
Figure 3-33 CAS Messages
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CAS MESSAGES AND PRIORITIZATION
NOTE: Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for corrective pilot actions.
NOTE: Red warning messages cannot be scrolled through and remain at the top of the CAS display. The
scroll bar changes to amber if more than ten caution messages exist to be scrolled through.
CAS messages are grouped by criticality (warning and caution) and sorted by order of appearance (most
recent messages on top). The color of the message is based on its urgency and on required action.
• Warning (red) – Immediate crew awareness and action required; accompanied by an aural tone (triple chime
every 3 seconds)
• Caution (amber) – Immediate crew awareness and possible future corrective action required; accompanied
by an aural tone (single chime)
A CAS message does not appear more than once at a given time. Warning and caution CAS messages flash
when they are generated, and continue to flash until acknowledged.
After the acknowledgment, a message remains displayed at the top of its respective priority group in the CAS
Window until either a newer message of the same priority appears or the condition(s) that caused the alert to
display no longer exist.
CAS messages listed in the Appendices section are shown in the acknowledged state (colored text on black
backgrounds).
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 OVERVIEW
The Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) system includes the Audio Panels, communication radios,
navigation radios, and Mode S transponders. The System Overview Section provides a block diagram description
of the Audio Panels and CNS system interconnection.
CNS operation in the TBM 850/900 is performed by the following Line Replacement Units (LRUs):
• Primary Flight Display (PFD) (2)
• Mode S Transponder (2)
• Multi Function Display (MFD)
• MFD Control Unit
• Integrated Avionics Unit (2)
• GDR 66 VHF Data Link Transceiver
• Audio Panel (2)
The PFD controls are used to tune the communication transceivers and navigation radios.
The two Audio Panels provide the traditional audio selector functions of microphone and receiver audio
selection. Each Audio Panel includes an intercom system (ICS) between the pilot, copilot, and passengers, a
marker beacon receiver, and a COM clearance recorder. Ambient noise from the aircraft radios is reduced by a
feature called Master Avionics Squelch (MASQ). When no audio is detected, MASQ processing further reduces
the amount of background noise from the radios.
The Mode S Transponders are controlled with softkeys and the FMS Knob located on the Primary Flight Display
(PFD). The Transponder Data Box is located to the left of the System Time Box. The data box displays the active
four-digit code, mode, and a reply status (Figure 4-1).
The Controller Pilot Data Link Communications System (CPDLC) provides data link communication between
the aircraft and an Air Traffic Control facility. Communication is normally in the form of text message elements that
resemble phraseology used in voice communications with ATC.
AUDIO PANEL VOLUME CONTROL
Adjusting the master volume control affects all radio audio volume and airframe type warnings that are heard
in the headsets (not the speaker) for the pilot or copilot side Audio Panel. Radio adjustments made on the PFD
controls to compensate for the master volume change on the Audio Panel also affect the radio levels for the other
pilot. Independent radio volume adjustments made using the Audio Panel Master Volume controls affect only
the audio heard in the corresponding crew position headset.
Radio volume adjustments may be overridden by each crew position independently using the master volume
control on the Audio Panel for the respective crew position. In addition, the master volume control for each
Audio Panel affects all other system audio output to its designated crew position headset much like volume
adjustments found on many aviation headsets.
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PFD CONTROLS AND FREQUENCY DISPLAY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Figure 4-1 PFD Controls, COM/NAV Frequency Tuning Boxes, and ADF/DME Tuning Window
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1
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to turn the Morse code identifier audio on
and off. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
3
NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
Press to move the tuning box (cyan box) and Frequency Transfer Arrow between NAV1 and NAV2.
4
NAV Frequency Box – Displays NAV standby and active frequency fields, volume, and station ID. The
frequency of the NAV radio selected for navigation is displayed in green.
5
COM Frequency Box – Displays COM standby and active frequency fields and volume. The selected COM
transceiver frequency is displayed in green.
6
COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Press to move the tuning box (cyan box) and Frequency Transfer Arrow between COM1 and COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this key
for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Press to turn the COM automatic squelch on
and off. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency field as a percentage.
9
ADF/DME Tuning Window – Displays ADF frequencies, volume setting, and modes, and DME tuning
selection. Display by pressing the ADF/DME Softkey.
10
ENT Key – Validates or confirms an ADF frequency or ADF/DME mode and Auto-tune selection.
11
FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob, used to enter ADF frequencies and select ADF/DME modes,
enter transponder codes, and Auto-tune entries when ADF/DME Tuning Window or NRST Window is
present. Press the FMS Knob to turn the selection cursor on and off. The large knob moves the cursor in
the window. The small knob selects individual characters for the highlighted cursor location.
12
Transponder Data Box – Indicates the selected transponder code, operating mode, reply, and ident status
for the applicable transponder.
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AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Figure 4-2 Audio Panel Controls
NOTE: When a key is selected, a triangular annunciator above the key is illuminated.
118
1
COM1 MIC – Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM receiver to be heard. COM2 receive can be
added by pressing the COM2 Key.
2
COM1 – When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard.
3
COM2 MIC – Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM receiver to be heard. COM1 receive can be
added by pressing the COM1 Key.
4
COM2 – When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard.
5
COM3 MIC – Not used in the TBM 850/900.
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6
COM3 – Not used in the TBM 850/900.
7
PA – Selects the passenger address system. The selected COM transmitter is deselected when the PA Key
is pressed.
8
TEL – Not used in the TBM 850/900.
9
MUSIC – Toggles the Music 1 input on or off. Pressing and holding toggles music muting on or off.
10
SPKR – Selects and deselects the on-side flight deck speaker. COM and NAV receiver audio can be heard
on the speaker.
11
MKR/MUTE – Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker beacon receiver
audio. Unmutes automatically when new marker beacon audio is received.
12
HI SENS – Press to increase marker beacon receiver sensitivity. Press again to return to low sensitivity.
13
DME – Turns optional DME audio on or off.
14
NAV1 – When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
15
ADF – Turns optional ADF receiver audio on or off.
16
NAV2 – When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
17
AUX – Not used in the TBM 850/900.
18
MAN SQ – Enables manual squelch for the intercom. When the intercom is active, press the ICS Knob to
illuminate SQ. Turn the ICS Knob to adjust squelch.
19
PLAY – Press once to play the last recorded COM audio. Press again to stop playing. Press twice within
0.5 second while audio is playing and the previous block of recorded audio is played. Each subsequent
two presses within 0.5 second plays each previously recorded block.
20
INTR COM – Selects and deselects the pilot/copilot intercom on both Audio Panels.
21
CABIN – Initiates intercom communications with passengers in the cabin.
22
ICS Knob – Turn to adjust intercom volume or squelch. Press to switch between volume and squelch
control as indicated by illumination of VOL or SQ. The MAN SQ Key must be selected to allow squelch
adjustment.
23
MSTR Knob – The Master Volume Control adjusts volume for the blended NAV, COM, intercom audio,
and alert warnings.
24
DISPLAY BACKUP Button – Manually selects Reversionary Mode.
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4.2 COM OPERATION
COM TRANSCEIVER SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
NOTE: During PA Mode, the COM MIC Annunciator is extinguished and the COM active frequency color
changes to white, indicating that neither COM transmitter is active.
NOTE: When turning on the G1000 for use, the system remembers the last frequencies used and the active
COM transceiver state prior to shutdown.
The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the left side and the
two standby frequencies are on the right. The COM transceiver is selected for transmitting by pressing the
COM MIC Keys on the Audio Panel. During reception of audio from the COM radio selected for transmission,
audio from the other COM radio is muted.
An active COM frequency displayed in green indicates that the COM transceiver is selected on the Audio
Panel (COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key). Both active COM frequencies appearing in white indicate that no COM
radio is selected for transmitting (PA Key is selected on the Audio Panel).
Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency in the tuning
box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
Active
Fields
Standby
Fields
Top Section of
the Audio Panel
Tuning Box
COM2 Radio is
Selected on the Audio
Panel
Figure 4-3 Selecting a COM Radio for Transmit
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TRANSMIT/RECEIVE INDICATIONS
During COM transmission, a white TX appears by the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. On the Audio Panel, when the active COM is transmitting, the active transceiver COM MIC
Key Annunciator flashes approximately once per second.
During COM signal reception, a white RX appears by the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency
Transfer Arrow.
Transmit and
Receive Indicators
Annunciator
Flashes During
Transmission
Figure 4-4 COM Radio Transmit and Receive Indications
When the same COM radio is selected on both Audio Panels, the pilot has transmit priority on COM1, the
copilot has transmit priority on COM2.
COM TRANSCEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The COM frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the right side of each PFD.
Manually tuning a COM frequency:
1) Turn the COM Knob to tune the desired frequency in the COM Tuning Box (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz).
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the COM VOL/SQ Knob.
4) Press the COM VOL/SQ Knob to turn automatic squelch on and off.
Turn the VOL/SQ Knob to adjust
volume. Press the Knob to Turn
Automatic Squelch On or Off
Press the Frequency Transfer
Key to Transfer COM
Frequencies Between Active
and Standby Frequency Boxes
Turn the COM Knob to
Tune the Frequency in
the Tuning Box
Figure 4-5 COM Frequency Tuning
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SELECTING THE RADIO TO BE TUNED
Press the small COM Knob to transfer the frequency tuning box and Frequency Transfer Arrow between the
upper and lower radio frequency fields.
Press the COM Knob to
Switch the Tuning Box From
One COM Radio to the Other
Figure 4-6 Switching COM Tuning Boxes
QUICK-TUNING AND ACTIVATING 121.500 MHZ
Pressing and holding the COM Frequency Transfer Key for two seconds automatically loads the emergency
COM frequency (121.500 MHz) in the active field of the COM radio selected for tuning (the one with the
transfer arrow). In the example shown, pressing the Audio Panel COM2 MIC Key activates the transceiver.
Press for Two Seconds to
Load 121.500 MHz
Figure 4-7 Quickly Tuning 121.500 MHz
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AUTO-TUNING THE COM FREQUENCY
COM frequencies can be automatically tuned from the following:
• Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies Page (ARTCC, FSS, WX)
• WPT – Airport Information Page
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces Page
• NRST – Nearest Airports Page
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE PFD
COM frequencies for the nearest airports can be automatically tuned from the Nearest Airports Window on
the PFD. When the desired frequency is entered, it becomes a standby frequency. Pressing the Frequency
Transfer Key places this frequency into the COM Active Frequency Field.
Auto-tuning a COM frequency for a nearby airport from the PFD:
1) Press the NRST Softkey on the PFD to open the Nearest Airports Window. A list of 25 nearest airport identifiers
and COM frequencies is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the list and highlight the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the COM Standby Tuning Box.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
Figure 4-8 Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
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Select the NRST
Softkey to Open
the Nearest
Airports Window
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AUTO-TUNING FROM THE MFD
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the COM Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT
page group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key (Figures 4-9, 4-10, and 4-11).
Auto-tuning a COM frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the COM frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob on
the MFD control unit or selecting the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency (Figure 4-11).
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key on either PFD to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency
Field.
Turn the FMS
Knob to Scroll
Through a List
of Frequencies.
Press the ENT Key to Load a
Highlighted Frequency into the
COM Standby Frequency Box.
Figure 4-9 Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
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Or:
1) On the Nearest Airports, Frrequencies,or Airspaces page, press the MENU Key on the MFD control unit to display
the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor on the desired selection.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-10 Nearest Pages Menus
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On the WPT - Airport Information Page, the cursor can be placed on the frequency field by pressing the
FMS Knob and scrolling through the list. The frequency is transferred to the COM Standby Field with the
ENT Key.
Selected Airport
Identifier and
Information
Runway
Information
Press ENT Key to load
frequency into PFD1
COM Standby Field.
Cursor then advances
to the next frequency.
Select INFO-x Softkey
for AIRPORT, RUNWAYS,
and FREQUENCIES
Windows
Figure 4-11 WPT – Airport Information Page
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COM frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST – Nearest Airspaces, NRST – Nearest Frequencies,
and NRST – Nearest Airports Pages on the MFD in a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU
Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
Figure 4-12 NRST – Nearest Airspaces, NRST – Nearest Airports, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages
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FREQUENCY SPACING
The G1000 COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing
(118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel spacing
is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in the complete 3040-channel list.
Variable rate tuning is provided with 8.33-kHz spacing to achieve faster selection of the decimal digits.
COM channel spacing is set on the System Setup Page of the AUX Page Group.
8.33-kHz Channel
Spacing
25-kHz Channel
Spacing
Figure 4-13 COM Channel Spacing
Changing COM frequency channel spacing:
1) Select the AUX – System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Channel Spacing Field in the COM Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired channel spacing.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the channel spacing selection.
While the COM CONFIG Window is selected, the G1000 softkeys are blank.
Select 8.33-kHz
or 25.0-kHz
COM Frequency
Channel Spacing
Figure 4-14 AUX – System Setup Page
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AUTOMATIC SQUELCH
Automatic Squelch quiets unwanted static noise when no audio signal is received, while still providing good
sensitivity to weak COM signals. To disable Automatic Squelch, press the VOL/SQ Knob. When Automatic
Squelch is disabled, COM audio reception is always on. Continuous static noise is heard over the headsets and
speaker, if selected. Pressing the VOL/SQ Knob again enables Automatic Squelch.
When Automatic Squelch is disabled, a white SQ appears next to the COM frequency.
Squelch
Indication
Press the COM VOL/
SQ Knob to turn off
Automatic Squelch.
Press again to restore
Automatic Squelch.
Figure 4-15 Overriding Automatic Squelch
VOLUME
COM radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob. Turning the knob
clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume. When adjusting volume,
the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication remains for two seconds after
the change.
COM Volume
Level Remains for
Two Seconds
Figure 4-16 COM Volume Level
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4.3 CONTROLLER PILOT DATA LINK COMMUNICATIONS (CPDLC)
The GDR 66 VHF Data Link Transceiver (used for data communication only) provides the link from the
G1000 Integrated Avionics System to the Controller Pilot Data Link Communications system (CPDLC) via ATN
(VDL Mode 2). The CPDLC system provides data link communication between the aircraft and an Air Traffic
Control facility. Communication is normally in the form of text message elements that resemble phraseology
used in voice communications with ATC.
CPDLC SESSION OVERVIEW
The system will manage a CPDLC session with an ATC end system. Once a successful logon has been
completed the system will go into a CPDLC waiting state. In this state the system is waiting for a CPDLC session
to be initiated by the ATC end system. When an ATC end system sends a CPDLC session start command the
flight crew will have the ability send CPDLC downlink messages. CPDLC downlink messages are messages
initiated by the flight crew to ATC. CPDLC uplink messages are messages initiated by ATC to the flight crew.
The ground system manages handoffs between ATC end systems. When the aircraft is nearing the coverage
boundary of the CDA (Current Data Authority) or current facility, the system will be assigned a NDA (Next
Data Authority) or next facility. The NDA is the ATC end system that is waiting to take control of the aircraft.
Upon crossing the boundary between the two ATC end systems, a transfer instruction will be sent to the system
making the NDA the new CDA.
In the event that the CPDLC session is lost and the logon is still active, the system will accept future CPDLC
start commands from ATC.
CPDLC SYSTEM STATUS
The system will reflect the connection status at all times in the Status Window on the CPDLC Messages Page.
The following is a list of possible system states:
• Router Not Initialized – The router has not been initialized. This is typical upon power up. This state
should clear after initialization. Persistence of this state would indicate a failure.
• Link Not Available/Waiting for Link – The system has initialized the router but does not have an airground connection.
• Establishing Link – The system has detected a viable ground station and is attempting to establish an airground connection.
• Link Available – The system has established a connection capable of supporting ATN (Aeronautical
Telecommunications Network) traffic. This state indicates that a network logon can be attempted to establish
CPDLC communications.
• Connecting – The system has initiated a network logon with an ATC facility.
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• Waiting for CPDLC – The system has successfully completed the network logon procedure. During this
state the system is waiting for an ATC facility to initiate a CPDLC session. This state will exist during initial
connection or if a CPDLC session has been closed and the network logon is still valid.
• Connected – The system has successfully established a CPDLC session with a ground facility. CPDLC
messages can be exchanged in this state.
• Logon Failed – The system was unable to establish a network logon.
• CPDLC Disconnected – The system has disconnected from a CPDLC connection. If the network logon is
still valid, the system will accept another CPDLC session from an ATC facility.
Connection Status
Current ATC Facility
Next ATC Facility
Message Status Icon
Message Status Text
ATC Facility
Figure 4-17 CPDLC Messages
CPDLC MESSAGE STATUS ICONS
The CPDLC Messages Page contains a combination of status icons and text to indicate the current status of
each message.
Icon
Text
Description
Sent
Message sent to ATC.
Standby
‘Standby’ message response sent to ATC. The exclamation point notifies
the flight crew that an action is needed to close the message.
Send Failed /
Expired
Message failed to send or the message timed out.
Closed
Message sent to ATC and message thread closed.
Table 4-1 Downlink CPDLC Status Icons
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Icon
Text
Description
Standby
Unopened ‘Standby’ message response sent by ATC.
(message not opened)
Standby
(message opened)
Opened ‘Standby’ message response sent by ATC.
Need Response
Unopened message that requires a response to ATC.
(message not opened)
Need Response
(message opened)
Opened message that requires a response to ATC.
Expired
Unopened expired message sent by ATC.
(message not opened)
Expired
(message opened)
Opened expired message sent by ATC.
Closed
Unopened message that closed the message thread.
(message not opened)
Closed
(message opened)
Opened message that closed the message thread.
Table 4-2 Uplink CPDLC Status Icons
CONNECTING TO THE CPDLC SYSTEM
A flight plan must be filed prior to logging on to the CPDLC system. The information entered in the CPDLC
Log-On display must match the filed flight plan. After entering flight plan information in the required fields
and successfully logging on to the system, messages may be sent and received.
The following parameters are used to log on to the system:
• Facility
• Flight ID or Aircraft Registration as filed (populated from the active flight plan)
• Destination Airport (populated from the active flight plan if available)
• Filed Departure Airport
• File Departure Time (Optional)
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Performing the system log-on:
1) From the MFD, select the CPDLC Softkey.
2) Select the LOGON Softkey.
LOGON Softkey
Figure 4-18 CPDLC Log-On Softkey
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the Facility field.
Facility Field
Flight ID Field
Destination Airport Field
Filed Departure Airport Field
Filed Departure Time Field
Send Button
Figure 4-19 CPDLC Log-On Display
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired ATC facility to which the CPDLC connection will be established.
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5) Press the ENT Key to complete the entry.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the Flight ID field.
7) The Flight ID Field is populated with the Flight ID or Aircraft Registration as filed. Changing this field will also
change the Mode S Flight ID output. To change to Flight ID field, turn the small FMS Knob to enter the Flight
ID or aircraft registration number.
8) Press the ENT Key to complete the entry.
9) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the Destination Airport field.
10) The Destination Airport field is populated with the destination airport corresponding to the active flight plan if
available. If the flight plan was filed using a different airport identifier, enter the identifier of the destination
airport used in the filed flight plan and press the ENT Key.
11) The Filed Departure Airport field is populated with the airport identifier corresponding to the current aircraft
location. If the flight plan was filed using a different airport identifier, turn the large FMS Knob to place the
selection cursor over the Filed Departure Airport field, enter the departure airport, and press the ENT Key.
12) (Optional) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the Filed Departure Time field.
13) (Optional) Enter the departure time used in the filed flight plan and press the ENT Key.
14) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over SEND and press the ENT Key. The Status immediately
indicates ‘Connecting’. After successful log-on, the Status indicates ‘Waiting For CPDLC’. Once a CPDLC
session is initiated by ATC, the Status indicates ‘Connected’ and the Current Facility field is populated with the
name of the facility. If a transfer to another facility is needed, the Next Facility field is populated. Pressing the
LOGOFF Softkey terminates the log-on process.
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CREATING A MESSAGE
Creating a message consists of choosing from a pre-determined list of requests, entering the required
information, and sending the request.
To create messages:
1) From the MFD, select the CPDLC Softkey.
2) Select the NEW Softkey. The CPDLC Thread Window appears.
NEW Softkey
Figure 4-20 CPDLC New Softkey
3) With the Response/Request field highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired request from the
list and press the ENT Key. For discussion purposes, ‘Request [level]’ is selected.
Figure 4-21 CPDLC Request
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4) Highlight the Level field and enter the desired altitude. To toggle between multiple units of measure (FT or FL),
highlight the first numeric position and turn the small FMS Knob counterclockwise.
Figure 4-22 CPDLC Request Parameters
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the entry.
6) (Optional) Highlight the Reason field and enter the desired reason from the list.
7) Press the ENT Key to complete the entry.
8) Highlight the SEND Button and press the ENT Key.
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RESPONDING TO AN ATC MESSAGE
Responding to an ATC message consists of choosing from a pre-determined list of responses or
acknowledgements, then sending the response or acknowledgement.
The following PFD alert as well as an aural alert, informs the flight crew of a received CPDLC message:
CPDLC Alert
Figure 4-23 CPDLC PFD Alert
To respond to a message:
1) From the MFD, select the CPDLC Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the desired message and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired Response/Request from the list and press the ENT Key.
4) Highlight the SEND Button and press the ENT Key.
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VIEWING AN ATC MESSAGE
Some ATC messages do not require a response, however they do need to be viewed.
To view an ATC message:
1) From the MFD, select the CPDLC Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the desired message to view and press the ENT Key.
Figure 4-24 CPDLC Response
VIEWING CPDLC MESSAGE DIALOGS
The status of a string of messages, or dialog, may be checked and past message dialogs viewed. When the
G1000 system power is cycled, the list of message dialogs is deleted.
To view message dialogs:
1) From the MFD, select the CPDLC Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the desired message to view and press the ENT Key.
3) Press the ENT Key to view the CPDLC Thread.
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DELETING MESSAGE DIALOGS
While the G1000 deletes the list of message dialogs when power is turned off, individual message dialogs may
also be deleted manually. Message dialogs considered closed may also be deleted.
DELETE Softkey
Delete All (DEL ALL) Softkey
Figure 4-25 Delete Message Dialogs
To delete a single message dialog:
1) From the MFD, select the CPDLC Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the desired message to delete.
3) Select the DELETE Softkey. A confirmation window appears.
4) Highlight ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key.
To delete all closed message dialogs:
1) From the MFD, select the CPDLC Softkey.
2) Select the DEL ALL Softkey. A confirmation window appears.
Figure 4-26 Delete All Closed Messages Confirmation Window
3) Highlight ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key.
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DISCONNECTING FROM THE CPDLC SYSTEM
After successfully initiating a CPDLC session, the LOGOFF Softkey becomes available.
To Log-off the CPDLC System:
1) From the MFD, select the CPDLC Softkey.
2) Select the LOGOFF Softkey.
ENABLING/DISABLING DATA MODE
The Link 2000+ will only operate when the GDR 66 is in data mode. There are times when it may be
desirable to enable or disable the VDL (VHF Data Link) connection.
To enable/disable data mode on the GDR 66:
1) From the MFD, select the CPDLC Softkey.
2) Press the Menu Key to display the page menu.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Disable Data Mode’ or ‘Enable Data Mode’ and press the ENT Key.
CPDLC SYSTEM FAILURE
A red “X” over the Status Window on the CPDLC Messages Page indicates that the system is unavailable. The
failure or loss of connectivity can result from a power loss, a data path loss, or improper configuration. Refer to
the system messages in the Appendices for additional information describing the source of the failure.
Figure 4-27 CPDLC Failure
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4.4 NAV OPERATION
NAV RADIO SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; two standby fields and two active fields. The active
frequencies are on the right side and the standby frequencies are on the left.
A NAV radio is selected for navigation by pressing the CDI Softkey located on the PFD. The active NAV
frequency selected for navigation is displayed in green. Pressing the CDI Softkey once selects NAV1 as the
navigation radio. Pressing the CDI Softkey a second time selects NAV2 as the navigation radio. Pressing the
CDI Softkey a third time activates GPS mode. Pressing the CDI Softkey again cycles back to NAV1.
While cycling through the CDI Softkey selections, the NAV Tuning Box and the Frequency Transfer Arrow are
placed in the active NAV Frequency Field and the active NAV frequency color changes to green.
The three navigation modes that can be cycled through are:
• VOR1 (or LOC1) – If NAV1 is selected, a green single line arrow (not shown) labeled either VOR1 or LOC1
is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV1 frequency is displayed in green.
• VOR2 (or LOC2) – If NAV2 is selected, a green double line arrow (shown) labeled either VOR2 or LOC2 is
displayed on the HSI and the active NAV2 frequency is displayed in green.
• GPS – If GPS Mode is selected, a magenta single line arrow (not shown) appears on the HSI and neither NAV
radio is selected. Both active NAV frequencies are then displayed in white.
Standby
Fields
Active
Fields
Tuning Box
The NAV Radio is
Selected by Pressing
the CDI Softkey
Figure 4-28 Selecting a NAV Radio for Navigation
See the Flight Instruments Section for selecting the DME and Bearing Information windows and using VOR
or ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
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NAV radios are selected for listening by pressing the corresponding keys on the Audio Panel. Pressing the
NAV1, NAV2, ADF, or DME Key selects and deselects the navigation radio source. Selected audio can be heard over
the headset and the speakers (if selected). All radios can be selected individually or simultaneously.
Figure 4-29 Selecting a NAV Radio Receiver
NAV RECEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The NAV frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the left side of the PFDs.
Manually tuning a NAV frequency:
1) Turn the NAV Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box.
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
4) Press the NAV VOL/ID Knob to turn the Morse code identifier audio on and off.
Turn VOL/ID Knob to adjust
volume. Press Knob to Turn
Morse Code On or Off.
Press the Frequency Transfer Key to
Transfer NAV Frequencies Between
Active and Standby Frequency Fields
Turn the NAV Knob to
Tune the Frequency in
the Tuning Box
Figure 4-30 NAV Frequency Tuning
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SELECTING THE RADIO TO BE TUNED
Press the small NAV Knob to transfer the frequency tuning box and Frequency Transfer Arrow between the
upper and lower radio frequency fields.
Press the NAV Knob to
Switch the Tuning Box From
One NAV Radio to the Other
Figure 4-31 Switching NAV Tuning Boxes
VOR/LOC ID
When the Morse code Identifier audio is on for a NAV radio, a white ID appears to the left of the active
NAV frequency.
In the example shown, in order to listen to either station identifier, press the NAV1 or NAV2 Key on the
Audio Panel. Pressing the VOL/ID Knob turns off the Morse code audio only in the radio with the NAV
Tuning Box. To turn off both NAV IDs, transfer the NAV Tuning Box between NAV1 and NAV2 by pressing
the small NAV Knob and pressing the VOL/ID Knob again to turn the Morse code off in the other radio.
The Morse Code Identifier
for the GHM VOR is On
Station
Identifier
Figure 4-32 NAV Radio ID Indication
VOLUME
NAV Radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/ID Knob. Turning the knob
clockwise increases volume, counterclockwise decreases volume.
When adjusting, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication remains
for two seconds after the change.
NAV Volume
Level Remains
for Two Seconds
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Figure 4-33 NAV Volume Levels
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AUTO-TUNING A NAV FREQUENCY FROM THE MFD
NAV frequencies can be selected and loaded from the following MFD pages:
• WPT – Airport Information
• NRST – Nearest VOR
• WPT – VOR Information
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies (FSS, WX)
• NRST – Nearest Airports
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces
The MFD provides auto-tuning of NAV frequencies from waypoint and nearest pages. During enroute
navigation, the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV standby frequency field. During approach
activation the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV active frequency field.
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT page
group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
Auto-tuning a NAV frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the NAV frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob on the
MFD control unit or selecting the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV identifier or NAV frequency.
3) On the Nearest VOR, Nearest Airspaces, and Nearest Airports pages, select the FREQ Softkey to place the cursor
on the NAV frequency.
4) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV radio.
5) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
Turn the FMS
Knob to Scroll
Through a List
of Frequencies.
Press the ENT Key to Load a
Highlighted Frequency into the
NAV Standby Frequency Box.
Figure 4-34 NAV Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
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Or:
1) When on the NRST pages, press the MENU Key on the MFD control unit to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor in the desired window.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV radio.
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest VOR Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-35 Nearest Pages Menus
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In the example shown, the VOR list is selected with the VOR Softkey or from the page menu. The FMS Knob
or ENT Key is used to scroll through the list. The cursor is placed on the frequency with the FREQ Softkey and
loaded into the NAV Tuning Box with the ENT Key.
Press the ENT
Key to Load
the Frequency
into the NAV
Standby Field.
Select the VOR Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Identifier
Select the FREQ Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Frequency
Figure 4-36 Loading the NAV Frequency from the NRST – Nearest VOR Page
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While enroute, NAV frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST – Nearest Airports,
WPT – Airport Information, WPT – VOR Information, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages on the MFD in
a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
Figure 4-37 NRST – Nearest Frequencies, WPT – VOR Information, WPT – Airport Information, and
NRST – Nearest Airports Pages
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AUTO-TUNING NAV FREQUENCIES ON APPROACH ACTIVATION
NOTE: The primary NAV frequency is auto-tuned upon loading a VOR or ILS/Localizer approach.
NOTE: When an ILS/LOC approach has been activated in GPS Mode, the system switches to NAV Mode as
the final approach course is intercepted (within 15 nm of the FAF). See the Flight Management Section for
details.
NAV frequencies are automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box on approach activation, on both PFD1
and PFD2.
When loading or activating a VOR or ILS/LOC approach, the approach frequency is automatically transferred
to a NAV frequency field as follows:
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, the approach frequency is transferred to the NAV1 or NAV2
active frequency fields. The frequency that was previously in the NAV1 or NAV2 active frequency fields are
transferred to standby.
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, and if the approach frequency is already loaded into the NAV1
or NAV2 standby frequency field, the standby frequency is transferred to active.
• If the current CDI navigation source is NAV1 or NAV2, the approach frequency is transferred to the standby
frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
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MARKER BEACON RECEIVER
NOTE: The marker beacon indicators operate independently of marker beacon audio and cannot be turned
off.
The marker beacon receiver is used as part of the ILS. The marker beacon receiver is always on and detects
any marker beacon signals within the reception range of the aircraft.
The receiver detects the three marker tones – outer, middle, and inner – and provides the marker beacon
annunciations located to the left of the Altimeter on the PFD.
Outer Marker
Indication
Middle Marker
Indication
Inner Marker
Indication
Figure 4-38 Marker Beacon Annunciations on the PFD
Figure 4-39 Marker Beacon Keys
The Audio Panels provide three different states of marker beacon operation; On, Muted, and Deselected.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key selects and deselects marker beacon audio. The key annunciator indicates when
marker beacon audio is selected.
During marker beacon audio reception, pressing the MKR/MUTE Key mutes the audio but does not affect the
marker annunciations (Figure 4-38). The marker tone is silenced, then waits for the next marker tone. The
MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is illuminated, indicating audio muting. The audio returns when the next marker
beacon signal is received. If the MKR/MUTE Key is pressed during signal reception (O, M, I indication) while
marker beacon audio is muted, the audio is deselected and the MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is extinguished.
Pressing the HI SENS Key switches between high and low marker beacon receiver sensitivity. The HI SENS
function (annunciator illuminated) is used to provide an earlier indication when nearing a marker during an
approach. The LO SENS function (annunciator extinguished) results in a narrower marker dwell while over a
station.
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ADF/DME TUNING
NOTE: When another auxiliary window is turned on, the ADF/DME Tuning Window is replaced on the PFD.
See the Flight Instruments Section for displaying the DME and bearing information windows (ADF) and
using the ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
The G1000 system tunes the ADF receiver (optional) and DME transceiver (optional). The ADF is tuned by
entering the frequency in the ADF standby frequency field of the ADF/DME Tuning Window. (The softkey may
be labeled ADF/DME, ADF, or DME, depending on installed equipment.)
The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a VHF NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is automatic
and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
The following ADF/DME information is displayed in the ADF/DME Tuning Window:
• Active and standby ADF frequencies
• ADF receiver mode
• ADF receiver volume
• DME tuning mode (DME transceiver pairing)
When the ADF/DME Tuning Window is displayed, the selection cursor is placed over the standby ADF
frequency field.
Turning the large FMS Knob moves the selection cursor through the various fields (standby ADF frequency,
ADF receiver mode, ADF radio volume, and DME tuning mode). Pressing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates
the selection cursor in the ADF/DME Tuning Window. The ADF frequency is entered using the FMS Knob and
the ENT Key.
Active ADF Frequency
Standby ADF Frequency
ADF
Mode
ADF
Volume
DME
Tuning
Mode
Figure 4-40 ADF/DME Tuning Window
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ADF TUNING
ADF frequencies in the 190.0-kHz to 1799.5-kHz range are entered in the standby ADF frequency field of the
ADF/DME Tuning Window. The G1000 System does not tune the ADF emergency frequency, 2182.0‑kHz.
Tuning an ADF frequency:
1) Press the ADF/DME Softkey to display the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the standby ADF frequency field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to begin data entry and change each digit.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next digit position.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete data entry for the standby frequency.
Press the
ENT Key to
Complete ADF
Frequency Entry
Turn the Small
FMS Knob to
Enter Data in
the Standby ADF
Frequency Field
Turn the Large
FMS Knob
to Move the
Cursor to the
Next Character
Figure 4-41 Entering ADF Standby Frequencies
Pressing the CLR Key before completing frequency entry cancels the frequency change and reverts back to
the previously entered frequency.
Pressing the CLR Key when the cursor is flashing, clears the frequency and replaces the standby field with
‘0000.0’.
Transferring the active and standby ADF frequencies:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the standby ADF frequency field.
2) Press the ENT Key to complete the frequency transfer.
Press the ENT
Key to Transfer
the ADF
Frequencies
Figure 4-42 Transferring ADF Frequencies
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SELECTING ADF RECEIVER MODE
The following modes can be selected: (In all modes NDB audio can be heard by pressing the ADF Key on
the Audio Panel.)
• ANT (Antenna) – The ADF bearing pointer parks on the HSI at 90 degrees. Best mode for listening to NDB
audio.
• ADF (Automatic Direction Finder) – The ADF pointer points to the relative bearing of the NDB station.
• ADF/BFO (ADF/Beat Frequency Oscillator) – The ADF pointer points to the relative bearing of the NDB
station and an audible tone confirms signal reception. This mode allows identification of the interrupted
carrier beacon stations used in various parts of the world.
• ANT/BFO (Antenna/Beat Frequency Oscillator) – The ADF bearing pointer parks on the HSI at 90 degrees
while an audible tone is provided when a signal is received. This mode also allows identification of the
interrupted carrier beacon stations and confirms signal reception.
Selecting an ADF receiver mode:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the ADF mode field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired ADF receiver mode.
Turn the Small
FMS Knob
to Select the
Mode
Figure 4-43 Selecting ADF Receiver Mode
ADF receiver volume level can be adjusted in the tuning window from 0 to 100%. The default volume level
is set to 50%. The ADF volume level is the same for both Audio Panels.
Adjusting ADF receiver volume:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the ADF volume field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust volume as desired.
Turn the Small
FMS Knob
to Select the
Volume
Figure 4-44 Adjusting ADF Receiver Volume
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DME TUNING
NOTE: When turning on the G1000 for use, the system remembers the last frequency used for DME tuning
and the NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD state prior to shutdown.
The DME transceiver is tuned by selecting NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD in the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
DME
Modes
Figure 4-45 ADF/DME Tuning Window, DME Modes
The following DME transceiver pairings can be selected:
• NAV1 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV1 frequency.
• NAV2 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV2 frequency.
• HOLD – When in the HOLD position, the DME frequency remains paired with the last selected NAV
frequency.
Selecting DME transceiver pairing:
1) Press the ADF/DME Softkey to display the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the DME tuning mode.
3) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
Pressing the CLR Key or FMS Knob while in the process of DME pairing cancels the data entry and reverts
back to the previously selected DME tuning state. Pressing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates the cursor in
the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
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4.5 MODE S TRANSPONDERS
The GTX 33 Mode S Transponder and GTX 33D Diversity Mode S Transponder provide Mode A, Mode C, and
Mode S interrogation and reply capabilities. Diversity incorporates antennas mounted on the top and bottom of
the aircraft for dependable operation while maneuvering. Selective addressing or Mode Select (Mode S) capability
includes the following features:
• Level-2 reply data link capability (used to exchange information between aircraft and ATC facilities)
• Surveillance identifier capability
• Flight ID (Flight Identification) reporting – The Mode S Transponder reports aircraft identification as either the
aircraft registration or a unique Flight ID.
• Altitude reporting
• Airborne status determination
• Transponder capability reporting
• Mode S Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) requirements
• Mode S Elementary Surveillance (ELS) requirements
• Acquisition squitter – Acquisition squitter, or short squitter, is the transponder 24-bit identification address.
The transmission is sent periodically, regardless of the presence of interrogations. The purpose of acquisition
squitter is to enable Mode S ground stations and aircraft equipped with a Traffic Avoidance System (TAS) to
recognize the presence of Mode S-equipped aircraft for selective interrogation.
• Extended squitter (Optional) – The extended squitter is transmitted periodically and contains information such
as altitude (barometric and GPS), GPS position, and aircraft identification. The purpose of extended squitter is
to provide aircraft position and identification to ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and other aircraft.
The Hazard Avoidance Section provides more details on traffic avoidance systems.
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TRANSPONDER CONTROLS
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Mode Selection, and
Code Selection. When the top-level XPDR Softkey is pressed, the Mode Selection softkeys appear: XPDR1,
XPDR2, STBY, ON, ALT, VFR, CODE, IDENT, BACK.
When the CODE Softkey is pressed, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, IDENT, BKSP,
BACK. The digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Pressing the numbered softkeys in sequence enters
the transponder code. If an error is made, pressing the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the
previous digit. Pressing the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous digit.
Pressing the BACK Softkey during code selection reverts to the Mode Selection Softkeys. Pressing the BACK
Softkey during mode selection reverts to the top-level softkeys.
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on either PFD. Code entry must be completed with either
the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
Pressing the IDENT Softkey while in Mode or Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to the
top-level softkeys.
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
XPDR1
XPDR2
STBY
ON
ALT
VFR
XPDR
IDENT
CODE
IDENT
BACK
MSG
Pressing the BACK Softkey
returns to the top-level softkeys.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
IDENT
BKSP
BACK
MSG
Pressing the BACK Softkey returns to the mode selection softkeys.
Figure 4-46 Transponder Softkeys (PFD)
Selecting and activating Transponder 1 or Transponder 2:
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the XPDR1 or XPDR2 Softkey to select and activate the other transponder.
When turning on the G1000 for use, the system activates Transponder 1 as the default unit, regardless of
which transponder was active prior to shutdown. When switching between Transponder 1 and Transponder 2,
the code and mode remain the same. If a new code is entered in the active transponder, switching transponders
does not bring back the previous code.
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TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTION
Mode selection can be automatic (Altitude Modes) or manual (Standby, ON, and Altitude Modes). The STBY,
ON, and ALT Softkeys can be accessed by pressing the XPDR Softkey.
Selecting a transponder mode:
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode.
STANDBY MODE (MANUAL)
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited.
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the STBY Softkey. In Standby, the transponder is
powered and new codes can be entered, but no replies or squitters are transmitted. When Standby is selected,
a white STBY indication and transponder code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
STBY Mode (White
Code Number and
Mode)
Figure 4-47 Standby Mode
ON MODE (MANUAL)
ON Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the ON Softkey. ON Mode generates Mode A and Mode S
replies as well as transmission of acquisition squitters. If equipped with an optional ADS-B out capable
transponder, On Mode will also generate extended squitters. Mode C altitude reporting is inhibited. In ON
Mode, a green ON indication and transponder code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
ON Mode
(No Altitude
Reporting)
Figure 4-48 ON Mode
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ALTITUDE MODE (AUTOMATIC OR MANUAL)
The white Altitude Reporting Mode is normally selected automatically when the aircraft is on the ground.
White Altitude Mode may also be selected manually by pressing the ALT Softkey while on the ground.
White Altitude Mode generates Mode S replies to discrete interrogations as well as transmission of acquisition
squitters. If equipped with an optional ADS-B out capable transponder, White Altitude Reporting Mode will
also generate extended squitters. Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call replies are inhibited.
If Altitude Mode is selected while on the ground, a white ALT indication and transponder code appear in
the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting)
Figure 4-49 Altitude Mode
The green Altitude Mode is automatically selected when the aircraft becomes airborne. Green Altitude
Mode may also be selected manually by pressing the ALT Softkey while airborne. Green Altitude Mode
generates Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S replies as well as transmissions of acquisition squitters. If equipped
with an optional ADS-B out capable transponder, Green Altitude Reporting Mode will also generate extended
squitters.
If Altitude Mode is selected while airborne, a green ALT indication and transponder code appear in the
mode field of the Transponder Data Box, and all transponder replies requesting altitude information are
provided with pressure altitude information.
ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting)
Figure 4-50 Altitude Mode
REPLY STATUS
When the transponder sends replies to interrogations, a white R indication appears momentarily in the
reply status field of the Transponder Data Box.
Reply to
Interrogation
Figure 4-51 Reply Indication
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ENTERING A TRANSPONDER CODE
Entering a transponder code with softkeys:
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the CODE Softkey to display the Transponder Code Selection Softkeys, for digit entry.
3) Press the digit softkeys to enter the code in the code field. When entering the code, the next softkey in sequence
must be pressed within 10 seconds, or the entry is cancelled and restored to the previous code. Pressing the
BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the previous digit. Five seconds after the fourth digit has been
entered, the transponder code becomes active.
Entering
a Code
Figure 4-52 Entering a Code
Entering a transponder code with the PFD FMS Knob:
1) Press the XPDR and the CODE Softkeys as in the previous procedure to enable code entry.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob on the PFD to enter the first two code digits.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
Pressing the CLR Key or small FMS Knob before code entry is complete cancels code entry and restores the
previous code. Waiting for 10 seconds after code entry is finished activates the code automatically.
Turn the Small
FMS Knob to
Enter Two Code
Digits at a Time
Press the
ENT Key to
Complete
Code Entry
Turn the Large
FMS Knob
to Move the
Cursor to the
Next Code Field
Figure 4-53 Entering a Code with the FMS Knob
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VFR CODE
The VFR code can be entered either manually or by pressing the XPDR Softkey, then the VFR Softkey.
When the VFR Softkey is pressed, the pre-programmed VFR code is automatically displayed in the code field
of the Transponder Data Box. Pressing the VFR Softkey again restores the previous identification code.
The pre-programmed VFR Code is set at the factory to 1200. If a VFR code change is required, contact a
Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
VFR Code
Figure 4-54 VFR Code
IDENT FUNCTION
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT Softkey is inoperative.
Pressing the IDENT Softkey sends a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The indication
distinguishes the identing transponder from all the others on the air traffic controller’s screen. The IDENT
Softkey appears on all levels of transponder softkeys. When the IDENT Softkey is pressed, a green IDNT
indication is displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for a duration of 18 seconds.
After the IDENT Softkey is pressed while in Mode or Code Selection, the system reverts to the top-level
softkeys.
IDNT
Indication
Press the
IDENT Softkey
to Initiate the
ID Function
Figure 4-55 IDENT Softkey and Indication
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FLIGHT ID REPORTING
NOTE: If the Flight ID is required but the system is not configured for it, contact a Garmin-authorized service
center for configuration.
When the Flight ID must be entered before flight operation, the identifier is placed in the Timer/References
Window on the PFD. The system allows entry of up to eight characters. No space is needed when entering
Flight ID. When a Flight ID contains a space, the system automatically removes it upon completion of Flight
ID entry.
Entering a Flight ID:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey to display the Timer/References Window.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the selection cursor, if not already activated.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll down to the Flight ID.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the desired Flight ID.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete Flight ID entry.
If an error is made during Flight ID entry, pressing the CLR Key returns to the original Flight ID entry. While
entering a Flight ID, turning the FMS Knob counterclockwise moves the cursor back one space for each detent
of rotation. If an incorrect Flight ID is discovered after the unit begins operation, reenter the correct Flight ID
using the same procedure.
Flight
ID PFD
Entry
Figure 4-56 Timer/References Window, Entering Flight ID
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4.6 ADDITIONAL AUDIO PANEL FUNCTIONS
POWER-UP
The Audio Panels perform a self-test during power-up. During the self-test all Audio Panel annunciator lights
illuminate for approximately two seconds. Once the self-test is completed, most of the settings are restored to
those in use before the unit was last turned off. The exceptions are the cabin and intercom, which are always
selected during power up.
MONO/STEREO HEADSETS
Stereo headsets are recommended for use in this aircraft.
Using a monaural headset in a stereo jack shorts the right headset channel output to ground. While this does
not damage the Audio Panel, a person listening on a monaural headset hears only the left channel in both ears.
If a monaural headset is used at one of the passenger positions, any other passenger using a stereo headset hears
audio in the left ear only.
SPEAKER
Each Audio Panel controls a separate cabin speaker. Pressing the SPKR Key selects and deselects the on-side
speaker.
All of the radios can be heard over the cabin speakers. Speaker audio is muted when the PTT is pressed.
Certain aural alerts and warnings (autopilot, traffic, altitude) are always heard on the speaker, even when the
speaker is not selected.
The speaker volume is adjustable within a nominal range. Contact a Garmin-authorized service center for
volume adjustment.
Figure 4-57 Music and Speaker Keys
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INTERCOM
Pressing the INTR COM Key on either Audio Panel selects and deselects the intercom on both Audio Panels.
The annunciator is lit when the intercom is active. The intercom connects the pilot and copilot together. Either
the pilot or copilot may select or deselect the intercom.
The CABIN Key initiates two way communication between the pilot or copilot and the passengers in the
cabin. The annunciator is lit when the cabin intercom is active on either Audio Panel.
The MAN SQ Key allows either automatic or manual control of the intercom squelch setting. Pressing the
MAN SQ Key enables manual squelch control, indicated by the MAN SQ annunciator.
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is extinguished (Automatic Squelch is on), the ICS Knob controls only the
volume (pressing the ICS Knob has no effect on the VOL/SQ selection).
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is illuminated (Manual Squelch), the ICS Knob controls either volume or
squelch (selected by pressing the ICS Knob and indicated by the VOL or SQ annunciation).
Manual Squelch
Annunciator; Off
for Automatic
Squelch, On for
Manual Squelch
Cabin Annunciator;
On for Cabin Intercom
Selects and Deselects
Cabin Intercom
ICS Isolation
Press to switch
between VOL and SQ.
Turn to adjust Squelch
when SQ Annunciation
is lit, Volume when
VOL Annunciation is lit.
Master Volume
Control for Pilot
Side or Copilot
Side
Volume Annunciation
Squelch Annunciation
Figure 4-58 Intercom Controls
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PASSENGER ADDRESS (PA) SYSTEM
A passenger address system is provided by pressing the PA Key to deliver messages to the passengers. The
message is heard by the other pilot on the headset only if the other pilot’s INTR COM Key is enabled. PA
messages are one way from the flight deck to the passengers.
A Push-to-talk (PTT) must be pressed to deliver PA announcements to the passengers over their
headphones.
When PA is selected on the Audio Panel, the annunciator flashes about once per second while pressing the
PTT, the COM MIC annunciator is no longer lit, and the active COM frequency for that Audio Panel changes to
white, indicating that there is no COM selected.
PA Key is Selected on
the Audio Panel
Figure 4-59 PA Key Selected for Cabin Announcements
SIMULTANEOUS COM OPERATION
Both the pilot and the copilot can transmit and receive simultaneously over separate COM radios. The
selected COM MIC Annunciator flashes when either pilot’s microphone PTT is pressed.
If both pilots select the same COM radio, the pilot has priority on COM1 and the copilot has priority on
COM2.
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CLEARANCE RECORDER AND PLAYER
NOTE: Pressing the play key on the pilot’s Audio Panel plays recorded audio to the Pilot. Pressing the play
key on the Copilot’s Audio Panel plays recorded audio to the Copilot.
The Audio Panel contains a digital clearance recorder that records up to 2.5 minutes of the selected COM
radio signal. Recorded COM audio is stored in separate memory blocks. Once 2.5 minutes of recording time
have been reached, the recorder begins recording over the stored memory blocks, starting from the oldest
block.
The PLAY Key controls the play function. The PLAY annunciator flashes to indicate when play is in progress.
The PLAY annunciator turns off after playback is finished.
Pressing the PLAY Key once plays the latest recorded memory block and then returns to normal operation.
Pressing the PLAY Key again during play of a memory block stops play. If a COM input signal is detected
during play of a recorded memory block, play is halted.
Pressing the PLAY Key twice within one-half second while audio is playing plays the previous block of
recorded audio. Each subsequent two presses of the PLAY Key within one-half second backtracks through the
recorded memory blocks to reach and play any recorded block.
Powering off the unit automatically clears all recorded blocks.
PLAY Key
Controls the
Play Function
Figure 4-60 Clearance Recorder PLAY Key
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ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS
NOTE: MUSIC 1 and MUSIC 2 inputs cannot be completely turned off. Audio level for MUSIC 1 and MUSIC 2
can be adjusted by a Garmin-authorized service center.
The Audio Panel provides two stereo auxiliary entertainment inputs: MUSIC 1 and MUSIC 2. These inputs
are compatible with popular portable entertainment devices such as MP3 and CD players. Two 3.5-mm
stereo phone jacks are installed in convenient locations for audio connection. The headphone outputs of the
entertainment devices are plugged into the MUSIC 1 or MUSIC 2 jacks.
MUSIC 1
MUSIC 1 can be heard by the pilot and copilot when the MUSIC Key is selected.
MUSIC 1 Muting
MUSIC 1 muting occurs when aircraft radio or marker beacon activity is heard. MUSIC 1 is always soft
muted when an interruption occurs from an aircraft radio. Soft muting is the gradual return of MUSIC 1 to
its original volume level. The time required for MUSIC 1 volume to return to normal is between one-half
and four seconds.
MUSIC 1 Muting Enable/Disable
Pressing and holding the MUSIC Key for three seconds switches MUSIC 1 muting on and off. When
switching, either one or two beeps are heard; one beep indicates that music muting is enabled, two beeps
indicate music muting is disabled.
MUSIC 1 muting is independent for each Audio Panel. Pressing the MUSIC Key on one Audio Panel
does not enable/disable MUSIC 1 muting on the opposite side. MUSIC 1 muting is reset (enabled) during
power up.
MUSIC 2
MUSIC 2 can be heard only by the passengers and is never muted.
SIRIUSXM RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
SiriusXM Radio audio from the Data Link Receiver may be heard by the pilot and passengers simultaneously
(optional: requires subscription to SiriusXM Radio Service). Refer to the Additional Features Section for more
details on the Data Link Receiver.
Connecting a stereo input to either MUSIC 1 or MUSIC 2 jacks removes the SiriusXM Radio Audio from
that input. For example, if passengers prefer their own music while the pilot listens to the SiriusXM Radio,
the entertainment audio should be connected to the MUSIC 2 jack.
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4.7 AUDIO PANELS PREFLIGHT PROCEDURE
NOTE: If the pilot and/or copilot are using headsets that have a high/low switch or volume control knob,
verify that the switch is in the high position and the volume control on the headsets are at maximum volume
setting. On single‑pilot flights, verify that all other headsets are not connected to avoid excess noise in the
audio system.
NOTE: Adjusting the PILOT volume control affects ICS audio that is heard in the headset for the flight crew
member that is performing the adjustment. Keep in mind that the intercom volumes on the Audio Panels
are independent of one another, but the radio volumes are not.
NOTE: When the MAN SQ Key is pressed, the ICS squelch can be set manually by the pilot and copilot. If
manual squelch is set to full open (SQ annunciated and the knobs turned counterclockwise) background
noise is heard in the ICS system as well as during COM transmissions.
After powering up the G1000 System, the following steps aid in maximizing the use of the Audio Panels as well
as prevent pilot and copilot induced issues. These preflight procedures should be performed each time a pilot
boards the aircraft to insure awareness of all audio levels in the Audio Panel and radios.
Automatic/Manual
Squelch
ICS Isolation
Cabin ICS
Master Volume
Control
ICS Volume and
Squelch Control
Volume Annunciation
Squelch Annunciation
Reversionary Mode
for PFD1 and MFD
Reversionary Mode
for PFD2 and MFD
Pilot Side
Copilot Side
Figure 4-61 Audio Panel Controls
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Independent radio volume adjustments made using the PFD controls affect only the audio output for each
radio selected for adjustment. Radio volume adjustment affects both crew positions equally for each radio that
is adjusted. Turning the master volume control located on either Audio Panel affects only the audio heard in the
corresponding crew position headset. Thus, radio volume adjustments may be overridden by each crew position
independently using the master volume control on the Audio Panel for the respective crew position. The master
volume control for each Audio Panel affects all other system audio output for the pilot or copilot headset.
Setting the Audio Panels during preflight:
1) Verify that the INTR COM Key is selected.
2) Verify manual squelch is set to minimum.
3) Turn the MSTR Knob (Master Volume Control) on both Audio Panels clockwise two full turns. This sets the
headset audio level to max volume (least amount of attenuation).
4) Adjust radio volume levels (COM, NAV, etc.) to a suitable level.
5) Adjust the ICS volume Knob on each Audio Panel to the desired intercom level.
6) Reset squelch to automatic, or adjust to the appropriate level manually.
Once this procedure has been completed, the master volume controls on both Audio Panels may now be
adjusted. The flight crew can change settings, keeping in mind the notes above.
Pilot Master
Volume Control
Radio Volume
Knobs Adjust
Radio Level
COM Radio
Audio
Master Volume
Knobs Adjust
Headphone
Volume Level
NAV Radio
Audio
ADF Radio
Audio
FMS Knob Adjusts
ADF Volume Level
Copilot Master
Volume Control
Figure 4-62 Radio and Headphone Volume Controls
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4.8 ABNORMAL OPERATION
Abnormal operation of the G1000 includes equipment failures of the G1000 components and failure of
associated equipment, including switches and external devices.
STUCK MICROPHONE
If the push-to-talk (PTT) Key becomes stuck, the COM transmitter stops transmitting after 35 seconds of
continuous operation. An alert appears on the PFD to advise the crew of a stuck microphone.
The COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key Annunciator on the Audio Panel flashes as long as the PTT Key remains
stuck.
Figure 4-63 Stuck Microphone Alert
COM TUNING FAILURE
In case of a COM system tuning failure, the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) is automatically tuned in
the radio in which the tuning failure occurred. Depending on the failure mode, a red X may appear on the
frequency display.
Emergency Channel
Loaded Automatically
Figure 4-64 COM Tuning Failure
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PFD FAILURE
If PFD1 fails, COM1 and NAV1 display a red X on both remaining displays. NAV1 is unavailable. COM1
automatically tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM1 emergency frequency is available
to both the copilot and pilot.
Emergency Channel
Loaded Automatically
Figure 4-65 Frequency Section of PFD2 Display after PFD1 Failure
If PFD2 fails, COM2 and NAV2 display a red X on the remaining PFD display. NAV2 is unavailable. COM2
tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM2 emergency frequency is available to both the
copilot and pilot.
Figure 4-66 PFD1 Display after PFD2 Failure
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AUDIO PANEL FAIL-SAFE OPERATION
If there is a failure of both Audio Panels, a fail-safe circuit connects the pilot’s headset and microphone directly
to the COM1 transceiver and the copilot’s headset directly to the COM2 transceiver. Audio is not available on
the speakers. If there is a failure of one Audio Panel, that side only has access to their respective on-side failsafe COM.
If there is a failure of one Audio Panel, the remaining one does not have access to the others side’s COM and
NAV. For example, if the pilot side Audio Panel fails, the copilot side Audio Panel has access to all the radios
except for COM1 and NAV1.
REVERSIONARY MODE
The red DISPLAY BACKUP Button selects the Reversionary Mode. See the System Overview Section for
more information on Reversionary Mode.
Figure 4-67 Reversionary Mode Button
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SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The system is an integrated flight, engine, communication, navigation and surveillance system. This section of
the Pilot’s Guide explains GPS navigation using the system.
The most prominent part of the system are the three full color displays: two Primary Flight Displays (PFD) and
a Multi Function Display (MFD). The information to successfully navigate the aircraft using the GPS sensors is
displayed on the PFD and the MFD. See examples in the Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2. Detailed descriptions of GPS
navigation functions are discussed later in this section.
A brief description of the GPS navigation data on the PFD and MFD follows.
Navigation mode indicates which sensor is providing the course data (e.g., GPS, VOR) and the flight plan phase
(e.g., Departure (DPRT), Terminal (TERM), Enroute (ENR), Oceanic (OCN), RNAV Approach (LNAV, LNAV+V, L/
VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV), or Missed Approach (MAPR)). L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service levels are only
available with SBAS. L/VNAV will be flown as LNAV when SBAS is not available.
The Inset Map is a small version of the MFD Navigation Map and can be displayed in the lower left corner of
the PFD. When the system is in reversionary mode, the Inset Map is displayed in the lower right corner. The
Inset Map is displayed by pressing the INSET Softkey. Pressing the INSET Softkey again, then pressing the OFF
Softkey removes the Inset Map.
The Navigation Map displays aviation data (e.g., airports, VORs, airways, airspaces), geographic data (e.g.,
cities, lakes, highways, borders), topographic data (map shading indicating elevation), and hazard data (e.g.,
traffic, terrain, weather). The amount of displayed data can be reduced by selecting the DCLTR Softkey. The
Navigation Map can be oriented four different ways: North Up (NORTH UP), Track Up (TRK UP), Desired Track
Up (DTK UP), or Heading Up (HDG UP).
An aircraft icon is placed on the Navigation Map at the location corresponding to the calculated present position.
The aircraft position and the flight plan legs are accurately based on GPS calculations. The basemap upon which
these are placed are from a source with less resolution, therefore the relative position of the aircraft to map features
is not exact. The leg of the active flight plan currently being flown is shown as a magenta line on the navigation
map. The other legs are shown in white.
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 500 feet to 2000 nm. The current range is indicated in the
lower right corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. To change the map
range on any map, turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to zoom in ( -, decreasing), or clockwise to zoom out (+,
increasing).
The Direct-to Window, the Flight Plan Window, the Procedures Window, and the Nearest Airports Window
can be displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Details of these windows are discussed in detail later in
the section.
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Navigation Status Box
Navigation Mode
Inset Map
Location of:
- Direct To Window
- Flight Plan Window
- Procedures Window
- Nearest Airports Window
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD
Navigation Status Box
Map Orientation
Navigation Page Title
Navigation Map
- Aviation Data
- Geographic Data
- Topographic Data
- Hazard Data
Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Active Flight Plan Leg
Map Range
Figure 5-2 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Page
NAVIGATION STATUS BOX
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the PFD contains two fields displaying the following
information:
PFD Navigation Status Box
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• Active flight plan leg (e.g., ‘D-> KICT’ or ‘KIXD -> KCOS’) or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘Turn right to
021˚ in 8 seconds’)
• Distance (DIS) and Bearing (BRG) to the next waypoint or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘TOD within 1
minute’)
The symbols used in the PFD status bar are:
Symbol
Description
Symbol
Description
Active Leg
Left Holding Pattern
Direct-to
Vector to Final
Right Procedure Turn
Right DME Arc
Left Procedure Turn
Left DME Arc
Right Holding Pattern
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the MFD contains four data fields, each displaying one of the
following items:
BRG
DIS
DTK
END
ENR
ESA
ETA
ETE
FOB
FOD
Bearing
Distance
Desired Track
Endurance
ETE to Final Destination
Enroute Safe Altitude
Estimated Time of Arrival
Estimated Time Enroute
Fuel on Board
Fuel over Destination
GS
ISA
LDG
MSA
TAS
TKE
TRK
VSR
XTK
Ground Speed
ISA Relative Temperature
ETA at Final Destination
Minimum Safe Altitude
True Air Speed
Track Angle Error
Track
Vertical Speed Required
Crosstrack Error
MFD Navigation Status Box
The navigation information displayed in the four data fields can be selected on the MFD Data Bar Fields Box
on the AUX - System Setup Page. The default selections (in order left to right) are GS, DTK, TRK, and ETE.
Changing a field in the MFD Navigation Status Box:
1) Select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the MFD Data Bar Fields Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the data options list.
5) Select the desired data.
6) Press the ENT Key. Selecting the DFLTS Softkey returns all fields to the default setting.
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5.2 USING MAP DISPLAYS
Map displays are used extensively in the system to provide situational awareness in flight. Most system maps
can display the following information:
• Airports, NAVAIDs, airspaces, airways,
land data (highways, cities, lakes, rivers,
borders, etc.) with names
• Map range
•Wind direction and speed
• Map orientation
• Icons for enabled map features
• Aircraft icon (representing present position)
• Nav range ring
• Fuel range ring
• Map Pointer information (distance and
bearing to pointer, location of pointer,
name, and other pertinent information)
• Flight plan legs
• User waypoints
• Track vector
• Topography scale
• Topography data
• Obstacle data
The information in this section applies to the following maps unless otherwise noted:
• All Map Group Pages (MAP)
• All Waypoint Group Pages (WPT)
• AUX - Trip Planning
• All Nearest Group Pages (NRST)
• Flight Plan Pages (FPL)
• Direct-to Window
• PFD Inset Map
• Procedure Loading Pages
MAP ORIENTATION
Maps are shown in one of four different orientation options, allowing flexibility in determining aircraft
position relative to other items on the map (north up) or for determining where map items are relative to where
the aircraft is going (track up, desired track up, or heading up). The map orientation is shown in the upper
right corner of the map.
Figure 5-3 Map Orientation
• North up (NORTH UP) aligns the top of the map display to north (default setting).
• Track up (TRK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current ground track.
