Garmin | G1000: Piper PA-46 M500 Meridian | Garmin G1000: Piper PA-46 M500 Meridian G1000 Pilot's Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian

Garmin G1000: Piper PA-46 M500 Meridian G1000 Pilot's Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
G1000
®
Integrated Avionics System
Pilot’s Guide
Piper PA-46 Meridian
Copyright © 2014 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 2163.04 or later for the Piper Meridian. Some differences in operation may
be observed when comparing the information in this manual to earlier or later software versions.
Garmin International, Inc., 1200 East 151st Street, Olathe, Kansas 66062, U.S.A.
Tel: 913/397.8200Fax: 913/397.8282
Garmin AT, Inc., 2345 Turner Road SE, Salem, OR 97302, U.S.A.
Tel: 503/391.3411Fax: 503/364.2138
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Tel: 44 (0) 23 8052 4000
Fax: 44 (0) 23 8052 4004 Aviation Support:44 (0) 87 0850 1243
Garmin Corporation, No. 68, Jangshu 2nd Road, Shijr, Taipei County, Taiwan
Tel: 886/02.2642.9199Fax: 886/02.2642.9099
For after-hours emergency, aircraft on ground (AOG) technical support for Garmin panel mount and integrated avionics systems, please
contact Garmin’s AOG Hotline at 913.397.0836.
Website Address: www.garmin.com
Except as expressly provided herein, no part of this manual may be reproduced, copied, transmitted, disseminated, downloaded or stored
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a single copy of this manual and of any revision to this manual onto a hard drive or other electronic storage medium to be viewed for
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and provided further that any unauthorized commercial distribution of this manual or any revision hereto is strictly prohibited.
Garmin®, G1000®, WATCH®, FliteCharts®, and SafeTaxi® are registered trademarks of Garmin International, Inc. or its subsidiaries. Garmin
ESP™, Garmin SVT™, and Connext™ are trademarks of Garmin International, Inc. or its subsidiaries. These trademarks may not be used
without the express permission of Garmin.
Stormscope® is a registered trademark of L-3 Communications. AC-U-KWIK® is a registered trademark of Penton Business Media Inc.
Bendix/King® and Honeywell® are registered trademarks of Honeywell International, Inc. Becker® is a registered trademark of Becker
Flugfunkwerk GmbH. NavData® is a registered trademark of Jeppesen, Inc.; Wi-Fi® is a registered trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance;
SiriusXM Weather and SiriusXM Satellite Radio are provided by SiriusXM Satellite Radio, Inc.
AOPA Membership Publications, Inc. and its related organizations (hereinafter collectively “AOPA”) expressly disclaim all warranties,
with respect to the AOPA information included in this data, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties
of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The information is provided “as is” and AOPA does not warrant or make any
representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Under no circumstances including negligence, shall AOPA be liable for any
incidental, special or consequential damages that result from the use or inability to use the software or related documentation, even if
AOPA or an AOPA authorized representative has been advised of the possibility of such damages. User agrees not to sue AOPA and, to
the maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AOPA from any causes of action, claims or losses related to any actual
or alleged inaccuracies in the information. Some jurisdictions do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for
incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you.
AC-U-KWIK and its related organizations (hereafter collectively “AC-U-KWIK Organizations”) expressly disclaim all warranties with
respect to the AC-U-KWIK information included in this data, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The information is provided “as is” and AC-U-KWIK Organizations do not warrant or
make any representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Licensee agrees not to sue AC-U-KWIK Organizations and, to the
maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AC-U-KWIK Organizations from any cause of action, claims or losses related
to any actual or alleged inaccuracies in the information arising out of Garmin’s use of the information in the datasets. Some jurisdictions
do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations
or exclusions may not apply to licensee.
December 2014
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Printed in the U.S.A.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Navigation and terrain separation must NOT be predicated upon the use of the terrain avoidance
feature. The terrain avoidance feature is NOT intended to be used as a primary reference for terrain avoidance
and does not relieve the pilot from the responsibility of being aware of surroundings during flight. The
terrain avoidance feature is only to be used as an aid for terrain avoidance. Terrain data is obtained from
third party sources. Garmin is not able to independently verify the accuracy of the terrain data.
WARNING: The displayed minimum safe altitudes (MSAs) are only advisory in nature and should not be
relied upon as the sole source of obstacle and terrain avoidance information. Always refer to current
aeronautical charts for appropriate minimum clearance altitudes.
WARNING: The altitude calculated by G1000 GPS receivers is geometric height above Mean Sea Level and
could vary significantly from the altitude displayed by pressure altimeters, such as the GDC 74A Air Data
Computer, or other altimeters in aircraft. GPS altitude should never be used for vertical navigation. Always
use pressure altitude displayed by the G1000 PFD or other pressure altimeters in aircraft.
WARNING: Do not use outdated database information. Databases used in the G1000 system must be updated
regularly in order to ensure that the information remains current. Pilots using any outdated database do so
entirely at their own risk.
WARNING: Do not use basemap (land and water data) information for primary navigation. Basemap data is
intended only to supplement other approved navigation data sources and should be considered as an aid to
enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate information
from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not rely on information from a lightning detection system display as the sole basis for hazardous
weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate or
incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: For safety reasons, G1000 operational procedures must be learned on the ground.
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
190-01843-00 Rev. A
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
WARNING: The Garmin G1000, as installed in this aircraft, has a very high degree of functional integrity.
However, the pilot must recognize that providing monitoring and/or self-test capability for all conceivable
system failures is not practical. Although unlikely, it may be possible for erroneous operation to occur
without a fault indication shown by the G1000. It is thus the responsibility of the pilot to detect such an
occurrence by means of cross-checking with all redundant or correlated information available in the cockpit.
WARNING: The United States government operates the Global Positioning System and is solely responsible
for its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy
and performance of all GPS equipment. Portions of the Garmin G1000 utilize GPS as a precision electronic
NAVigation AID (NAVAID). Therefore, as with all NAVAIDs, information presented by the G1000 can be
misused or misinterpreted and, therefore, become unsafe.
WARNING: To reduce the risk of unsafe operation, carefully review and understand all aspects of the G1000
Pilot’s Guide documentation and the G1000 Integrated Avionics System in the Airplane Flight Manual.
Thoroughly practice basic operation prior to actual use. During flight operations, carefully compare indications
from the G1000 to all available navigation sources, including the information from other NAVAIDs, visual
sightings, charts, etc. For safety purposes, always resolve any discrepancies before continuing navigation.
WARNING: The illustrations in this guide are only examples. Never use the G1000 to attempt to penetrate
a thunderstorm. Both the FAA Advisory Circular, Subject: Thunderstorms, and the Aeronautical Information
Manual (AIM) recommend avoiding “by at least 20 miles any thunderstorm identified as severe or giving an
intense radar echo.”
WARNING: Lamp(s) inside this product may contain mercury (HG) and must be recycled or disposed of
according to local, state, or federal laws. For more information, refer to our website at www.garmin.com/
aboutGarmin/environment/disposal.jsp.
WARNING: Because of variation in the earth’s magnetic field, operating within the following areas could
result in loss of reliable attitude and heading indications. North of 72° North latitude at all longitudes;
South of 70° South latitude at all longitudes; North of 65° North latitude between longitude 75° W and
120° W. (Northern Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 70° W and 128° W. (Northern
Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 85° E and 114° E. (Northern Russia); South of 55°
South latitude between longitude 120° E and 165° E. (Region south of Australia and New Zealand)
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not operate properly
with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height above mean sea level, or the
standard pressure setting, as applicable.
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
iii
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use GPS to navigate to any active waypoint identified as a ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ by a
system message. ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ waypoints are derived from an unknown map reference datum that
may be incompatible with the map reference datum used by GPS (known as WGS84) and may be positioned
in error as displayed.
CAUTION: The PFD and MFD displays use a lens coated with a special anti-reflective coating that is very
sensitive to skin oils, waxes, and abrasive cleaners. CLEANERS CONTAINING AMMONIA WILL HARM THE
ANTI-REFLECTIVE COATING. It is very important to clean the lens using a clean, lint-free cloth and an
eyeglass lens cleaner that is specified as safe for anti-reflective coatings.
CAUTION: The Garmin G1000 does not contain any user-serviceable parts. Repairs should only be made by
an authorized Garmin service center. Unauthorized repairs or modifications could void both the warranty
and the pilot’s authority to operate this device under FAA/FCC regulations.
NOTE: When using Stormscope, there are several atmospheric phenomena in addition to nearby
thunderstorms that can cause isolated discharge points in the strike display mode. However, clusters of
two or more discharge points in the strike display mode do indicate thunderstorm activity if these points
reappear after the screen has been cleared.
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE: All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen images of the G1000 panel and
displays, are subject to change and may not reflect the most current G1000 system and aviation databases.
Depictions of equipment may differ slightly from the actual equipment.
NOTE: This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any
interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
NOTE: Interference from GPS repeaters operating inside nearby hangars can cause an intermittent loss of
attitude and heading displays while the aircraft is on the ground. Moving the aircraft more than 100 yards
away from the source of the interference should alleviate the condition.
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the flight displays to appear dim or blank.
iv
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
190-01843-00 Rev. A
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals known to the State of California
to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This notice is being provided in accordance with
California’s Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would like additional information, please refer to
our web site at www.garmin.com/prop65.
NOTE: The FAA has asked Garmin to remind pilots who fly with Garmin database-dependent avionics of the
following:
• It is the pilot’s responsibility to remain familiar with all FAA regulatory and advisory guidance and information
related to the use of databases in the National Airspace System.
• Garmin equipment will only recognize and use databases that are obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen. Databases
obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen are assured compliance with all data quality requirements (DQRs) by virtue
of a Type 2 Letter of Authorization (LOA) from the FAA. A copy of the Type 2 LOA is available for each database
and can be viewed at http://fly.garmin.com by selecting ‘Type 2 LOA Status.’
• Use of a current Garmin or Jeppesen database in your Garmin equipment is required for compliance with
established FAA regulatory guidance, but does not constitute authorization to fly any and all terminal procedures
that may be presented by the system. It is the pilot’s responsibility to operate in accordance with established
AFM(S) and regulatory guidance or limitations as applicable to the pilot, the aircraft, and installed equipment.
NOTE: The pilot/operator must review and be familiar with Garmin’s database exclusion list as discussed
in SAIB CE-14-04 to determine what data may be incomplete. The database exclusion list can be viewed at
www.flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Database Exclusions List.’
NOTE: The pilot/operator must have access to Garmin and Jeppesen database alerts and consider their
impact on the intended aircraft operation. The database alerts can be viewed at www.flygarmin.com by
selecting ‘Aviation Database Alerts.’
NOTE: If the pilot/operator wants or needs to adjust the database, contact Garmin Product Support to
coordinate the revised DQRs.
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information.
These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles
and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go
to FlyGarmin.com and select ‘Report An Aviation Data Error Report.’
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
v
REVISION INFORMATION
Record of Revisions
Part Number
190-01843-00
vi
Revision
A
Date
12/10/14
Page Range
Description
Initial Release with GDU SW Version 14.04
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
190-01843-00 Rev. A
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Description.................................................. 1
Line Replaceable Units (LRU).................................. 2
G1000 Controls......................................................... 5
PFD/mfd Controls.......................................................... 5
MFD/PFD Control Unit.................................................... 7
AFCS Controls............................................................... 9
Audio Panel Controls................................................... 11
Secure Digital Cards.............................................. 13
System Power-up.................................................... 14
System Operation................................................... 15
Normal Operation........................................................ 15
Reversionary Mode...................................................... 16
AHRS Operation.......................................................... 17
G1000 System Annunciations....................................... 18
Softkey Function.......................................................... 19
GPS Receiver Operation............................................... 26
Accessing G1000 Functionality............................ 31
Menus........................................................................ 31
MFD Page Groups........................................................ 32
MFD System Pages...................................................... 36
Display Backlighting.............................................. 53
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 Flight Instruments.................................................. 58
Airspeed Indicator....................................................... 58
Attitude Indicator........................................................ 60
Altimeter.................................................................... 61
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)........................................ 63
Vertical Deviation........................................................ 64
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............................... 66
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)................................... 71
2.2 Supplemental Flight Data..................................... 79
Temperature Displays................................................... 79
Wind Data.................................................................. 80
Vertical Navigation (VNV) Indications............................ 81
2.3 PFD Annunciations and Alerting Functions......... 82
Marker Beacon Annunciations...................................... 82
Traffic Annunciation..................................................... 82
TAWS Annunciations.................................................... 83
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Altitude Alerting.......................................................... 83
Low Altitude Annunciation........................................... 84
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height Alerting....... 84
2.4 Abnormal Operations............................................ 87
Abnormal GPS Conditions............................................ 87
Heading Failure Modes................................................ 88
Unusual Attitudes........................................................ 88
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION (EIS)
3.1 Engine Indication System (EIS)............................. 93
Engine Parameters....................................................... 94
Cabin Pressurization.................................................... 96
Fuel Information.......................................................... 96
Electrical Information................................................... 97
Vacuum Pressure......................................................... 97
Trim and Flap Indicators............................................... 97
Landing Gear Indicator................................................. 98
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Overview................................................................. 99
PFD Controls and Frequency Display............................ 100
Audio Panel Controls................................................. 102
MFD/PFD Control Unit................................................ 104
COM Operation..................................................... 106
COM Transceiver Selection and Activation.................... 106
COM Transceiver Manual Tuning................................. 107
Quick-tuning and Activating 121.500 MHz................... 109
Auto-tuning the COM Frequency................................. 110
Frequency Spacing..................................................... 115
Automatic Squelch..................................................... 116
Volume..................................................................... 116
NAV Operation...................................................... 117
NAV Radio Selection and Activation............................ 117
NAV Receiver Manual Tuning...................................... 118
Auto-tuning a NAV Frequency from the MFD................ 120
Auto-tuning NAV Frequencies on Approach Activation.. 124
Marker Beacon Receiver............................................. 124
ADF/DME Tuning....................................................... 125
GTX 33 ES/33D ES Mode S Transponders.......... 130
Transponder Controls................................................. 130
Transponder Mode Selection....................................... 131
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Entering a Transponder Code...................................... 133
IDENT Function......................................................... 135
ADS-B TX.................................................................. 135
NDBs........................................................................ 188
VORs........................................................................ 190
User Waypoints......................................................... 192
4.5 Additional Audio Panel Functions...................... 136
Power-Up.................................................................. 136
Mono/Stereo Headsets............................................... 136
Speaker.................................................................... 136
Passenger Address Mode (PA Mode)............................ 136
Clearance Recorder and Player.................................... 136
Intercom System (ICS) ............................................... 137
Split COM Mode........................................................ 142
Entertainment Inputs................................................. 143
4.6 Audio Panels Preflight Procedure....................... 144
Audio Panel Preflight................................................. 144
4.7 Abnormal Operation............................................ 145
Audio Panel Fail-safe Operation.................................. 145
Stuck Microphone...................................................... 145
COM Tuning Failure.................................................... 145
PFD Failure, Dual System............................................ 145
5.4 Airspaces............................................................... 198
5.5 Direct-to-Navigation ........................................... 203
5.6 Flight Planning...................................................... 209
Flight Plan Creation................................................... 210
Adding Waypoints to an Existing Flight Plan................. 215
Adding Airways to a Flight Plan.................................. 218
Adding Procedures to a Stored Flight Plan................... 221
Flight Plan Storage.................................................... 228
Flight Plan Editing..................................................... 230
Along Track Offsets.................................................... 234
Parallel Track............................................................. 235
Activating a Flight Plan Leg........................................ 238
Inverting a Flight Plan................................................ 239
Flight Plan Views....................................................... 240
Closest Point of FPL................................................... 242
User-Defined Holding Patterns.................................... 243
5.7 Vertical Navigation.............................................. 248
Altitude Constraints................................................... 250
5.8 Procedures............................................................ 254
Departures................................................................ 255
Arrivals .................................................................... 258
Approaches .............................................................. 261
5.9 Trip Planning......................................................... 269
Trip Planning............................................................. 269
Weight Planning........................................................ 273
Weight Caution And Warning Conditions..................... 275
5.10 RAIM Prediction................................................... 276
5.11 Navigating a Flight Plan...................................... 280
5.12 Abnormal Operation............................................ 308
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 Introduction.......................................................... 147
Navigation Status Box................................................ 148
5.2 Using Map Displays.............................................. 150
Map Orientation........................................................ 150
Map Range............................................................... 152
Map Panning............................................................. 154
Measuring Bearing and Distance................................. 160
Topography............................................................... 161
Map Symbols............................................................ 164
Airways.................................................................... 170
Track Vector.............................................................. 172
Wind Vector.............................................................. 173
Nav Range Ring........................................................ 174
Fuel Range Ring........................................................ 175
Field of View (SVS)..................................................... 176
Selected Altitude Intercept Arc.................................... 177
5.3 Waypoints.............................................................. 178
Airports.................................................................... 179
Intersections............................................................. 186
viii
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 SiriusXM Weather................................................. 312
Activating Services.................................................... 312
Using SiriusXM Weather Products............................... 313
6.2 Garmin Connext Weather.................................... 347
Registering the system for Garmin Connext Weather..... 347
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
190-01843-00 Rev. A
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Accessing Garmin Connext Weather Products............... 349
Connext Weather Data Requests................................. 355
Garmin Connext Weather Products.............................. 359
Abnormal Operations................................................. 371
6.3 Airborne Color Weather Radar........................... 373
System Description.................................................... 373
Principles of Pulsed Airborne Weather Radar................ 373
NEXRAD and Airborne Weather Radar ........................ 374
Antenna Beam Illumination........................................ 374
Safe Operating Distance............................................. 377
Basic Antenna Tilt Setup............................................. 378
Weather Mapping and Interpretation.......................... 380
Ground Mapping and Interpretation............................ 392
Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page.... 393
System Status............................................................ 394
6.4 Stormscope Lightning.......................................... 396
Setting Up Stormscope on the Navigation Map............ 396
Selecting the Stormscope Page................................... 400
6.5 Terrain Proximity.................................................. 402
Displaying Terrain Proximity Data................................ 402
Terrain Proximity Page................................................ 405
6.6 Terrain-SVS............................................................ 407
Displaying Terrain-SVS Data........................................ 408
Terrain-SVS Page....................................................... 410
Terrain-SVS Alerts...................................................... 412
System Status............................................................ 415
6.7 TAWS-B.................................................................. 417
Displaying TAWS-B Data............................................. 418
TAWS-B Page............................................................ 421
TAWS-B Alerts........................................................... 423
System Status............................................................ 429
6.8 Profile View Terrain.............................................. 431
Profile View Display................................................... 431
Profile Path............................................................... 433
6.9 Traffic Information Service (TIS)......................... 435
Displaying TRAFFIC Data............................................ 436
Traffic Map Page........................................................ 438
TIS Alerts.................................................................. 439
System Status............................................................ 441
190-01843-00 Rev. A
6.10 TAS/TCAS I Traffic................................................. 443
Theory of Operation................................................... 443
Traffic Alerts.............................................................. 447
System Test............................................................... 448
Operation................................................................. 449
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 AFCS Controls....................................................... 458
7.2 Flight Director Operation.................................... 460
Activating the Flight Director...................................... 460
AFCS Status Box........................................................ 461
Flight Director Modes................................................. 462
Switching Flight Directors........................................... 462
Command Bars.......................................................... 463
Underspeed Protection............................................... 463
7.3 Vertical Modes...................................................... 465
Pitch Hold Mode (PIT)................................................ 466
Selected Altitude Capture Mode (ALTS)........................ 467
Altitude Hold Mode (ALT)........................................... 468
Vertical Speed Mode (VS)........................................... 469
Flight Level Change Mode (FLC).................................. 470
Glideslope Mode (GS)................................................ 478
Take Off and Go Around Modes (TO/GA)...................... 479
Level Mode (LVL)....................................................... 480
7.4 Lateral Modes....................................................... 481
Roll Hold Mode (ROL)................................................ 482
Low Bank Mode........................................................ 482
Heading Select Mode (HDG)....................................... 483
Navigation Modes (GPS, VOR, LOC)............................. 484
Approach Modes (GPS, VAPP, LOC).............................. 485
Backcourse Mode (BC)............................................... 487
Level Mode (LVL)....................................................... 488
7.5 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Operation.............. 489
Flight Control............................................................ 489
Engagement.............................................................. 490
Control Wheel Steering.............................................. 490
Disengagement......................................................... 491
7.6 Example Flight Plan............................................. 492
Intercepting a VOR Radial........................................... 494
Flying a Flight Plan/GPS Course.................................. 495
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Descent.................................................................... 496
Approach.................................................................. 500
Go Around/Missed Approach...................................... 502
7.6 AFCS Annunciations and Alerts.......................... 504
AFCS Status Alerts..................................................... 504
Overspeed Protection................................................. 505
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
x
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT)...................... 508
SVT Operation........................................................... 509
SVT Features............................................................. 511
Field of View............................................................. 520
SafeTaxi................................................................. 522
SafeTaxi Database Cycle Number and Revision............. 525
ChartView.............................................................. 528
ChartView Softkeys.................................................... 529
Terminal Procedures Charts........................................ 530
Chart Options............................................................ 538
Day/Night View......................................................... 544
ChartView Cycle Number and Expiration Date.............. 546
FliteCharts............................................................. 549
FliteCharts Softkeys................................................... 550
Terminal Procedures Charts........................................ 551
Chart Options............................................................ 558
Day/Night View......................................................... 562
FliteCharts Cycle Number and Expiration Date.............. 564
Airport Directory.................................................. 567
Airport Directory Database Cycle Number and Revision.568
Satellite Telephone and SMS Messaging........... 570
Registering With Garmin Connext............................... 570
Telephone Communication......................................... 571
Text Messaging (SMS)................................................ 578
SiriusXM Satellite Radio Entertainment............ 591
Activating SiriusXM Satellite Radio Services................. 591
Using SiriusXM Satellite Radio.................................... 592
Scheduler............................................................... 596
Flight Data Logging............................................. 598
Electronic Stability & Protection (ESP™)............ 600
Roll Engagement....................................................... 601
Pitch Engagement..................................................... 603
High Airspeed Protection............................................ 603
8.11 Abnormal Operation............................................ 604
SVT Troubleshooting.................................................. 604
Reversionary Mode.................................................... 604
Unusual Attitudes...................................................... 605
APPENDICES
Annunciations and Alerts.............................................. 609
CAS Messages........................................................... 610
G1000 System Annunciations..................................... 614
G1000 System Messages............................................ 616
Flight Plan Import/Export Messages............................ 630
Pilot Profile Import/Export Messages........................... 630
AFCS Alerts............................................................... 631
Terrain-SVS Alerts...................................................... 632
Terrain-SVS System Status Annunciations..................... 632
TAWS-B ALERTS......................................................... 633
TAWS-B System Status Annunciations.......................... 634
Database Management................................................. 635
Jeppesen Databases................................................... 636
Garmin Databases..................................................... 639
Frequently Asked Questions......................................... 655
Map Symbols.................................................................. 659
INDEX
Index .................................................................................I-1
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
190-01843-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
This section provides an overview of the G1000 Integrated Avionics System as installed in the Piper Meridian.