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• Desired track up (DTK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the desired course.
• Heading up (HDG UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current aircraft heading.
NOTE: When panning or reviewing active flight plan legs in a non-North Up orientation, the map does not
show the map orientation nor the wind direction and speed.
NOTE: Map orientation can only be changed on the Navigation Map Page. Any other displays that show
navigation data reflect the orientation selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Changing the Navigation Map orientation:
1) With the Navigation Map Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
Map Setup
Selection
Figure 5-4 Navigation Map Page Menu Window
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Map Setup Window.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob, or press the ENT Key once, to select the ‘ORIENTATION’ field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired orientation.
5) Press the ENT Key to select the new orientation.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the base page.
Map Group Selection
Orientation Field
Auto North Up
- On/Off
- Minimum Range
Figure 5-5 Map Setup Menu Window - Map Group
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The map can be configured to switch automatically to a north up orientation when the map range reaches a
minimum range.
Enabling/disabling Auto North Up and selecting the minimum switching range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘AUTO NORTH UP’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’ using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the range field.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select the desired range.
9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
MAP RANGE
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 500 feet to 2000 nm. The current range is indicated in
the lower right corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. When the
map range is decreased to a point that exceeds the capability of the system to accurately represent the map,
a magnifying glass icon is shown to the left of the map range. To change the map range turn the Joystick
counter-clockwise to decrease the range, or clockwise to increase the range.
Range Overzoom
Figure 5-6 Map Range
AUTO ZOOM
Auto zoom allows the system to change the map display range to the smallest range clearly showing the
active waypoint. Auto zoom can be overridden by adjusting the range with the Joystick, and remains until
the active waypoint changes, a terrain or traffic alert occurs, the aircraft takes off, or the manual override times
out (timer set on Map Setup Window). Auto zoom is suspended while the map pointer is active.
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If a terrain caution or warning occurs, all navigation maps automatically adjust to the smallest map range
clearly showing the potential impact points If a new traffic advisory alert occurs, any map page capable of
displaying traffic advisory alerts automatically adjusts to the smallest map range clearly showing the traffic
advisory. When terrain or traffic alerts clear, the map returns to the previous auto zoom range based on the
active waypoint.
The auto zoom function can be turned on or off independently for the PFD and MFD. Control of the ranges
at which the auto zoom occurs is done by setting the minimum and maximum ‘look forward’ times (set on
the Map Setup Window for the Map Group). These settings determine the minimum and maximum distance
to display based upon the aircraft’s ground speed.
• Waypoints that are long distances apart cause the map range to increase to a point where many details on
the map are decluttered. If this is not acceptable, lower the maximum look ahead time to a value that limits
the auto zoom to an acceptable range.
• Waypoints that are very short distances apart cause the map range to decrease to a point where situational
awareness may not be what is desired. Increase the minimum look ahead time to a value that limits the auto
zoom to a minimum range that provides acceptable situational awareness.
• Flight plans that have a combination of long and short legs cause the range to increase and decrease as
waypoints sequence. To avoid this, auto zoom can be disabled or the maximum/minimum times can be
adjusted.
• The ‘time out’ time (configurable on the Map Setup Page for the Map Group) determines how long auto
zoom is overridden by a manual adjustment of the range knob. At the expiration of this time, the auto
zoom range is restored. Setting the ‘time out’ value to zero causes the manual override to never time out.
• When the maximum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the upper limit becomes the maximum range available
(2000 nm).
• When the minimum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the lower limit becomes 1.5 nm.
Auto Zoom:
Off, MFD Only, PFD Only, All On
Manual Range Override
Expiration Time
Maximum Look Forward Time
Minimum Look Forward Time
Figure 5-7 Map Setup Menu Window - Map Group, Auto Zoom
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Configuring automatic zoom:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘AUTO ZOOM’ field.
6) Select ‘Off’, ‘MFD Only’, ‘PFD Only’, or ‘ALL On’.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘MAX LOOK FWD’ field.
Times are from zero to 999 minutes.
8) Use the FMS Knobs to set the time. Press the ENT Key.
9) Repeat step 8 for ‘MIN LOOK FWD’ (zero to 99 minutes) and ‘TIME OUT’ (zero to 99 minutes).
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
MAP PANNING
Map panning allows the pilot to:
• View parts of the map outside the displayed range without adjusting the map range by panning the map
(Joystick)
• Highlight and select locations on the map (Joystick)
• Display an information screen for a selected airport, NAVAID (VOR, Intersection, NDB), user waypoint, or
airspace (ENT Key)
• Graphically create user waypoints (ENT Key)
• Measure the bearing and distance from the aircraft present position to any location on the navigation map, or
between any two points on the navigation map (MENU Key)
• Review airspace, obstacle and airway information in a pop-up window on the navigation map (Joystick)
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When the panning function is selected by pressing the Joystick, the Map Pointer flashes on the map display.
A window also appears at the top of the map display showing the latitude/longitude position of the pointer,
the bearing and distance to the pointer from the aircraft’s present position, and the elevation of the land at the
position of the pointer.
Map Pointer Information
Map Pointer
Figure 5-8 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
NOTE: The map is normally centered on the aircraft’s position. If the map has been panned and there has
been no pointer movement for about 60 seconds, the map reverts back to centered on the aircraft position
and the flashing pointer is removed.
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When the Map Pointer is placed on an object, the name of the object is highlighted (even if the name was
not originally displayed on the map). When any map feature or object is selected on the map display, pertinent
information is displayed.
Information about Point
of Interest
Map Pointer on
POI
Figure 5-9 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
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When the Map Pointer crosses an airspace boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace information
is shown at the top of the display. The information includes the name and class of airspace, the ceiling in feet
above Mean Sea Level (MSL), and the floor in feet MSL.
Information
about Airspace
Map Pointer on
Airspace
Figure 5-10 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Airspace
Panning the map:
1) Press the Joystick to display the Map Pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to move the Map Pointer around the map.
3) Press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and recenter the map on the aircraft’s current position.
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Reviewing information for an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint:
1) Place the Map Pointer on a waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Waypoint Information Page for the selected waypoint.
3) Select the GO BACK Softkey, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the Waypoint Information Page and return to
the Navigation Map showing the selected waypoint.
NAVAID
Information
GO BACK Softkey
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Information Window - NAVAID
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Viewing airspace information for a special-use or controlled airspace:
1) Place the Map Pointer on an open area within the boundaries of an airspace.
2) Press the ENT Key to display an options menu.
3) ‘Review Airspaces’ should already be highlighted, if not select it. Press the ENT Key to display the Airspace
Information Page for the selected airspace.
4) Press the CLR or ENT Key to exit the Airspace Information Page.
Airspace
Information
Figure 5-12 Navigation Map - Information Window - Airspace
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MEASURING BEARING AND DISTANCE
Distance and bearing can be measured on a navigation map using the Joystick. Measurement can be from
the aircraft’s present position to any point, or between any two points. The bearing and distance tool displays
a dashed Measurement Line and a Measure Pointer to aid in graphically identifying the points to measure.
Latitude/Longitude, distance, bearing and elevation data of the Measure Pointer is provided in a window at the
top left of the map.
Measuring bearing and distance between any two points:
1) Press the MENU Key (with the Navigation Map Page displayed).
2) Highlight the ‘Measure Bearing/Distance’ field.
3) Press the ENT Key. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present position.
4) Move the Joystick to place the reference pointer at the desired location. The bearing and distance are displayed
at the top of the map. Elevation at the current pointer position is also displayed. Pressing the ENT Key changes
the starting point for measuring.
5) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance option, press the Joystick
Or:
Select ‘Stop Measuring’ from the page menu and press the ENT Key.
Measurement
Information
Pointer Lat/Long
Measurement Line
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Measuring Bearing and Distance
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TOPOGRAPHY
All navigation maps can display various shades of topography colors representing land elevation, similar
to aviation sectional charts. Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following
procedures.
Navigation Map
Topographic Data
Navigation Map
Black Background
TOPO Softkey
Not Enabled
Topographic Data
on Profile Map
TOPO Softkey
Enabled
TOPO Off
TOPO On
Figure 5-14 Navigation Map - Topographic Data
Displaying/removing topographic data on all pages displaying navigation maps:
1) Select the MAP Softkey (the INSET Softkey for the PFD Inset Map).
2) Select the TOPO Softkey.
3) Select the TOPO Softkey again to remove topographic data from the Navigation Map. When topographic data
is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data (TOPO DATA) using the Navigation Map Page Menu:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘TOPO DATA’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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TOPO DATA
On/Off
TOPO DATA
Range
Figure 5-15 Navigation Map Setup Menu - TOPO DATA Setup
The topographic data range is the maximum map range on which topographic data is displayed.
NOTE: Since the PFD Inset Map is much smaller than the MFD navigation maps, items are removed on the
PFD Inset Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the Map Setup pages (e.g., a setting
of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD navigation maps, while the PFD Inset Map
removes the same item at 50 nm).
Selecting a topographical data range (TOPO DATA):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘TOPO DATA’ range field. TOPO ranges are from 500 ft to 2000 nm.
6) To change the TOPO range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
7) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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In addition, the Navigation Map can display a topographic scale (located in the lower right hand side of the
map) showing a scale of the terrain elevation and current elevation values.
Maximum Displayed Elevation
Minimum Displayed Elevation
Aircraft Altitude (MSL)
Range of
Displayed
Elevations
Ground Elevation at Map Pointer
Location (only visible when Map
Pointer is displayed)
Figure 5-16 Navigation Map - TOPO SCALE
Displaying/removing the topographic scale (TOPO SCALE):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group and press the ENT Key.
4) Highlight the ‘TOPO SCALE’ field.
5) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
TOPO SCALE
On/Off
Figure 5-17 Navigation Map Setup Menu - TOPO SCALE Setup
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MAP SYMBOLS
This section discusses the types of land and aviation symbols that can be displayed. Each listed type of symbol
can be turned on or off, and the maximum range to display each symbol can be set. The decluttering of the
symbols from the map using the DCLTR Softkey is also discussed.
LAND SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the land menu:
Land Symbols
(Text label size can be None, Small, Medium (Med), or Large
(Lrg))
Symbol
Latitude/Longitude (LAT/LON)
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Off
2000
Interstate Highway (FREEWAY)
300
800
International Highway (FREEWAY)
300
800
US Highway (NATIONAL HWY)
30
80
State Highway (LOCAL HWY)
15
30
8
15
Railroads (RAILROAD)
15
30
LARGE CITY (> 200,000)
800
1500
MEDIUM CITY (> 50,000)
SMALL CITY (> 5,000)
100
20
200
50
States and Provinces (STATE/PROV)
800
1500
Rivers and Lakes (RIVER/LAKE)
200
500
USER WAYPOINT
150
300
Highways and Roads
Local Road (LOCAL ROAD)
N/A
Table 5-1 Land Symbol Information
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AVIATION SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the aviation menu:
Aviation Symbols
(Text label size can be None, Small, Medium (Med),
or Large (Lrg))
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Active Flight Plan Leg (ACTIVE FPL)
2000
2000
Non-active Flight Plan Leg (ACTIVE FPL)
2000
2000
2000
200
2000
500
150
300
50
100
3
Off
15
20
100
30
Non-directional Beacon (NDB WAYPOINT)
15
30
VOR (VOR WAYPOINT)
150
300
VRP (VRP WAYPOINT)
15
30
Class B Airspace/TMA (CLASS B/TMA)
200
500
Class C Airspace/TCA (CLASS C/TCA)
200
500
Class D Airspace (CLASS D)
150
300
Restricted Area (RESTRICTED)
200
500
Military Operations Area [MOA(MILITARY)]
200
500
Other/Air Defense Interdiction Zone (OTHER/ADIZ)
200
500
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
500
2000
Active Flight Plan Waypoint (ACTIVE FPL WPT)
Large Airports (LARGE APT) (Longest Runway ≥ 8100 ft)
Medium Airports (MEDIUM APT) (8100 ft > Longest
Runway ≥ 5000 ft)
Small Airports (SMALL APT) (Longest Runway < 5000 ft)
(Medium Airport if it has a tower frequency)
Taxiways (SAFETAXI)
Runway Extension (RWY EXTENSION)
Intersection (INT WAYPOINT)
See Airports, NAVAIDs
See Additional Features
N/A
Table 5-2 Aviation Symbol Information
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SYMBOL SETUP
All pages with maps can display land symbols (roads, lakes, borders, etc). Land symbols can be removed
totally (turned off).
Displaying/removing all land symbols:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The Page Menu is displayed and the cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Group Menu is displayed and the cursor flashes on the ‘Map’ option.
3) Highlight the ‘LAND DATA’ field.
4) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
LAND DATA
On/Off
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map Setup Menu - LAND DATA Setup
The label size (TEXT) sets the size at which labels appear on the display (none, small, medium, and large).
The range (RNG) sets the maximum range at which items appear on the display.
Selecting a ‘Land’ or ‘Aviation’ group item text size and range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Land’ or ‘Aviation’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Select the desired land option.
6) Select the desired text size.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected size.
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8) Select the desired range.
9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected range.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Text Label Size
(None, Small, Med, or Lrg)
Maximum Display Range
Figure 5-19 Navigation Map Setup Menu - LAND GROUP Setup
Text Label Size
(None, Small, Med, or Lrg)
Maximum Display Range
Figure 5-20 Navigation Map Setup Menu - AVIATION GROUP Setup
NOTE: Since the PFD Inset Map is much smaller than the MFD navigation maps, items are removed on the
PFD Inset Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the Map Setup pages (e.g., a setting
of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD navigation maps, while the PFD Inset Map
removes the same item at 50 nm).
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MAP DECLUTTER
The declutter feature allows the pilot to progressively step through four levels of removing map information.
The declutter level is displayed in the DCLTR Softkey and next to the Declutter Menu Option.
Declutter Level
DCLTR Softkey
Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 5-21 Navigation Map - Declutter Level Indications
Decluttering the map:
Select the DCLTR Softkey with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The current declutter level is shown. With
each softkey selection, another level of map information is removed.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed.
2) Select ‘Declutter’. The current declutter level is shown.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Decluttering the PFD Inset Map:
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
2) Press the DCLTR Softkey. The current declutter level is shown. With each selection, another level of map
information is removed.
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Table 5-3 lists the items that are decluttered at each map detail level. The ‘X’ represents map items
decluttered for each level of detail.
Item
Data Link Radar Precipitation
Data Link Lightning
Graphical METARs
Airports
Safe Taxi
Runway Labels
TFRs
Restricted
MOA (Military)
User Waypoints
Latitude/Longitude Grid
NAVAIDs (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Intersections (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Class B Airspaces/TMA
Class C Airspaces/TCA
Class D Airspaces
Other Airspaces/ADIZ
Obstacles
Cities
Roads
Railroads
State/Province Boundaries
Declutter-1 Declutter-2 Declutter-3
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Table 5-3 Navigation Map Items Decluttered for each Detail Level
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AIRWAYS
This airways discussion is based upon the North American airway structure. The airway structure in places
other than North America vary by location, etc. and are not discussed in this book. Low Altitude Airways
(Victor Airways or T-Routes) start 1,200 feet above ground level (AGL) and extend up to 18,000 feet mean sea
level (MSL). Low Altitude Airways are designated with a “V” or a “T” before the airway number.
High Altitude Airways (Jet Routes or Q-Routes) start at 18,000 feet MSL and extend upward to 45,000 feet
MSL. High Altitude Airways are designated with a “J” or a “Q” before the airway number.
Low Altitude Airways are drawn in gray (the same shade used for roads). High Altitude Airways are drawn
in green. When both types of airways are displayed, High Altitude Airways are drawn on top of Low Altitude
Airways.
When airways are selected for display on the map, the airway waypoints (VORs, NDBs and Intersections) are
also displayed.
Low Altitude
Airway
(Victor Airway)
High Altitude
Airway
(Jet Route)
Low Altitude
Airway
(T-Route)
Figure 5-22 Airways on MFD Navigation Page
Airways may be displayed on the map at the pilot’s discretion using either a combination of AIRWAYS Softkey
selections, or menu selections using the MENU Key from the Navigation Map Page. The Airway range can also
be programmed to only display Airways on the MFD when the map range is at or below a specific number.
Displaying/removing airways:
1) Select the MAP Softkey.
2) Select the AIRWAYS Softkey. Both High and Low Altitude Airways are displayed (AIRWY ON).
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3) Select the softkey again to display Low Altitude Airways only (AIRWY LO).
4) Select the softkey again to display High Altitude Airways only (AIRWY HI).
5) Select the softkey again to remove High Altitude Airways. No airways are displayed (AIRWAYS).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘AIRWAYS’ field.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Off’, ‘All’, ‘LO Only’, or ‘HI Only’, and press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Airway Display Selection
Low Altitude Airway Range
Off, All, LO Only, HI Only
High Altitude Airway Range
Figure 5-23 Navigation Map Setup Menu - AIRWAYS Setup
The airway range is the maximum map range on which airways are displayed.
Selecting an airway range (LOW ALT AIRWAY or HI ALT AIRWAY):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways ’ group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Highlight the ‘LOW ALT AIRWAY’ or ‘HI ALT AIRWAY’ range field.
5) To change the range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
6) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
The following range items are configurable on the airways menu:
Airway Type
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Low Altitude Airway (LOW ALT AIRWAY)
200
500
High Altitude Airway (HI ALT AIRWAY)
300
500
Table 5-4 Airway Range Information
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TRACK VECTOR
The Navigation Map can display a track vector that is useful in minimizing track angle error. The track vector
is a solid cyan line segment extended to a predicted location. The track vector look-ahead time is selectable (30
sec, 60 sec (default), 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min) and determines the length of the track vector. The track
vector shows up to 90 degrees of a turn for the 30 and 60 second time settings. It is always a straight line for
the 2 min, 5 min, 10 min and 20 min settings.
Track Vector
Figure 5-24 Navigation Map -Track Vector
Displaying/removing the track vector:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘TRACK VECTOR’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’. Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the look
ahead time field. Use the FMS Knob to select the desired time. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Wind Vector On/Off
Nav Range Ring On/Off
SVT Field of View On/Off
Selected Altitude Arc On/Off
Track Vector
- On/Off
- Look Ahead Time
Fuel Range
- On/Off
- Fuel Reserve Time
Figure 5-25 Navigation Map Setup Menu - TRACK VECTOR, WIND VECTOR, NAV RANGE RING,
FUEL RNG (RSV), FIELD OF VIEW, SEL ALT ARC Setup
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WIND VECTOR
The map displays a wind vector arrow in the upper right-hand portion of the screen. Wind vector information
is displayed as a white arrow pointing in the direction in which the wind is moving for wind speeds greater than
or equal to 1 kt.
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
Figure 5-26 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
NOTE: The wind vector is not displayed until the aircraft is moving. It is not displayed on the Waypoint
Information pages.
Displaying/removing the wind vector:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘WIND VECTOR’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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NAV RANGE RING
The Nav Range Ring shows the direction of travel (ground track) on a rotating compass card. The range is
determined by the map range. The range is 1/4 of the map range (e.g., 37.5 nm on a 150 nm map).
Range (radius)
Nav Range Ring
Figure 5-27 Navigation Map - Nav Range Ring
NOTE: The Nav Range Ring is not displayed on the Waypoint Information pages, Nearest pages, or Direct-to
Window map.
Displaying/removing the Nav Range Ring:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘NAV RANGE RING’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
NOTE: The Nav Range Ring is referenced to either magnetic or true north, based on the selection on the AUX
- System Setup Page.
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FUEL RANGE RING
The map can display a fuel range ring which shows the remaining flight distance. A dashed green circle
indicates the selected range to reserve fuel. A solid green circle indicates the total endurance range. If only
reserve fuel remains, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle.
Time to Reserve Fuel
Total Endurance Range
Range to Reserve Fuel
Figure 5-28 Navigation Map - Fuel Range Ring
Displaying/removing the fuel range ring and selecting a fuel range time:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘FUEL RNG (RSV)’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Highlight the fuel reserve time field. This time should be set to the amount of flight time equal to the amount
of fuel reserve desired.
8) To change the reserve fuel time, enter a time (00:00 to 23:59; hours:minutes). The default setting is 00:45
minutes.
9) Press the ENT Key.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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FIELD OF VIEW (SVT)
The map can display the boundaries of the PFD Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) lateral field of view. The
field of view is shown as two dashed lines forming a V shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map. This is
only available if SVT is installed on the aircraft.
Lateral Field
of View
Boundaries
Figure 5-29 Navigation Map - Field of View
Displaying/removing the field of view:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘FIELD OF VIEW’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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SELECTED ALTITUDE INTERCEPT ARC
The map can display the location along the current track where the aircraft will intercept the selected altitude.
The location will be shown as a cyan arc when the aircraft is actuallly climbing or descending.
Range to
Altitude Arc
Figure 5-30 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
Displaying/removing the selected altitude intercept arc:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘SEL ALT ARC’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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5.3 WAYPOINTS
Waypoints are predetermined geographical positions (internal database) or pilot-entered positions, and are
used for all phases of flight planning and navigation.
Communication and navigation frequencies can be tuned “automatically” from various Waypoint Information
(WPT) pages, Nearest (NRST) pages, and the Nearest Airports Window (on PFD). This auto-tuning feature
simplifies frequency entry over manual tuning. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS section for details on autotuning.
Waypoints can be selected by entering the ICAO identifier, entering the name of the facility, or by entering
the city name. See the System Overview section for detailed instructions on entering data in the system. As a
waypoint identifier, facility name, or location is entered, the system’s Spell’N’Find™ feature scrolls through the
database, displaying those waypoints matching the characters which have been entered to that point. A direct-to
navigation leg to the selected waypoint can be initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key on any of the waypoint
pages.
Identifier Entry Field
City Entry Field
Facility
Entry
Field
- Waypoint Identifier
- Type (symbol)
- Facility Name
- City
Entered Waypoint
on Map
Map Area Showing
Entered Waypoint
Waypoint Location
Figure 5-31 Waypoint Information Window
If duplicate entries exist for the entered facility name or location, additional entries may be viewed by continuing
to turn the small FMS Knob during the selection process. If duplicate entries exist for an identifier, a Duplicate
Waypoints Window is displayed when the ENT Key is pressed.
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Identifier with
Duplicates
Duplicate
Waypoints
Duplicate Message
Figure 5-32 Waypoint Information Window - Duplicate Identifier
AIRPORTS
NOTE: ‘North Up’ orientation on the Airport Information Page cannot be changed; the pilot needs to be
aware of proper orientation if the Navigation Map orientation is different from the Airport Information Page
Map.
The Airport Information Page is the first page in WPT group and allows the pilot to view airport information,
load frequencies (COM, NAV, and lighting), review runways, and review instrument procedures that may be
involved in the flight plan. See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information on loading frequencies
(auto-tuning). After engine startup, the Airport Information Page defaults to the airport where the aircraft is
located. After a flight plan has been loaded, it defaults to the destination airport. On a flight plan with multiple
airports, it defaults to the airport which is the current active waypoint.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the Airport Information
Page displays airport information in three boxes labeled ‘AIRPORT’, ‘RUNWAYS’, and ‘FREQUENCIES’. For
airports with multiple runways, information for each runway is available. This information is viewed on the
Airport Information Page by pressing the INFO softkey until INFO-1 is displayed.
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Airport Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
- Lat/Long/Elev
- Fuel Available
- Time Zone (UTC Offset)
Navigation Map
Showing
Selected Airport
Runway Information
- Designation
- Length/Width/Surface
- Lighting Available
Airport/
Runway
Diagram
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
- Availability
- Additional Information
Softkeys
Figure 5-33 Airport Information Page
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the Airport Information Page:
• Usage type: Public, Military, Private, or Heliport
• Runway surface type: Hard, Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft, Unknown, or Water
• Runway lighting type: No Lights, Part Time, Full Time, Unknown, or PCL Freq (for pilot-controlled
lighting)
• COM Availability: TX (transmit only), RX (receive only), PT (part time), i (additional information available)
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Airport Directory
Information
Airport Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
Softkeys
Figure 5-34 Airport Directory Page Example
The airport directory information is viewed on the Airport Directory Page by pressing the INFO softkey
until INFO-2 is displayed. The following are types of airport directory information shown (if available) on the
Airport Directory Page:
• Airport: Identifier, Site
Number, Name, City, State
• Traffic Pattern Altitudes
(TPA): Aircraft Class/Altitude
• Runway: Headings, Length,
Width, Obstructions, Surface
• Phones: Phone/Fax Numbers
• Weather: Service Type,
Frequency, Phone Number
• Obstructions: General
Airport Obstructions
• Hours: Facility Hours, Light
Hours, Tower Hours, Beacon
Hours
• Flight Service Station (FSS):
FSS Name, Phone Numbers
• Special Operations at
Airport
• Location: Sectional, Magnetic
Variation
• Instrument Approaches:
Published Approach,
Frequency
• NAVAIDS: Type, Identifier,
Frequency, Radial, Distance
• Noise: Noise Abatement
Procedures
• Charts: Low Altitude Chart
Number
• Services Available: Category,
Specific Service
• Frequencies: Type/Frequency
• Transportation: Ground
Transportation Type Available
• Approach: Approach Facility
Name, Frequency, Frequency
Parameter
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• Notes: Airport Notes
• Pilot Controlled Lighting:
High/Med/Low Clicks/Second
• FBO: Type, Frequencies,
Services, Fees, Fuel, Credit
Cards, Phone/Fax Numbers
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Selecting an airport for review by identifier, facility name, or location:
1) From the Airport Information Page, press the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Selecting a runway:
1) With the Airport Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘RUNWAYS’ Box, on the runway designator.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired runway (if more than one) for the selected airport.
4) To remove the flashing cursor, press the FMS Knob.
Viewing a destination airport:
From the Airport Information Page press the MENU Key. Select ‘View Destination Airport’. The Destination
Airport is displayed.
The Airport Frequencies Box uses the descriptions and abbreviations listed in the following table:
Communication Frequencies
Pre-Taxi
Approach * Control
CTA *
Radar
Arrival *
ASOS
Departure * Ramp
Gate
Terminal *
ATIS
Ground
TMA *
AWOS
Helicopter
Tower
Center
Multicom
TRSA *
Class B *
Class C *
Other
Unicom
Clearance
Navigation Frequencies
ILS
LOC
* May include Additional Information
Table 5-5 Airport Frequency Abbreviations
A departure, arrival, or approach can be loaded using the softkeys on the Airport Information Page. See the
Procedures section for details. METARs or TAFs applicable to the selected airport can be selected for display (see
the Hazard Avoidance section for details about weather).
The system provides a NRST Softkey on the PFD, which gives the pilot quick access to nearest airport
information (very useful if an immediate landing is required). The Nearest Airports Window displays a list
of up to 25 nearest airports (three entries can be displayed at one time). If there are more than three they are
displayed in a scrollable list. If there are no nearest airports available, “NONE WITHIN 200NM” is displayed.
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Bearing/Distance to Airport
Airport Identifier/
Type
Approach Available
Length of Longest
Runway
COM Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Additional Airports
(within 200 nm)
NRST Softkey
Figure 5-35 Nearest Airports Window on PFD
Pressing the ENT Key displays the PFD Airport Information Window for the highlighted airport. Pressing the
ENT Key again returns to the Nearest Airports Window with the cursor on the next airport in the list. Continued
presses of the ENT Key sequences through the information pages for all airports in the Nearest Airports list.
Airport Information
- ID/Type/City
- Facility
Airport Information
- Usage/Time/Elev
- Region
Airport Information
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-36 Airport Information Window on PFD
The Nearest Airports Page on the MFD is first in the group of NRST pages because of its potential use in
the event of an in-flight emergency. In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and
surrounding area, the page displays nearest airport information in five boxes labeled ‘NEAREST AIRPORTS’,
‘INFORMATION’, ‘RUNWAYS’, ‘FREQUENCIES’, and ‘APPROACHES’.
The selected airport is indicated by a white arrow, and a dashed white line is drawn on the navigation map
from the aircraft position to the nearest airport. Up to four nearest airports, one runway, up to six frequencies,
and up to six approaches are visible at one time. If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled.
If there are no items for display in a boxed area, text indicating that fact is displayed. The currently selected
airport remains in the list until it is unselected.
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Nearest Airports
- ID/Type
- Bearing/Distance
Airport Information
- Facility/City/Elevation
Runway Information
- Designation/Surface
- Length/Width
Nearest Airport
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Airport
- Identification
- Frequency
Approaches Available
LD APR Softkey (only
available if an approach
is highlighted)
Window Selection
Softkeys
Figure 5-37 Nearest Airport Page
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the PFD:
1) Press the NRST Softkey to display the Nearest Airports Window. Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the airport identifier with the FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to display the Airport Information
Window.
3) To return to the Nearest Airports Window press the ENT Key (with the cursor on ‘BACK’) or press the CLR
Key. The cursor is now on the next airport in the nearest airports list. (Repeatedly pressing the ENT Key
moves through the airport list, alternating between the Nearest Airports Window and the Airport Information
Window.)
4) Press the CLR Key or the NRST Softkey to close the PFD Nearest Airports Window.
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the NRST page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Nearest Airports Page (it is the first page of the group, so it may already
be selected). If there are no Nearest Airports available, “NONE WITHIN 200 NM” is displayed.
3) Select the APT Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Airport Window’ and
press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘NEAREST AIRPORTS’ Box. The first airport in the nearest airports
list is highlighted.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport. (Pressing the ENT Key also moves to the next airport.)
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Viewing runway information for a specific airport:
1) With the Nearest Airports Page displayed, select the RNWY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select
Runway Window’; and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘RUNWAYS’ Box.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for frequency selection and the Procedures section for approaches.
The Nearest Airports Box on the System Setup Page defines the minimum runway length and surface type
used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on the MFD Nearest Airports Page. A minimum
runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways or runways that are
not appropriately surfaced from being displayed. Default settings are 0 feet (or meters) for runway length and
“HARD/SOFT” for runway surface type.
Selecting nearest airport surface matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the runway surface field in the Nearest Airports Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (ANY, HARD ONLY, HARD/SOFT, WATER).
5) Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Selecting nearest airport minimum runway length matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the minimum length field in the Nearest Airport Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the minimum runway length (zero to 25,000 feet) and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Nearest Airport Criteria
- Type of Runway Surface
- Minimum Runway Length
Figure 5-38 System Setup Page - Nearest Airport Selection Criteria
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INTERSECTIONS
NOTE: The VOR displayed on the Intersection Information Page is the nearest VOR, not necessarily the VOR
used to define the intersection.
The Intersection Information Page is used to view information about intersections. In addition to displaying
a map of the currently selected intersection and surrounding area, the Intersection Information Page displays
intersection information in three boxes labeled ‘INTERSECTION’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘NEAREST VOR’.
Intersection Identifier
Intersection Info
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Intersection
- Region
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
Selected Intersection
Figure 5-39 Intersection Information Page
Selecting an intersection:
1) With the Intersection Information Page displayed, enter an identifier in the Intersection Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest Intersections Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest Intersection Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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The Nearest Intersections Page can be used to quickly find an intersection close to the flight path. In addition
to displaying a map of the surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest intersections in
three boxes labeled ‘NEAREST INT’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘REFERENCE VOR’.
The selected intersection is indicated by a white arrow. Up to seventeen intersections are visible at a time. If
there are more than can be shown, the list can be scrolled. If there are no items for display, text indicating that
fact is displayed
NOTE: The list only includes waypoints that are within 200 nm.
Intersection Information
- Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to
intersection from
aircraft position
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Intersection
Intersection Lat/Long
Nearest
Intersection
Nearest VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- VOR Frequency
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
Figure 5-40 Nearest Intersections Page
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NDBS
The NDB Information Page is used to view information about NDBs. In addition to displaying a map of
the currently selected NDB and surrounding area, the page displays NDB information in four boxes labeled
‘NDB’, ‘INFORMATION’, ‘FREQUENCY’, and ‘NEAREST AIRPORT’.
NDB Identifier/Type
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
NDB
NDB Information
- Type
- Region
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
Selected NDB
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
Figure 5-41 NDB Information Page
NOTE: Locator Outer Marker (LOM), Locator Middle Marker (LMM): a low power, low or medium frequency
radio beacon installed in conjunction with the instrument landing system. When LOM is used, the locator is
at the Outer Marker; when LMM is used, the locator is at the Middle Marker.
Selecting an NDB:
1) With the NDB Information Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the NDB, or the city in which it’s
located in the NDB Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest NDB Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest NDB Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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The Nearest NDB Page can be used to quickly find a NDB close to the flight path. In addition to displaying
a map of the surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest NDBs in three boxes labeled
‘NEAREST NDB’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘FREQUENCY’.
A white arrow before the NDB identifier indicates the selected NDB. Up to sixteen NDBs are visible at a time.
If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. The list only includes waypoints that are within
200nm. If there are no NDBs in the list, text indicating that there are no nearest NDBs is displayed. If there are
no nearest NDBs in the list, the information and frequency fields are dashed.
NDB Identifier/Symbol
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
NDB
- Bearing/Distance to
NDB from aircraft
position
Nearest NDB
NDB Information
- Facility Name/City
- Type
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
Figure 5-42 Nearest NDB Page
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VORS
The VOR Information Page can be used to view information about VOR and ILS signals (since ILS signals
can be received on a NAV receiver), or to quickly auto-tune a VOR or ILS frequency. Localizer information
cannot be viewed on the VOR Information Page. If a VOR station is combined with a TACAN station it is
listed as a VORTAC on the VOR Information Page and if it includes only DME, it is displayed as VOR-DME.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected VOR and surrounding area, the VOR Information
Page displays VOR information in four boxes labeled ‘VOR’, ‘INFORMATION’, ‘FREQUENCY’, and ‘NEAREST
AIRPORT’.
VOR Identifier/Type
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
Navigation Map
Showing
Selected VOR
VOR Information
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Region
- Lat/Long
VOR Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
Selected VOR
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
Figure 5-43 VOR Information Page
The VOR classes used in the VOR information box are: LOW ALTITUDE, HIGH ALTITUDE, and
TERMINAL.
Selecting a VOR:
1) With the VOR Information Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the VOR, or the city in which it’s
located in the VOR Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest VOR Page displayed, press the FMS Knob or select the VOR Softkey.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VOR Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Or:
1) With the Nearest VOR Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Select VOR Window’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VOR Box.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The Nearest VOR Page can be used to quickly find a VOR station close to the aircraft. Also, a NAV frequency
from a selected VOR station can be loaded from the Nearest VOR Page. In addition to displaying a map of
the surrounding area, the Nearest VOR Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VOR stations in three
boxes labeled ‘NEAREST VOR’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘FREQUENCY’. The list only includes waypoints that
are within 200 nm.
A white arrow before the VOR identifier indicates the selected VOR. Up to sixteen VORs are visible at a
time. If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. If there are no VORs in the list, text
indicating that there are no nearest VORs is displayed. If there are no nearest VORs in the list, the information
is dashed.
VOR Identifier/Symbol
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
VOR
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
from aircraft position
VOR Information
- Facility Name/City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR
VOR Frequency
Figure 5-44 Nearest VOR Page
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VRPS
The VRP Information Page is used to view information about visual reporting points (VRPs). In addition to
displaying a map of the currently selected VRP and surrounding area, the VRP Information Page displays VRP
information in two boxes labeled ‘VRP’ and ‘INFORMATION’’.
Selected VRP
Navigation Map Showing Selected VRP
VRP Identifier/Symbol
- VRP Name
VRP Information
- Country
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-45 VRP Information Page
Selecting a VRP:
1) With the VRP Information Page displayed, enter the identifier or the name of the VRP in the VRP Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest VRP Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VRP Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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The Nearest VRP Page can be used to quickly find a VRP close to the aircraft. In addition to displaying a
map of the surrounding area, the Nearest VRP Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VRPs in two
boxes labeled ‘NEAREST VRP’ and ‘INFORMATION’. The list only includes VRPs that are within 200 nm.
A white arrow before the VRP identifier indicates the selected VRP. Up to eleven VRPs are visible at a time.
If there are more than can be shown, the list can be scrolled. If there are no VRPs in the list, text indicating
that there are no nearest VRPs is displayed. If there are no nearest VRPs in the list, the information is dashed.
Navigation Map Showing Nearest VOR
Nearest VRP
VRP Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
VRP Information
- VRP Name
- Country
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-46 Nearest VRP Page
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USER WAYPOINTS
The system can create and store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. User waypoints can be created from any
map page (except PFD Inset Map, AUX-Trip Planning Page, or Procedure Pages) by selecting a position on the
map using the Joystick, or from the User Waypoint Information Page by referencing a bearing/distance from an
existing waypoint, bearings from two existing waypoints, or latitude and longitude. Once a waypoint has been
created, it can be renamed, deleted, or moved. Temporary user waypoints are erased upon system power down.
User Waypoint Info
- Identifier
- Temporary/Normal
- Waypoint Type
User Wpt Comment
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
User Waypoint
Reference Wpt/Info
- Identifier/Rad/Dist or
- Identifiers/Radials or
- Region/Lat/Long
User Waypoint List
Selected User
Waypoint
- Identifier
- Comment
# User Wpts Used
Displayed if User Wpt
was created on map
page
Softkeys
Figure 5-47 User Waypoint Information Page
Selecting a User Waypoint:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, enter the name of the User Waypoint, or scroll to the
desired waypoint in the User Waypoint List using the large FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest User Waypoints Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest USR Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Nearest User Wpt List
- Identifier
- Bearing/Distance from
aircraft position
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
User Waypoint
Selected User
Waypoint
User Waypoint Info
- Comment
- Lat/Long
Reference Wpt Info
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
Figure 5-48 Nearest User Waypoint Page
CREATING USER WAYPOINTS
User waypoints can be created from the User Waypoint Information Page in the following ways:
Creating user waypoints from the User Waypoint Information Page:
1) Select the NEW Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Create New User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The current aircraft position is the default location of the new waypoint.
4) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into the
INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
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6) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “TEMPORARY” or “NORMAL” by moving the cursor
to “TEMPORARY” and selecting the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Are you sure you want to create the new User Waypoint AAAAAA?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into the
INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “TEMPORARY” or “NORMAL” by moving the cursor
to “TEMPORARY” and selecting the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Figure 5-49 User Waypoint Information Page Menu
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Creating user waypoints from map pages:
1) Press the Joystick to activate the panning function and pan to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key. The User Waypoint Information Page is displayed with the captured position.
NOTE: If the pointer has highlighted a map database feature, one of three things happens upon pressing
the ENT Key: 1) information about the selected feature is displayed instead of initiating a new waypoint,
2) a menu pops up allowing a choice between ‘Review Airspaces’ or ‘Create User Waypoint’, or 3) a new
waypoint is initiated with the default name being the selected map item.
3) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected name. The first reference waypoint box is highlighted.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into the
INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “TEMPORARY” or “NORMAL” by moving the cursor
to “TEMPORARY” and selecting the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
9) Press the GO BACK Softkey to return to the map page.
EDITING USER WAYPOINTS
Editing a user waypoint comment or location:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Select a user waypoint in the User Waypoint List, if required, and press the ENT Key.
3) Move the cursor to the desired field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to make any changes.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Renaming user waypoints:
1) Highlight a user waypoint in the User Waypoint List. Select the RENAME Softkey, or press the MENU Key and
select ‘Rename User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a new name.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Do you want to rename the user waypoint AAAAAA to BBBBBB?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing the location of an existing waypoint to the aircraft present position:
1) Enter a waypoint name or select the waypoint in the User Waypoint List, then press the ENT Key.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Use Present Position’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice. The new waypoint’s location is saved.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
A system generated comment for a user waypoint incorporates the reference waypoint identifier, bearing,
and distance. If a system generated comment has been edited, a new comment can be generated.
Resetting the comment field to the system generated comment:
1) Enter a waypoint name or select the waypoint in the User Waypoint List, then press the ENT Key.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Auto Comment’.
4) Press the ENT Key. The generated comment is based on the reference point used to define the waypoint.
The default type of user waypoint (normal or temporary) can be changed using the user waypoint information
page menu. Temporary user waypoints are automatically deleted upon the next power cycle.
Changing the user waypoint storage duration default setting:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Move the cursor to select ‘Waypoint Setup’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Select ‘NORMAL’ or ‘TEMPORARY’ as desired, and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor and return to the User Waypoint Information Page.
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DELETING USER WAYPOINTS
Deleting a single user waypoint:
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List, or enter a waypoint in the User Waypoint field.
2) Select the DELETE Softkey or press the CLR Key. ‘Yes’ is highlighted in the confirmation window.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List, or enter a waypoint in the User Waypoint field.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete User Waypoint’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
NOTE: The option to ‘Delete All User Waypoints’ is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all user waypoints:
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete All User Waypoints’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.4 AIRSPACES
The system can display the following types of airspaces: Class B/TMA, Class C/TCA, Class D, Restricted, MOA
(Military), Other Airspace, Air Defense Interdiction Zone (ADIZ), and Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR).
Class D Airspace
MOA (Military)
Class B Airspace
Restricted Area
TFR
Alert Area
Class C Airspace
ADIZ
Warning Area
Figure 5-50 Airspaces
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The Nearest Airspaces Page, Airspace Alerts Window, and Airspace Alerts on the PFD provide additional
information about airspaces and the location of the aircraft in relationship to them.
The Airspace Alerts Box allows the pilot to turn the controlled/special-use airspace message alerts on or off.
This does not affect the alerts listed on the Nearest Airspaces Page or the airspace boundaries depicted on the
Navigation Map Page. It simply turns on/off the warning provided when the aircraft is approaching or near an
airspace.
An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below an airspace. For example,
if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/below an airspace, an alert message is
not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below an airspace and projected to enter it, the pilot
is notified with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the altitude buffer field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Turning an airspace alert on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Airspace Alerts Box
- Airspace Altitude Buffer
- Alert On/Off
(Default Settings Shown)
DFLTS Softkey
Figure 5-51 System Setup Page - Airspace Alerts
Map ranges for the airspace boundaries are selected from the Aviation Group in the Map Setup Menu. See Table
5-2 for the default and maximum ranges for each type of airspace and the symbol used to define the airspace
area.
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The Nearest Airspaces Page can be used to quickly find airspaces close to the flight path. In addition, a selected
frequency associated with the airspace can be loaded from the Nearest Airspaces Page. In addition to displaying
a map of airspace boundaries and surrounding area, the Nearest Airspaces Page displays airspace information in
four boxes labeled ‘AIRSPACE ALERTS’, ‘AIRSPACE, AGENCY’, ‘VERTICAL LIMITS’, and ‘FREQUENCIES’.
Airspace Alerts Info
- Name
- Proximity (Ahead, Inside,
Ahead < 2nm, Within 2nm)
- Time till Intercept (only if
Ahead or Ahead < 2nm)
Airspace 1
Airspace/Agency Info
Airspace 2
- Airspace Type
- Controlling Agency
Airspace Vertical Limits
- Ceiling
- Floor
Airspace 3
Associated Frequencies
- Type
- Availability/Info
- Frequency
Softkeys
Figure 5-52 Nearest Airspaces Page
Airspace alerts and associated frequencies are shown in scrollable lists on the Nearest Airspaces Page. The
ALERTS and FREQ softkeys place the cursor in the respective list. The FREQ Softkey is enabled only if one or
more frequencies exist for a selected airspace.
Selecting and viewing an airspace alert with its associated information:
1) Select the Nearest Airspaces Page.
2) Select the ALERTS Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Alerts Window’,
and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘AIRSPACE ALERTS’ Box.
3) Select the desired airspace.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Pressing the PFD MSG Softkey displays the message window on the PFD. The following airspace alerts are
displayed in the message window:
Message
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead –
less than 10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and ahead.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near –
less than 2 nm.
Comments
The aircraft is inside the special use airspace.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft penetrates the airspace
within 10 minutes.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
Table 5-6 PFD Airspace Alert Messages
The Smart Airspace function de-emphasizes airspaces above or below the current aircraft altitude. The function
does not require the aircraft present position or flight path to enter the lateral boundaries of the airspace. If the
current aircraft altitude is within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace, the airspace boundary is
shown normally. If the current aircraft altitude is not within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace,
the airspace boundary is shown subdued.
Smart Airspace Off
Smart Airspace On
Figure 5-53 Smart Airspace
Turning smart airspace on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘GROUP’ Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Aviation’ in the ‘GROUP’ Box and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘SMART AIRSPACE’ field in the Aviation Map Setup Window.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn smart airspace ON or counterclockwise to turn smart airspace OFF.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.5 DIRECT-TO-NAVIGATION
The Direct-to method of navigation, initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key on either the MFD or PFD, is
quicker to use than a flight plan when the desire is to navigate to a single point such as a nearby airport.
Once a direct-to is activated, the system establishes a point-to-point course line from the present position to the
selected direct-to destination. Course guidance is provided until the direct-to is replaced with a new direct-to or
flight plan, or cancelled.
A vertical navigation (VNV) direct-to creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the current altitude to a selected altitude at the direct-to waypoint. Vertical navigation is based on barometric
altitudes, not on GPS altitude, and is used for cruise and descent phases of flight.
The Direct-to Window allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation. The Direct-to Window displays
selected direct-to waypoint data on the PFD and the MFD.
Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/Region
- Facility Name
- City
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Map of Selected Point
Location of Destination
- Bearing/Distance
Desired Course
Figure 54 Direct-to Window - MFD
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Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/City
- Facility Name
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Direct-to Point Info
- Bearing/Distance
- Desired Course
Activation Command
Figure 5-55 Direct-to Window - PFD
Any waypoint can be entered as a direct-to destination from the Direct-to Window.
Entering a waypoint identifier, facility name, or city as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed (with the active flight plan wayoint as the default
selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it counter-clockwise brings
up the waypoint selection submenu - press the CLR Key to remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the
facility name, or city field and turn the small FMS Knob to begin entering a facility name or city. If duplicate
entries exist for the entered facility or city name, additional entries can be viewed by turning the small FMS
Knob during the selection process.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the direct-to.
Any waypoint contained in the active flight plan can be selected as a direct-to waypoint from the Direct-to
Window, the Active Flight Plan Page, or the Active Flight Plan Window.
Waypoint Submenu
- Flight Plan Waypoints
- Nearest Airports
- Recent Waypoints
- User Waypoints
- Airway Waypoints
(only available when
active leg is part of an
airway)
Figure 5-56 Waypoint Submenu
Selecting an active flight plan waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) While navigating an active flight plan, press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the
active flight plan waypoint as the default selection.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
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3) Select the desired waypoint.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Or:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, or the Active Flight Plan Window on the PFD.
2) Select the desired waypoint.
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Any NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoint can be selected as a direct-to destination in the Direct-to
Window.
Selecting a NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed (with the active flight plan destination as the
default selection or a blank destination if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoints.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
The Direct-to Window can be displayed from any page and allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation.
If the direct-to is initiated from any page except the WPT pages, the default waypoint is the active flight plan
waypoint (if a flight plan is active) or a blank waypoint field. Direct-to requests on any WPT page defaults to the
displayed waypoint.
Selecting any waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Select the page or window containing the desired waypoint type and select the desired waypoint.
2) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window with the selected waypoint as the direct-to
destination.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
4) Press ENT again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the NRST Softkey on the PFD; or turn the FMS Knob to display the Nearest Airports Page and press the
FMS Knob.
2) Select the desired airport (the nearest one is already selected).
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3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Direct-to destinations may also be selected by using the pointer on the navigation map pages. If no airport,
NAVAID, or user waypoint exists at the desired location, a temporary waypoint named ‘MAPWPT’ is automatically
created at the location of the map arrow.
Selecting a waypoint as a direct-to destination using the pointer:
1) From a navigation map page, press the Joystick to display the pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to place the pointer at the desired destination location.
3) If the pointer is placed on an existing airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint, the waypoint name is highlighted.
4) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window with the selected point entered as the direct-to
destination.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Cancelling a Direct-to:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. If a flight plan is still active, the system resumes
navigating the flight plan along the closest leg.
Page Menu
- Cancel Direct-To
Navigation
Figure 5-57 Direct-to Window - Cancelling Direct-to Navigation
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When navigating a direct-to, the system sets a direct great circle course to the selected destination. The course
to a destination can also be manually selected using the course field (‘COURSE’) on the Direct-to Window.
Selecting a manual direct-to course:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the destination field highlighted.
2) Highlight the course field.
3) Enter the desired course.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Reselecting the direct course from the current position:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the destination field highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
3) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
A direct-to with altitude constraints creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the aircraft’s current altitude to the altitude of the direct-to waypoint. The altitude is reached at the waypoint,
or at the specified distance along the flight path if an offset distance has been entered. All VNV altitudes prior
to the direct-to destination are removed from the active flight plan upon successful activation of the direct-to.
All VNV altitudes following the direct-to waypoint are retained. See the section on Vertical Navigation for more
information regarding the use and purpose of VNV altitudes and offset distances.
Entering a VNV altitude and along-track offset for the waypoint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor over the ‘VNV’ altitude field.
3) Enter the desired altitude.
4) Press the ENT Key. The option to select MSL or AGL is now displayed.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now flashing in the VNV offset distance field.
7) Enter the desired along-track distance before the waypoint.
8) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
9) Press the ENT Key to activate.
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Removing a VNV altitude constraint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Clear Vertical Constraints’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Page Menu
- Clear Vertical Navigation
Constraints
Figure 5-58 Direct-to Window - Clearing Vertical Constraints
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5.6 FLIGHT PLANNING
Flight planning on the system consists of building a flight plan by entering waypoints one at a time, adding
waypoints along airways, and inserting departures, airways, arrivals, or approaches as needed. The system allows
flight planning information to be entered from either the MFD or PFD. The flight plan is displayed on maps using
different line widths, colors, and types, based on the type of leg and the segment of the flight plan currently being
flown (departure, enroute, arrival, approach, or missed approach).
Flight Plan Leg Type
Symbol
Active non-heading Leg (TOPO On)
Active non-heading Leg (TOPO Off)
Active heading Leg (TOPO On)
Active heading Leg (TOPO Off)
Non-heading Leg in the current flight segment (TOPO On)
Non-heading Leg in the current flight segment (TOPO Off)
Heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO On)
Heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO Off)
Non-heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO On)
Non-heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO Off)
Turn Anticipation Arc (TOPO On/TOPO Off)
Table 5-7 Flight Plan Leg Symbols
Up to 99 flight plans with up to 100 waypoints each can be created and stored in memory. One flight plan can
be activated at a time and becomes the active flight plan. The active flight plan is erased when the system is turned
off and overwritten when another flight plan is activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, departure,
or arrival, the system uses the waypoint information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the
database is changed or updated, the system automatically updates the information if the procedure has not been
modified. If an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is no longer available, the procedure is deleted from the
affected stored flight plan(s), and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A) advising that
one or more stored flight plans need to be edited.
Whenever an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach,
departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan along with a header line describing the instrument
procedure the pilot selected. The original enroute portion of the flight plan remains active (unless an instrument
procedure is activated) when the procedure is loaded.
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When the database is updated, the airways need to be reloaded also. Each airway segment is reloaded from
the database given the entry waypoint, the airway identifier and the exit waypoint. This reloads the sequence of
waypoints between the entry and exit waypoints (the sequence may change when the database is updated). The
update of an airway can fail during this process. If that happens, the airway waypoints are changed to regular
(non-airway) flight plan waypoints, and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A).
The following could cause the airway update to fail:
• Airway identifier, entry waypoint or exit waypoint not found in the new database.
• Airway entry/exit waypoint is not an acceptable waypoint for the airway – either the waypoint is no longer on
the airway, or there is a new directional restriction that prevents it being used.
• Loading the new airway sequence would exceed the capacity of the flight plan.
FLIGHT PLAN CREATION
There are three methods to create or modify a flight plan:
• Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• Active Flight Plan Window on the PFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• Flight Plan Catalog Page on the MFD (create/modify a stored flight plan)
Active FPL Waypoint List
- Comment
- Procedure Header
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Vertical Navigation Profile
- Active Vertical WPT Alt/ID
- Vertical Speed Target
- Flight Path Angle
- Vertical Speed Required
- Vertical Deviation
- Time to Top of Descent
Turn Anticipation
Arc
Non-Active,
Flight Plan Leg
Figure 5-59 Active Flight Plan Page
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Active Flight Plan Comment
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Waypoint List
- Waypoint ID
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Airway Identifier
Figure 5-60 Active Flight Plan Window on PFD
Catalog Contents
- # Used
- # Empty
Flight Plan List
- Comment
Selected
Flight Plan
Map
Selected FPL Info
- Departure Waypoint
- Destination Waypoint
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Softkeys
Figure 5-61 Flight Plan Catalog Page
The active flight plan is listed on the active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, and in the Active Flight Plan
Window on the PFD. It is the flight plan to which the system is currently providing guidance, and is shown
on the navigation maps. Stored flight plans are listed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page, and are available for
activation (becomes the active flight plan).
NOTE: The system supports AFCS lateral guidance for all leg types (using NAV or FMS APPR mode). The
system does not support course deviation for any heading leg types (VA, VD, VI, VM, or VR).
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Creating an active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (only on MFD).
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
4) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
5) Repeat step numbers 3 and 4 to enter each additional flight plan waypoint.
6) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Creating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Select the NEW Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create New Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key to
display a blank flight plan for the first empty storage location.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key.
6) Repeat step numbers 4 and 5 to enter each additional flight plan waypoint.
7) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to return to the Flight Plan Catalog Page. The new
flight plan is now in the list.
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Flight plans can be imported from an SD Card or exported to an SD Card from the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Importing a Flight Plan from an SD Card
1) Insert the SD card containing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight an empty or existing flight plan.
6) Press the IMPORT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Import Flight Plan”, and press the ENT Key.
If an empty slot is selected, a list of the available flight plans on the SD card will be displayed.
Or:
If an existing flight plan is selected, an “Overwrite existing flight plan? OK or CANCEL” prompt is displayed.
Press the ENT Key to choose to overwrite the selected flight plan and see the list of available flight plans on the
SD card. If overwriting the existing flight plan is not desired, select “CANCEL” using the FMS Knob, press the
ENT Key, select another flight plan slot, and press the IMPORT Softkey again.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan for importing.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the import.
9) Press the ENT Key again to confirm the import.
Import/Export Softkeys
List of Flight Plans to Import &
Details for the Selected File
Import Successful
Figure 5-62 Flight Plan Import
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NOTE: If the imported flight plan contains a waypoint with a name that duplicates the name of a waypoint
already stored on the system, the system compares the coordinates of the imported waypoint with those of
the existing waypoint. If the coordinates are different, the imported waypoint is automatically renamed by
adding characters to the end of the name.
Exporting a Flight Plan to an SD Card
1) Insert the SD card into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be exported.
6) Press the EXPORT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Export Flight Plan”.
7) If desired, change the name for the exported file by turning the large FMS Knob to the left to highlight the
name, then use the small and large FMS knobs to enter the new name, and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the export.
9) Press the ENT Key to confirm the export.
NOTE: The exported flight plan will not contain any procedures or airways.
Import/Export Softkeys
Stored Flight Plan to be Exported &
Exported Flight Plan Name
Export Successful
Figure 5-63 Flight Plan Export
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Flight plans can be transferred to the system from a mobile device via the Flight Stream 210 Bluetooth
wireless connection.
Previewing a flight plan transfer from a wireless connection:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a Pending Flight Plan pop-up alert appears
in the lower right corner of the MFD, and an Connext annunciation appears to the right of the MFD page name.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Preview Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
Or:
Select the PREVIEW Softkey to display the Preview Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
Or:
Press the MENU Key, select ‘Preview Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Preview Flight Plan Page is
displayed.
Ignoring a flight plan transfer from a wireless connection:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a Pending Flight Plan pop-up alert appears
in the lower right corner of the MFD, and an Connext annunciation appears to the right of the MFD page name.
2) Press the CLR Key to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan will
still be available on the Flight Plan Catalog page.
Or:
Select the IGNORE Softkey to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The pending flight
plan will still be available on the Flight Plan Catalog page.
Pending Connext Action
Annunciator
Pending Flight Plan
Pending Flight Plan
Pop-Up Alert
IGNORE Softkey
PREVIEW Softkey
Figure 5-64 Pending Flight Plan Transfer
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Pending Connext Action
Annunciator
Pending Flight Plan
STORE? or ACTIVATE?
Selection
DELETE Softkey
ACTIVATE Softkey
STORE Softkey
Figure 5-65 Preview Flight Plan Page
Storing a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the Preview Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
4) Select the STORE Softkey to store the flight plan.
Or:
Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘STORE?’. Press the ENT Key
to store the flight plan.
Or:
Press the MENU Key, select ‘Store Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key to store the flight plan.
5) The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation is removed.
Activating a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the Preview Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
4) Select the ACTIVATE Softkey to activate the flight plan.
Or:
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Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘ACTIVATE?’. Press the ENT Key
to activate the flight plan.
Or:
Press the MENU Key, select ‘Activate Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan.
5) The pending flight plan becomes the active flight plan and is removed from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
Deleting a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired pending flight plan.
3) Select the DELETE Softkey; press the CLR Key; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the pending flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting all pending flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Delete All Pending’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all pending flight plans?’ confirmation window
is displayed.
4)
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With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all pending flight plans. To cancel the request, press the
CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
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ADDING WAYPOINTS TO AN EXISTING FLIGHT PLAN
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose the flight plan, select the
desired point of insertion, enter the waypoint, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. Flight plans are
limited to 100 waypoints (including waypoints within airways and procedures). If the number of waypoints in
the flight plan exceeds 100, the message “Flight plan is full. Remove unnecessary waypoints.” appears and the
new waypoint(s) are not added to the flight plan.
Stored Flight Plan Selected
- Memory Slot
- Comment
- Procedure Identifier
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Softkeys
Figure 5-66 Stored Flight Plan Page
Flight Plan Full Message
Figure 5-67 Active Flight Plan Page - FPL Full
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Adding a waypoint to a stored flight plan:
1) On the Flight Plan Catalog Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select “EDIT” and press
the ENT Key. The Stored Flight Plan Page is displayed.
4) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly in front of the
highlighted waypoint.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
6) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The new waypoint now exists in the flight plan.
NOTE: If the identifier entered in the Waypoint Information Window has duplicates, a Duplicate Waypoint
Window is displayed. Use the FMS Knob to select the correct waypoint.
Figure 5-68 Duplicate Waypoints Window
Adding a waypoint to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Select the point in the flight plan before which to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly
in front of the highlighted waypoint.
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4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window with a
waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
Creating and adding user waypoints to the active flight plan:
1) Press the Joystick to activate the panning function on the Active Flight Plan Page and pan to the map location
of the desired user waypoint.
2) Select the LD WPT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The user
waypoint is created with a name of USRxxx (using the next available in sequence) and is added to the end of
the active flight plan.
ADDING AIRWAYS TO A FLIGHT PLAN
Airways can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose a flight plan (add the desired
airway entry point if not already in the flight plan), select the waypoint after the desired airway entry point,
select the airway, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. An airway can only be loaded if there is a
waypoint in the flight plan that is part of the desired airway and is not part of an arrival or approach procedure.
The system also anticipates the desired airway and exit point based on loaded flight plan waypoints.
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Airways Available at TOP
Airway Waypoint Sequence
Preview of
Selected Airway
Figure 5-69 Select Airway Page - Selecting Airway
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Adding an airway to a flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint after the desired airway entry point. If this waypoint is not
a valid airway entry point, a valid entry point should be entered at this time.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and select the LD AIRWY Softkey, or press the MENU Key and
select “Load Airway”. The Select Airway Page is displayed. The LD AIRWY Softkey or the “Load Airway” menu
item is available only when a valid airway entry waypoint has been chosen (the waypoint ahead of the cursor
position).
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways are
shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is
highlighted.
7) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted.
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Selected Exit Point
Preview of
Selected Airway
Airway Exit Points
Available
Selected Airway Exit
Point
Figure 5-70 Select Airway Page - Selecting Exit Point
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Inserted Airway Header
- Airway Identifier: [airway
identifier].[exit waypoint identifier]
(e.g., V4.SLN)
Figure 5-71 Active Flight Plan Page - Airway Inserted
RESTRICTIONS ON ADDING AIRWAYS
Some airways have directional restrictions on all or part of the route. Airway “A2” in Europe has a directional
restriction over the whole route such that it can be flown only in the direction MTD-ABB-BNE-DEVAL.
Airway “UR975” in North Africa has more complicated directional restrictions within the list of airway
waypoints AMANO, VAKOR, LIBRO, NELDA, DIRKA, GZO, KOSET, and SARKI:
• Starting from AMANO, the airway can be flown only to LIBRO.
• Starting from SARKI, the airway can be flown only to LIBRO.
• Between NELDA and GZO, the airway can be flown in either direction.
In the US, airways that are “one-way” for specified hours of operation are not uncommon. These airways
are always bidirectional in the system database.
The system only allows correct airway sequences to be inserted. If the pilot subsequently inverts the flight
plan, the system inverts the airway waypoint sequence and removes the airway header.
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ADDING PROCEDURES TO A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
The system allows the pilot to insert pre-defined instrument procedures from the navigation database into a
flight plan. The procedures are designed to facilitate routing of traffic leaving an airport (departure), arriving at
an airport (arrival), and landing at an airport (approach). See the procedures section for more details.
Flight Plan Name
Flight Plan Waypoint
List
Softkeys
Load Departure Load Arrival Load Approach Activate Flight Plan
Figure 5-72 Stored Flight Plan Page
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DEPARTURE (DP)
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can
be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
Departure Airport
Selected
Departure
Departures Available at
KMKC
Preview of
Selected
Departure
Departure Waypoint
Sequence
Figure 5-73 Departure Loading Page - Selecting the Departure
Loading a departure procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
3) Select the LD DP Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Departure”, and press the ENT Key. The
Departure Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select a departure. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a runway served by the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition for the selected departure. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected departure procedure.
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Departure Airport
Selected
Departure
Selected Runway
Preview of
Selected
Departure
Selected Transition
Departure Transition Points
Available
Selected
Departure End
Point
Figure 5-74 Departure Loading Page - Selecting Transition
Inserted Departure Header
- Departure Identifier: [departure
airport]-[departure runway].
[departure transition].
[departure end point]
(e.g., KMKC-ALL.WLDCT2.SLN)
Figure 5-75 Stored Flight Plan Page - Departure Inserted
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ARRIVAL (STAR)
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) is loaded at the destination airport in the flight plan. Only one arrival
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
Destination Airport
Selected Arrival
Arrivals Available at KCOS
Selected Runway
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
Preview of
Selected Arrival
Figure 5-76 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Arrival
Loading an arrival procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
3) Select the LD STAR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Arrival”, and press the ENT Key. The Arrival
Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select an arrival. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a transition for the selected arrival. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway served by the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected arrival procedure.
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Destination Airport
Selected Arrival
Selected Transition
Transitions Available with
DBRY1
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
Preview of
Selected Arrival
Figure 5-77 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
Inserted Arrival Header
- Arrival Identifier:
[arrival airport]-[arrival transition].
[arrival].[arrival runway]
(e.g., KCOS-TBE.DBRY1.ALL)
Figure 5-78 Stored Flight Plan Page - Arrival Inserted
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APPROACH (APPR)
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has an approach available. Only one
approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route for a selected approach is defined by designating
transition waypoints.
Destination Airport
Selected
Approach
Approaches Available at
KCOS
BARO Minimum
Preview of
Selected
Approach
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Figure 5-79 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Approach
Loading an approach procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Approach”, and press the ENT Key. The
Approach Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the APPROACH CHANNEL field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
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5) Select a transition for the selected approach. Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the selected approach procedure.
Destination Airport
Selected
Approach
Selected Transition
Transitions Available with
Selected Approach
Preview of
Selected
Approach
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Load Approach?
Figure 5-80 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
Inserted Approach Header
- Approach Identifier: [approach
airport].[runway and approach type]
(e.g., KCOS-RNAV 35RGPS LPV)
Figure 5-81 Stored Flight Plan Page - Approach Inserted
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FLIGHT PLAN STORAGE
The system can store up to 99 flight plans, numbered 1 through 99. The active flight plan is erased when
the system is powered off or when another flight plan is activated. Details about each stored flight plan can be
viewed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page and on the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Viewing information about a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
4) The Flight Plan Information is displayed showing departure, destination, total distance, and enroute safe altitude
information for the selected Flight Plan.
5) Select the EDIT Softkey to open the Stored Flight Plan Page and view the waypoints in the flight plan.
6) Press the FMS Knob to exit the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Flight Plan Name
(Comment)
Selected Flight Plan
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan
Stored Flight Plan Info
- Departure Airport
- Destination Airport
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Stored FPL Editing
Softkeys
Figure 5-82 Stored Flight Plan Information
Storing an active flight plan from the Active Flight Plan Page or the Active Flight Plan Window:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. The flight plan is stored in the next available position in the flight
plan list on the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
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ACTIVATE A FLIGHT PLAN
Activating a stored flight plan erases the active flight plan and replaces it with the flight plan being activated.
Inverting a stored flight plan reverses the waypoint order, erases the active flight plan, and replaces it with the
flight plan being activated (the stored flight plan is not changed)
Activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Select the ACTIVE Softkey; or press the ENT Key twice; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’,
and press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Stored Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Select the INVERT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key.
The ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
COPY A FLIGHT PLAN
The system allows copying a flight plan into a new flight plan memory slot, allowing editing, etc., without
affecting the original flight plan. This can be used to duplicate an existing stored flight plan for use in creating
a modified version of the original stored flight plan.
Copying a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Select the COPY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Copy Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The
‘Copy to Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to copy the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
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DELETE A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
Individual or all stored flight plans can be deleted from the system memory.
Deleting a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Select the DELETE Softkey; press the CLR Key; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
NOTE: The option to delete all stored flight plans is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all stored flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Delete All’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all flight plans. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT PLAN EDITING
The active flight plan or any stored flight plan can be edited. The edits made to the active flight plan affect
navigation as soon as they are entered.
DELETING THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
The system allows deleting an active flight plan. Deleting the active flight plan suspends navigation by the
system.
Deleting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete all waypoints in flight
plan?’ window is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the active flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
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DELETING FLIGHT PLAN ITEMS
Individual waypoints, entire airways, and entire procedures can be deleted from a flight plan. Some waypoints
in the final approach segment (such as the FAF or MAP) can not be deleted individually. Attempting to delete
a waypoint that is not allowed results in a window displaying ‘Invalid flight plan modification.’
Deleting an individual waypoint from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire airway from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the white header of the airway to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name>?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the white header of the procedure to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove <procedure>’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
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Deleting an individual waypoint from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire airway from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the airway to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name>?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the procedure to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
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1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove <procedure>’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
CHANGING FLIGHT PLAN COMMENTS (NAMES)
The comment field (or name) of each flight plan can be changed to something that is useful for identification
and sorting.
Changing the active flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
3) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing a stored flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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ALONG TRACK OFFSETS
A waypoint having an “along track offset” distance from an existing waypoint can be entered into a flight plan.
Along track offset waypoints lie along the path of the existing flight plan, and can be used to make the system
reach a specified altitude before or after reaching the specified flight plan waypoint. Offset distances can be
entered from 1 to 999 nm in increments of 1 nm. Entering a negative offset distance results in an along track
offset waypoint inserted before the selected waypoint, whereas entering a positive offset distance results in an
along track offset waypoint inserted after the selected waypoint. Multiple offset waypoints are allowed.
A waypoint must be adjacent to its parent waypoint in the flight plan, so the system limits the along-track
distance to less than the length of the leg before or after the selected waypoint. If the selected waypoint is the
active waypoint, the distance is limited to less than the distance to go to the active waypoint. Assigning an along
track offset to a leg with indeterminate length is not permitted. An along track offset is not allowed at or after
the final approach fix of an approach.
An along track offset distance cannot be modified once entered. If the along track offset distance must be
changed, the existing along track offset waypoint must be deleted and a new one created with the new offset
distance.
Along Track Offset
Waypoint and Distance
from Flight Plan Waypoint
Along Track
Offset Waypoint
and Distance
Figure 5-83 Along Track Offset
Entering an along track offset distance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the along track offset.
3) Select the ATK OFST Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create ATK Offset Waypoint’, and
press the ENT Key.
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4) Enter a positive or negative offset distance in the range of +/- 1 to 999 nm (limited by leg distances).
5) Press the ENT Key to create the offset waypoint.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
PARALLEL TRACK
The Parallel Track (PTK) feature allows creation of a parallel course offset of 1 to 50 nm left or right of the
current flight plan. When Parallel Track is activated, the course line drawn on the map pages shows the parallel
course, and waypoint names have a lower case “p” placed after the identifier.
Using direct-to, loading an approach, a holding pattern, or editing and activating the flight plan automatically
cancels Parallel Track. Parallel Track is also cancelled if a course change occurs greater than 120° or the parallel
tracks overlap as a result of the course change.
NOTE: Vertical navigation is unavailable while the Parallel Track feature is active.
Active Flight Plan prior to Parallel Track
Selecting Parallel
Track
Figure 5-84 Active Flight Plan Window - Selecting Parallel Track
Activating parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The Parallel Track Window is displayed
with the direction field highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Left’ or ‘Right’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘DISTANCE’ field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a distance from 1-99 nm and press the ENT Key. ‘ACTIVATE PARALLEL
TRACK’ is highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key to activate parallel track. Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to cancel the parallel track
activation.
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Offset Direction
Offset Distance
Activation Prompt
Figure 5-85 Parallel Track Window
Parallel Track Waypoints
- TIFTO-p
- TOP-p
- ULNAZ-p
- ...
Activating Parallel Track
affects the active flight plan
from the current position on
(will not affect an approach)
Parallel Track
Original Track
Figure 5-86 Parallel Track Active
If the parallel track proposed by the offset direction and distance is not allowed by the system, the activation
prompt is displayed, but disabled. Parallel Track cannot be activated if a course is set using direct-to or if the
active leg is the first leg of the departure procedure. Attempting to activate parallel track with these conditions
results in the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable Invalid Route Geometry’. If an approach leg is active the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track with the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable
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Approach Leg Active’. If the offset direction and distance results in an unreasonable route geometry the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because of invalid geometry.
Subdued Prompt
(Unavailable)
Unavailable Status
Invalid
Geometry
Approach
Active
Figure 5-87 Parallel Track Unavailable
If the active leg is not a track between two fixes (TF) or a course to a fix (DF) leg, the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because parallel track is not available for the
active leg type.
Offset Direction &
Distance Subdued
(Unavailable)
Cancel Prompt
Active Status
Figure 5-88 Cancelling Parallel Track
Cancelling parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The Parallel Track Window is displayed
with ‘CANCEL PARALLEL TRACK?’ highlighted.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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ACTIVATING A FLIGHT PLAN LEG
The system allows selection of a highlighted leg as the “active leg” (the flight plan leg which is currently
used for navigation guidance).
Activating a flight plan leg:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the destination waypoint for the desired leg.
3) Select the ACT LEG Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Leg’, and press the ENT Key.
A confirmation window is displayed with ‘ACTIVATE’ highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan leg. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press
the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Current
Active Leg
Selected Destination
Waypoint
Activate Leg Softkey
Figure 5-89 Active Flight Plan Page - Selecting the Leg Destination Waypoint
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New Active
Flight Plan Leg
Confirmation Window
Figure 5-90 Active Flight Plan Page - New Active Leg
INVERTING A FLIGHT PLAN
Any flight plan may be inverted (reversed) for navigation back to the original departure point.
Inverting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. An ‘Invert Active Flight Plan?’
confirmation window is displayed.
3) Select ‘OK’.
4) Press the ENT Key to invert and activate the active flight plan. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Select the INVERT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key.
The ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
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FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
Information about flight plans can be viewed in more than one way. The active flight plan can be configured
to show cumulative distance over the length of the flight plan or the distance for each leg of the flight plan;
and the active flight plan can be viewed in a narrow or wide view. In the wide view, additional information is
displayed: Fuel Remaining (FUEL REM), Estimated Time Enroute (ETE), Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA), and
Bearing to the waypoint (BRG).
Switching between leg-to-leg waypoint distance and cumulative waypoint distance:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Select the VIEW Softkey to display the CUM and LEG-LEG Softkeys.
3) Select the CUM Softkey to view cumulative waypoint distance, or select the LEG-LEG Softkey to view leg-to-leg
waypoint distance.
4) Select the BACK Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
Active Flight Plan Leg to Leg Distance
Active Flight Plan Cumulative Distance
WIDE Softkey, NARROW Softkey, LEG-LEG Softkey, CUM Softkey
Figure 5-91 Active Flight Plan - Leg to Leg vs. Cumulative Distance
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Switching between wide and narrow view:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Select the VIEW Softkey to display the WIDE and NARROW Softkeys.
3) Select the WIDE Softkey to display the wide view, or select the NARROW Softkey to display the narrow view.
4) Select the BACK Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
Active Flight Plan Narrow View
Active Flight Plan Wide View
WIDE Softkey, NARROW Softkey, LEG-LEG Softkey, CUM Softkey
Figure 5-92 Active Flight Plan - Wide vs. Narrow View
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COLLAPSING AIRWAYS
The system allows airways on the active flight plan to be collapsed or expanded from the Active Flight Plan
Page/Window. When airways have been collapsed, it is indicated on the airway heading.
When airways are collapsed, leg-to-leg computed values such as DIS or ETE shown for the exit waypoint
reflect the total of all the legs on the airway that have been hidden in the collapsed display. The DTK value is
inhibited because it is not usable in this context.
The Active Flight Plan Page always keeps the following three waypoints visible: “From” waypoint, “To”
waypoint, and “Next” waypoint. To prevent one or more of these waypoints from being hidden in a collapsed
airway segment, the airway segment that contains either the “To” or the “Next” waypoint is automatically
expanded. When an airway is loaded, airways are automatically expanded to facilitate flight plan review.
Q3.FEPOT Airway
Collapsed View
Expanded View
Figure 5-93 Expanded/Collapsed Airways
Collapsing/expanding the airways in the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Collapse Airways’ or ‘Expand Airways’, and press the ENT Key. The airways are
collapsed/expanded.
CLOSEST POINT OF FPL
‘Closest Point of FPL’ calculates the bearing and closest distance at which a flight plan passes a reference
waypoint, and creates a new user waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to a chosen reference
waypoint.
Determining the closest point along the active flight plan to a selected waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Closest Point Of FPL’’, and press the ENT Key. A window appears with the
reference waypoint field highlighted.
3) Enter the identifier of the reference waypoint and press the ENT Key. The system displays the bearing (BRG) and
distance (DIS) to the closest point along the flight plan to the selected reference waypoint and creates a user
waypoint at this location. The name for the new user waypoint is derived from the identifier of the reference
waypoint.
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USER-DEFINED HOLDING PATTERNS
A holding pattern can be defined at any active flight plan waypoint, at the aircraft present position, or at a
direct-to waypoint.
Creating a user-defined hold at an active flight plan waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the hold.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The HOLD AT window appears with
the course field highlighted.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘INBOUND’ or ‘OUTBOUND’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘TIME’ or ‘DIST’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘RIGHT’ or ‘LEFT’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC TIME), and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted to add the hold into the flight plan.
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Waypoint
Selected
Hold At
Waypoint
Menu
Selection
Location of Hold
Hold Entry Course
Course Direction
(INBOUND or OUTBOUND)
Leg Length Mode Button
(TIME or DIST))
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(RIGHT or LEFT)
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further Clearance Time
Load Hold in Active Flight Plan
Figure 5-94 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at an Active Flight Plan Waypoint
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Creating a user-defined hold at the aircraft present position:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Present Position’, and press the ENT Key. The HOLD AT window appears
with the course field highlighted.
3) If desired, use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘INBOUND’ or ‘OUTBOUND’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘TIME’ or ‘DIST’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘RIGHT’ or ‘LEFT’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC TIME), and press the ENT Key.
9) Press the ENT Key while ‘ACTIVATE?’ is highlighted to create an Offroute Direct-to hold waypoint at the aircraft
present position and activate the hold.
Creating a user-defined hold at a direct-to waypoint:
1) Press a Direct-to Key and set up the direct-to waypoint as desired, but select ‘HOLD?’ instead of ‘ACTIVATE?’
when finished (MFD or PFD).
2) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘INBOUND’ or ‘OUTBOUND’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘TIME’ or ‘DIST’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘RIGHT’ or ‘LEFT’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC TIME), and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key while ‘ACTIVATE?’ is highlighted to activate the direct-to with the user-defined hold defined
at the direct-to waypoint. (If the direct-to wayoint is part of the active flight plan, the HOLD is inserted into
the active flight plan. If the direct-to waypoint is not part of the active flight plan, an off-route direct-to hold is
created.)
Exiting a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
Press the SUSP Softkey. The system will provide guidance to follow the holding pattern to the inbound course
and resume automatic waypoint sequencing.
Removing a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the HOLD waypoint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove Holding Pattern?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed from the active flight plan. Select ‘CANCEL’
and press the ENT Key to cancel the removal of the holding pattern.
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Removing a user-defined hold at an off-route direct-to:
1) Press a Direct To Key to display the DIRECT TO Window (PFD or MFD).
2) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU with the cursor on the ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ selection.
3) Press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed.
Hold At
Present
Position
Menu
Selection
Location of Hold
Hold Entry Course
Course Direction
(INBOUND or OUTBOUND)
Leg Length Mode Button
(TIME or DIST))
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(RIGHT or LEFT)
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further Clearance Time
Activate Hold
Figure 5-95 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at the Aircraft Present Position
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Waypoint
Selected
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
(INBOUND or OUTBOUND)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or
Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(RIGHT or LEFT)
Leg Length Mode Button
(TIME or DIST))
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further
Clearance Time
Load Hold and
Activate Direct To
Hold At Direct To Waypoint selection
Figure 5-96 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at a Direct To Waypoint
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5.7 VERTICAL NAVIGATION
NOTE: The system supports vertical path guidance and altitude constraints for the following leg types: AF,
CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FC, FD, PI, RF, and TF. Altitude constraints are not retained in stored flight plans.
The Vertical Navigation (VNV) feature provides vertical profile guidance during the enroute and teminal phases
of flight. Guidance based on specified altitudes at waypoints in the active flight plan or to a direct-to waypoint is
provided. It includes vertical path guidance to a descending path, which is provided as a linear deviation from the
desired path. The desired path is defined by a line joining two waypoints with specified altitudes or as a vertical
angle from a specified waypoint/altitude. The vertical waypoints are integrated into the active flight plan. Both
manual and autopilot-coupled guidance are supported.
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Disabled (fields dashed)
ENBL VNV Softkey
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Enabled (valid data)
CNCL VNV Softkey
Figure 5-97 Enabling/Disabling Vertical Navigation
Enabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Select the ENBL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Enable VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is enabled, and vertical guidance begins with the waypoint shown in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box
(defaults first waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude enabled for vertical navigation (e.g., HABUK)).
Disabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Select the CNCL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Cancel VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is disabled.
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Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ), and time
to top of descent/bottom of descent (TIME TO TOD/BOD) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI)
and Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) on the PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ, and TIME TO
TOD items displayed in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box are dashed. VNV remains disabled until manually
enabled. Vertical guidance in reversionary mode can only be enabled for a direct-to waypoint.
The system allows a vertical navigation direct-to to any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Selecting the VNV Direct-to Softkey on the Active Flight Plan Page
allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV direct-to
waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan from current
position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with
altitude constraint activated by pressing the Direct-to Key also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass
flight plan waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent
(TOD) point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached.
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Prior to VNV Direct-to
VNV Direct-To Softkey
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
After VNV Direct-to
VNV PROF Softkey
Figure 5-98 Vertical Navigation Direct-To
Activating a vertical navigation direct-to:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint.
NOTE: The selected waypoint must have a designated altitude constraint (cyan number) to be used. If not,
the first waypoint in the flight plan with a designated altitude constraint is selected.
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3) Select the VNV Direct-To Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘VNV Direct-To’, and press the ENT Key.
An ‘Activate vertical Direct-to to: NNNNNFT at XXXXXX?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. Vertical guidance begins to the altitude constraint for the selected waypoint.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The vertical navigation profile can be modified by directly entering a vertical speed target (VS TGT) and/or flight
path angle (FPA) in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box.
Modifying the VS TGT and FPA:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Select the VNV PROF Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select VNV Profile Window’, and press the
ENT Key. The cursor is now located in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs as needed to edit the values.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ALTITUDE CONSTRAINTS
The system can use altitude constraints associated with lateral waypoints to give guidance for vertical
navigation. These altitudes are, depending on the specific instance, manually entered or retrieved from the
published altitudes in the navigation database.
Displayed Text
Examples
Cross AT
or ABOVE
5,000 ft
Large White Text
Large Cyan Text
Cross AT
2,300 ft
Small Cyan Text
Cross AT
or BELOW
3,000 ft
Small Cyan Subdued
Text
Altitude Constraint
Examples
Small White Text with
Altitude Restriction Bar
Figure 5-99 Waypoint Altitude Constraints
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White Text
Cyan Text
Cyan Subdued Text
Large Altitude calculated by the system
Text estimating the altitude of the aircraft as
it passes over the navigation point. This
altitude is provided as a reference and is
not designated to be used in determining
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude has been entered manually.
Altitude is designated for use in giving
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude does not match the published
altitude in navigation database or no
published altitude exists.
The system cannot use this
altitude in determining vertical
speed and deviation guidance
because of an invalid constraint
condition.
Small
Text
Altitude is designated for use in giving
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude has been retrieved from the
navigation database or has been entered
manually and matches a published
altitude in the navigation database.
The system cannot use this
altitude in determining vertical
speed and deviation guidance
because of an invalid constraint
condition.
Altitude is not designated to be used in
determining vertical speed and deviation
guidance. Altitude has been retrieved
from the navigation database and is
provided as a reference.
Table 5-8 Altitude Constraint Size and Color Coding
Altitudes associated with arrival and approach procedures are not “auto-designated”. This means the system
does not automatically use the altitudes loaded with the arrival or approach for giving vertical speed and
deviation guidance. Note that these altitudes are displayed as white text up to, but not including, the FAF.
The FAF is always a “reference only” altitude and cannot be designated, unless the selected approach does not
provide vertical guidance. In this case, the FAF altitude can be designated.
Altitudes that have been designated for use in vertical guidance can be “un-designated” using the CLR Key.
The altitude is now displayed only as a reference. It is not used to give vertical guidance. Other displayed
altitudes may change due to re-calculations or be rendered invalid as a result of manually changing an altitude
to a non-designated altitude.
Designating a waypoint altitude to be used for vertical guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter editing mode.
4) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical guidance.
Designating a procedure waypoint altitude to be used for vertical guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude.
3) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical guidance.
Altitude constraints are displayed and entered in feet mean sea level (MSL) values to the nearest hundred. An
altitude constraint in feet above ground level (AGL) format is supported for airports. When a database altitude
restriction is displayed, the system allows entry of a different altitude when creating a waypoint, effectively
overriding the database restriction (only before the FAF). When a database altitude restriction of type “AT or
ABOVE” or “AT or BELOW” is activated, the system uses the “AT” portion of the restriction to define the vertical
profile.
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An altitude constraint is invalid if:
• Meeting the constraint requires the aircraft to climb
• Meeting the constraint requires the maximum flight path angle or maximum vertical speed to be exceeded
• The altitude constraint results in a TOD behind the aircraft present position
• The constraint is within a leg type for which altitude constraints are not supported
• The altitude constraint is added to the FAF of an approach that provides vertical guidance (i.e., ILS or GPS
SBAS approach)
• The altitude constraint is added to a waypoint past the FAF.
Entering/modifying an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Enter an altitude constraint value using the FMS Knobs. To enter altitudes as a flight level, turn the small
FMS Knob counter-clockwise past zero or clockwise past 9 on the first character, and the system automatically
changes to show units of Flight Level. Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight the first zero and enter
the three digit flight level.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport, an additional choice
is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
Altitude constraints can be modified or deleted after having been added to the flight plan. In the event
an altitude constraint is deleted and the navigation database contains an altitude restriction for the lateral
waypoint, the system displays the altitude restriction from the database provided no predicted altitude
can be provided. The system also provides a way to reinstate a published altitude constraint that has been
edited.
Deleting (un-designating) an altitude constraint provided by the navigation database:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove VNV altitude constraint?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting an altitude constraint that has been manually entered:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘REMOVE’ and press the ENT Key. The manually entered altitude is deleted (it is replaced by a system
calculated altitude, if available).
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Reverting a manually entered altitude constraint back to the navigation database value:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘REVERT’ and press the ENT Key. The altitude is changed to the navigation database value.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Modifying a system calculated altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. An ‘Edit or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘EDIT’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Edit the value using the FMS Knobs, and press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.8 PROCEDURES
The system can access the whole range of instrument procedures available. Departures (DPs), arrivals (STARs),
and non-precision and precision approaches (APPRs) are stored within the database and can be loaded using the
Procedures (PROC) Key.
The selected procedure for the departure or arrival airport is added to the active flight plan. No waypoints are
required to be in the active flight plan to load procedures; however, if the departure and arrival airport are already
loaded, the procedure loading window defaults to the appropriate airport, saving some time selecting the correct
airport on the Procedure Loading Page. Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “load” or “activate”
is given. “Loading” adds the approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation
guidance. This allows continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps
the procedure available on the Active Flight Plan Page for quick activation when needed. “Activating” also adds
the procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in
the approach.
The system adds terminal procedures to the flight plan based on leg types coded within that procedure in the
navigation database. If the terminal procedure in the flight plan contains an identifier like ‘6368ft’, that indicates
a leg that terminates when the specified altitude (6368 feet) has been exceeded. A heading leg in the flight plan
displays ‘hdg’ preceding the DTK (e.g. ‘hdg 008°’). A flight plan leg requiring the pilot to manually intitiate
sequencing to the next leg displays ‘MANSEQ’ as the identifier.
Heading Leg Terminating at the
Specified Altitude
Manually Sequenced Heading Leg
Figure 5-100 Procedure Leg Identifiers
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DEPARTURES
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can be
loaded at a time in a flight plan. If a departure is loaded when another departure is already in the active flight
plan, the new departure replaces the previous departure. The departure sequence is defined by selection of a
departure, the transition waypoints, and a runway.
LOADING A DEPARTURE INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading a departure into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT DEPARTURE’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Departure Loading Page is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select a departure from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure.
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Departure Preview
Departure Airport
Departure Choices
Figure 5-101 Departure Selection
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Selected Departure
Loaded Departure
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-102 Departure Loading
Viewing available departures at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), select the DP Softkey. The Departure Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The cursor
moves to the Runway box. The departure is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The departure is previewed on the map.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The departure is previewed on the map.
7) Press the INFO-1 Softkey or the INFO-2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
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Loading a departure into the active flight plan from the Departure Information Page:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the DP Softkey. The Departure Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Select a different departure, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on the map.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The
cursor moves to the Runway box. The departure is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The departure is previewed on the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the Sequence box. The departure is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the Departure Information Page Menu.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Departure’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure into the active flight plan.
REMOVING A DEPARTURE FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, departures can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing a departure procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the departure header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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ARRIVALS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available. Only one arrival can
be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an arrival is loaded when another arrival is already in the active flight
plan, the new arrival replaces the previous arrival. The arrival sequence is defined by selection of an arrival,
the transition waypoints, and a runway.
LOADING AN ARRIVAL INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT ARRIVAL’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Arrival Loading Page is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select an arrival from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure.
Destination Airport
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Arrival Preview
Arrival Choices
Figure 5-103 Arrival Selection
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Selected Arrival
Loaded Arrival
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-104 Arrival Loading
Viewing available arrivals at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), select the STAR Softkey. The Arrival Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport Information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Arrival. The arrival is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor moves
to the Transition box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Runway box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
7) Press the INFO-1 Softkey or the INFO-2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
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Loading an arrival into the active flight plan from the Arrival Information Page:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the STAR Softkey. The Arrival Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Select a different arrival, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the arrival. The arrival is previewed on the map.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor
moves to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The arrival is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the Runway box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the Arrival Information Page Menu.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Arrival’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure into the active flight plan.
REMOVING AN ARRIVAL FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, arrivals can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing an arrival from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the arrival header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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APPROACHES
NOTE: If certain GPS parameters (SBAS, RAIM, etc.) are not available, some published approach procedures
for the desired airport may not be displayed in the list of available approaches.
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available, and provides guidance
for non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach procedures. If
an approach is loaded when another approach is already in the flight plan, the new approach replaces the
previous approach, unless the active leg is past the missed approach point. In this case, the second approach
is loaded at the end of the previous approach, and the previous approach is converted to waypoints (no longer
part of an APPR). The approach sequence is defined by selection of an approach and the transition waypoints
Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “Load” or “Load & Activate” is given (“Load &
Activate” is only available for the active flight plan). “Loading” adds the approach to the end of the flight plan
without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This allows continued navigation via the intermediate
waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps the procedure available for quick activation when needed.
“Activating” also adds the procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance
to the first waypoint in the approach.
When selecting an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure name indicates the procedure
can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures do not have this designation, meaning the GPS
receiver can be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. If the GPS receiver cannot be used for
primary guidance, the appropriate navigation receiver must be used for the selected approach (e.g., VOR or
ILS). The final course segment of ILS approaches, for example, must be flown by tuning the NAV receiver to
the proper frequency and selecting that NAV receiver on the CDI.
The system SBAS GPS allows for flying LNAV, LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV, and RNP approach
service levels according to the published chart. The ‘+V’ designation adds advisory vertical guidance for
assistance in maintaining a constant vertical glidepath similar to an ILS glideslope on approach. This guidance
is displayed on the system PFD in the same location as the ILS glideslope using a magenta diamond. The
active approach service level is annunciated on the HSI as shown in the following table:
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HSI Annunciation
Description
LNAV
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV minima
LNAV+V
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV minima.
Advisory vertical guidance is provided
L/VNAV
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV/VNAV
(available only if minima (downgrades to LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
SBAS available)
LP
RNAV GPS approach using published LP minima
(available only if (downgrades to LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
SBAS available)
LP+V
RNAV GPS approach using published LP minima
(available only if Advisory vertical guidance is provided (downgrades
SBAS available) to LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
LPV
RNAV GPS approach using published LPV minima
(available only if
SBAS available)
Example on HSI
Approach Service Level
- LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV
Table 5-9 Approach Service Levels
LOADING AN APPROACH INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading an approach into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT APPROACH’, and press the ENT Key. The Approach Loading Page is displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the APPROACH CHANNEL field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
4) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
5) Minimums
a) To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘RAD ALT’, or ‘TEMP COMP’, and press the
ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘LOAD?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
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NOTE: When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED
FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV
receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
Available Procedure Actions
Destination Airport
Loaded Procedures
Approach Preview
Figure 5-105 Approach Selection
Selected Approach
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Approach Choices
Loaded Approach
LOAD or ACTIVATE? Annunciation
Figure 5-106 Approach Loading
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Viewing available approaches at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the APR Softkey. The Approach
Information Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Approach. The approach is previewed on
the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available approaches. Press the ENT Key to select the approach. The
cursor moves to the Transition box. The approach is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Minimums box. The approach is previewed on the map.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select minimums on or off. Press the ENT Key.
a) When minimums are selected on, the cursor moves to the minimum altitude field . Use the small FMS Knob
to select the altitude. Press the ENT Key.
b) If temperature compensated minimums was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Use the
small FMS Knob to select the temperature. Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the Sequence box. The
approach is previewed on the map.
Or:
When minimums are selected off, the cursor moves to the Sequence box. The approach is previewed on the
map.
7) Press the INFO-1 Softkey or the INFO-2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
Loading an approach into the active flight plan from the Nearest Airport Page:
1) Select the Nearest Airports Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired nearest airport. The airport is
previewed on the map.
3) Press the APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Approach Window’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired approach.
5) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Load Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The
Approach Loading Page is displayed with the transitions field highlighted.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired transition, and press the ENT Key.
7) Minimums
a) To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘RAD ALT’, or ‘TEMP COMP’, and press the
ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key. The ‘LOAD?’ field is highlighted.
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8) Press the ENT Key with ‘LOAD?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure. The system continues
navigating the current flight plan until the approach is activated. When GPS is not approved for the selected
final approach course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the
approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
ACTIVATING AN APPROACH
A previously loaded approach can be activated from the Procedures Window.
Activating a previously loaded approach:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed with ‘Activate Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
In many cases, it may be easiest to “load” the full approach while still some distance away, enroute to the
destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, use the steps above to select ‘Activate Vector-To-Final’ — which
makes the inbound course to the FAF waypoint active.
Activating a previously loaded approach with vectors to final:
1) Press the PROC Key to display the Procedures Window.
2) Highlight ‘ACTIVATE VECTOR-TO-FINAL’ and press the ENT Key.
Loading and activating an approach using the MENU Key:
1) From the Approach Loading Page, press the MENU Key. The page menu is displayed with ‘Load & Activate
Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT
APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to
a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
REMOVING AN APPROACH FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, approaches can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing an approach from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the approach header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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MISSED APPROACH
Activating a missed approach in the active flight plan:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘ACTIVATE MISSED APPROACH’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The aircraft automatically sequences to the MAHP.
Or:
Press the Go-Around Button.
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6368ft’) is
not part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along
the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded.
This altitude is provided by the navigation database, and may be below, equal to, or above the published
minimums for this approach. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,368 feet)
after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of
6,368 feet is reached. After reaching 6,368 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case
MOGAL). If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established
to the published fix (MOGAL) to begin the missed approach procedure.
Course to Altitude Leg
Figure 5-107 Course to Altitude
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed Approach
Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if the
aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to Altitude leg
when the missed approach procedure is activated.
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TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED ALTITUDE
If desired, the system can compensate the loaded approach altitudes based on a pilot-supplied temperature
at the destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C, the system increases
the approach altitudes accordingly. A temperature compensated altitude is displayed in slanted text.
Activating temperature compensated altitude:
1) From the Active Flight Plan Page, press the MENU Key. The Page Menu is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION Window is displayed.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select the temperature at the <airport>. The compensated altitude is computed as
the temperature is selected.
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered in the TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION Window
on the MFD, or in the REFERENCES Window on the PFD. There is only one compensation temperature for
the system, therefore, changing the temperature will affect both the loaded approach altitudes and the
minimums. Refer to the Flight Instruments section for information about applying temperature compensation
to the MDA/DH.
5) Press the ENT Key. ‘ACTIVATE COMPENSATION?’ is highlighted.
6) Press the ENT Key. The compensated altitudes for the approach are shown in the flight plan.
Selected
Temperature
FAF Altitude
Compensated
Altitude
Temperature
Compensation
Selected
Figure 5-108 Temperature Compensation
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ACTIVATE
COMPENSATION?
Highlighted
CANCEL
COMPENSATION?
Highlighted
Figure 5-109 Activating/Cancelling Temperature Compensation
Compensated
Altitudes
Uncompensated
Altitudes
Figure 5-110 Temperature Compensation in the Active Flight Plan
Cancelling temperature compensated altitude:
1) From the Active Flight Plan Page, press the MENU Key. The Page Menu is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION Window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘CANCEL COMPENSATION?’ is highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key. The temperature compensated altitude at the FAF is cancelled.
NOTE: Activating/cancelling temperature compensation for the loaded approach altitudes does not select/
deselect temperature compensated minimums (MDA/DH), nor does selecting/deselecting temperature
compensated minimums activate/cancel temperature compensated approach altitudes.
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5.9 TRIP PLANNING
The system allows the pilot to view trip planning information, fuel information, and other information for
a specified flight plan or flight plan leg based on automatic data, or based on manually entered data. Weight
planning is also available, based on fuel sensor data and the active flight plan (to estimate remaining fuel).
TRIP PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the statistics is done on the Trip Planning Page
located in the AUX Page Group.
Selected Flight Plan Segment
- FPL Number/Cumulative Legs (CUM or REM) or Leg Number (NN)
- Waypoints Defining Selected Flight Plan/Flight Plan Leg
Trip Planning Page Mode
- Automatic/Manual
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan/
Flight Plan Leg
Trip Input Data (sensor/pilot)
- Departure Time (local)
- Ground Speed
- Fuel Flow
- Fuel On Board Aircraft
- Calibrated Airspeed
- Indicated Altitude
- Barometric Pressure
- Total Air Temperature
Trip Statistics
Desired Track Distance Est. Time Enroute Est. Time of Arrival Enroute Safe Altitude
Sunrise Time (local) Sunset Time (local) -
Other Statistics
- Density Altitude
- True Airspeed (TAS)
Fuel Statistics
Efficiency Total Endurance Remaining Fuel Remaining Endurance
Fuel Required Total Range -
Softkeys
- Automatic/Manual Page Mode
- Flight Plan/Waypoint Mode
Figure 5-111 Trip Planning Page
The trip planning inputs are based on sensor inputs (automatic page mode) or on pilot inputs (manual page
mode). Some additional explanation of the sources for some of the inputs is as follows:
• Departure time (DEP TIME) - This defaults to the current time in automatic page mode. The computations
are from the aircraft present position, so the aircraft is always just departing.
• Calibrated airspeed (CALIBRATED AS) - The primary source is from the air data system, and the secondary
source of information is GPS ground speed.
• Indicated altitude (IND ALTITUDE) - The primary source is the barometric altitude, and the secondary source
of information is GPS altitude.
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TRIP STATISTICS
The trip statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and the entire flight plan (CUM) selected,
the waypoints are the starting and ending waypoints of the selected flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
waypoints are the endpoints of the selected leg.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and the remaining flight plan (REM)
selected, the ‘from’ waypoint is the present position of the aircraft and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the
active flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
‘from’ waypoint is the current aircraft position and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the selected leg.
In waypoint (WPTS) mode these are manually selected waypoints (if there is an active flight plan, these
default to the endpoints of the active leg).
Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has already
been flown.
• Desired Track (DTK) - DTK is shown as nnn° and is the desired track between the selected waypoints.
It is dashed unless only a single leg is selected.
• Distance (DIS) - The distance is shown in tenths of units up to 99.9, and in whole units up to 9999.
• Estimated time enroute (ETE) - ETE is shown as hours:minutes until less than an hour, then it is shown
as minutes:seconds.
• Estimated time of arrival (ETA) - ETA is shown as hours:minutes and is the local time at the
destination.
- If in waypoint mode then the ETA is the ETE added to the departure time.
- If a flight plan other than the active flight plan is selected it shows the ETA by adding to the departure
time all of the ETEs of the legs up to the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA
is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
- If the active flight plan is selected the ETA reflects the current position of the aircraft and the current
leg being flown. The ETA is calculated by adding to the current time the ETEs of the current leg up to
and including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the
last leg of the flight plan was selected.
• Enroute safe altitude (ESA) - The ESA is shown as nnnnnFT
• Destination sunrise and sunset times (SUNRISE, SUNSET) - These times are shown as hours:minutes
and are the local time at the destination.
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FUEL STATISTICS
The fuel statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs. Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has
already been flown.
• Fuel efficiency (EFFICIENCY) - This value is calculated by dividing the current ground speed by the
current fuel flow.
• Time of fuel endurance (TOTAL ENDUR) - This time is shown as hours:minutes. This value is obtained
by dividing the amount of fuel on board by the current fuel flow.
• Fuel on board upon reaching end of selected leg (REM FUEL) - This value is calculated by taking the
amount of fuel onboard and subtracting the fuel required to reach the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel endurance remaining at end of selected leg (REM ENDUR) - This value is calculated by taking the time
of fuel endurance and subtracting the estimated time enroute to the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel required for trip (FUEL REQ) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time to go by the fuel
flow.
• Total range at entered fuel flow (TOTAL RANGE) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time of fuel
endurance by the ground speed.
OTHER STATISTICS
These statistics are calculated based on the system sensor inputs or the manual trip planning inputs.
• Density altitude (DENSITY ALT)
• True airspeed (TRUE AIRSPEED)
The pilot may select automatic (AUTO) or manual (MANUAL) page mode, and flight plan (FPL) or waypoint
(WPTS) mode. In automatic page mode, only the FPL, LEG, or waypoint IDs are editable (based on FPL/WPTS
selection).
Selected Flight Plan NN -
Selected Leg(s)
00 is Active FPL
01-99 are Stored FPLs
Stored Flight Plan
- CUM: Beginning to End of FPL
- NN: Beginning to End of Selected Leg
Active Flight Plan
- REM: Pres. Pos. to End of FPL
- NN: Pres. Pos. to End of Selected Leg
Starting and Ending Waypoint of
Selected Flight Plan Segment
Figure 5-112 Trip Planning Page - Flight Plan Mode
Selected Flight Plan
Selected Leg(s)
Not Available
Not Available
Selected Starting and Ending Waypoints
Figure 5-113 Trip Planning Page - Waypoint Mode
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Selecting automatic or manual page mode:
Select the AUTO Softkey or the MANUAL Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Auto Mode’ or ‘Manual
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting flight plan or waypoint mode:
Select the FPL Softkey or the WPTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Flight Plan Mode’ or ‘Waypoints
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting a flight plan and leg for trip statistics:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the flight plan number field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired flight plan number.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CUM’ or ‘REM’. The statistics for each leg can be viewed by turning the
small FMS Knob to select the desired leg. The Inset Map also displays the selected data.
Selecting waypoints for waypoint mode:
1) Select the WPTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the ENT Key. The
cursor is positioned in the waypoint field directly below the FPL field.
2) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint (or select from the Page Menu ‘Set WPT to Present Position’
if that is what is desired), and press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the second waypoint field.
3) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint, and press the ENT Key. The statistics for the selected leg
are displayed.
In manual page mode, the other eight trip input data fields must be entered by the pilot, in addition to flight
plan and leg selection.
Entering manual data for trip statistics calculations:
1) Select the MANUAL Softkey or select ‘Manual Mode’ from the Page Menu, and press the ENT Key. The cursor
may now be positioned in any field in the top right two boxes.
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to move the cursor onto the DEP TIME field and enter the desired value. Press the ENT Key.
The statistics are calculated using the new value and the cursor moves to the next entry field. Repeat until all
desired values have been entered.
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WEIGHT PLANNING
NOTE: All weight planning page data fields displays data rounded to the nearest 10 pounds or 5 kilograms.
Fuel Weight Calculator
A/C Payload Calculator
- Zero Fuel Weight Calculation
- Fuel on Board Entry (or sync)
- Aircraft Weight Calculation
- Est. Landing Weight Calculation
- Estimated Landing Fuel Calculation
- Fuel Reserve Entry
- Excess Fuel Calculation
Basic Empty Weight Entry Pilot & Stores Weight Entry Basic Operating Weight Calc. Passenger(s) Weight Entry Cargo Weight Entry Zero Fuel Weight Calculation -
Empty Weight Softkey
Fuel On Board Sync Softkey
(sets FOB to sensor actual)
(selects Basic Empty
Weight)
Figure 5-114 Weight Planning Page
Entering basic empty weight:
1) Select the EMPTY WT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Basic Empty Weight’, and press the ENT
Key to select the ‘BASIC EMPTY WEIGHT’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the basic empty weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering a pilot and stores weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘PILOT AND STORES’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the pilot and stores weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The basic operating weight is calculated by adding the basic empty weight and the pilot and stores weight.
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Entering the number of passengers:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘PASSENGERS #’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the number of passengers.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering the average passenger weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the passenger weight field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the average passenger weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The total weight of passengers is calculated by multiplying the number of passengers by the average passenger
weight.
Entering the cargo weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘CARGO’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the cargo weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The ‘ZERO FUEL WEIGHT’ is calculated by adding the basic empty, pilot and stores, passenger, and cargo
weights.
Entering a fuel on board weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘FUEL ON BOARD’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel on board.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering fuel reserve:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘FUEL RESERVES’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel reserves amount.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor
Synchronizing the fuel on board with the actual measured fuel on board:
Select the FOB SYNC Softkey; or press the MENU Softkey, highlight ‘Synchronize Fuel on Board’, and press the
ENT Key. The actual measured fuel on board is displayed in the ‘FUEL ON BOARD’ field.
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When the aircraft is in the air and a destination waypoint has been entered, the fuel calculations can be
completed.
• Estimated landing weight = zero fuel weight + estimated landing fuel weight.
• Estimated landing fuel weight = fuel on board weight - (fuel flow x ETE)
• Excess fuel weight = estimated landing fuel weight - fuel reserves weight
If the aircraft is on the ground or a destination waypoint has not been entered, the following fields display
invalid values consisting of six dashes:
• Estimated landing weight
• Estimated landing fuel weight
• Excess fuel weight
WEIGHT CAUTION AND WARNING CONDITIONS
If the zero fuel weight is greater than the maximum allowable zero fuel weight, then the zero fuel weight is
displayed in amber.
If the aircraft weight is greater than the maximum allowable takeoff weight, then the aircraft weight is displayed
in amber.
If the estimated landing weight is greater than the maximum allowable landing weight, then the estimated
landing weight is displayed in amber.
If the estimated landing fuel weight is positive, but less than or equal to the fuel reserves weight, the following
values are displayed in amber:
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
If the estimated landing fuel weight is zero or negative, then the following values are displayed in red:
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
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5.10 RAIM PREDICTION
RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to calculate
a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nm for oceanic, 2.0 nm for enroute, 1.0 nm for terminal,
and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of flight, RAIM is
available nearly 100% of the time. The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a
specified date and time. RAIM computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival
date and time. Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not
available. RAIM prediction must be initiated manually if there is concern over SBAS coverage at the destination
or some other reason that compromises navigation precision. If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the
final approach course, the approach does not become active. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the
missed approach procedure must be flown.
RAIM PREDICTION Box
- Prediction Waypoint
- Arrival Time
- Arrival Date
- RAIM Status
RAIM Softkey
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
Figure 5-115 RAIM Prediction
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Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. The RAIM Prediction ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window with a
waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
4) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint; or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key with ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ highlighted to begin the computation.
Predicting RAIM availability at the aircraft present position:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. The RAIM Prediction ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set WPT to Present Position’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key with ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ highlighted to begin the computation.
Status of the RAIM computation for the selected waypoint, time, and date is displayed at the bottom of the
RAIM PREDICTION Box as follows:
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ - RAIM has not been computed.
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’ - RAIM calculation is in progress.
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’ - RAIM is predicted to be available.
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’ - RAIM is predicted to be unavailable.
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The Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) provides increased navigation accuracy when available. SBAS
can be enabled or disabled manually on the GPS Status Page.
SBAS Status
SBAS SELECTION Box
- EGNOS Enable/Disable
- MSAS Enable/Disable
- WAAS Enable/Disable
RAIM Softkey
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
Figure 5-116 SBAS Display - Active
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Enabling/Disabling SBAS:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
2) Press the SBAS softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘EGNOS’, ‘MSAS’ or ‘WAAS’.
4) Press the ENT Key to disable SBAS. Press the ENT Key again to enable SBAS.
SBAS Status
SBAS SELECTION Box
- EGNOS Enable/Disable
- MSAS Enable/Disable
- WAAS Enable/Disable
RAIM Softkey
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
Figure 5-117 SBAS Display - Disabled
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5.11 NAVIGATING A FLIGHT PLAN
The following discussion is an example of navigating a flight plan with the SBAS capable GPS system while the
system provides vertical guidance through descents. A lateral flight plan (LNAV) would be navigated in much the
same way, but would not include vertical guidance when the final approach course is active.
NOTE: The following example flight plan is for instructional purposes only. All database information depicted
should be considered not current.
The example is a flight plan from KMKC to KCOS filed using the TIFTO2 departure, various Victor Airways,
and the DBRY1 arrival with the transition at TBE. The flight plan includes an enroute altitude of 12,000 feet, an
LPV (WAAS) approach selected for runway 35R, and a missed approach executed at the Missed Approach Point
(MAP). A few enroute changes are demonstrated.
1) Prior to departure, the TIFTO2 departure, the airways, and the DBRY1 arrival at KCOS are loaded. See the
Procedures section for loading departures and arrivals. Note the magenta arrow in Figure 5-118 indicating the
active departure leg.
After takeoff, ATC assigns a heading of 240º.
2) Figure 5-118 shows the aircraft on the assigned heading of 240º. ‘TERM’ (Terminal) is the current CDI flight
phase displayed on the HSI indicating 1.0 nm CDI scaling.
Figure 5-118 Assigned Heading of 240º
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3) ATC now assigns routing to join V4. A heading of 290º is assigned to intercept V4. The aircraft turns to heading
290° as seen in Figure 5-119.
Figure 5-119 Assigned Heading of 290º
4) Enter V4 into the flight plan.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
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b) The desired entry point for V4 (TOP) must be entered. Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired
flight plan insertion point (SLN) as shown in Figure 5-120. When the V4 entry point (TOP) is inserted, it is
placed immediately above the highlighted waypoint (SLN).
Figure 5-120 Begin Adding V4 to the Flight Plan
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. Enter the desired entry point for
V4, Topeka VOR (TOP), as shown in Figure 5-121.
Figure 5-121 Entering V4 Entry Point
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d) Press the ENT Key. TOP is inserted into the flight plan as in Figure 5-122.
Figure 5-122 TOP Inserted into the Flight Plan
e) With SLN still highlighted as in Figure 5-122, turn the small FMS Knob clockwise. The Waypoint Information
Page is displayed and the LD AIRWY Softkey is now available.
f) Select the LD AIRWY Softkey to display the list of available airways for TOP as seen in Figure 5-123.
Figure 5-123 List of Available Airways for TOP
g) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight V4 in the list as seen in Figure 5-123.
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h) Press the ENT Key. The list of available exits for V4 is now displayed as in Figure 5-124.
Figure 5-124 List of Available Exits for V4
i)
If necessary, turn either FMS Knob to select the desired exit. In this case Salina VOR (SLN) is selected as in
Figure 5-124.
j)
Press the ENT Key. The selected airway and exit are displayed, and the prompt “LOAD?” highlighted as in
Figure 5-125.
Figure 5-125 Ready to Load V4
k) Press the ENT Key.
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l)
V4 is now loaded into the flight plan as shown in Figure 5-126.
Figure 5-126 V4 is Loaded in the Flight Plan
5) Making V4 the active leg of the flight plan.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ULNAZ. The TO waypoint of the leg is selected in order to activate
the leg.
c) Select the ACT LEG Softkey. The confirmation window is now displayed as in Figure 5-127. Note the TOP
to ULNAZ leg is actually part of V4.
Figure 5-127 Comfirm Active Leg
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d) Verify the displayed leg is the desired leg and press the ENT Key. Note in Figure 5-128, the magenta arrow
in the flight plan window and magenta line on the map indicating V4 is now the active flight plan leg.
Note the phase of flight remained in Terminal (TERM) mode up to this point because a departure leg was
active. Since a leg after the departure is now active, the current CDI flight phase is ENR (Enroute) and CDI
scaling has changed to 2.0 nm.
Figure 5-128 V4 Now Active Leg
6) The aircraft continues on heading 290º. When crosstrack distance is less than 2.0 nm, the XTK disappears from
the HSI and the CDI is positioned on the last dot indicating a 2.0 nm distance from the centerline of the next
course.
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7) As the CDI approaches center, the aircraft turns onto the active leg as seen in Figure 5-129.
Figure 5-129 Turn on to Active Leg
8) At SLN, Victor Airway 244 (V244) is intercepted. Turn prompts are displayed in the PFD Navigation Status Box
as seen in Figure 5-130.
Figure 5-130 Turn to Intercept V244
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9) As seen in Figure 5-131, V244 is now the active flight plan leg.
Figure 5-131 V244 Now Active Leg
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10) At Lamar VOR (LAA) V263 is intercepted. See Figure 5-132.
Figure 5-132 HYS to LAA Leg Active
11) ATC grants clearance to proceed direct to the OPSHN intersection to begin the arrival procedure. ATC advises
to expect an altitude of 10,000 feet at OPSHN.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to select OPSHN in the flight plan list.
c) Press the Direct-to (
) Key. The Direct-to Window is now displayed as shown in Figure 5-133.
Figure 5-133 Direct To OPSHN
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d) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the VNV altitude field as shown in Figure 5-134.
Figure 5-134 Enter VNV Altitude
e) An altitude of 10,000 feet is entered as requested by ATC.
f) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the VNV offset field as shown in Figure 5-135.
Figure 5-135 Enter VNV Offset Distance
g) Enter the offset, or distance from the waypoint at which to reach the pressed altitude. In this case, three
miles prior to OPSHN is entered. In other words, the system gives vertical guidance so the aircraft arrives
at an altitude of 10,000 feet three miles prior to OPSHN.
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h) Press the ENT Key twice to activate the direct-to. Note, in Figure 5-136, the magenta arrow indicating
the direct-to OPSHN after the offset waypoint for OPSHN. The preceding offset waypoint indicates the
offset distance and altitude that were previously entered. The remaining waypoints in the loaded arrival
procedure have no database specified altitudes, therefore, dashes are displayed. Keep the CDI centered
and maintain a track along the magenta line to OPSHN.
Note the Direct-to waypoint is within the loaded arrival procedure, therefore, phase of flight scaling for the
CDI changes to Terminal Mode and is annunciated by displaying ‘TERM’ on the HSI.
NOTE: If the loaded arrival procedure has waypoints with altitude constraints retrieved from the database
to be used as is, the altitude must be manually accepted by placing the cursor over the desired altitude, then
pressing the ENT Key. The altitude is now displayed as cyan meaning it is used by the system to determine
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Figure 5-136 Direct-to Active
12) The aircraft is proceeding to OPSHN. The expected approach is the RNAV LPV approach to runway 35R, so it is
selected.
a) Press the PROC Key to display the Procedures Window.
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b) ‘SELECT APPROACH’ should be highlighted as shown in Figure 5-137.
Figure 5-137 Procedures Window
c) Press the ENT Key. A list of available approaches for the destination airport is displayed as in Figure 5-138.
Figure 5-138 List of Available Approaches
d) Turn either FMS Knob to select the LPV approach for 35R as shown in Figure 5-138.
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e) Press the ENT Key. A list of available transitions for the selected approach is displayed as in Figure 5-139.
Figure 5-139 List of Available Transitions
f) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired transition. In this case, the Initial Approach Fix (IAF) at HABUK
is used.
g) Press the ENT Key.
h) Barometric Minimums
To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, and press the ENT Key. Turn the small
FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
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Figure 5-140 Barometric Minimums Set
i)
With ‘LOAD?’ highlighted, again press the ENT Key. The selected approach is added to the flight plan as
seen in Figure 5-141.
Figure 5-141 Loaded Approach
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13) Note the altitude constraints associated with each of the approach waypoints as seen in Figure 5-142. These
altitudes are loaded from the database and are initially displayed as white text, indicating these values are not
used in computing vertical deviation guidance. The altitude values must be designated for use by the pilot if
they are to be used in computing vertical guidance.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the altitude field associated with the IAF at HABUK as in
Figure 5-142.
Figure 5-142 Designate HABUK Altitude Constraint
c) Press the ENT Key. Note the altitude is now displayed as cyan text, indicating that the value is now used
in computing vertical guidance. The system is using baro corrected altitude when giving vertical guidance
to these waypoints.
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d) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the altitude constraint associated with FALUR as seen in Figure 5-143.
Figure 5-143 Designate FALUR Altitude Constraint
e) Press the ENT Key to designate this altitude constraint value for use in computing vertical guidance. This
altitude value is now displayed as cyan text. Note that altitude values are now filled in for waypoints back
to where the previous altitude value was entered for OPSHN.
Altitude constraint values associated with the Final Approach Fix (FAF) and waypoints beyond the FAF
cannot be designated for vertical guidance. These altitude values are always displayed as white text.
Vertical guidance from the FAF and on to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) is given using the WAAS GPS
altitude source, therefore, the displayed altitude values are for reference only.
Figure 5-144 Vertical Guidance is Active to the FAF
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14) As the aircraft approaches OPSHN, it may be desirable to adjust the speed, or steepness of the upcoming
descent. The default Flight Path Angle (FPA) is -3.0 degrees and a required vertical speed is computed to
maintain the -3.0 FPA. To change the vertical flight path, perform the following steps.
a) Select the VNV PROF Softkey to place the cursor in the target vertical speed field (VS TGT) as shown in
Figure 5-145.
b) At this point, the descent vertical speed can be selected, or the FPA can be selected. Turn the large FMS
Knob to select the desired selection field, then turn the small FMS Knob to enter the desired value.
Note the information now displayed in the ‘CURRENT VNV PROFILE’ box. Also, note the offset waypoint
(orange box) and gray circle are now displayed on the map. The gray circle marks the Top of Descent (TOD).
In this example, vertical guidance is provided at the TOD that results in a -3.0 degree FPA descent to an
altitude of 10,000 feet upon reaching the offset waypoint.
Figure 5-145 Adjusting the Descent
c) Press the ENT Key.
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15) As seen in Figure 5-146, the aircraft is approaching TOD. Note the target vertical speed required to reached
the selected altitude. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) and the Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) are
now displayed on the PFD as shown in Figure 5-147. When the aircraft is within one minute of the TOD, it is
annunciated as shown in Figure 5-147, and an aural alert ‘Vertical track’ will be heard.
Figure 5-146 Approaching Top of Descent (TOD)
Target Altitude
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
Required Vertical
Speed Indicator
(RVSI)
Figure 5-147 VDI & RVSI When Approaching Top of Descent (TOD)
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16) Upon reaching TOD, a descent vertical speed is established by placing the VSI pointer in line with the RVSI as
shown in Figure 5-148.
Keep Vertical Deviation
Indicator Centered
Align Actual Vertical Speed
with
Required Vertical Speed
Figure 5-148 VDI & RVSI Showing Established Descent
17) When the aircraft is one minute from the bottom of descent (BOD) it is annunciated as shown in Figure 5-149.
Upon reaching the offset waypoint for OPSHN, the aircraft is at 10,000 feet.
Figure 5-149 Approaching Bottom of Descent (BOD) at OPSHN Offset Waypoint
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18) The aircraft is approaching OPSHN. The upcoming turn and next heading are annunciated at the top left of the
PFD as seen in Figure 5-150. Initiate the turn and maneuver the aircraft on a track through the turn radius to
intercept the magenta line for the OPSHN to FSHER leg and center the CDI.
Figure 5-150 Turn to intercept OPSHN to FSHER Leg
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19) After passing OPSHN, the next leg of the arrival turns magenta as shown in Figure 5-151. The magenta arrow
in the flight plan list now indicates the OPSHN to FSHER leg of the arrival procedure is now active.
Figure 5-151 Tracking the OPSHN to FSHER Leg
20) The flight continues through the arrival procedure to PYNON (see Figure 5-152). At a point 31 nm from the
destination airport, the phase of flight scaling for the CDI changes to Terminal Mode and is annunciated by
displaying ‘TERM’ on the HSI.
A descent to HABUK is in the next leg. Note the TOD point on the map. Annunciations for the upcoming turn
and descent, as well as the VDI and RVSI, appear on the PFD as the flight progresses.
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Figure 5-152 Approaching PYNON
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21) Upon passing PYNON the approach procedure automatically becomes active. The approach may be activated
at any point to proceed directly to the IAF. In this example, the aircraft has progressed through the final
waypoint of the arrival and the flight plan has automatically sequenced to the IAF as the active leg, activating
the approach procedure (see Figure 5-153).
Figure 5-153 Approach is Now Active
Note: To manually activate the approach procedure, perform the following steps:
a) Press the PROC Key.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘ACTIVATE APPROACH’ as shown in Figure 5-154.
c) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
Figure 5-154 Manually Activate Approach
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22) The IAF is the next waypoint. At the TOD, establish a descent vertical speed as previously discussed in Step 16.
The aircraft altitude is 9,000 feet upon reaching HABUK.
Figure 5-155 Descending Turn to the Initial Approach Fix (IAF)
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23) After crossing FALUR the next waypoint is the FAF. The flight phase changes to LPV on the HSI indicating the
current phase of flight is in Approach Mode and the approach service level is LPV. CDI scaling changes accordingly
and is used much like a localizer when flying an ILS approach. The RVSI is no longer displayed and the VDI
changes to the Glidepath Indicator (as shown in Figure 5-156) when the final approach course becomes active.
Figure 5-156 Descending to the FAF
The descent continues through the FAF (CEGIX) using the Glidepath Indicator, as one would use a glideslope
indicator, to obtain an altitude “AT” 7,800 feet at the FAF. Note the altitude restriction lines over and under (At)
the altitude in the ‘ALT’ field in Figure 5-156.
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24) After crossing CEGIX, the aircraft continues following the glidepath to maintain the descent to “AT or ABOVE”
6,370 feet at the Missed Approach Point (MAP) (RW35R) as seen in Figure 5-157.
Figure 5-157 Descending to the Missed Approach Point
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6368ft’) is not
part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along
the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded.
This altitude is provided by Jeppesen, and may be below, equal to, or above the published minimums for
this approach. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,368 feet) after crossing
the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of 6,368 feet is
reached. After reaching 6,368 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case MOGAL).
If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to the
published fix (MOGAL) to begin the missed approach procedure.
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed
Approach Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’.
Again, if the aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to
Altitude leg when the missed approach procedure is activated.
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25) Upon reaching the MAP, it is decided to execute a missed approach. Automatic waypoint sequencing is
suspended past the MAP. Press the SUSP Softkey on the PFD to resume automatic waypoint sequencing
through the missed approach procedure.
A direct-to is initiated to MOGAL, which is the Missed Approach Hold Point (MAHP) as seen in Figure
5-158. The aircraft is climbing to 10,000 feet. The CDI flight phase now changes from LPV to MAPR as
seen on the HSI.
Figure 5-158 Missed Approach Active
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26) The aircraft continues climbing to “AT or ABOVE” 10,000 feet at MOGAL. A holding pattern is established at
the MAHP (MOGAL) as shown in Figure 5-159.
Figure 5-159 Establishing the Holding Pattern
27) The aircraft maintains 10,000 feet while following the magenta line through the hold as in Figure 5-160.
Figure 5-160 Hold Established
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5.12 ABNORMAL OPERATION
This section discusses the Dead Reckoning mode of operation and the subsequent indications.
NOTE: Dead Reckoning Mode only functions in Enroute (ENR) or Oceanic (OCN) phase of flight. In all other
phases, an invalid GPS solution produces a “NO GPS POSITION” annunciation on the map and the system
stops using GPS.
While in Enroute or Oceanic phase of flight, if the system detects an invalid GPS solution or is unable to
calculate a GPS position, the system automatically reverts to Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode. In DR Mode, the system
uses its last-known position combined with continuously updated airspeed and heading data (when available) to
calculate and display the aircraft’s current estimated position.
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the system in DR Mode may become increasingly
unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. If while in DR Mode airspeed and/or heading data
is also lost or not available, the DR function may not be capable of accurately tracking estimated position and,
consequently, the system may display a path that is different than the actual movement of the aircraft. Estimated
position information displayed by the system through DR while there is no heading and/or airspeed data available
should not be used for navigation.
DR Mode is inherently less accurate than the standard GPS/SBAS Mode due to the lack of satellite measurements
needed to determine a position. Changes in wind speed and/or wind direction compound the relative inaccuracy
of DR Mode. Because of this degraded accuracy, other navigation equipment must be relied upon for position
awareness until GPS-derived position data is restored.