The G1000 system is an integrated flight control system that presents flight instrumentation, position, navigation,
communication, and identification information to the pilot through large-format displays. The system consists of
the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• GDU 1040 Primary Flight Display (PFD)
• GDL 69A Satellite Data Link Receiver
• GDU 1240A Multi Function Display (MFD)
• GWX 68 Weather Radar
• GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Unit
• GCU 476 MFD/PFD Control Unit
• GDC 74A Air Data Computer (ADC)
• GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
• GEA 71 Engine/Airframe Unit
• GTP 59 Outside Air Temperature (OAT) Probe
• GRS 77 Attitude and Heading Reference System
(AHRS)
• GSA 81 AFCS Servos
• GMU 44 Magnetometer
• GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver
• GMA 350 Audio Panel with Integrated Marker
Beacon Receiver
• GTS 825/855 Traffic Avoidance System
• GTX 33/GTX 33D Extended Squitter Mode S
Transponder
• GSM 86 Servo Gearboxes
• GRT 10 Iridium Transceiver
A top-level G1000 system block diagram is shown in Figure 1-1 (it does not include the GSM 86).
NOTE: Refer to the AFCS section for details on the Garmin AFCS.
In the Piper Meridian, the Garmin Automated Flight Control System (AFCS) provides the flight director (FD),
autopilot (AP), and yaw damper (YD) functions of the G1000 system.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.2 LINE REPLACEABLE UNITS (LRU)
• GDU 1040 (2) – Each unit is configured as a PFD that features a 10.4-inch LCD with 1024 x 768 resolution.
The unit installed on the left/pilot side is designated as PFD1, and the one installed on the right/copilot side
is designated as PFD2. These units communicate with each other, the MFD, and with the on-side GIA 63W
Integrated Avionics Unit through a High-Speed Data Bus (HSDB) connection.
• GDU 1240A (1) – Features a 12-inch LCD with 1024 x 768 resolution and is configured as an MFD. This unit
is linked to both PFDs via HSDB connection.
• GIA 63W (2) – Functions as the main communication hub, linking all LRUs with the on-side PFD. Each
GIA 63W contains a GPS SBAS receiver, VHF COM/NAV/GS receivers, a flight director (FD) and system
integration microprocessors. Each GIA 63W is paired with the on-side PFD via HSDB connection. The GIA
63Ws are not paired together and do not communicate with each other directly.
• GDC 74A (2) – Processes data from the pitot/static system as well as the OAT probe. This unit provides
pressure altitude, airspeed, vertical speed and OAT information to the G1000 system, and it communicates
with the on-side GIA 63W, on-side GDU 1040 and on-side GRS 77, using an ARINC 429 digital interface (it
also interfaces directly with the on-side GTP 59). The GDC 74A is designed to operate in Reduced Vertical
Separation Minimum (RVSM) airspace.
• GEA 71 (1) – Receives and processes signals from the engine and airframe sensors. This unit communicates
with both GIA 63Ws using an RS-485 digital interface.
• GRS 77 (2) – Provides aircraft attitude and heading information via ARINC 429 to both the on-side GDU 1040
and the on-side GIA 63W. The GRS 77 contains advanced sensors (including accelerometers and rate sensors)
and interfaces with the on-side GMU 44 to obtain magnetic field information, with the GDC 74A to obtain air
data, and with both GIA 63Ws to obtain GPS information. AHRS modes of operation are discussed later in this
document.
• GMU 44 (2) – Measures local magnetic field. Data is sent to the GRS 77 for processing to determine aircraft
magnetic heading. This unit receives power directly from the GRS 77 and communicates with the GRS 77,
using an RS-485 digital interface.
• GMA 350 (1) – The Audio Panel integrates NAV/COM audio, intercom, telephone, and marker beacon controls
(refer to the Audio Panel & CNS Section). This unit communicates with both GIA 63Ws, using an RS-232
digital interface.
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• GTX 33 ES/33D ES (1 or 2) – The GTX 33 ES is a solid-state transponder that provide Modes A, C, S and
ADS-B capability. The second transponder can be another GTX 33 ES or a GTX 33D ES (includes Mode S with
diversity). Both transponders can be controlled from either PFD, and only one transponder can be active at a
time. Each transponder communicates with the on-side GIA 63W through an RS-232 digital interface.
• GWX 68 (1) – Provides airborne weather and ground mapped radar data to the MFD, through the GDL 69A,
via HSDB connection.
• GCU 476 (1) – The Control Unit provides MFD/PFD and radio tuning control through an RS-232 digital
interface.
• GMC 710 (1) – Provides the controls for the Garmin AFCS through an RS-232 digital interface allowing
communication with both PFDs.
• GTP 59 (2) – Provides Outside Air Temperature (OAT) data to the on-side GDC 74A.
• GSA 81 (4) and GSM 86 (4) – The GSA 81 servos are used for the automatic control of roll, pitch, and yaw,
and pitch trim. These units interface with each GIA 63W.
The GSM 86 servo gearbox is responsible for transferring the output torque of the GSA 81 servo actuator to the
mechanical flight-control surface linkage.
• GDL 69A (1)(optional) – A satellite radio receiver that provides real-time weather information to the G1000
MFD (and, indirectly, to the inset map of the PFD) as well as digital audio entertainment. The GDL 69A
communicates with the MFD via HSDB connection. A subscription to the XM Satellite Radio service is required
to enable the GDL 69A capability.
GRC 10 Remote Control (optional with GDL 69A)
GRT 10 Remote Control Transceiver (optional with GDL 69A)
• GSR 56 (1 optional) – The Iridium Transceiver provides voice communication by means of pilot and copilot
headsets. The unit can also send and receive data over the Iridium satellite network. The GSR 56 is connected
to the #2 GIA 63W with an RS-232 digital interface.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GRT 10/GRC 10
(XM Remote
Control)
#1
GDU 1040
(PFD1)
GDL 69A
(XM Weather/
Audio Datalink)
#3
GDU 1240A
(MFD)
GCU 476
(Display
Controller)
GWX 68
(Weather
Radar)
GTS 825/855
(TAS/TCAS I)
GSR 56
(Iridium)
Reversionary
Switch
Reversionary
Switch
GMA 350
(Audio
Panel)
#1 GIA 63W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
#1 GDC 74A
(Air Data
Computer)
#2
GDU 1040
(PFD2)
#2 GIA 63W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
#2 GDC 74A
(Air Data
Computer)
#1 GMA 44
(Magnetometer)
#2 GMA 44
(Magnetometer)
VHF COM
VHF COM
GPS/SBAS
GPS/SBAS
#1 GRS 77
(Attitude &
Heading)
VOR/LOC
G/S
#2 GRS 77
(Attitude &
Heading)
VOR/LOC
G/S
AFCS Mode
Logic
AFCS Mode
Logic
Flight
Director
Flight
Director
GEA 71
(Engine & Airframe
I/F)
Servo
Management
Servo
Management
GSA 81 (4)
(Garmin AFCS
Servos)
Garmin Equipment
#1 GTX 33 w/ES or
GTX 33D w/ES
(Transponder)
#2 GTX 33 w/ES
(Transponder)
RA-3504
(ADF)
KN-63
(DME)
WX-500
(Lightning
Detection)
ARTEX ELT
(ELT)
Non-Garmin Equipment
Optional
Garmin Equipment
Optional
Non-Garmin Equipment
Figure 1-1 G1000 System (LRU Configuration)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.3 G1000 CONTROLS
NOTE: The Audio Panel (GMA 350) and AFCS controls (GMC 710) are described in the CNS & Audio Panel
and AFCS sections respectively.
The G1000 system controls are located on the PFD bezels, MFD/PFD Control Unit, AFCS Control Unit and
audio panel. The controls for the PFD and MFD are discussed within the following pages of this section.
PFD/MFD CONTROLS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
13
11
14
12
15
16
18
17
Figure 1-2 PFD Controls
1
NAV VOL/ID Knob Turn to control NAV audio volume (shown in the NAV Frequency Box as a
percentage)
Press to toggle Morse code identifier audio ON/OFF
2 NAV Frequency
Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies
Transfer Key
3 NAV Knob
Turn to tune NAV receiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for kHz)
Press to toggle cyan tuning box between NAV1 and NAV2
4 Heading Knob
Turn to manually select a heading
Press to display a digital heading momentarily to the left of the HSI and synchronize
the Selected Heading to the and current heading
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Turn to change map range
Press to activate Map Pointer for map panning
Turn large knob for altimeter barometric pressure setting
CRS/BARO Knob
Turn small knob to adjust course (only when HSI is in VOR or OBS Mode)
Press to re-center the CDI and return course pointer directly TO bearing of active
waypoint/station
Turn to tune COM transceiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for
COM Knob
kHz)
Press to toggle cyan tuning box between COM1 and COM2
The selected COM (green) is controlled with the COM MIC Key (Audio Panel).
Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies
COM Frequency
Transfer Key
Press and hold 2 seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically
(EMERG)
into the active frequency field
COM VOL/SQ Knob Turn to control COM audio volume level (shown as a percentage in the COM
Frequency Box)
Press to turn the COM automatic squelch ON/OFF
Direct-to Key ( ) Activates the direct-to function and allows the user to enter a destination waypoint
and establish a direct course to the selected destination (specified by identifier,
chosen from the active route)
Displays flight plan information
FPL Key
Joystick
12
CLR Key
(DFLT MAP)
13
MENU Key
14
PROC Key
15
ENT Key
16
FMS Knob
Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus
Press and hold to display the MFD Navigation Map Page (MFD only).
Displays a context-sensitive list of options for accessing additional features or making
setting changes
Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs), and
approach procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan or selected airport
Validates/confirms menu selection or data entry
Press to turn the selection cursor ON/OFF.
(Flight Management Data Entry: With cursor ON, turn to enter data in the highlighted field (large
knob moves cursor location; small knob selects character for highlighted cursor
System Knob)
location)
Scrolling: When a list of information is too long for the window/box, a scroll bar
appears, indicating more items to view. With cursor ON, turn large knob to scroll
through the list.
Page Selection: Turn knob on MFD to select the page to view (large knob selects a
page group; small knob selects a specific page from the group)
17 Softkey Selection
Press to select softkey shown above the bezel key on the PFD/MFD display
Keys
18 ALT Knob
Sets the Selected Altitude, shown above the Altimeter (the large knob selects the
thousands, the small knob selects the hundreds)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
The NAV, CRS/BARO, COM, FMS, and ALT knobs are concentric dual knobs, each having small (inner)
and large (outer) control portion. When a portion of the knob is not specified in the text, either may be used.
Large (Outer) Knob
Small (Inner) Knob
Figure 1-3 Dual Concentric Knob
MFD/PFD CONTROL UNIT
The MFD/PFD Control Unit is a pedestal-mounted user interface allowing for ease of data entry, MFD/PFD
operation, and NAV/COM tuning. Many procedures in this Pilot’s Guide can be performed using the MFD/PFD
Control Unit rather than the display bezel controls. Indicators above the PFD, MFD, NAV, and COM keys are
illuminated when their respective control mode(s) are selected. The unit is in MFD control mode by default on
system power-up.
NAV/COM radio tuning can be accomplished in either PFD or MFD control mode. The appropriate frequency
box on the selected display is outlined by a cyan selection box, which flashes for a few seconds to indicate
Control Unit activity (refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information about NAV/COM tuning).
Selection of a different display control or radio tuning mode results in cancelation of the previous radio tuning
mode.
1
2
3
4
5
19
18
17
16
15
6
14
13
7
12
8
11
10
9
Figure 1-4 GCU 476 MFD/PFD Control Unit (Optional)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1
FPL Key
2
Direct-to Key (
6
) Activates the direct-to function and allows the user to enter a destination waypoint
and establish a direct course to the selected destination (specified by identifier,
chosen from the active route)
Displays a context-sensitive list of options for accessing additional features or making
MENU Key
setting changes
Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs), and
PROC Key
approach procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan or selected airport
Turn to change map range
Joystick
Press to activate Map Pointer for map panning
Alphanumeric Keys Allow data entry (rather than using the FMS Knob to select characters/numbers)
7
BKSP Key
Moves cursor back one character space and removes last character entered
8
SPC Key
Adds a space character
9
ENT Key
Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry
10
CLR Key
11
SEL Key
Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus
Press and hold to display the MFD Navigation Map Page (MFD only).
Arrows move cyan Softkey Selection Box (Figure 1-10) on selected display
Press the center to activate the selected softkey
12
Decimal Key
13
Plus-Minus (±) Key Toggles entry between the + and - characters
14
NAV Key
Selects/deselects NAV radio tuning mode on the MFD/PFD Control Unit
15
COM Key
Selects/deselects COM radio tuning mode on the MFD/PFD Control Unit
16
Frequency Transfer Transfers between active and standby selected COM or NAV tuning frequencies
Key
Press and hold 2 seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically
(EMERG)
into the active frequency field
17
PFD Key
When selected, the MFD/PFD Control Unit can be used to access PFD functions
18
MFD Key
19
FMS/NAV-COM
Knob
When selected, the MFD/PFD Control Unit can be used to access MFD functions
(default display control mode)
NAV/COM Tuning Modes: Acts as the NAV or COM Knob
PFD/MFD Control Modes: Acts as the FMS Knob
3
4
5
8
Displays flight plan information
Enters a decimal point character
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AFCS CONTROLS
NOTE: With the exception of the FD and SPD Keys, if a key is selected, its respective annunciator is illuminated.
1
2
3
4
19
18
17
16
5
15
14
6
7
13
12
8
11
10
9
Figure 1-5 AFCS Control Unit (GMC 710)
The GARMIN AFCS is mainly controlled through the GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit. The AFCS Control Unit
consists of the following controls:
1
HDG Key – Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode.
2
APR Key – Selects/deselects Approach Mode.
3
NAV Key – Selects/deselects Navigation Mode.
4
FD Key – Activates/deactivates the flight director in the default pitch and roll modes. If the autopilot is
engaged, the FD Key is disabled.
5
XFR Key – Switches the autopilot between the pilot-side and the copilot-side flight directors. This selection
also selects which air data computer is communicating with the active transponder. Upon power-up, the
pilot-side FD is selected.
6
ALT Key – Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode.
7
VS Key – Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode.
8
FLC Key – Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode.
9
CRS2 Knob – Sets the copilot-selected course on the HSI of PFD2 when the VOR1, VOR2, or OBS/SUSP
mode is selected. Pressing this knob centers the CDI on the currently selected VOR. The copilot-selected
course provides course reference to the copilot-side flight director when operating in Navigation and
Approach modes.
10
SPD Key (Disabled) – If pressed, “SPD KEY DISABLED The SPD key is disabled for this model aircraft.”
annunciation appears in the Messages window.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
11
NOSE UP/DN Wheel – Controls the active mode reference for the Pitch, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level
Change modes.
12
VNV Key – Selects/deselects Vertical Navigation mode.
13
ALT SEL Knob – Sets the selected altitude in the Selected Altitude Box. In addition to providing the
standard G1000 altitude alerter function, selected altitude provides an altitude setting for the Altitude
Capture/Hold mode of the AFCS.
14
YD Key – Engages/disengages the yaw damper.
15
AP Key – Engages/disengages the autopilot.
16
BANK Key – Selects/deselects Low Bank Mode.
17
CRS1 Knob – Sets the pilot-selected course on the HSI of PFD1 when the VOR1, VOR2, or OBS/SUSP mode
is selected. Pressing this knob centers the CDI on the currently selected VOR. The pilot-selected course
provides course reference to the pilot-side flight director when operating in Navigation and Approach
modes.
18
BC Key – Selects/deselects Back Course Mode.
19
HDG Knob – Sets the selected heading on the HSI. When operating in Heading Select mode, this knob
provides the heading reference to the flight director.
ADDITIONAL AFCS CONTROLS
The AP DISC (Autopilot Disconnect) Switch, CWS (Control Wheel Steering) Button, GO AROUND
Switch, and MEPT (Manual Electric Pitch Trim) Switch are additional AFCS controls and are located in the cockpit,
separately from the AFCS Control Unit. These are discussed in detail in the AFCS section.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
1
11
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
10
20
21
Figure 1-6 GMA 350 Controls
NOTE: When a key is selected, a triangular annunciator above the key is illuminated.
1
MKR/MUTE – Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker beacon receiver
audio. Deactivates automatically and marker beacon audio is heard when the next marker beacon signal
is received. Also, stops play of recorded COM audio.
2
COM1 – When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard. Press and hold to enable/disable
monitored COM muting during primary COM reception.
3
COM2 – When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard. Press and hold to enable/disable
monitored COM muting during primary COM reception.
4
NAV1 – When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
5
NAV2 – When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
6
– Selects and deselects audio from a telephone or entertainment device connected to the Front Panel
Jack. Audio from a telephone connected to the rear of the audio panel is used if a device is not connected
to the Front Panel Jack. Press and hold to enable/disable
muting during reception.
7
MUS1 – Selects and deselects music entertainment audio. Press and hold to enable/disable MUS1 muting
during reception.
8
MUS2 – Selects and deselects music entertainment audio. Press and hold to enable/disable MUS2 muting
during reception.
9
MAN SQ – Manual Squelch annunciator. When lit, squelch is controlled manually.
10
Volume Indicator – Indicates volume/squelch setting relative to full scale.
11
Front Panel Jack – Used for an entertainment or telephone input.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
12
12
MIC1 – Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously selected when this key
is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM receiver to be heard. COM2 receive can be added by
pressing the COM2 Key. Selection of a second MIC button initiates Split-COM mode. When in Split-COM
mode, the pilot is using COM1, the copilot is using the COM2.
13
MIC2 – Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously selected when this key
is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM receiver to be heard. COM1 receive can be added by
pressing the COM1 Key. Selection of a second MIC button initiates Split-COM mode. When in Split-COM
mode, the pilot is using COM1, the copilot is using the COM2.
14
PLAY – Press once to play the latest recorded memory block. Press while audio is playing begins playing
the previously recorded memory block. Each subsequent press thereafter plays the previous block of
memory.
15
AUX – When selected, audio from the ADF and DME (if equipped) can be heard.
16
PILOT – Controls the pilot intercom system. Press and hold to toggle 3D Audio on/off for all headset
positions.
17
COPLT – Controls the copilot intercom system. Press and hold to toggle copilot configuration between
crew and passenger.
18
PASS – Controls the passenger intercom system. Press and hold to enable/disable passenger muting
during reception.
19
SPKR – Selects and deselects the cabin speaker. COM, NAV, AUX, and MKR receiver audio can be heard
on the speaker. Press and hold for 2 seconds for Passenger Address (PA). The SPKR key flashes during
PA.
20
Cursor (CRSR) Control Knob – Turn to move the cursor (flashing white or cyan annunciator) to the
desired source.
21
Volume (VOL) Control Knob – Turn the smaller knob to control volume or squelch of the selected source
(indicated by the flashing white or cyan annunciator). When the volume control cursor is not active press
to switch to Blue-Select mode. If the volume control cursor is active, press twice (once to cancel the cursor,
twice to activate Blue-Select mode).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.4 SECURE DIGITAL CARDS
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for instructions on updating the navigation database.
NOTE: Ensure that the G1000 system is powered off before inserting the SD card.
The GDU 1040 and GDU 1240a data card slots use Secure Digital (SD) cards and are located on the top right
portion of the display bezels. Each display bezel is equipped with two SD card slots. SD cards are used for
navigation database and system software updates as well as terrain database storage.
Install an SD card
Insert the SD card in the SD card slot, pushing the card in until the spring latch engages. The front of the card
should remain flush with the face of the display bezel.
Remove an SD card
Gently press on the SD card to release the spring latch and eject the card.
PFD
MFD
SD Card Slots
Figure 1-7 Display Bezel SD Card Slots
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.5 SYSTEM POWER-UP
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for AHRS initialization bank angle limitations.
NOTE: See the Appendices for additional information regarding system-specific annunciations and alerts.
NOTE: See the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for specific procedures concerning avionics power
application and emergency power supply operation.
The G1000 system is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical
busses. The G1000 PFDs, MFD and supporting sub-systems include both power-on and continuous built-in test
features that exercise the processor, RAM, ROM, external inputs and outputs to provide safe operation.
During system initialization, test annunciations are displayed, as shown in Figure 1-8. All system annunciations
should disappear typically within one minute of power-up. Upon power-up, key annunciator lights also become
momentarily illuminated on the audio panels, the control units and the display bezels.
On the PFD, the AHRS begins to initialize and displays ‘AHRS ALIGN: Keep Wings Level’. The AHRS should
display valid attitude and heading fields typically within one minute of power-up. The AHRS can align itself both
while taxiing in a straight line and during level flight.