DR Mode is indicated on the system by the appearance of the letters ‘DR’ superimposed in amber over the
‘own aircraft’ symbol as shown in Figure 5-161. In addition, ‘DR’ is prominently displayed in amber on the HSI
slightly above and to the right of the aircraft symbol on the CDI as shown in Figure 5-161. The CDI deviation
bar remains, but is removed from the display after 20 minutes in DR Mode. The autopilot will remain coupled
in DR mode as long as the deviation info is available (20 min.) Lastly, but at the same time, a ‘GPS NAV LOST’
alert message appears on the PFD. Normal navigation using GPS/SBAS source data resumes automatically once
a valid GPS solution is restored.
As a result of operating in DR Mode, all GPS-derived data is computed based upon an estimated position and
is displayed as amber text on the display to denote degraded navigation source information as shown in Figure
5-161.
Also, while the system is in DR Mode, TAWS, Terrain SVS or Terrain Proximity are disabled. Additionally, the
accuracy of all nearest information (airports, airspaces, and waypoints) is questionable. Finally, airspace alerts
continue to function, but with degraded accuracy.
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Distance &
Bearing
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Wind Data
GPS Navigation
Lost Message
Current
Track
Indicator
Deviation Bar
Bearing
Pointer/
Distance
Wind Data
Nav. Data Bar
All data except
Active Leg, TAS,
and DTK are in
amber
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Subdued Aircraft
Symbol
Figure 5-161 Dead Reckoning Mode - GPS Derived Data Shown in Amber
NOTE: The Inset Map is removed from the PFD any time aircraft pitch is greater than +30° or less than –20°,
or when a 65° bank angle is reached.
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SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The G1000 hazard avoidance features are designed to provide advisory information of potential hazards to flight
safety associated with weather, terrain, and air traffic.
This section is divided into the following groups:
Weather
• GDL 69/69A and GDL 69A SXM SiriusXM Weather (Optional)
• GSR 56 Garmin Connext Weather (Optional)
• GWX 68/70 Airborne Color Weather Radar (Optional)
• L-3 STORMSCOPE® WX-500 Lightning Detection System
Terrain Avoidance
• Terrain Proximity
• Terrain-SVS (Included with SVT Option)
• Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B (TAWS-B) (Optional)
Traffic
• TIS (Traffic Information Service)
• Garmin GTS 820 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) (Optional)
®
• Honeywell KTA 870 TAS (Optional)
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6.1 SIRIUSXM WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
The GDL 69/69A and GDL 69A SXM are remote-mounted data link satellite receivers. Differences between
the receiver models are discussed throughout this section, where applicable. The receiver provides SiriusXM
Weather data to the system. The Multi Function Display (MFD) and the Primary Flight Display (PFD) Inset
Navigation Map display the graphical weather information and the associated text. The GDL 69A and GDL 69A
SXM can also receive SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment services. Both weather data and audio entertainment
programming operate in the S-band frequency range to provide continuous reception capabilities at any altitude
throughout North America.
Services from SiriusXM require subscriptions. For more information on specific service packages, visit www.
siriusxm.com.
ACTIVATING SERVICES
Before SiriusXM Weather can be used, the service must be activated by providing SiriusXM’s customer service
the coded IDs unique to the installed receiver. The SiriusXM Weather service uses a coded Data Radio ID. The
Data Radio ID must be provided to activate the weather service. This ID is in the following locations:
• The AUX - XM Information Page on the MFD (Figure 6-1)
• The SiriusXM Activation Instructions included with the Data Link Receiver
• The label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
Contact the installer if the Audio and Data Radio IDs cannot be located.
SiriusXM uses the coded IDs to send an activation signal that allows the system to display weather data and/
or provide audio entertainment programming through the data link receiver.
Establishing an account for SiriusXM services:
1) Select the XM Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Press the INFO Softkey to display the AUX - XM Information Page.
3) Note the Data Radio ID (for SiriusXM Weather) and/or the Audio Radio ID (for SiriusXM Satellite Radio).
4) Contact SiriusXM customer service through the phone number listed on its website.
5) Provide SiriusXM customer service the Data Radio ID and/or Audio Radio ID, in addition to payment information,
and desired weather product subscription package.
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Activating the SiriusXM Weather service:
1) Once a SiriusXM Weather account has been established, select the XM Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Press the INFO Softkey to display the XM Information Page.
3) Observe the list of Weather Products. A white empty box appears next to an unavailable weather product; a
green filled box appears next to an available weather product. During activation, it may take several minutes
for weather products in the chosen subscription package to become available.
4) When the available weather products displayed match the weather products offered in the chosen SiriusXM
Weather product subscription package, press the LOCK Softkey.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘YES’.
6) To complete activation, press the ENT Key.
Audio Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Satellite Radio)
Data Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Weather
Service)
Weather Products
(Available
Products Indicated
in Green)
Select INFO
Softkey to
Display XM
Information Page
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Figure 6-1 XM Information Page
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
Select LOCK
Softkey to Lock
Subscription
Information
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USING SIRIUSXM WEATHER PRODUCTS
The principal map page for viewing SiriusXM Weather data is the Weather Data Link (XM) Page in the Map
Page Group. This is the only map display capable of showing information for all available SiriusXM Weather
products.
Viewing the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT) Page.
3) If the page title contains ‘CNXT’, it will be necessary to change the data link weather source from Garmin
Connext to SiriusXM Weather. Refer to the next procedure to change the source.
NEXRAD
Weather
Product
Enabled Icon
Weather
Product
Ages in
Minutes
Cloud Tops
Weather
Product
Enabled Icon
Figure 6-2 Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Changing the weather data link source (SiriusXM or Garmin Connext):
1) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) If necessary, turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT) Page.
3) Press the MENU Key (Figure 6-3).
4) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display XM Weather’ or ‘Display Connext Weather’ and press
the ENT Key. Weather Data Link Page title and softkeys change to correspond to selected data link weather
source.
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Figure 6-3 Changing the Data
Link Weather Source
For each enabled SiriusXM Weather product which can be shown as a map overlay, the system displays a
weather product icon and product age. The product age is the elapsed time (in minutes) since the weather data
provider compiled the weather product. The product age display does not indicate the age of the information
contained within the weather product, which can be significantly older than the displayed weather product age.
The SiriusXM Weather service broadcasts weather information at specific intervals (defined in the Broadcast
Rate column in Table 6-1). If for any reason, a product is not refreshed within the Broadcast Rate intervals
(see Table 6-1), the system removes the expired data from the display, and shows dashes instead of the product
age. This ensures the displayed information is consistent with what is currently being transmitted by the
SiriusXM Weather service. If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age
changes to yellow. If data for a weather product is not available (i.e., has not been received), the system displays
‘N/A’ next to the weather product symbol instead of the product age.
Table 6-1 shows the weather product symbols, the expiration times and the broadcast rates. The broadcast
rate represents the interval at which the SiriusXM Weather service transmits new signals that may or may not
contain updated weather products. It does not represent the rate at which the weather information is updated
or when the Data Link Receiver receives new data. SiriusXM and its weather data suppliers define and control
the data update intervals, which are subject to change.
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SiriusXM Weather Product
Symbol
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD)
Cloud Top
(CLD TOP)
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
30
60
Echo Top
(ECHO TOP)
30
7.5
30
5
30
12
60
12
90
12
90
12
60
12
120
12
90
12
60
5
60
12
90
12
90
12
90
12
180
12
no product image
30
5
no product image
60
12
no product image
60
12
SiriusXM Lightning
(LTNG)
Cell Movement
(CELL MOV)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
City Forecast
(CITY)
Surface Analysis
(SFC)
Freezing Levels
(FRZ LVL)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
County Warnings
(COUNTY)
Cyclone Warnings
(CYCLONE)
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD)
(ICNG)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Air Report
(AIREPs)
Turbulence
(TURB)
No Radar Coverage
Temporary Flight Restrictions
(TFRs)
Terminal Aerodrome Reports
(TAFs)
Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
5 (U.S.)
10 (Canada)
15 (GDL 69/69A)
30 (GDL 69 SXM/69A SXM
Table 6-1 Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
+
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
+
XM Lightning (XM LTNG)
+
Cell Movement (CELL MOV)
Flight Plan Pages
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
City Forecast (CITY)
+
Surface Analysis (SFC)
+
Freezing Levels (FRZ LVL)
+
Winds Aloft (WIND)
+*
+
+
County Warnings (COUNTY)
+
Cyclone Warnings (CYCLONE)
+
Icing Potential (ICNG)
+
PIREPs
+
+
AIREPs
+
+
Turbulence (TURB)
+
No Radar Coverage
+
+
+
TFRs
+
+
+
TAFs
+
+
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
METARs
Nearest Page Group
+
System Page Group
+
AUX - Trip Planning
Page
+
Weather Information
Page
Weather Data Link
(XM) Page
NEXRAD
Navigation Map Page
SiriusXM Weather Product
PFD Inset Map
This table shows which SiriusXM Weather products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on specific
maps.
+
+
* Winds Aloft data on Navigation Map Page displayed inside Profile View when enabled.
Table 6-2 Weather Product Display Maps (SiriusXM Weather)
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WEATHER SOFTKEYS ON THE WEATHER DATA LINK (XM) PAGE
Softkeys control the display of weather information on most MFD pages and the PFD Inset Map (The figure
shows the weather product softkeys for the Weather Data Link (XM) Page). When a weather product is selected
for display, the corresponding softkey label changes to gray to indicate the product is enabled. Unavailable
weather products have subdued softkey labels (softkeys are disabled from selection).
SYSTEM
CPDLC
NEXRAD
CYCLONE SFC OFF
ECHO TOP CLD TOP XM LTNG CELL MOV
FRZ LVL
SIG/AIR
METAR
LEGEND MORE WX CHKLIST
WIND OFF ICNG OFF TURB OFF AIREPS
PIREPS
COUNTY
BACK
SFC Softkey label changes
to reflect current selection.
WIND/ICNG/TURB Softkey labels
change to reflect current selection.
OFF
CURRENT
12 HR
24 HR
36 HR
48 HR
Select the BACK Softkey
to move up one level.
LEGEND
BACK
PREV and NEXT Softkeys cycle through Winds Aloft,
Icing, and Turbulence altitude selection softkeys.
PREV
OFF
SFC
3000
6000
9000
12000
15000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
36000
39000
42000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
1000
3000
6000
9000
12000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
39000
42000
45000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
15000
36000
Figure 6-4 Weather Data Link (XM) Page Weather Product Softkeys
Displaying SiriusXM Weather products on the PFD Inset Map:
1) On the PFD, press the INSET Softkey.
2) If the PFD Inset Map is showing the traffic map, press the TFRC-2 Softkey to display the navigation map.
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3) Press the desired weather product softkey(s) to enable/disable the display of SiriusXM Weather products on the
Inset Map.
4) To display or remove the weather product icon and age box for displayed weather products on the inset map,
press the WX LGND Softkey.
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link (XM) Page control the map range
settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the
weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The menus
also provide the ability to enable/disable the display of weather products, equivalent to using the softkeys.
If the selected map range is less than 10 nm, the system automatically removes the weather products from the
map, with the exception of METARS, which remain displayed when METARs are enabled.
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-5).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘PRODUCT GROUP 1’ or ‘PRODUCT GROUP 2’, and press the ENT Key (Figure
6-6).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-5 Weather Data Link
(XM) Page Menu
Figure 6-6 Weather Data Link (XM)
Page Setup Menu
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Restoring default Weather Data Link (XM) Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Weather Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Highlight the desired default(s) to restore (all or for selection) and press the ENT Key.
If both SiriusXM Weather and GSR 56 Garmin Connext services are installed, customizing the display settings
for the corresponding weather products shown in Table 6-3 will result in identical settings for both services.
SiriusXM Product
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD)
Cloud Top
(CLD TOP)
SiriusXM Lightning
(XM LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Temporary Flight Restriction
(TFR)
Garmin Connext Weather Product
Precipitation
(PRECIP)
Infrared Satellite
(IR SAT)
Garmin Connext Lightning
(DL LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Temporary Flight Restriction
(TFR)
Table 6-3 Corresponding SiriusXM Weather and Garmin Connext Weather Products
Maps other than the Weather Data Link (XM) Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation
Map Page.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-7).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-8).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-9).
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6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-7 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-8 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-9 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
When an SiriusXM Weather product is enabled for display on the PFD Inset Map, the weather product
information box (with the product icon and age) can be displayed inside the PFD Inset Map.
Viewing the weather product information box on the PFD Inset Map:
1) On the PFD, press the INSET Softkey.
2) Press the WX LGND Softkey.
3) To remove the weather product information box, press the WX LGND Softkey again or deselect all active XM
weather products on the PFD Inset Map.
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Each active weather product has an associated legend which can be displayed on the Weather Data Link (XM)
Page.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the LEGEND Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select Weather Legend and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the window.
4) To remove the Legend Window, select the LEGEND Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
Additional information about the following can be displayed by panning over the display on the map:
• Echo Tops
• METARs
• Cell Movement
• County Warnings
• SIGMETs
• TFRs
• AIRMETs
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
Additional
Information on
Weather Feature
Selected with
Map Pointer
Flash Flood
Warning
Selected With
Map Pointer
Figure 6-10 Panning on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
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NEXRAD
NOTE: NEXRAD data cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain, echo tops, turbulence, or icing data
is displayed.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider compiles the available
individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time to indicate when
it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual images--gathered from
each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The
data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the SiriusXM Weather service, whose satellites transmit this
information during the next designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current radar synopsis
and may not depict the current weather conditions. The NEXRAD weather product should never be used as a
basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
For radar sites in the United States, the NEXRAD weather product shows a composite reflectivity image.
This shows the highest radar energy received from multiple antenna tilt angles at various altitudes. For radar
sites based in Canada, the NEXRAD weather product shows radar returns from the lowest antenna tilt angle,
known as base reflectivity. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate the intensity of the echoes
and the type of precipitation, if known.
Figure 6-11 NEXRAD Data on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
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Displaying NEXRAD weather information:
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the NEXRAD Softkey.
A mosaic of data from all the available NEXRAD radar sites is shown. All weather product legends can
be viewed on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page. For the NEXRAD legend (Figure 6-12), select the LEGEND
Softkey when NEXRAD is selected for display.
No Radar
Coverage
Figure 6-12 NEXRAD Data with Legend
The display of radar coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is selected. Areas where
NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is not being collected are
indicated in a gray shade of purple.
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display directly correlate to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous weather
can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
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NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
• Undetermined precipitation types may be displayed as mixed.
• An individual NEXRAD site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information
about storms directly over the site.
• Precipitation may be occurring below the lowest antenna tilt angle (0.5º), and therefore the radar beam
overshoots the precipitation. For example, at a distance of 124 miles from the radar site, the radar beam
is approximately 18,000 feet above the radar site. The radar cannot detect any precipitation occurring
below the beam at this distance and altitude.
• When zoomed in to a range of 30 nm, each square block on the display represents an area of four square
kilometers. The intensity level reflected by each square represents the highest level of NEXRAD data
sampled within the area (Figure 6-13).
• Unknown precipitation below 52ºN is displayed as rain regardless of actual precipitation type.
Each block
covers an Area
of 4 sq. km
Figure 6-13 NEXRAD Data - Zoomed
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
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NEXRAD Limitations (Canada)
• Radar coverage extends to 55ºN.
• Any precipitation displayed between 52ºN and 55ºN is displayed as mixed precipitation.
• If the precipitation type is unknown, the system displays the precipitation as rain, regardless of actual
precipitation type.
No Coverage Above 55ºN
Precipitation
Above 52ºN
Appears Mixed
Figure 6-14 NEXRAD Data - Canada
ECHO TOPS
NOTE: Echo tops cannot be displayed at the same time as NEXRAD or Cloud Tops are selected for display.
The Echo Tops weather product (Figure 6-15) shows the location, elevation, and direction of the highest
radar echo. The highest radar echo does not indicate the actual top of a storm or clouds. It indicates the
highest altitude at a which NEXRAD radar was able to detect precipitation. Note this Echo Tops altitude
may be significantly higher than the highest altitude airborne weather radar was able to detect precipitation,
particularly at longer ranges from the airborne weather radar antenna. See section 6.3 for more information
on airborne weather radar. The Echo Tops weather product, like all data link weather products, does not
provide real-time information.
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Figure 6-15 Echo Tops Weather Product
Displaying Echo Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the ECHO TOP Softkey.
To display the Echo Tops legend, select the LEGEND Softkey when Echo Tops is selected for display. Since
Echo Tops and Cloud Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these weather products
is mutually exclusive. When Echo Tops is enabled, NEXRAD and Cloud Tops data are removed.
No Radar
Coverage
Figure 6-16 Echo Tops Legend
The display of radar coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is selected. Areas where
NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not available or is not being collected are indicated in
a gray shade of purple.
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CLOUD TOPS
NOTE: Cloud Tops and Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time.
The Cloud Tops weather product (Figure 6-17) depicts cloud top altitudes as determined from satellite
imagery.
Figure 6-17 Cloud Tops Data
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the CLD TOP Softkey.
To display the Cloud Tops legend, select the LEGEND Softkey when Cloud Tops is enabled for display.
Since Cloud Tops and Echo Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these weather
products is mutually exclusive. When Cloud Tops is enabled, Echo Tops data is removed.
Figure 6-18 Cloud Tops Legend
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NOTE: If a GDL 69A SXM receiver is installed, the broadcast rate for Cloud Tops is 30 minutes. As with all
SiriusXM Weather products, the product age becomes amber when it reaches half of the expiration time,
which is 60 minutes for Cloud Tops. Therefore, this weather product age may be amber during routine
operation.
SIRIUSXM LIGHTNING
NOTE: SiriusXM Lightning cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map as Stormscope® lightning
information.
The SiriusXM Lightning weather product (Figure 6-19) shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground
lightning strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. The exact
location of the lightning strike is not displayed.
Lightning
Strikes
Figure 6-19 Lightning Data
Displaying SiriusXM Lightning information:
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the XM LTNG Softkey.
To display the XM Lightning legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, select the LEGEND Softkey
when XM Lightning is selected for display.
Figure 6-20 Lightning Legend
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CELL MOVEMENT
The Cell Movement weather product (Figure 6-21) shows the location and movement of storm cells as
identified by the ground-based system. Cells are represented by yellow squares, with direction of movement
indicated with short, orange arrows.
Storm
Cells
Figure 6-21 Cell Movement Data
NOTE: The Storm Cell base height is not available if a GDL 69A SXM data link receiver is installed. In this
case, the Storm Cell base height is displayed as 0 feet when the map pointer selects a storm cell.
On most applicable maps, Cell Movement data is selected for display along with NEXRAD. On the Weather
Data Link (XM) Page, Cell Movement data can be selected independently.
Displaying Cell Movement information:
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the NEXRAD Softkey (CEL MOV Softkey on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page). For Cell Movement to
be displayed on maps other than the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, Cell Movement must be turned on in the
Navigation Map Setup Menu (see “Setting up and customizing weather data for the Navigation Map Page").
To display the Cell Movement legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, select the LEGEND Softkey
when Cell Movement is selected for display.
Figure 6-22 Cell Movement Legend
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SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
SIGMETs (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMETs (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are broadcast for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather. A localized SIGMET is a significant weather condition occurring at a localized geographical
position.
AIRMET
Convective
SIGMET
Figure 6-23 SIGMET/AIRMET Data
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map Pointer over the icon.
4) Press the ENT key. The following figure shows a sample of SIGMET text.
To display the SIGMET and AIRMET legend, select the LEGEND Softkey when SIGMETs and AIRMETs are
selected for display.
Sample SIGMET Text
SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
Figure 6-24 SIGMET/AIRMET Text and Legend
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NOTE: If a GDL 69A SXM receiver installed, the SIGMET and AIRMET weather products are not available
unless at least one SIGMET or AIRMET has been received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no
SIGMET or AIRMET is available.
METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure reported for METARs is given in hectopascals (hPa), except in the United
States, where it is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are reported in Celsius.
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service area.
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or
observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical
data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the report.
METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
Instructions
for Viewing
METAR and
TAF Text
Selected
Airport
Figure 6-25 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link Page
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
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METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR data is displayed first in a
decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information not
found in the decoded version. TAF information is displayed only in its original text form when it is available.
Displaying METAR and TAF text:
1) On the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, select the METAR Softkey
2) Select the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text is placed ahead of
the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
2) Select the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
4) Using the FMS Knob, enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Scroll through the METAR and TAF text with the FMS Knob or the ENT Key. Scroll through all of the METAR
text to get to the TAF text.
Decoded
METAR Text
METAR
Symbol
Original
METAR Text
Original TAF
Text
Figure 6-26 METAR and TAF with Text
Original METAR text is also accessible while panning the map cursor over a METAR flag on any map page
on which a METAR is displayed. The METAR text is shown in a box near the METAR flag.
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In addition, METAR flags and their associated text are displayed on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
METAR flags appears next to waypoints in the flight plan with an associated METAR.
Displaying raw METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight a waypoint with an associated METAR. The METAR text will appear in the
‘SELECTED WAYPOINT WEATHER’ Window below.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the Active Flight Plan
Page.
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, select the LEGEND Softkey when
METARs are selected for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. The METAR flag is gray when
the METAR text does not contain adequate information.
Figure 6-27 METAR Legend
SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CITY FORECAST
NOTE: Surface Analysis and City Forecast data are displayed only within the installed navigation database
service area.
Surface Analysis and City Forecast information (Figure 6-28) is available for current and forecast weather
conditions. Forecasts are available for intervals of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours.
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Figure 6-28 Surface Analysis Data - 12-Hour
Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the SFC Softkey.
4) Select the forecast time: CURRENT, 12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, or 48 HR. The SFC Softkey label changes to
indicate selected the forecast time.
To display the Surface Analysis and City Forecast legend, select the LEGEND Softkey when Surface Analysis
and City Forecast are selected for display.
Figure 6-29 Surface Analysis and City Forecast Legend
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FREEZING LEVEL
Freezing Level data (Figure 6-30) shows the color-coded contour lines for the altitude and location at which
the first isotherm is found. When no data is displayed for a given altitude, the data for that altitude has not
been received, or is out of date and has been removed from the display. New data appears when it becomes
available.
Figure 6-30 Freeze Level Data
Displaying Freezing Level information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the FRZ LVL Softkey.
To display the Freezing Level legend (Figure 6-31), select the LEGEND Softkey when Freezing Level data
is selected to be displayed.
Figure 6-31 Freezing Level Legend
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WINDS ALOFT
Winds Aloft data (Figure 6-32) shows the forecast wind speed and direction at the surface and at selected
altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3000-foot increments up to 42,000 feet MSL.
Displaying Winds Aloft data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the WIND Softkey.
4) Select the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Select the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The WIND Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Figure 6-32 Winds Aloft at 24,000 Feet
Figure 6-33 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Profile View on the Navigation Map Page
(Figure 6-34). The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track, but not to aircraft
speed.
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Profile View
Path Enabled
Winds Aloft Data Age
Wind Component
Velocity and Direction
Arrows
Altitude Scale
Figure 6-34 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data on Profile View
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in Table 6-4.
Headwind
Symbol
Tailwind
Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
5 knots
10 knots
50 knots
Table 6-4 Profile View Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
Showing/Hiding Profile View (containing winds aloft data)
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the PROFILE Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current
state) and press the ENT Key.
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Winds Aloft data inside the Profile View is enabled by default when the Profile View is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display in Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-35).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Profile Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-36).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Profile Winds’ (Figure 6-37).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-35 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-36 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-37 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
To display the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-38), select the LEGEND Softkey when Winds Aloft is selected
for display.
Figure 6-38 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
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COUNTY WARNINGS
The County Warnings weather product (Figure 6-39) provides specific public awareness and protection
weather warnings from the National Weather Service (NWS). This can include information on severe
thunderstorms, tornadoes, and flood conditions.
Severe
Thunderstorm
Warning
Selected
Figure 6-39 County Warnings
Displaying County Warning information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the COUNTY Softkey.
To display the County Warnings legend (Figure 6-40), select the LEGEND Softkey when County Warnings
are selected to be displayed.
Figure 6-40 County Warnings Legend
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CYCLONE
The Cyclone weather product (Figure 6-41) shows the current location of cyclones (hurricanes), tropical
storms, and their projected tracks. The track consists of a two digit date, followed the estimated time of
arrival in the form of DD/HH:MM.
Cyclone
Figure 6-41 Cyclone Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying cyclone (hurricane) track information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the CYCLONE Softkey.
To display the Cyclone legend (Figure 6-42), select the LEGEND Softkey when Cyclones are selected to
be displayed.
Figure 6-42 Cyclone Legend
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ICING (CIP & SLD)
The Current Icing Product (CIP) (Figure 6-43) shows a graphical view of the current icing environment.
Icing severity is displayed in four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extreme (not specific to aircraft
type). The CIP product is not a forecast, but a presentation of the current conditions at the time of the
analysis.
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing conditions are characterized by the presence of relatively large,
super cooled water droplets indicative of freezing drizzle and freezing rain aloft. SLD threat areas are depicted
as magenta dots over the CIP colors.
Displaying Icing data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the ICNG Softkey.
4) Select the desired altitude level: 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet. Select the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle through
the altitude softkeys. The ICNG Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Icing
Potential
Supercooled
Large Droplet
threat
Figure 6-43 Icing Data at 24,000 Feet
To display the Icing Potential legend (Figure 6-44), select the LEGEND Softkey when Icing is selected for
display.
Figure 6-44 Icing Potential Legend
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TURBULENCE
The Turbulence weather product (Figure 6-45) identifies the potential for erratic movement of high-altitude
air mass associated winds. Turbulence is classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme, at altitudes between
21,000 and 45,000 feet. Turbulence data is intended to supplement AIRMETs and SIGMETs.
Displaying Turbulence data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the TURB Softkey.
4) Select the desired altitude level: 21,000 feet up to 45,000 feet. Select the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The TURB Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Light
Turbulence
Moderate
Turbulence
Figure 6-45 Turbulence Data at 27,000 Feet
To display the Turbulence legend (Figure 6-46), select the LEGEND Softkey when Turbulence is selected for
display.
Figure 6-46 Turbulence Legend
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PIREPS AND AIREPS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) (Figure 6-47) are in-flight weather reports collected from pilots. When
significant weather conditions are reported or forecast, Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities are required to solicit
PIREPs. A PIREP may contain adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions,
windshear, and turbulence. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Another type of PIREP is an Air Report (AIREP). Commercial airlines typically generate AIREPs.
Instructions for
Viewing PIREP
and AIREP Text
Urgent
PIREP
AIREP
Selected
PIREP
Figure 6-47 AIREPs and PIREPs on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying PIREP and AIREP text:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the AIREPS or PIREPS Softkey.
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather report
when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with PIREP or AIREP text. The data is first displayed
in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information
not found in the decoded version.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP or AIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link Page.
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Decoded PIREP Text
Original PIREP Text
Figure 6-48 PIREP Text on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
To display the PIREP or AIREP legend (Figure 6-49), select the LEGEND Softkey when PIREPs or AIREPs
are selected for display.
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
Figure 6-49 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
TFRS
The FAA issues Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) to designate areas where flight is restricted. TFRs are
issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including national security, law enforcement, fire suppression
efforts, natural disasters, airshows, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued at any time, and TFR data
displayed on the system is only intended to supplement official TFR information obtained from Flight Service
Stations (FSS), and air traffic control.
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system displays
'TFR N/A' in the upper-left corner of maps on which TFRs can be displayed.
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TFR Summary
Data
TFR
Selected
with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-50 TFR Data on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying TFR Data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page or Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Joystick and pan the map pointer over a TFR to highlight it. The system displays TFR summary
information above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select 'Review Airspaces' and press the ENT Key. The system displays the
TFR Information window.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the TFR Information window.
Figure 6-51 Full Text for Selected TFR
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The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page control the map range settings above which TFR data is
decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is selected, the TFR
product data is removed from the map.
Maps other than the Navigation Map Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be displayed:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-52).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-53).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product range setting (Figure 6-54).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-52 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-53 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-54 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
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SIRIUSXM WEATHER ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
The following quick troubleshooting steps can help find the possible cause of a failure.
• Ensure the owner/operator of the aircraft in which the Data Link Receiver is installed has subscribed to
SiriusXM services
• Ensure the SiriusXM subscription has been activated
• Perform a quick check of the circuit breakers to ensure that power is applied to the Data Link Receiver
For troubleshooting purposes, check the LRU Information Box on the AUX - System Status Page for Data Link
Receiver (GDL 69/69A) status, serial number, and software version number. If a failure has been detected in the
GDL 69/69A the status is marked with a red X.
Selecting the System Status Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page (the last page in the AUX Page Group).
Figure 6-55 LRU Information Window on System Status Page
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If a failure still exists, the following messages may provide insight as to the possible problem:
Message
CHECK ANTENNA
NONE
NO SIGNAL
WEATHER DATA LINK FAILED
ACTIVATION REQUIRED
DETECTING ACTIVATION
WAITING FOR DATA...
Message Location
XM Information Page - Data Signal
Strength field
XM Information Page - Data Signal
Strength field
Weather Data Link (XM) Page - center
of page
Weather Data Link (XM) Page - center
of page
Weather Data Link (XM) Page - center
of page
Weather Data Link (XM) Page - center
of page
Weather Data Link (XM) Page - center
of page
Description
Data Link Receiver antenna error; service required
Loss of signal; signal strength too low for receiver
Loss of signal; signal strength too low for receiver
No communication from Data Link Receiver
within last 5 minutes
SiriusXM subscription is not activated
System is activating SiriusXM subscription(s).
SiriusXM Weather subscription confirmed.
Downloading weather data.
Table 6-5 GDL 69/69A/69A SXM Data Link Receiver Status and Error Messages
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6.2 GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
NOTE: The availability of specific Garmin Connext weather products varies by region and is subject to change. For
weather product coverage information,refer to http://fly.garmin.com/fly-garmin/connext/worldwide-weather/.
This Pilot’s Guide shows all Garmin Connext weather products, regardless of product availability in a specific
area or subscription package.
The optional GSR 56 Iridium satellite transceiver provides Garmin Connext Weather reception capabilities to
the system. Graphical weather information and its associated text are displayed on the Multi Function Display
(MFD) and the Primary Flight Display (PFD) Inset Map.
The system provides weather information after the pilot initiates either a manual or automatic Connext Data
Request on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page on the MFD.
Garmin Connext weather requires an active Iridium satellite network account and a subscription to the Garmin
Connext Weather service.
REGISTERING THE IRIDIUM SATELLITE SYSTEM
A subscriber account must be established for the Iridium transceiver prior to using the Iridium Satellite System
for telephone services. Before setting up an Iridium account, obtain the serial number of the Iridium Transceiver
(GSR1) and the System ID by selecting the AUX- SYSTEM STATUS Page as shown in Figure 6-56. Contact Garmin
at 1-866-739-5687 in the United States or 913-397-8200, ext. 1135.
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Iridium Transceiver Serial Number
System ID Number
Figure 6-56 Identification Needed for Iridium Registration
REGISTERING GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
When an account is established, Garmin provides an Access Code which must be entered on the system in
order to complete the registration process.
Registering the system to receive Garmin Connext Weather:
1) With the aircraft outside and having a clear view of the sky, turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the
MAP page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the MAP - WEATHER DATA LINK (CNXT or XM) Page. If ‘XM’ is displayed in
the page title, it will be necessary to change the data link source to CNXT before continuing. Refer to ‘Viewing
the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page’ procedure to change the data link source to prior to registration.
3) If the system displays the ‘CONNEXT REGISTRATION’ window, proceed to step 6. Otherwise, press the MENU
Key. The Page Menu window is now displayed as seen in Figure 6-57.
Figure 6-57 Select Register With Connext
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4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Register With Connext’ in the menu list.
5) Press the ENT Key. The Connext Registration Window appears as shown in Figure 6-58.
Figure 6-58 Enter Access Code
6) Enter the access code provided by Garmin Flight Data Services in the ‘ACCESS CODE’ field.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘REGISTER’ is highlighted as in Figure 6-58.
8) Press the ENT Key. The system contacts Garmin Connext through the Iridium network. System registration is
complete when ‘REGISTERED’ appears in the STATUS field.
ACCESSING GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER PRODUCTS
The principal map for viewing Garmin Connext weather information is the Weather Data Link (CNXT)
Page in the Map Page Group (Figure 6-58). This is the only map display capable of showing information for
all available Garmin Connext weather products. This page is also used to select a weather data link source, if
more than one source (such as SiriusXM Weather) has also been installed. The displayed weather products and
softkeys correspond to the selected weather data link source. No weather information is displayed until the
first Connext Data Request is made.
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Viewing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (CNXT or XM) Page.
3) If the page title displays ‘MAP - WEATHER DATA LINK (XM)’ and Garmin Connext (CNXT) data is desired,
proceed to the next step to change the weather data link source to Garmin Connext
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display Connext Weather’ and press the ENT Key. Page title displays ‘MAP WEATHER DATA LINK (CNXT)’ to indicate Garmin Connext is the selected weather data link source.
Only one weather data link source may be selected for display at a time. If Garmin Connext is selected,
optional SiriusXM Weather data (and corresponding softkeys) are removed.
Weather
product age
information
Precip Weather
Product Display
Enabled icon
Precip Weather
Product Selected
for Display
Figure 6-59 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
(After Connext Data Request)
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
For each enabled Garmin Connext weather product, the system displays a weather product icon and product
age. The product age is the elapsed time (in minutes) since the weather data provider compiled the weather
product. The product age display does not indicate the age of the information contained within the weather
product, which can be significantly older than the displayed weather product age.
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Weather products are updated continuously or refreshed at specific intervals (defined in the Refresh Rate
column in Table 6-6). If for any reason, a product is not refreshed within the Expiration Time intervals (see
Table 6-6), the system removes the expired data from the display, and shows dashes instead of the product age.
If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age changes to amber. If data for
a weather product is not available, the system displays ‘N/A’ next to the weather product symbol instead of the
product age.
Table 6-6 shows the Garmin Connext weather product symbols, the expiration times, and the refresh rates.
The refresh rate represents the interval at which the Garmin Connext ground-based servers make available the
most current known weather data. It does not necessarily represent the rate at which new content is received
from various weather sources.
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
Symbol
Radar Precipitation
(PRECIP)
Infrared Satellite
(IR SAT)
Datalink Lightning
(DL LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Temporary Flight Restrictions
no product image
(TFRs)
Terminal Aerodrome Reports
no product image
(TAFs)
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
30
Refresh Rate
(Minutes)
U.S.: 3*
Canada: 3*†
Europe: 15
Australia: 15ˆ
60
30
30
Continuous
60
Continuous
90
Continuous
60
Continuous
90
Continuous
60
Continuous
60
Continuous
* The composite precipitation image is updated every 3 minutes, but individual radar sites may take
between 3 and 10 minutes to provide new data.
†
Canadian radar precipitation data provided by Environment Canada.
ˆ Australian radar precipitation data provided by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology.
Table 6-6 Garmin Connext Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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+
+
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Winds Aloft (WIND)
+
+
+*
+
PIREPs
+
+
+
Radar Coverage
+
+
+
TFRs
+
+
+
+
+
+
TAFs
+
+
Datalink Lightning (LTNG)
METARs
Flight Plan Pages
Infrared Satellite (IR SAT)
Nearest Page Group
+
System Page Group
+
AUX - Trip Planning
Page
+
Weather Information
Page
Weather Data Link
(CNXT) Page
Precipitation (PRECIP)
Navigation Map Page
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
PFD Inset Map
Table 6-7 shows which Garmin Connext Weather products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on
specific maps.
+
* Winds Aloft data on Navigation Map Page displayed inside Profile View when enabled.
Table 6-7 Garmin Connext Weather Product Display Maps
Softkeys control the display of weather information on most MFD pages and the PFD Inset Map (Figure
6-60 shows the weather product softkeys for the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page). When a weather product
is selected for display, the corresponding softkey label changes to gray to indicate the product display is
enabled.
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SYSTEM
CPDLC
PRECIP
IR SAT
DL LTNG
SIG/AIR
WIND OFF
METAR
LEGEND MORE WX CHKLIST
PIREPS
BACK
WIND Softkey label changes
to reflect current selection.
Press the BACK Softkey
to move up one level.
PREV and NEXT Softkeys cycle through Winds Aloft
altitude selection softkeys.
PREV
OFF
SFC
3000
6000
9000
12000
15000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
36000
39000
42000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
Figure 6-60 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Softkeys (MFD)
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page control the map range
settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the
weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The menus
also provide a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling display of weather products.
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-61).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘PRODUCT GROUP 1’ and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-62).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page with the changed settings.
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Figure 6-61 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Menu
Figure 6-62 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Setup Menu
Restoring default Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Highlight the desired default(s) to restore (all or for selection) and press ENT Key.
The system supports the installation of both the GSR 56 for Garmin Connext Weather and the GDL69/69A
and GDL 69A SXM for SiriusXM Weather. Only one set of data link weather products (Garmin Connext or
SiriusXM) can be displayed at a time.
Switching between Garmin Connext and SiriusXM weather data link sources:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the MAP page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the CNXT (or XM) Weather Data Link Page.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Display Connext Weather’ or ‘Display XM’ Weather’ (choice dependent on
current weather source) and press the ENT Key.
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If both Garmin Connext and SiriusXM Weather services are installed, customizing the display settings for the
corresponding weather products shown in Table 6-8 will result in identical settings for both services.
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
Precipitation
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD)
(PRECIP)
Cloud Top
Infrared Satellite
(CLD TOP)
(IR SAT)
SiriusXM Lightning
Garmin Connext Data Link
Lightning (DL LTNG)
(XM LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
(PIREPs)
SiriusXM Weather Product
Table 6-8 Corresponding SiriusXM Weather and Garmin Connext
Weather Product Settings
Maps besides the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation
Map Page.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-63.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-64).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-65).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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Figure 6-63 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-64 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-65 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
Each active weather product has an associated legend which can be displayed on the Weather Data Link
(CNXT) Page. If no weather product softkeys are selected, the LEGEND Softkey will be unavailable.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the LEGEND Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the window.
4) To remove the Legend Window, select the LEGEND Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
When a Garmin Connext weather product is enabled for display on the PFD Inset Map, the weather product
information box (with the product icon and age) can be displayed inside the PFD Inset Map.
Viewing the weather product information box on the PFD Inset Map:
1) On the PFD, press the INSET Softkey.
2) Press the WX LGND Softkey.
3) To remove the weather product information box, press the WX LGND Softkey again or deselect all active
Garmin Connext Weather products on the PFD Inset Map.
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Additional information about the following can be displayed by panning over the display on the map:
• Infrared Satellite (IR SAT)
• METARs
• SIGMETs
• TFRs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPs
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
Additional
Information
on Infrared
Satellite Data
Selected with
Map Pointer
Infrared
Satellite Data
Selected with
Map Pointer
Figure 6-66 Panning on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
CONNEXT DATA REQUESTS
The Connext Data Request Menu provides the flight crew with the options to enable or disable the requested
weather coverage area(s), choose automatic weather update intervals (if desired), and the ability to send or cancel
weather data requests. The status of the Garmin Connext data request process is also displayed.
Before a Garmin Connext data request can occur, a valid request coverage area must be defined from which
all currently available Garmin Connext weather products will be retrieved. At a minimum, either the aircraft’s
present position or a waypoint (as part of a flight plan or entered directly in the ‘WAYPOINT’ coverage field) must
be part of the request coverage area, otherwise the request status window will indicate ‘INVALID COVERAGE
AREA’ and the system will not allow a request to occur.
It is not necessary for a destination (based on an active flight plan), a flight plan, or waypoint to be specified
prior to enabling these coverage areas; however no weather data will be retrieved for these option(s) until a flight
plan or waypoint is provided, respectively.
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Requesting Garmin Connext weather manually:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-67).
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired coverage option(s) and press the ENT Key to check or uncheck
one of more of the following coverage selections (Figures 6-67, 6-68):
• PRESENT POSITION – Requests data based on current location.
• DESTINATION – Requests data based on the active flight plan destination (Direct-To destinations excluded).
See the Flight Management section for more information about entering and activating flight plans.
• FPL – Requests data along an active flight plan, if one exists. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired
flight plan look-ahead distance option (or choose ‘REMAINING FPL’ to request the remainder of the flight
plan), then press the ENT Key.
• WAYPOINT – Requests data based on a waypoint (which may be off-route). Turn the large and small FMS
Knobs to enter a waypoint, then press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob highlight to the ‘DIAMETER / RTE WIDTH’ (diameter/route width) distance field and
turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired diameter and route width of the request, then press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob until the ‘SEND REQ’ button is highlighted. Press the ENT Key to initiate the request
immediately or press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page without requesting
weather data.
Figure 6-67 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Menu
Figure 6-68 Connext Data Request Menu
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Present Position Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Next 80 nm of Flight Plan
Selected, 200 nm Route
Width Requested
Destination Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Off-Route Waypoint
Selected, 200 nm Diameter
Requested
Figure 6-69 Connext Weather Data Request Results with Precipitation and Infrared Satellite Displayed
During a Connext Data Request, the Request Status box displays “Processing...” and the ‘CANCEL REQ’
button is highlighted. A countdown timer will display the estimated time remaining for the data request. If
desired, the Connext Data Request menu may be removed while the data request is processing by pressing the
FMS Knob; the data request will continue to process in the background. Connext Data Requests typically take
between 1 to 3 minutes to complete depending on the size of the selected weather coverage area and Iridium
signal connection quality.
The system retrieves all available Garmin Connext Weather products within the selected coverage area during
an initial Connext Data Request, regardless of which products (if any) are currently enabled for display. On
subsequent requests, previously retrieved textual data (such as METARs and TAFS) is retained if it has not
expired, while new textual weather data matching the current coverage area and all graphical weather data is
downloaded during every data request.
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At the completion of a successful weather data request, the Request Status Window (if still open) indicates
‘OK’.
Cancelling a Connext Data Request in Progress:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘CANCEL REQ’ and press the ENT Key. The request status box indicates
‘Request Cancelled’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
The pilot can schedule Connext Data Requests to recur automatically. Auto requests remain enabled until
the pilot disables them, or the system power is cycled. The Request Status Window will indicate a countdown
timer until the next automatic data request occurs.
NOTE: If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to the system entering Reversionary Mode,
the automatic weather data requests will continue in Reversionary Mode, however the Connext Data
Request menu and its associated options will not be available.
Enabling/disabling automatic Connext Data Requests:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Choose the desired weather coverage options.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘UPDATE RATE’ setting. Then turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the
desired automatic update frequency (Off, 5 Min, 10 Min, 15 Min, 20 Min, 30 Min, 45 Min, or 60 Min), then press
the ENT Key.
6) The ‘SEND REQ” button is highlighted and a countdown timer is displayed in the ‘REQUEST STATUS’ based
on the currently selected update rate. Press the ENT Key to immediately send an immediate Connext Data
Request.
Or:
Press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
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GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER PRODUCTS
PRECIPITATION
NOTE: Precipitation data cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain, Stormscope, or the airborne
weather radar overlay.
The Precipitation weather product provides radar precipitation information in selected radar coverage areas.
This information comes from individual weather radar sites and weather data sources such as government
agencies. Each radar site or source may provide weather data at differing rates and times. Periodically,
the Garmin Connext service compiles the available information to form a composite image, and assigns a
single time to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the Precipitation weather product.
Individual images--gathered from each radar site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed
Precipitation weather product age.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the Precipitation weather product, the
displayed weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current
radar synopsis and may not depict the current weather conditions. The Precipitation weather product should
never be used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the
information it contains.
No radar
coverage
Boundary of Connext
Data Request appears
when Precipitation
weather product is
enabled
Precip Weather
Product Selected
for Display
Figure 6-70 Precipitation Weather Product on the Weather
Data Link (CNXT) Page
Displaying Precipitation weather information:
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the PRECIP Softkey.
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The system displays either base or composite NEXRAD imagery, depending on the region.
Region
Radar Reflectivity Type
United States
Composite Reflectivity
Canada, Europe, Australia
Base Reflectivity
The base reflectivity precipitation weather product shows the radar returns from the perspective of a single
antenna tilt angle. The composite reflectivity precipitation weather product shows the highest radar energy
received from multiple antenna tilt angles. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate the
intensity of the echoes and the type of precipitation.
To display the Precipitation legend (Figure 6-71), select the LEGEND Softkey when Precipitation is selected
for display.
No Radar Coverage
Boundary of weather
data request
Figure 6-71 Precipitation Data Legend
The display of radar coverage is enabled active when Precipitation is selected for display. Areas where
precipitation radar coverage is not currently available or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of
purple. A white boundary line depicting the selected coverage area of the Connext Data Request encloses the
precipitation data when this weather product is displayed.
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the Precipitation
display directly correlate to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous weather
can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different radar echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). Weather
radars measure the reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
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Precipitation Limitations
Radar images may have certain limitations:
• The radar beam may overshoot precipitation occurring below the lowest antenna beam tilt angle (0.5°),
causing no precipitation to be displayed. An individual radar site cannot depict high altitude storms at
close ranges. It has no information about storms directly over the radar site.
• When zoomed in to a range of 30 nm, each square block on the display represents an area of four square
kilometers.
Block represents
4 km2
Figure 6-72 Precipitation Data - Zoomed
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
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INFRARED SATELLITE
Infrared Satellite (IR SAT) data (Figure 6-73) depicts cloud top temperatures from satellite imagery. Brighter
cloud top colors indicate cooler temperatures occurring at higher altitudes.
Figure 6-73 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link Page
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the IR SAT Softkey.
To display the Infrared Satellite legend (Figure 6-74), select the LEGEND Softkey when Infrared Satellite data
is selected for display.
Figure 6-74 Infrared Satellite Legend
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GARMIN CONNEXT DATA LINK LIGHTNING
Datalink Lightning (DL LTNG) data (Figure 6-75) shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground
lightning strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. Neither
cloud-to-cloud nor the exact location of the lightning strike is displayed.
If the aircraft is also equipped with the L-3 WX-500 Stormscope®, only one lightning product may be
enabled for display at a time on a navigation map.
Areas of
Lightning Strikes
Figure 6-75 Data Link Lightning
Displaying Data Link (DL) Lightning information:
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the DL LTNG Softkey.
To display the Lightning legend on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page (Figure 6-76), select the LEGEND
Softkey when Data Link Lightning is enabled for display.
Figure 6-76 Garmin Connext Datal Link Lightning Legend
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SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
SIGMETs (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMETs (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET can be displayed when significant
weather conditions are not widespread.
The entire SIGMET or AIRMET is displayed as long as any portion of it is issued within the coverage area
of the Connext Data Request.
SIGMET
Figure 6-77 SIGMET/AIRMET Data
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map Pointer over the icon.
4) Press the ENT key. Figure 6-78 shows sample SIGMET text.
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To display the SIGMET and AIRMET legend (Figure 6-78), select the LEGEND Softkey when SIGMETs and
AIRMETs are selected for display.
Figure 6-78 Sample SIGMET Text
Figure 6-79 SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service area.
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud base heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an
airport or observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and
other critical data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the
report. METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
Instructions
for Viewing
METAR and
TAF Text
Selected
Airport
Figure 6-80 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
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TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. TAF information is displayed in its
raw form when it is available.
Displaying METAR and TAF text:
1) On the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page, select the METAR Softkey.
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Select the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that the METAR text must
be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
METAR
Text
METAR
Symbol
TAF
Text
Figure 6-81 METAR and TAF Text
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Original METAR text is also accessible while panning the map cursor over a METAR flag on any map page
on which a METAR is displayed. The METAR text is shown in a box near the METAR flag.
In addition, METAR flags and their associated text are displayed on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MF.D.
The system shows a METAR flag next to waypoints in the flight plan with an available METAR.
Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight a waypoint with an available METAR (indicated with a METAR flag next
to it). The METAR text will appear in the ‘SELECTED WAYPOINT WEATHER’ window below.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the Active Flight Plan
Page.
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page (Figure 6-82), select the LEGEND
Softkey when METARs are selected for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. A gray METAR flag is displayed
when the METAR text does not contain adequate information to determine the METAR category.
Figure 6-82 METAR Legend
WINDS ALOFT
Winds Aloft data (Figure 6-83) shows the forecasted wind speed and direction at the surface and at selected
altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3,000-foot increments up to 42,000 feet MSL.
Displaying Winds Aloft data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the WIND Softkey.
4) Select the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Select the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The WIND Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
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Figure 6-83 Winds Aloft at 24,000 Feet
To display the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-84), select the LEGEND Softkey when Winds Aloft is
selected for display.
Figure 6-84 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Profile View on the Navigation Map Page
(Figure 6-85). The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track, but not to aircraft
speed.
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Profile View
Path Enabled
Winds Aloft Data Age
Wind Component
Velocity and Direction
Arrows
Altitude Scale
Figure 6-85 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data on Profile View
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in Table 6-9.
Headwind
Symbol
Tailwind
Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind
Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
5 knots
10 knots
50 knots
Table 6-9 Profile View Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
Showing/Hiding Profile View (containing winds aloft data)
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the PROFILE Softkey.
Or:
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1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current
state) and press the ENT Key.
Winds Aloft data inside the Profile View is enabled by default when the Profile View is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display in Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-86).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Profile Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-87.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Profile Winds’ (Figure 6-88).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-86 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-87 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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PIREPS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) describe in-flight weather encountered by pilots. A PIREP may contain t
adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions, windshear, turbulence, and type
of aircraft flown. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Instructions for
Viewing PIREP
Text
Urgent
PIREP
PIREP
Selected
Figure 6-89 PIREPs on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Displaying PIREP text:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the PIREPS Softkey.
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather report
when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The PIREP tex is first displayed in a decoded fashion, then as raw text.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to close the PIREP text window and return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT)
Page.
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Decoded PIREP Text
Original PIREP Text
Figure 6-90 PIREP Text on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
To display the PIREP legend (Figure 6-91), select the LEGEND Softkey when PIREPs or AIREPs are selected
for display.
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
Figure 6-91 PIREPs Legend
TFRS
NOTE: Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) data from Garmin Connext is only available in the United States
(not including any U.S. territories.) Refer to http://fly.garmin.com/fly-garmin/connext/worldwide-weather/
for Garmin Connext product coverage information.
In the United States, the FAA issues Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) to designate areas where flight is
restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including national security, law enforcement,
fire suppression efforts, natural disasters., airshows, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued at any
time, and TFR data displayed on the system is only intended to supplement official TFR information obtained
from Flight Service Stations (FSS), and air traffic control.
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system displays
'TFR N/A' in the upper-left corner of maps on which TFRs can be displayed.
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TFR Summary
Data
TFR
Selected
with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-92 TFR Data on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Displaying TFR Data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page or Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Joystick and pan the map pointer over a TFR to highlight it. The system displays TFR summary
information above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select 'Review Airspaces' and press the ENT Key. The system displays the
TFR Information window.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the TFR Information window.
Figure 6-93 Full Text for Selected TFR
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The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page control the map range settings above which TFR data is
decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is selected, the TFR
product data is removed from the map.
Maps other than the Navigation Map Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be displayed:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-94).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-95).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product range setting (Figure 6-96).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-94 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-95 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-96 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
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ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
If the G1000 cannot complete a Connext Data Request, one or more messages will appear in the request status
window.
Weather Request
Status Message
Auto requests inhibited
Send manual request to
reset.
Auto update retry: ##
Seconds
Connext Comm Error [2]
Connext Comm Error [4]
Connext Comm Error [5]
Connext Comm Error [6]
Connext Comm Error [7]
Connext Comm Error [8]
Connext Login Invalid
Connext Server
Temporarily Inop
Connext Server Inop
Invalid Coverage Area
No Connext Subscription
Reduce Request Area
Request Cancelled
Request Failed - Try Again
Description
The system has disabled automatic weather data requests due to excessive errors. Automatic
weather data requests have stopped. Send a manual weather data request to resume automatic
updates.
The system will attempt another automatic weather data request after an error occurred during
the previous request. Timer counts down until the next automatic request occurs.
A communications error has occurred with the GIA. The G1000 should be serviced.
This occurs if multiple automatic weather data requests have recently failed, or a GIA is off-line.
This can occur if the Iridium or Garmin Connext services are not accessible. Check Iridium signal
strength. If this error persists, the G1000 should be serviced.
A communications error has occurred. It this error persists, the G1000 should be serviced.
A weather data transfer has timed out. Check Iridium signal strength and re-send the data
request.
A server error has occurred or invalid data received.
There is a problem with the Garmin Connext registration. Contact Garmin at 1-866-739-5687
in the United States or 913-397-8200, wait for the operator, and request extension 1135 for
assistance.
The Garmin Connext weather data server is temporarily out of service, but is expected to return
to service in less than 30 minutes.
The Garmin Connext weather data server will be out of service for at least 30 minutes.
The weather data request coverage area does not contain at least one of the following: a
waypoint, a flight plan, or a flight plan destination. Verify at least one of the coverage options is
enabled (checked) and contains required criteria, then re-send the data request.
The system is not be currently subscribed to the Garmin Connext Weather service, or the access
code is incorrect. Verify the access code. Contact Garmin at 1-866-739-5687 in the United
States or 913-397-8200, wait for the operator, and request extension 1135 for assistance.
The Garmin Connext weather data request area exceeds size limits. Reduce weather coverage
area and re-send data request.
The user has cancelled a Connext Data Request.
The weather data request timed-out. Re-send data request.
Table 6-10 Abnormal Garmin Connext Data Request Status Messages
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GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER IN REVERSIONARY MODE
When the G1000 is operating in Reversionary Mode, only those weather products which can be displayed
on the PFD Inset map will be available for display (see Table 6-7 for a list of weather products and their
associated map availability).
If manual weather data requests were enabled prior to entering Reversionary Mode, no new Garmin
Connext weather data can be retrieved while operating in Reversionary Mode. If automatic weather data
requests were enabled prior to Reversionary Mode operation, the system will continue the automatic data
requests in Reversionary Mode (provided automatic requests have not been inhibited due to a system error).
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6.3 AIRBORNE COLOR WEATHER RADAR
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The optional Garmin GWX 68 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a four-color digital pulsed radar with 6.5
kilowatts of output power. The Garmin GWX 70 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a solid-state pulsed radar
with forty watts of output power. The radar combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with a
high-definition target display. The pulse width for the GWX 68 is four microseconds (µs) on all ranges except
the 2.5 nm range. The GWX 68 uses a one µs pulse width at this range to reduce the targets smearing together
on the display for better target definition at close range. The GWX 70 has an effective pulse length of 27.31
microseconds (µs), and the system optimizes the pulse length to maximize resolution at each range setting.
The Socata TBM 850/900 uses a 10-inch phased array antenna that is fully stabilized to accommodate 30º of
pitch and roll.
To focus radar scanning on specific areas, Sector Scanning offers pilot-adjustable horizontal scan angles of
20º, 40º, 60º, or 90º. A vertical scanning function helps to analyze storm tops, gradients, and cell buildup
activity at various altitudes.
Radar features include:
• Extended Sensitivity Time Constant (STC) logic that automatically correlates distance of the return echo with
intensity, so cells do not suddenly appear to get larger as they get closer.
• WATCH® (Weather ATtenuated Color Highlight) helps identify possible shadowing effects of short-range cell
activity, identifying areas where radar return signals are weakened or attenuated by intense precipitation (or
large areas of lesser precipitation) and may not fully reflect the weather behind a storm.
• Weather Alert that looks ahead for intense cell activity in the 80-320 nm range, even if these ranges are not
being monitored.
• For the GWX 70 only, Altitude-Compensated Tilt (ACT) management, which automatically adjusts the
antenna tilt angle as the aircraft altitude changes.
PRINCIPLES OF PULSED AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
The term RADAR is an acronym for RAdio Detecting And Ranging. Pulsed radar locates targets by transmitting
a microwave pulse beam that, upon encountering a target, is reflected back to the radar receiver as a return
echo. The microwave pulses are focused and radiated by the antenna, with the most intense energy in the
center of the beam and decreasing intensity near the edge. The same antenna is used for both transmitting and
receiving. The returned signal is then processed and displayed on the G1000 MFD.
Radar detection is a two-way process that requires 12.36 µs for the transmitted microwave pulses to travel out
and back for each nautical mile of target range. It takes 123.6 µs for a transmitted pulse to make the round trip
if a target is ten nautical miles away.
Airborne weather radar should be used to avoid severe weather, not for penetrating severe weather. The
decision to fly into an area of radar targets depends on target intensity, spacing between the targets, aircraft
capabilities, and pilot experience. Pulse type weather radar detects only precipitation, not clouds or turbulence.
The display may indicate clear areas between intense returns, but this does not necessarily mean it is safe to fly
between them. Only Doppler radar can detect turbulence.
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Airborne weather radar has other capabilities beyond weather detection. It also has the ability to detect and
provide distance to cities, mountains, coastlines, rivers, lakes, and oceans.
NEXRAD AND AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
Both Airborne Weather Radar and NEXRAD measure weather reflectivity in decibels (dB). A decibel is a
logarithmic expression of the ratio of two quantities. Airborne Weather Radar measures the ratio of power
against the gain of the antenna, while NEXRAD measures the energy reflected back to the radar, or the radar
reflectivity ratio.
Both systems use colors to identify the different echo intensities, but the colors are not interchangeable.
Airborne color radar values used by Garmin Airborne Color Weather Radar should not be confused with
NEXRAD radar values.
ANTENNA BEAM ILLUMINATION
The radar beam is much like the beam of a spotlight. The further the beam travels, the wider it becomes.
The radar is only capable of seeing what is inside the boundaries of the beam. The following figure depicts
a radar beam’s characteristics. The figure illustrates vertical dimensions of the radar beam, although the
same holds true for the horizontal dimensions. In other words, the beam is as wide as it is tall. Note that
it is possible to miss areas of precipitation on the radar display because of the antenna tilt setting. With the
antenna tilt set to zero in this illustration, the beam overshoots the precipitation at 15 nautical miles.
Altitude (x1000 ft.)
80
Antenna at Zero Tilt
18,000 ft.
10°
0
0
15
Half Power at
es
Beam Sidelob
Max Power at Beam Center
18,000 ft.
30
45
60
75
90
Range (nautical miles)
Figure 6-97 Radar Beam from a 10 inch Antenna
The curvature of the earth can also be a factor in missing areas of precipitation, especially at range settings
of 150 nautical miles or more. Here the beam overshoots the precipitation at less than 320 nautical miles.
320 nm
Figure 6-98 Radar Beam in Relation to the Curvature of the Earth
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RADAR SIGNAL ATTENUATION
The phenomenon of radar signal attenuation affects the operation of weather radar. When the radar signal
is transmitted, it is progressively absorbed and scattered, making the signal weaker. This weakening, or
attenuation, is caused by two primary sources, distance and precipitation.
Attenuation because of distance is due to the fact that the radar energy leaving the antenna is inversely
proportional to the square of the distance. The reflected radar energy from a target 40 miles away that fills
the radar beam is one fourth the energy reflected from an equivalent target 20 miles away. This would appear
to the operator that the storm is gaining intensity as the aircraft gets closer. Internal signal processing within
the weather radar system compensates for much of this distance attenuation.
Attenuation due to precipitation is not as predictable as distance attenuation. It is also more intense. As the
radar signal passes through moisture, a portion of the radar energy is reflected back to the antenna. However,
much of the energy is absorbed. If precipitation is very heavy, or covers a large area, the signal may not
reach completely through the area of precipitation. The weather radar system cannot distinguish between an
attenuated signal and an area of no precipitation. If the signal has been fully attenuated, the radar displays
a radar shadow. This appears as an end to the precipitation when, in fact, the heavy rain may extend much
further. A cell containing heavy precipitation may block another cell located behind the first, preventing
it from being displayed on the radar. Never fly into these shadowed areas and never assume that all of the
heavy precipitation is being displayed unless another cell or a ground target can be seen beyond the heavy
cell. The WATCH® feature of the weather radar system can help in identifying these shadowed areas. Areas
in question appear as shadowed or gray on the radar display. Proper use of the antenna tilt control can also
help detect radar shadows.
Attenuation can also be due to poor maintenance or degradation of the radome. Even the smallest amount
of wear and scratching, pitting, and pinholes on the radome surface can cause damage and system inefficiency.
RADAR SIGNAL REFLECTIVITY
Precipitation
Precipitation or objects more dense than water, such as the surface of the earth or solid structures, are
detected by the weather radar. The weather radar does not detect clouds, thunderstorms, or turbulence
directly. It detects precipitation associated with clouds, thunderstorms, and turbulence. The best radar
signal reflectors are raindrops, wet snow, or wet hail. The larger the raindrop, the better the reflectivity. The
size of the precipitation droplet is the most important factor in radar reflectivity. Because large drops in a
small concentrated area are characteristic of a severe thunderstorm, the radar displays the storm as a strong
return. Ice crystals, dry snow, and dry hail have low levels of reflectivity as shown in the illustration, and
often is not displayed by the radar. Additionally, a cloud that contains only small raindrops, such as fog or
drizzle, does not reflect enough radar energy to produce a measurable target return.
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Figure 6-99 Precipitation Type and Reflectivity
Ground Returns
The intensity of ground target returns depends upon the angle at which the radar beam strikes the
ground target (Angle of Incidence) and the reflective properties of that target. The gain can be adjusted so
shorelines, rivers, lakes, and cities are well-defined. Increasing the gain too much causes the display to fill
in between targets, thus obscuring some landmarks.
Cities normally provide a strong return signal. While large buildings and structures provide good returns,
small buildings can be shadowed from the radar beam by the taller buildings. As the aircraft approaches
and shorter ranges are selected, details become more noticeable as the highly reflective regular lines and
edges of the city become more defined.
Bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, and oceans are not good reflectors and normally do not provide good
returns. The energy is reflected in a forward scatter angle with inadequate energy being returned. They
can appear as dark areas on the display. However, rough or choppy water is a better reflector and provides
stronger returns from the downwind sides of the waves.
Mountains also provide strong return signals to the antenna, but also block the areas behind. However,
over mountainous terrain, the radar beam can be reflected back and forth in the mountain passes or off
canyon walls, using up all or most of the radar energy. In this case, no return signal is received from this
area, causing the display to show a dark spot which could indicate a pass where no pass exists.
Angle of Incidence
The angle at which the radar beam strikes the target is called the Angle of Incidence. The figure illustrates
the incident angle (‘A’). This directly affects the detectable range, the area of illumination, and the intensity
of the displayed target returns. A large incident angle gives the radar system a smaller detectable range and
lower display intensity due to minimized reflection of the radar energy.
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Figure 6-100 Angle of Incidence
A smaller incident angle gives the radar a larger detectable range of operation and the target display shows
a higher intensity. Since more radar energy is reflected back to the antenna with a low incident angle, the
resulting detectable range is increased for mountainous terrain.
SAFE OPERATING DISTANCE
The following information establishes a minimum safe distance from the antenna for personnel near
operating weather radar. The minimum safe distance is based on the FCC’s exposure limit at 9.3 to 9.5 GHz for
general population/uncontrolled environments, which is 1 mW/cm2. See Advisory Circular 20-68B for more
information on safe distance determination.
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVEL (MPEL)
The zone in which the radiation level exceeds the US Government standard of 1 mW/cm2 is the semicircular
area of at least 9.16 feet from the 10-inch antenna. All personnel must remain outside of this zone. With a
scanning or rotating beam, the averaged power density at the MPEL boundary is significantly reduced.
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MPEL
Boundary
9.16 ft. for 10”
antenna
Figure 6-101 MPEL Boundary
BASIC ANTENNA TILT SETUP
The following discussion is a simple method for setting up the weather radar antenna tilt for most situations.
It is not to be considered an all encompassing setup that works in all situations, but this method does provide
good overall parameters for the monitoring of threats. Ultimately, it is desired to have the antenna tilted so that
the bottom of the radar beam is four degrees below parallel with the ground. The following example explains
one way of achieving this.
With the aircraft flying level, adjust the antenna tilt so ground returns are displayed at a distance that equals
the aircraft’s current altitude (AGL) divided by 1,000. For example, if the aircraft is at 14,000 feet, adjust the
tilt so the front edge of ground returns are displayed at 14 nautical miles. Note this antenna tilt angle setting.
Now, raise the antenna tilt 6 degrees above this setting. The bottom of the radar beam is now angled down 4º
from parallel with the ground.
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PRACTICAL APPLICATION USING THE BASIC TILT SETUP
With the antenna tilt set as previously described, any displayed target return should be scrutinized when
flying at altitudes between 2,000 and 30,000 feet AGL. If the displayed target advances on the screen to
within 5 nautical miles of the aircraft, avoid it. This may be either weather or ground returns that are 2,000
feet or less below the aircraft. Raising the antenna tilt 4 degrees can help separate ground returns from
weather returns in relatively flat terrain. This aligns the bottom of the radar beam parallel with the ground.
Return the antenna tilt to the previous setting after a few sweeps.
If the aircraft is above 29,000 feet, be cautious of any target return that gets to within 30 nautical miles.
This is likely a thunderstorm that has a top high enough that the aircraft cannot fly over it safely.
If the aircraft altitude is 15,000 feet or lower, setting the displayed range to 60 miles may be more helpful.
Closely monitor anything that enters the display.
4000
Change in Antenna Tilt
+4°
+3°
+2°
+1°
0°
-1°
-2°
-3°
-4°
3000
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
10 nm
4000
Vertical Change of Radar Beam (feet)
Also, after setting up the antenna tilt angle as described previously, ground returns can be monitored for
possible threats. The relationship between antenna tilt angle, altitude, and distance is one degree of tilt equals
100 feet of altitude for every one nautical mile.
Figure 6-102 Vertical Change in Radar Beam per Nautical Mile
Therefore, with the antenna tilt set so that the bottom of the beam is four degrees below parallel with
the ground, a target return at 10 nm is approximately 4,000 feet below the aircraft; at 20 nm, 8,000 feet;
at 50 nm, 20,000 feet. In other words, at this tilt setting, a ground return (such as a mountain peak) being
displayed at 10 nm would have a maximum distance below the aircraft of 4,000 feet. When that ground
target return moves to 5 nm, the maximum distance below the aircraft is 2,000 feet.
This setup provides a good starting point for practical use of the weather radar. There are many other
factors to consider in order to become proficient at using weather radar in all situations.
ALTITUDE COMPENSATED TILT (ACT)
The Altitude Compensated Tilt feature of the GWX 70 enables the system to automatically adjust the
antenna beam tilt angle setting based on aircraft altitude changes. For example, if the ACT feature is enabled
and the aircraft climbs, the system compensates by adjusting the tilt downward. As the aircraft descends
with ACT enabled, the system adjusts the antenna tilt upward. The system uses the ground as a reference for
adjusting the antenna tilt setting with ACT enabled.
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WEATHER MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
WEATHER DISPLAY INTERPRETATION
When evaluating various target returns on the weather radar display, the colors denote precipitation
intensity and rates shown in the table
Weather Mode Color
Intensity
Black
Green
Yellow
Red
< 23 dBZ
23 dBZ to < 32 dBZ
32 dBZ to < 41 dBZ
41 dBZ to < 50 dBZ
Approximate
Precipitation Rate (in/hr.)
< .01.
.01 - 0.1.
0.1 - 0.5
0.5 - 2
Magenta
50 dBZ and greater
>2
Table 6-11 Precipitation Intensity Levels (GWX 68 and GWX 70)
A precipitation intensity scale appears on the Weather Radar Page (Figure 6-103). The colors shown on the
scale correspond to the colors shown in Table 6-11.
Figure 6-103 Precipitation Intensity Scale on the Weather Radar Page
Thunderstorms
Updrafts and downdrafts in thunderstorms carry water through the cloud. The more severe the drafts, the
greater the number and size of the precipitation droplets. With this in mind, the following interpretations
can be made from what is displayed on the weather radar. Avoid these areas by an extra wide margin.
• In areas where the displayed target intensity is red or magenta (indicating large amounts of precipitation),
the turbulence is considered severe.
• Areas that show steep color gradients (intense color changes) over thin bands or short distances suggest
irregular rainfall rate and strong turbulence.
• Areas that show red or magenta are associated with hail or turbulence, as well as heavy precipitation.
Vertical scanning and antenna tilt management may be necessary to identify areas of maximum intensity.
Along squall lines (multiple cells or clusters of cells in a line) individual cells may be in different stages
of development. Areas between closely spaced, intense targets may contain developing clouds not having
enough moisture to produce a return. However, these areas could have strong updrafts or downdrafts.
Targets showing wide areas of green are generally precipitation without severe turbulence.
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Irregularities in the target return may also indicate turbulence, appearing as hooks, fingers, or scalloped
edges. These irregularities may be present in green areas with no yellow, red, or magenta areas and should
be treated as highly dangerous areas. Avoid these areas as if they are red or magenta.
Squall Line
Steep Gradient
Hook or Finger
Scalloped Edge
Figure 6-104 Cell Irregularities
Thunderstorm development is rapid. A course may become blocked within a short time. When displaying
shorter ranges, periodically select a longer range to see if problems are developing further out. That can
help prevent getting trapped in a blind alley or an area that is closed at one end by convective weather.
Figure 6-105 The Blind Alley - Horizontal Scan
In areas of multiple heavy cells, use the Vertical Scan feature along with antenna tilt management to
examine the areas. Remember to avoid shadowed areas behind targets.
The Blind Alley at Close Range
The Large Storm Behind
Figure 6-106 The Blind Alley
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Tornadoes
There are no conclusive radar target return characteristics which identify a tornado. However, tornadoes
may be present if the following characteristics are observed:
• A narrow, finger-like portion extends and in a short time curls into a hook and closes on itself.
• A hook, which may be in the general shape of the numeral 6 (or 9 in the southern hemisphere), especially
if bright and projecting from the southwest quadrant (northeast quadrant in the southern hemisphere) of
a major thunderstorm.
• V-shaped notches.
• Doughnut shapes.
These shapes do not always indicate tornadoes, and tornado returns are not limited to these characteristics.
Confirmed radar observations of tornadoes most often have not shown shapes different from those of a
normal thunderstorm display.
Hail
Hail results from updrafts carrying water high enough to freeze. Therefore, the higher the top of a
thunderstorm, the greater the probability that it contains hail. Vertically scanning the target return can
give the radar top of a thunderstorm that contains hail. Radar top is the top of a storm cell as detected by
radar. It is not the actual top, or true top of the storm. The actual top of a storm cell is seen with the eyes
in clear air and may be much higher than the radar top. The actual top does not indicate the top of the
hazardous area.
Hail can fall below the minimum reflectivity threshold for radar detection. It can have a film of water on
its surface, making its reflective characteristics similar to a very large water droplet. Because of this film of
water, and because hail stones usually are larger than water droplets, thunderstorms with large amounts
of wet hail return stronger signals than those with rain. Some hail shafts are extremely narrow (100 yards
or less) and make poor radar targets. In the upper regions of a cell where ice particles are dry (no liquid
coating), target returns are less intense.
Hail shafts are associated with the same radar target return characteristics as tornados. U-shaped cloud
edges three to seven miles across can also indicate hail. These target returns appear quite suddenly along
any edge of the cell outline. They also change in intensity and shape in a matter of seconds, making vigilant
monitoring essential.
OPERATION IN WEATHER MODE
WARNING: Begin transmitting only when it is safe to do so. When transmitting while the aircraft is on the
ground, no personnel or objects should be within 9.16 feet of the antenna.
CAUTION: In Standby mode, the antenna is parked at the center line. It is always a good idea to put the
radar in Standby mode before taxiing the aircraft to prevent the antenna from bouncing on the bottom stop
and possibly causing damage to the radar assembly.
When the weather radar system is in the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically switches
to Standby mode on landing.
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In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system automatically switches to Standby mode. The system
remains in Standby mode until both displays are restored. In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system
cannot be controlled.
Radar Mode
Scan Line
Antenna Stabilization Status
Figure 6-107 Horizontal Scan Display
Displaying weather on the Weather Radar Page:
1) Select the Weather Radar Page in the Map Page Group with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the MODE Softkey.
3) While on the ground, select the STANDBY Softkey. For the GWX 68 only, a one-minute warm-up period is
initiated (countdown is displayed on the screen). After the warm-up is complete, the radar enters the Standby
Mode.
a) Select the WEATHER Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
Figure 6-108 Confirming Activating Radar
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight YES and press the ENT Key to continue radar activation.
Or:
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If the aircraft is airborne, select the WEATHER Softkey. For the GWX 68 only, one-minute warm-up period is
initiated (countdown is displayed on the screen). After the warm-up is complete, the radar begins transmitting.
4) Turn the Joystick to select the desired map range.
5) The horizontal scan is initially displayed (Figure 6-107). If desired, select the VERTICAL Softkey to change to
vertical scanning.
Vertically scanning a storm cell:
NOTE: Vertical scanning of a storm cell should be done with the aircraft wings level to avoid constant
adjustment of the Bearing Line.
1) While in the Horizontal Scan view, select the BRG Softkey. This places the cursor in the BEARING field and
displays the Bearing Line.
If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Bearing
Line. Press the ENT Key.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line on the desired storm cell or other area to be vertically
scanned.
Scan Line
Bearing Line
Figure 6-109 Bearing Line on Horizontal Scan
4) Select the VERTICAL Softkey. A vertical scan of the selected area is now displayed (Figure 6-110).
5) The small FMS Knob may be used to move the scanned bearing line a few degrees right or left.
6) Turn the Joystick to adjust the range.
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7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
8) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, select the HORIZON Softkey to return to the Horizontal Scan view
and repeat the previous steps.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust bearing from left to right.
Figure 6-110 Vertical Scan Display
Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle
In order to make an accurate interpretation of a storm cell, the radar beam should be pointed at the wet
part of the weather cell to record the proper rainfall intensity (color level). The ideal aiming point is just
below the freezing level of the storm. The best way to find this point is to use the Vertical Scan feature. The
antenna tilt angle can be centered on the strongest return area in the vertical scan to get a more accurate
view of the coverage and intensity of the target in the horizontal scan.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Horizontal Scan display:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the TILT field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired antenna tilt angle.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt up and down.
Altitude Compensated Tilt (ACT) Angle Adjustment
The Attitude Compensated Tilt feature of the GWX 70 enables automatic management of the antenna tilt
angle as the aircraft altitude changes. With ACT enabled, the antenna beam position remains centered at
the set position for the current map range. The system automatically decreases the tilt angle as the aircraft
climbs, and increases the tilt angle as the aircraft descends. The ACT feature is available in the Horizontal
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Scan Mode when the system is operating in Weather Mode, and requires the system to be operating with
the GPS-derived altitude.
Enabling/Disabling Altitude Compensated Tilt (ACT) (GWX 70 only):
1) On the Weather Radar Page, select the MODE Softkey.
2) Select the ACT ON Softkey. When ACT is enabled, 'ACT ON' is annunciated in upper right corner of the Weather
Radar Page. When ACT is disabled, 'ACT OFF' is annunciated.
Or:
1) On the Weather Radar Page, press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight 'Altitude Compensated Tilt On' or 'Altitude Compensated Tilt Off', then press
the ENT Key.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Vertical Scan display:
1) Select the TILT Softkey to activate the cursor in the TILT field and display the Tilt Line.
If the Tilt Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Tilt Line. Press
the ENT Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the antenna tilt angle. The selected tilt angle is implemented when Horizontal
Scan is again selected.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt.
Tilt Line
Scan Line
Figure 6-111 Adjusting Tilt on Vertical Scan Display
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Adjusting Gain:
WARNING: Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity. Remember to return the gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the
actual intensity of precipitation.
1) Select the GAIN Softkey to activate the cursor in the GAIN field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the gain for the desirable level. The gain setting is visible in the GAIN field
as a movable horizontal bar in a flashing box. The line pointer is a reference depicting the calibrated position.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
4) Select the GAIN Softkey again to recalibrate the gain. 'CALIBRATED' is displayed in the GAIN field.
Manual Gain Set Below Calibrated
Calibrated Gain
Figure 6-112 Gain Calibration
Sector Scan:
1) While in horizontal scan mode, select the BRG Softkey to display the Bearing Line and place the cursor in the
BEARING field. If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select
Show Bearing Line.
2) Press the ENT Key.
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Figure 6-113 Selecting Sector Scan Position
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line in the desired position. The location of the Bearing Line
becomes the center point of the Sector Scan.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the SECTOR SCAN field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select FULL, 60˚, 40˚, or 20˚ scan.
6) If desired, readjust the Bearing Line as discussed previously to change the center of the Sector Scan.
7) Select the BRG Softkey again to remove the Bearing Line and cursor. The bearing reference is also reset to 0º.
Figure 6-114 40˚ Sector Scan
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Antenna Stabilization
When radar antenna stabilization is active, the radar tilt is corrected for pitch and roll, and therefore is
kept steady with respect to an earth fixed reference. The commanded tilt angle is kept constant with respect
to the earth. When the stabilization is turned off, corrections are no longer made for pitch and roll, and the
radar tilt angle is kept constant with respect to the aircraft reference system.
Enabling/disabling antenna stabilization:
1) To activate or deactivate the antenna stabilization, select the MODE Softkey.
2) Select the STAB ON Softkey to activate antenna stabilization or select the STAB OFF Softkey to deactivate. The
current stabilization condition is shown in the upper right of the weather radar display.
Weather Attenuated Color Highlight (WATCH®)
While in horizontal scan mode, this feature can be used as a tool to determine areas of possible inaccuracies
in displayed intensity due to weakening of the radar energy. This weakening is known as attenuation. The
radar energy weakens as it passes through areas of intense precipitation, large areas of lesser precipitation,
and distance. Issues with the radome also attenuates the radar energy. All these factors have an effect on the
return intensity. The more energy that dissipates, the lesser the displayed intensity of the return. Accuracy
of the displayed intensity of returns located in the shaded areas are suspect. Make maneuvering decisions
with this information in mind. Proper antenna tilt management should still be employed to determine the
extent of attenuation in a shaded area.
To activate or deactivate the WATCH® feature, select the WATCH Softkey.
Displayed intensity is questionable.
Potentially stronger than displayed.
Horizontal Scan Without WATCH®
Areas of
Attenuated Signal
Horizontal Scan With WATCH®
Figure 6-115 Horizontal Scan Without and With WATCH™
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Weather Alert
The Weather Alert feature indicates the presence of heavy precipitation between the ranges of 80 and 320
nm regardless of the currently displayed range. Weather Alert targets appear as red bands along the outer
range ring at the approximate azimuth of the detected returns.
If a Weather Alert is detected within ±10° of the aircraft heading, an alert is displayed on the PFD in the
Messages Window.
If the antenna tilt is adjusted too low, a weather alert can be generated by ground returns. To avoid
unwanted weather alerts, deselect the WX ALRT Softkey..
Weather Alerts
Figure 6-116 Weather Alert Indications
To activate or deactivate Weather Alerts, select the WX ALRT Softkey. Activating and deactivating also
enables or inhibits the alert on the PFD.
Figure 6-117 Weather Alert on PFD
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Ground Mapping and Interpretation
A secondary use of the weather radar system is for the presentation of terrain. This can be a useful tool
for verifying aircraft position. A picture of the ground is represented much like a topographical map that
can be used as a supplement to the navigation map on the MFD.
Ground Map mode uses a different gain range than Weather mode. Different colors are also used to
represent the intensity levels. The displayed intensity of ground target returns are defined in the following
table. Use of the GAIN and TILT controls helps improve contrast so that specific ground targets can be
recognized more easily. As previously discussed, the type and orientation of the target in relation to the
aircraft affects the intensity displayed.
When the weather radar system is in either the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby mode upon landing.
Ground Map
Mode Color
Black
Cyan
Yellow
Magenta
Blue
Intensity
0 dB
> 0 dB to < 9 dB
9 dB to < 18 dB
18 dB to < 27 dB
27 dB and greater
Table 6-12 Ground Target Return Intensity Levels
Operation in Ground Map Mode
1) Select the MODE Softkey.
2) Select the GROUND Softkey to place the radar in Ground Map mode.
3) Select the BACK Softkey.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the TILT field.
6) Adjust the antenna tilt angle by turning the small FMS Knob to display ground returns at the desired distance.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
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WEATHER RADAR OVERLAY ON THE NAVIGATION MAP PAGE
The Map - Weather Radar Page is the principal map page for viewing airborne weather radar information.
Weather radar information may also be shown as an overlay on the Navigation Map Page on the MFD as an
additional reference.
When the airborne weather radar overlay is enabled, a weather radar information box appears in the upperright corner of the Navigation Map Page. It indicates the selected weather mode, radar bearing, and antenna
tilt angle. The overlay is capable of showing radar information while the radar is in horizontal scan mode.
If the radar is operating in vertical scan mode while the overlay is enabled, the system indicates 'N/A' in the
information box to indicate the airborne weather radar overlay is not available until the horizontal scan mode
is selected on the Weather Radar Page.
NOTE: When viewing airborne weather radar information overlay on the Navigation Map Page, selecting
a Heading Up navigation map orientation may be desired, since it is identical to the orientation on the
Weather Radar Page.
Radar Overlay Enabled Icon
Radar Mode
Selected
Radar
Bearing
Radar Range
Scan Line
Antenna Tilt
Angle
Boundary of
Selected Radar
Scan
Navigation Map
Range
Figure 6-118 Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page
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Enabling/Disabling Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the MAP Softkey.
3) Select the WX RADAR Softkey.
Or:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With 'Map Setup' highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the 'Weather' group, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the product selections and highlight the WX RADAR overlay selection
('On' or 'Off'). Turn the small FMS knob to highlight the desired selection.
5) To remove the menu, press the FMS Knob or CLR Key.
Weather radar controls on the Navigation Map Page are limited to adjustment of the radar range, bearing,
and antenna tilt angle. The airborne weather radar overlay is viewable at Navigation Map Ranges between five
and 800 nautical miles (ten to 1,500 kilometers). At map ranges beyond these limits, the system removes the
weather radar information from the map. Adjusting the range on the Navigation Map Page simultaneously
adjusts the range of the weather radar proportionally. This radar range is annunciated on the range arc that
appears when the overlay is enabled and a radar scan is active. When the radar range is adjusted on the
Navigation Map Page, system synchronizes the same range to the Weather Radar Page.
The radar bearing is adjustable in one degree increments on the Navigation Map Page by moving the Joystick
left or right when the overlay is enabled. A left or right arrow next to the bearing readout indicates the direction
of the selected bearing. The cyan radar bearing line is only viewable on the Weather Radar Page. While the
bearing line is not shown on the Navigation Map Page, adjusting the bearing on the Navigation Map Page while
Sector Scan is enabled centers the radar scan on the selected bearing, and the radar scan boundaries adjust
accordingly on the Navigation Map Page.
Radar antenna tilt angle is adjustable in 0.25 degree increments on the Navigation Map Page. Move the
Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward. Move the Joystick down to adjust the antenna tilt angle
upward. An up or down arrow next to the antenna tilt angle setting indicates the direction of the antenna tilt
angle.
The weather radar overlay uses the same colors as those shown on the Weather Radar Page to indicate the
intensity of radar returns. However, the display of gray WATCH radar attenuation and red weather alert
target bands is exclusive to the Weather Radar Page. Because data link radar precipitation and terrain present
information using similar colors, enabling the airborne weather radar overlay on the Navigation Map Page
disables the display of the data link radar and terrain information for this page.
SYSTEM STATUS
The radar mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Weather Radar Page. Additional information
may be displayed in the center of the Weather Radar Page as a banner annunciation.
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Radar Mode
Radar Mode Annunciation Box†
Center Banner Annunciation
Standby
STANDBY
STANDBY
Standby (During Warm-Up),
applicable to GWX 68 only
STANDBY
WARM-UP
XX
(XX indicates number of seconds
remaining in warm-up)
Weather
WEATHER
None
Ground Mapping
Off
Radar Failed*
GROUND MAPPING
OFF
FAIL
None
OFF
RADAR FAIL
† Annunciations in this column appear in white text in the Weather Radar Mode box on the Navigation Map
Page.
* See Table 6-15 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-13 Radar Modes on the Weather Radar Page
The system displays the status of the radar antenna stabilization feature in the upper right corner of the
Weather Radar Page. For the GWX 70, the status of the Altitude Compensated Tilt feature also appears in the
upper right corner of the Weather Radar Page.
Radar Feature Status
ACT ON
ACT OFF
STAB ON
STAB OFF
STAB INOP
Description
Altitude compensated tilt feature is enabled (GWX 70 only)
Altitude compensated tilt feature is disabled (GWX 70 only)
Antenna stabilization is selected on.
Antenna stabilization is selected off.
The radar is not receiving pitch and roll information. The
antenna stabilization feature is inoperative.
Table 6-14 Radar Feature Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
If the unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown as a banner in the center of the Weather
Radar Page.
Weather Radar
Page Center Banner
Description
Annunciation
BAD CONFIG
The radar configuration is invalid. The radar should be serviced.
RDR FAULT
The radar unit is reporting a fault. The radar should be serviced.
The system is not receiving valid data from the radar unit. The system
RADAR FAIL
should be serviced.
Table 6-15 Abnormal Radar Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
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6.4 STORMSCOPE
WARNING: Do not rely on information from a lightning detection system display as the sole basis for
hazardous weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate
or incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
NOTE: Lightning information from data link services such as SiriusXM Weather or Garmin Connext cannot
be displayed at the same time as on-board lightning detection system data is selected for display.
The following pages can display Stormscope data:
• PFD Inset Map
• Stormscope Page
• Navigation Map
• AUX - Trip Planning Page
• Nearest Pages
The Map - Stormscope Page is the principal page for viewing Stormscope data. Stormscope data can be displayed
on other map pages as an additional reference. To display Stormscope data on any map besides the Stormscope
Page, select the MAP Softkey (or the INSET Softkey for the PFD Inset Map), then select the STRMSCP Softkey.
These pages can also display cell or strike data using the yellow lightning strike symbology shown in Table 6-16.
Lightning Age
Symbol
Strike is less than 6 seconds old
Strike is between 6 and 60 seconds old
Strike is between 1 and 2 minutes old
Strike is between 2 and 3 minutes old
Table 6-16 Lightning Age and Symbols
SETTING UP STORMSCOPE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
Setting up Stormscope options on the Navigation Map:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Setup’ selected (Figure 6-119), press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the group selection window. Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Weather’,
and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight and move between the product selections.
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5) When an item is highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the option.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page (Figure 6-121).
The following Stormscope options are available (Figure 6-120):
• STRMSCP LTNG – Turns the display of Stormscope data on or off.
• STRMSCP MODE – Selects the CELL or STRIKE mode of lightning activity. Cell mode identifies clusters or
cells of electrical activity. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
• STRMSCP SMBL – Selects the range at which Stormscope data displays. Stormscope data is removed when
a map range greater than the STRMSCP SMBL value is selected.
Figure 6-119 Page Menu
Figure 6-120 Map Setup Menu
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CELL AND STRIKE MODE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
On the Navigation Map, cell mode identifies cells of lightning activity (Figure 6-121). Stormscope identifies
clusters of electrical activity that indicate cells. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning
strikes.
Selecting the ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Setup’ selected, press the ENT Key.
3) Select the ‘Weather’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on ‘STRMSCP LTNG’.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘STRMSCP MODE’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to change between ‘CELL’ and ‘STRIKE’ options. When an item is selected, press the
ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Stormscope
Icon
50 nm Map
Range
Figure 6-121 Navigation Map Page with Stormscope Lightning Data
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn. This
is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the nose of the aircraft.
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Manually clearing Stormscope data on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Clear Stormscope® Lightning’ (Figure 6-122).
3) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-122 Navigation Map Page Options Menu
ZOOM RANGE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
Stormscope lightning data can be displayed up to 800 nm zoom range (in North Up orientation) on the
Navigation Map Page. However, in Track Up orientation at the 500 nm range, a portion of Stormscope lightning
data can be behind the aircraft and therefore not visible on the Navigation Map. Since the range for Stormscope
data is 400 nm diameter total (200 nm in front and 200 nm behind), the 500 nm range in North Up orientation
shows all the data.
At a map range of less than 25 nm, Stormscope lightning data is not displayed, but can still be present.
The maximum zoom range can also be set on the Navigation Map. Note that Stormscope data above the
selected maximum zoom range is decluttered.
Selecting a Stormscope range on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘MAP SETUP’.
3) Select the ‘Weather’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘STRMSCP SMBL’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the maximum display range.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
To change the display range on the Navigation Map Page, turn the Joystick clockwise to zoom out or
counter-clockwise to zoom in.
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SELECTING THE STORMSCOPE PAGE
Stormscope lightning data can be displayed at the ranges of 25 nm, 50 nm, 100 nm, and 200 nm.
Adjusting the Stormscope Map Range:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Stormscope Page.
3) To change the map range, turn the Joystick clockwise to zoom out or counter-clockwise to zoom in.
Figure 6-123 Stormscope Page
Changing between ‘cell’ and ‘strike’ mode:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Select the MODE Softkey. The CELL and STRIKE Softkeys are displayed.
3) Select the CELL Softkey to display ‘CELL’ data or select the STRIKE Softkey to display ‘STRIKE’ data. ‘CELL’ or
‘STRIKE’ is displayed in the mode box in the upper left corner of the Stormscope Page.
4) Select the BACK Softkey to return to the Stormscope Page.
Or:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Either 'Cell Mode' or 'Strike Mode' is highlighted, depending on the currently active mode.
4) Press the ENT Key to select the highlighted mode.
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn
(Figure 6-124). This is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the
nose of the aircraft.
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Manually clearing Stormscope data:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Clear Lightning Data’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Select the CLEAR Softkey.
Figure 6-124 Stormscope Page Options Menu
Changing the viewing mode between 360˚ and 120˚:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Select the VIEW Softkey. The 360 and ARC softkeys are displayed.
3) Select the 360 Softkey to display a 360˚ viewing area or select the ARC Softkey to display a 120˚ viewing area.
4) Select the BACK Softkey to return to the Stormscope Page.
Or:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight either the ‘View Arc’ and ‘View 360˚ option (menu choice dependent on
the current view).
4) With the desired item highlighted, press the ENT Key.
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6.5 TERRAIN PROXIMITY
WARNING: Do not use Terrain Proximity information for primary terrain avoidance. Terrain Proximity is
intended only to enhance situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the terrain database coverage area.
NOTE: Terrain Proximity is disabled when the Terrain-SVS or TAWS-B options are installed.
G1000 Terrain Proximity is a terrain awareness system that does not comply with TSO-C151b certification
standards. It increases situational awareness and aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). Do not
confuse Terrain Proximity with Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS). TAWS is more sophisticated
and robust, and it is TSO-C151b certified. Terrain Proximity does not provide warning annunciations or voice
alerts. It only provides color indications on map displays when terrain and obstacles are within a certain altitude
threshold from the aircraft. Although the terrain and obstacle color map displays are the same, TAWS uses more
sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles.
Terrain Proximity requires the following components to operate properly:
• Valid 3-D GPS position
• Valid terrain/obstacle database
Terrain Proximity displays altitudes of terrain and obstructions relative to the aircraft position and altitude with
reference to a database that may contain inaccuracies. Terrain and obstructions are shown only if they are in the
database. Terrain and obstacle information should be used as an aid to situational awareness. They should never
be used to navigate or maneuver around terrain.
Note that all obstructions may not be available in the terrain and obstacle database. No terrain and obstacle
information is shown without a valid 3-D GPS position.
The G1000 GPS receiver provides the horizontal position and altitude. GPS altitude is derived from satellite
position. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above
mean sea level calculated geometrically. GSL altitude is used to determine terrain and obstacle proximity. GSL
altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that
normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL
altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source.
Terrain and obstacle databases are referenced to GSL. Using the GPS position and altitude, the Terrain Proximity
feature portrays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and altitude of the
aircraft. GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and predict the aircraft’s flight path in relation to
the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this way, the pilot can view predicted dangerous terrain and obstacle
conditions.
DISPLAYING TERRAIN PROXIMITY DATA
The Map - Terrain Proximity Page is the principal page for viewing terrain and obstacle information. The
symbols and colors in the following figure and table represent obstacles and aircraft altitude when the Terrain
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Proximity Page is selected for display. Terrain Proximity uses black, yellow, and red to represent terrain
information relative to aircraft altitude. The color of each obstacle is associated with the altitude of the aircraft.
Terrain Above Aircraft Altitude
Red terrain is above
or within 100 ft below
the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude
100 ft Threshold
1000 ft
Yellow terrain is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Black terrain is more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
On the Terrain Proxmity Page only, a gray shade of purple indicates no terrain data is
available.
Figure 6-125 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain Proximity
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Gray obstacle is more than 1000 ft
below aircraft altitude
* Gray obstacles only shown on navigation maps.
Table 6-17 Terrain Proximity Terrain/Obstacle Colors and Symbology
Terrain and obstacle information can be displayed on the following pages:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Page
• Terrain Proximity Page
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps other than the Terrain Proximity Page):
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey).
2) Select the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
When Terrain Proximity is selected on maps other than the Terrain Proximity Page, an icon to indicate the
feature is enabled for display and a legend for Terrain Proximity colors are shown (Figure 6-129).
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map.
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Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles recognized by
Terrain Proximity as yellow or red are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within
the setting limit.
Maps besides the Terrain Proximity Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
The maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the
Navigation Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20
nm, the highest obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-126).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-127).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-128).
• TERRAIN DATA – Turns the display of terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
• OBSTACLE DATA – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-126 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-128 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Map Group
Figure 6-127 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Additional information about obstacles can be displayed by panning over the display on the map. The map
panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the Joystick. If the
map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
Additional Information
on Obstacle Selected
with Map Pointer
Red Terrain Area
(Above or Within 100’
Below Aircraft Altitude)
Yellow Terrain Area
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below Aircraft Altitude)
Red Lighted Obstacles
(Above or Within 100’
Below Aircraft Altitude)
Lighted Obstacle Selected
with Map Pointer
Terrain Display Enabled
Icon
Terrain Legend
Figure 6-129 Terrain Information on the Navigation Map Page
TERRAIN PROXIMITY PAGE
The Map - Terrain Proximity Page is the principal page for showing terrain and obstacle data in relation to the
aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs)
can be displayed for reference.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the Joystick from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
Displaying the Terrain Proximity Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain Proximity Page.
3) To change the view,
a) Select the VIEW Softkey.
b) Select the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘View Arc’ or ‘View 360º’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key to change the view.
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Showing/hiding aviation information on the Terrain Proximity Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft GPSderived GSL Altitude
Red Terrain
(Above or Within 100’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Map Range Rings
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’ Below
the Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Figure 6-130 Terrain Proximity Page
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Red Terrain
(Above or Within 100’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Map Range Arcs
Black Terrain
(Terrain More than 1000’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Figure 6-131 Terrain Proximity Page (ARC View)
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6.6 TERRAIN-SVS
WARNING: Do not use Terrain-SVS information for primary terrain avoidance. Terrain-SVS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed if the aircraft is outside of the terrain database coverage area.
NOTE: Terrain-SVS is included with the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option is installed. The TAWS-B
option will take precedence over the Terrain-SVS and Terrain Proximity features.
Terrain-SVS is a terrain awareness system included with the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) system option.
Terrain-SVS is integrated within SVT to provide visual annunciations and voice alerts to indicate the presence
of threatening terrain relevant to the projected flight path. For detailed information regarding SVT, refer to the
Additional Features section of this Pilot's Guide.
Terrain-SVS does not comply with TSO-C151b certification standards. It increases situational awareness and
aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). Do not confuse Terrain-SVS with Terrain Awareness and
Warning System (TAWS). TAWS is more sophisticated and robust, and it is TSO-C151b certified. Although the
terrain and obstacle color map displays are the same, TAWS uses more sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft
distance from terrain and obstacles.
Terrain-SVS does not provide the following:
• Premature Descent Alerting (PDA)
• Excessive Descent Rate (EDR)
• Negative Climb Rate (NCR)
• Descent to 500 Feet Callout (DFC)
Terrain-SVS requires the following components to operate properly:
• Valid 3-D GPS position
• Valid terrain/obstacle database
Terrain-SVS displays altitudes of terrain and obstructions relative to the aircraft position and altitude with
reference to a database that may contain inaccuracies. Terrain and obstructions are shown only if they are in the
database. Terrain and obstacle information should be used as an aid to situational awareness. They should never
be used to navigate or maneuver around terrain.
Note that all obstructions may not be available in the terrain and obstacle database. No terrain and obstacle
information is shown without a valid 3-D GPS position.
The G1000 GPS receiver provides the horizontal position and altitude. GPS altitude is derived from satellite
position. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above
mean sea level calculated geometrically. GSL altitude is used to determine terrain and obstacle proximity. GSL
altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that
normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL
altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source.
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Terrain and obstacle databases are referenced to GSL. Using the GPS position and altitude, the Terrain-SVS
feature portrays a 3-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and altitude of the
aircraft. GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and predict the aircraft’s flight path in relation to
the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this way, the pilot can view predicted dangerous terrain and obstacle
conditions.
DISPLAYING TERRAIN-SVS DATA
Terrain-SVS uses yellow (caution) and red (warning) to depict terrain and obstacles with heights greater than
200 feet above ground level, AGL. Alerts are given relative to aircraft altitude. Colors are adjusted automatically
as the aircraft altitude changes. The colors and symbols shown in the following figure and table represent
terrain, obstacles, and potential impact points.
Potential Impact Point
Terrain above or
within 100 ft
below the aircraft
altitude
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Unlighted Obstacle
1000 ft
Terrain between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the
aircraft altitude
Terrain more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
On the Terrain-SVS Page only, a gray shade of purple indicates no terrain data is
available.
Figure 6-132 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain-SVS
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Gray obstacle is more than 1000 ft below
aircraft altitude
* Gray obstacles only shown on navigation maps.
Table 6-18 Terrain-SVS Obstacle Colors and Symbology
Potential Impact
Point Symbol
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
Warning
Caution
Table 6-19 Terrain-SVS Potential Impact Point Symbols with Alert Types
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The Map - Terrain-SVS Page is the principal page for viewing terrain and obstacle information. In addition,
Terrain-SVS information can be displayed on the following pages and maps for reference:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Pages
• Terrain-SVS Page
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps other than the Terrain-SVS Page):
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey).
2) Select the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
When Terrain-SVS is selected on maps other than the Terrain-SVS Page, an icon to indicate the feature is
enabled for display and a legend for Terrain-SVS terrain colors is shown. An annunciation window appears
below the legend.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD, while the
range setting also affects the PFD Inset Map.
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles for which warnings
and cautions are issued are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting
limit.
Maps other than the Terrain-SVS Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The
maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the Navigation
Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20 nm, the highest
obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-133).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Map Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-134)
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-135).
• TERRAIN DATA – Turns the display of terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
• OBSTACLE DATA – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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Figure 6-133 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-135 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Map Group
Figure 6-134 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
TERRAIN-SVS PAGE
The Terrain-SVS Page is specialized to show terrain, obstacle, and potential impact point data in relation
to the aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other
NAVAIDs) can be displayed for reference. If an obstacle and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect,
the display automatically zooms in to the closest potential point of impact on the Terrain-SVS Page.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft; the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the Joystick from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings or arcs.
Displaying the Terrain-SVS Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain-SVS Page.
Changing the Terrain-SVS Page view:
1) Select the VIEW Softkey.
2) Select the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘View Arc’ or ‘View 360º’, dependent on current state, and press the ENT Key to change the view.
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Showing/hiding aviation information on the Terrain-SVS Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’, dependent on current state, and press the ENT Key.
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft GPSderived GSL Altitude
Red Terrain
(Above or Within 100’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Map Range Rings
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’ Below
the Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Annunciation Window
Figure 6-136 Terrain-SVS Page, 360º View
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft GPSderived GSL Altitude
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Red Terrain
(Above or Within 100’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Map Range Arc
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’ Below
the Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Annunciation Window
Figure 6-137 Terrain-SVS Page, ARC View
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TERRAIN-SVS ALERTS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within Terrain-SVS software algorithms.
Terrain-SVS alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an alert
is issued, visual annunciations are displayed and voice alerts are simultaneously issued. Table 6-20 shows
Terrain-SVS alert types with corresponding annunciations and voice alerts.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The Terrain-SVS Alert Annunciation is
shown to the upper left of the Altimeter on the PFD and below the Terrain Legend on the MFD. If the TerrainSVS Page is not displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up alert:
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the Terrain-SVS Page)
Alert Annunciation
Potential Impact
Point
Figure 6-138 Alert Annunciation on the PFD
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Potential impact
points
Figure 6-139 Alert Pop-up on the MFD
Potential
Impact
Points
Alert
Annunciation
Figure 6-140 Terrain-SVS Alert Annunciation on the MFD
TERRAIN-SVS INHIBIT
Terrain-SVS visual annunciations and voice alerts can be manually inhibited. Use caution when inhibiting
Terrain-SVS as the system should be enabled when appropriate. When Terrain-SVS is inhibited, the system
status annunciation 'TER INH' is shown on the PFD, and on the terrain annunciation window on the MFD
when terrain display is enabled.
Figure 6-141 Terrain-SVS Alerting Disabled (Terrain-SVS Inhibited) Annunciation
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Inhibiting/enabling Terrain-SVS alerting:
1) Select the Terrain-SVS Page.
2) Select the INHIBIT Softkey to inhibit or enable Terrain-SVS (choice dependent on current state).
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Inhibit Terrain-SVS’ or ‘Enable Terrain-SVS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
While Terrain-SVS alerting is manually inhibited (or the Terrain-SVS system is not available or has failed),
the system may display a ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation on the PFDs next to the altitude tape if the following
conditions are met:
• The aircraft is on a GPS SBAS approach.
• The Final Approach Fix is the active waypoint.
• The aircraft is at least 164 feet below the prescribed altitude at the Final Approach Fix..
See the Flight Instruments Section for more details about the ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation.
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
MFD
Pop-Up Alert (except
Terrain-SVS Page)
Voice Alert
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning (IOI)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution (IOI)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-20 Terrain-SVS Alerts Summary
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FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values in Figure 6-142. When an RTC alert is issued, a potential impact point is displayed on the
Terrain-SVS Page.
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is below the elevation of a terrain or obstacle cell in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts are
accompanied by a potential impact point displayed on the Terrain-SVS Page. The alert is annunciated when
the projected vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes in Figure 6-142.
Required Clearance
Level (FT)
Descending (FT)
800
700
Required Terrain Clearance (FT)
Required Clearance (FT)
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Distance From Runway (NM)
Distance From Runway (NM)
Figure 6-142 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
FLTA alerts are automatically inhibited when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination runway
elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends.
SYSTEM STATUS
During power-up, Terrain-SVS conducts a system test of its alerting capabilities. The system issues a voice
alert when the test has concluded.
Alert Type
PFD/MFD*
System Status
Annunciation
Voice Alert
System Test in Progress
System Test Pass
None
None
Terrain System Test Fail
“Terrain System Test OK”
“Terrain System Failure”
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-21 Terrain-SVS System Test Status Annunciations
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Terrain-SVS continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status, and
GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert “Terrain System Failure” occurs
with the ‘TER FAIL’ system status annunciation.
Terrain-SVS requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should
the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TER N/A’ appears on the PFD and on the Terrain-SVS Page. The voice alert “Terrain System Not Available” is
generated. When the GPS signal is re-established and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the voice
alert “Terrain System Available” is generated.
Alert Cause
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable
or invalid. Terrain-SVS
operating with PFD Terrain or
Obstacle databases
Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid, invalid
software configuration, audio
fault
No GPS position
PFD/MFD*
System
Status
Annunciation
None
Terrain-SVS Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Voice Alert
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
TERRAIN FAIL
“Terrain System Failure”
NO GPS POSITION
“Terrain System Not Available”
“Terrain System Available” when
GPS position returns
“Terrain System Not Available”
“Terrain System Available” when
sufficient GPS signal is received
“Terrain System Not Available”
“Terrain System Available” when
aircraft re-enters coverage area
Excessively degraded GPS
signal
None
Out of database coverage
area
None
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-22 Terrain-SVS Status Annunciations
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6.7 TAWS-B
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain avoidance. TAWS is intended only to enhance
situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the terrain database coverage area.
NOTE: The data contained in the TAWS databases comes from government agencies. Garmin accurately
processes and cross-validates the data but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
NOTE: If the TAWS-B option is installed, it takes precedence over the Terrain Proximity or Terrain-SVS
features.
TAWS-B (Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B) is an optional feature to increase situational
awareness and aid in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). TAWS-B provides visual annunciations and
voice alerts when terrain and obstacles are within the given altitude threshold from the aircraft. The displayed
alerts and warnings are advisory in nature only.
TAWS-B satisfies TSO-C151b Class B requirements for certification.
TAWS-B requires the following to operate properly:
• A valid terrain/obstacle/airport terrain database
• A valid 3-D GPS position solution
TAWS-B uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. Terrain information is based
on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may be
shown if available in the database. The data undergoes verification by Garmin to confirm accuracy of the content,
per TSO-C151b. However, the displayed information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and data
may be inaccurate.
TAWS-B uses information provided from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude. GPS
altitude is derived from satellite measurements. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic sea
level (GSL), which is the height above mean sea level (MSL) calculated geometrically. GSL altitude is used to
determine TAWS-B alerts. GSL altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations
in pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local
altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source. Therefore, GSL altitude
provides a highly accurate and reliable MSL altitude source to calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
The terrain and obstacle databases used by TAWS-B are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position and GSL
altitude, TAWS-B displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and
altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and “predict” the
aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this manner, TAWS-B can provide
advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain conditions.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
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pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
from the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude. This variation results in the aircraft’s GSL altitude differing
from the baro-corrected altitude.
DISPLAYING TAWS-B DATA
TAWS-B uses yellow (caution) and red (warning) to depict terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than
200 feet above ground level, AGL) alerts relative to aircraft altitude. Colors are adjusted automatically as the
aircraft altitude changes. The colors and symbols in the following figure and tables are used to represent terrain,
obstacles, and potential impact points.
Potential Impact Point
Terrain above or
within 100 ft
below the aircraft
altitude
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Unlighted Obstacle
1000 ft
Terrain between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the
aircraft altitude
Terrain more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
On the TAWS-B Page only, a gray shade of purple indicates no terrain data is available.
.
Figure 6-143 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for TAWS
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Gray obstacle is more than 1000 ft below
aircraft altitude
* Gray obstacles only shown on navigation maps.
Table 6-23 Terrain-SVS Obstacle Colors and Symbology
Potential Impact
Point Symbol
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
Warning
Caution
Table 6-24 Terrain-SVS Potential Impact Point Symbols with Alert Types
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The Map - TAWS-B Page is the principal page for viewing terrain and obstacle information. TAWS-B
information can also be displayed on the following pages and maps as an additional reference:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Page
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps other than the TAWS-B Page):
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey).
2) Select the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
When TAWS-B is selected on maps other than the TAWS-B Page, an icon to indicate the feature is enabled
for display and a legend with the TAWS-B terrain colors and annunciation window are shown (Figure 6-144).
Figure 6-144 TAWS-B Icon and Legend with Annunciation Window
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD, while the
range setting also affects the PFD Inset Map.
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles for which warnings
and cautions are issued are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting
limit.
Maps besides the TAWS-B Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The
maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the Navigation
Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20 nm, the highest
obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-145).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-146).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-147).
• TERRAIN DATA – Turns the display of terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
• OBSTACLE DATA – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
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7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-145 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-147 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Map Group
Figure 6-146 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
TAWS-B PAGE
The TAWS-B Page is specialized to show terrain, obstacle, and potential impact point data in relation to
the aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other
NAVAIDs) can be displayed for reference. If an obstacle and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect,
the display automatically zooms in to the closest potential point of impact on the TAWS-B Page.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are
available relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display.
Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
Displaying the TAWS-B Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the TAWS-B Page.
Changing the TAWS-B Page view:
1) Select the VIEW Softkey.
2) Select the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘View Arc’ or ‘View 360º’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key to change the view.
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Showing/hiding aviation information on the TAWS-B Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’, dependent on current state, and press the ENT Key.
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft GPSderived GSL Altitude
Red Terrain
(Above or Within 100’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Map Range Rings
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’ Below
the Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Annunciation Window
Figure 6-148 TAWS-B Page, 360º View
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft GPSderived GSL Altitude
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Red Terrain
(Above or Within 100’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Map Range Arc
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’ Below
the Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Annunciation Window
Figure 6-149 TAWS-B Page, ARC View
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TAWS-B ALERTS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within TAWS-B software algorithms.
TAWS-B alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an alert
is issued, visual annunciations are displayed and voice alerts are simultaneously issued. Table 6-25 shows
TAWS-B alert types with corresponding annunciations and voice alerts.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The TAWS-B Alert Annunciation is
shown to the upper left of the Altimeter on the PFD and below the Terrain Legend on the MFD. If the TAWS-B
Page is not displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up alert:
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the TAWS-B Page)
Potential
Impact Points
Alert
Annunciation
Figure 6-150 TAWS-B TERRAIN Alert Annunciation on the MFD
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Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-151 Alert Annunciation on the PFD
Potential
Impact Points
Figure 6-152 Alert Pop-up on the MFD
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Alert Type
PFD/MFD**
MFD Pop-Up Alert
Alert
(except TAWS-B Page)
Annunciation
Voice Alerts
Excessive Descent Rate
Warning (EDR)
“Pull Up”
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Warning (RTC)
or
Imminent Terrain Impact
Warning (ITI)
or
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Warning (ROC)
or
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Caution (RTC)
or
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
or
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”*
*
or
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
or
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”*
*
Imminent Terrain Impact
Caution (ITI)
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Caution (ROC)
*
*
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Caution (IOI)
Negative Climb Rate
Caution (NCR)
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”
or
* “Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”*
*
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Warning (IOI)
Premature Descent Alert
Caution (PDA)
Altitude Callout “500”
Excessive Descent Rate
Caution (EDR)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”
or
* “Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”*
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
*
or
Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up’
or
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
“Sink Rate”
*
or
“Don’t Sink”*
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
* Alerts with multiple messages are configurable at installation and are installation-dependent. Alerts for the default
configuration when more than one option is available are indicated with asterisks.
** Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-25 TAWS-B Alerts Summary
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EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide suitable notification when the
aircraft is determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain at an excessive speed. Figure 6-153 shows the
parameters for the alert as defined by TSO-C151b.
6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
4000
NK
: “SI
ion
Caut
3500
”
RATE
3000
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
Descent Rate (FPM)
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
500
Figure 6-153 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values in Figure 6-154. When an RTC alert is issued, a potential impact point is displayed on the
TAWS-B Page.
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is below the elevation of a terrain or obstacle cell in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts
are accompanied by a potential impact point displayed on the TAWS-B Page. The alert is annunciated when
the projected vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes in Figure 6-154.
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Required Clearance
Level (FT)
Descending (FT)
800
700
Required Terrain Clearance (FT)
Required Clearance (FT)
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Distance From Runway (NM)
Distance From Runway (NM)
Figure 6-154 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
FLTA alerts are automatically inhibited when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination runway
elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends.
PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway (Figure 6-155).
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
800
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
600
500
400
300
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-155 PDA Alerting Threshold
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TAWS-B INHIBIT
TAWS-B PDA and FLTA visual annunciations and voice alerts can be manually inhibited. Use caution when
inhibiting TAWS-B alerting as the system should be enabled when appropriate. When TAWS-B is inhibited,
the system status annunciation 'TAWS INH' appears on the PFD, and in the MFD terrain annunciation window
when terrain display is enabled.
Figure 6-156 TAWS-B Alerting Disabled (TAWS-B Inhibited) Annunciation
Inhibiting/enabling TAWS-B alerting:
1) Select the TAWS-B Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select 'Inhibit TAWS' or 'Enable TAWS', depending on the current state, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
Select the INHIBIT Softkey to inhibit TAWS.
While TAWS-B alerting is manually inhibited (or the TAWS-B system is not available or has failed), the
system may display a ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation on the PFDs next to the altitude tape if the following conditions
are met:
• The aircraft is on a GPS SBAS approach.
• The Final Approach Fix is the active waypoint.
• The aircraft is at least 164 feet below the prescribed altitude at the Final Approach Fix..
See the Flight Instruments Section for more details about the ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation.
FIVE-HUNDRED VOICE ALERT
The purpose of the “Five-hundred” voice alert is to provide an advisory alert of when the aircraft descends
to within 500 feet above the terrain or runway threshold. When the aircraft is within five nautical miles of an
airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the nearest runway threshold elevation. When the aircraft
is more than five nautical miles of the nearest airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the height
above terrain (as determined by the GPS altitude and Terrain Database).
There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the voice alert.
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NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT (NCR)
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff.
The voice alert “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by an annunciation and a pop-up terrain
alert on the display. NCR alerting is only active when departing from an airport and when the following
conditions are met:
• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
• Distance from the departure airport is 5 nm or less
• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
Figures 6-157 and 6-158 show the NCR alerting parameters based on Altitude Loss and Sink Rate
respectively as defined by TSO-C151b.
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-157 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-158 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
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SYSTEM STATUS
During G1000 power-up, TAWS-B conducts a system test of its alerting capabilities. The system test can also
be manually initiated. A voice alert occurs at test completion. TAWS-B System Testing is disabled when ground
speed exceeds 30 knots.
Alert Type
PFD/MFD* Alert
Annunciation
System Test in Progress
System Test Pass
None
TAWS System Test Fail
TAWS-B Page
Center Banner
Annunciation
Voice Alert
TAWS TEST
None
None
“TAWS System Test OK”
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-26 TAWS-B System Test Status Annunciations
Manually testing the TAWS-B System:
1) Select the TAWS-B Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select 'Test TAWS System' and press the ENT Key to confirm the selection.
Figure 6-159 TAWS-B Page Menu
TAWS-B continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status, and
GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert “TAWS System Failure” occurs with
the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
TAWS-B requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should the
navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TAWS N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the TAWS-B Page, and the voice “TAWS Not
Available” occurs. When sufficient GPS signal is returns and the aircraft is within the database coverage area,
the voice alert “TAWS Available” is generated.
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Alert Cause
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or
invalid. TAWS-B operating
with PFD Terrain or Obstacle
databases
Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid on all
displays, invalid software
configuration, TAWS audio
fault
No GPS position
PFD/MFD*
Annunciation
TAWS-B Page Annunciation
Center Banner Annunciation
Voice Alert
None
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
NO GPS POSITION
“TAWS Not Available”
“TAWS Available” when
GPS position returns.
“TAWS Not Available”
“TAWS Available” when
sufficient GPS signal is
received.
“TAWS Not Available”
“TAWS Available”
when aircraft re-enters
database coverage area.
Excessively degraded GPS
signal
None
Out of database coverage
area
None
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-27 TAWS-B Abnormal Conditions
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6.8 PROFILE VIEW TERRAIN
The G1000 offers a Profile View of terrain and obstacles relative to the aircraft’s current flight path and altitude
on the Navigation Map Page of the MFD. Profile View does not provide terrain or obstacle caution or warning
annunciations or voice alerts systems, nor does it display potential impact points inside the Profile View. The
colors and symbols in Figure 6-160 and Table 6-28 are used to represent terrain and obstacles.
Terrain Above Aircraft Altitude
Red terrain is above
or within 100 ft below
the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude
100 ft Threshold
1000 ft
Yellow terrain is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Black terrain is more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Figure 6-160 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Profile View Terrain
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Gray obstacle is more than 1000 ft
below aircraft altitude
Table 6-28 Profile View Terrain/Obstacle Colors and Symbology
Enabling/Disabling Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the PROFILE Softkey to enable or disable Profile View.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
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Enabling/Disabling Profile View Terrain on the Navigation Map (when Profile View is enabled):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the TERRAIN Softkey.
PROFILE VIEW DISPLAY
When the Profile View is enabled, it is displayed in a window below the Navigation Map. Altitude is shown
along a vertical scale, with an aircraft icon positioned at the current altitude. Distance is represented horizontally
along the bottom of the Profile View, and increases from left (present position) to right.
When the Navigation Map range is adjusted with the Joystick, the horizontal distance of the Profile View
is adjusted proportionately to be 1/2 of the Navigation Map range distance down to 1 nm, at which point
Profile View is no longer available (‘PROFILE NOT AVAILABLE’ is displayed). When Navigation Map range
is adjusted to remove altitude-correlated colored terrain data (as shown in the Terrain Legend) or obstacles
from the Navigation Map, these items are also removed from the Profile View; only an outline of the terrain
will be displayed in black in the Profile View window. Refer to the Terrain Proximity, Terrain-SVS, or TAWS-B
discussions for more information about displaying terrain or obstacles on the Navigation Map Page.
Profile Path
Range
Markers
Navigation Map Range
Terrain Legend
Terrain Enabled Icons
Altitude Scale
Distance Scale
Profile View Length
is One Half of the
Navigation Map
Range
Figure 6-161 Profile View on Navigation Map with Terrain Display Enabled
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The Profile View is based on the current aircraft track (or heading if track is unavailable) and shows the highest
known terrain or obstacles within a predetermined width from the present aircraft position to the end of the
profile range. The width of the Profile View is determined by the phase of flight, as annunciated on the HSI,
and is widest during enroute and oceanic phases (Table 6-29).
Flight Phase
Total Profile View Width
Approach
0.6 nm
Departure
0.6 nm
Terminal
2.0 nm
Enroute
4.0 nm
Oceanic
4.0 nm
Table 6-29 Profile View Width Scale
PROFILE PATH
The Profile Path displays the horizontal and lateral boundaries of the Profile View. The path is shown as a
white rectangle on the Navigation Map Page and is only available when Profile View is enabled. White range
markers both edges of the Profile Path rectangle match the range markers along the distance scale inside the
Profile View display window whenever the profile range is at least 4 nm (or 7.5 km if configured for metric
units).
The Profile Path rectangle may be configured on or off, and the Navigation Map range at which the Profile
Path is removed from map display can be changed.
Customizing the Profile Path display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-162).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Profile’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-163).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-164).
• PROFILE PATH – Turns the display of the Profile Path on or off and sets maximum range at which Profile Path
is shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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Figure 6-162 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-163 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-164 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu,
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6.9 TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE (TIS)
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
NOTE: TIS is available only when the aircraft is within the service volume of a TIS-capable terminal radar
site. Aircraft without an operating transponder are invisible to Traffic Advisory Systems (TAS), Traffic Alert
and Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS) and TIS. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown
without altitude separation data or climb descent indication.
NOTE: TIS is disabled if another traffic system is installed.
Traffic Information Service (TIS) is designed to help in detection and avoidance of other aircraft. TIS uses the
Mode S transponder for the traffic data link. TIS receives traffic information from ground stations, and is updated
every 5 seconds. The G1000 displays up to eight traffic targets within a 7.5-nm radius, from 3000 feet below
to 3500 feet above the requesting aircraft. Traffic is displayed according to Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance
System (TCAS) symbology.
TIS Symbol
Description
Non-Threat Traffic
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-30 TIS Traffic Symbols
A Traffic Advisory (TA) indicates that the current track of the intruder could result in a collision. When traffic
meets the advisory criteria for the TA, a solid yellow circle symbol is generated. A TA which is detected, but is
outside the range of the map, is indicated with a message in the lower left corner of the map and a half TA symbol
at the relative bearing of the intruder.
TIS also provides a vector line showing the direction in which the traffic is moving, to the nearest 45°. Traffic
information for which TIS is unable to determine the bearing (non-bearing traffic) is displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map Page (Figure 6-169) or in a banner at the lower left corner of maps other than the Traffic Map Page
on which traffic can be displayed.
The altitude difference between the requesting aircraft and other intruder aircraft is displayed above/below the
traffic symbol in hundreds of feet. If the other aircraft is above the requesting aircraft, the altitude separation
appears above the traffic symbol; if below, the altitude separation appears below. Altitude trend is displayed as
an up/down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in either direction) to the right of the target symbol. Traffic
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symbols for aircraft without altitude reporting capability appear without altitude separation or climb/descent
information.
DISPLAYING TRAFFIC DATA
The Map - Traffic Map Page is the principal page for viewing traffic information. Additional displays of traffic
information are available as map overlays while TIS is operating, and serve as additional reference to the Traffic
Map Page. Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps and pages:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision System (SVS) option is
installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Displaying traffic information (maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Select the MAP Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, an icon is shown to indicate the feature is
enabled for display.
Traffic
Advisory
Non-Threat
Traffic
Traffic
Display
Enabled
Figure 6-165 TIS Traffic on the Navigation Map Page
Displaying traffic information (PFD Inset Map):
1) Select the INSET Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data on the inset map (TRFC-1).
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3) Select the softkey again to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
4) Select the softkey again to remove traffic data.
Customizing traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-166).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Traffic’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-167).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-168).
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA ONLY - Displays Traffic Alerts only
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown (with the option to turn off)
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-166 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-167 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-168 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
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The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of traffic. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which traffic data (symbols
and labels) are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use settings based on those selected for the
Navigation Map Page.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The Traffic Map Page is specialized to show surrounding TIS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current
position and altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up
unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 2 to 12 nm, as indicated by
the map range rings.
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is on the
ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. Once the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches from Standby to
Operating Mode and the G1000 begins to display traffic information. Refer to the System Status discussion for
more information.
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Confirm TIS is in Operating Mode:
Select the OPERATE Softkey to begin displaying traffic.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ (shown if TIS is in Standby Mode) and press the ENT Key.
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Traffic Mode Annunciation
“TIS Not Available”
Voice Alert Status
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
Traffic Advisory, 500’
Below, Climbing
Range
Marking
Ring
“Non-Bearing” Traffic
(System Unable to
Determine Bearing)
Distance is 4.0 nm,
500’ Above,
Descending
Traffic Advisory
Off Scale
400’ Below, Level
Non-Threat
Traffic,
Altitude Not
Reported
Traffic Status
Banners
Figure 6-169 Traffic Map Page
Select
to Mute
“TIS Not
Available”
Voice Alert
TIS ALERTS
When the number of TAs on the Traffic Map Page increases from one scan to the next, the following occur:
• A single “Traffic” voice alert is generated.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears to the top left of the Attitude Indicator on the PFD, flashing for 5 seconds
and remaining displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with traffic.
To reduce the number of nuisance alerts due to proximate aircraft, the “Traffic” voice alert is generated only
when the number of TAs increases. For example, when the first TA is displayed, a voice and visual annunciation
are generated. As long as a single TA remains on the display, no additional voice alerts are generated. If a second
TA appears on the display or if the number of TAs initially decreases and then subsequently increases, another
voice alert is generated.
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Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-170 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
A “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert is generated when the TIS service becomes unavailable or is out of
range. TIS may be unavailable in the radar coverage area due to the following:
• Radar site TIS Mode S sensor is not operational or is out of service
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is beyond the maximum range of the TIS-capable Mode S radar site.
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is above the radar site in the cone of silence and out of range of an adjacent site.
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is below radar coverage. In flat terrain, the coverage extends from about 3000
feet upward at 55 miles. Terrain and obstacles around the radar site can further decrease radar coverage in all
directions.
• Traffic does not have an operating transponder.