When the MFD powers up (Figure 1-9), the MFD Power-up Page displays the following information:
• System version
• Copyright
• Land database name and version
• Safe Taxi database name and effective dates
• Terrain database name and version
• Airport Terrain database name and version
• Obstacle database name and effective dates
• Navigation database name and effective dates
• Airport Directory name and effective dates
• FliteCharts/ChartView database information
Current database information includes the valid operating dates, cycle number and database type. When this
information has been reviewed for currency (to ensure that no databases have expired), the pilot is prompted
to continue. Pressing the ENT Key acknowledges this information and displays the Auxiliary (AUX) Weight
Planning Page.
Figure 1-8 PFD Initialization
14
Figure 1-9 MFD Power-up Page
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.6 SYSTEM OPERATION
The displays are connected together via multiple data busses, thus allowing for high-speed communication.
As shown in Figure 1-1, each GIA 63W is connected to the on-side PFD. This section discusses the normal and
reversionary modes of operation as well as the various AHRS modes of the G1000 system.
NORMAL OPERATION
PFD
In normal mode, the PFD presents graphical flight instrumentation (attitude, heading, airspeed, altitude
and vertical speed), thereby replacing the traditional flight instrument cluster. The PFD also offers control for
COM and NAV frequency selection.
MFD
In normal mode, the right portion of the MFD displays a full-color moving map with navigation information,
while the left portion of the MFD is dedicated to the Engine Indication System (EIS).
Figure 1-10 gives an example of the G1000 displays in normal mode.
PFD2
PFD1
MFD
Figure 1-10 Normal Operation
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
REVERSIONARY MODE
NOTE: The G1000 system alerts the pilot when backup paths are utilized by the LRUs. Refer to the Appendices
for further information regarding system-specific alerts.
Reversionary mode is a mode of operation in which all important flight information is presented identically
on at least one of the remaining displays (see Figure 1-11). Transition to reversionary mode should be
straightforward for the pilot, for flight parameters are presented in the same format as in normal mode.
In the event of an MFD failure, the G1000 system automatically switches to reversionary (backup) mode. In
reversionary mode, all important flight information is presented on the remaining display(s) in the same format
as in normal operating mode.
• PFD1 failure – MFD and PFD2 remain in normal mode.
• MFD failure – Both PFDs automatically switch to reversionary mode.
• PFD2 failure – MFD and PFD1 remain in normal mode.
Figure 1-11 Reversionary Mode
Reversionary mode can be activated manually by pressing a dedicated reversionary switch installed in the
cockpit. Pressing this switch again deactivates reversionary mode.
Each display can be configured to operate in reversionary mode, as follows:
• PFD1 – By pressing the left reversionary switch.
• MFD – By pressing the left or right reversionary switch..
• PFD2 – By pressing the right reversionary switch.
Should the connection between a PFD and the on-side GIA 63W become inoperative, the on-side GIA 63W
can no longer communicate with the remaining PFD (refer to Figure 1-1). As a result, the NAV and COM
functions provided to the failed PFD by the on-side GIA 63W are flagged as invalid (red “X”) on the remaining
PFD (see Figure 1-12). The system reverts to backup paths for the AHRS, ADC, Engine/Airframe Unit, and
Transponder, as required. The change to backup paths is completely automated for all LRUs and no pilot action
is required.
Figure 1-12 Inoperative Input (NAV1 Shown)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AHRS OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for specific AHRS alert information.
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering while AHRS is not operating normally may degrade AHRS accuracy.
In addition to using internal sensors, the GRS 77 AHRS uses GPS information, magnetic field data and
air data to assist in attitude/heading calculations. In normal mode, the GRS 77 AHRS relies upon GPS and
magnetic field measurements (air data is not used). If one or more of these three external inputs is unavailable
or unreliable, the AHRS uses the remaining inputs for attitude/heading determination. Four AHRS modes of
operation are available (Figure 1-13) and depend upon the combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of air
data, GPS, or magnetometer sensor inputs is communicated to the pilot by message advisory alerts.
The AHRS (GRS 77) corrects for shifts and variations in the Earth’s magnetic field by applying the Magnetic
Field Variation Database. The Magnetic Field Variation Database is derived from the International Geomagnetic
Reference Field (IGRF). The IGRF is a mathematical model that describes the Earth’s main magnetic field
and its annual rate of change. The database is updated approximately every 5 years. See the Appendices for
information on updating the Magnetic Field Variation Database. The system will prompt you on startup when
an update is available. Failure to update this database could lead to erroneous heading information being
displayed to the pilot.
YES
NO
Mag Data AND Air Data
Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
Mag Data Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
GPS Data Available and Reliable?
AHRS Normal
Mode
NO
YES
Air Data Available and Reliable?
AHRS no-Mag
Mode
AHRS no-Mag/
no-Air Mode
Heading Invalid
Heading Invalid
AHRS no-GPS
Mode
AHRS coast-on-gyros
until invalid
Attitude/Heading Invalid
Figure 1-13 AHRS Operation
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AHRS FAILURE
Failure of the internal AHRS inertial sensors may result in loss of attitude and heading information (indicated
by red ‘X’ flags over the corresponding flight instruments).
GPS INPUT FAILURE
The system provides two sources of GPS information. If a single GPS receiver fails, or if the information
provided from one of the GPS receivers is unreliable, the AHRS seamlessly transitions to using the other GPS
receiver. An alert message informs the pilot of the use of the backup GPS path. If both GPS inputs fail, the
AHRS continues to operate in reversionary No-GPS mode so long as the air data and magnetometer inputs
are available and reliable. Unavailable or unreliable air data or magnetometer data in addition to GPS failure
results in loss of all attitude and heading information.
NOTE: In-flight initialization of AHRS, when operating without any valid source of GPS data and at true
air speed values greater than approximately 200 knots, is not guaranteed. Under these rare conditions, it
is possible for in-flight AHRS initialization to take an indefinite amount of time which would result in an
extended period of time where valid AHRS outputs are unavailable.
MAGNETOMETER FAILURE
If the magnetometer input fails, the AHRS transitions to one of the reversionary No-Magnetometer modes
and continues to output valid attitude information. However, if the aircraft is airborne, the heading output
on the PFD does become invalid (as indicated by a red “X”).
AIR DATA INPUT FAILURE
Failure of the air data input has no effect on the AHRS output while AHRS is receiving valid GPS information.
A failure of the air data input while the AHRS is operating in reversionary No-GPS mode results in invalid
attitude and heading information on the PFD (as indicated by red “X” flags).
G1000 SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
NOTE: For a detailed description of all annunciations and alerts, refer to Appendix A. Refer to the POH for
additional information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red “X” is typically displayed on windows associated with
the failed data (Figure 1-14 displays all possible flags and responsible LRUs). Upon G1000 power-up, certain
windows remain invalid as equipment begins to initialize. All windows should be operational within one
minute of power-up. If any window remains flagged, the G1000 system should be serviced by a Garminauthorized repair facility.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Units
GDC 74A Air
Data Computer
GRS 77 AHRS
Or
GMU 44
Magnetometer
GEA 71 Engine
Airframe Unit
Or
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Unit
GIA 63W
Integrated Avionics
Units
GDC 74A Air Data Computer
GTX 33/33D Transponder Or GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Units
Figure 1-14 G1000 System Failure Annunciations
SOFTKEY FUNCTION
The softkeys are located along the bottoms of the displays. The softkeys shown depend on the softkey level
or page being displayed. The bezel keys below the softkeys can be used to select the appropriate softkey. When
a softkey is selected, its color changes to black text on gray background and remains this way until it is turned
off, at which time it reverts to white text on black background.
Softkey On
Softkey Names (displayed)
Bezel-Mounted Softkeys (press)
Figure 1-15 Softkeys (Second-Level PFD Configuration)
Another means of selecting softkeys on the MFD is by using the MFD Control Unit:
Selecting a softkey using the MFD Control Unit
1) Move the softkey selection box to the desired softkey using the arrows of the SEL Key.
2) Press the center of the SEL Key to select the desired softkey.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
PFD SOFTKEYS
The CDI, IDENT, TMR/REF, NRST, and MSG Softkeys undergo a momentary change to black text on gray
background and automatically switch back to white text on black background when selected. If messages
remain after acknowledgement, the ALERTS Softkey is black on white.
The PFD softkeys provide control over flight management functions, including GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic,
and lightning (optional). Each softkey sublevel has a BACK Softkey which can be pressed to return to
the previous level. The ALERTS Softkey is visible in all softkey levels. For the top level softkeys and the
transponder (XPDR) levels, the IDENT Softkey remains visible.
LVL1 LVL2 LVL3
INSET
OFF
DCLTR (3)
LVL4
Displays Inset Map in PFD lower left corner
Removes Inset Map
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through declutter levels:
DCLTR (No Declutter): All map features visible
DCLTR-1: Declutters land data
DCLTR-2: Declutters land and Special Use Airspace (SUA) data
DCLTR-3: Removes everything except for the active flight plan
WX LGND
TRAFFIC
Displays icon and age on the Inset Map for the selected weather products (optional)
Displays traffic information on Inset Map
TRAFFIC: No Traffic displayed on Inset Map
TRFC-1: Traffic displayed on Inset Map
TRFC-2: Traffic Only display shown
Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes) and elevation scale on
Inset Map
TOPO
TERRAIN
STRMSCP
NEXRAD
or
PRECIP
Displays terrain information on Inset Map
Displays Stormscope® information on Inset Map (optional)
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and coverage on Inset Map (optional)
or
Displays Worldwide Weather precipitation on Inset Map (optional)
Displays XM lightning information on Inset Map (optional)
or
Displays Worldwide Weather lightning information on Inset Map (optional)
Displays METAR information on Inset Map (optional)
Displays softkeys for selecting the #1 and #2 AHRS and Air Data Computers
Selects the #1 Air Data Computer
Selects the #2 Air Data Computer
Selects the #1 AHRS
Selects the #2 AHRS
Displays second-level softkeys for additional PFD configurations
Displays the softkeys for enabling or disabling Synthetic Vision features
XM LTNG
or
DL LTNG
METAR
SENSOR
ADC1
ADC2
AHRS1
AHRS2
PFD
SYN VIS
LVL1
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LVL3
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
LVL1 LVL2 LVL3 LVL4
PATHWAY
SYN TERR
Displays rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the
active flight plan
Enables synthetic terrain depiction
HRZN HDG
Displays compass heading along the Zero-Pitch line
APTSIGNS
Displays position markers for airports within approximately 15 nm of the current aircraft
position. Airport identifiers are displayed when the airport is within approximately 9
nm.
Resets PFD to default settings, including changing units to standard
DFLTS
WIND
OPTN 1
OPTN 2
OPTN 3
Displays softkeys to select wind data parameters
Headwind/tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed components
Wind direction arrow and numeric speed
Wind direction arrow with headwind/tailwind and crosswind numeric speed
components
Information not displayed
Displays/removes the DME Information Window (optional)
Cycles the Bearing 1 Information Window through NAV1, GPS/ waypoint identifier and
GPS-derived distance information, and ADF/frequency.
OFF
DME
BRG1
HSI FRMT
360 HSI
ARC HSI
BRG2
ALT UNIT
METERS
IN
Displays the softkeys for selecting the two HSI formats
Displays HSI as a 360° compass rose
Displays HSI as a 140° viewable arc
Cycles the Bearing 2 Information Window through NAV2 or GPS waypoint identifier and
GPS-derived distance information, and ADF/frequency.
Displays softkeys for setting the altimeter and BARO settings to metric units
When enabled, displays altimeter in meters
Press to display the BARO setting as inches of mercury
HPA
Press to display the BARO setting as hectopacals
STD BARO
Sets barometric pressure to 29.92 in Hg (1013 hPa if metric units are selected)
Selects OBS mode on the CDI when navigating by GPS (only available with active leg)
Cycles through GPS, VOR1, and VOR2 navigation modes on the CDI
Displays the ADF/DME Tuning Window, allowing tuning and selection of the DME
(optional)
Displays transponder mode selection softkeys
Selects the #1 transponder as active
Selects the #2 transponder as active
Selects standby mode (transponder does not reply to any interrogations)
Selects Mode A (transponder replies to interrogations)
Selects Mode C – altitude reporting mode (transponder replies to identification and
altitude interrogations)
OBS
CDI
ADF/DME
XPDR
XPDR1
XPDR2
STBY
ON
ALT
LVL1
LVL2
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
LVL1
LVL2
GND
LVL3
LVL4
Manually selects Ground Mode, the transponder does not allow Mode A and Mode C
replies, but it does permit acquisition squitter and replies to discretely addressed
Mode S interrogations
Automatically enters the VFR code (1200 in the U.S.A. only)
Displays transponder code selection softkeys 0-7
Use numbers to enter code
Removes numbers entered, one at a time
Enables/disables automatic transmission of ADS-B position and speed.(optional)
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds, identifying the
transponder return on the ATC screen
Displays Timer/References Window
Displays Nearest Airports Window
Displays Messages Window
VFR
CODE
0—7
BKSP
ADS-B TX
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
MSG
LVL1 LVL2
LVL3
INSET
LVL4
SENSOR
PFD
OBS
CDI
(optional)
DME
XPDR
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
ALERTS
CDI (NAV1)
CDI (NAV2)
CDI (GPS)
Figure 1-16 Top Level PFD Softkeys
INSET
SENSOR
PFD
OBS
CDI
(optional)
ADF/DME
XPDR
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
ALERTS
(optional) (optional)
(optional)
OFF
DCLTR
WX LGND TRAFFIC
DCLTR-1
TRFC-1
DCLTR-2
TRFC-2
TOPO
PRECIP
or
TERRAIN STRMSCP NEXRAD
DL LTNG
or
(optional)
XM LTNG
METAR
BACK
ALERTS
Select the BACK or OFF Softkey
to return to the top-level softkeys.
DCLTR-3
Figure 1-17 INSET Softkeys
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
INSET
SENSOR
PFD
OBS
CDI
(optional)
ADF/DME
XPDR
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
ALERTS
Press the BACK Softkey to
return to the top level softkeys.
ADC1
ADC2
AHRS1
AHRS2
BACK
ALERTS
Figure 1-18 SENSOR Softkeys
SYN VIS
INSET
SENSOR
PFD
OBS
CDI
DFLTS
WIND
DME1
BRG1
HSI FMT
XPDR
BRG2
DME2
NAV2
GPS
GPS
OFF
OFF
METERS
OPTN2
ADF/DME
NAV1
360 HSI
OPTN1
(optional)
OPTN3
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
ALERTS
ALT UNIT STD BARO
BACK
ALERTS
Select the BACK Softkey
to return to the top-level softkeys
ARC HSI
IN
HPA
OFF
PATHWAY SYN TERR HRZN HDG APTSIGNS
BACK
ALERTS
BACK
ALERTS
BACK
ALERTS
BACK
ALERTS
Figure 1-19 PFD Configuration Softkeys
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
INSET
SENSOR
PFD
OBS
CDI
(optional)
ADF/DME
XPDR
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
ALERTS
Press the BACK Softkey to return
to the top-level softkeys.
XPDR1
XPDR2
STBY
ON
ALT
GND
VFR
CODE
IDENT
ADS-B TX
BACK
ALERTS
Selecting BACK returns to the previous softkey level.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
IDENT
BKSP
BACK
ALERTS
Figure 1-20 XPDR Softkeys
MFD SOFTKEYS
LVL1
MAP
LVL2
LVL3
LVL4
TRAFFIC
TOPO
TERRAIN
AIRWAYS
(Default label is
dependent on map
setup option selected)
STRMSCP
NEXRAD
or
PRECIP
XM LTNG
or
DL LTNG
LVL1
24
METAR
BACK
LVL2 LVL3
Enables second-level Navigation Map softkeys
Displays traffic information on Navigation Map
Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes) and elevation scale on
Navigation Map
Displays terrain information on Navigation Map
Displays airways on the map; cycles through the following:
AIRWAYS: No airways are displayed
AIRWY ON: All airways are displayed
AIRWY LO: Only low altitude airways are displayed
AIRWY HI: Only high altitude airways are displayed
Displays Stormscope information on Navigation Map (optional)
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and coverage on Navigation Map Page (optional)
or
Displays Worldwide Weather precipitation on Navigation Map Page (optional)
Displays XM lightning information on Navigation Map Page (optional)
or
Displays Worldwide Weather lightning information on Navigation Map Page (optional)
Displays METAR information on Navigation Map Page (optional)
Returns to top-level softkeys
LVL4
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
LVL1 LVL2
DCLTR (3)
SHW CHRT
CHKLIST
LVL1 LVL2
LVL3
LVL4
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through declutter levels:
DCLTR (No Declutter): All map features visible
DCLTR-1: Declutters land data
DCLTR-2: Declutters land and SUA data
DCLTR-3: Removes everything except for the active flight plan
When available, displays optional airport and terminal procedure charts
When available, displays optional checklists
LVL3
LVL4
(optional)
DCLTR SHW CHRT CHKLIST
MAP
DCLTR
DCLTR-1
DCLTR-2
DCLTR-3
(optional) (optional)
(optional)
TRAFFIC
TOPO
TERRAIN
PRECIP
or
AIRWAYS STRMSCP NEXRAD
DL LTNG
or
XM LTNG
(optional) (optional)
METAR
LEGEND
BACK
Press the BACK softkey to
return to the top-level softkeys.
AIRWAYS
AIRWY ON
AIRWY LO
AIRWY HI
DONE
EXIT
EMERGCY
The DONE Softkey label changes to UNDO
when the checklist item is already checked.
Figure 1-21 MFD Softkeys
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GPS RECEIVER OPERATION
Each GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU) contains a GPS receiver. Information collected by the specified
receiver (GPS1 for the #1 IAU or GPS2 for the #2 IAU) may be viewed on the AUX - GPS Status Page.
GPS1 provides information to the pilot-side PFD and GPS2 provides data to the copilot-side PFD. Internal
system checking is performed to ensure both GPS receivers are providing accurate data to the PFDs. In some
circumstances, both GPS receivers may be providing accurate data, but one receiver may be providing a better
GPS solution than the other receiver. In this case the GPS receiver producing the better solution is automatically
coupled to both PFDs. “BOTH ON GPS 1” or “BOTH ON GPS 2” is displayed in the Reversionary Sensor
Window (see Appendix A) indicating which GPS receiver is being used. Both GPS receivers are still functioning
properly, but one receiver is performing better than the other at that particular time.
These GPS sensor annunciations are most often seen after system power-up when one GPS receiver has
acquired satellites before the other, or one of the GPS receivers has not yet acquired an SBAS signal. While
the aircraft is on the ground, the SBAS signal may be blocked by obstructions causing one GPS receiver to
have difficulty acquiring a good signal. Also, while airborne, turning the aircraft may result in one of the GPS
receivers temporarily losing the SBAS signal.
If the sensor annunciation persists, check for a system failure message in the Messages Window on the PFD.
If no failure message exists, check the GPS Status Page and compare the information for GPS1 and GPS2.
Discrepancies may indicate a problem.
Viewing GPS receiver status information
1) Use the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group (see Section 1.7 for information on navigating MFD
page groups).
2) Use the small FMS Knob to select GPS Status Page.
Selecting the GPS receiver for which data may be reviewed
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - GPS Status Page.
2) To change the selected GPS receiver:
a) Press the desired GPS Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the receiver which is not selected and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Satellite Constellation
Diagram
Satellite Signal
Information Status
GPS Receiver
Status
RAIM
Availability
Prediction
SBAS
Selected
Satellite Signal
Strength Bars
GPS Selection
Softkeys
SBAS Softkey
Selected
RAIM Softkey
Selected
Figure 1-22 GPS Status Page (RAIM or SBAS Selected)
The GPS Status Page provides the following information:
• Satellite constellation diagram
Satellites currently in view are shown at their respective positions on a sky view diagram. The sky view is
always in a north-up orientation, with the outer circle representing the horizon, the inner circle representing
45° above the horizon, and the center point showing the position directly overhead.
Each satellite is represented by an oval containing the Pseudo-random noise (PRN) number (i.e., satellite
identification number). Satellites whose signals are currently being used are represented by solid ovals.
• Satellite signal information status
The accuracy of the aircraft’s GPS fix is calculated using Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU), Dilution
of Precision (DOP), and horizontal and vertical figures of merit (HFOM and VFOM). EPU is the radius of a
circle centered on an estimated horizontal position in which actual position has 95% probability of laying.
EPU is a statistical error indication and not an actual error measurement.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
DOP measures satellite geometry quality (i.e., number of satellites received and where they are relative to
each other) on a range from 0.0 to 9.9, with lower numbers denoting better accuracy. HFOM and VFOM,
measures of horizontal and vertical position uncertainty, are the current 95% confidence horizontal and
vertical accuracy values reported by the GPS receiver.
The current calculated GPS position, time, altitude, ground speed, and track for the aircraft are displayed
below the satellite signal accuracy measurements.
• GPS receiver status
The GPS solution type (ACQUIRING, 2D NAV, 2D DIFF NAV, 3D NAV, 3D DIFF NAV) for the active
GPS receiver (GPS1 or GPS2) is shown in the upper right of the GPS Status Page. When the receiver is
in the process of acquiring enough satellite signals for navigation, the receiver uses satellite orbital data
(collected continuously from the satellites) and last known position to determine the satellites that should be
in view. ACQUIRING is indicated as the solution until a sufficient number of satellites have been acquired
for computing a solution.
When the receiver is in the process of acquiring a 3D differential GPS solution, 3D NAV is indicated as the
solution until the 3D differential fix has finished acquisition. SBAS (Satellite-Based Augmentation System)
indicates INACTIVE. When acquisition is complete, the solution status indicates 3D DIFF NAV and SBAS
indicates ACTIVE.
• RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) Prediction (RAIM Softkey is selected)
In most cases performing a RAIM prediction is not necessary. However, in some cases, the selected approach
may be outside the SBAS coverage area and it may be necessary to perform a RAIM prediction for the intended
approach.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to
calculate a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nautical miles for oceanic and enroute, 1.0
nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of
flight, RAIM is available nearly 100% of the time.