The “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert can be manually muted to reduce nuisance alerting. TNA muting
status is shown in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Muting the “TIS Not Available” voice alert:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Select the TNA MUTE Softkey. The status is displayed in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘‘’Not Available” Mute On’ (shown if TNA muting is currently off) and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM STATUS
The G1000 performs an automatic test of TIS during power-up. If TIS passes the test, TIS enters Standby
Mode (on the ground) or Operating Mode (in the air). If TIS fails the power up test, an annunciation is shown
in the center of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Map Page
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the transponder*
Data is being received from the transponder, but
a failure is detected in the data stream*
The transponder has failed*
UNAVAILABLE
TIS is unavailable or out of range
* Contact a service center or Garmin dealer for corrective action
Table 6-31 TIS Failure Annunciations
System Test has Failed
Data Not Received
from Transponder
Figure 6-171 TIS Power-up Test Failure
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is on the
ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. If traffic is selected for display on another map while Standby
Mode is selected, the traffic display enabled icon is crossed out (also the case whenever TIS has failed). Once
the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches to Operating Mode and traffic information is displayed. The mode can be
changed manually using softkeys or the page menu.
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Mode
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
TIS Operating
OPERATING
TIS Standby
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TIS Failed*
FAIL
Traffic Display Enabled Icon
(Other Maps)
* See Table 6-33 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-32 TIS Modes
Switching between TIS modes:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Select the STANDBY or OPERATE Softkey to switch between modes. The mode is displayed in the upper left
corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ or ‘Standby Mode’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed (Table 6-33).
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
AGE MM:SS
TRFC COAST
TRFC RMVD
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
TRFC UNAVAIL
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending)
Appears if traffic data is not refreshed within 6 seconds
If after another 6 seconds data is not received, traffic is removed from the display
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced as the age increases
The displayed data is not current (6 to 12 seconds since last message)
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced when this message is displayed
Traffic is removed because it is too old for coasting (12 to 60 seconds since last message)
Traffic may exist within the selected display range, but it is not displayed
Traffic data has failed
Traffic has not been detected
The traffic service is unavailable or out of range
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-33 TIS Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.10 GTS 820 TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
NOTE: Pilots should be aware of TAS system limitations. TAS systems require transponders of other aircraft
to respond to system interrogations. If the transponders do not respond to interrogations due phenomena
such as antenna shading or marginal transponder performance, traffic may be displayed intermittently, or
not at all. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude separation data or climb
descent indication. Pilots should remain vigilant for traffic at all times.
NOTE: TIS is disabled when TAS installed.
The optional Garmin GTS 820 is a Traffic Advisory System (TAS). The GTS 820 enhances flight crew situational
awareness by displaying traffic information for transponder-equipped aircraft. The GTS 820 also provides visual
annunciations and voice traffic alerts to assist the pilot in visually acquiring traffic.
The GTS 820 is capable of tracking up to 45 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode A or C transponders, and up
to 30 intruders equipped with Mode S transponders. A maximum of 30 aircraft with the highest threat potential
can be displayed simultaneously. No TAS surveillance is provided for aircraft without operating transponders.
THEORY OF OPERATION
When the GTS 820 is in Operating Mode, the unit interrogates the transponders of intruding aircraft while
monitoring transponder replies. The GTS 820 uses this information to derive the distance, relative bearing,
and if reported, the altitude and vertical trend for each aircraft within its surveillance range. The GTS 820
then calculates a closure rate to each intruder based on the projected Closest Point of Approach (CPA). If the
closure rate meets the threat criteria for a Traffic Advisory (TA), the system provides visual annunciations and
voice alerts.
TAS SURVEILLANCE VOLUME
The GTS 820 surveillance system monitors the airspace within ±10,000 feet of own altitude. Under ideal
conditions, the unit scans transponder traffic up to 40 nm in the forward direction. Range is somewhat
reduced to the sides and aft of own aircraft due to the directional interrogation signal patterns. In areas of
greater transponder traffic density or when TCAS II systems are detected, the GTS 820 automatically reduces
its own interrogation transmitter power (and therefore range) in order to limit potential interference from
other signals.
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When paired with a 1090 MHz extended squitter transponder, the GTS 820 uses Automatic Dependent
Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) data from participating airborne aircraft transponders to enhance the
positional accuracy and display of traffic within the TAS surveillance range. Traffic data supplied only by
ADS-B Ground Based Transceivers (GBTs) is not displayed.
NOTE: Do not confuse this functionality with full ADS-B capability, which can provide traffic information
from ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and ADS-B traffic outside of the TAS surveillance volume.
This system is limited to displaying ADS-B information from suitably equipped airborne aircraft within the
TAS surveillance volume.
TAS Symbol
Description
Non-Threat Traffic
Proximity Advisory (PA)
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-34 TAS Symbol Description
NOTE: A 1090 MHz extended squitter transponder is required to display ADS-B symbology for aircraft
providing ADS-B data.
Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Points in the
direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Points in
the direction of the aircraft track.
Non-threat traffic with ADS-B directional information. Points in the
direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic with ADS-B directional information, but positional accuracy
is degraded. Points in the direction of the aircraft track.
Table 6-35 TAS Traffic with ADS-B Symbology
A Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as a yellow circle or triangle, alerts the crew to a potentially hazardous
intruding aircraft, if the closing rate, distance, and vertical separation meet TA criteria. A Traffic Advisory
that is beyond the selected display range (off scale) is indicated by a half TA symbol at the edge of the screen
at the relative bearing of the intruder.
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A Proximity Advisory (PA), displayed as a solid white diamond or triangle, indicates the intruding aircraft
is within ±1200 feet and is within a 6 nm range, but is still not considered a TA threat.
A Non-threat Advisory, shown as an open white diamond or triangle, is displayed for all other traffic
beyond 6 nm that is neither a TA or PA.
Relative altitude, when available, is displayed above or below the corresponding intruder symbol in
hundreds of feet. When this altitude is above own aircraft, it is preceded by a ‘+’ symbol; a minus sign ‘-’
indicates traffic is below own aircraft.
A vertical trend arrow to the right of the intruder symbol indicates climbing or descending traffic (for
speeds greater than 500 fpm in either direction) with an upward or downward-pointing arrow respectively .
Relative Altitude
Vertical trend arrow
Figure 6-172 Intruder Altitude and Vertical Trend Arrow
If the intruding aircraft is providing ADS-B track information, this is displayed as a vector line extending
beyond the traffic symbol in the direction of the track.
Vector Line indicates
intruder aircraft track
Figure 6-173 Intruder Traffic with ADS-B Directional
Information and Track
Flight IDs may also be displayed with traffic symbols; see the Flight IDs discussion in this section for more
information.
The GTS 820 automatically suppresses the display of altitude-reporting aircraft on the ground under either
of the following conditions:
• On-ground aircraft is equipped with a Mode S transponder.
• On-ground aircraft is equipped with a Mode C transponder, and own aircraft’s radar altimeter (if installed)
is displaying 1700’ AGL or less.
TA ALERTING CONDITIONS
The GTS 820 automatically adjusts its TA sensitivity level to reduce the likelihood of nuisance TA alerting
during flight phases likely to be near airports. Level A (less) TA sensitivity is used when the aircraft’s landing
gear is extended, or when the radar altimeter (if equipped) indicates own aircraft altitude is below 2000’ AGL.
In all other conditions, Level B (greater) TA sensitivity is used to assess TA threats.
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Sensitivity Intruder Altitude
Level
Available
A
Yes
A
No
B
Yes
B
No
TA Alerting Conditions
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of vertical and
horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of horizontal
separation and vertical separation is within 600 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 nm and vertical separation is within
600 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of separation.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of vertical and
horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of horizontal
separation and vertical separation is within 800 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 nm and vertical separation is within
800 feet.
Intruder range is less than 20 seconds.
Table 6-36 TA Sensitivity Level and TA Alerting Criteria
TAS ALERTS
NOTE: Traffic voice alerts do not occur at or below 400' AGL (if a radar altimeter is installed) or when the
landing gear is extended (if a radar altimeter is not installed). Only visual traffic annunciations are issued
under these conditions.
When the GTS 820 detects a new TA, the following occur:
• A single “Traffic” voice alert is generated, followed by additional voice information about the bearing, relative
altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table 6-37). The voice alert
“Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the traffic is in front of own aircraft, above own
altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
• A 'TRAFFIC' Annunciation appears at the top right of the airspeed on the PFD, flashes for five seconds and
remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area (Figure 6-174).
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with TA traffic.
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, a yellow text banner will be displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map Page and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA symbol. The text will indicate
“TA” followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA traffic, if known.
A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that initially triggered the TA are no
longer present.
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Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-174 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Distance (nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
Table 6-37 TA Descriptive Voice Alerts
SYSTEM TEST
NOTE: GTS 820 traffic surveillance is not available during the system test. Use caution when performing a
system test during flight.
The GTS 820 provides a system test mode to verify the TAS system is operating normally. The test takes ten
seconds to complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols is displayed on the
Traffic Map Page (Figure 6-175). If the system test passes, the voice alert “TAS System Test Passed” is heard,
otherwise the system announces “TAS System Test Failed.” When the system test is complete, the GTS 820
enters Standby Mode.
Testing the traffic system:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Turn the Joystick to set the range to 2/6 nm to make sure full test pattern is shown during test.
4) Select the TEST Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Test Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key.
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Test Mode
Test Mode
Annunciation
Non-Threat
Traffic at
11 o’clock,
Distance 3.6
nm, 1000’
Above, Level
Proximity
Traffic at
1 o’clock,
Distance
3.6 nm,
1000’ Below,
Descending
TA at 9 o’clock,
Distance 2.0
nm, 200’ Below,
Climbing
Figure 6-175 System Test in Progress with Test Pattern
OPERATION
NOTE: The GTS 820 automatically transitions from STANDBY to OPERATE mode eight seconds after takeoff.
The unit also automatically transitions from OPERATE to STANDBY mode 24 seconds after landing.
After power-up, the GTS 820 is in Standby Mode. The GTS 820 must be in Operating Mode for traffic to be
displayed and for TAs to be issued.
Selecting the OPERATE Softkey allows the GTS 820 to switch from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as
necessary. Selecting the STANDBY Softkey forces the unit into Standby Mode.
Switching from operating mode to standby mode:
On the Traffic Page, select the STANDBY Softkey
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Standby Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key.
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Switching from standby mode to operating mode:
On the Traffic Page, select the OPERATE Softkey
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Operate Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key. The GTS 820 switches from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as necessary.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The Traffic Map Page shows surrounding TAS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and
altitude, without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading.
Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 2 to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner of the page.
Traffic
Mode
Traffic Display
Range
Altitude
Mode
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
Traffic Advisory,
500’ Below,
Climbing
“No Bearing”
Traffic (Bearing
Undetermined),
Distance 4.0
nm, 500’ Above,
Climbing
Traffic
Advisory OffScale, 400’
Below, Level
Proximity Traffic,
900’ Above,
Level, Flight ID
Displayed
Non-Threat
Traffic,
Altitude Not
Reported
Figure 6-176 Traffic Map Page
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Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Select the OPERATE Softkey to begin displaying traffic. 'OPERATING' is displayed in the Traffic mode field.
4) Select the STANDBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. 'STANDBY' is displayed in the Traffic
mode field.
5) Turn the Joystick clockwise to display a larger area or counter-clockwise to display a smaller area.
Altitude Display
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which non-threat and proximity traffic is displayed. TAs
occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, select the ALT MODE Softkey.
2) Select one of the following Softkeys:
• ABOVE: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 9000 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• NORMAL: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below
the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• BELOW: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9000 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the Traffic Page, select the BACK Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following (see softkey description in step 2 above):
•
Below
•
Normal
•
Above
•
Unrestricted
3) Select the ENT Softkey.
Flight ID Display
The Flight IDs of other aircraft (when available) can be enabled for display on the Traffic Map Page
(Figure 6-177). When a flight ID is received, it will appear above or below the corresponding traffic symbol
on the Traffic Map Page when this option is enabled.
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Flight ID
Figure 6-177 Traffic Map Page with Flight IDs Enabled
Enabling/Disabling Flight ID Display:
On the Traffic Map Page, select the FLT ID Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘Show Flight IDs’ or ‘Hide Flight IDs’ (choice dependent on current state)
(Figure 6-178).
3) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-178 Traffic Map Page Menu
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Traffic Map Page Display Range
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable with the
Joystick from 2 to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
Changing the display range on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the Joystick.
2) The following range options are available:
•
2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm
•
24 and 40 nm
ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps on the MFD when the unit is operating:
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
• Trip Planning Page
• System Pages
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option
is installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Displaying traffic information (MFD maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Select the MAP Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, a traffic icon is shown to indicate traffic
is enabled for display (Figure 6-179).
Displaying traffic on the Navigation Map
1) Ensure the TAS system is operating. With the Navigation Map displayed, select the MAP Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map as shown in the figure.
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Non-Threat
Traffic
Traffic
Advisory
Proximity
Traffic
Proximity
Traffic
TA Off Scale
Banner
Traffic Icon
“No Bearing”
Traffic Advisory
Figure 6-179 TAS Traffic on the Navigation Map Page
Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-180).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-181).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections (Figure 6-182).
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
- TA ONLY - Displays Traffic Advisories only
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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Figure 6-180 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-181 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-182 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD Inset Map by pressing the INSET Softkey. A traffic map
will appear in heading up orientation. Traffic information can also be overlaid with navigation, topographic
and optional weather data.
Displaying traffic information (PFD Inset Map):
1) Select the INSET Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data on the inset map (TRFC-1).
3) Select the softkey again to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
4) Select the softkey again to remove traffic data.
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SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Mode
TAS System Test
Initiated
TEST
(also shown in white in center of page)
TAS Operating
OPERATING
TAS Standby
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TAS Failed*
FAIL
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
* See Table 6-39 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-38 TAS Modes
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Traffic Map Page
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
Data is being received from the TAS unit, but the
unit is self-reporting a failure
Incorrect data format received from the TAS unit
Table 6-39 TAS Failure Annunciations
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet,
and altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending).
TAS unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly
formatted data)
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-40 TAS Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.11 KTA 870 TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
NOTE: Pilots should be aware of TAS system limitations. TAS systems require transponders of other aircraft
to respond to system interrogations. If the transponders do not respond to interrogations due to phenomena
such as antenna shading or marginal transponder performance, traffic may be displayed intermittently, or
not at all. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude separation data or climb
descent indication. Pilots should remain vigilant for traffic at all times.
NOTE: Refer to the Honeywell® KTA 870 Pilot’s Guide for a detailed discussion of the KTA 870 TAS.
TAS SYMBOLOGY
The Traffic Advisory System (TAS) is designed to help in detection and avoidance of other aircraft. TAS uses
an on-board interrogator-processor and the Mode S transponder for the air-to-air traffic data link. Traffic is
displayed using the symbols shown in Table 6-41.
TAS Symbol
Description
Non-Threat Traffic
Proximity Advisory (PA)
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-41 TAS Symbol Description
A Non-threat Advisory, shown as an open white diamond, indicates that an intruding aircraft is at greater than
±1200 feet relative altitude or the distance is beyond 5 nm.
A Proximity Advisory indicates that the intruding aircraft is within ±1200 feet and is within 5 nm range, but
is still not considered a threat.
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A Traffic Advisory (TA) alerts the crew to a potentially hazardous intruding aircraft. Closing rate, distance,
and vertical separation meet TA criteria. A Traffic Advisory that is beyond the selected display range is indicated
by a half TA symbol at the edge of the screen at the relative bearing of the intruder.
OPERATION
NOTE: The traffic unit may be configured to automatically change from STANDBY to NORMAL mode
after takeoff or from NORMAL to STANDBY mode after landing. Refer to the KTA 870 Pilot's Guide for
additional operating instructions..
Selecting the STANDBY Softkey forces the unit into Standby Mode. Selecting the NORMAL Softkey allows
the KTA 870 to switch from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as necessary.
Switching from standby mode to operating mode:
On the Traffic Page, select the NORMAL Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select Normal Mode.
2) Press the ENT Key to place the KTA 870 in the operating mode.
Switching from operating mode to standby mode:
On the Traffic Page, select the STANDBY Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select Standby Mode.
2) Press the ENT Key to place the KTA 870 in the Standby mode.
System Self Test
1) Set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for display of full traffic test pattern.
2) Select the TEST Softkey.
3) Self test takes approximately eight seconds to complete. When completed successfully, traffic symbols are
displayed and a voice alert “TAS System Test Okay” is heard. In the event that the system test fails, the system
reverts to Standby Mode and a voice alert “TAS System Test Fail” is heard.
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Select the NORMAL Softkey to begin displaying traffic. OPERATING is displayed in the Traffic mode field.
4) Select the ALT MODE Softkey to change the altitude volume.
5) Select the STANDBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. STANDBY is displayed in the Traffic
mode field.
6) Turn the Joystick clockwise to display a larger area or counter-clockwise to display a smaller area.
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Operating
Mode
Altitude
Mode
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
Traffic Advisory,
Aircraft is
500’ Below,
Climbing
Traffic Display
Range Rings
“No Bearing”
Traffic (Bearing
Undetermined),
Distance 4.0
nm, 500’ Above,
Descending
Off Scale Traffic
Advisory, 400’
Below, No
Vertical Trend
Proximity
Traffic, 900’
Above, No
Vertical Trend
Non-Threat Traffic,
Altitude Not
Reported
Figure 6-183 Traffic Map Page
The Traffic Map Page shows surrounding TAS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and
altitude, without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading.
Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 2 to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner.
DISPLAYING TRAFFIC DATA
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps when the KTA 870 unit is operating:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option
is installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Displaying traffic information (maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Select the MAP Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, a traffic icon is shown to indicate TAS is
enabled for display.
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Non-Threat
Traffic
Traffic
Advisory
Proximity
Traffic
Proximity
Traffic
TA Off Scale
Banner
Traffic Icon
“No Bearing”
Traffic Advisory
Figure 6-184 TAS Traffic on Navigation Map
Displaying traffic information (PFD Inset Map):
1) Select the INSET Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data on the inset map (TRFC-1).
3) Select the softkey again to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
4) Select the softkey again to remove traffic data.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
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ALTITUDE DISPLAY
Changing the altitude display mode:
1) On the Traffic Page, select the ALT MODE Softkey.
2) Select one of the following Softkeys:
•
BELOW
•
NORMAL
•
ABOVE
•
UNREST (unrestricted)
3) To return to the Traffic Page, select the BACK Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following:
•
Below
•
Normal
•
Above
•
Unrestricted
3) Press the ENT Key.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE DISPLAY RANGE
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable with the
Joystick from 2 to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
Changing the display range on the Traffic Page:
1) Turn the Joystick.
2) The following range options are available:
496
•
2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm
•
24 and 40 nm
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Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-185).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-186).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections (Figure 6-187).
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/PA - Displays Traffic Alerts and Proximity Advisories
- TA ONLY - Displays Traffic Alerts only
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Figure 6-185 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-186 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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TAS ALERTS
NOTE: Refer to the KTA 870 documentation for information on alerts generated by the TAS equipment.
When the number of TAs on the Traffic Map Page increases from one scan to the next, the following occur:
• A “Traffic, Traffic” voice alert is generated when the first TA is displayed.
• A 'TRAFFIC' Annunciation appears at the top right of the airspeed on the PFD, flashing for 5 seconds and
remaining displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with TA traffic.
• A single “Traffic” voice alert is generated when the number of TAs increases.
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-188 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Mode
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
TAS Self-test Initiated
TEST
(also shown in white in center of page)
TAS Operating
Traffic Display Enabled Icon
(Other Maps)
OPERATING
TAS Standby
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TAS Failed*
FAIL
* See Table 6-43 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-42 TAS Modes
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If the unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Map Page
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
Data is being received from the TAS unit, but the
unit is self-reporting a failure
Incorrect data format received from the TAS unit
Table 6-43 TAS Failure Annunciations
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the
selected display range
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude
separation in hundreds of feet, and altitude trend
arrow (climbing/descending)
TAS unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or
sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-44 TAS Traffic Status Annunciations
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
NOTE: The approved Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) always supersedes this Pilot’s Guide.
The digital Garmin Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) is fully integrated within the G1000 System
avionics architecture. The System Overview section provides a block diagram to support this system description.
AFCS functionality in the Socata TBM850/900 is distributed across the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• GDU 1040A Primary Flight Displays (PFDs) (2)
• GSA 81 AFCS Servos (4)
• GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
• GTA 82 Trim Adapter (1)
• GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Units (IAUs) (2)
• GSM 85 or GSM 86 servo Gearboxes (4)
The Garmin AFCS can be divided into these main operating functions:
• Flight Director (FD) — The Socata TBM850/900 has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU and
referred to as pilot-side and copilot-side. Commands for the selected flight director are displayed on both PFDs.
The flight directors provide:
– Command Bars showing pitch/roll guidance
– Vertical/lateral mode selection and processing
– Autopilot communication
• Autopilot (AP) — Autopilot operation occurs within the pitch, roll, and pitch trim servos and yaw trim
adapter. It also provides servo monitoring and automatic flight control in response to flight director steering
commands, Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) attitude and rate information, and airspeed.
• Yaw Damper (YD) — The yaw servo is self-monitoring and provides Dutch roll damping and turn coordination
in response to yaw rate, roll angle, lateral acceleration, and airspeed.
• Manual Electric Pitch Trim (MEPT) — The pitch trim servo provides manual electric pitch trim capability
when the autopilot is not engaged.
• Manual Electric Yaw Trim (MEYT) — The yaw trim adapter provides manual electric yaw trim capability
when the autopilot is not engaged.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
BASIC AUTOPILOT OPERATION
This section provides an overview for autopilot engagement and disengagement. A more detailed description
follows in Section 7.5.
• Autopilot Engagement — The autopilot may be engaged by pushing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit.
Annunciations regarding the engagement are indicated on the PFD.
• Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director Off — Upon engagement, the autopilot will be set to hold the
current attitude of the airplane, if the flight director was not previously on. In this case, ‘PIT’ and ‘ROL’ will be
annunciated.
• Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director On — If the flight director is on, the autopilot will smoothly
pitch and roll the airplane to capture the FD command bars. The prior flight director modes remain unchanged.
• Autopilot Disengagement — The most common way to disconnect the autopilot is to press and release the
AP DISC Switch, which is located on each control wheel. An autopilot disconnect tone will be heard and
annunciated on the PFD. Other ways to disconnect the autopilot include:
– Pressing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit
– Pressing the GA Switch (located on the throttle.)
– Operating the MEPT Switch (located on the each control wheel)
– Pulling the autopilot circuit breaker
In the event of unexpected autopilot behavior, pressing and holding the AP DISC Switch will disconnect the
autopilot and remove all power to the servos.
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7.1 AFCS CONTROLS
The AFCS Control Unit is positioned above the MFD, and has the following controls:
HDG Key
APR Key
Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode
4
NAV Key
FD Key
5
XFR Key
Selects/deselects Navigation Mode
Activates/deactivates the flight director only
Pressing once turns on the selected flight director in the default vertical and lateral
modes. Pressing again deactivates the flight director and removes the Command
Bars. If the autopilot is engaged, the key is disabled.
Transfers between the pilot and copilot flight directors and controls which flight
director the autopilot is tracking
Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode
Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode
Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode
Adjust the Selected Course (while in VOR, LOC, or OBS Mode) in 1° increments on
the Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) of the corresponding PFD
Press to re-center the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) and return course pointer
directly TO the bearing of the active waypoint/station
Toggles Airspeed Reference between IAS and Mach for Flight Level Change Mode
Adjusts the reference in Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change
modes
Selects/deselects Vertical Path Tracking Mode for Vertical Navigation flight control
Controls the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments (a finer resolution of 10 feet is
available under approach conditions)
Engages/disengages the yaw damper
Engages/disengages the autopilot
Manually selects/deselects Low Bank Mode
Selects/deselects Backcourse Mode
Adjusts the Selected Heading and bug in 1° increments on the HSI (both PFDs)
Press to synchronize the Selected Heading to the current heading on the pilot-side PFD
1
2
3
Selects/deselects Approach Mode
ALT Key
7 VS Key
8 FLC Key
17 CRS Knobs
6
9
SPD Key
11 NOSE UP/DN
Wheel
12 VNV Key
13 ALT SEL Knob
10
14
15
16
18
19
YD Key
AP Key
BANK Key
BC Key
HDG Knob
1
2
3
4
19
18
17
16
5
15
14
6
7
13
12
8
11
10
Annunciator Light
9
Figure 7-1 GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
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The following AFCS controls are located separately from the AFCS Control Unit:
AP DISC Switch
(Autopilot
Disconnect)
CWS Button
(Control Wheel
Steering)
Disengages the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director and interrupts pitch trim
operation
An AP DISC Switch is located on each control wheel.
This switch may be used to acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the
associated aural tone.
While pressed, allows manual control of the aircraft while the autopilot is engaged and
synchronizes the flight director’s Command Bars with the current aircraft pitch (if
not in a Vertical Navigation, Glideslope, or Glidepath Mode) and roll (if in Roll Hold
Mode)
A CWS Button is located on each control wheel.
GA Switch
(Go Around)
Upon release of the CWS Button, the flight director may establish new pitch and roll
references, depending on the current vertical and lateral modes. CWS operation
details are discussed in the respective mode sections of this manual.
Disengages the autopilot and selects flight director Takeoff (on ground) or Go Around
(in air) Mode
If an approach procedure is loaded this switch also activates the missed approach when
the selected navigation source is GPS or when the navigation source is VOR/LOC and
a valid frequency has been tuned.
The GA Switch is located on the throttle.
MEPT Switch
Used to command manual electric pitch trim. An MEPT Switch is located on each
(Manual Electric control wheel.
Pitch Trim)
The TBM 850 uses a two-piece switch, split into left and right sides. On the left is
the ARM Switch and on the right is the UP/DN Switch. The UP/DN Switch, when
operated simultaneously with the ARM Switch, adjusts pitch trim down (forward)
and up (rearward). Pushing the ARM Switch disengages the autopilot, if currently
engaged, but does not affect yaw damper operation. The ARM Switch may be used
to acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the associated aural tone.
If either side of the switch is active separately for more than three seconds, MEPT
function is disabled and ‘PTRM’ (Pitch Trim Failure) is displayed as the AFCS Status
Annunciation on the PFDs. The function remains disabled until both sides of the
switch are activated.
The TBM 900 uses a four direction switch. Pushing down on the switch and
operating the switch forward and backward adjusts pitch trim down (forward) and
up (rearward). Pushing the switch in either direction disengages the autopilot, if
currently engaged, but does not affect yaw damper operation.
Used to command manual electric yaw trim
MEYT Switch
(Manual Electric The TBM 850 has an MEYT Switch located on each control wheel.
Yaw Trim)
The TBM 900 uses a four direction switch. Operating the switch left and right adjusts
yaw trim left or right.
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7.2 FLIGHT DIRECTOR OPERATION
The flight director function provides pitch and roll commands to the AFCS and displays them on the PFDs.
With the flight director active, the aircraft can be hand-flown to follow the path shown by the Command Bars.
Maximum commanded pitch (-15°, +25°) and roll (25°) angles, vertical acceleration, and roll rate are limited to
values established during AFCS certification. The flight director also provides commands to the autopilot.
ACTIVATING THE FLIGHT DIRECTOR
An initial press of a key listed in Table 7-1 (when the flight director is not active) activates the pilot-side flight
director in the listed modes. The flight director may be turned off and the Command Bars removed from the
displays by pressing the FD Key again. The FD Key is disabled when the autopilot is engaged.
Control Pressed
Modes Selected
ALT Key
VS Key
VNV Key
Lateral
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Takeoff (on ground)
Go Around (in air)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
NAV Key
Navigation**
BC Key
Backcourse***
APR Key
Approach**
HDG Key
Heading Select
FD Key
AP Key
CWS Button
GA Switch
ROL
ROL
ROL
TO
GA
ROL
ROL
ROL
GPS
VOR
LOC
BC
GPS
VOR
LOC
HDG
Vertical
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Takeoff (on ground)
TO
Go Around (in air)
GA
Altitude Hold
ALT
Vertical Speed
VS
Vertical Path Tracking* VPTH
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
*Valid VNV flight plan must be entered before VNV Key press activates flight director.
**The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS
course before NAV or APR Key press activates flight director.
***The selected navigation receiver must have a valid LOC signal before BC Key press
activates flight director.
Table 7-1 Flight Director Activation
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AFCS STATUS BOX
Flight director mode annunciations are displayed on the PFDs when the flight director is active. Flight
director selection and autopilot and yaw damper statuses are shown in the center of the AFCS Status Box.
Lateral flight director modes are displayed on the left and vertical on the right. Armed modes are displayed in
white and active in green.
Lateral Modes
Armed
Active
Yaw
Autopilot Damper
Status
Status
Flight Director Active
Indicator Arrow
Vertical Modes
Mode
Reference
Armed
AFCS Status Box
Selected
Altitude
Command
Bars
Vertical
Speed
Reference
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Figure 7-2 PFD AFCS Display
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FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODES
Flight director modes are normally selected independently for the pitch and roll axes. Unless otherwise
specified, all mode keys are alternate action (i.e., press on, press off). In the absence of specific mode selection,
the flight director reverts to the default pitch and/or roll mode(s). Mode keys on the AFCS controller are
accompanied by annunciator lights (Figure 7-1) which are illuminated when their respective modes are armed
or active.
Armed modes are annunciated in white and active in green in the AFCS Status Box. Under normal operation,
when the control for the active flight director mode is pressed, the flight director reverts to the default mode(s)
for the axis(es). Automatic transition from armed to active mode is indicated by the white armed mode
annunciation moving to the green active mode field and flashing for 10 seconds.
If the information required to compute a flight director mode becomes invalid or unavailable, the flight
director automatically reverts to the default mode for that axis. A flashing yellow mode annunciation and
annunciator light indicate loss of sensor (ADC) or navigation data (VOR, LOC, GPS, VNV, SBAS) required to
compute commands. When such a loss occurs, the system automatically begins to roll the wings level (enters
Roll Hold Mode) or maintain the pitch angle (enters Pitch Hold Mode), depending on the affected axis. The
flashing annunciation stops when the affected mode key is pressed or another mode for the axis is selected. If
after 10 seconds no action is taken, the flashing annunciation stops.
Figure 7-3 Loss of VOR Signal
The flight director is automatically disabled if the attitude information required to compute the default flight
director modes becomes invalid or unavailable.
SWITCHING FLIGHT DIRECTORS
The AFCS in the Socata TBM850/900 has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU. The autopilot
follows the selected flight director only, indicated by an arrow pointing toward either the pilot or copilot side, in
the center of the AFCS Status Box. Flight directors may be switched by pressing the XFR Key. The annunciator
light arrow for the selected flight director is also illuminated beside the XFR Key. When the flight directors are
switched, the vertical and lateral modes revert to default.
Pilot-side Flight Director
Copilot-side Flight Director
Figure 7-4 Flight Director Selection Indications
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COMMAND BARS
Upon activation of the flight director, Command Bars are displayed in magenta on the PFDs as a single-cue.
The Command Bars do not override the (yellow) Aircraft Symbol. The single-cue Command Bars (Figure 7-5)
move together vertically to indicate pitch commands and bank left or right to indicate roll commands.
Command Bars
Aircraft Symbol
Figure 7-5 Single-cue Command Bars
If the attitude information being sent to the flight director becomes invalid or unavailable, the Command Bars
are removed from the display. The flight director Command Bars also disappear if the pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚
or bank exceeds 65˚.Level Mode
LEVEL MODE
Level Mode is coupled pitch and roll modes and is annunciated as both the vertical and lateral modes when
active. When engaged the autopilot and Yaw Damper (if the autopilot is disengaged and the aircraft is within
the autopilot engagement limitations) in level vertical and lateral modes. Level Mode does not track altitude or
heading. When engaged all armed and active modes are cancelled and the autopilot and flight director revert to
LVL mode for pitch and roll. While in level mode, all other modes are available by pressing the corresponding
button.
Level mode becomes active as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the Additional
Features section for a detailed discussion of the ESP feature.
Pitch
Roll
Command Bars Indicate
Level with the Horizon
Figure 7-6 Level Mode Annunciation
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7.3 VERTICAL MODES
Table 7-2 lists the vertical modes with their corresponding controls and annunciations. The mode reference is
displayed next to the active mode annunciation for Altitude Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes.
The NOSE UP/DN Wheel can be used to change the vertical mode reference while operating under Pitch Hold,
Vertical Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode. Increments of change and acceptable ranges of values for each of
these references using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel are also listed in the table.
Vertical Mode
Description
Holds the current aircraft pitch
attitude; may be used to climb/
descend to the Selected Altitude
Selected Altitude Capture
Captures the Selected Altitude
Holds the current Altitude
Altitude Hold
Reference
Maintains the current aircraft
vertical speed; may be used to
Vertical Speed
climb/descend to the Selected
Altitude
Maintains the current aircraft
Flight Level Change, IAS Hold
airspeed (in IAS or Mach)
while the aircraft is climbing/
Flight Level Change, Mach Hold descending to the Selected
Altitude
Captures and tracks descent legs
Vertical Path Tracking
of an active vertical profile
Captures the Vertical Navigation
VNV Target Altitude Capture
(VNV) Target Altitude
Captures and tracks the WAAS
Glidepath
glidepath on approach
Captures and tracks the ILS
Glideslope
glideslope on approach
Commands a constant pitch
Takeoff
angle and wings level on the
ground in preparation for takeoff
Disengages the autopilot and
Go Around***
commands a constant pitch
angle and wings level in the air
Pitch Hold
Control Annunciation
(default)
PIT
*
ALTS
Reference
Range
Reference
Change
Increment
-15° to
+25°
0.5°
ALT Key ALT nnnnn ft
VS Key
VS
nnnn fpm
-4000 to
+3000 fpm
100 fpm
FLC
nnn kt
80 to
265 kts
1 kt
FLC
M .nnn
M 0.20 to
0.69
M 0.01
FLC Key
VNV
Key
VPTH
**
ALTV
APR
Key
GP
GS
TO
7.5° (TBM 850)
10° (TBM 900)
GA
7.5° (TBM 850)
10° (TBM 900)
GA
Switch
* ALTS armed automatically when PIT, VS, FLC, TO, or GA active, and under VPTH when Selected Altitude is to be captured
instead of VNV Target Altitude
** ALTV armed automatically under VPTH when VNV Target Altitude is to be captured instead of Selected Altitude
*** If the Coupled Go Around Option is installed then the autopilot remains engaged.
Table 7-2 Flight Director Vertical Modes
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
PITCH HOLD MODE (PIT)
When the flight director is activated (the FD Key is pressed) or switched (the XFR Key is pressed), Pitch Hold
Mode is selected by default. Pitch Hold Mode is indicated as the active vertical mode by the ‘PIT’ annunciation.
This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter), since
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Pitch Hold Mode is activated.
In Pitch Hold Mode, the flight director maintains a constant pitch attitude, the pitch reference. The pitch
reference is set to the aircraft pitch attitude at the moment of mode selection. If the aircraft pitch attitude
exceeds the flight director pitch command limitations, the flight director commands a pitch angle equal to the
nose-up/down limit.
When operating in Pitch Hold Mode, the pitch reference can be adjusted by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new pitch reference, then releasing the CWS
Button
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Command Bars Maintain
Desired Pitch Reference
Figure 7-7 Pitch Hold Mode
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SELECTED ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTS)
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed with activation of the following modes:
• Pitch Hold
• Go Around
• Vertical Speed
• Vertical Path Tracking (if the Selected Altitude is to
be captured instead of the VNV Target Altitude)
• Flight Level Change
The white ‘ALTS’ annunciation indicates Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed (see Figure 7-6 for example).
The ALT SEL Knob is used to set the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter) until Selected Altitude
Capture Mode becomes active.
As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to Selected Altitude
Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed (Figure 7-7). This automatic transition is indicated by the green
‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation. The
Selected Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTS’ annunciation.
At 50 feet from the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from Selected Altitude
Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and holds the Selected Altitude (shown as the Altitude Reference). As Altitude
Hold Mode becomes active, the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes
green for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic transition.
Altitude Reference
(in this case, equal to
Selected Altitude)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-8 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in Selected Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Use of the ALT SEL Knob to change the Selected Altitude while Selected Altitude Capture Mode is active
causes the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode with Selected Altitude Capture Mode armed for the new
Selected Altitude.
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ALTITUDE HOLD MODE (ALT)
Altitude Hold Mode can be activated by pressing the ALT Key; the flight director maintains the current aircraft
altitude (to the nearest 10 feet) as the Altitude Reference. The flight director’s Altitude Reference, shown in the
AFCS Status Box, is independent of the Selected Altitude, displayed above the Altimeter. Altitude Hold Mode
active is indicated by a green ‘ALT’ annunciation in the AFCS Status Box.
Altitude Hold Mode is automatically armed when the flight director is in Selected Altitude Capture Mode (see
Figure 7-7). Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically transitions to Altitude Hold Mode when the altitude
error is less than 50 feet. In this case, the Selected Altitude becomes the flight director’s Altitude Reference.
NOTE: Turning the ALT SEL Knob while in Altitude Hold Mode changes the Selected Altitude, but not the
flight director’s Altitude Reference, and does not cancel the mode.
With the CWS Button depressed, the aircraft can be hand-flown to a new Altitude Reference. When the CWS
Button is released at the desired altitude, the new altitude is established as the Altitude Reference.
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Altitude
Reference
Selected
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
to Maintain Altitude Reference
Figure 7-9 Altitude Hold Mode
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VERTICAL SPEED MODE (VS)
In Vertical Speed Mode, the flight director acquires and maintains a Vertical Speed Reference. Current aircraft
vertical speed (to the nearest 100 fpm) becomes the Vertical Speed Reference at the moment of Vertical Speed
Mode activation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the
Altimeter) since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Vertical Speed Mode is selected.
When Vertical Speed Mode is activated by pressing the VS Key, ‘VS’ is annunciated in green in the AFCS Status
Box along with the Vertical Speed Reference. The Vertical Speed Reference is also displayed above the Vertical
Speed Indicator. A Vertical Speed Reference Bug corresponding to the Vertical Speed Reference is shown on
the indicator.
The Vertical Speed Reference (shown both in the AFCS Status Box and above the Vertical Speed Indicator)
may be changed by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Vertical Speed Reference, then releasing the
CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
Vertical Speed
Mode Active
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb to
Attain Vertical Speed Reference
Figure 7-10 Vertical Speed Hold Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT LEVEL CHANGE MODE (FLC)
NOTE: The Selected Altitude should be set before selecting Flight Level Change Mode.
Flight Level Change Mode is selected by pressing the FLC Key. This mode acquires and maintains the
Airspeed Reference (in IAS or Mach) while climbing or descending to the Selected Altitude (shown above
the Altimeter). When Flight Level Change Mode is active, the flight director continuously monitors Selected
Altitude, airspeed, Mach, and altitude.
The Airspeed Reference is set to the current airspeed upon mode activation. Flight Level Change Mode is
indicated by a green ‘FLC’ annunciation beside the Airspeed Reference in the AFCS Status Box. The Airspeed
Reference is also displayed directly above the Airspeed Indicator, along with a bug corresponding to the Airspeed
Reference along the tape.
Engine power must be adjusted to allow the autopilot to fly the aircraft at a pitch attitude corresponding
to the desired flight profile (climb or descent) while maintaining the Airspeed Reference. The flight director
maintains the current altitude until either engine power or the Airspeed Reference are adjusted and does not
allow the aircraft to climb or descend away from the Selected Altitude.
Flight Level
Change Mode
Active
Airspeed
Reference
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Airspeed
Reference
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to attain Selected Altitude
Figure 7-11 Flight Level Change Mode (IAS)
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The Airspeed Reference (shown in both the AFCS Status Box and above the Airspeed Indicator) may be
adjusted by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Airspeed Reference, then releasing the CWS
Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
Airspeed Reference units can be manually toggled between IAS and Mach units using the SPD Key. When
the FLC Airspeed Reference is displayed in Mach, the Airspeed Reference Bug is displayed on the Airspeed
Indicator at the IAS corresponding to the selected Mach target speed and the current Mach number is shown
below the Airspeed Indicator.
Flight Level
Change Mode
Active
Airspeed
Reference
(Mach)
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Airspeed
Reference
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Current
Mach
Number
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to Attain Selected Altitude
Figure 7-12 Flight Level Change Mode (Mach)
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VERTICAL NAVIGATION MODES (VPTH, ALTV)
NOTE: VNV is disabled when parallel track or Dead Reckoning Mode is active. Refer to the Flight Management
Section for more information on VNV flight plans.
NOTE: The Selected Altitude takes precedence over any other vertical constraints.
Vertical Navigation (VNV) flight control is available for enroute/terminal cruise and descent operations when
VNV flight planning is available. Conditions for availability include, but are not limited to:
• The selected navigation source is GPS.
• A VNV flight plan (with at least one altitude-constrained waypoint) or vertical direct-to is active.
• VNV is enabled (VNV ENBL Softkey pressed on the MFD).
• Crosstrack error is valid and within certain limits.
• Desired/actual track are valid or track angle error is within certain limits.
• The VNV Target Altitude of the active waypoint is no more than 250 ft above the current aircraft altitude.
The flight director may be armed for VNV at any time, but no target altitudes are captured during a climb.
The Command Bars provide vertical profile guidance based on specified altitudes (entered manually or loaded
from the database) at waypoints in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to. The appropriate VNV flight control
modes are sequenced by the flight director to follow the path defined by the vertical profile. Upon reaching
the last waypoint in the VNV flight plan, the flight director transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and cancels any
armed VNV modes.
VERTICAL PATH TRACKING MODE (VPTH)
NOTE: If another vertical mode key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is selected, Vertical Path
Tracking Mode reverts to armed.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The
autopilot guides the aircraft back to the descent path upon release of the CWS Button.
When a vertical profile (VNV flight plan) is active and the VNV Key is pressed, Vertical Path Tracking
Mode is armed in preparation for descent path capture. ‘VPTH’ (or ‘/V’ when Glidepath or Glideslope Mode
is concurrently armed) is annunciated in white in addition to previously armed modes. If applicable, the
appropriate altitude capture mode is armed for capture of the next VNV Target Altitude (ALTV) or the Selected
Altitude (ALTS), whichever is greater.
Figure 7-13 Vertical Path Tracking Armed Annunciations
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Prior to descent path interception, the Selected Altitude must be set below the current aircraft altitude
by at least 75 feet. For the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path Tracking Mode,
acknowledgment is required within five minutes of descent path interception by:
• Pressing the VNV Key
• Adjusting the Selected Altitude
If acknowledgment is not received within 1 minute of descent path interception, the white ‘VPTH’
annunciation starts to flash. Flashing continues until acknowledged or the descent path is intercepted. If
the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed and the
descent is not captured.
In conjunction with the “TOD [top of descent] within 1 minute” annunciation in the PFD Navigation Status
Box and the “Vertical track” voice message, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, vertical deviation, and
vertical speed required) appear on the PFDs in magenta (Figure 7-13).
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Vertical Path Tracking
Armed, (Flashing Indicates
Acknowledgment Required)
VNV Target
Altitude
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Enroute
Phase of
Flight
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Figure 7-14 Vertical Path Capture
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When a descent leg is captured (i.e., vertical deviation becomes valid), Vertical Path Tracking becomes
active and tracks the descent profile (Figure 7-14). An altitude capture mode (‘ALTS’ or ‘ALTV’) is armed as
appropriate.
Vertical Path
Tracking Active
VNV Target Altitude
Capture Armed
VNV Target
Altitude
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Terminal
Phase of
Flight
Command Bars Indicate Descent to
Maintain Required Vertical Speed
Required
Vertical
Speed
Indication
(RVSI)
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
Figure 7-15 Vertical Path Tracking Mode
If the altimeter barometric setting is adjusted while Vertical Path Tracking is active, the flight director
increases/decreases the descent rate by up to 500 fpm to re-establish the aircraft on the descent path (without
commanding a climb). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNV vertical
deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to reestablish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target Altitude,
the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
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Automatic Reversion to Pitch Hold Mode
Several situations can occur while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active which cause the flight director to
revert to Pitch Hold Mode:
• Vertical deviation exceeds 200 feet during an overspeed condition.
• Vertical deviation experiences a discontinuity that both exceeds 200 feet in magnitude and results in the
vertical deviation exceeding 200 feet in magnitude. Such discontinuities are usually caused by flight plan
changes that affect the vertical profile.
• Vertical deviation becomes invalid (the Vertical Deviation Indicator is removed from the PFD).
• A display enters Reversionary Mode (this does not apply to an active vertical direct-to).
Unless VNV is disabled, Vertical Path Tracking Mode and the appropriate altitude capture mode become
armed following the reversion to Pitch Hold Mode to allow for possible profile recapture.
Non-Path Descents
Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes can also be used to fly non-path descents
while VNV flight control is selected. If the VS or FLC Key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is
selected, Vertical Path Tracking Mode reverts to armed along with the appropriate altitude capture mode to
allow profile re-capture.
Figure 7-16 Flight Level Change VNV Non-Path Descent
To prevent immediate profile re-capture, the following must be satisfied:
• At least 10 seconds have passed since the non-path transition was initiated
• Vertical deviation from the profile has exceeded 250 feet, but is now less than 200 feet
Pressing the VNV Key twice re-arms Vertical Path Tracking for immediate profile re-capture.
VNV TARGET ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTV)
NOTE: Armed VNV Target Altitude and Selected Altitude capture modes are mutually exclusive. However,
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed implicitly (not annunciated) whenever VNV Target Altitude Capture
Mode is armed.
VNV Target Altitude Capture is analogous to Selected Altitude Capture Mode and is armed automatically
after the VNV Key is pressed and the next VNV Target Altitude is to be intercepted before the Selected
Altitude. The annunciation ‘ALTV’ indicates that the VNV Target Altitude is to be captured. VNV Target
Altitudes are shown in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to, and can be entered manually or loaded
from a database (see the Flight Management Section for details). At the same time as “TOD within 1 minute”
is annunciated in the Navigation Status Box, the active VNV Target Altitude is displayed above the Vertical
Speed Indicator (see Figure 7-13).
NOTE: When the Selected Altitude is set to the VNV Target Altitude, Selected Altitude Capture Mode (ALTS)
will be armed even though the altitude value is part of the active VNAV flight plan.
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As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to VNV Target
Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic transition is indicated by the green
‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT” annunciation. The
VNV Target Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTV’ annunciation and remains displayed
above the Vertical Speed Indicator. The Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) is removed once VNV
Target Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
At 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from VNV Target
Altitude Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and tracks the level leg. As Altitude Hold Mode becomes active, the
white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes green for 10 seconds to indicate
the automatic transition. The flight director automatically arms Vertical Path Tracking, allowing upcoming
descent legs to be captured and subsequently tracked.
Altitude Reference (In
This Case, Equal To
VNV Altitude Target)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-17 VNV Altitude Capture
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Changing the current VNV Target Altitude while VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode is active causes the
flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode. Vertical Path Tracking and the appropriate altitude capture mode
are armed in preparation to capture the new VNV Target Altitude or the Selected Altitude, depending on
which altitude is to be intercepted first.
VNV target altitudes can be changed while editing the active flight plan (see the Flight Management Section
for details).
GLIDEPATH MODE (GP)
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glidepath Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glidepath upon release of the CWS Button.
Glidepath Mode is used to track the WAAS-based glidepath. When Glidepath Mode is armed, ‘GP’ is
annunciated in white in the AFCS Status Box.
Selecting Glidepath Mode:
1) Ensure a GPS approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LP+V, LNAV+V) is loaded into the active flight
plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan (cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
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NOTE: Some RNAV (GPS) approaches provide a vertical descent angle as an aid in flying a stabilized
approach. These approaches are NOT considered Approaches with Vertical Guidance (APV). Approaches
that are annunciated on the HSI as LNAV or LNAV+V are should be flown to an MDA, until visual with the
landing surface, even though vertical glidepath (GP) information may be provided.
WARNING: When flying an LNAV approach (with vertical descent angle) with the autopilot coupled, the
aircraft will not level off at the MDA even if the MDA is set in the altitude preselect.
Upon reaching the glidepath, the flight director transitions to Glidepath Mode and begins to capture and
track the glidepath.
Figure 7-18 Glidepath Mode Armed
Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured:
• The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF).
• Vertical deviation is valid.
• The CDI is at less than full scale deviation
• Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
GPS Approach
Mode Active
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
LNAV/VNAV
Approach
Active
Glidepath
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate
Descent on Glidepath
Figure 7-19 Glidepath Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
GLIDESLOPE MODE (GS)
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glideslope Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glideslope upon release of the CWS Button.
Glideslope Mode is available for LOC/ILS approaches to capture and track the glideslope. When Glideslope
Mode is armed (annunciated as ‘GS’ in white), LOC Approach Mode is armed as the lateral flight director
mode.
Selecting Glideslope Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
Figure 7-20 Glideslope Mode Armed
Once LOC is the navigation source, the localizer and glideslope can be captured. Upon reaching the glideslope,
the flight director transitions to Glideslope Mode and begins to capture and track the glideslope.
Active ILS
Frequency Tuned
NAV2 (localizer) is Selected
Navigation Source
Approach
Mode Active
Glideslope
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate Descent
on Localizer/Glideslope Path
Figure 7-21 Glideslope Mode
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TAKEOFF (TO) AND GO AROUND (GA) MODES
In Takeoff and Go Around modes, the flight director commands a constant set pitch attitude. The GA
Switch is used to select both modes. The mode entered by the flight director depends on whether the aircraft
is on the ground. Selected Altitude Capture Mode (ALTS) is automatically armed when the aircraft is at least
400 feet below the Selected altitude at the time Takeoff or Go Around Mode is selected.
Takeoff Mode provides an attitude reference during rotation and takeoff. This mode can be selected only
while on the ground by pushing the GA Switch. The flight director Command Bars assume a wings-level,
pitch-up attitude. Autopilot engagement while Takeoff Mode is active is inhibited while the aircraft is on the
ground.
Pressing the GA Switch while in the air activates the flight director in a wings-level, pitch-up attitude,
allowing the execution of a go around or a missed approach, if an approach was activated. Selecting Go
Around Mode will disengage the autopilot, unless the Coupled Go Around Option is installed. Attempts to
modify the aircraft attitude (i.e., with the NOSE UP/DN Wheel or CWS Button) result in reversion to Pitch
Hold Mode.
Go Around Mode Active
Autopilot Disconnect Annunciation
Flashes Yellow for 5 seconds
Command Bars Indicate Climb
Figure 7-22 Go Around Mode
Takeoff Mode Active
Figure 7-23 Takeoff Mode
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7.4 LATERAL MODES
The following table relates each AFCS lateral mode to its respective control and annunciation. Refer to the
vertical modes section for information regarding Takeoff and Go Around modes.
NOTE: The AFCS may generate a lower bank angle than the maximum roll command limit in degrees
indicated in table 7-3 by the amount needed to produce a turn rate equal to or less than standard rate.
Lateral Mode
Description
Control Annunciation
Holds the current aircraft roll
attitude or rolls the wings level,
(default)
depending on the commanded
bank angle
Limits the maximum commanded BANK
roll angle
Key
Captures and tracks the Selected HDG
Heading
Key
Roll Hold
Low Bank
Heading Select **
Navigation, GPS **
Navigation, VOR Enroute Capture/Track **
Navigation, LOC Capture/Track
(No Glideslope)
Captures and tracks the selected
navigation source (GPS, VOR,
LOC)
NAV
Key
*
15°
HDG
25°
GPS
25°
25° Capture
10° Track
25° Capture
10° Track
25° Capture
10° Track
25°
25° Capture
10° Track
25° Capture
10° Track
VOR
BC
GPS
Approach, VOR Capture/Track
Approach, LOC Capture/Track
(Glideslope Mode automatically armed)
Go Around***
25°
LOC
Approach, GPS
Takeoff
ROL
Captures and tracks a localizer
BC Key
signal for backcourse approaches
Backcourse Capture/Track
Captures and tracks the selected
navigation source (GPS, VOR, APR Key
LOC)
Commands a constant pitch angle
and wings level on the ground in
preparation for takeoff
Disengages the autopilot and
commands a constant pitch angle
and wings level in the air
Maximum Roll
Command Limit
VAPP
LOC
TO
Wings Level
GA
Wings Level
GA
Switch
* No annunciation appears in the AFCS Status Box. The acceptable bank angle range is indicated in green along the Roll
Scale of the Attitude Indicator.
** The Heading, Navigation GPS and Navigation VOR mode maximum roll command limit will be limited to the Low Bank
mode value if it is engaged.
*** If the Coupled Go Around Option is installed then the autopilot remains engaged.
Table 7-3 Flight Director Lateral Modes
The CWS Button does not change lateral references for Heading Select, Navigation, Backcourse, or Approach
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading/Course upon release of the CWS Button.
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ROLL HOLD MODE (ROL)
NOTE: If Roll Hold Mode is activated as a result of a mode reversion, the flight director rolls wings level.
When the flight director is activated or switched, Roll Hold Mode is selected by default. This mode is
annunciated as ‘ROL’ in the AFCS Status Box. The current aircraft bank angle is held, subject to the bank angle
condition.
Figure 7-24 Roll Hold Mode Annunciation
Bank Angle
< 6°
6 to 30°
> 30°
Flight Director Response
Rolls wings level
Maintains current aircraft roll attitude
Limits bank to 30°
Table 7-4 Roll Hold Mode Responses
The roll reference can be changed by pressing the CWS Button, establishing the desired bank angle, then
releasing the CWS Button.
LOW BANK MODE
When in Low Bank Mode, the flight director limits the maximum commanded roll angle to 15°. Low bank
arc limits are displayed in green along the Roll Scale.
Low Bank Mode can be manually selected/deselected by pressing the BANK Key while in Heading Select
or Navigation Modes (GPS and VOR). Low Bank Mode is activated automatically climbing above 25,000 ft
(FL250), and deactivated when descending below 25,000 ft. The annunciator light next to the BANK Key
illuminates while Low Bank Mode is selected.
Low Bank Arc
Figure 7-25 Low Bank Mode Limits
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HEADING SELECT MODE (HDG)
Heading Select Mode is activated by pressing the HDG Key. Heading Select Mode acquires and maintains
the Selected Heading. The Selected Heading is shown by a cyan bug on the HSI and in the box to the upper
left of the HSI.
NOTE: Pressing the HDG Knob synchronizes the Selected Heading to the current heading.
The Selected Heading is adjusted using the HDG Knob. Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the
aircraft does not change the Selected Heading. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading
upon release of the CWS Button.
Turns are commanded in the same direction as Selected Heading Bug movement, even if the bug is turned
more than 180° from the present heading (e.g., a 270° turn to the right). However, Selected Heading changes
of more than 330° at a time result in turn reversals.
Heading Select
Mode Active
Selected
Heading
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
Selected
Heading
Bug
Command Bars Track
Selected Heading
Figure 7-26 Heading Select Mode
NAVIGATION MODES (GPS, VOR, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
flight director to enter Navigation Mode.
Pressing the NAV Key selects Navigation Mode. Navigation Mode acquires and tracks the selected navigation
source (GPS, VOR, LOC). The flight director follows GPS roll steering commands when GPS is the selected
navigation source. When the navigation source is VOR or LOC, the flight director creates roll steering commands
from the Selected Course and deviation. Navigation Mode can also be used to fly non-precision GPS and LOC
approaches where vertical guidance is not required.
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If the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) shows greater than one dot when the NAV Key is pressed, the selected
mode is armed. If the CDI is less than one dot, Navigation Mode is automatically captured when the NAV Key
is pressed. The armed annunciation appears in white to the left of the active lateral mode.
Figure 7-27 GPS Navigation Mode Armed
When the CDI has automatically switched from GPS to LOC during a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation
Mode remains active, providing GPS steering guidance until the localizer signal is captured. LOC Navigation
Mode is armed automatically when the navigation source switch takes place if the APR Key is not pressed prior
to the automatic source switch.
If Navigation Mode is active and either of the following occur, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode
(wings rolled level):
• Different VOR tuned while in VOR Navigation Mode (VOR Navigation Mode reverts to armed)
• Navigation source manually switched (with the CDI Softkey)
• During a LOC/ILS approach, the FAF is crossed while in GPS Navigation Mode after the automatic navigation
source switch from GPS to LOC
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot side,
CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in Navigation
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS flight plan) when the CWS Button
is released.
GPS Navigation
Mode Active
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
Selected
Course
Command Bars Indicate Left Turn
to Track GPS Course and Climb to
Intercept Selected Altitude
Figure 7-28 Navigation Mode
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APPROACH MODES (GPS, VAPP, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
flight director to enter Approach Mode.
Approach Mode is activated when the APR Key is pressed. Approach Mode acquires and tracks the selected
navigation source (GPS, VOR, or LOC), depending on loaded approach. This mode uses the selected navigation
receiver deviation and desired course inputs to fly the approach. Pressing the APR Key when the CDI is greater
than one dot arms the selected approach mode (annunciated in white to the left of the active lateral mode). If
the CDI is less than one dot, the LOC is automatically captured when the APR Key is pressed.
VOR Approach Mode (VAPP) provides greater sensitivity for signal tracking than VOR Navigation Mode.
Selecting VOR Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid VOR frequency is tuned
2) Ensure that VOR is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
When GPS Approach Mode is armed, Glidepath Mode is also armed.
Selecting GPS Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a GPS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan
(cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Figure 7-29 GPS Approach Mode Armed
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LOC Approach Mode allows the autopilot to fly a LOC/ILS approach with a glideslope. When LOC Approach
Mode is armed, Glideslope Mode is also armed automatically. LOC captures are inhibited if the difference
between aircraft heading and localizer course exceeds 105°.
Selecting LOC Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
If the following occurs, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level):
• Approach Mode is active and a Vectors-To-Final is activated
• Approach Mode is active and Navigation source is manually switched
• During a LOC/ILS approach GPS Navigation Mode is active and the FAF is crossed after the automatic
navigation source switch from GPS to LOC
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Approach Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS flight plan) when the
CWS Button is released.
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BACKCOURSE MODE (BC)
NOTE: When making a backcourse approach, set the Selected Course to the localizer front course.
Backcourse Mode captures and tracks a localizer signal in the backcourse direction. The mode may be selected
by pressing the BC Key. Backcourse Mode is armed if the CDI is greater than one dot when the mode is selected.
If the CDI is less than one dot, Backcourse Mode is automatically captured when the BC Key is pressed. The flight
director creates roll steering commands from the Selected Course and deviation when in Backcourse Mode.
Backcourse
Mode Active
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
LOC2 is Selected Navigation Source
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
Figure 7-30 Backcourse Mode
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected Course
is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot side, CRS2 for
the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not reset any reference data while in Backcourse
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course when the CWS Button is released.
INTERCEPTING AND FLYING A DME ARC
The AFCS will intercept and track a DME arc that is part of the active flight plan provided that GPS Navigation
Mode is engaged, GPS is the active navigation source on the CDI, and the DME arc segment is the active flight plan
leg. It is important to note that automatic navigation of DME arcs is based on GPS. Thus, even if the APR key is
pressed and LOC or VOR Approach Mode is armed prior to reaching the Initial Approach Fix (IAF), Approach
Mode will not activate until the arc segment is completed.
If the pilot decides to intercept the arc at a location other than the published IAF (i.e. ATC provides vectors to
intercept the arc) and subsequently selects Heading Mode or Roll Mode, the AFCS will not automatically intercept
or track the arc unless the pilot activates the arc leg of the flight plan and arms GPS Navigation Mode. The
AFCS will not intercept and fly a DME arc before reaching an IAF that defines the beginning of the arc segment.
Likewise, if at any point while established on the DME arc the pilot deselects GPS Navigation Mode, the AFCS will
no longer track the arc.
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7.5 AUTOPILOT AND YAW DAMPER OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the POH for specific instructions regarding emergency procedures.
The Socata TBM850/900 autopilot and yaw damper operate the flight control surface servos to provide automatic
flight control. The autopilot controls the aircraft pitch and roll attitudes following commands received from the
flight director. Pitch and yaw autotrim provide trim commands to the pitch trim servo and yaw trim adapter to
relieve any sustained effort required by the pitch and yaw servos, respectively. Autopilot operation is independent
of the yaw damper for the Socata TBM850/900.
The yaw damper reduces Dutch roll tendencies and coordinates turns. It can operate independently of the
autopilot and may be used during normal hand-flight maneuvers. Yaw rate commands are limited to 6 deg/sec
by the yaw damper.
FLIGHT CONTROL
Pitch and roll commands are provided to the servos based on the active flight director modes. Yaw damping
is provided by the yaw servo. Servo motor control limits the maximum servo speed and torque. The servo
gearboxes are equipped with slip-clutches set to certain values. This allows the servos to be overridden in case
of an emergency.
PITCH AXIS AND TRIM
The autopilot pitch axis uses pitch rate to stabilize the aircraft pitch attitude during flight director maneuvers.
Flight director pitch commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with pitch damper control, and sent
to the pitch servo motor. The pitch servo measures the output effort (torque) and provides this signal to the
pitch trim servo. The pitch trim servo commands the motor to reduce the average pitch servo effort.
When the autopilot is not engaged, the pitch trim servo may be used to provide manual electric pitch
trim (MEPT). This allows the aircraft to be trimmed using a control wheel switch rather than the trim
wheel. Manual trim commands are generated only when both halves of the MEPT Switch are operated
simultaneously. Trim speeds are scheduled with airspeed to provide more consistent response.
ROLL AXIS
The autopilot roll axis uses roll rate to stabilize aircraft roll attitude during flight director maneuvers. The
flight director roll commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with roll damper control, and sent to
the roll servo motor.
YAW AXIS AND TRIM
The yaw damper uses yaw rate and roll attitude to dampen the aircraft’s natural Dutch roll response.
It also uses lateral acceleration to coordinate turns. Yaw damper operation is independent of autopilot
engagement.