The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a specified date and time. RAIM
computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival date and time.
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not available. The
G1000 automatically monitors RAIM and warns with an alert message when it is not available. If RAIM is not
predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become active, as indicated by
the messages “Approach is not active” and “RAIM not available from FAF to MAP”. If RAIM is not available
when crossing the FAF, the missed approach procedure must be flown.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, select the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window.
5) Enter the desired waypoint:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired waypoint by identifier, facility, or city name and press the ENT Key. Refer
to Section 1.7 for instructions on entering alphanumeric data into the G1000.
Or:
a) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
b) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the NRST, RECENT, or AIRWAY waypoints, if required.
c) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint. The G1000 automatically fills in the identifier,
facility, and city fields with the information for the selected waypoint.
d) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
8) With the cursor highlighting ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one
of the following is displayed:
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
Predicting RAIM availability at present position
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, select the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) With ‘Set WPT to Present Position’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
9) With the cursor highlighting ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one
of the following is displayed:
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• SBAS Selection (SBAS Softkey is selected)
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of the SBAS coverage area, it may
be desireable to disable SBAS (although it is not recommended). When disabled, the SBAS field in the GPS
Status box indicates DISABLED.
Disabling SBAS
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, press the SBAS Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn either FMS Knob to select ‘EGNOS’ or ‘MSAS’ or ‘WAAS’, as necessary.
5) Press the ENT Key to uncheck the box.
6) Repeat steps 4 & 5 as necessary, then press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
• GPS Satellite Signal Strengths
The GPS Status Page can be helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due to poor satellite
coverage or installation problems. As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength bar is displayed
for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite PRN number (01-32 or 120-138 for SBAS) below each
bar. The progress of satellite acquisition is shown in three stages, as indicated by signal bar appearance:
- No bar—Receiver is looking for the indicated satellite
- Hollow bar—Receiver has found the satellite and is collecting data
- Cyan bar—Receiver has collected the necessary data and the satellite signal can be used
- Green bar—Satellite is being used for the GPS solution
- Checkered bar—Receiver has excluded the satellite (Fault Detection and Exclusion)
- “D” indication—Denotes the satellite can be used as part of the differential computations
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission that must be collected (signal strength bar is hollow) before
the satellite may be used for navigation (signal strength bar becomes solid).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.7 ACCESSING G1000 FUNCTIONALITY
MENUS
The G1000 has a MENU Key that, when pressed, displays a context-sensitive list of options. This options list
allows the user to access additional features or make settings changes which specifically relate to the currently
displayed window/page. There is no all-encompassing menu. Some menus provide access to additional
submenus that are used to view, edit, select, and review options. Menus display ‘NO OPTIONS’ when there are
no options for the window/page selected. The main controls used in association with all window/page group
operations are described in section 1.3. Softkey selection does not display menus or submenus.
Navigating the Page Menu Window
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Window.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through a list of available options (a scroll bar appears to the right of the window
when the option list is longer than the window).
3) Press the ENT Key to select the desired option.
4) The CLR Key may be pressed to remove the menu and cancel the operation. Pressing the FMS Knob also
removes the displayed menu.
No Options with
NRST Window
Displayed on the
PFD
Options
with FPL
Window
Displayed
Figure 1-23 Page Menu Examples
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD PAGE GROUPS
NOTE: Refer to the Flight Management, Hazard Avoidance, and Additional Features sections for details on
specific pages.
The page group and active page title box are displayed in the upper middle of the screen.
Page Group
Active Page Title
Figure 1-24 Page Title Box
Information on the MFD is presented on pages which are grouped according to function. In the bottom right
corner of the screen, a page group window is displayed by turning either FMS Knob. The page group tabs are
displayed along the bottom of the window. The page titles are displayed in a list above the page group tabs. The
current page group and current page within the group are shown in cyan. For some of these pages (Airport/
Procedures/Weather Information, Weather Data Link, Procedure Loading), the active title of the page changes
while the page name in the list remains the same.
Page Group
MFD
Active Page Title
Pages in
Current
Group
Page Groups
Figure 1-25 Page Title and Page Groups
The main page groups are navigated using the FMS Knob; specific pages within each group can vary depending
on the configuration of optional equipment.
Selecting a page using the FMS Knob:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to display the list of page groups; continue turning the large FMS Knob until the
desired page group is selected
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired page within a specific page group.There are also several pages
(Airport Information and XM Information pages) which are selected first from within a main page group with
the FMS Knobs, then with the appropriate softkey at the bottom of the page. In this case, the page remains set
to the selected screen until a different screen softkey is pressed.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Map Pages (MAP)
Navigation Map
Traffic Map
Weather Radar
Stormscope®(optional)
Weather Data Link (service optional)
Terrain
Figure 1-26 Map Pages
Waypoint Pages (WPT)
Airport Information pages
- Airport Information
(INFO-1 Softkey)
- Airport Directory Information
(INFO-2 Softkey)
- Departure Information
(DP Softkey)
- Arrival Information
(STAR Softkey)
- Approach Information
(APR Softkey)
- Weather Information
(WX Softkey)
Intersection Information
NDB Information
VOR Information
Airport
Information
Pages
User Waypoint Information
Figure 1-27 Waypoint Pages
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Auxiliary Pages (AUX)
Weights, Fuel
Trip Planning
Utility
GPS Status
System Setup 1/2
Weather Data Link (optional)
- XM Information
(INFO Softkey)
- XM Radio
(RADIO Softkey)
Satellite Comm (if installed)
- Telephone
(TEL Softkey)
- Text Messaging
(SMS Softkey)
Sat Comm
Pages
Weather Data Link
Pages
System Setup Pages
System Status
Figure 1-28 Auxiliary Pages
Maintenance data is continuously recorded by the Central Maintenance Computer (CMC). At the discretion
of the Aircraft Manufacturer, this data may be displayed on an OEM DIAGNOSTICS Page accessible from within
the AUX Page Group.
Nearest Pages (NRST)
Nearest Airports
Nearest Intersections
Nearest NDB
Nearest VOR
Nearest User Waypoints
Nearest Frequencies
Nearest Airspaces
Figure 1-29 Nearest Pages
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
In addition to the main page groups accessed exclusively using the FMS Knobs, there are pages for flight
planning (FPL) and loading procedures (PROC) which are accessed by a dedicated key. In some instances,
softkeys may be used to access the Procedure Pages.
The Flight Plan Pages are accessed using the FPL Key. Main pages within this group are selected by turning
the small FMS Knob.
Flight Plan Pages (FPL)
Active Flight Plan
- Wide View, Narrow View (VIEW
Softkey)
Flight Plan Catalog
Stored Flight Plan (NEW Softkey)
Narrow and
Wide View
Figure 1-30 Flight Plan Pages
The Procedure pages may be accessed at any time on the MFD by pressing the PROC Key. A menu is
initialized, and when a departure, approach, or arrival is selected, the appropriate Procedure Loading Page is
opened. Turning the FMS Knob does not scroll through the Procedure pages (note the single page icon in the
lower right corner).
Procedure Pages (PROC)
Departure Loading
Arrival Loading
Approach Loading
Figure 1-31 Procedure Pages
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD SYSTEM PAGES
In the Auxiliary (AUX) Page Group, there are three system pages: System Setup 1/2 and System Status. The
System Setup Page allows management of various system parameters, while the System Status Page displays the
status of all G1000 system LRUs.
AUX - SYSTEM SETUP 1 PAGE
G1000 system settings are managed from the System Setup 1 Page. The following settings can be changed:
• Time display format (local or UTC )
• Displayed measurement units
• MFD Data Bar (Navigation Status Box) fields
(see the Flight Management Section)
• Barometric Transition Alert (see the Flight Instruments Section)
• GPS Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) range
(see the Flight Instruments Section)
• Airspace alerts (see the Flight Management Section)
• COM transceiver channel spacing (see the Audio Panel and CNS Section)
• Arrival alert
• Displayed nearest airports (see the Flight Management Section)
• Audio alert voice
• Flight Director Format (see the Flight Instruments Section)
• CDI/Baro Synchronization (see the Flight Instruments Section)
Restoring system setup defaults:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the DFLTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Restore Defaults’, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Restore Defaults’ and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Figure 1-32 System Setup Page
Date/Time
The G1000 obtains the current Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) date and time directly from the GPS
satellite signals (shown on the AUX - GPS Status Page, Figure 1-22). System time (displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD) can be displayed in three formats: local 12-hr, local 24-hr, or UTC. Local time is
set by adding/subtracting an offset (hours:minutes) to/from UTC.
Figure 1-33 System Time (Local 24-hr Format)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Configuring the system time:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Time Format’ field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired format and press the ENT Key to confirm selection. The ‘Time
Offset’ field is highlighted.
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time offset (±HH:MM) and press the ENT Key to confirm selection.
Figure 1-34 Date/Time Settings (System Setup Page)
Pilot Profiles
System settings may be saved under a pilot profile. When the system is powered on, the last selected pilot
profile is shown on the MFD Power-up Splash Screen. The G1000 can store up to 25 profiles; the currently
active profile, the amount of memory used, and the amount of memory available are shown at the top of
the System Setup Page in the box labeled ‘Pilot Profile’. From here, pilot profiles may be created, selected,
renamed, or deleted.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Figure 1-35 Display Unit Settings (System Setup Page)
Creating a profile:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CREATE’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Create Profile’ window is displayed.
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter a profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key. Pilot profile names
cannot begin with a blank as the first letter.
6) In the next field, use the small FMS Knob to select the desired settings upon which to base the new profile.
Profiles can be created based on Garmin factory defaults, default profile settings (initially based on Garmin
factory defaults unless edited by the pilot), or current system settings.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘CREATE’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to create the profile
Or:
Use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CREATE and ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to activate the new profile.
9) To cancel the process, select ‘CANCEL’ with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Selecting an active profile:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the active profile field in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the pilot profile list and highlight the desired profile.
5) Press the ENT Key. The G1000 loads and displays the system settings for the selected profile.
Renaming a profile:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘RENAME’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Rename Profile’ window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to rename.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter a new profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘RENAME’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
9) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting a profile:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘DELETE’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Delete Profile’ window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to delete.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) With ‘DELETE’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
8) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
If an SD card is inserted into the top slot of the MFD, pilot profiles may imported from the SD card into
the system, or exported from the system to the SD card.
Because system settings may vary from one airframe to another, always verify system settings from an
imported profile are consistent with the desired settings.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Importing a profile from an SD card:
1) Insert an SD card containing the pilot profile(s) into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
3) Select the IMPORT Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Import Pilot Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
4) The system displays the Pilot Profile Importing window with ‘IMPORT’ highlighted. To change the selected
profile to be imported from the SD card (shown as ‘SELECT FILE’), turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the
profile file name, then turn the small FMS Knob to highlight a profile from the list, and press the ENT Key.
5) If desired, the profile name to be used after profile has been imported can be changed by turning the FMS
Knob to highlight the ‘PROFILE NAME’ field, then use the large and small FMS Knobs to enter the name, and
press the ENT Key. Imported profile names cannot begin with a blank space or be named ‘DEFAULT’, ‘GARMIN
DEFAULTS’ or ‘DEFAULT SETTINGS’.
6) With ‘IMPORT’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
7) If the imported profile name is the same as an existing profile on the system, the system displays an ‘Overwrite
existing file? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to replace profile on the system with the profile
imported from the SD card, or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to the
Pilot Profile Importing window.
8) If successful, the system displays ‘Pilot profile import succeeded.’ in the IMPORT RESULTS window below. With
‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT or CLR Keys or press the FMS Knob to return to the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
The imported profile becomes the active profile.
Pilot Profile Importing and Import
Pilot Profiles Available for Import from
Results Window
SD Card (‘STEVE’S PROFILE’ Selected)
Figure 1-36 Pilot Profile Import (AUX - System Setup 1 Page)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Exporting a profile to an SD card:
1) Insert the SD card for storing the Pilot Profile into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
3) If necessary, activate the desired pilot profile to export. Only the currently active Pilot Profile can be exported.
4) Select the EXPORT Softkey. The system displays the Pilot Profile Exporting window.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Export Pilot Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
5) To export the pilot profile using the current supplied name, press the ENT Key with ‘EXPORT’ highlighted. To
change the profile file name turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘SELECT FILE’ field, then enter the new
name with the large and small FMS Knobs, then press the ENT Key. Then press the ENT Key with ‘EXPORT’
highlighted.
6) If the profile name to be exported is the same as an existing profile file name on the SD card, the system displays
an ‘Overwrite existing file? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to replace the profile on the SD card
with the profile to be exported, or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to
the Pilot Profile Exporting window without exporting the profile.
7) If successful, the EXPORT RESULTS window displays ‘Pilot profile export succeeded.’ With ‘OK’ highlighted,
press the ENT or CLR Keys, or press the FMS Knob to return to the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
Pilot Profile Exporting Window, Enter a
Name to Use for Exported Profile
Export Successful
Figure 1-37 Pilot Profile Export on the AUX - System Setup 1 Page
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Display Units
Units in which various quantities are displayed on the G1000 screens are listed on the System Setup Page.
The Navigation Angle reference, the Temperature units, and the Position units can be set from here.
Category
Navigation Angle
Settings
Affected Quantities
Magnetic (North)* Heading
True (North)
Course
Bearing
Track
Desired Track
Wind direction (Trip Planning Page)
Distance and Speed** Metric
Crosstrack error (HSI)
Nautical*
Bearing distances (information windows)
DME distance (information window)
Flight plan distances
Map ranges
DIS, GS, TAS, XTK fields (Navigation Status Box)
All distances on MFD
Altitude buffer distance (System Setup)
Arrival Alert trigger distance (System Setup)
All speeds on MFD
Altitude and Vertical
Feet*
All altitudes on MFD
Speed
Meters
All elevations on MFD
Temperature
Celsius*
Fahrenheit
Fuel and Fuel Flow*** Gallons
Weight***
Position
All temperatures on PFD
Total Air Temperature (Trip Planning Page)
Fuel parameters (Trip Planning Page)
Pounds
N/A
HDDD°MM.MM’* All positions
HDDD°MM’SS.S”
Exceptions
Airspeed Indicator
True Airspeed (PFD)
Wind speed vector
Map range (Traffic Page, Terrain
Proximity/TAWS Page)
CDI scaling (System Setup)
Fuel range calculation (EIS)
Altimeter
Vertical Speed Indicator
VNV altitudes (Active Flight Plan)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
N/A
N/A
* Default setting
** Contact a Garmin-authorized service center to change this setting
*** Not configurable
Table 1-1 Display Units Settings (System Setup Page)
Changing a display unit setting
1) While on the System Setup Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the Display Units Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired units.
4) Press the ENT Key. Press the CLR Key to cancel the action without changing the units.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Airspace Alerts
The Airspace Alert feature provides a message alert when the aircraft is approaching or near a controlled
or special-use airspace. The altitude buffer setting increases the range above or below an airspace for which
an alert is generated; the default value is 200 feet. Alerts for the following airspaces can be turned on/off
from the System Setup Page:
• Class B/TMA
• Class D
• MOA (Military)
• Class C/TCA
• Restricted
• Other airspaces
Turning Airspace Alerts off does not affect the alerts listed on the Nearest Airspaces Page or the airspace
boundaries depicted on the Navigation Map Page.
Turning an airspace alert on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the altitude buffer field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Arrival Alerts
The Arrival Alert Box on the System Setup Page allows arrival alerts to be turned on/off and the alert
trigger distance set. An arrival alert can be set to notify the pilot with a message upon reaching a userspecified distance from the final destination (the direct-to waypoint or the last waypoint in a flight plan).
Once the set distance (up to 99.9 units) has been reached, an “Arrival at [waypoint]” message is displayed
in the PFD Navigation Status Box.
Figure 1-38 Arrival Alert Settings (System Setup Page)
Enabling/disabling an arrival alert:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ON/OFF field in the Arrival Alert Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
Changing the arrival alert trigger distance:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the distance field in the Arrival Alert Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
Audio Alerts
The Audio Alert Box on the System Setup Page allows the audio alert voice to be set to male or female.
Changing the audio alert voice
1) While on the System Setup Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the voice in the Audio Alert Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and highlight the desired voice and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM STATUS PAGE
The System Status Page displays the status and software version numbers for all detected system LRUs.
Pertinent information on all system databases is also displayed. Active LRUs are indicated by green check
marks and failed LRUs are indicated by red “X”s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center or Garmin
dealer informed.
Figure 1-39 Example System Status Page
The LRU and ARFRM, Softkeys on the System Status Page select the applicable list (LRU INFO or
AIRFRAME window) through which the FMS Knob can be used to scroll information within the selected
window.
Selecting the MFD1 DB Softkey (label background changes to grey indicting the softkey is selected) places
the cursor in the database window. Use the FMS Knob to scroll through database information for the MFD.
Selecting the softkey again will change the softkey label to PFD1 DB. PFD 1 database information is now
displayed in the database window. Selecting the softkey a third time will change the softkey label to PFD2
DB. PFD 2 database information is now displayed in the database window.
The ANN TEST Softkey, when pressed, causes an annunciation test tone to be played.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
UTILITY PAGE
For flight planning purposes, timers, trip statistics, and a scheduler feature are provided on the AUX Utility Page. The timers available include a stopwatch-like generic timer, a total time in flight timer, and a
record of the time of departure. Trip statistics—odometer, trip odometer, and average trip and maximum
groundspeeds—are displayed from the time of the last reset. Refer to the Additional Features section for a
dicussion on the Scheduler feature.
Figure 1-40 Utility Page
Timers
The G1000 timers available include:
• Stopwatch-like generic timers (available from the PFD Timer/References Window and on the MFD AUX
- Utility Page)
• Total-time-in-flight timer (MFD AUX - Utility Page)
• Time since departure (MFD AUX - Utility Page)
The generic timer can be set to count up or down from a specified time (HH:MM:SS). When the
countdown on the timer reaches zero the digits begin to count up from zero. If the timer is reset before
reaching zero on a countdown, the digits are reset to the initial value. If the timer is counting up when
reset, the digits are zeroed.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Setting the generic timer (PFD):
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the timer field (hh/mm/ss).
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
4) With the UP/DN field highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (UP/DN) and
press the ENT Key.
6) With ‘START?’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to ‘STOP?’.
7) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘STOP?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘RESET?’.
8) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘RESET?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘START?’ and the
digits are reset.
9) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
Figure 1-41 Generic Timer (PFD Timer/References Window)
Setting the generic timer (MFD AUX - Utility Page)
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (UP/DN) and press the ENT Key.
4) If a desired starting time is desired:
a) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the HH:MM:SS field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘START?’ and press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to
‘STOP?’.
6) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘STOP?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘RESET?’.
7) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘RESET?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘START?’ and the
digits are reset.
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Figure 1-42 Timers (MFD AUX - Utility Page)
The flight timer can be set to count up from zero starting at system power-up or from the time that the
aircraft lifts off; the timer can also be reset to zero at any time.
Setting the flight timer starting criterion
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the flight timer.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (PWR-ON or IN-AIR) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the flight timer
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Reset Flight Timer’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
The G1000 records the time at which departure occurs, depending on whether the pilot prefers the time
to be recorded from system power-up or from aircraft lift off. The displayed departure time can also be reset
to display the current time at the point of reset. The format in which the time is displayed is controlled
from the System Setup Page.
Setting the departure timer starting criterion
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the departure time.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (PWR-ON or IN-AIR) and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Resetting the departure time
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Reset Departure Time’ and press the ENT Key.
Trip Statistics
The odometer and trip odometer record the total mileage traveled from the last reset; these odometers can
be reset independently. Resetting the trip odometer also resets the average trip groundspeed. Maximum
groundspeed for the period of time since the last reset is also displayed.
Resetting trip statistics readouts
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key. The following reset options for trip statistics are displayed:
• Reset Trip ODOM/AVG GS—Resets trip average ground speed readout and odometer
• Reset Odometer—Resets odometer readout only
• Reset Maximum Speed—Resets maximum speed readout only
• Reset All—Resets flight timer, departure timer, odometers, and groundspeed readouts
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired reset option and press the ENT Key. The selected parameters are reset
to zero and begin to display data from the point of reset.
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Scheduler
The G1000’s Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., “Change oil”,
“Switch fuel tanks”, “Overhaul”) in the Alerts Window on the PFD. Messages can be set to display based
on a specific date and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero (one-time; default setting), or
recurrently whenever the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set to periodic alerting
automatically reset to the original timer value once the message is displayed. When power is cycled,
messages are retained until deleted, and message timer countdown is restarted.
Figure 1-43 Scheduler (Utility Page)
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty scheduler message naming field.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the message text to be displayed in the Alerts Window and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the field next to ‘Type’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select set the message alert type:
• Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
• One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
• Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HHH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
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9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MMM-YYY) and press the ENT Key.
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the name field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
5) Press the ENT Key to confirm message deletion.
Scheduler messages appear in the Alerts Window on the PFD and cause the ALERTS Softkey label to
change to ‘ADVISORY’. Pressing the ADVISORY Softkey opens the Alerts Window and acknowledges
the scheduler message. The softkey reverts to the ‘ALERTS’ label and when pressed, the Alerts Window is
removed from the display and the scheduler message is deleted from the message queue.
Figure 1-44 PFD Alerts Window
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.8 DISPLAY BACKLIGHTING
The PFD and MFD display backlighting, the PFD and MFD bezel, and the Audio Panel keys can be adjusted
manually in one of two ways:
• Using the individual dimmer bus control for the desired display, or
• Using the PFD Setup Menu and the following procedures. In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be
adjusted from the PFDs. In reversionary mode, adjustments can be made from any remaining displays.
Adjusting display backlighting:
1) Press either PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘AUTO’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD1 DSPL’. If
desired, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘AUTO’ next to ‘MFD DSPL’ or ‘PFD2 DSPL’.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MANUAL’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting then press the ENT Key.
4) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Adjusting key backlighting:
1) Press either PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘AUTO’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD1 DSPL’.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘PFD DSPL’, ‘MFD DSPL’, or ‘PFD2 DSPL’, as desired.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘PFD1 KEY’, ‘MFD KEY’, or ‘PFD2
KEY’.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘AUTO’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MANUAL’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Figure 1-45 PFD Setup Menu
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: If the airspeed, attitude, altitude, or heading indications become unusable, refer to the backup
instruments.
NOTE: The Garmin Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) provides additional readouts and bugs on
selected flight instruments. Refer to the AFCS Section for details on these bugs and readouts, as they appear
on the display during certain AFCS flight director modes.
The PFD features a large horizon, airspeed, attitude, altitude, vertical speed, and course deviation information.
In addition to the flight instruments, navigation, communication, terrain, traffic, and weather information are also
presented on the PFD and explained in other sections of this Pilot’s Guide.
The following flight instruments and supplemental flight data are displayed on the PFD:
• Airspeed Indicator, showing
• Horizontal Situation Indicator, showing
– Indicated airspeed
– Turn Rate Indicator
– True airspeed
– Bearing pointers and information windows
– Airspeed awareness ranges
– Navigation source
– Vspeed reference bugs
– Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
• Attitude Indicator with slip/skid indication
– Bearing pointers and information windows
• Transponder Mode, Code, and Ident/Reply
• Altimeter, showing
– Trend vector
• Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
– Barometric setting
• Timer/References Window, showing
– Generic timer
– Selected Altitude
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope, and Glidepath
Indicators
• Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
• Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications
• Outside air temperature (OAT)
– Vspeed values
– Barometric or temperature compensated
minimum descent altitude (MDA) or decision
height (DH)
• Wind data
• ISA temperature deviation
The PFD also displays various alerts and annunciations.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
21
20
19
1
18
17
16
2
15
14
3
13
4
12
5
11
6
10
7
9
8
1
NAV Frequency Box
12
Turn Rate Indicator
2
Airspeed Indicator
13
Barometric Altimeter Setting
3
True Airspeed
14
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
4
Current Heading
15
Reference Altitude Bug
5
Horizontal Situation Indicator ( HSI)
16
Altimeter
6
ISA Temperature Deviation
17
Reference Altitude
7
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
18
COM Frequency Box
8
Softkeys
19
Navigation Status Box
9
System Time
20
Slip/Skid Indicator
10
Transponder Data Box
21
Attitude Indicator
11
Heading Bug
Figure 2-1 Primary Flight Display (Default)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
17
16
15
14
1
13
12
11
10
2
9
8
3
7
4
5
6
1
Traffic Annunciation
2
Selected Heading
Required Vertical Speed
Indicator
11 Vertical Deviation Indication
3
Wind Data Box
12
Reversionary Sensor Window
4
Inset Map
13
Comparator Window
5
Bearing Information Windows
14
VNV Target Altitude
6
15
Terrain Annunciation
7
Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height
Flight Plan Window
16
Marker Beacon Annunciation
8
CAS Window
17
AFCS Status Annunciation
9
Selected Course
10
Figure 2-2 Additional PFD Information
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
NOTE: Refer to the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) for airspeed criteria and Vspeed values.
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a rolling number gauge using a moving tape. The true airspeed is
displayed in knots below the Airspeed Indicator. The numeric labels and major tick marks on the moving tape
are shown at intervals of 10 knots, while minor tick marks on the moving tape are indicated at intervals of 5
knots. Speed indication starts at 20 knots, with 60 knots of airspeed viewable at any time. The actual airspeed
is displayed inside the black pointer. The pointer remains black until reaching overspeed (VMO), at which point
it appears red.
Airspeed
Trend
Vector
Actual
Airspeed
Vspeed
Reference
Bugs
Speed
Ranges
Figure 2-4 Red Pointer
Showing Overspeed
True
Airspeed
Figure 2-3 Airspeed Indicator
A color-coded (white, green, and red/white “barber pole”) speed range strip is located on the moving tape.
The colors denote flaps operating range, normal operating range, and overspeed (VMO). A red range is also
present for low speed awareness.
The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical, magenta line, extending up or down on the airspeed scale, shown
to the right of the color-coded speed range strip. The end of the trend vector corresponds to the predicted
airspeed in 6 seconds if the current rate of acceleration is maintained. If the trend vector crosses VMO, the text
of the actual airspeed readout changes to yellow. The trend vector is absent if the speed remains constant or
if any data needed to calculate airspeed is not available due to a system failure.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Vspeed values cannot be changed, however the speed bugs can be enabled/disabled from the Timer/References
Window. When enabled (on), the speed bugs appear at their respective locations to the right of the airspeed
scale.
Enabling/disabling Vspeed bugs:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ON/OFF field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ‘ON’ or counterclockwise to ‘OFF’.
4) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
Timer/References Window
Timer/References Menu
Figure 2-5 Timer/References Window and Menu
Vspeed bugs can also be enabled or disabled all at once.
Enabling/disabling all Vspeeds (on, off):
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight either ‘All References On’ or ‘All References Off’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
Restoring all Vspeed defaults:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight Restore Defaults and press the ENT Key.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ATTITUDE INDICATOR
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a white horizon line. The
Attitude Indicator displays the pitch, roll, and slip/skid information.
9
8
1
7
2
6
3
4
5
1
Roll Pointer
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
Aircraft Symbol
5
Land Representation
6
Pitch Scale
7
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
Figure 2-6 Attitude Indicator
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Above and below the horizon line, major pitch marks and numeric
labels are shown for every 10˚, up to 80˚. Minor pitch marks are shown for intervening 5˚ increments, up to
25˚ below and 45˚ above the horizon line. Between 20˚ below to 20˚ above the horizon line, minor pitch marks
occur every 2.5˚. If the Synthetic Vision Technology system (SVT) is activated, the pitch scale is reduced to 10˚
up and 7.5˚ down; refer to the Additional Features section for more information about SVT.
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚ and 60˚ and minor tick
marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the zero. Angle of bank is indicated by the position
of the pointer on the roll scale.
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the bar beneath the roll pointer. The indicator bar moves with the roll pointer and
moves laterally away from the pointer to indicate uncoordinated flight. Slip (inside the turn) or skid (outside
the turn) is indicated by the location of the bar relative to the pointer.
When the optional Garmin Electronic Stability and Protection (Garmin ESP™) system is available, additional
indications may appear on the roll scale; refer to the Additional Features section for more information about
Garmin ESP.
Figure 2-7 Slip/Skid Indication
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ALTIMETER
The Altimeter displays 600 feet of barometric altitude values at a time on a moving tape rolling number gauge.
Numeric labels and major tick marks are shown at intervals of 100 feet. Minor tick marks are at intervals of 20
feet. The indicated altitude is displayed inside the black pointer.
The Selected Altitude is displayed above the Altimeter in the box indicated by a selection bug symbol. A bug
corresponding to this altitude is shown on the tape. If the Selected Altitude exceeds the range shown on the
tape, the bug appears at the upper or lower edge of the tape. When the metric value is selected it is displayed
in a separate box above the Selected Altitude.
A magenta Altitude Trend Vector extends up or down the left of the altitude tape, the end resting at the
approximate altitude to be reached in six seconds at the current vertical speed. The trend vector is not shown
if altitude remains constant or if data needed for calculation is not available due to a system failure.
Setting the Selected Altitude:
T urn the ALT Knob to set the Selected Altitude. Turn the large knob for 1000-ft increments, small knob for 100ft increments. If set to Metric mode, the large knob adjusts the Selected Altitude in 500-meter increments; the
small knob adjusts the Selected Altitude in 50-meter increments..
If a Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height (MDA/DH) value has been set, this altitude is also available for
the Selected Altitude.
Reference
Altitude
Reference
Altitude
(Meters)
Altitude
Trend
Vector
Indicated
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Indicated
Altitude
(Meters)
MDA/DH
Altitude
Bug
Barometric
Setting Box
(Hectopascals)
Barometric
Setting
Figure 2-8 Altimeter
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Altitudes can also be displayed in meters (Figure 2-8). Note that the altitude tape does not change scale.
Displaying altitude in meters:
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT UNIT Softkey.
3) Press the METERS Softkey to turn on metric altitude readouts.
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury (in Hg) or hectopascals
(hPa) when metric units are selected. Adjusting the altimeter barometric pressure setting creates discontinuities
in VNV vertical deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the
aircraft to re-establish on the descent patch. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target
Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not operate properly
with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height above mean sea level, or the
standard pressure setting, as applicable.
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
Turn the BARO Knob to select the desired setting.
Selecting standard barometric pressure (29.92 in Hg):
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the STD BARO Softkey.
Figure 2-9 Standard Barometric Setting
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units:
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT UNIT Softkey.
3) Press the IN Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in inches of mercury (in Hg).
Or, press the HPA Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in hectopascals (hPa).
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
A Baro Transition Alert is provided to alert the pilot to change the barometric pressure setting when crossing
the transition altitude in either direction. This is displayed by the flashing cyan barometric pressure setting
when crossing the transition altitude.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Setting the Baro Transition Alert:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Altitude in the Baro Transition Alert box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘OFF’ or ‘ON’ as desired, and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to change the altitude and press the ENT Key.
6) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob.
Figure 2-10 Baro Transition Alert
(AUX - System Setup Page)
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) displays the aircraft vertical speed using a non-moving tape labeled at 2000
and 4000 fpm with minor tick marks every 1000 fpm. The current vertical speed is displayed in the pointer
along the tape. Digits appear in the pointer when the climb or descent rate is greater than 100 fpm. If the rate
of ascent/descent exceeds 4000 fpm, the pointer appears at the corresponding edge of the tape and the rate
appears inside the pointer.
A magenta chevron bug is displayed as the Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) for reaching a VNV
Target Altitude once the “TOD [Top of Descent] within 1 minute” alert has been generated. See the Flight
Management Section for details on VNV features, and refer to Section 2.2, Supplemental Flight Data, for more
information about VNV indications on the PFD.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
VERTICAL DEVIATION
The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI; Figure 2-11) uses a magenta chevron to indicate the baro-VNV vertical
deviation when Vertical Navigation (VNV) is being used; the VDI appears in conjunction with the “TOD within
1 minute” alert. Full-scale deflection (two dots) is 1000 feet. The VDI is removed from the display if vertical
deviation becomes invalid. See the Flight Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features, and refer
to Section 2.2, Supplemental Flight Data, for more information about VNV indications on the PFD.
The Glideslope Indicator (Figure 2-12) appears to the left of the Altimeter whenever an ILS frequency is tuned
in the active NAV field and the aircraft heading and selected course are within 107˚. A green diamond acts as
the Glideslope Indicator, like a glideslope needle on a conventional indicator. If a localizer frequency is tuned
and there is no glideslope, “NO GS” is displayed in place of the diamond.
The glidepath is analogous to the glideslope for GPS approach service levels supporting SBAS vertical
guidance (LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LPV, LP+V). When a GPS approach of one of these service levels is loaded
into the flight plan, GPS is the selected navigation source, and SBAS is used for vertical approach guidance, the
Glidepath Indicator appears as a magenta diamond (Figure 2-13). If the approach type downgrades past the
final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the diamond.
While executing an LNAV/VNAV approach and SBAS is unavailable, baro-VNAV (barometric vertical
navigation) is used for vertical guidance. This occurs due to any of the following conditions:
•
SBAS fails or becomes unavailable prior to the FAF
•
The aircraft is outside of SBAS coverage
•
SBAS is manually disabled on the GPS Status page
Baro-VNAV is also the source of vertical approach guidance if the LNAV/VNAV procedure does not support
SBAS vertical guidance.
While baro-VNAV active, the Glidepath Indicator appears as a magenta pentagon (Figure 2-14). If the
approach type downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the pentagon.
While executing a GPS approach with an LNAV/VNAV service level between the FAF and MAP, excessive
deviation indicators appear as vertical yellow lines (Figure 2-14) to indicate areas where the vertical deviation
exceeds ±75 feet. The “window” between the lines represents the area of acceptable deviation. The length of
the lines adjusts while progressing through the final approach.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
VNV Target
Altitude
Marker
Beacon
Annunciation
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Vertical Glideslope
Speed
Indicator
Pointer
Required
Vertical
Speed
Figure 2-11 Vertical Speed and
Deviation Indicator (VSI and VDI)
Figure 2-12 Glideslope Indicator
Excessive
Deviation
Indicator
Glipepath
Indicator
Glipepath
Indicator
Figure 2-13 Glidepath Indicator
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Figure 2-14 Glidepath Indicator
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) displays a rotating compass card in a heading-up orientation. Letters
indicate the cardinal points with numeric labels every 30˚. Major tick marks are at 10˚ intervals and minor tick
marks are at 5˚ intervals. A digital reading of the current heading appears on top of the HSI, and the current
track is represented on the HSI by a magenta diamond connected to a gray dashed line. The HSI also presents
turn rate, course deviation, bearing, and navigation source information. The HSI is available in two formats, a
360˚ compass rose and a 140˚ arc.
Changing the HSI display format:
1) Press the PFD Softkey
2) Press the HSI FRMT Softkey.
3) Press the 360 HSI or ARC HSI Softkey.
The 360˚ HSI contains a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI), with a Course Pointer, To/From Indicator, and a
sliding deviation bar and scale. The course pointer is a single line arrow (GPS, VOR1, and LOC1) or a double
line arrow (VOR2 and LOC2) which points in the direction of the set course. The To/From arrow rotates with
the course pointer and is displayed when the active NAVAID is received.
15
14
13
1
12
2
11
3
4
10
5
9
6
9
7
8
1
Turn Rate Indicator
9
Lateral Deviation Scale
2
Current Track Indicator
10
Flight Phase
3
To/From Indicator
11
Course Pointer
4
Navigation Source
12
Heading Bug
5
Aircraft Symbol
13
6
7
Course Deviation Indicator
(CDI)
Rotating Compass Card
15
8
OBS Mode Active
Turn Rate and Heading
Trend Vector
14 Current Heading
Lubber Line
Figure 2-15 Horizontal Situation Indicator (360˚ HSI)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
The Arc HSI is a 140˚ expanded section of the compass rose. The Arc HSI contains a Course Pointer,
combined To/From Indicator and a sliding deviation indicator, and a deviation scale. Upon station passage, the
To/From Indicator flips and points to the tail of the aircraft, just like a conventional To/From flag. Depending
on the navigation source, the CDI on the Arc HSI can appear in two different ways, an arrowhead (GPS, VOR,
OBS) or a diamond (LOC).
Course Pointer
Current Track Indicator
Flight Phase
Annunciation
Navigation
Source
Lateral
Deviation
Scale
Course
Deviation
and To/From
Indicator
Figure 2-16 Arc HSI
The Selected Heading is shown to the upper left of the HSI for 3 seconds after being adjusted The cyan bug
on the compass rose corresponds to the Selected Heading. While the HSI is displayed as an arc, if the Heading
Bug is adjusted off the shown portion of the compass rose, the digital reading is displayed.
Adjusting the Selected Heading:
Turn the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading.
Press the HDG Knob to synchronize the bug to the current heading.
The Selected Course is shown to the upper right of the HSI for 3 seconds after being adjusted. While the
HSI is displayed as an arc, the Selected Course is displayed whenever the Course Pointer is not within the 140˚
currently shown.
Adjusting the Selected Course:
Turn the CRS Knob to set the Selected Course.
Press the CRS Knob to re-center the CDI and return the course pointer to the bearing of the active waypoint or
navigation station.
Current Track Indicator
Current Heading
Selected
Course
Selected
Heading
Bug
Selected
Heading
Figure 2-17 Heading and Course Indications
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Navigation angles (track, heading, course, bearing) are corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag
Var) or referenced to true north (T), set on the AUX - System Setup Page. When an approach referenced to
true north has been loaded into the flight plan, the system generates a message to change the navigation angle
setting to True at the appropriate time.
Figure 2-18 Heading and Course Indications (True)
Changing the navigation angle true/magnetic setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Nav Angle in the Display Units box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
• TRUE - References angles to true north (T)
• MAGNETIC - Angles corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag Var)
Figure 2-19 Navigation Angle Settings
(AUX - System Setup Page)
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TURN RATE INDICATOR
The Turn Rate Indicator is located directly above the rotating compass card. Tick marks to the left and right
of the lubber line denote half-standard and standard turn rates. A magenta Turn Rate Trend Vector shows the
current turn rate. The end of the trend vector gives the heading predicted in 6 seconds, based on the present
turn rate. A standard-rate turn is shown on the indicator by the trend vector stopping at the standard turn
rate tick mark, corresponding to a predicted heading of 18˚ from the current heading. At rates greater than 4
deg/sec, an arrowhead appears at the end of the magenta trend vector and the prediction is no longer valid.
Standard
Turn Rate
Arrow Shown
for Turn Rate
> 4 deg/sec
Half-standard
Turn Rate
Figure 2-20 Turn Rate Indicator and Trend Vector
BEARING POINTERS AND INFORMATION WINDOWS
NOTE: When the Arc HSI is displayed, the Bearing Information windows and pointers are disabled.
Two bearing pointers and associated information can be displayed on the HSI for NAV and GPS sources by
pressing the PFD Softkey then a BRG Softkey. The bearing pointers are cyan and are single-line (BRG1) or
double-line (BRG2). A pointer symbol is shown in the information window to indicate the navigation source.
The bearing pointers never override the CDI and are visually separated from the CDI by a white ring. Bearing
pointers may be selected but not necessarily visible due to data unavailability.
Tuning Mode
Bearing 1
Pointer
Frequency
Distance
Bearing 2
Pointer
DME Information Window
Distance to
Bearing Source
No
Waypoint
Selected
Station
Identifier
Bearing
Pointer
Source
Icon
Bearing 1 Information Window
Pointer
Bearing
Icon
Source
Bearing 2 Information Window
Figure 2-21 HSI with Bearing and DME Information
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
When a bearing pointer is displayed, the associated information window is also displayed. The Bearing
Information windows (Figure 2-21) are displayed at the lower sides of the HSI and give the following
information:
• Pointer icon (BRG1 = single line, BRG2 = double line)
• GPS-derived great circle distance to bearing
source
• Station/waypoint identifier (NAV, GPS)
• Frequency (NAV)
• Bearing source (NAV, GPS, or optional ADF)
When the NAV radio is tuned to an ILS frequency the bearing source and the bearing pointer is removed
from the HSI. When NAV1 or NAV2 is the selected bearing source, the frequency is replaced by the station
identifier when the station is within range. If GPS is the bearing source, the active waypoint identifier is
displayed instead of a frequency.
The bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and NO DATA is displayed in the information window if
the NAV radio is not receiving a VOR station or if GPS is the bearing source and an active waypoint is not
selected.
Selecting bearing display and changing sources:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press a BRG Softkey to display the desired bearing pointer and information window with a NAV source.
3) Press the BRG Softkey again to change the bearing source to GPS.
4) Press the BRG Softkey a third time to change the bearing source to ADF (note: ADF radio installation is optional).
5) To remove the bearing pointer and information window, press the BRG Softkey again.
DME INFORMATION WINDOW
NOTE: DME radio installation is optional.
The DME Information Window is displayed above the BRG1 Information Window and shows the DME
label, tuning mode (NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD), frequency, and distance. When a signal is invalid, the distance
is replaced by “–.– – NM”. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for information on tuning the radios.
Displaying the DME Information Window:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the DME Softkey to display the DME Information Window above the BRG1 Information Window.
3) To remove the DME Information Window, press the DME Softkey again.
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COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
NOTE: During a heading change of greater than 105˚ with respect to the course, the CDI on the Arc HSI
switches to the opposite side of the deviation scale and displays reverse sensing.
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer along a lateral deviation
scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data is not valid, the CDI is not
displayed.
360º HSI
Arc HSI
Navigation
Source
Scale
Flight
Phase
Navigation
Source
Flight
Phase
CDI
CDI
Scale
CDI
Crosstrack
Error
Figure 2-22 Course Deviation Indicator
The CDI can display two sources of navigation, GPS or VOR/LOC. The color indicates the current navigation
source, magenta for GPS and green for VOR and LOC. The full scale limits for the CDI are defined by a GPSderived distance when navigating GPS. When navigating using a VOR or localizer (LOC), the CDI uses the
same angular deviation as a mechanical CDI. If the CDI exceeds the maximum deviation on the scale (two dots)
while navigating with GPS, the crosstrack error (XTK) is displayed below the white aircraft symbol.
Figure 2-23 Navigation Sources
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Changing navigation sources:
1) Press the CDI Softkey to change from GPS to VOR1 or LOC1. This places the cyan tuning box over the NAV1
standby frequency in the upper left corner of the PFD.
2) Press the CDI Softkey again to change from VOR1 or LOC1 to VOR2 or LOC2. This places the cyan tuning box
over the NAV2 standby frequency.
3) Press the CDI Softkey a third time to return to GPS.
NAV1 Selected for Tuning
GPS
Selected
LOC1
Selected
NAV2 Selected for Tuning
VOR2
Selected
Pressing the CDI Softkey
Cycles through
Navigation Sources
Figure 2-24 Selecting a Navigation Source
The system automatically switches from GPS to LOC navigation source and changes the CDI scaling accordingly
when all of the following occur:
• A localizer or ILS approach has been loaded into the active flight plan
• The final approach fix (FAF) is the active leg, the FAF is less than 15 nm away, and the aircraft is moving
toward the FAF
• A valid localizer frequency has been tuned
• The GPS CDI deviation is less than 1.2 times full-scale deflection
GPS steering guidance is still provided after the CDI automatically switches to LOC until LOC capture, up
to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) for an ILS approach, or until GPS information becomes invalid. Activating a
Vector-to-Final (VTF) also causes the CDI to switch to LOC navigation source. GPS steering guidance is not
provided after the switch.
On some ILS approaches where the glideslope intercept point is at or in close proximity to the fix prior to
the FAF (see Figure 2-25), it is possible to be above the glideslope when the navigation source automatically
switches from GPS to LOC. The probability of this occurring varies based on air temperature.