When the yaw damper is not engaged, the yaw trim adapter may be used to provide manual electric yaw
trim (MEYT). This allows the aircraft to be trimmed using a control wheel switch. Trim speeds are scheduled
with airspeed to provide more consistent response.
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ENGAGEMENT
NOTE: Autopilot engagement/disengagement is not equivalent to servo engagement/disengagement. Use
the CWS Button to disengage the pitch and roll servos while the autopilot remains active.
When the AP Key is pressed, the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director (if not already active) are activated
and the annunciator lights on the AFCS controller for the autopilot and yaw damper are illuminated. The flight
director engages in Pitch and Roll Hold Modes when initially activated.
Yaw
Autopilot Damper
Engaged Engaged
Figure 7-31 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Engaged
When the YD Key is pressed, the system engages the yaw damper independently of the autopilot and the yaw
damper annunciator light is illuminated.
Autopilot and yaw damper status are displayed in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Engagement is indicated
by green ‘AP’ and ‘YD’ annunciations, respectively.
CONTROL WHEEL STEERING
During autopilot operation, the aircraft may be hand-flown without disengaging the autopilot. Pressing and
holding the CWS Button disengages the pitch and roll servos from the flight control surfaces and allows the
aircraft to be hand-flown. At the same time, the flight director is synchronized to the aircraft attitude during
the maneuver. CWS activity has no effect on yaw damper engagement.
The ‘AP’ annunciation is temporarily replaced by ‘CWS’ in white for the duration of CWS maneuvers.
Control Wheel Steering
Figure 7-32 CWS Annunciation
In most scenarios, releasing the CWS Button reengages the autopilot with a new reference. Refer to flight
director mode descriptions for specific CWS behavior in each mode.
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DISENGAGEMENT
NOTE: Pressing the AP Key does not disengage the yaw damper.
The autopilot may be manually disengaged by pushing the AP DISC, GA, MERT Switch, MEPT ARM Switch,
or the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit. Manual disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow
‘AP’ annunciation and a three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert. The AP DISC or MEPT ARM Switch
may be used to cancel the aural alert.
Figure 7-33 Manual Autopilot Disengagement
The YD Key, MEYT and AP DISC Switches can be used to disengage the yaw damper (the autopilot, if
engaged, also disengages when the AP DISC Switch is pressed). The ‘YD’ and ‘AP’ annunciations turn yellow
and flash for 5 seconds upon disengagement.
Figure 7-34 Yaw Damper Disengagement
Automatic autopilot disengagement is indicated by a flashing red and white ‘AP’ annunciation and by the
autopilot disconnect aural alert, which continue until acknowledged by pushing the AP DISC or MEPT ARM
Switch. Automatic autopilot disengagement occurs due to:
• System failure
• Stall warning
• Invalid sensor data
• Inability to compute default flight director modes
(FD also disengages automatically)
• Roll Trim input
Yaw damper disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow ‘YD’ annunciation. Automatic yaw
damper disengagement occurs when autopilot disengagement is caused by failure in a parameter also affecting
the yaw damper. This means the yaw damper can remain operational in some cases where the autopilot
automatically disengages. A localized failure in the yaw damper system or invalid sensor data also cause yaw
damper disengagement.
Figure 7-35 Automatic Autopilot and
Yaw Damper Disengagement
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7.6 EXAMPLE FLIGHT PLAN
NOTE: The following example flight plan and diagrams (not to be used for navigation) in this section are
for instructional purposes only and should be considered not current. Numbered portions of accompanying
diagrams correspond to numbered procedure steps.
This scenario-based set of procedures (based on the example flight plan found in the Flight Management
Section) shows various Garmin AFCS modes used during a flight. In this scenario, the aircraft departs Charles B.
Wheeler Downtown Airport (KMKC), enroute to Colorado Springs Airport (KCOS). After departure, the aircraft
climbs to 12,000 ft and airway V4 is intercepted, following ATC vectors.
Airway V4 is flown to Salina VOR (SLN) using VOR navigation, then airway V244 is flown using a GPS flight
plan. The ILS approach for runway 35L and LPV (WAAS) approach for runway 35R are shown and a missed
approach is executed.
0
33
3
27
30
30
27
30
24
24
21
27
24
27
15
12
21
18
15
18
9
24
21
12
6
Lamar
VOR
(LAA)
Topeka
VOR
(TOP)
12
Hays
VOR
(HYS)
9
V 244
Salina
VOR
(SLN)
9
3
V4
18
V 244
9
6
0
33
15
6
KCOS
KMKC
6
3
3
30
33
0
33
0
12
21
15
18
Figure 7-36 Flight Plan Overview
DEPARTURE
Climbing to the Selected Altitude and flying an assigned heading:
1) Before takeoff:
a) Use the ALT SEL Knob to set the Selected Altitude to 12,000 feet.
b) Push the GA Switch to activate Takeoff Mode. The flight director Command Bars establish a pitch up attitude
to follow.
c) Press the AP Key to engage the autopilot in a climb, holding the pitch angle commanded in Takeoff Mode and
wings level.
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2) In this example, Vertical Speed Mode is used to capture the Selected Altitude (Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, or
Flight Level Change Mode may be used).
a) Press the VS Key to activate Vertical Speed Mode.
The Vertical Speed Reference may be adjusted after Vertical Speed Mode is selected using the NOSE UP/DN
Wheel or pushing the CWS Button while hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new Vertical Speed Reference.
3) Use the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading, complying with ATC vectors to intercept Airway V4.
Press the HDG Key to activate Heading Select Mode while the autopilot is engaged in the climb. The autopilot
follows the Selected Heading Bug on the HSI and turns the aircraft to the desired heading.
4) As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
At 50 feet from the Selected Altitude, the green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds; the autopilot
transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft.
HD
GM
od
e
TO M
o
de
3
Selected Altitude of 12,000 MSL
ALT Mode
4
KMKC
1
2
VS
e
Mod
ode
M
TO
Figure 7-37 Departure
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INTERCEPTING A VOR RADIAL
During climb-out, the autopilot continues to fly the aircraft in Heading Select Mode. Airway V4 to Salina
VOR (SLN) should now be intercepted. Since the enroute flight plan waypoints correspond to VORs, flight
director Navigation Mode using either VOR or GPS as the navigation source may be used. In this scenario, VOR
Navigation Mode is used for navigation to the first VOR waypoint in the flight plan.
Intercepting a VOR radial:
1) Arm VOR Navigation Mode:
a) Tune the VOR frequency.
b) Press the CDI Softkey to set the navigation source to VOR.
c) Use the CRS1 or CRS2 Knob to set the Selected Course to the desired value, 255°. Note that at this point, the
flight director is still in Heading Select Mode and the autopilot continues to fly the Selected Heading, 290°.
d) Press the NAV Key. This arms VOR Navigation Mode and the white ‘VOR’ annunciation appears to the left of
the active lateral mode.
2) As the aircraft nears the Selected Course, the flight director transitions from Heading Select to VOR Navigation
Mode and the ‘VOR’ annunciation flashes green. The autopilot begins turning to intercept the Selected
Course.
3) The autopilot continues the turn until the aircraft is established on the Selected Course.
0
33
3
30
Hd
29 g
0o
V4
6
27
3
255
9
o
24
Salina
VOR
(SLN)
VO
R
NA
V
Mo
de
2
HD
G
12
M
od
e,
VO
R
Ar
m
ed
15
1
21
18
Figure 7-38 Intercepting a VOR Radial
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FLYING A FLIGHT PLAN/GPS COURSE
NOTE: Changing the navigation source cancels Navigation Mode and causes the flight director to revert
back to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level).
As the aircraft closes on Salina VOR, GPS is used to navigate the next leg, airway V244. The aircraft is
currently tracking inbound on Airway V4.
Flying a GPS flight plan:
1) Transition from VOR to GPS Navigation Mode:
a) Press the CDI Softkey until GPS is the selected navigation source.
b) Press the NAV Key to activate GPS Navigation Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft along the active flight
plan leg.
2) Following the flight plan, the autopilot continues to steer the aircraft under GPS guidance. Note that in GPS
Navigation Mode, course changes defined by the flight plan are automatically made without pilot action
required.
0
33
33
3
30
0
V4
6
3
o
075
e
30
d
AV Mo
6
27
GPS N
260
o
12
21
18
12
15
24
9
Hays
VOR
(HYS)
Salina
VOR
(SLN)
V 244
2
24
27
076
1
9
o
e
d
AV Mo
VOR N
15
21
18
Figure 7-39 Transition to GPS Flight Plan
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DESCENT
While flying the arrival procedure, the aircraft is cleared for descent in preparation for the approach to KCOS.
Three methods are presented for descent:
• Flight Level Change descent – Flight Level Change Mode can be used to descend to the Selected Altitude at a
constant airspeed. This descent method does not account for flight plan waypoint altitude constraints.
• Vertical Path Tracking descent – Vertical Path Tracking Mode is used to follow the vertical descent path
defined in the GPS flight plan. Altitude constraints correspond to waypoints in the flight plan. Before VNV
flight control can provide vertical profile guidance, a VNV flight plan must be entered and enabled.
• Non-path descent in a VNV scenario – A VNV flight plan is entered and enabled, however Pitch Hold, Vertical
Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode can be used to descend to the VNV Target Altitude prior to reaching the
planned TOD. Flight Level Change Mode is used in the example.
Flight Level Change descent:
1) Select Flight Level Change Mode:
a) Using the ALT SEL Knob, set the Selected Altitude to 10,000 feet.
b) Press the FLC Key to activate Flight Level Change Mode. The annunciation ‘FLC’ appears next to the
Airspeed Reference, which defaults to the current aircraft airspeed. Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed
automatically.
c) If desired, press the SPD Key to display the Airspeed Reference in Mach.
2) Use the NOSE UP/DN Wheel or push the CWS Button while hand-flying the aircraft to adjust the commanded
airspeed while maintaining the same power, or reduce power to allow descent in Flight Level Change Mode
while the autopilot maintains the current airspeed.
3) As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the Selected Altitude; the
autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft.
1
Cruise Altitude of 12,000 MSL
ALT Mode
2
FLC
Mod
e
3
Selected Altitude of 10,000 MSL
ALT Mode
Figure 7-40 FLC Descent
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Vertical Path Tracking descent to VNV Target Altitude:
1) Select VNV flight control:
a) Press the VNV Key to arm Vertical Path Tracking Mode. The white annunciation ‘VPTH’ appears.
b) Using the ALT SEL Knob, set the Selected Altitude 75 feet below the flight plan’s VNV Target Altitude of 10,000
feet.
If the Selected Altitude is not at least 75 feet below the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director will capture the
Selected Altitude rather than the VNV Target Altitude once Vertical Path Tracking Mode becomes active (ALTS
will be armed rather than ALTV).
c) If Vertical Path Tracking Mode is armed more than 5 minutes prior to descent path capture, acknowledgment is
required for the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path Tracking Mode. To proceed with
descent path capture if the white ‘VPTH’ annunciation begins flashing, do one of the following
• Press the VNV Key
• Turn the ALT SEL Knob to adjust the Selected Altitude
If the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed and the
descent is not captured.
2) When the top of descent (TOD) is reached, the flight director transitions to Vertical Path Tracking Mode and
begins the descent to the VNV Target Altitude. Intention to capture the VNV Target Altitude is indicated by the
white ‘ALTV’ annunciation.
3) As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director transitions to VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude;
the autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft at the vertical waypoint.
1
ALT Mode
TOD
Cruise Altitude of 12,000 MSL
2
VPT
HM
ode
3
VNAV Target Altitude of 10,000 MSL
BOD
ALT Mode
Selected Altitude (set below VNAV Target Altitude)
Along-track Offset, 3 nm before OPSHN
3 nm
Figure 7-41 VPTH Descent
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Non-path descent using Flight Level Change Mode:
1) Command a non-path descent to an intermediate altitude above the next VNV flight plan altitude. Use Flight
Level Change Mode:
a) Using the ALT SEL Knob, set the Selected Altitude below the current aircraft altitude to an altitude (in this case,
9,400 feet) at which to level off between VNV flight plan altitudes.
b) Press the FLC Key before the planned TOD during an altitude hold while VPTH is armed. The Airspeed Reference
defaults to the current aircraft airspeed. Vertical Path Tracking and Selected Altitude Capture Mode are armed
automatically.
2) Reduce power to allow descent in Flight Level Change Mode. The autopilot maintains the Airspeed Reference.
3) As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the Selected Altitude; the
autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft. After leveling off, reset the Selected Altitude
at or below 9000 ft.
4) When the next TOD is reached, Vertical Path Tracking becomes active (may require acknowledgment to allow
descent path capture).
5) As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director transitions to VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude;
the autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft at the vertical waypoint.
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VP
TH
M
od
e
Planned
TOD
2
BOD
ALT Mode
1
FL
C
VNAV Target Altitude of 10,000 MSL
Pla
nn
M
od
e
3
Selected Altitude of 9,400 MSL
ed
De
sce
nt
Pa
th
ALT Mode
TOD
4
VP
TH
VNAV Target Altitude of 9,000 MSL
Mo
de
5
BOD
ALT Mode
Selected Altitude
3 nm
OPSHN
HABUK
Figure 7-42 Non-path Descent
APPROACH
NOTE: If an approach contains a DME arc, the arc must be flown in Navigation Mode with the AFCS. When
receiving vectors from ATC, Navigation Mode must be selected prior to intercepting the ARC.
Flying an ILS approach:
1) Transition from GPS Navigation Mode to Heading Select Mode.
a) Select the Runway 35L ILS approach for KCOS and select ‘VECTORS’ for the transition. Load and activate the
approach into the flight plan.
b) Use the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading after getting vectors from ATC.
c) Press the HDG Key. The autopilot turns the aircraft to the desired heading.
d) Use Heading Select Mode to comply with ATC vectors as requested.
2) Arm LOC Approach and Glideslope modes.
a) Ensure the appropriate localizer frequency is tuned.
b) Press the APR Key when cleared for approach to arm Approach and Glideslope modes. ‘LOC’ and ‘GS’ appear
in white as armed mode annunciations.
c) The navigation source automatically switches to LOC. After this switch occurs, the localizer signal can be captured
and the autopilot and flight director determine when to begin the turn to intercept the final approach course. The
flight director now provides guidance to the missed approach point.
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3) There are two options available at this point, as the autopilot flies the ILS approach:
• Push the AP DISC Switch at the decision height and land the aircraft
• Use the GA Switch to execute a missed approach.
KCOS
LOC APR/
GS Mode
3
PETEY
2
G
HD
e
od
M
PYNON
1
GPS NAV Mode
Figure 7-43 ILS Approach to KCOS
Flying a RNAV GPS approach with vertical guidance:
1) Arm flight director modes for a RNAV GPS approach with vertical guidance:
a) Make sure the navigation source is set to GPS (use CDI Softkey to change navigation source).
b) Select the Runway 35R LPV approach for KCOS. Load and activate the approach into the flight plan.
2) Press the APR Key once clearance for approach has been received. GPS Approach Mode is activated and
Glidepath Mode is armed.
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3) Once the glidepath is captured, Glidepath Mode becomes active. The flight director now provides guidance to
the missed approach point.
4) There are two options available at this point, as the autopilot flies the approach:
• Push the AP DISC Switch at the decision height and land the aircraft.
• Use the GA Switch to execute a missed approach.
KCOS
4
3
GPS APR/
GP Mode
CEGIX
2
FALUR
HABUK
PYNON
1
GPS NAV Mode
Figure 7-44 LPV Approach to KCOS
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GO AROUND/MISSED APPROACH
NOTE: As a result of calculations performed by the system while flying the holding pattern, the display may
re-size automatically and the aircraft may not precisely track the holding pattern as depicted on the PFD and
MFD.
Flying a missed approach:
1) Push the GA Switch at the Decision height and apply go around power to execute a missed approach. The
flight director Command Bars establish a nose-up climb to follow. If flying an ILS or LOC approach the CDI also
switches to GPS as the navigation source.
Note that when the GA Switch is pushed, the missed approach is activated and the autopilot disconnects,
indicated by the ‘AP’ annunciation flashing yellow for 5 seconds and the autopilot disconnect aural alert. If the
Coupled Go Around Option is installed the autopilot remains engaged.
Flashes 5 sec
2) Start the climb to the prescribed altitude in the published Missed Approach Procedure (in this case, 10,000 ft).
a) Press the AP Key to re-engage the autopilot.
b) Press the NAV Key to have the autopilot fly to the hold.
3) Use the ALT SEL Knob to set a Selected Altitude to hold.
To hold the current airspeed during the climb, press the FLC Key.
As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the Selected Altitude; the
autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft.
4) The autopilot flies the holding pattern after the missed approach is activated. Annunciations are displayed in
the Navigation Status Box, above the AFCS Status Box.
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4
MOGAL
GPS NAV Mode
3
2
GA Mode
KCOS
1
Figure 7-45 Go Around/Missed Approach
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7.7 AFCS ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
AFCS STATUS ALERTS
The annunciations in Table 7-4 (listed in order of increasing priority) can appear on the PFDs above the
Airspeed and Attitude indicators. Only one annunciation may occur at a time, and messages are prioritized by
criticality.
AFCS Status
Annunciation
Figure 7-46 AFCS Status Annunciation
Alert Condition
Rudder Mistrim Right
Rudder Mistrim Left
Aileron Mistrim Right
Aileron Mistrim Left
Elevator Mistrim Down
Elevator Mistrim Up
Pitch Trim Failure
(or stuck MEPT Switch)
Yaw Trim Failure
(or stuck MEYT Switch)
Yaw Damper Failure
Annunciation
Description
Yaw servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
Roll servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
Pitch servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
If AP engaged, take control of the aircraft and disengage AP
If AP disengaged, move MEPT switches separately to unstick
If AP engaged, take control of the aircraft and disengage AP
If AP disengaged, move MEYT switch to unstick
YD control failure
Roll Failure
Roll axis control failure; AP inoperative
Pitch Failure
Pitch axis control failure; AP inoperative
System Failure
Preflight Test
AP and MEPT are unavailable; FD may still be available
Performing preflight system test; aural alert sounds at completion
Do not press the AP DISC Switch during servo power-up and preflight system tests
as this may cause the preflight system test to fail or never to start (if servos fail
their power-up tests). Power must be cycled to the servos to remedy the situation.
Preflight system test failed; aural alert sounds at failure
Table 7-5 AFCS Status Alerts
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7.8 ABNORMAL OPERATION
SUSPECTED AUTOPILOT MALFUNCTION
NOTE: Consult the aircraft documentation for the location of circuit breakers as well as specifics that may
supplement or amplify this procedure.
If an autopilot failure or trim failure is suspected to have occurred, perform the following steps:
1) Firmly grasp the control wheel.
2) Press and hold the AP DISC Switch. The autopilot will disconnect and power is removed from the trim motor.
Power is also removed from all primary servo motors and engaged solenoids. Note the visual and aural alerting
indicating autopilot disconnect.
3) Retrim the aircraft as needed. Substantial trim adjustment may be needed.
4) Pull the appropriate circuit breaker(s) to electrically isolate the servo and solenoid components.
5) Release the AP DISC Switch.
OVERPOWERING AUTOPILOT SERVOS
In the context of this discussion, “overpowering” refers to any pressure or force applied to the pitch controls
when the autopilot is engaged. A small amount of pressure or force on the pitch controls can cause the autopilot
automatic trim to run to an out-of-trim condition. Therefore, any application of pressure or force to the
controls should be avoided when the autopilot is engaged.
Overpowering the autopilot during flight will cause the autopilot’s automatic trim to run, resulting in an outof-trim condition or cause the trim to hit the stop if the action is prolonged. In this case, larger than anticipated
control forces are required after the autopilot is disengaged.
The following steps should be added to the preflight check:
1) Check for proper autopilot operation and ensure the autopilot can be overpowered.
2) Note the forces required to overpower the autopilot servo clutches.
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OVERSPEED PROTECTION
NOTE: Overspeed protection is not active in ALT, GS or GP Modes.
While Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, Indicated Airspeed, Vertical Path Tracking, or an altitude capture mode is
active, airspeed is monitored by the flight director. Pitch commands are not changed until overspeed protection
becomes active. Overspeed protection is provided in situations where the flight director cannot acquire and
maintain the mode reference for the selected vertical mode without exceeding the certified maximum autopilot
airspeed.
When an autopilot overspeed condition occurs, the Airspeed Reference appears in a box above the Airspeed
Indicator, flashing a yellow ‘MAXSPD’ annunciation. The autopilot, if engaged, will follow the pitch up
command from the flight director. Engine power should be reduced and/or the pitch reference adjusted to slow
the aircraft. The annunciation disappears when the overspeed condition is resolved.
NOTE: When the autopilot is outside normal operating limits, it uses more aggressive commands to return
to normal limits.
Airspeed
Indicator
Figure 7-47 Overspeed Annunciation
UNDERSPEED PROTECTION
NOTE: While underspeed protection is active, the aircraft will deviate from the selected reference.
NOTE: When underspeed protection is active while in FLC Mode the AFCS will revert to PIT Mode.
Underspeed Protection is designed to discourage aircraft operation below minimum established airspeeds and
is available when the autopilot is on.
When the airspeed trend vector reaches a predetermined airspeed following table, a single aural “AIRSPEED”
will sound and a yellow MINSPD annunciation (Figure 7-48) will appear above the airspeed indicator, alerting
the pilot to the impending underspeed condition.
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Flaps
0%
Takeoff
100%
MINSPD Annunciation
and Airspeed Alert
88 kts
84 kts
74 kts
Table 7-6 AFCS Status Alerts
Figure 7-48 Underspeed Annunciation
If the aircraft continues to decelerate, Underspeed Protection functionality depends on which vertical flight
director mode is selected. For the purpose of this discussion, the vertical flight director modes can be divided
into two categories: Those in which it is important to maintain altitude for as long as possible (altitude-critical
modes), and those in which maintaining altitude is less crucial (non-altitude critical modes).
ALTITUDE-CRITICAL MODES (ALT, GS, GP, TO, GA)
If the aircraft decelerates to stall warning for at least one second, the lateral and vertical flight director
modes will change from active to armed (Figure 7-49). The autopilot will provide input causing the aircraft
to pitch down to maintain an airspeed no less than stall warning activation speed plus two knots, and the
wings to level.
Lateral and
Vertical FD
Modes Armed
Figure 7-49 Lateral and Vertical Flight Director Modes Armed
An aural “AIRSPEED” alert will sound every five seconds and a red “UNDERSPEED PROTECT ACTIVE”
annunciation will appear in the CAS window on the MFD.
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When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to above the IAS at which stall warning turns
off, plus two knots, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical reference.
The vertical and lateral flight director modes will change from armed to active.
NON-ALTITUDE CRITICAL MODES (VS, VNAV, LVL, PIT, IAS)
If the aircraft decelerates to an IAS below the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed, a red
“UNDERSPEED PROTECT ACTIVE” annunciation will appear in the CAS window. The vertical flight director
mode will change from active to armed (Figure 7-50), and the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch down
until reaching a pitch attitude at which IAS equals the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed.
Vertical FD
Mode Armed
Figure 7-50 Vertical Flight Director Mode Armed
When sufficient power/thrust is available, the autopilot will recapture the previously selected vertical
reference and the flight director mode will change from armed to active.
NOTE: When the autopilot is outside normal operating limits, it uses more aggressive commands to return
to normal limits.
EMERGENCY DESCENT MODE
ACTIVATION
The Socata TBM 850/900 is equipped with an Emergency Descent Mode (EDM). EDM is automatically
activated when the autopilot is engaged and:
• Cabin Altitude is greater than 14,900 feet MSL
OR
• Cabin Altitude discrete “High” condition and Pressure Altitude is greater than 15,000 feet MSL.
Throttles should be reduced to idle and speed brakes extended to achieve a maximum rate of decent. EDM
is annunciated as the AFCS Status Annunciation and the following AFCS modes are engaged: FLC Mode with
a target speed of 265 KIAS or Mach equivalent, Heading Mode with a course 90° left of current heading, and
a target altitude of 15,000 feet MSL.
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NOTE: Refer to the POH for specific instructions regarding emergency procedures.
HDG MODE
Active
FLC MODE
Active
Target 265KIAS
is selected
EDM is
annunciated
15000MSL is
selected
90° left of
current heading
Figure 7-51 Emergency Descent Mode Armed
EDM OVERRIDE
To exit the EDM Mode press the AP Key on the AFCS Controller. If the AP Key is pressed again an EDM
Override caution will appear. EDM Mode cannot be reentered until the EDM Override is cleared. To clear
the EDM Override the cabin altitude will need to descend to below 14,900 ft and the AP Key needs to be
cycled off and back on again.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
NOTE: With the availability of SafeTaxi®, ChartView, or FliteCharts®, it may be necessary to carry another
source of charts on-board the aircraft.
Additional features of the system include the following:
• Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT)
• Electronic Checklists
• SafeTaxi® diagrams
• Flight Data Logging
• ChartView and FliteCharts® electronic charts
• Iridium Satellite Telephone and SMS text messaging
• Airport Directory
• Maintenance Logs
• SiriusXM Radio entertainment
• Auxiliary Video (Optional)
• Bluetooth® Management using a Flight Stream 210
(Optional)
The optional Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) provides a three-dimensional forward view of terrain features
on the PFD. SVT imagery shows the pilot’s view of relevant features in relation to the aircraft attitude, as well as
the flight path pertaining to the active flight plan.
• Scheduler
SafeTaxi diagrams provide detailed taxiway, runway, and ramp information at more than 700 airports in the
United States. By decreasing range on an airport that has a SafeTaxi diagram available, a close up view of the
airport layout can be seen.
The optional ChartView and FliteCharts provide on-board electronic terminal procedures charts. Electronic
charts offer the convenience of rapid access to essential information. Either ChartView or FliteCharts may be
configured in the system, but not both.
The AOPA or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory offers detailed information for a selected airport, such as available
services, hours of operation, and lodging options.
The optional SiriusXM Radio entertainment audio feature of the GDL 69A Data Link Receiver handles more
than 170 channels of music, news, and sports. SiriusXM Radio offers more entertainment choices and longer
range coverage than commercial broadcast stations.
The Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display short term or long term reminder messages such as
Switch fuel tanks, Change oil, or Altimeter-Transponder Check in the Messages Window on the PFD.
Optional checklists help to quickly find the proper procedure on the ground or during flight.
The Flight Data Logging feature automatically stores critical flight and engine data on an SD data card.
Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each 1GB of available space on the card.
Iridium Telephone Services and SMS messaging is an optional subscription service offered through Garmin
Connext and Iridium Satellite LLC.
The Maintenance Log feature records maintenance data specified by the aircraft manufacturer. The recording of
this data is not visible to the pilot and requires no pilot interaction.
The G1000 system provides a control and display interface to an optional auxiliary video system. The system
can display video for up to two inputs.
The optional Flight Stream 210 device provides a Bluetooth® connection between the G1000 and a mobile device
running the Garmin Pilot™ application. GPS and AHRS data can then be shared with the mobile device. Also, flight
plans can be transferred from the mobile device to the G1000.
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8.1 SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY (SVT)
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or reliability
upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
The optional Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) is a visual enhancement to the G1000 Integrated Flight Deck.
SVT depicts a forward-looking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The field of
view is 30 degrees to the left and 35 degrees to the right. SVT information is shown on the Primary Flight Display
(PFD), or on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode (Figure 8‑128). The depicted imagery is
derived from the aircraft attitude, heading, GPS three-dimensional position, and a 4.9 arc-second database of
terrain, obstacles, and other relevant features. The terrain data resolution of nine arc-seconds, meaning that
the terrain elevation contours are stored in squares measuring nine arc-seconds on each side, is required for the
operation of SVT. Loss of any of the required data, including temporary loss of the GPS signal, will cause SVT to
be disabled until the required data is restored.
The SVT terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical map display),
large water features, towers, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are included in the obstacle database. Cultural
features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad tracks, cities, and state boundaries are not displayed even
if those features are found on the MFD map. The terrain display also includes a north–south east–west grid with
lines oriented with true north and spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation relative to the terrain.
The optional Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) or standard Terrain-SVT is integrated within
SVT to provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the presence of terrain and obstacle threats relevant to the
projected flight path. Terrain alerts are displayed in red and yellow shading on the PFD.
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or fidelity on
which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must not be predicated
solely upon the use of the Terrain–SVT or TAWS terrain or obstacle data displayed by the SVT.
The following SVT enhancements appear on the PFD:
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• Pathways
• Airport Signs
• Flight Path Marker
• Runway Display
• Horizon Heading Marks
• Terrain Alerting
• Traffic Display
• Obstacle Alerting
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-1 Synthetic Vision Imagery
SVT OPERATION
SVT is activated from the PFD using the softkeys located along the bottom edge of the display. Pressing the
softkeys turns the related function on or off. When SVT is enabled, the pitch scale increments are reduced to
10 degrees up and 7.5 degrees down.
SVT functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. The PFD Softkey leads into the PFD function
Softkeys, including synthetic vision. Pressing the SYN VIS Softkey displays the SVT feature softkeys. The
softkeys are labeled PATHWAY, SYN TERR, HRZN HDG, and APTSIGNS. The BACK Softkey returns to
the previous level of softkeys. Synthetic Terrain must be active before any other SVT feature may be activated.
HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS, and PATHWAY Softkeys are only available when the SYN TERR Softkey is
activated (gray with black characters). After activating the SYN TERR Softkey, the HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS,
and PATHWAY softkeys may be activated in any combination to display desired features. When system power
is cycled, the last selected state (on or off) of the SYN TERR, HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS, and PATHWAY
softkeys is remembered by the system.
• PATHWAY Softkey enables display of rectangular boxes that represent course guidance.
• SYN TERR Softkey enables synthetic terrain depiction.
• HRZN HDG Softkey enables horizon heading marks and digits.
• APTSIGNS Softkey enables airport signposts.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
PFD
SYN VIS
BACK
Pressing the BACK Softkey
returns to the top-level softkeys.
BACK
PATHWAY SYN TERR HRZN HDG APTSIGNS
Pressing the BACK Softkey returns to the previous level of softkeys.
Figure 8-2 SVT Softkeys
Enabling and disabling SVT:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Press the SYN TERR Softkey. The SVT display will cycle on or off with the SYN TERR Softkey.
Enabling and disabling Pathways:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Press the PATHWAY Softkey. The Pathway feature will cycle on or off with the PATHWAY Softkey.
Enabling and disabling Horizon Headings:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Press the HRZN HDG Softkey. The horizon heading display will cycle on or off with the HRZN HDG Softkey.
Enabling and disabling Airport Signs:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Press the APTSIGNS Softkey. Display of airport signs will cycle on or off with the APTSIGNS Softkey.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SVT FEATURES
Selected
Altitude
Pathways
Color
matches
CDI color
Airport
Runway
Flight
Path
Marker
Airplane
Symbol
Zero
Pitch Line
(ZPL) with
Compass
Heading
Marks
Synthetic
Terrain
SVT
Softkeys
Figure 8-3 SVT on the Primary Flight Display
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude deviation
information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
PATHWAYS
Pathways provide a three-dimensional perspective view of the selected route of flight shown as colored rectangular
boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active flight plan. The box size represents 700 feet
wide by 200 feet tall during enroute, oceanic, and terminal flight phases. During an approach, the box width is
700 feet or one half full scale deviation on the HSI, whichever is less. The height is 200 feet or one half full scale
deviation on the VDI, whichever is less. The altitude at which the pathway boxes are displayed is determined by
the selected altitude during climb, cruise, and when the active leg is the final approach course prior to intercepting
the glidepath/glideslope. During a descent (except while on the approach glidepath/glideslope), the pathway boxes
are displayed at the selected altitude, or the VNAV altitude programmed for the active leg in the flight plan, or the
published altitude constraint, whichever is higher (Figure 8-4). Just prior to intercepting the glidepath/glideslope,
the pathway boxes are displayed on the glidepath/glideslope, or the selected altitude, whichever is lower.
The color of the rectangular boxes may be magenta, green, or white depending on the route of flight and
navigation source selected. The active GPS or GPS overlay flight plan leg is represented by magenta boxes that
correspond to the Magenta CDI. A localizer course is represented by green boxes that correspond to a green CDI.
An inactive leg of an active flight plan is represented by white boxes corresponding to a white line drawn on the
Inset map or MFD map indicating an inactive leg.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selected
Altitude
Programmed
Altitudes
Figure 8-4 Programmed and Selected Altitude
Pathways provide supplemental glidepath/glideslope information on an active ILS, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LP,
and some LNAV approaches. Pathways are intended as an aid to situational awareness and should not be
used independent of the CDI, VDI, glide path indicator, and glide slope indicator. They are removed from
the display when the selected navigation information is not available. Pathways are not displayed beyond the
active leg when leg sequencing is suspended and are not displayed on any portion of the flight plan leg that
would lead to intercepting a leg in the wrong direction.
Departure and Enroute
Prior to intercepting an active flight plan leg, pathways are displayed as a series of boxes with pointers at
each corner that point in the direction of the active waypoint. Pathways are not displayed for the first leg
of the flight plan if that segment is a Heading-to-Altitude leg. The first segment displaying pathways is the
first active GPS leg or active leg with a GPS overlay. If this leg of the flight plan route is outside the SVT
field of view, pathways will not be visible until the aircraft has turned toward this leg. While approaching
the center of the active leg and prescribed altitude, the number of pathway boxes decreases to a minimum
of four.
Pathways are displayed along the flight plan route at the highest of either the selected altitude or the
programmed altitude for the leg. Climb profiles cannot be displayed due to the variables associated with
aircraft performance. Flight plan legs requiring a climb are indicated by pathways displayed at a level above
the aircraft at the altitude selected or programmed.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Descent and Approach
Pathways are shown descending only for a programmed descent (Figures 8-5, 8-6). When the flight plan
includes programmed descent segments, pathways are displayed along the descent path provided that the
selected altitude is lower than the programmed altitude.
When an approach providing vertical guidance is activated, Pathways are shown level at the selected
altitude up to the point along the final approach course where the altitude intercepts the extended vertical
descent path, glidepath, or glideslope. From the vertical path descent, glidepath, or glideslope intercept
point, the pathways are shown inbound to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) along the published lateral
and vertical descent path, or at the selected altitude, whichever is lower.
During an ILS approach, the initial approach segment is displayed in magenta at the segment altitudes
if GPS is selected as the navigation source on the CDI. When switching to localizer inbound with LOC
selected as the navigation source on the CDI, pathways are displayed in green along the localizer and glide
slope.
VOR, LOC BC, and ADF approach segments that are approved to be flown using GPS are displayed in
magenta boxes. Segments that are flown using other than GPS or ILS, such as heading legs or VOR final
approach courses are not displayed.
Selected Altitude
set for Enroute
Selected Altitude
set for Departure
Climbs NOT
displayed
by pathway
Non-programmed descents NOT displayed by pathway
TOD
Selected Altitude
for Step Down
Programmed descent
displayed by pathway
Selected Altitude or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
Figure 8-5 SVT Pathways, Enroute and Descent
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Missed Approach
Upon activating the missed approach, pathways lead to the Missed Approach Holding Point (MAHP) and
are displayed as a level path at the published altitude for the MAHP, or the selected altitude, whichever is
the highest. If the initial missed approach leg is a Course-to-Altitude (CA) leg, the pathways boxes will
be displayed level at the altitude published for the MAHP. If the initial missed approach leg is defined by
a course using other than GPS, pathways are not displayed for that segment. In this case, the pathways
displayed for the next leg may be outside the field of view and will be visible when the aircraft has turned
in the direction of that leg.
Pathways are displayed along each segment including the path required to track course reversals that are
part of a procedure, such as holding patterns. Pathways boxes will not indicate a turn to a MAHP unless a
defined geographical waypoint exists between the MAP and MAHP.
FAF
Descent displayed
by pathway
Selected Altitude
or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
MAP Climbs NOT displayed
by pathway
Turn Segment
NOT displayed
by pathway
MAHP
Figure 8-6 SVT Pathways, Approach, Missed Approach, and Holding
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT PATH MARKER
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at groundspeeds
above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft accounting for wind speed
and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM is always available when the Synthetic Terrain feature is in operation. The FPM represents the
direction of the flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display, while the airplane symbol
represents the aircraft heading.
The FPM works in conjunction with the Pathways feature to assist the pilot in maintaining desired altitudes
and direction when navigating a flight plan. When on course and altitude the FPM is aligned inside the
pathway boxes as shown (Figure 8-7).
The FPM may also be used to identify a possible conflict with the aircraft flight path and distant terrain or
obstacles. Displayed terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s flight path extending above the FPM could indicate
a potential conflict, even before an alert is issued by TAWS. However, decisions regarding terrain and/or
obstacle avoidance should not be made using only the FPM.
Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
Wind
Vector
Figure 8-7 Flight Path Marker and Pathways
ZERO PITCH LINE
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the horizon when the terrain
horizon is difficult to distinguish from other terrain being displayed. It may not align with the terrain
horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or when the aircraft is flown at high altitudes.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
HORIZON HEADING
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows approximately 60 degrees of compass
heading in 30‑degree increments on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and digits appearing
on the zero pitch line are not visible behind either the airspeed or altitude display. Horizon Heading is used
for general heading awareness, and is activated and deactivated by pressing the HRZN HDG Softkey.
TRAFFIC
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the SVT display or may appear as a
partial symbol.
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic systems.
Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting closer, and smaller
when they are further away. Traffic within 250 feet laterally of the aircraft will not be displayed on the SVT
display. Traffic symbols and coloring are consistent with that used for traffic displayed in the Inset map or
MFD traffic page. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not be displayed on the SVT display. For
more details refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard Avoidance section.
AIRPORT SIGNS
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic terrain
display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately 15 nm from
an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the identifier until
the aircraft is approximately eight nautical miles from the airport. Airport signs are not shown behind the
airspeed or altitude display. Airport signs are activated and deactivated by pressing the APTSIGNS Softkey.
Traffic
Airport
Sign with
Identifier
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
Airport
Sign
without
Identifier
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
Figure 8-8 Airport Signs
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
RUNWAYS
WARNING: Do not use SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of the aircraft
to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these runways are not
displayed.
Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding terrain. All
runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database. In some situations,
where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be layered. As runways are
displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are displayed in white. Other runways will be gray
in color. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that runway will appear brighter and be outlined
with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft gets closer
to the runway, more detail such as runway numbers and centerlines will be displayed.
Runway
Selected for
Approach
Other
Runway
on Airport
Figure 8-9 Airport Runways
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TERRAIN-SVT AND TAWS ALERTING
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward-looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA)
alerts, and corresponds to the red and yellow X symbols on the Inset Map and MFD map displays. For more
detailed information regarding Terrain-SVT and TAWS, refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section.
In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on the
synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVT field of view to the left or right of the aircraft.
TERRAIN
Annunciation
Terrain
Caution
Potential
Impact
Points
Figure 8-10 Terrain Alert
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower symbols found
on the Inset map and MFD maps and charts. Obstacle symbols appear in the perspective view with relative
height above terrain and distance from the aircraft. Unlike the Inset map and MFD moving map display,
obstacles on the synthetic terrain display do not change colors to warn of potential conflict with the aircraft’s
flight path until the obstacle is associated with an actual FLTA alert. Obstacles greater than 1000 feet below the
aircraft altitude are not shown. Obstacles are shown behind the airspeed and altitude displays.
Obstacle
Annunciation
Obstacle
Warning
Potential
Impact
Point
Figure 8-11 Obstacle
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FIELD OF VIEW
The PFD field of view can be represented on the MFD Navigation Map Page. Two dashed lines forming a
V‑shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map, represent the forward viewing area shown on the PFD.
Configuring field of view:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Map Setup and press the ENT Key.
Field of
View
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Map Setup Menu, Map Group, Field of View Option
Figure 8-12 Option Menus
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Map Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Map Group options to FIELD OF VIEW.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select On or Off.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The following figure compares the PFD forward looking depiction with the MFD plan view and FIELD OF
VIEW turned on.
Lines
Depict
PFD Field
of View
SVT View on the PFD
Field of View on the MFD
Figure 8-13 PFD and MFD Field of View Comparison
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.2 SAFETAXI®
SafeTaxi® is an enhanced feature that gives greater map detail when viewing airports at close range. The
maximum map ranges for enhanced detail are pilot configurable. When viewing at ranges close enough to
show the airport detail, the map reveals taxiways with identifying letters/numbers, airport Hot Spots, and airport
landmarks including ramps, buildings, control towers, and other prominent features. Resolution is greater at
lower map ranges. When the MFD display is within the SafeTaxi ranges, the airplane symbol on the airport
provides enhanced position awareness.
Designated Hot Spots are recognized at airports with many intersecting taxiways and runways, and/or complex
ramp areas. Airport Hot Spots are outlined to caution pilots of areas on an airport surface where positional
awareness confusion or runway incursions happen most often. Hot Spots are defined with a magenta circle or
outline around the region of possible confusion.
Any map page that displays the navigation view can also show the SafeTaxi airport layout within the maximum
configured range. The following is a list of pages where the SafeTaxi feature can be seen:
• Navigation Map Page
• VOR Information Page
• Inset Map (PFD)
• User Waypoint Information Page
• Weather Datalink Page
• Trip Planning Page
• Airport Information Page
• Nearest Pages
• Intersection Information Page
• Active and Stored Flight Plan Pages
• NDB Information Page
During ground operations the aircraft’s position is displayed in reference to taxiways, runways, and airport
features. In the example shown, the aircraft is on taxiway Bravo inside the High Alert Intersection boundary
on KSFO airport. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta. When panning over the airport, features such as
runway holding lines and taxiways are shown at the cursor.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Taxiway
Identification
Aircraft
Position
Airport Hot
Spot Outline
Airport
Features
Figure 8-14 SafeTaxi Depiction on the Navigation Map Page
DCLTR Softkey
Removes Taxiway
Markings
The DCLTR Softkey (declutter) label advances to DCLTR-1, DCLTR -2, and DCLTR-3 each time the softkey is
selected for easy recognition of decluttering level. Selecting the DCLTR Softkey removes the taxiway markings
and airport feature labels. Selecting the DCLTR-1 Softkey removes VOR station ID, the VOR symbol, and
intersection names if within the airport plan view. Selecting the DCLTR-2 Softkey removes the airport runway
layout, unless the airport in view is part of an active route structure. Selecting the DCLTR-3 Softkey cycles back
to the original map detail. Refer to Map Declutter Levels in the Flight Management Section.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Configuring SafeTaxi range:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Map Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-15 Navigation Map PAGE MENU, Map Setup Option
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Aviation Group options to SAFETAXI.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the range of distances.
6) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired distance for maximum SafeTaxi display range.
7) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
SAFETAXI
Option
SafeTaxi
Range
Options
Figure 8-16 MAP SETUP Menu, Aviation Group, SAFETAXI Range Options
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SAFETAXI CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
SafeTaxi database is revised every 56 days. SafeTaxi is always available for use after the expiration date.
When turning on the system, the Power-up Page indicates whether the databases are current, out of date, or
not available.
SafeTaxi Database
Figure 8-17 Power-up Page, SafeTaxi Database
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Normal operation. SafeTaxi database is valid and within current cycle.
SafeTaxi database has expired.
Database card contains no SafeTaxi data.
Table 8-1 SafeTaxi Annunciation Definitions
The SafeTaxi Region, Version, Cycle, Effective date and Expires date of the database cycle can also be found
on the AUX - System Status page, as seen in Figure 8-18.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is
shown.
The SafeTaxi database cycle number shown in Figure 8-18, 15S3, is deciphered as follows:
15 – Indicates the year 2015
S – Indicates the data is for SafeTaxi
3 – Indicates the third issue of the SafeTaxi database for the year
The SafeTaxi EFFECTIVE date 07–MAY–15 is the beginning date for the current database cycle. SafeTaxi
EXPIRES date 02–JUL–15 is the revision date for the next database cycle.
SafeTaxi Data
Figure 8-18 AUX – System Status Page, SafeTaxi Current Information
SafeTaxi information appears in blue and yellow text. The EFFECTIVE date appears in blue when data is
current and in yellow when the current date is before the effective date. The EXPIRES date appears in blue
when data is current and in yellow when expired (Figures 8‑18 and 8-19). NOT AVAILABLE appears in blue
in the REGION field if SafeTaxi data is not available on the database card (Figure 8‑19). An expired SafeTaxi
database is not disabled and will continue to function indefinitely.
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey a second time. The softkey label will change to PFD1 DB. The DATABASE
window will now be displaying database information for PFD1. As before, scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is shown.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Select the PFD1 DB Softkey. The softkey label will change to PFD2 DB. The DATABASE window will now
display database information for PFD2. Again, scroll through the listed information by turning the FMS Knob
or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is shown.
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for instructions on revising the SafeTaxi database.
Figure 8-19 illustrates possible SafeTaxi database conditions that may appear on the AUX - System Status
Page. The EFFECTIVE date is the beginning date for this database cycle. If the present date is before the
effective date, the EFFECTIVE date appears in yellow and the EXPIRES date appears in blue. The EXPIRES date
is the revision date for the next database cycle. NOT AVAILABLE indicates that SafeTaxi is not available on the
database card or no database card is inserted.
Current Date is before Effective Date
SafeTaxi Database has Expired
SafeTaxi Database Not Installed
Figure 8-19 AUX – System Status Page, SafeTaxi Database Status
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.3 CHARTVIEW
ChartView resembles the paper version of Jeppesen terminal procedures charts. The charts are displayed in full
color with high-resolution. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft position on the moving map in the planview
of approach charts and on airport diagrams. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Inset boxes (Figure 8-20) are not considered within the chart
boundaries. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol reaches a chart boundary line, or inset box, the aircraft symbol
is removed from the display.
Figure 8-20 shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, the grey shading is for
illustrative purposes only and will not appear on the published chart or MFD display. These off-scale areas
appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted geographical position of this
information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when the aircraft
symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart planview, not to
the off-scale area.
Inset Box
Off-Scale
Area
Off-Scale
Areas
Figure 8-20 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
The ChartView database subscription is available from Jeppesen, Inc. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Airport Diagrams
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• Departure Procedures (DP)
• Bottlang VFR Charts (additional subscription)
• Approaches
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CHARTVIEW SOFTKEYS
ChartView functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey displays the available terminal chart
and advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT OPT, CHRT, INFO-1/2, DP, STAR, APR, WX,
NOTAM, and GO BACK. The chart selection softkeys shown below appear on the Airport Information Page.
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey advances to the next level of softkeys: ALL, HEADER, PLAN, PROFILE,
MINIMUMS, FIT WDTH, FULL SCN, and BACK.
While viewing the CHRT OPT Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
SHW CHRT
SYSTEM
CPDLC
CHRT OPT
CHRT
INFO-1
DP
HEADER
PLAN
APR
WX
NOTAM
GO BACK
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey returns
to the top-level softkeys and previous page.
INFO-2
ALL
STAR
PROFILE
MINIMUMS FIT WDTH FULL SCN
BACK
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns
to the Chart Selection Softkeys.
Figure 8-21 ChartView SHW CHRT, Chart Selection, and Chart Option Softkeys
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Nearest Airport Page, or Flight Plan Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the OPTIONS Menu to Show Chart.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page OPTIONS Menu
Figure 8-22 Option Menus
On the Waypoint Airport Information Page OPTIONS Menu, select the desired chart and press the ENT Key
to display the chart.
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner CHART NOT AVAILABLE appears on the screen.
The CHART NOT AVAILABLE banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability
of a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
Figure 8-23 Chart Not Available Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the banner
UNABLE TO DISPLAY CHART is then displayed.
Figure 8-24 Unable To Display Chart Banner
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
When a chart is not available by selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts
may be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, selecting the
SHW CHRT Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is one associated with the WPT – Airport Information page. Usually this is the airport runway
diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are available, that
page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport is shown.
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Flight Plan Page, or Nearest Airports Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the Airport Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the Approach Box. (Select the APR Softkey
if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Approach Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
Chart Scale
Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
Scroll Through
Complete
Chart With
the Joystick
Figure 8-25 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
While the APPROACH Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the G1000 softkeys are blank. Once the desired
chart is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart page can be scrolled using the Joystick. Pressing
the Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
The aircraft symbol is shown on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft position is within
the boundaries of the chart. The aircraft symbol is not displayed when the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears
(Figure 8‑29). If the Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, the aircraft symbol is not shown. The
Aircraft Not Shown Icon may appear at certain times, even if the chart is displayed to scale.
Selecting the CHRT Softkey switches between the ChartView diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the CHRT Softkey switches between the Gainesville, FL (KGNV) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the WPT – Airport Information page.
Select CHRT Softkey
to Switch Between
ChartView and WPT Airport Information Page
Figure 8-26 CHRT Softkey, Airport Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram when the view is on a different chart.
If the displayed chart is the airport diagram, the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey has no effect.
The aircraft position is shown in magenta on the ChartView diagrams when the location of the aircraft is
within the chart boundaries. In the example shown, the aircraft is taxiing on Taxiway Alpha on the Charlotte,
NC (KCLT) airport.
Another source for additional airport information is from the INFO Box above the chart for certain airports.
This information source is not related to the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey. When the INFO Box is selected using
the FMS Knob, the G1000 softkeys are blank. The Charlotte, NC airport has five additional charts offering
information; the Airport Diagram, Take-off Minimums, Class B Airspace, Airline Parking Gate Coordinates,
and Airline Parking Gate Location. The numbers in parentheses after the chart name are Jeppesen designators.
When a European airport is displayed on the WPT- Airport Information Page, the INFO Box will also list
appropriate VFR charts, provided the Bottlang Chart subscription has been added to the ChartView database.
Aircraft
Current
Position
Figure 8-27 Airport Information Page, INFO View, Full Screen Width
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
In the example shown in Figure 8-27, the Class B Chart is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays the
Charlotte Class B Airspace Chart (Figure 8-28).
Figure 8-28 Airport Information Page, Class B Chart Selected from INFO View
Selecting the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
Chart Not
To Scale
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-29 Departure Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
Chart Not
To Scale
Change Range
and Scroll
Through the
Chart With the
Joystick
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-30 Arrival Information Page
Selecting the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
Figure 8-31 Approach Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, and includes weather data such
as METAR and TAF from the SiriusXM Data Link Receiver, when available. Weather information is available
only when an SiriusXM Data Link Receiver is installed and the SiriusXM WX Weather subscription is current.
WX Info
When
Available
WX Softkey
Selected
Figure 8-32 Weather Information Page
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
NOTE: Only NOTAMs applicable to specific information conveyed on the displayed Jeppesen chart are
available when the NOTAM Softkey is selected. There may be other NOTAMs available pertaining to the
flight that may not be displayed. Contact Jeppesen for more information regarding Jeppesen databasepublished NOTAMs.
Recent NOTAMS applicable to the current ChartView cycle are included in the ChartView database. Selecting
the NOTAM Softkey shows the local NOTAM information for selected airports, when available. When NOTAMS
are not available, the NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled as shown in Figure 8-32. The
NOTAM Softkey may appear on the Airport Information Page and all of the chart page selections.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-33 NOTAM Available
NOTAM Softkey
Appears for
Selected Airports
Local
NOTAM on
This Airport
NOTAM Softkey
Selected
Figure 8-34 Airport Information Page, Local NOTAMs
Selecting the NOTAM Softkey again removes the NOTAMS information.
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page, Nearest Pages, or Flight
Plan Page).
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CHART OPTIONS
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level (Figure 8-21).
Selecting the ALL Softkey shows the entire approach chart on the screen.
Complete
Chart
Shown
Figure 8-35 Approach Information Page, ALL View
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the HEADER Softkey shows the header view (approach chart briefing strip) on the screen.
Approach
Chart
Briefing Strip
Figure 8-36 Approach Information Page, Header View
Selecting the PLAN Softkey shows the approach chart two dimensional plan view.
Approach
Chart Plan
View
Figure 8-37 Approach Information Page, Plan View
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the PROFILE Softkey displays the approach chart descent profile strip.
Approach
Chart Descent
Profile Strip
Figure 8-38 Approach Information Page, Profile View, Full Screen Width
Selecting the MINIMUMS Softkey displays the minimum descent altitude/visibility strip at the bottom of the
approach chart.
Minimum
Descent
Altitude/
Visibility Strip
Figure 8-39 Approach Information Page, Minimums View, Full Screen Width
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
If the chart scale has been adjusted to view a small area of the chart, selecting the FIT WIDTH Softkey
changes the chart size to fit the available screen width.
Select FIT WDTH
Softkey to Show
Full Chart Width
Figure 8-40 Airport Information Page, FIT WDTH Softkey Selected
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the FULL SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
Selecting Additional Information:
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, select the FULL SCN Softkey to display the information windows
(AIRPORT, INFO).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the AIRPORT, INFO, RUNWAYS, or FREQUENCIES Box (INFO Box shown).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the INFO Box choices. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired
choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
Available
Information
Select FULL SCN
Softkey to Switch
Between Chart on Full
Screen and Chart with
Info Window
Figure 8-41 Airport Information Page, Full Screen and Info Window
Selecting the BACK Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the FULL SCREEN and COLOR SCHEME Options.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the On and Off Full Screen Options.
Chart Setup Option
Full Screen On/Off Selection
Figure 8-42 Page Menus
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
ChartView can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a dark
environment. When the CHART SETUP Box is selected the G1000 softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-43 Waypoint Information Page, OPTIONS Menu
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the COLOR SCHEME Option (Figure 8‑44).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between Day, Auto, and Night Options.
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the Chart Setup Menu.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-44 Arrival Information Page, Day View
Figure 8-45 Arrival Information Page, Night View
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CHARTVIEW CYCLE NUMBER AND EXPIRATION DATE
ChartView database is revised every 14 days. Charts are still viewable during a period that extends from the
cycle expiration date to the disables date. ChartView is disabled 70 days after the expiration date and is no
longer available for viewing. When turning on the system, the Power-up Page displays the current status of the
ChartView database. See the table below for the various ChartView Power-up Page displays and the definition
of each.
ChartView Database
Figure 8-46 Power-up Page, ChartView Database
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Blank Line. system is not configured for ChartView. Contact a Garminauthorized service center for configuration.
System is configured for ChartView but no chart database is installed.
Contact Jeppesen for a ChartView database.
Normal operation. ChartView database is valid and within current
cycle.
ChartView database is within 1 week after expiration date. A new cycle
is available for update.
ChartView database is beyond 1 week after expiration date, but still
within the 70 day viewing period.
ChartView database has timed out. Database is beyond 70 days after
expiration date. ChartView database is no longer available for viewing.
System time is not available. GPS satellite data is unknown or the
system has not yet locked onto satellites. Check database cycle number
for effectivity.
System is verifying chart database when new cycle is installed for the
first time.
After verifying, chart database is found to be corrupt. ChartView is not
available.
Table 8-2 ChartView Power-up Page Annunciations and Definitions
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The ChartView time critical information can also be found on the AUX - System Status page. The database
CYCLE number, EXPIRES, and DISABLES dates of the ChartView subscription appear in either blue or yellow
text. When the ChartView EXPIRES date is reached, ChartView becomes inoperative 70 days later. This is
shown as the DISABLES date. When the DISABLES date is reached, charts are no longer available for viewing.
The SHW CHRT Softkey label then appears subdued and is disabled until a revised issue of ChartView is
installed.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the ChartView database information is
shown.
The ChartView database cycle number shown in the figure, 1504, is deciphered as follows:
15 – Indicates the year 2015
04 – Indicates the fourth issue of the ChartView database for the year
The EXPIRES date 05–MAR–15 is the date that this database should be replaced with the next issue.
The DISABLES date 14–MAY–15 is the date that this database becomes inoperative.
ChartView
Data
Figure 8-47 AUX – System Status Page, ChartView Current and Available
The ChartView database is obtained directly from Jeppesen. Refer to Updating Jeppesen Databases in
Appendix B for instructions on revising the ChartView database.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Other possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown in Figure 8-48. The EXPIRES date, in yellow,
is the revision date for the next database cycle. The DISABLES date, in yellow, is the date that this database
cycle is no longer viewable. CYCLE NOT AVAILABLE in blue, indicates no ChartView data is available on the
database card or no database card is inserted.
ChartView has Expired, but is not Disabled
ChartView Database is Disabled
ChartView Database is Not Available
Figure 8-48 AUX – System Status Page, ChartView Database Status
8.4 FLITECHARTS®
FliteCharts® resemble the paper version of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts. The charts are
displayed with high-resolution and in color for applicable charts.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. An aircraft symbol may be displayed within an off-scale area
depicted on some charts.
Figure 8-49 shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, these areas are not shaded on
the published chart. These off-scale areas appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the
depicted geographical position of this information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual geographic
position. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is
relative to the chart planview, not to the off-scale area.
The FliteCharts database subscription is available from Garmin. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Approaches
• Departure Procedures (DP)
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Off-Scale
Areas
Off-Scale
Area
Off-Scale
Areas
Off-Scale
Area
Figure 8-49 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLITECHARTS SOFTKEYS
FliteCharts functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey displays the available terminal chart and
advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT OPT, CHRT, INFO-1/2, DP, STAR, APR, WX, and
GO BACK. The chart selection softkeys appear on the Airport Information Page.
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the available terminal chart and advances to the next level of
softkeys: ALL, FIT WDTH, FULL SCN, and BACK.
While viewing the CHRT OPT Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
NOTAMs are not available with FliteCharts. The NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled.
SHW CHRT
SYSTEM
CPDLC
CHRT OPT
CHRT
INFO-1
INFO-2
ALL
DP
STAR
WX
APR
GO BACK
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey returns
to the top-level softkeys and previous page.
FIT WDTH
FULL SCN
BACK
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns
to the Chart Selection Softkeys.
Figure 8-50 FliteCharts SHW CHRT, Chart Selection, and Chart Option Softkeys
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Nearest Airport Page, or Flight Plan Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the OPTIONS Menu to Show Chart.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page OPTIONS Menu
Figure 8-51 Option Menus
On the Waypoint Airport Information Page OPTIONS Menu, select the desired chart and press the ENT Key
to display the chart.
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner CHART NOT AVAILABLE appears on the screen.
The CHART NOT AVAILABLE banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability
of a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
Figure 8-52 Chart Not Available Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the banner
UNABLE TO DISPLAY CHART is then displayed.
Figure 8-53 Unable To Display Chart Banner
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
When a chart is not available by selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts
may be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, selecting the
SHW CHRT Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is one associated with the WPT – Airport Information page. Usually this is the airport runway
diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are available, that
page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport is shown.
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Flight Plan Page, or Nearest Airports Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the Airport Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the Approach Box. (Select the APR Softkey
if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Approach Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
Chart Not
To Scale
Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
Pan Complete
Chart With the
Joystick
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-54 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
While the APPROACH Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the G1000 softkeys are blank. Once the desired
chart is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart can be panned using the Joystick. Pressing the
Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
The aircraft symbol is not shown on FliteCharts. The Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, and
the Aircraft Not Shown Icon is displayed in the lower right corner of the screen.
Selecting the CHRT Softkey switches between the FliteCharts diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the CHRT Softkey switches between the Gainesville, FL (KGNV) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the WPT – Airport Information page.
Select CHRT Softkey
to Switch Between
Navigation Map Page
and FliteCharts
Figure 8-55 CHRT Softkey, Airport Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram when the view is on a different chart.
If the displayed chart is the airport diagram, the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey has no effect.
Another source for additional airport information is from the INFO Box above the chart (Figure 8-55) or to
the right of the chart (Figure 8-56) for certain airports. This information source is not related to the INFO-1
or INFO-2 Softkey. When the INFO Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the G1000 softkeys are blank. The
DeKalb Peachtree Airport has three additional charts offering information; the Airport Diagram, Alternate
Minimums, and Take-off Minimums.
Info Box
Selected
Figure 8-56 Airport Information Page, INFO View with Airport Information
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
In the example shown in Figure 8-56, ALTERNATE MINIMUMS is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays
the IFR Alternate Minimums Chart (Figure 8-57).
Figure 8-57 Airport Information Page, ALTERNATE MINIMUMS Selected from INFO View
Selecting the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
Figure 8-58 Departure Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
Figure 8-59 Arrival Information Page
Selecting the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
Figure 8-60 Approach Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, when available, and includes
weather data such as METAR and TAF from the SiriusXM Data Link Receiver. Weather information is available
only when an SiriusXM Data Link Receiver is installed and the SiriusXM Weather subscription is current.
Selecting Additional Information:
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, select the WX Softkey to display the information windows (AIRPORT,
INFO).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the INFO Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the INFO Box choices. When the INFO Box is selected the G1000 softkeys
are blank. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired choice with the large FMS Knob and press the
ENT Key to complete the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
Info Available
on This
Airport
WX Info
When
Available
Figure 8-61 Weather Information Page, WX Softkey Selected
Chart Not
To Scale
Softkeys are
Blank during
Info Box
Selection
WX Softkey
Selected
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page or Flight Plan Page).
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CHART OPTIONS
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level (Figure 8‑50).
Selecting the ALL Softkey shows the entire chart on the screen.
Complete
Chart
Shown
Figure 8-62 Airport Information Page, ALL View Selected
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the FIT WIDTH Softkey fits the width of the chart in the display viewing area. In the example
shown, the chart at close range is replaced with the full width chart.
Select FIT WDTH
Softkey to Show
Full Chart Width
Figure 8-63 Approach Information Page, FIT WDTH Softkey Selected
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the FULL SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
Select FULL SCN
Softkey to Switch
Between Full Screen
Chart and Chart With
Info Window
Figure 8-64 Airport Information Page, Full Screen and Info Window
Selecting the BACK Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the FULL SCREEN and COLOR SCHEME Options.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the On and Off Full Screen Options.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Chart Setup Option
Full Screen On/Off Selection
Figure 8-65 Page Menus
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
FliteCharts can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a dark
environment. When the CHART SETUP Box is selected the G1000 softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-66 Waypoint Information Page, OPTIONS Menu
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the COLOR SCHEME Option (Figure 8‑67).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between Day, Auto, and Night Options.