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Fix Prior to the FAF
Glideslope Intercept Point
Figure 2-25 ILS Approach with Glideslope Intercept Point at Fix Prior to the FAF
GPS CDI SCALING
When GPS is the selected navigation source, the flight plan legs are sequenced automatically and
annunciations appear on the HSI for the flight phase. Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in
magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the color changes to yellow. If the current leg in the flight plan
is a heading leg, HDG LEG is annunciated in magenta beneath the aircraft symbol.
The current GPS CDI scale setting is displayed as System CDI on the AUX - System Setup Page and the fullscale deflection setting may also be changed (2.0 nm, 1.0 nm, 0.3 nm, or Auto) from this page. If the selected
scaling is smaller than the automatic setting for enroute and terminal phases, the CDI is scaled accordingly
and the selected setting is displayed rather than the flight phase annunciation.
Changing the selected GPS CDI setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Selected in the GPS CDI box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
5) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
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Figure 2-26 GPS CDI Setting
(AUX - System Setup Page)
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Terminal
Refer to accompanying
approach CDI scaling figures
Approach
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
1.0 nm
0.3 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
When set to Auto (default), the GPS CDI scale automatically adjusts to the desired limits based upon the
current phase of flight (Figure 2-27, Table 2-1).
Missed
Approach
Figure 2-27 Automatic CDI Scaling
• Once a departure procedure is activated, the CDI is scaled for departure (0.3 nm).
• The system switches from departure to terminal CDI scaling (1.0 nm) under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not aligned with the departure runway
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not a CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF (see
Glossary for leg type definitions)
- After any leg in the departure procedure that is not a CA or FA
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• At 30 nm from the departure airport, the enroute phase of flight is automatically entered and CDI scaling
changes to 2.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
- When navigating with an active departure procedure, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change
until the aircraft arrives at the last departure waypoint (if more than 30 nm from the departure airport) or
the leg after the last departure waypoint has been activated or a direct-to waypoint is activated.
• If after completing the departure procedure the nearest airport is more than 200 nm away from the aircraft
and the approach procedure has not yet commenced, the CDI is scaled for oceanic flight (4.0 nm).
• Within 31 nm of the destination airport (terminal area), the CDI scale gradually ramps down from 2.0 nm
to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
- Upon reaching the first waypoint of an arrival route that is more than 31 nm from the destination airport,
the flight phase changes to terminal and the CDI scale begins to transition down from 2.0 nm to 1.0 nm
over a distance of 1.0 nm.
• During approach, the CDI scale ramps down even further (Figures 2-25 and 2-26). This transition normally
occurs within 2.0 nm of the final approach fix (FAF). The CDI switches to approach scaling automatically
once the approach procedure is activated or if Vectors-To-Final (VTF) are selected.
- If the active waypoint is the FAF, the ground track and the bearing to the FAF must be within 45° of the
final approach segment course.
2 nm
FAF
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2 nm
FAF
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
angle based
on database
information
course width
angle set
by system
350 ft
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
CDI scale is set to the smaller of 0.3 nm
or an angle set by the system
CDI Full-scale Deflection
- If the active waypoint is part of the missed approach procedure, the active leg and the preceding missed
approach legs must be aligned with the final approach segment course and the aircraft must not have
passed the turn initiation point.
Landing
Threshold
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
Figure 2-28 Typical LNAV and LNAV+V Approach Service Level
CDI Scaling
Figure 2-29 Typical LNAV/VNAV, LPV, LP, and LP+V Approach
Service Level CDI Scaling
• When a missed approach is activated, the CDI scale changes to 0.3 nm.
• The system automatically switches back to terminal mode under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not aligned with the final approach path
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not a CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF
- After any leg in the missed approach procedure that is not a CA or FA
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Flight Phase
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Annunciation*
DPRT
TERM
ENR
OCN
Approach
(Non-precision)
LNAV
Approach
(Non-precision with
Vertical Guidance)
Approach
(LNAV/VNAV)
Approach
(LPV)
Approach
(LP)
Approach
(LP+V)
Missed Approach
Automatic CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
1.0 nm decreasing to 350 feet depending on
variables (Figure 2-28)
LNAV + V
L/VNAV
LPV
LP
1.0 nm decreasing to a specified course width, then
0.3 nm, depending on variables (Figure 2-29)
LP+V
MAPR
0.3 nm
* Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in magenta, but when cautionary
conditions exist the color changes to yellow.
Table 2-1 Automatic GPS CDI Scaling
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OBS MODE
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
Enabling Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode suspends the automatic sequencing of waypoints in a GPS
flight plan (GPS must be the selected navigation source), but retains the current Active-to waypoint as the
navigation reference even after passing the waypoint. OBS is annunciated to the lower right of the aircraft
symbol when OBS Mode is selected.
While OBS is enabled, a course line is drawn through the Active-to waypoint on the moving map. If
desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled, the GPS flight
plan returns to normal operation, with automatic sequencing of waypoints, following the course set in OBS
Mode. The flight plan on the moving map retains the modified course line.
GPS
Selected
Extended
Course
Line
OBS Mode
Enabled
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Enables
OBS Mode
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Again
Disables OBS Mode
Figure 2-30 Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode
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Enabling/disabling OBS Mode while navigating a GPS flight plan:
1) Press the OBS Softkey to select OBS Mode.
2) Turn the CRS Knob to select the desired course to/from the waypoint. Press the CRS Knob to synchronize the
Selected Course with the bearing to the next waypoint.
3) Press the OBS Softkey again to return to automatic waypoint sequencing.
As the aircraft crosses the missed approach point (MAP), automatic approach waypoint sequencing is
suspended. SUSP appears on the HSI at the lower right of the aircraft symbol. The OBS Softkey label
changes to indicate the suspension is active as shown in Figure 2-31. Pressing the SUSP Softkey, deactivates
the suspension and resumes automatic sequencing of approach waypoints.
SUSP
Softkey
SUSP
Annunciation
Figure 2-31 Suspending Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
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2.2 SUPPLEMENTAL FLIGHT DATA
NOTE: Pressing the DFLTS Softkey turns off metric Altimeter display, the Inset Map and wind data display.
In addition to the flight instruments, the PFD also displays various supplemental information, including
temperatures, wind data, and Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications.
TEMPERATURE DISPLAYS
The Outside Air Temperature (OAT) and deviation from International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) temperature
are displayed in the lower left corner of the PFD under normal conditions, or below the true airspeed in
Reversionary Display Mode. Both are displayed in degrees Celsius (°C).
Normal Display
Reversionary Mode
Figure 2-32 Outside Air Temperature
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WIND DATA
Wind direction and speed in knots can be displayed relative to the aircraft in a window to the upper left of
the HSI. When the window is selected for display, but wind information is invalid or unavailable, the window
displays NO WIND DATA. Wind data can be displayed in three different ways.
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
No Data
Figure 2-33 Wind Data
Displaying wind data:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the WIND Softkey to display wind data to the left of the HSI.
3) Press one of the OPTN softkeys to change how wind data is displayed:
• OPTN 1: Headwind/tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed components
• OPTN 2: Wind direction arrow and speed
• OPTN 3: Wind direction arrow with headwind (H)/tailwind (T) and crosswind (X) components
4) To remove the window, press the OFF Softkey.
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VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNV) INDICATIONS
When a VNV flight plan has been activated, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, RVSI, VDI) appear on the
PFD in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” message and “Vertical track” voice alert. See the Flight
Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features. VNV indications are removed from the PFD
according to the criteria listed in the table.
Top of Descent Message
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
GPS is the
Selected
Navigation
Source
Phase of
Flight
Figure 2-34 Vertical Navigation Indications (PFD)
VNV Indication Removed
Criteria
Required Vertical
Vertical
VNV Target
Speed (RVSI)
Deviation (VDI)
Altitude*
Aircraft > 1 min before the next TOD due to flight plan change
X
X
X
VNV cancelled (CNCL VNV Softkey pressed on MFD)
X
X
X
Distance to active waypoint cannot be computed due to
unsupported flight plan leg type (see Flight Management
X
X
X
Section)
Aircraft > 250 feet below active VNV Target Altitude
X
X
X
Current crosstrack or track angle error has exceeded limit
X
X
X
Active altitude-constrained waypoint can not be reached within
X
X
maximum allowed flight path angle and vertical speed
Table 2-2 VNV Indication Removal Criteria
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2.3 PFD ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTING FUNCTIONS
The following annunciations and alerting functions are displayed on the PFD. Refer to Appendix A for more
information on alerts and annunciations.
MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATIONS
Marker Beacon Annunciations are displayed on the PFD to the left of the Selected Altitude. Outer marker
reception is indicated in blue, middle in yellow, and inner in white. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section
for more information on Marker Beacon Annunciations.
Outer Marker
Middle Marker
Inner Marker
Altimeter
Figure 2-35 Marker Beacon Annunciations
TRAFFIC ANNUNCIATION
Traffic is displayed symbolically on the PFD Inset Map, the MFD Navigation Map Page, and various other
MFD page maps. Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section and Appendix F for more details about the Traffic
Information Service (TIS) and optional Traffic Advisory Systems (TAS). When a traffic advisory (TA) is detected,
the following automatically occur:
• The PFD Inset Map is enabled and displays traffic
• A flashing black-on-yellow TRAFFIC annunciation appears to the top left of the Attitude Indicator for five
seconds and remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area
• A single “TRAFFIC” voice alert is heard, unless an optional Traffic Advisory System (TAS) or Traffic Alert
and Collision Avoidance System I (TCAS I) is installed; refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section for more
information.
If additional TAs appear, new visual annunciations and voice alerts are generated.
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Traffic
Symbols
Figure 2-36 Traffic Annunciation and Inset Map with Traffic Displayed
TAWS ANNUNCIATIONS
Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) annunciations appear on the PFD at the top left of the Altimeter.
Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section and Appendix A for information on TAWS alerts and annunciations.
Figure 2-37 Traffic and Example TAWS Annunciations
ALTITUDE ALERTING
Altitude Alerting provides the pilot with a visual alert when approaching the Selected Altitude. Whenever the
Selected Altitude is changed, the Altitude Alerter is reset. The following occur when approaching the Selected
Altitude: Altitude Alerting is independent of the Garmin AFCS.
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• Upon passing through 1000 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude changes to black text on a cyan
background and flashes for five seconds.
• When the aircraft passes within 200 feet of the Selected Altitude an aural tone is heard. The Selected Altitude
changes to cyan text on a black background and flashes for five seconds.
• After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the pilot flies outside the deviation band (±200 feet of the Selected
Altitude) an aural tone is heard. The Selected Altitude changes to yellow text on a black background and
flashes for five seconds.
Within 1000 ft
Within 200 ft
Deviation of ±200 ft
Figure 2-38 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
LOW ALTITUDE ANNUNCIATION
NOTE: The Low Altitude Annunciation requires SBAS. Terrain alerts from Terrain-SVS or TAWS-B systems will
appear instead of the Low Altitude Annunciation when these systems are operating and not inhibited.
When the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach using vertical guidance,
a Low Altitude Annunciation may appear if the current aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed
altitude at the FAF. A black-on-yellow LOW ALT annunciation appears to the top left of the Altimeter, flashes
for several seconds, then remains displayed until the condition is resolved.
LOW ALT
Annunciation
Altimeter
Figure 2-39 Low Altitude on GPS SBAS Approach
MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT ALERTING
For altitude awareness, a barometric Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH) can be set
in the REFERENCES Window.
If desired, the system can also compensate this altitude based on a pilot-supplied temperature at the
destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C, the system increases the
displayed MDA/DH accordingly.
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When active, the altitude setting is displayed to the bottom left of the Altimeter. Once the altitude is
within the range of the tape, a bug appears at the reference altitude on the Altimeter. The following visual
annunciations occur when approaching the MDA/DH:
• When the aircraft altitude descends to within 2500 feet of the MDA/DH setting, a box labeled ‘BARO MIN’
or ‘COMP MIN’ (based on the selected altitude source) appears with the altitude in cyan text (or magenta
for TEMP COMP). The bug appears in cyan (or magenta for TEMP COMP) on the altitude tape at the
corresponding altitude once in range.
• When the aircraft passes through 100 feet of the MDA/DH, the bug and text become white.
• Once the aircraft reaches MDA/DH, the bug and text become yellow and the audio alert, “Minimums.
Minimums”, is heard.
Within 2500 ft
Within 100 ft
Altitude Reached
Barometric
Minimum
Bug
Barometric
Minimum
Box
Figure 2-40 Barometric MDA/DH Alerting Visual Annunciations
Alerting is inhibited while the aircraft is on the ground and until the aircraft reaches 150 feet above the MDA.
If the aircraft proceeds to climb after having reached the MDA, once it reaches 50 feet above the MDA, alerting
is disabled.
The MDA/DH may be set from either PFD and is synchronized on both PFDs. The function is reset when the
power is cycled or a new approach is activated.
Setting the barometric minimum descent altitude and bug:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Minimums field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the barometric (BARO) or temperature compensated (TEMP COMP) barometric
altitude. OFF is selected by default. Press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired altitude (BARO or TEMP COMP from zero to 16,000 feet). If TEMP
COMP is selected, a field for entering the temperature at the destination will appear. Press the ENT Key or turn
the large FMS Knob to highlight this field, and use the small FMS Knob to enter the temperature (from -59º C
to +59º C.) The system increases or decreases the displayed MDA/DH altitude based on this temperature.
5) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or press the TMR/REF Softkey.
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Figure 2-41 BARO and TEMP COMP MDA/DH
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered in the REFERENCES Window on the PFD, or
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION Window on the MFD. There is only one compensation temperature
for the system, therefore, changing the temperature will affect both the loaded approach altitudes and
the minimums. Refer to the Flight Management section for information about applying temperature
compensation to approach altitudes.
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2.4 ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
ABNORMAL GPS CONDITIONS
The annunciations listed in Table 2-3 can appear on the HSI when abnormal GPS conditions occur (Figure
2-42). Refer to the Flight Management Section for more information on Dead Reckoning Mode.
Annunciation
LOI
INTEG OK
DR
Location
Lower left of
aircraft symbol
Lower left of
aircraft symbol
Upper right of
aircraft symbol
Description
Loss of Integrity Monitoring–GPS integrity is insufficient for the current
phase of flight
Integrity OK–GPS integrity has been restored to within normal limits
(annunciation displayed for five seconds)
Dead Reckoning–System is using projected position rather than GPS position
to compute navigation data and sequence active flight plan waypoints
Table 2-3 Abnormal GPS Conditions Annunciated on HSI
Figure 2-42 Example HSI Annunciations
In Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode, the CDI appears yellow when GPS is the selected navigation source, and is
removed after 20 minutes of operation in DR Mode. The following additional items on the PFD are then shown
in yellow in DR Mode:
• Current Track Bug
• Wind Data
• Ground Speed
• Distances in the Bearing Information Windows
• GPS bearing pointers
These items should be verified when operating in Dead Reckoning Mode, as they become increasingly
inaccurate over time.
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HEADING FAILURE MODES
If the system is unable to determine the aircraft heading, but GPS-based track information is available, the
HSI displays the ground track instead of heading using HSI Track Mode. In this mode, a magenta ‘TRK’
annunciation and track readout appear on the HSI. In addition, a yellow ‘HDG’ annunciation with a red X
appear above the ‘TRK’ annunciation to indicate the HSI is displaying track instead of heading.
If both the heading and track are unavailable, the HSI displays a yellow ‘HDG’ annunciation with a red X over
the heading readout box. The system also removes directional numbers and letters from the HSI.
HSI Track Mode (Heading Unavailable, Track Available)
Heading and Track Unavailable
Figure 2-43 Heading Failure Displays on the HSI
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
When the aircraft enters an unusual pitch attitude, red chevrons pointing toward the horizon warn of extreme
pitch. The chevrons are displayed on the Attitude Indicator, starting at 50˚ above and 30˚ below the horizon
line.
Nose High
Nose Low
Figure 2-44 Pitch Attitude Warnings
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If pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚, some information displayed on the PFD is removed. The
Altimeter and Airspeed, Attitude, Vertical Speed, and Horizontal Situation indicators remain on the display
and the Bearing Information, Alerts, and Annunciation windows can be displayed during such situations. The
following information is removed from each PFD and their softkeys are disabled when the aircraft experiences
unusual attitudes:
• Traffic Annunciations
• System Time
• AFCS Annunciations
• PFD Setup Menu
• Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height readout
• Inset Map
• Outside air temperature (OAT)
• Windows displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD:
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope,
and Glidepath Indicators
• ISA temperature deviation
– Timer/References
• Altimeter Barometric Setting
• Wind data
– Nearest Airports
• Selected Altitude
• Selected Heading readout
– Flight Plan
• VNV Target Altitude
• Selected Course readout
– Messages
• Ground Speed
• Transponder Status Box
– Procedures
• True Airspeed
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ENGINE INDICATING SYSTEM
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION (EIS)
NOTE: Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for limitations.
The Engine Indication System (EIS) displays electrical, fuel, engine, pressurization, flight control, and landing
gear information on the left side of the Multi Function Display (MFD).
EICAS Display
Figure 3-1 Multi Function Display
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ENGINE INDICATING SYSTEM
In the event of a display failure, depending on the failed display(s), the display(s) operating in Reversionary
Mode may be re-configured to present Primary Flight Display (PFD) symbology together with engine information
(refer to the System Overview for more information about Reversionary Mode). In Reversionary Mode, engine,
pressurization, fuel, electrical, flight control, and landing gear data is presented in an abbreviated format on the
left of the display.
EIS
Display
Figure 3-2 Reversionary Mode
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ENGINE INDICATING SYSTEM
3.1 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM (EIS)
10
1
1
2
2
11
3
12
3
13
4
4
14
5
15
6
6
16
10
7
17
5
11
7
8
16
9
13
18
14
15
8
17
18
9
Figure 3-3 EIS Display (Normal Mode)
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Figure 3-4 EIS Display (Reversionary Mode)
1
Torque
10
Cabin Pressure Altitude and Change Rate
2
Interstage Turbine Temperature
11
Differential Pressure
3
Propeller Speed
12
Destination Elevation
4
Generator Speed
13
Alternator and Generator Currents
5
Oil Pressure
14
Voltage
6
Oil Temperature
15
Vacuum
7
Fuel Quantity
16
Rudder Trim
8
Fuel Flow
17
Flap Position
9
Fuel Temperature
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ENGINE INDICATING SYSTEM
EIS information is presented using gauges, horizontal and vertical bar indicators, slide bars, and numerical
displays. Green ranges on the instrument scales indicate normal ranges of operation; yellow and red bands
indicate caution and warning, respectively. During normal operating conditions, an instrument’s title appears in
white and the numerical display is green. When an unsafe operating condition occurs, the title and numerical
display color change to yellow or flash red, indicating a caution or warning. If the sensor data for a parameter
becomes invalid or unavailable, a red “X” is displayed across the indicator and/or numerical display.
ENGINE PARAMETERS
The PA-46 Meridian’s EIS displays torque, interturbine temperature, propeller speed, and generator speed
using arc gauges.
TORQUE GAUGE
The Torque Gauge displays values in foot-pounds. If torque exceeds the maximum safe operating range a
warning condition occurs.
Figure 3-5 Torque Gauge
ITT GAUGE
NOTE: Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for engine operating limitations.
The Interstage Turbine Temperature (ITT) Gauge ranges differ for engine off/start and running conditions.
Values between 200 and 1200 degrees Celsius (°C) are shown at engine start; values change to 200 to
900° C when the engine is running. When in start mode the yellow band extends from 770 to 1000° C.
When the engine is running the yellow band extends from 770 to 800° C and the red band is at 800° C.
When the engine is not running, ‘OFF’ is annunciated above the ITT color band; this changes to ‘STRT’ upon
engine start. No annunciation is shown when the engine is running normally.
Engine Off
Engine Start
Normal
Figure 3-6 ITT Gauge Status Annunciation
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ENGINE INDICATING SYSTEM
PROPELLER RPM GAUGE
Propeller speed is shown in revolutions per minute (rpm). If a propeller underspeed or overspeed occurs
a warning is issued.
Figure 3-7 Propeller RPM Gauge
GENERATOR SPEED GAUGE
Generator speed is indicated as a percentage of maximum safe operating speed (rpm). If the generator
speed exceeds the maximum a warning condition occurs.
Figure 3-8 Generator Speed Gauge
OIL PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE GAUGES
Engine oil pressure and temperature are shown along horizontal bar indicators below the engine gauges.
Oil pressure is shown in pounds per square inch (psi) and temperature in degrees Celsius (°C).
Figure 3-9 Oil Pressure and Temperature Gauges
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ENGINE INDICATING SYSTEM
CABIN PRESSURIZATION
Cabin pressurization information (cabin altitude, rate of change, and differential cabin pressure) is shown on
the EIS display. Only numerical displays for cabin altitude and pressure differential are displayed in Reversionary
Mode.
Cabin altitude (ALT FT) is shown on a color-coded vertical scale with a numerical display (in feet) displayed
below it. Cabin altitude change rate (FPM) is also shown on a vertical scale with a numerical display (in fpm)
displayed below it. Cabin pressure differential (DIFF PSI) is shown on a color-coded horizontal scale with a
numerical display (in pounds per square inch; psi) displayed above it.
Pressure
Altitude
Pressure
Change
Rate
Pressure
Differential
Figure 3-10 Cabin Pressurization Display
FUEL INFORMATION
The fuel display is located beneath the differential pressure scale and shows the fuel quantity in each tank
(fuel qty, lbs), fuel flow (fflow pph), and fuel temperature (fuel °C). Fuel quantity for each tank is normally
shown along a slider scale. Only a numerical display will appear for all fuel information in Reversionary Mode.
Tank Fuel
Quantities
Fuel
Flow
Fuel
Temperature
Figure 3-11 Fuel Display
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ENGINE INDICATING SYSTEM
ELECTRICAL INFORMATION
DC current for the alternator and generator and voltage for the DC bus are shown along color-coded horizontal
scales, with numerical displays to the right. When the system is being powered by essential bus, the volts
display will change to ‘EVOLTS’.
Generator
Current
Alternator
Current
Bus Voltage
Figure 3-12 Electrical Display
VACUUM PRESSURE
The Vacuum Gauge displays the amount of suction in the vacuum system measured in inches of mercury (in
Hg).
Figure 3-13 Vacuum Gauge
TRIM AND FLAP INDICATORS
The Rudder Trim indication is shown along a horizontal slide bar scale above the Flap indicator during
normal and reversionary display modes. The green band indicates takeoff position for the rudder trim. Flap
position is normally displayed beneath the rudder trim indication using a rotating pointer. Flap positions are
labeled 0°, 10°, 20°, and 36°. In Reversionary Mode, there is only a numerical display shown for flap position.
Figure 3-14 Rudder Trim and Flap Indications
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ENGINE INDICATING SYSTEM
LANDING GEAR INDICATOR
Landing Gear statuses are shown using the indications in the following table.
Position
EIS
Engine Page
Up &
Locked
In Transition
Down and
Locked
Warning
Table 3-1 Landing Gear Indications
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 OVERVIEW
The Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) system includes the audio panels, communication radios,
navigation radios, and Mode S transponders. The System Overview Section provides a block diagram description
of the Audio Panels and CNS system interconnection.
CNS operation in the Piper PA-46-500TP Meridian is performed by the following Line Replaceable Units
(LRUs):
• Primary Flight Display (PFD) (2)
• Audio Panel (1)
• Multifunction Display (MFD)
• Mode S Transponder (2 Optional)
• Integrated Avionics Unit (2)
• MFD/PFD Control Unit
The PFD controls are used to tune the communication transceivers and navigation radios.
The Audio Panel provides the traditional audio selector functions of microphone and receiver audio selection.
The Audio Panel includes an intercom system (ICS) between the pilot, copilot, and passengers, a marker beacon
system, and a COM clearance recorder. Ambient noise from the aircraft radios is reduced by a feature called
Master Avionics Squelch (MASQ). When no audio is detected, MASQ processing further reduces the amount of
background noise from the radios.
The Mode S Transponder(s) are controlled with softkeys and the FMS Knob located on the Primary Flight
Display PFD. The Transponder Data Box is located to the left of the System Time Box. The data box displays the
active four-digit code, mode, and a reply status (Figure 4-1).
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PFD CONTROLS AND FREQUENCY DISPLAY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Figure 4-1 PFD Controls, COM/NAV Frequency Tuning Boxes, and DME Tuning Window
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1
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to turn the Morse code identifier audio on
and off. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
3
NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
Press to move the tuning box (cyan box) and Frequency Transfer Arrow between NAV1 and NAV2.
4
NAV Frequency Box – Displays NAV standby and active frequency fields, volume, and station ID. The
frequency of the NAV radio selected for navigation is displayed in green.
5
COM Frequency Box – Displays COM standby and active frequency fields and volume. The selected COM
transceiver frequency is displayed in green.
6
COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Press to move the tuning box (cyan box) and Frequency Transfer Arrow between COM1 and COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this key
for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Press to turn the COM automatic squelch on
and off. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency field as a percentage.
9
ADF/DME Tuning Window – Displays ADF frequencies, volume setting, and modes, and DME tuning
selection. Display by pressing the ADF/DME Softkey.
10
ENT Key – Validates or confirms DME pairing mode and Auto-tune selection.
11
FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob, used to enter transponder codes, select DME modes, and
Auto-tune entries when DME Tuning Window or NRST Window is present. Press the FMS Knob to turn
the selection cursor on and off. The large knob moves the cursor in the window. The small knob selects
individual characters for the highlighted cursor location.
12
Transponder Data Box – Indicates the selected transponder code, operating mode, reply, and ident status
for the applicable transponder.
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AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
1
11
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
10
20
21
Figure 4-2 GMA 350 Controls
NOTE: When a key is selected, a triangular annunciator above the key is illuminated.
1
MKR/MUTE – Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker beacon receiver
audio. Deactivates automatically and marker beacon audio is heard when the next marker beacon signal
is received. Also, stops play of recorded COM audio.
2
COM1 – When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard. Press and hold to enable/disable
monitored COM muting during primary COM reception.
3
COM2 – When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard. Press and hold to enable/disable
monitored COM muting during primary COM reception.
4
NAV1 – When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
5
NAV2 – When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
6
– Selects and deselects audio from a telephone or entertainment device connected to the Front Panel
Jack. Audio from a telephone connected to the rear of the audio panel is used if a device is not connected
to the Front Panel Jack. Press and hold to enable/disable
102
muting during reception.
7
MUS1 – Selects and deselects music entertainment audio. Press and hold to enable/disable MUS1 muting
during reception.
8
MUS2 – Selects and deselects music entertainment audio. Press and hold to enable/disable MUS2 muting
during reception.
9
MAN SQ – Manual Squelch annunciator. When lit, squelch is controlled manually.
10
Volume Indicator – Indicates volume/squelch setting relative to full scale.
11
Front Panel Jack – Used for an entertainment or telephone input.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
12
MIC1 – Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously selected when this key
is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM receiver to be heard. COM2 receive can be added by
pressing the COM2 Key. Selection of a second MIC button initiates Split-COM mode. When in Split-COM
mode, the pilot is using COM1, the copilot is using the COM2.
13
MIC2 – Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously selected when this key
is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM receiver to be heard. COM1 receive can be added by
pressing the COM1 Key. Selection of a second MIC button initiates Split-COM mode. When in Split-COM
mode, the pilot is using COM1, the copilot is using the COM2.
14
PLAY – Press once to play the latest recorded memory block. Press while audio is playing begins playing
the previously recorded memory block. Each subsequent press thereafter plays the previous block of
memory.
15
AUX – When selected, audio from the ADF and DME (if equipped) can be heard.
16
PILOT – Controls the pilot intercom system.
17
COPLT – Controls the copilot intercom system. Press and hold to toggle copilot configuration between
crew and passenger.
18
PASS – Controls the passenger intercom system. Press and hold to enable/disable passenger muting
during reception.
19
SPKR – Selects and deselects the cabin speaker. COM, NAV, AUX, and MKR receiver audio can be heard
on the speaker. Press and hold for 2 seconds for Passenger Address (PA). The SPKR key flashes during
PA.
20
Cursor (CRSR) Control Knob – Turn to move the cursor (flashing white or blue annunciator) to the
desired source.
21
Volume (VOL) Control Knob – Turn the smaller knob to control volume or squelch of the selected source
(indicated by the flashing white or blue annunciator). When the volume control cursor is not active press
to switch to Blue-Select mode. If the volume control cursor is active, press twice (once to cancel the cursor,
twice to activate Blue-Select mode).
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
MFD/PFD CONTROL UNIT
The MFD/PFD Control Unit is a pedestal-mounted interface allowing MFD/PFD operation, data entry, COM
and NAV tuning, and transponder control. The MFD/PFD Control Unit duplicates many PFD display bezel
controls. Annunciators above the PFD, MFD, NAV, and COM keys illuminate when their respective control
modes are selected. The unit is in MFD control mode by default on system power-up.
Tune the COM and NAV radios in either MFD or PFD control mode. The appropriate frequency box on the
selected display is outlined by a cyan selection box, which flashes for a few seconds to indicate control unit
activity. Selection of a different display control or radio tuning mode results in cancellation of the previous
radio tuning mode.
1
13
12
11
10
9
2
8
3
7
6
5
4
Figure 4-3 MFD/PFD Control Unit
Tuning Selection
Box
Figure 4-4 Frequency Tuning with the MFD/PFD Control Unit
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1
MENU Key – Displays a list of options for accessing additional features or making setting changes.
2
Alphanumeric Keys – Allows data entry (rather than using the FMS Knob to select characters/
numbers).
3
BKSP Key – Moves cursor back one character space and removes last character entered.
4
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
5
CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus.
6
SEL Key – Arrows move cyan Softkey Selection Box on selected display. Press the center to activate the
selected softkey
7
Decimal Key – Enters a decimal point.
8
NAV Key – Selects NAV radio tuning mode on the MFD/PFD Control Unit. The NAV tuning box is
outlined with a cyan selection line when the NAV frequency is active on the control unit.
9
COM Key – Selects COM radio tuning mode on the MFD/PFD Control Unit. The COM tuning box is
outlined with a cyan selection line when the COM frequency is active on the control unit.
10
Frequency Transfer Key (EMERG) – Transfers the standby and active COM or NAV frequencies. Press
and hold for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the COM
active frequency field.
11
PFD Key – When selected, the control unit is used to access PFD functions.
12
MFD Key – When selected, the control unit is used to access MFD functions (default control mode).
13
FMS/NAV-COM Knob – NAV/COM Tuning Modes: Acts as the NAV or COM Knob. MFD/PFD Control
Modes: Acts as the FMS Knob.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.2 COM OPERATION
COM TRANSCEIVER SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
NOTE: During PA Mode, the COM MIC Annunciator is extinguished and the COM active frequency color
changes to white, indicating that neither COM transmitter is active.
NOTE: When turning on the G1000 for use, the system remembers the last frequencies used and the active
COM transceiver state prior to shutdown.
The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the left side and the
two standby frequencies are on the right. The COM transceiver is selected for transmitting by pressing the
COM MIC Keys on the Audio Panel. During reception of audio from the COM radio selected for transmission,
audio from the other COM radio is muted.
An active COM frequency displayed in green indicates that the COM transceiver is selected on the Audio
Panel (COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key). Both active COM frequencies appearing in white indicate that no COM
radio is selected for transmitting (PA Key is selected on the Audio Panel).
Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency in the tuning
box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
COM2 Radio is Selected
on the Audio Panel
Active
Fields
Standby
Fields
Tuning Box
Figure 4-5 Selecting a COM Radio for Transmit
TRANSMIT/RECEIVE INDICATIONS
During COM transmission, a white TX appears by the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. On the Audio Panel, when the active COM is transmitting, the active transceiver COM MIC
Key Annunciator flashes approximately once per second.
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During COM signal reception, a white RX appears by the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. Entertainment audio, if selected, is muted during active COM radio reception. Refer to
Additional Audio Panel Functions later in this section, and details on the Data Link Receiver in the Additional
Features Section.
Annunciator
Flashes During
Transmission
Transmit and
Receive Indicators
Figure 4-6 COM Radio Transmit and Receive Indications
When the same COM radio is selected on both Audio Panels, the pilot has transmit priority on COM1, the
copilot has transmit priority on COM2.
COM TRANSCEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The COM frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the right side of each PFD.
Manually tuning a COM frequency:
1) Turn the COM Knob to tune the desired frequency in the COM Tuning Box (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz).
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the COM VOL/SQ Knob.
4) Press the COM VOL/SQ Knob to turn automatic squelch on and off.
Turn the VOL/SQ Knob to adjust
volume. Press the Knob to Turn
Automatic Squelch On or Off
Press the Frequency Transfer
Key to Transfer COM
Frequencies Between Active
and Standby Frequency Boxes
Turn the COM Knob to
Tune the Frequency in
the Tuning Box
Figure 4-7 COM Frequency Tuning
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Manual frequency tuning from the MFD/PFD Control Unit
1) Press the COM Key to select the COM frequency box.
2) Turn the NAV/COM Knob to tune the desired frequency in the COM Tuning Box (large knob for MHz; small knob
for kHz).
3) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
Second, Turn the NAV/COM Knob
to Enter a Frequency into the
COM Standby Frequency Field
Third, Press the Frequency
Transfer Key to Move the
Frequency to the Active Field
First, Press the COM Key to
Place the Tuning Selection
Box on the COM frequencies
Figure 4-8 Frequency Tuning from the MFD/PFD Control Unit
SELECTING THE RADIO TO BE TUNED
Press the small COM Knob to transfer the frequency tuning box and Frequency Transfer Arrow between the
upper and lower radio frequency fields.
Press the COM Knob to
Switch the Tuning Box From
One COM Radio to the Other
Figure 4-9 Switching COM Tuning Boxes
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QUICK-TUNING AND ACTIVATING 121.500 MHZ
Pressing and holding the COM Frequency Transfer Key for two seconds automatically loads the emergency
COM frequency (121.500 MHz) in the active field of the COM radio selected for tuning (the one with the
transfer arrow). In the example shown, pressing the Audio Panel COM2 MIC Key activates the transceiver.
Press for Two Seconds to
Load 121.500 MHz
Figure 4-10 Quickly Tuning 121.500 MHz
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUTO-TUNING THE COM FREQUENCY
COM frequencies can be automatically tuned from the following:
• Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies Page (ARTCC, FSS, WX)
• WPT – Airport Information Page
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces Page
• NRST – Nearest Airports Page
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE PFD
COM frequencies for the nearest airports can be automatically tuned from the Nearest Airports Window on
the PFD. When the desired frequency is entered, it becomes a standby frequency. Pressing the Frequency
Transfer Key places this frequency into the COM Active Frequency Field.
Auto-tuning a COM frequency for a nearby airport from the PFD:
1) Select the NRST Softkey on the PFD to open the Nearest Airports Window. A list of 25 nearest airport identifiers
and COM frequencies is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the list and highlight the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the COM Standby Tuning Box.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
Figure 4-11 Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
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Select the NRST
Softkey to Open
the Nearest
Airports Window
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AUTO-TUNING FROM THE MFD
Load frequencies into the COM Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT page group by highlighting
the frequency and pressing the ENT Key (Figures 4-12, 4-13, and 4-14).
Auto-tuning a COM frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the COM frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the MFD Key and
the FMS Knob on the control unit or select the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency (Figure 4-14).
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key on either PFD to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency
Field.
Or
Press the COM Key to select the COM frequency box and then the Frequency Transfer Key on the control unit
to transfer the frequency.
Second, Press the FMS Knob to
Activate the Cursor. Then, Turn to
Scroll Through a List of Frequencies
First, Press the MFD
Key to Activate the
MFD Annunciator
Last, Press the Frequency
Transfer Key to Move the
Frequency to the Active Field
Press the COM Key to Move
the Cyan Outline to the
COM frequency Box
Third, Press the ENT Key to Load
a Highlighted Frequency into the
COM Standby Frequency Field
Figure 4-12 Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Or:
1) On the Nearest Airports, Frequencies, or Airspaces page, press the MENU Key to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor on the desired selection.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-13 Nearest Pages Menus
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On the WPT - Airport Information Page, place the cursor on the frequency field by pressing the FMS Knob
and scrolling through the list. Transfer the frequency to the COM Standby Field with the ENT Key.
Selected Airport
Identifier and
Information
Runway
Information
Press ENT Key to load
frequency into PFD1
COM Standby Field
Cursor then advances
to the next frequency
Select INFO Softkey for
AIRPORT, RUNWAYS,
and FREQUENCIES
Windows
Figure 4-14 WPT – Airport Information Page
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Tune COM frequencies from the NRST – Nearest Airspaces, NRST – Nearest Frequencies, and
NRST – Nearest Airports Pages on the MFD in a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU
Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
Figure 4-15 NRST – Nearest Airspaces, NRST – Nearest Airports, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages
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FREQUENCY SPACING
The G1000 COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing
(118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel spacing
is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in the complete 3040-channel list.
COM channel spacing is set on the System Setup Page of the AUX Page Group.
8.33-kHz Channel
Spacing
25-kHz Channel
Spacing
Figure 4-16 COM Channel Spacing
Changing COM frequency channel spacing:
1) Select the AUX – System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Channel Spacing Field in the COM Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired channel spacing.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the channel spacing selection.
While the COM CONFIG Window is selected, the G1000 softkeys are blank.
Select 8.33-kHz
or 25.0-kHz
COM Frequency
Channel Spacing
Figure 4-17 AUX – System Setup Page
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AUTOMATIC SQUELCH
Automatic Squelch quiets unwanted static noise when no audio signal is received, while still providing good
sensitivity to weak COM signals. To disable Automatic Squelch, press the VOL/SQ Knob. While Automatic
Squelch is disabled, COM audio reception is continuous (static noise is heard over the headsets and speaker).
Pressing the VOL/SQ Knob again enables Automatic Squelch.
When Automatic Squelch is disabled, a white SQ appears next to the COM frequency.
Squelch
Indication
Press the COM VOL/
SQ Knob to turn off
Automatic Squelch.
Press again to restore
Automatic Squelch.
Figure 4-18 Overriding Automatic Squelch
VOLUME
Adjust COM radio volume level from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob. Turning the knob clockwise
increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume. When adjusting volume, the level is
displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication remains for two seconds after the change.
Figure 4-19 COM Volume Level
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COM Volume
Level Remains
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4.3 NAV OPERATION
NAV RADIO SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; two standby fields and two active fields. The active
frequencies are on the right side and the standby frequencies are on the left.
A NAV radio is selected for navigation by pressing the CDI Softkey located on the PFD. The active NAV
frequency selected for navigation is displayed in green. Pressing the CDI Softkey once selects NAV1 as the
navigation radio. Pressing the CDI Softkey a second time selects NAV2 as the navigation radio. Pressing the
CDI Softkey a third time activates GPS mode. Pressing the CDI Softkey again cycles back to NAV1
While cycling through the CDI Softkey selections, the NAV Tuning Box and the Frequency Transfer Arrow are
placed in the active NAV Frequency Field and the active NAV frequency color changes to green.
The three navigation modes that can be cycled through are:
• VOR1 (or LOC1) – If NAV1 is selected, a green single line arrow (not shown) labeled either VOR1 or LOC1
is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV1 frequency is displayed in green.
• VOR2 (or LOC2) – If NAV2 is selected, a green double line arrow (shown) labeled either VOR2 or LOC2 is
displayed on the HSI and the active NAV2 frequency is displayed in green.
• GPS – If GPS Mode is selected, a magenta single line arrow (not shown) appears on the HSI and neither NAV
radio is selected. Both active NAV frequencies are then displayed in white.
Standby
Fields
Active
Fields
Tuning Box
The NAV Radio is
Selected by Selecting
the CDI Softkey
Figure 4-20 Selecting a NAV Radio for Navigation
See the Flight Instruments Section for selecting the DME and Bearing Information windows and using VOR
or ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
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The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code station identifier that is received from the
navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station identifier is still required, and can be accomplished
by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pressing the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
NAV radios are selected for listening by pressing the corresponding keys on the Audio Panel. Pressing the
NAV1, NAV2, or AUX Key selects and deselects the navigation radio source. Pressing the AUX Key selects and
deselects the ADF and DME. Selected audio can be heard over the headset and the speakers (if selected).
Figure 4-21 Selecting a NAV Radio Receiver
NAV RECEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The NAV frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the left side of the PFDs.
Manually tuning a NAV frequency:
1) Turn the NAV Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box.
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
4) Press the NAV VOL/ID Knob to turn the Morse code identifier audio on and off.
Turn VOL/ID Knob to adjust
volume. Press Knob to Turn
Morse Code On or Off.
Press the Frequency Transfer Key to
Transfer NAV Frequencies Between
Active and Standby Frequency Fields
Turn the NAV Knob to
Tune the Frequency in
the Tuning Box
Figure 4-22 NAV Frequency Tuning
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SELECTING THE RADIO TO BE TUNED
Press the small NAV Knob to transfer the frequency tuning box and Frequency Transfer Arrow between the
upper and lower radio frequency fields.
Press the NAV Knob to
Switch the Tuning Box From
One NAV Radio to the Other
Figure 4-23 Switching NAV Tuning Boxes
VOR/LOC ID
When the Morse code Identifier audio is on for a NAV radio, a white ID appears to the left of the active
NAV frequency.
In the example shown, in order to listen to either station identifier, press the NAV1 or NAV2 Key on the
Audio Panel. Pressing the VOL/ID Knob turns off the Morse code audio only in the radio with the NAV
Tuning Box. To turn off both NAV IDs, transfer the NAV Tuning Box between NAV1 and NAV2 by pressing
the small NAV Knob and pressing the VOL/ID Knob again to turn the Morse code off in the other radio.
The Morse Code Identifier
for the GHM VOR is On
Station
Identifier
Figure 4-24 NAV Radio ID Indication
VOLUME
NAV Radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/ID Knob. Turning the knob
clockwise increases volume, counterclockwise decreases volume.
When adjusting, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication remains
for two seconds after the change.
NAV Volume
Level Remains
for Two Seconds
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Figure 4-25 NAV Volume Levels
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AUTO-TUNING A NAV FREQUENCY FROM THE MFD
NAV frequencies can be selected and loaded from the following MFD pages:
• WPT – Airport Information
• NRST – Nearest VOR
• WPT – VOR Information
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies (FSS, WX)
• NRST – Nearest Airports
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces
The MFD provides auto-tuning of NAV frequencies from waypoint and nearest pages. During enroute
navigation, the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV standby frequency field. During approach
activation the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV active frequency field.
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Boxes from pages in the NRST or WPT page
group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key (Figures 4-26, 4-27, and 4-28).
Auto-tuning a NAV frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the NAV frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the MFD Key and the
FMS Knob on the MFD/PFD Control Unit or selecting the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV identifier or NAV frequency.
3) On the Nearest VOR, Nearest Airspaces, and Nearest Airports pages, select the FREQ Softkey to place the cursor
on the NAV frequency (Figure 4-28).
4) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV radio.
5) Press the Frequency Transfer Key on either PFD to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field
or press the NAV Key on the control unit to select the NAV frequency box and then the Frequency Transfer
Key to transfer the frequency.
Second, Press the FMS Knob to
Activate the Cursor. Then Turn to
Scroll Through a List of NAV identifiers.
First, Press the MFD Key to
Activate the MFD Annunciator.
Last, Press the Frequency
Transfer Key to Move the
Frequency to the Active Field.
Press the NAV Key to Move
the Cyan Outline to the
NAV frequency Box.
Third, Select the FREQ
Softkey, then Press the ENT
Key to Load a Highlighted
Frequency into the NAV
Standby Frequency Field.
Figure 4-26 Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
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Or:
1) When on the NRST pages, press the MENU Key to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor in the desired window.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV radio.