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the Chart Setup Menu.
Figure 8-67 Approach Information Page, Day View
Figure 8-68 Approach Information Page, Night View
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLITECHARTS CYCLE NUMBER AND EXPIRATION DATE
FliteCharts data is revised every 28 days. Charts are still viewable during a period that extends from the cycle
expiration date to the disables date. FliteCharts is disabled 180 days after the expiration date and are no longer
available for viewing upon reaching the disables date. After the expiration date, the FliteCharts database is no
longer current, however, data displayed on the actual charts may still be current. When viewing charts after the
FliteCharts database has expired, ensure the displayed chart is current before using.
When turning on the system, the Power-up Page displays the current status of the FliteCharts database. See
the table below for the various FliteCharts Power-up Page displays and the definition of each.
FliteCharts Database
Figure 8-69 Power-up Page, FliteCharts Database
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Blank Line. system is not configured for FliteCharts. Contact a Garminauthorized service center for configuration.
System is configured for FliteCharts but no chart database is installed.
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for the FliteCharts
database
Normal operation. FliteCharts database is valid and within current
cycle.
FliteCharts database is beyond the expiration date, but still within the
180 day viewing period.
FliteCharts database has timed out. Database is beyond 180 days
after expiration date. FliteCharts database is no longer available for
viewing.
Table 8-3 FliteCharts Power-up Page Annunciations and Definitions
Other possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown in Figure 8-70. ‘FliteCharts Expires’ plus a
date in white, indicates the chart database is current. ‘Chart data is out of date!’ in yellow, indicates charts are
still viewable, but approaching the disable date.
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When the 180 day grace period has expired, ‘Chart data is disabled.’ in yellow indicates that the FliteCharts
database has expired and is no longer viewable. ‘Chart Data: N/A’ appears in white if no FliteCharts data is
available on the database card or no database card is inserted.
FliteCharts time critical information can also be found on the AUX - System Status page. The FliteCharts
database REGION, CYCLE number, EFFECTIVE, EXPIRES, and DISABLES dates of the subscription appear in
either blue or yellow text. Dates shown in blue are current data. Dates shown in yellow indicate the data is not
within the current subscription period.
FliteCharts becomes inoperative 180 days after the FliteCharts EXPIRES date is reached, and is no longer
available for viewing. This date is shown as the DISABLES date. After the disable date the SHW CHRT Softkey
label appears subdued and is unavailable until a revised issue of FliteCharts is installed.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the FliteCharts database information is
shown.
The FliteCharts database cycle number shown in the figure, 1505, is deciphered as follows:
15 – Indicates the year 2015
05 – Indicates the fifth issue of the FliteCharts database for the year
The FliteCharts EFFECTIVE date 07–MAY–15 is the first date that this database is current.
The FliteCharts EXPIRES date 04–JUN–15 is the last date that this database is current.
The DISABLES date 01–DEC–15 is the date that this database becomes inoperative.
FliteCharts
Data
Figure 8-70 AUX – System Status Page, FliteCharts Current and Available
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The FliteCharts database is provided from Garmin. Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for
instructions on revising the FliteCharts database.
The other three possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown here. The EXPIRES date, in yellow,
is the revision date for the next database cycle. The DISABLES date, in yellow, is the date that this database cycle
is no longer viewable. REGION and CYCLE NOT AVAILABLE in blue, indicate that FliteCharts database is not
available on the database card or no database card is inserted.
Current Date is Before Effective Date
FliteCharts Expired, but is not Disabled
FliteCharts Database is Disabled
FliteCharts Database is Not Available
Figure 8-71 AUX – System Status Page, FliteCharts Datbase Status
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8.5 AIRPORT DIRECTORY
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) and optional AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory databases
offer detailed information regarding services, hours of operation, lodging options, and more. This information
is viewed on the Airport Information Page by selecting the INFO Softkey until INFO-2 is displayed as shown in
Figure 8-72.
Both Airport Directories are available for downloading at flygarmin.com. However, copy only one of the
databases to the Supplemental Data Card. The system cannot recognize both databases simultaneously.
Selecting the Airport Directory Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT’ page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AIRPORT INFORMATION Page. Initially, information for the airport closest
to the aircraft’s present position is displayed.
3) If necessary, select the INFO softkey until INFO-2 is displayed.
Figure 8-72 AOPA Information on the Airport Information Page
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AIRPORT DIRECTORY DATABASE CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
The Airport Directory databases are revised every 56 days and offered on a subscription basis. Check fly.
garmin.com for the current database. The Airport Directory is always available for use after the expiration date.
When turning on the system, the Power-up Page indicates whether the databases are current, out of date, or
not available.
Airport Directory Database
Figure 8-73 Power-up Page, Airport Directory Database
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Normal operation. Airport Directory database is valid and within
current cycle.
Airport Directory database has expired.
Database card contains no Airport Directory data.
Table 8-4 Airport Directory Annunciation Definitions
The Airport Directory Region, Version, Cycle, Effective date and Expires date of the database cycle can also be
found on the AUX - System Status page, as seen in Figure 8-74.
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the Airport Directory database information is shown.
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The Airport Directory database cycle number shown in the figure, 15D2, is deciphered as follows:
15 – Indicates the year 2015
D – Indicates the data is for Airport Directory
2 – Indicates the second issue of the Airport Directory database for the year
The Airport Directory EFFECTIVE date 15–APR–15 is the beginning date for the current database cycle. The
Airport Directory EXPIRES date 14–JUL–15 is the revision date for the next database cycle.
Airport Directory
Data
Figure 8-74 AUX – System Status Page, Airport Directory Current Information
Airport Directory information appears in blue and yellow text. The EFFECTIVE date appears in blue when
data is current and in yellow when the current date is before the effective date. The EXPIRES date appears in
blue when data is current and in yellow when expired (Table 8-4). NOT AVAILABLE appears in blue in the
REGION field if Airport Directory data is not available on the database card. An expired Airport Directory
database is not disabled and will continue to function indefinitely.
8.6 SIRIUSXM RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
NOTE: Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section for information about SiriusXM Weather products.
The optional SiriusXM Radio entertainment feature of the GDL 69A Data Link Receiver is available for the
pilot’s and passengers’ enjoyment. The GDL 69A can receive SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment services at
any altitude throughout the Continental U.S. Entertainment audio is available only on the GDL 69A Data Link
Receiver, not the GDL 69.
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SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers a variety of radio programming over long distances without having to constantly
search for new stations. Based on signals from satellites, coverage far exceeds land-based transmissions.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio services are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit
www.siriusxm.com.
ACTIVATING SIRIUSXM SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES
The service is activated by providing SiriusXM Satellite Radio with either one or two coded IDs, depending on
the equipment. Either the Audio Radio ID or the Data Radio ID, or both, must be provided to SiriusXM Satellite
Radio to activate the entertainment subscription.
It is not required to activate both the entertainment and weather service subscriptions with the GDL 69A.
Either or both services can be activated. SiriusXM Satellite Radio uses one or both of the coded IDs to send an
activation signal that, when received by the GDL 69A, allows it to play entertainment programming.
These IDs are located:
• On the label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
• On the XM Information Page on the MFD (Figure 8-75)
• On the XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit (available at www.garmin.com, P/N
190-00355-04)
Contact the installer if the Data Radio ID and the Audio Radio ID cannot be located.
NOTE: The LOCK Softkey on the XM Information Page (Auxiliary Page Group) is used to save GDL 69A
activation data when the SiriusXM services are initially set up. It is not used during normal SiriusXM
Radio operation, but there should be no adverse effects if inadvertently selected during flight. Refer to the
GDL 69/69A XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions (190-00355-04, Rev K or later) for further information.
Activating the SiriusXM Satellite Radio services:
1) Contact SiriusXM Satellite Radio Follow the instructions provided by SiriusXM Satellite Radio services.
2) Select the Auxiliary Page Group.
3) Select the next to last page in the AUX Page Group.
4) Select the INFO Softkey to display the XM Information Page.
5) Verify that the desired services are activated.
6) Select the LOCK Softkey.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight YES.
8) To complete activation, press the ENT Key.
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Data
Radio ID
Audio
Radio ID
Weather
Products
Window
LOCK Softkey
is Used to Save
Activation Data
During Initial
Setup
RADIO
and INFO
Softkeys
Figure 8-75 XM Information Page
If SiriusXM Weather Services have not been activated, all the weather product boxes are blank on the XM
Information Page and a yellow Activation Required message is displayed in the center of the Weather Data
Link Page (Map Page Group). The Service Class refers to the groupings of weather products available for
subscription.
USING SIRIUSXM RADIO
The XM Radio Page provides information and control of the audio entertainment features of the SiriusXM
Satellite Radio.
Selecting the XM Radio Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the displayed AUX - XM Information Page.
3) Select the RADIO Softkey to show the XM Radio Page where audio entertainment is controlled.
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Active
Channels
Channel
List
Volume
Field
Categories
Field
Figure 8-76 XM Radio Page
ACTIVE CHANNEL AND CHANNEL LIST
The Active Channel Box on the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected channel that the SiriusXM
Radio is using.
The Channels List Box of the XM Radio Page shows a list of the available channels for the selected category.
Channels can be stepped through one at a time or may be selected directly by channel number.
Selecting a channel from the channel list:
1) While on the XM Radio Page, select the CHNL Softkey.
2) Select the CH + Softkey to go up through the list in the Channel Box, or move down the list with the CH – Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to highlight the channel list and turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the channels.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
Selecting a channel directly:
1) While on the XM Radio Page, select the CHNL Softkey.
2) Select the DIR CH Softkey. The channel number in the Active Channel Box is highlighted.
3) Select the numbered softkeys located on the bottom of the display to directly select the desired channel number.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
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CATEGORY
The Category Box of the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected category of audio. Categories of
channels such as jazz, rock, or news can be selected to list the available channels for a type of music or other
contents. One of the optional categories is PRESETS to view channels that have been programmed.
Selecting a category:
1) Select the CATGRY Softkey on the XM Radio Page.
2) Select the CAT + and CAT - Softkeys to cycle through the categories.
Or:
Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Categories list. Highlight the desired category with the small FMS Knob
and press the ENT Key. Selecting All Categories places all channels in the list.
Figure 8-77 Categories List
PRESETS
Up to 15 channels from any category can be assigned a preset number. The preset channels are selected by
selecting the PRESETS and MORE Softkeys. Then the preset channel can be selected directly and added to
the channel list for the Presets category.
Setting a preset channel number:
1) On the XM Radio Page, while listening to an Active Channel that is wanted for a preset, select the PRESETS
Softkey to access the first five preset channels (PS1 - PS5).
2) Select the MORE Softkey to access the next five channels (PS6 – PS10), and again to access the last five
channels (PS11 – PS15). Selecting the MORE Softkey repeatedly cycles through the preset channels.
3) Select the SET Softkey.
4) Select any one of the (PS1 - PS15) softkeys to assign a number to the active channel.
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Select PRESETS to
Access the Preset
Channels Softkeys
Select MORE to Cycle
Through the Preset
Channels
Select SET
to Save Each
Preset Channel
Figure 8-78 Accessing and Selecting XM Preset Channels
Selecting the BACK Softkey, or waiting during 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, returns the system to the top
level softkeys.
VOLUME
Radio volume is shown as a percentage. Volume level is controlled by selecting the VOL Softkey, which
brings up the MUTE Softkey and the volume increase and decrease softkeys.
Adjusting the volume:
1) With the XM Radio Page displayed, select the VOL Softkey.
2) Select the VOL – Softkey to reduce volume or select the VOL + Softkey to increase volume. (Once the VOL
Softkey is selected, the volume can also be adjusted using the small FMS Knob.)
Figure 8-79 Volume Control
Radio volume may also be adjusted at each passenger station.
Mute SiriusXM audio:
1) Select the XM Radio Page or XM Information Page.
2) Select the MUTE Softkey to mute the audio. Select the MUTE Softkey again to unmute the audio.
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8.7 SCHEDULER
The Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., Change oil, Switch fuel tanks,
or Altimeter-Transponder Check) in the Alerts Window on the PFD. Messages can be set to display based on
a specific date and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero (one-time; default setting), or recurrently
whenever the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set to periodic alerting automatically reset
to the original timer value once the message is displayed. When power is cycled, all messages are retained until
deleted, and message timer countdown is resumed.
Figure 8-80 Scheduler (Utility Page)
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty scheduler message naming field.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the message text to be displayed in the Messages Window and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the field next to Type.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the message type:
• Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
• One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
• Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
8) For periodic and one-time messages, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
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9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MM-YY) and press the ENT Key.
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the name field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
5) Press the ENT Key while the message line is cleared to clear the message time.
Scheduler messages appear in the Messages Window on the PFD. When a scheduler message is waiting, the
MSG Softkey label flashes. Selecting the MSG Softkey opens the Messages Window and acknowledges the
scheduler message. Pressing the MSG Softkey again removes the Messages Window from the display, and the
scheduler message is deleted from the message queue.
Figure 8-81 PFD Messages Window
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8.8 ELECTRONIC CHECKLISTS
NOTE: The optional checklists presented in this section are for example only and may differ from checklists
available for the TBM850/900. The information described in this section is not intended to replace the
checklist information described in the AFM or the Pilot Safety and Warning Supplements document.
NOTE: Garmin is not responsible for the content of checklists. TBM850/900 checklists are created, modified,
and updated by the aircraft manufacturer.
NOTE: Checklists cannot be edited from within the system.
The optional Checklist functions are displayed on two levels of softkeys that are available from any MFD
page.
(Optional)
SYSTEM
SYSTEM
CPDLC
MAP
DCLTR
DONE
SHW CHRT CHKLIST
EXIT
EMERGCY
The DONE Softkey label changes to UNDO
when the checklist item is already checked.
Figure 8-82 Checklist Softkeys
The MFD is able to display optional electronic checklists which allow a pilot to quickly find the proper
procedure on the ground and during each phase of flight. The G1000 accesses the checklists from an SD
card inserted into the bezel slot. For information regarding SD card placement, refer to the System Overview
Section.
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When turning on the G1000, the Power-up Page indicates whether the SD card contains a valid checklist
file an invalid file, or whether no checklist is available, as shown in the figure. A valid checklist file is noted as
Checklist File: TBM850 (or TBM 900) with the version number. When the Power-up Page displays Invalid or
N/A the CHKLIST Softkey is subdued and not available.
Checklist File is Available
Checklist File is Invalid
Checklist File is Not Available
Figure 8-83 Power-up Page, Checklist File Availability
The AUX - System Status page also shows checklist validity and availability. The valid CHECKLIST data
gives the aircraft type and version number. If the database is not valid the CHECKLIST line shows INVALID.
If the database is not installed the CHECKLIST line shows NOT AVAILABLE indicating that the database is not
available on the database card or no database card is inserted.
Valid Checklist File Version
Checklist File is Invalid
Checklist Database is Not Installed
Figure 8-84 AUX – System Status Page, Checklist Version and Availability
Accessing and navigating checklists:
1) From any page, select the CHKLIST Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the GROUP field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired procedure and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Checklist field.
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5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired checklist and press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the checklist and highlight the desired checklist item (has a hollow white
box for checkmark).
7) Press the ENT Key or DONE Softkey to select the highlighted checklist item (item turns green and a checkmark
is placed in the box next to the item). The next item is automatically highlighted for selection.
Press the CLR Key to remove a check mark from an item.
8) Once the last item in a checklist is selected, Go to the next checklist? is highlighted. Press the ENT Key to
advance to the next checklist displayed.
9) Select the EXIT Softkey or hold down the CLR Key momentarily to exit the Checklist Page and return to the page
last viewed.
Figure 8-85 Checklist Page Example
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Immediately accessing emergency procedures:
1) From any page, select the CHKLIST Softkey.
2) Select the EMERGCY Softkey.
Figure 8-86 Sample Emergency Checklist
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8.9 FLIGHT DATA LOGGING
NOTE: Some aircraft installations may not provide all aircraft/engine data capable of being logged by the
system.
The Flight Data Logging feature will automatically store critical flight and engine data on an SD data card (up
to 16GB) inserted into the top card slot of the MFD. Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each
1GB of available space on the card.
Data is written to the SD card once each second while the MFD is powered on. All flight data logged on a
specific date is stored in a file named in a format which includes the date, time, and nearest airport identifier. The
file is created automatically each time the G1000 system is powered on, provided an SD card has been inserted.
The status of the Flight Data Logging feature can be viewed on the AUX-UTILITY Page. If no SD card has been
inserted, “NO CARD” is displayed. When data is being written to the SD card, “LOGGING DATA” is displayed.
The .csv file may be viewed with Microsoft Excel® or other spreadsheet applications.
The following is a list of the types of data recorded. Not all data types are applicable to all aircraft. For example,
EGT and CHT would not apply to turbine aircraft.
The following is a list of data parameters the G1000 system is capable of logging for the TBM850/900 aircraft.
• Local Date (YYYY-MM-DD)
• Local Time (HH:MM:SS)
• Active Waypoint Distance (nm)
• Active
Waypoint
Bearing
(degrees mag.)
• UTC Offset (HH:MM)
• Mag. Variation (degrees)
• Active Waypoint Identifier
• Voltage 1 (volts)
• Voltage 2 (volts)
• Amps 1 (amps)
• Amps 2 (amps)
• AFCS On ( 0 – false, 1 – true)
• Latitude (degrees)
• AFCS Roll Mode (e.g. HDG,
LOC, GPS, VOR, ROL)
• Longitude (degrees)
• Right Fuel Qty (gals or lbs)
• Left Fuel Qty (gals or lbs)
• Center Fuel Qty (gals or lbs)
• AFCS Pitch Mode (e.g. ALT, GS,
GP, VS)
• Barometric Altitude (feet)
• Altimeter Setting (in. Hg.)
• GPS Altitude (ft)
• Pitch Commanded (degrees)
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• Roll Commanded (degrees)
• OAT (deg. C)
• True Airspeed (kts)
• Selected Vertical Speed (fpm)
• Vertical Speed (fpm)
• HSI Selection (GPS,NAV1/2)
• GPS Fix (e.g. 2D, 3D, 3DDiff)
• Indicated Airspeed (kts)
• Horizontal Alert Limit (HAL,
meters)
• Gnd Speed (kts)
• Vertical Alert Limit (VAL, meters)
• Vertical Speed (fpm)
• NAV1 Frequency (MHz)
• NAV2 Frequency (MHz)
• Horizontal Protection Level
(HPLWAS, meters)
• Pitch (degrees)
• Roll (degrees)
• Horizontal Protection Level
(HPLFD, meters)
• Vertical
Protection
Level
(VPLWAS, meters)
• COM1 Frequency (MHz)
• COM2 Frequency (MHz)
• Lateral Acceleration (g)
• CDI Deflection (0.0 to 1.0)
• VDI Deflection (0.0 to 1.0)
• Normal Acceleration (g)
• Heading (degrees magnetic)
• Course (deg)
• Wind Direction (degrees mag.)
• Wind Speed (kts)
• Gnd Trk (degrees magnetic)
• Fuel Flow (gph)
• Fuel Press. (psi)
• EGT (deg. F)
• CHT (deg. F)
• Oil Temperature (deg. F)
• Oil Pressure (psi)
• Manifold Pressure (in. Hg.)
• Engine Speed (rpm)
• Power (%)
• Carburetor Temperature (deg. F)
• TIT (deg. F)
• Torque (ft. lbs.)
• Np (rpm)
• Ng (%)
• ITT (deg. C)
• N1 (%)
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The file containing the recorded data will appear in the format shown in Figure 8-87. This file can be imported
into most computer spreadsheet applications.
Local Date
YYMMDD
Local 24hr Time
HHMMSS
Nearest Airport
(A blank will be
inserted if no
airport is found)
log_150210_104506_KIXD.csv
Figure 8-87 Log File Format
Data logging status can be monitored on the AUX-UTILITY Page.
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8.10 SATELLITE TELEPHONE AND SMS MESSAGING
NOTE: Separate accounts must be established to access the Iridium satellite network for voice and Garmin
Connext for data transmission of maintenance reports.
The GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver provides Iridium Satellite Telephone service and SMS text messaging. Iridium
telephone and text messaging are available to the flight crew through the Multi-function Display, audio panel and
headset. The system provides a telephone handset interface to be used for voice communication between the
aircraft cabin and the cockpit and for Iridium telephone service in the aircraft cabin.
Operation of these features in the cockpit is accomplished through the AUX-TELEPHONE and AUX-TEXT
MESSAGING Pages. For operation using the cabin handset, consult the instructions provided with the handset.
REGISTERING THE IRIDIUM SATELLITE SYSTEM
A subscriber account must be established prior to using the Iridium Satellite System. Before setting up an
Iridium account, obtain the serial number of the Iridium Transceiver (GSR1) and the System ID by selecting the
AUX- SYSTEM STATUS Page as shown in Figure 8-88. Contact Garmin at 1-866-739-5687 in the United States
or 913-397-8200, ext. 1135.
Iridium Transceiver Serial Number
System ID Number
Figure 8-88 Identification Needed for Iridium Registration
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DISABLE/ENABLE IRIDIUM TRANSCEIVER
Iridium telephone and data communications may be turned on or off by performing these simple steps.
Disabling/enabling telephone and low speed data services:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AUX-TELEPHONE Page as in Figure 8-89.
Figure 8-89 Telephone Page
4) Press the MENU Key. The Page Menu window is now displayed as seen in Figure 8-90.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Disable Iridium Transmission’ in the menu list.
Figure 8-90 Select Disable Iridium Transmission
6) Press the ENT Key. The Iridium transceiver is now disabled.
7) To enable the Iridium transceiver, repeat steps 1 through 4, then select ‘Enable Iridium Transceiver’.
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TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION
The pilot or copilot can place and answer calls on the Iridium satellite network. Control and monitoring of
telephone functions are accomplished through the AUX-TELEPHONE Page.
Viewing the Telephone Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AUX - TELEPHONE or AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page.
3) If necessary, select the TEL Softkey to display the AUX-TELEPHONE Page.
The phone status display, as shown in Figure 8-91, gives a graphical representation of the current disposition
of voice and/or data transmissions. Table 8-5 describes symbology used on Phone Status display.
Satellite
Signal
Strength
External
Phone
Figure 8-91 Phone Status Display
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Internal
Phone
External
Phone
Description
Phone is Idle
Phone is ringing
Phone has a dial tone (off hook) or connected to another phone
Phone dialed is busy
Phone is dialing another phone
Phone has failed
Phone status not known
Phone is disabled
Phone is reserved for data transmission
Calling other phone or incoming call from other phone
Other phone is on hold
Phones are connected
Table 8-5 Telephone Symbols
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CONTACTS
The names, telephone number, and email addresses can be saved in a list of contacts for easy use when
making telephone calls.
Entering a new contact:
1) With the AUX-TELEPHONE Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) If necessary, turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘NEW ENTRY’ as shown in Figure 8-92.
Figure 8-92 Select ‘NEW ENTRY’
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3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves the ‘NAME’ field of the ‘CONTACT DETAILS’ window, as seen in Figure
8-93.
Figure 8-93 Enter Contact Name
4) Enter the desired name of the new contact. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the
MFD Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the MFD.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘PHONE NUMBER’ field.
6) Enter the desired telephone number as shown in Figure 8-94. Entry can be accomplished through the
alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the MFD.
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Figure 8-94 Enter Contact Phone Number
7) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘EMAIL’ field, as in Figure 8-95.
Figure 8-95 Enter Contact Email
8) Enter the desired email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the MFD.
9) Press the ENT Key. The SAVE button is highlighted as in Figure 8-96.
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Figure 8-96 Save New Contact Entry
9) Press the ENT Key. The new contact entry is added to the list of saved contacts. See Figure 8-97.
Figure 8-97 Contact Shown in List
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Delete a contact:
1) With the AUX-TELEPHONE Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name, as shown in Figure 8-98.
Figure 8-98 Select Contact to be Deleted
3) Select the DELETE Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed as in Figure 8-99.
Figure 8-99 Confirm Contact Deletion
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the selected contact.
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Edit a contact:
1) With the AUX-TELEPHONE Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name, as shown in Figure 8-100.
Figure 8-100 Select Contact to be Edited
3) Select the EDIT Softkey. The cursor is placed in the ‘NAME’ field, as in Figure 8-101. Enter the desired changes.
Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the
controller or the MFD.
Figure 8-101 Make the Desired Changes
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4) Press the ENT Key when each field is conplete. The SAVE Button is now highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key to save the changes.
INCOMING CALLS
NOTE: Outside callers should dial 00 + 8816 or 8817 + aircraft phone number when calling the aircraft
Iridium Telephone System.
When a phone call is received while viewing MFD pages other than the AUX-TELEPHONE Page, a pop-up
alert similar to Figure 8-102 is displayed, accompanied by the voice alert “Incoming Call” on the selected cockpit
audio. The pop-up alert may be inhibited at times, such as during takeoff. In addition to the pop-up alert, a
ringing phone symbol is displayed to the right of the MFD page title as shown in Figure 8-102.
Incoming Call Pop-up
Incoming Call Symbol on MFD Page
Figure 8-102 Incoming Call
Answering an incoming call:
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Select the ANSWER Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
While viewing the AUX-TELEPHONE Page
NOTE: The Push-to-Talk switch is not utilized for telephone communication. The microphone is active after
selecting the ANSWER Softkey, and stays active until the call is terminated.
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
3) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Answer Incoming Call’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
Selecting the IGNORE Softkey will extinguish the pop-up window and leave the call unanswered. Selecting
the TEL Softkey will display the AUX-TELEPHONE Page allowing additional call information to be viewed
before answering.
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Disabling incoming call alerts:
1) With the AUX-TELEPHONE Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable Incoming Call Alerts’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The voice and pop-up alert will not be displayed now when an incoming call is received.
OUTGOING CALLS
Voice calls can be made from the cockpit to an external phone through the Iridium Satellite Network.
NOTE: The Push-to-Talk switch is not utilized for telephone communication. The microphone is active after
selecting the ANSWER Softkey, and stays active until the call is terminated.
To make a call by dialing the number:
1) Press the TEL Key on the audio panel.
2) Select the DIAL Softkey on the MFD. A display similar to Figure 8-103 will be shown.
Or:
While viewing the AUX-TELEPHONE Page:
a) Press the TEL Key on the audio panel.
b) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
c) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Dial a Phone Call’.
d) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-103 Enter Phone Number
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3) Enter the desired telephone number by selecting the number softkeys on the MFD or by pressing the numeric
keys on the MFD Control Unit. The International dialing sequence is necessary to place a call from the cockpit
to an external phone: Country Code + City/Area Code (if any) + Telephone Number.
The following country codes may be used when calling other satellite telephone systems.
Satellite System
Inmarsat
ICO
Ellipso
Iridium
Globalstar
Country Code
870
8810 or 8811
8812 or 8813
8816 or 8817
8818 or 8819
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘OK’ is highlighted as in Figure 8-104.
Figure 8-104 Make the Call
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5) Press the ENT Key. The system will begin calling the number, as in Figure 8-105.
Figure 8-105 System is Making the Connection
When the phone is answered, the connection is established as shown in Figure 8-106. To exit the call,
select the HANGUP Softkey.
When numeric entries are required while a call is connected, such as selecting menu items like “dial zero to
get an operator”, select the KEYPAD Softkey to access the numeric softkeys.
Figure 8-106 Phone is Answered, Connection Complete
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Making a call by using the Contact List:
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired contact name in the list of contacts, as seen in Figure 8-107.
4) Select the CALL Softkey. The external call is initiated and the number associated with the contact name is
dialed.
Figure 8-107 Making a Call from the Contact List
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PLACING A CALL ON HOLD
Placing a call on hold:
Select the HOLD Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Put Current Call On Hold’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
The cockpit phone is now isolated from the call as seen in Figure 8-108. Select the HOLD Softkey again
to resume the call.
Figure 8-108 Call on Hold
TEXT MESSAGING (SMS)
The pilot or copilot can send and receive text messages on the Iridium satellite network. Messages may be
sent to an email address or text message capable cellular telephone. Message length is limited to 160 characters,
including the email address.
Senders should address text messages to the aircraft by entering [aircraft Iridium phone number]@msg.
iridium.com.
The text messaging user interface is mainly through the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page.
Viewing the Text Messaging Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the SATELLITE PHONE.
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3) If necessary, select the SMS Softkey to display the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page as shown in Figure 8-109.
Figure 8-109 Text Messaging Page
Message Symbol
Description
Received text message that has not been opened
Received text message that has been opened
Saved text message, draft not sent
System is sending text message
Text message has been sent
System failed to send text message
Predefined text message
Table 8-6 Text Message Symbols
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VIEWING A TEXT MESSAGE WHEN RECEIVED
When viewing MFD pages other than the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, a pop-up alert similar to Figure
8-110 will be displayed when a new text message is received.
New Text Message Pop-up
New Text Message Symbol on MFD Page
Figure 8-110 New Text Message Received
Select the VIEW Softkey to view the message (Figure 8-111). Selecting the IGNORE Softkey will extinguish
the pop-up window and leave the text message unopened. Selecting the IGNR ALL Softkey will extinguish
the pop-window and ignore all future incoming text messages. Selecting the SMS Softkey will display the
AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page.
Figure 8-111 Text Message Displayed from Pop-Up Alert
The pop-up alerts may be enabled or disabled through the Page Menu.
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Enabling/disabling incoming text message pop-up alerts:
1) With the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable New Message Popups’ or ‘Enable New Message Popups’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The pop-up alert will not be displayed when an incoming text message is received.
Figure 8-112 Disabling New Text Message Pop-Ups
REPLY TO A TEXT MESSAGE
After reading a text message, a reply may be sent.
Replying to a text message:
While viewing the text message, select the REPLY Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Reply To Message’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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SENDING A TEXT MESSAGE
Text messages may be sent from the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page.
Sending a new text message:
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the NEW Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
2) The TEXT MESSAGE DRAFT Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘TO’ field. Enter country code + area
code + phone number when sending to a text capable telephone. An email address may also be entered. Entry
can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob
on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can
be entered from the MFD by selecting the NUMBERS Softkey. Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to create upper
and lower case alpha characters. Special characters can be accessed by selecting the SYMBOLS Softkey. See
Figure 8-113.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘MESSAGE’ field.
Figure 8-113 Composing a New Text Message
4) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 2.
5) Press the ENT Key.
6) Select the SEND Softkey to send the message immediately, or select the SAVE Softkey to save the message in
Outbox for sending at a later time. Select the CANCEL Softkey to delete the message.
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PREDEFINED TEXT MESSAGES
Time and effort can be saved in typing text messages that are used repeatedly by saving these messages as
a predefined message.
Creating a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
Figure 8-114 Creating/Editing Predefined Messages
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select ‘Edit Predefined Messages’ as shown in Figure 8-114.
3) Press the ENT Key. The PREDEFINED MESSAGES view is now displayed.
4) Select the NEW Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Predefined Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The PREDEFINED SMS TEXT MESSAGE Window is now displayed as shown in Figure 8-115.
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Figure 8-115 Composing a Predefined Message
5) The cursor is displayed in the ‘TITLE’ field. Enter the desired message title. Entry can be accomplished through
the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys
on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD
by selecting the NUMBERS Softkey. Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha
characters. Special characters can be accessed by selecting the SYMBOLS Softkey.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘MESSAGE’ field.
7) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 5.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Select the SAVE Softkey. The new predefined message is now shown in the displayed list. Selecting the
CANCEL Softkey will delete the message without saving.
10) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
11) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Stop Editing Predefined Message’.
12) Press the ENT Key.
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Sending a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the NEW Softkey.
2) The TEXT MESSAGE DRAFT Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘TO’ field. Enter the desired
telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used
to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by selecting the NUMBERS Softkey.
Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters. Special characters can be
accessed by selecting the SYMBOLS Softkey.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘MESSAGE’ field (Figure 8-116).
Figure 8-116 Predefined Message Softkey Shown When Composing a Message
4) Select the PREDEFD Softkey. The PREDEFINED MESSAGE MENU Window is displayed as seen in Figure 8-117.
Figure 8-117 Predefined Message List
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5) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired predefined message.
6) Press the ENT Key. The predefined message text is inserted into the message field. If desired, the message can
be edited by using the FMS Knobs.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Select the SEND Softkey to transmit the message.
TEXT MESSAGE BOXES
Received text messages reside in the Inbox as ‘Read’ or ‘Unread’ messages. The Outbox contains ‘Sent” and
‘Unsent’ text messages. Saved messages that are meant to be sent later are stored as Drafts. Each text message
box may be viewed separately, or together in any combination.
Show Inbox messages:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the INBOX Softkey
(Figure 8-118).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Inbox Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
Figure 8-118 Text Message Inbox
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Show Outbox messages:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the OUTBOX Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Outbox Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
Show Draft messages:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the DRAFTS Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Draft Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
MANAGING TEXT MESSAGES
The viewed messages may be listed according to the date/time the message was sent or received, the type of
message (read, unread, sent, unsent, etc.), or by message address.
Viewing messages sorted by message date/time:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the TIME Softkey
(Figure 8-118).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Date/Time’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
Viewing messages sorted by message type:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the TYPE Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Type’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
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Viewing messages sorted by address:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the ADDRESS
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Address’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
Viewing the content of a text message:
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the desired message box.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
4) Select the VIEW Softkey.
Or:
Press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘View Selected Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Message content is displayed as shown in Figure 8-119.
Figure 8-119 Veiwing Message Content
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5) To close the text message, select the CLOSE Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Close Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Marking selected message as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Select the MRK READ Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark Selected Message As Read’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
The message symbol now indicates the message has been opened.
Marking all messages as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark All New Messages As Read’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed.
4) With cursor highlighting ‘YES’, press the ENT Key. The message symbols now indicate all the message have
been opened.
Delete a message:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Select the DELETE Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Delete Selected Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
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8.11 MAINTENANCE LOGS
The system provides recording of CAS, CMC, exceedances, and other critical aircraft data that occur while
the aircraft is on the ground or in flight. This information may be used by aircraft maintenance personnel in
determining specific maintenance requirements.
The Maintenance Logs feature is accessible by entering a password. No pilot action is required.
Viewing the Maintenance Logs Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MAINTENANCE LOG’, as seen in Figure 8-120. The AUX-MAINTENANCE
LOGS Page is now displayed.
Figure 8-120 Maintenance Logs Page
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8.12 AUXILIARY VIDEO (OPTIONAL)
The G1000 system provides a control and display interface to an optional auxiliary video system. The system
can display video for up to two inputs.
There are four modes of operation of the auxiliary video display: Full-Screen, Full-Screen with Digital Zoom,
Split-Screen with Map, and Split-Screen with Map and Digital Zoom.
Displaying auxiliary video:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select VIDEO and display the AUX-VIDEO Page.
The video display softkeys shown below appear on the AUX - VIDEO Page.
SYSTEM
CPDLC
MAP
INPUT
SETUP
VID ZM+
VID ZM-
MAP ACTV HIDE MAP
VID ACTV
CNTRST -
CNTRST +
BRIGHT -
BRIGHT +
SAT -
SAT +
RESET
BACK
Pressing the BACK Softkey returns
to the Previous Level Softkeys.
Figure 8-121 Video Display Softkeys
Control of the AUX - VIDEO Page can also be accessed through the Page Menu.
Figure 8-122 AUX - VIDEO Page Menu
Selecting video menu options:
1) While viewing the AUX - VIDEO Page press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired video adjustment option and press the ENT Key.
Once the ENT key is pressed on any option, the page menu closes and returns to the AUX - VIDEO Page.
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VIDEO SETUP
Video brightness, contrast, and saturation may be adjusted be selecting the setup function. While viewing
the setup function softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the AUX - VIDEO Page
softkeys.
Adjusting the video settings:
1) With the AUX-VIDEO Page displayed, press the SETUP Softkey.
2) Press the BRIGHT - or BRIGHT +, to adjust display brightness in five percent increments from 0 to 100%.
3) Press the CNTRST- or CNTRST +, to adjust display contrast in five percent increments from 0 to 100%.
4) Press the SAT - or SAT +, to adjust display saturation in five percent increments from 0 to 100%.
5) If desired, return the display to the default settings by pressing the RESET Softkey.
6) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the previous softkey level.
DISPLAY SELECTION
Pressing the HIDE MAP Softkey removes the map and displays video on the full screen. The softkey label
changes to grey with black characters. Pressing the HIDE MAP Softkey again restores the map view and the
small video image. The softkey label returns to white characters on a black background.
Video
Display
Map
View
Figure 8-123 AUX - Video Split-Screen
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Figure 8-124 Full Screen Video Display
INPUT SELECTION
While on the AUX - VIDEO Page, press the INPUT Softkey to select the video source.
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ZOOM/RANGE
Pressing the VID ZM + or VID ZM - Softkeys increases or decreases video display magnification between 1x
and 10x.
The Joystick can be used to increase or decrease the range setting on the map display or zoom in and out on
the video display. While in the Split-Screen mode, pressing the MAP ACTV or VID ACTV Softkey determines
which display the Joystick adjusts. Pressing the softkey to display MAP ACTV allows the Joystick to control
the range setting of the map display. Pressing the softkey to display VID ACTV allows the Joystick to control
the zoom setting of the video display.
When zooming in on the video display, a Zoom Window will appear in the upper right of the display. A box
within this window indicates the portion of the display currently being viewed. The currently displayed portion
of the full display may be adjusted by using Joystick.
Zoom
Window
Current
View
Figure 8-125 Zoom Window
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8.13 ELECTRONIC STABILITY & PROTECTION (ESP™)
Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) is an optional feature that is intended to discourage the exceedance of
attitude and established airspeed parameters. This feature will only function when the aircraft is above 200 feet AGL
and the autopilot is not engaged.
ESP engages when the aircraft exceeds one or more conditions (pitch, roll, Vmo, Mmo, and/or angle of attack)
beyond the normal flight parameters. Enhanced stability for each condition is provided by applying a force to
the appropriate control surface to return the aircraft to the normal flight envelope. This is perceived by the pilot
as resistance to control movement in the undesired direction when the aircraft approaches a steep attitude, high
airspeed, or when a stall is imminent.
As the aircraft deviates further from the normal attitude, or airspeed continues to increase, the force increases
(up to an established maximum) to encourage control movement in the direction necessary to return to the normal
attitude and/or airspeed range. Except in the case of high airspeed and AOA beyond threshold, when maximum
force is reached, force remains constant up to the maximum engagement limit. Above the maximum engagement
limit, forces are no longer applied. There is no maximum engagement related to a high airspeed condition or AOA
HIGH condition.
When ESP has been engaged for more than ten seconds (cumulative; not necessarily consecutive seconds) of a
20-second interval, the autopilot is automatically engaged with the flight director in Level Mode, bringing the aircraft
into level flight. An aural “Engaging Autopilot” alert is played and the flight director mode annunciation will indicate
‘LVL’ for vertical and lateral modes.
The pilot can interrupt ESP by pressing and holding either the Control Wheel Steering (CWS) or Autopilot
Disconnect (AP/YD DISC TRIM INTRPT) switch. Upon releasing the CWS or AP/YD DISC TRIM INTRPT
switch, ESP force will again be applied, provided aircraft attitude and/or airspeed are within their respective
engagement limits. ESP can also be overridden by overpowering the servo’s mechanical torque limit. ESP is not
functional when Trim/Servo has failed.
ESP can be enabled or disabled on the AUX-SYSTEM SETUP 2 Page on the MFD.
Enabling or disabling ESP™:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, select the SETUP 2 Softkey to display the AUX-SYSTEM SETUP 2 Page. If the AUX-SYSTEM SETUP 2
is already displayed, proceed to step 4.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the STABILITY & PROTECTION field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘ENABLE’ or ‘DISABLE’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
ESP is automatically enabled on system power up.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
ROLL ENGAGEMENT
Roll Limit Indicators are displayed on the roll scale at 45° right and left, indicating where ESP will engage
(see Figure 8-126). As roll attitude exceeds 45°, ESP will engage and the on-side Roll Limit Indicator will move
to 30°, as shown in Figure 8-127. The Roll Limit Indicator is now showing where ESP will disengage as roll
attitude decreases.
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45°)
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45°)
Figure 8-126 ESP Roll Engagement Indication (ESP NOT Engaged)
ESP Engage (45°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 44°
Before ESP Engage
ESP Disengage (30°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 46°
After ESP Engage
Figure 8-127 Roll Increasing to ESP Engagement
Once engaged, ESP force will be applied between 30° and 75°, as illustrated in Figure 8-128. The force
increases as roll attitude increases and decreases as roll attitude decreases. The applied force is intended to
encourage pilot input that returns the airplane to a more normal roll attitude. As roll attitude decreases, ESP
will disengage at 30°.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
º
30
20º
10º
0º
10º
20º
5º
º
90º
90º
75º
75º
º
60
60
º
º
45
4
30
Figure 8-128 ESP Roll Operating Range When Engaged
(Force Increases as Roll Increases & Decreases as Roll Decreases)
ESP is automatically disengaged if the aircraft reaches the autopilot roll engagement attitude limit of 75°
(Figure 8-129).
ESP Upper Disengage Limit (75°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 74°
Figure 8-129 Roll Attitude Autopilot Engagement Limit (ESP Engaged)
PITCH ENGAGEMENT
ESP engages at 20° nose-up and 22° nose-down. Once ESP is engaged, it will apply opposing force between
15° and 50° nose-up and between 12° and 50° nose-down, as indicated in Figure 8-119. Maximum opposing
force is applied between 25° and 50° nose-up and between 27° and 50° nose-down.
The opposing force increases or decreases depending on the pitch angle and the direction of pitch travel. This
force is intended to encourage movement in the pitch axis in the direction of the normal pitch attitude range
for the aircraft.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
There are no indications marking the pitch ESP engage and disengage limits in these nose-up/nose-down
conditions..
50˚
45˚
45˚
40˚
40˚
35˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
50˚
25˚
20˚
20˚
15˚
15˚
10˚
10˚
5˚
5˚
0˚
0˚
5˚
5˚
10˚
10˚
15˚
15˚
20˚
20˚
25˚
25˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
25˚
35˚
40˚
40˚
45˚
45˚
50˚
50˚
Figure 8-130 ESP Pitch Operating Range When Engaged
(Force Increases as Pitch Increases & Decreases as Pitch Decreases)
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
ANGLE OF ATTACK PROTECTION
Angle of attack protection is provided as part of the ESP feature. ESP force may be applied if the lift computer
determines a stall warning condition is imminent. In this condition, the Pitch Limit Indicator will be initially
displayed 4° below this computed pitch attitude (Figure 8-131). When pitch attitude equals that indicated by
the Pitch Limit Indicator, ESP will engage, applying a force in the direction necessary to lower the nose of the
aircraft.
Pitch Limit Indicator
Figure 8-131 Pitch Limit Indicator
HIGH AIRSPEED PROTECTION
Exceeding 268 kts. IAS will result in ESP applying force to raise the nose of the aircraft. When the indicated
airspeed decreases to below 256 kts., ESP force is no longer applied.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.14 BLUETOOTH® MANAGEMENT
The Bluetooth Management Page allows for setting up the installed optional Flight Stream device for a Bluetooth
connection between the G1000 and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™ application. When connected,
GPS and AHRS data is shared with the mobile device. Also, flight plans can be transferred from the mobile
device to the G1000. See the Flight Planning discussion in the Flight Management section of this manual and the
Garmin Pilot User Guide for more details regarding flight plans.
The mobile device must be ‘paired’ with the G1000 in order to use the various functions. Pairing is accomplished
by first placing the G1000 in pairing mode by displaying the Bluetooth Management Page as shown in Figure
8-132. Note the ‘PAIRING MODE’ field shows ‘ENABLED’. The G1000 is ‘discoverable’ whenever this page is
displayed. The pairing operation is completed from the mobile device and the Garmin Pilot application. See the
device Bluetooth pairing instructions and the connection instructions in the Garmin Pilot application.
The following functions are also available on this page display:
• Changing the Bluetooth name
• Enabling and disabling import of flight plans from a mobile device
• Enabling and disabling automatic reconnection to individual paired devices
• Removal of specific paired devices
Figure 8-132 Bluetooth Management Page
Viewing the Bluetooth Management Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the BLUETOOTH MANAGEMENT page.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Changing the Bluetooth name:
1) While viewing the Bluetooth Management Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘BLUETOOTH NAME’ field.
3) Enter the desired name by using the large FMS Knob to select the character field, and the small FMS Knob
select the desired alphanumeric character for that field.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is removed and the new name is displayed.
Enabling/Disabling Flight Plan importing from Garmin Pilot:
1) While viewing the Bluetooth Management Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘FLIGHT PLAN IMPORT’ field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘ENABLED’ or ‘DISABLED’.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Enabling/Disabling automatic reconnection of a specific paired device:
1) While viewing the Bluetooth Management Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired paired device.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘ENABLED’ or ‘DISABLED’. Selecting ‘ENABLED’ allows the G1000 to
automatically connect to a previously paired device when detected.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Removing a specific paired device from the list of paired devices:
1) While viewing the Bluetooth Management Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired paired device.
3) Press the REMOVE Softkey. A confirmation screen is displayed as seen in Figure 8-133.
Figure 8-133 Device Removal Confirmation
4) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘YES’.
5) Press the ENT Key to remove the device from the list of paired devices.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.15 ABNORMAL OPERATION
SVT TROUBLESHOOTING
SVT is intended to be used with traditional attitude, heading, obstacle, terrain, and traffic inputs. SVT is
disabled when valid attitude or heading data is not available for the display. In case of invalid SVT data, the
PFD display reverts to the standard blue-over-brown attitude display.
SVT becomes disabled without the following data resources:
• Attitude data
• Heading data
• GPS position data
• 4.9 Arc-second Terrain data
• Obstacle data
• TAWS function is not available, in test mode, or failed
• The position of the aircraft exceeds the range of the terrain database.
REVERSIONARY MODE
SVT can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If it is enabled when switching
to Reversionary Mode, SVT will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The standard, non-SVT PFD display will
be shown in the interim.
Figure 8-134 SVT Reversionary Mode
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
Unusual attitudes are displayed with red chevrons overlaid on the display indicating the direction to fly to
correct the unusual attitude condition. The display shows either a brown or blue colored bar at the top or
bottom of the screen to represent earth or sky. This is intended to prevent losing sight of the horizon during
extreme pitch attitudes.
Figure 8-135 Unusual Attitude Display
The blue colored bar is also displayed when terrain gradient is great enough to completely fill the display.
Blue Band
Terrain
Completely
Fills Display
Figure 8-136 Blue Sky Bar with Full Display Terrain
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
GDL 69/69A DATA LINK RECEIVER TROUBLESHOOTING
Some quick troubleshooting steps listed below can be performed to find the possible cause of a failure.
• Ensure the owner/operator of the aircraft in which the Data Link Receiver is installed has subscribed to
SiriusXM
• Ensure the SiriusXM subscription has been activated
• Perform a quick check of the circuit breakers to ensure that power is applied to the Data Link Receiver
• Ensure that nothing is plugged into the MUSIC 1 or MUSIC 2 jacks because that would prevent XM radio
from being heard
For troubleshooting purposes, check the LRU Information Box on the AUX - System Status Page for Data Link
Receiver (GDL 69/69A) status, serial number, and software version number. If a failure has been detected in the
GDL 69/69A the status is marked with a red X.
Selecting the AUX - System Status Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
Figure 8-137 LRU Information Window on System Status Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
If a failure still exists, the following messages may provide insight as to the possible problem:
Message
Message Location
CHECK ANTENNA
XM Information Page (MFD)
UPDATING
XM Information Page (MFD))
XM Information Page Weather Datalink Page Loss of signal; signal strength too low for
(MFD)
receiver
NO SIGNAL
LOADING
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Acquiring channel audio or information
OFF AIR
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Channel not in service
--------
XM Radio Page (MFD)
WEATHER DATA LINK FAILED
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
ACTIVATION REQUIRED
XM Information Page (MFD)
Missing channel information
No communication from Data Link Receiver
within last 5 minutes
SiriusXM subscription is not activated
DETECTING ACTIVATION
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
WAITING FOR DATA...
670
Description
Data Link Receiver antenna error; service
required
Data Link Receiver updating encryption code
SiriusXM subscription is activating.
SiriusXM subscription confirmed downloading
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
weather data.
Table 8-7 GDL 69/69A Data Link Receiver Messages
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
190-00709-07 Rev. B
APPENDIX A
ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
CAS MESSAGES
NOTE: Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for corrective pilot actions.
NOTE: Red warning messages cannot be scrolled through and remain at the top of the CAS display. The
scroll bar changes to amber if more than ten caution messages exist to be scrolled through.
CAS messages are grouped by criticality (warning and caution) and sorted by order of appearance (most
recent messages on top). The color of the message is based on its urgency and on required action.
• Warning (red) – Immediate crew awareness and action required; accompanied by an aural tone (triple chime
every 3 seconds)
• Caution (amber) – Immediate crew awareness and possible future corrective action required; accompanied
by an aural tone (single chime)
A CAS message does not appear more than once at a given time. Warning and caution CAS messages flash
when they are generated, and continue to flash until acknowledged.
After the acknowledgment, a message remains displayed at the top of its respective priority group in the CAS
Window until either a newer message of the same priority appears or the condition(s) that caused the alert to
display no longer exist.
The CAS messages listed below are shown in the acknowledged state (colored text on black backgrounds).
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APPENDIX A
WARNING MESSAGES
Message
AURAL WRN FAIL
AURAL WRN 1 CHNL
BAT OVERHEAT
BLEED TEMP
CABIN ALTITUDE
CABIN DIFF PRESS
DOOR
EDM
ELEC FEATH FAULT*
FIRE
FLAPS ASYM
FUEL OFF
FUEL PRESS
GEAR UNSAFE*
ITT
OIL PRESS
OXYGEN
PARK BRAKE
TORQUE**
USP ACTIVE
Description
Audio processing in both GIAs is offline, or both audio paths are invalid
Audio processing in one of the two GIAs is offline, or one of the 2 audio paths is invalid
Battery temperature over 70°C
Bleed temperature high
Cabin altitude over 10,000 ft
Cabin pressure differential over 6.2 psi
Pilot or cabin door open
Autopilot has activated emergency descent mode
Feathering system failure
Engine compartment fire (temperature over 200°C; if installed)
Dissymmetry between left- and right-hand flaps
Fuel tank selectors set to “Off”
Fuel pressure below 10 psi
Gears are in an unsafe configuration
Engine start: ITT over 1000°C, 870°C (5 s), or 840°C (20 s)
Engine running: ITT over 840°C
Oil pressure below 60 psi
Oxygen cylinder closed
Parking brake applied
Torque greater than or equal to 121.4% maximum torque
Underspeed protection is active
* TBM 900 Only
** TBM 850 Only
Warning Messages
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APPENDIX A
CAUTION MESSAGES
Message
AP ON YD OFF
AUTO SEL
AUX BOOST PMP ON
BAT AMP
BAT OFF
BLEED OFF
CHIP
CPCS BACKUP MODE**
CPDLC DISABLED
EDM OVERRIDE
FRONT CARGO DOOR
FUEL IMBALANCE
FUEL LOW L-R*
GPU DOOR
IGNITION
INERT SEP FAIL
INERT SEP ON
LOW LVL FAIL L-R*
LOW VOLTAGE
MAIN GEN
MAX DIFF MODE**
NG HI
OIL PRESS
OIL TEMP
PITOT HT ON L-R*
PITOT NO HT L-R*
PROP DEICE FAIL
PROP DEICE ON
STALL HEAT ON
STALL NO HEAT
STARTER
VACUUM LOW
USE OXYGEN MASK
Description
The autopilot is ON while the Yaw Damper is OFF
Fuel timer off or out of service
Electric fuel pump running (manual or automatic mode)
Battery current over 50 A while on ground
Battery off
Flow control and shut-off valve/shut-off valve closed
Oil chip detector on (if installed)
Back-up pressurization mode - Cabin altitude target forced to 9800 ft
CPDLC data mode is disabled
Emergency Descent Mode has been overridden by the crew
Forward baggage door open
Fuel tanks imbalanced by more than 15 USGAL for >30 seconds
Fuel quantity less than or equal to 9.1 USGAL in specified tank
GPU receptacle door not closed
Ignition exciter running
Inertial separator failure
Inertial separator extended
Low fuel level sensor failure for specified tank
Battery voltage below 26 V
Starter generator unconnected
MAX DIFF PRESS MODE activated
Generator speed is more than 103%
Oil pressure between 60 and 100 psi
Oil temperature below 0°C or above 104°C
Specified pitot heat (left or right) on while engine off
Specified pitot heat (left or right) off
Prop deice selected and not on
Prop deice on while engine off
Stall warning heat on while engine off
Stall warning heat off
Starter generator running
Vacuum pressure less than 3.75 in Hg
Cabin altitude above 10,000 ft
* Only affected side (L, R, or L-R) displayed in CAS message; applicable messages listed here display L-R for example
** TBM 900 Only
Caution Messages
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APPENDIX A
COMPARATOR ANNUNCIATIONS
The Comparator monitors critical values generated by redundant sensors. If differences in the sensors exceed
a specified amount, this discrepancy is annunciated in the Comparator Window as a ‘MISCOMP’ (miscompare)
as seen in Figure A-1. If one or both of the sensed values are unavailable, it is annunciated as a ‘NO COMP’ (no
compare). The following is a list of the possible annunciations:
Comparator
Window
Figure A-1 Sensor Comparator Window
Comparator Window Text
ALT MISCOMP
IAS MISCOMP
HDG MISCOMP
PIT MISCOMP
ROL MISCOMP
ALT NO COMP
IAS NO COMP
HDG NO COMP
PIT NO COMP
ROL NO COMP
674
Condition
Difference in altitude sensors is > 200 ft.
If both airspeed sensors detect < 35 knots, this is inhibited.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 35 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 10 knots.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 80 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 7 knots.
Difference in heading sensors is > 6 degrees.
Difference in pitch sensors is > 5 degrees.
Difference in roll sensors is > 6 degrees.
No data from one or both altitude sensors.
No data from one or both airspeed sensors.
No data from one or both heading sensors.
No data from one or both pitch sensors.
No data from one or both roll sensors..
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Socata TBM 850/900
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APPENDIX A
REVERSIONARY SENSOR ANNUNCIATIONS
Reversionary sensor selection is annunciated in the Reversionary Sensor Window, as shown in Figure A-2.
These annunciations reflect reversionary sensors selected on one or both PFDs. Selecting the SENSOR Softkey
gives access to ADC1, ADC2, AHRS1, and AHRS2 Softkeys. These softkeys allow manual switching of sensors. In
the case of certain types of sensor failures, the G1000 may make some sensor selections automatically. The GPS
sensor cannot be switched manually.
Reversionary
Sensor
Window
Figure A-2 Reversionary Sensor Windows
Reversionary Sensor
Window Text
BOTH ON ADC1
BOTH ON ADC2
BOTH ON AHRS1
BOTH ON AHRS2
BOTH ON GPS1
BOTH ON GPS2
USING ADC1
USING ADC2
USING AHRS1
USING AHRS2
USING GPS1
USING GPS2
190-00709-07 Rev. B
Condition
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number one Air Data Computer.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number two Air Data Computer.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number one Attitude & Heading Reference System.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number two Attitude & Heading Reference System.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number one GPS receiver.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number two GPS receiver.
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 Air Data Computer.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 Air Data Computer.
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 AHRS.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 AHRS.
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 GPS.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 GPS.
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APPENDIX A
SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
When a new message is issued, the MSG Softkey flashes to alert the flight crew of a new message. It continues
to flash until acknowledged by selecting the softkey. Active messages are displayed in white text. Messages that
have become inactive change to gray text. The MSG Softkey flashes if the state of a displayed message changes
or a new message is displayed. The inactive messages can be removed from the Message Window by selecting
the flashing MSG Softkey.
Message Advisories are displayed in the Messages Window and convey messages to the flight crew regarding
problems with the G1000 or certain aircraft systems. Typically, a large red ‘X’ appears in a window when a
related LRU fails or detects invalid data.
The following section describes various system annunciations. Refer to the POH for additional information
regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
NOTE: Upon power-up of the G1000 system, certain windows remain invalid as G1000 equipment begins to
initialize. All windows should be operational within one minute of power-up. Should any window continue
to remain flagged, the G1000 system should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized repair facility.
System
Annunciation
Red ‘X’
Messages Window
Figure A-3 Message Advisories
676
Message Softkey
Annunciation
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APPENDIX A
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
GDC 74B Air
Data Computer
GRS 77 AHRS
Or
GMU 44
Magnetometer
GEA 71 Engine
Airframe Unit
Or
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Unit
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
GDC 74B Air
Data Computer
Figure A-4 System Failure Annunciations
System Annunciation
GTX 33/D Transponder
Or
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
Comment
Attitude and Heading Reference System is aligning.
Display system is not receiving attitude information from the AHRS.
Indicates a configuration module failure.
Display system is not receiving airspeed input from air data computer.
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APPENDIX A
System Annunciation
Comment
Display system is not receiving valid heading input from AHRS.
Display system is not receiving altitude input from the air data computer.
Display system is not receiving vertical speed input from the air data computer.
Display system is not receiving valid transponder information.
GPS information is either not present or is invalid for navigation use.
Note that AHRS utilizes GPS inputs during normal operation. AHRS operation may be degraded if
GPS signals are not present (see POH).
Other Various Red X
Indications
678
A red ‘X’ through any other display field (such as engine instrumentation display) indicates that
the field is not receiving valid data.
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APPENDIX A
MESSAGE ADVISORIES
This section describes various Message Advisories. Certain messages are issued due to an LRU or an LRU
function failure. Such messages are normally accompanied by a corresponding red ‘X’ annunciation as shown
previously in the System Annunciation section.
NOTE: This section provides information regarding Message Advisories that may be displayed by the
system. Knowledge of the aircraft, systems, flight conditions, and other existing operational priorities must
be considered when responding to a message. Always use sound pilot judgment. The Pilot’s Operating
Handbook (POH) takes precedence over any conflicting guidance found in this section.
Message
ABORT APR – Loss of GPS navigation.
Abort approach.
ADC1 ALT EC – ADC1 altitude error
correction is unavailable.
ADC1 AS EC – ADC1 airspeed error
correction is unavailable.
ADC2 ALT EC – ADC2 altitude error
correction is unavailable.
ADC2 AS EC – ADC2 airspeed error
correction is unavailable.
AHRS MAG DB – AHRS magnetic
model database version mismatch.
AHRS1 CAL – AHRS1 calibration
version error. Srvc req’d.
AHRS1 CONFIG– AHRS1 config
error. Config service req’d.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
any GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
backup GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 operating
exclusively in no-GPS mode.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 using backup
GPS source.
AHRS1 SRVC – AHRS1 Magnetic-field
model needs update.
AHRS1 TAS – AHRS1 not receiving
airspeed.
190-00709-07 Rev. B
Comments
Abort approach due to loss of GPS navigation.
GDC1 is reporting that the altitude error correction is unavailable.
GDC1 is reporting that the airspeed error correction is unavailable.
GDC2 is reporting that the altitude error correction is unavailable.
GDC2 is reporting that the airspeed error correction is unavailable.
The #1 AHRS and #2 AHRS magnetic model database versions do not match.
The AHRS1 calibration version error. The system should be serviced.
AHRS configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving any or any useful GPS information. Check AFMS
limitations. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS information. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The #1 AHRS is operating exclusively in no-GPS mode. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The #1 AHRS is using the backup GPS path. Primary GPS path has failed. The G1000
system should be serviced when possible.
The #1 AHRS earth magnetic field model is out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS
relies on GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The G1000 system should
be serviced.
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APPENDIX A
Message
AHRS2 CAL – AHRS2 calibration
version error. Srvc req’d.
AHRS2 CONFIG– AHRS2 config
error. Config service req’d.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 not receiving
any GPS information.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 not receiving
backup GPS information.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 operating
exclusively in no-GPS mode.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 using backup
GPS source.
AHRS2 SRVC – AHRS2 Magnetic-field
model needs update.
AHRS2 TAS – AHRS2 not receiving
airspeed.
Comments
The AHRS2 calibration version error. The system should be serviced.
AHRS configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving any or any useful GPS information. Check AFMS
limitations. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS information. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The #2 AHRS is operating exclusively in no-GPS mode. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The #2 AHRS is using the backup GPS path. Primary GPS path has failed. The G1000
system should be serviced when possible.
The #2 AHRS earth magnetic field model is out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS
relies on GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The G1000 system should
be serviced.
APR DWNGRADE – Approach
Vertical guidance generated by SBAS is unavailable, use LNAV only minimums.
downgraded.
APR INACTV – Approach is not active. The system notifies the pilot that the loaded approach is not active. Activate approach
when required.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead less Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft will penetrate the airspace within
than 10 minutes.
10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
than 2 nm.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and
ahead.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
AUDIO MANIFEST - Audio software
mismatch, communication halted.
The GDC 74B has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
CHECK CRS – Database course for
LOC1 / [LOC ID] is [CRS]°.
CHECK CRS – Database course for
LOC2 / [LOC ID] is [CRS]°.
CNFG MODULE – PFD1 configuration
module is inoperative.
COM1 CONFIG – COM1 config error.
Config service req’d.
COM 1 MANIFEST – COM1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
COM1 PTT – COM1 push-to-talk key
is stuck.
680
Selected course for LOC1 differs from published localizer course by more than 10
degrees.
Selected course for LOC2 differs from published localizer course by more than 10
degrees.
The PFD1 configuration module backup memory has failed. The