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest VOR Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-27 Nearest Pages Menus
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In the example shown, the VOR list is selected with the VOR Softkey or from the page menu. The FMS Knob
or ENT Key is used to scroll through the list. The cursor is placed on the frequency with the FREQ Softkey and
loaded into the NAV Tuning Box with the ENT Key.
Press the ENT
Key to Load
the Frequency
into the NAV
Standby Field.
Select the VOR Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Identifier
Select the FREQ Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Frequency
Figure 4-28 Loading the NAV Frequency from the NRST – Nearest VOR Page
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While enroute, NAV frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST – Nearest Airports,
WPT – Airport Information, WPT – VOR Information, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages on the MFD in
a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
Figure 4-29 NRST – Nearest Frequencies, WPT – VOR Information, WPT – Airport Information, and
NRST – Nearest Airports Pages
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AUTO-TUNING NAV FREQUENCIES ON APPROACH ACTIVATION
NOTE: The primary NAV frequency is auto-tuned upon loading a VOR or ILS/Localizer approach.
NOTE: When an ILS/LOC approach has been activated in GPS Mode, the system switches to NAV Mode as
the final approach course is intercepted (within 15 nm of the FAF). See the Flight Management Section for
details.
NAV frequencies are automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box on approach activation, on both PFD1
and PFD2.
When loading or activating a VOR or ILS/LOC approach, the approach frequency is automatically transferred
to a NAV frequency field as follows:
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, the approach frequency is transferred to the NAV1 or NAV2
active frequency fields. The frequency that was previously in the NAV1 or NAV2 active frequency fields are
transferred to standby.
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, and if the approach frequency is already loaded into the NAV1
or NAV2 standby frequency field, the standby frequency is transferred to active.
• If the current CDI navigation source is NAV1 or NAV2, the approach frequency is transferred to the standby
frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
MARKER BEACON RECEIVER
NOTE: The marker beacon indicators operate independently of marker beacon audio and cannot be turned
off.
The marker beacon receiver is used as part of the ILS. The marker beacon receiver is always on and detects
any marker beacon signals within the reception range of the aircraft.
The receiver detects the three marker tones – outer, middle, and inner – and provides the marker beacon
annunciations located on the Audio Panel and to the left of the Altimeter on the PFD. Operation of the two
marker beacon indications may not be synchronized.
Outer Marker
Annunciation
Middle Marker
Annunciation
Inner Marker
Annunciation
Figure 4-30 Marker Beacon Annunciations on the PFD
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Figure 4-31 Marker Beacon Key and Annunciator Lights
The Audio Panels provide three different states of marker beacon operation; On, Muted, and Deselected.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key selects and deselects marker beacon audio. The key annunciator indicates when
marker beacon audio is selected. Marker beacon audio is not heard when the annunciator is off or when the
annunciator is on with the marker beacon audio muted.
Turning Marker Beacon Audio On
With the MKR/MUTE annunciator off, press the MKR/MUTE Key to enable marker beacon audio.
Muting Marker Beacon Audio
During marker beacon audio reception, press the MKR/MUTE Key to mute the audio. The MKR/MUTE
annunciator remains lit, but the current marker tone is silenced. Audio muting deactivates automatically and
marker beacon audio is heard when the next marker beacon signal is received.
Deselecting Marker Beacon Audio
To deselect marker beacon audio, press the MKR/MUTE Key twice during marker beacon reception (once to
mute, once more to deselect) or once if a marker beacon signal is not detected.
ADF/DME TUNING
NOTE: When another auxiliary window is turned on, the ADF/DME Tuning Window is replaced on the PFD.
See the Flight Instruments Section for displaying the DME and bearing information windows (ADF) and
using the ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
The G1000 system tunes the ADF receiver (optional) and DME transceiver (optional). The ADF is tuned by
entering the frequency in the ADF standby frequency field of the ADF/DME Tuning Window. (The softkey may
be labeled ADF/DME, ADF, or DME, depending on installed equipment.)
The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a VHF NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is automatic
and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
The following ADF/DME information is displayed in the ADF/DME Tuning Window:
• Active and standby ADF frequencies
• ADF receiver mode
• ADF receiver volume
• DME tuning mode (DME transceiver pairing)
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When the ADF/DME Tuning Window is displayed, the selection cursor is placed over the standby ADF
frequency field.
Turning the large FMS Knob moves the selection cursor through the various fields (standby ADF frequency,
ADF receiver mode, ADF radio volume, and DME tuning mode). Pressing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates
the selection cursor in the ADF/DME Tuning Window. The ADF frequency is entered using the FMS Knob and
the ENT Key.
Active ADF Frequency
Standby ADF Frequency
ADF
Mode
ADF
Volume
DME
Tuning
Mode
Figure 4-32 ADF/DME Tuning Window
ADF TUNING
ADF frequencies in the 190.0-kHz to 1799.5-kHz range are entered in the standby ADF frequency field of
the ADF/DME Tuning Window. The G1000 System does not tune the ADF emergency frequency, 2182.0‑kHz.
Tuning an ADF frequency:
1) Press the ADF/DME Softkey to display the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the standby ADF frequency field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to begin data entry and change each digit.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next digit position.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete data entry for the standby frequency.
Turn the Small
FMS Knob to
Enter Data in
the Standby ADF
Frequency Field
Press the
ENT Key to
Complete ADF
Frequency Entry
Turn the Large
FMS Knob
to Move the
Cursor to the
Next Character
Figure 4-33 Entering ADF Standby Frequencies
Pressing the CLR Key before completing frequency entry cancels the frequency change and reverts back to
the previously entered frequency.
Pressing the CLR Key when the cursor is flashing, clears the frequency and replaces the standby field with
0000.0.
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Transferring the active and standby ADF frequencies:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the standby ADF frequency field.
2) Press the ENT Key to complete the frequency transfer.
Press the ENT
Key to Transfer
the ADF
Frequencies
Figure 4-34 Transferring ADF Frequencies
SELECTING ADF RECEIVER MODE
The following modes can be selected: (In all modes NDB audio can be heard by selecting the ADF Key on
the Audio Panel.)
• ANT (Antenna) – The ADF bearing pointer parks on the HSI at 90 degrees. Best mode for listening to NDB
audio.
• ADF (Automatic Direction Finder) – The ADF pointer points to the relative bearing of the NDB station.
• ADF/BFO (ADF/Beat Frequency Oscillator) – The ADF pointer points to the relative bearing of the NDB
station and an audible tone confirms signal reception. This mode allows identification of the interrupted
carrier beacon stations used in various parts of the world.
• ANT/BFO (Antenna/Beat Frequency Oscillator) – The ADF bearing pointer parks on the HSI at 90 degrees
while an audible tone is provided when a signal is received. This mode also allows identification of the
interrupted carrier beacon stations and confirms signal reception.
Selecting an ADF receiver mode:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the ADF mode field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired ADF receiver mode.
Turn the Small
FMS Knob
to Select the
Mode
Figure 4-35 Selecting ADF Receiver Mode
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ADF receiver volume level can be adjusted in the tuning window from 0 to 100%. The default volume level
is set to 50%. The ADF volume level is the same for both Audio Panels.
Adjusting ADF receiver volume:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the ADF volume field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust volume as desired.
Turn the Small
FMS Knob
to Select the
Volume
Figure 4-36 Adjusting ADF Receiver Volume
DME TUNING
NOTE: When turning on the G1000 for use, the system remembers the last frequency used for DME tuning
and the NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD state prior to shutdown.
The DME transceiver is tuned by selecting NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD in the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
DME
Modes
Figure 4-37 ADF/DME Tuning Window, DME Modes
The following DME transceiver pairing can be selected:
• NAV1 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV1 frequency.
• NAV2 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV2 frequency.
• HOLD – When in the HOLD position, the DME frequency remains paired with the last selected NAV
frequency.
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Selecting DME transceiver pairing:
1) Press the ADF/DME Softkey to display the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the DME tuning mode.
3) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
Pressing the CLR Key or FMS Knob while in the process of DME pairing cancels the data entry and reverts
back to the previously selected DME tuning state. Pressing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates the cursor in
the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
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4.4 GTX 33 ES/33D ES MODE S TRANSPONDERS
The GTX 33 Extended Squitter Mode S Transponder and the GTX 33D Extended Squitter Diversity Mode S
Transponder provide Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S interrogation and reply capabilities. Diversity incorporates
antennas mounted on the top and bottom of the aircraft for dependable operation while maneuvering. Selective
addressing or Mode Select (Mode S) capability includes the following features:
• Level-2 reply data link capability (used to exchange information between aircraft and ATC facilities)
• Surveillance identifier capability
• Flight ID (Flight Identification) reporting – The Mode S Transponder reports aircraft identification as either the
aircraft registration or a unique Flight ID (configured by the factory or a dealer).
• Altitude reporting
• Airborne status determination
• Transponder capability reporting
• Mode S Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) requirements
• Acquisition squitter – Acquisition squitter, or short squitter, is the transponder 24-bit identification address.
The transmission is sent periodically, regardless of the presence of interrogations. The purpose of acquisition
squitter is to enable Mode S ground stations and aircraft equipped with a Traffic Avoidance System (TAS) to
recognize the presence of Mode S-equipped aircraft for selective interrogation.
• Extended squitter – The extended squitter is transmitted periodically and contains information such as altitude
(barometric and GPS), GPS position, and aircraft identification. The purpose of extended squitter is to provide
aircraft position and identification to ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and other aircraft.
The Hazard Avoidance Section provides more details on traffic avoidance systems.
TRANSPONDER CONTROLS
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Mode Selection, and
Code Selection. When the top-level XPDR Softkey is selected, the Mode Selection softkeys appear: XPDR1,
XPDR2 (optional), STBY, ON, ALT, GND, VFR, CODE, IDENT, ADS-B TX, and BACK.
When the CODE Softkey is selected, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, IDENT, BKSP,
BACK. The digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Selecting the numbered softkeys in sequence enters
the transponder code. If an error is made, selecting the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the
previous digit. Selecting the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous digit.
Selecting the BACK Softkey during code selection reverts to the Mode Selection Softkeys. Selecting the BACK
Softkey during mode selection reverts to the top-level softkeys.
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on either PFD. Code entry must be completed with either
the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
Selecting the IDENT Softkey while in Mode or Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to the
top-level softkeys.
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
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XPDR
IDENT
CODE
IDENT
(Optional)
XPDR1
XPDR2
STBY
ON
ALT
GND
VFR
ADS-B TX
BACK
MSG
Selecting the BACK Softkey
returns to the top-level softkeys.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
IDENT
BKSP
BACK
MSG
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns to the mode selection softkeys.
Figure 4-38 Transponder Softkeys (PFD)
Selecting and activating Transponder 1 or Transponder 2 (Optional):
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Select the XPDR1 or XPDR2 Softkey to select and activate the other transponder.
When turning on the G1000 for use, the system activates Transponder 1 as the default unit, regardless of
which transponder was active prior to shutdown. When switching between Transponder 1 and Transponder 2,
the code and mode remain the same. If a new code is entered in the active transponder, switching transponders
does not bring back the previous code.
TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTION
Mode selection can be automatic (Ground and Altitude Modes) or manual (Standby, ON, and Altitude Modes).
The STBY, ON, and ALT Softkeys can be accessed by selecting the XPDR Softkey.
Selecting a transponder mode:
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Select the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode.
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GROUND MODE
Ground Mode is normally selected automatically when the aircraft is on the ground. Ground Mode can be
overridden by selecting any one of the Mode Selection Softkeys. A green GND indication and transponder
code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box. Ground Mode generates Mode S replies to
discrete interrogations as well as transmission of acquisition and extended squitters including ADS-B out.
Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call replies are inhibited.
When Standby Mode has been selected on the ground, press the GND Softkey to return the transponder
to Ground Mode
GND
Mode
Figure 4-39 Ground Mode
STANDBY MODE (MANUAL)
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited.
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the STBY Softkey. In Standby, the transponder
is powered and new codes can be entered, but no replies or squitters are transmitted.. When Standby is
selected, a white STBY indication and transponder code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data
Box. In all other modes, these fields appear in green.
STBY Mode (White
Code Number and
Mode)
Figure 4-40 Standby Mode
MANUAL ON MODE
ON Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the ON Softkey. ON Mode generates Mode A and Mode S
replies as well as transmission of acquisition and extended squitters, including ADS-B out. Mode C altitude
reporting is inhibited. In ON Mode, a green ON indication and transponder code appear in the mode field
of the Transponder Data Box.
ON Mode
(No Altitude
Reporting)
Figure 4-41 ON Mode
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ALTITUDE MODE (AUTOMATIC OR MANUAL)
Altitude Mode is automatically selected when the aircraft becomes airborne. Altitude Mode may also be
selected manually by pressing the ALT Softkey. Altitude Mode generates Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S replies
as well as transmissions of acquisition and extended squitters including ADS-B out.
If Altitude Mode is selected, a green ALT indication and transponder code appear in the mode field of the
Transponder Data Box, and all transponder replies requesting altitude information are provided with pressure
altitude information.
ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting)
Figure 4-42 Altitude Mode
REPLY STATUS
When the transponder sends replies to interrogations, a white R indication appears momentarily in the
reply status field of the Transponder Data Box.
Reply to
Interrogation
Figure 4-43 Reply Indication
ENTERING A TRANSPONDER CODE
Entering a transponder code with softkeys:
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Select the CODE Softkey to display the Transponder Code Selection Softkeys, for digit entry.
3) Select the digit softkeys to enter the code in the code field. When entering the code, the next softkey in sequence
must be selected within 10 seconds, or the entry is cancelled and restored to the previous code. Selecting the
BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the previous digit. Five seconds after the fourth digit has been
entered, the transponder code becomes active.
Entering
a Code
Figure 4-44 Entering a Code with Softkeys
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Entering a transponder code with the PFD FMS Knob:
1) Select the XPDR and the CODE Softkeys as in the previous procedure to enable code entry.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the first two code digits.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
Pressing the CLR Key or small FMS Knob before code entry is complete cancels code entry and restores the
previous code. Waiting for 10 seconds after code entry is finished activates the code automatically.
Press the
ENT Key to
Complete
Code Entry
Turn the Large
FMS Knob
to Move the
Cursor to the
Next Code Field
Turn the Small
FMS Knob to
Enter Two Code
Digits at a Time
Figure 4-45 Entering a Code with the FMS Knob
VFR CODE
Press the XPDR Softkey, then the VFR Softkey to display the pre-programmed VFR code in the code field of
the Transponder Data Box. Press the VFR Softkey again to restore the previous identification code.
The pre-programmed VFR Code is set at the factory to 1200. If a VFR code change is required, contact a
Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
VFR Code
Figure 4-46 VFR Code
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IDENT FUNCTION
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT Softkey is inoperative.
Selecting the IDENT Softkey sends a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The indication
distinguishes the identing transponder from all the others on the air traffic controller’s screen. The IDENT
Softkey appears on all levels of transponder softkeys. When the IDENT Softkey is selected, a green IDNT
indication is displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for a duration of 18 seconds.
After the IDENT Softkey is selected while in Mode or Code Selection, the system reverts to the top-level
softkeys.
IDNT
Indication
Select the
IDENT Softkey
to Initiate the
ID Function
Figure 4-47 IDENT Softkey and Indication
ADS-B TX
Transmission of extended squitters containing ADS-B out information is enabled/disabled by pressing the
ADS-B TX Softkey. ADS-B transimssion defaults to enabled at each power cycle. Do not disable ADS-B
transmission unless requested by ATC.
Even with the ADS-B TX enabled, transmission of extended squitters containing ADS-B out information will
vary based on transponder mode.
ADS-B Transmission
Enabled
Figure 4-48 Altitude Mode
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4.5 ADDITIONAL AUDIO PANEL FUNCTIONS
POWER-UP
The Audio Panel performs a self-test during power-up. During the self-test all Audio Panel annunciator lights
illuminate for approximately two seconds. Once the self-test is completed, most of the settings are restored to
those in use before the unit was last turned off.
MONO/STEREO HEADSETS
Stereo headsets are recommended for use in this aircraft.
Using a monaural headset in a stereo jack shorts the right headset channel output to ground. While this does
not damage the Audio Panel, a person listening on a monaural headset hears only the left channel in both ears.
If a monaural headset is used at one of the passenger positions, any other passenger using a stereo headset hears
audio in the left ear only.
SPEAKER
All of the radios can be heard over the cabin speaker. Pressing the SPKR Key selects and deselects the cabin
speaker. Speaker audio is muted when the PTT is pressed. Certain aural alerts and warnings (autopilot, traffic,
altitude) are always heard on the speaker, even when the speaker is not selected.
The speaker volume is adjustable within a nominal range. Contact a Garmin-authorized service center for
volume adjustment.
Figure 4-49 Speaker Key
PASSENGER ADDRESS MODE (PA MODE)
Press and hold the SPKR Key for 2 seconds to initiate Passenger Address Mode (if configured). PA Mode is
annunciated by a rapid blinking of the SPKR annunciator. When in PA Mode the crew can use the PTT “Pushto-Talk” button to deliver announcements over the speaker, to the passenger headsets, or both depending on
configuration.
CLEARANCE RECORDER AND PLAYER
The Audio Panel contains a digital clearance recorder that records up to 2.5 minutes of the selected COM
radio signal. Recorded COM audio is stored in separate memory blocks. Once 2.5 minutes of recording time
have been reached, the recorder begins recording over the stored memory blocks, starting from the oldest block.
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The PLAY Key controls the play function. Pressing the PLAY Key once plays the latest recorded memory
block. Pressing the PLAY Key while audio is playing begins playing the previously recorded memory block.
Each subsequent press of the PLAY Key selects the previously recorded memory block.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key during play of a memory block stops play. If a COM input signal is detected
during play of a recorded memory block, play is halted.
Powering off the unit automatically clears all recorded blocks.
Figure 4-50 Play Key
INTERCOM SYSTEM (ICS)
The GMA 350 includes a six-position intercom system (ICS), two MUSIC inputs, and one telephone/
entertainment input for the pilot, copilot and passengers. The intercom provides Pilot, Copilot, and Passenger
audio isolation.
Figure 4-51 Intercom Controls
Press the PILOT, COPLT, and/or PASS Keys to enable intercom audio for the selected position. If the
annunciators are lit, those positions will share intercom audio. If an annunciator is NOT lit that position is
isolated from the others.
COPILOT CONFIGURED AS CREW OR PASSENGER
NOTE: When the copilot position is configured as a passenger, the COPLT Key is disabled and the copilot
headset is treated as a ‘passenger’ for intercom and entertainment audio distribution.
The copilot position can be configured as crew (COPLT Key enabled) or as a passenger (COPLT Key
disabled). Pressing and holding the COPLT Key toggles the copilot position configuration between passenger
and crew. The aural message “Copilot Configured as Passenger” or “Copilot Configured as Crew” is
heard.
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INTERCOM MODES
NOTE: In the following modes the copilot position is configured as crew.
All Intercom Mode
In ‘All Intercom’ mode the Pilot, Copilot, and Passengers hear each other and hear the aircraft audio.
Aircraft Audio
PILOT
COPLT
PASS
ICS Keys
Mode Operation
Figure 4-52 All Intercom Mode
Pilot Isolate Mode
In ‘Pilot Isolate’ mode the Pilot, Copilot, and Passengers hear the aircraft audio. The Copilot and
Passengers also hear each other.
Aircraft Audio
PILOT
COPLT
PASS
ICS Keys
Mode Operation
Figure 4-53 Pilot Isolate Mode
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Passenger/Crew Isolate Mode
In ‘Passenger/Crew Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Copilot hear the aircraft audio and each other. The
Passengers hear each other.
Aircraft Audio
PILOT
ICS Keys
COPLT
PASS
Mode Operation
Figure 4-54 Passenger/Crew Isolate Mode
Copilot Isolate Mode
In ‘Copilot Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Passengers hear the aircraft audio and each other. The Copilot has
the option to use Split-COM mode.
Aircraft Audio
Split-COM Mode
COPLT
PILOT
PASS
ICS Keys
Mode Operation
Figure 4-55 Copilot Isolate Mode
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All Isolate Mode
In ‘All Isolate’ mode the Pilot hears the aircraft audio. The Copilot has the option to use Split-COM
mode. The Passengers hear each other.
Aircraft Audio Split-COM
PILOT
ICS Keys
COPLT
PASS
Mode Operation
Figure 4-56 All Isolate Mode
Pilot & Copilot Isolate Mode
In ‘Pilot & Copilot Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Passengers hear the aircraft audio. The Copilot has the
option to use Split-COM mode.
Aircraft Audio
PILOT
ICS Keys
PASS
Split-COM
COPLT
Mode Operation
Figure 4-57 Pilot & Copilot Isolate Mode
Pilot & Passenger Isolate Mode
In ‘Pilot & Passenger Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Copilot hear the aircraft audio. The Passengers hear
each other.
Aircraft Audio
PILOT
ICS Keys
COPLT
PASS
Mode Operation
Figure 4-58 Pilot & Passenger Isolate Mode
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Copilot & Passenger Isolate Mode
In ‘Copilot & Passenger Isolate’ mode the Pilot can hear the aircraft audio. The Copilot has the option to
use Split-COM mode. The Passengers hear each other.
Aircraft Audio Split-COM
PILOT
ICS Keys
COPLT
PASS
Mode Operation
Figure 4-59 Copilot & Passenger Isolate Mode
INTERCOM VOLUME AND SQUELCH
The VOL/CRSR Knob controls selection and volume or manual squelch adjustment for audio sources that
may not be adjustable anywhere else in the system. The small knob controls the volume or squelch. Turning
the large knob activates and/or moves the cursor (flashing white annunciator/or flashing blue annunciator in
Blue-Select Mode) to select the audio source to adjust. The cursor will time-out after a few seconds and the
position of the cursor will always default back to the PILOT Key. Pressing the small knob cancels the cursor.
Blue-Select Mode (Telephone/Entertainment Distribution)
The music (MUS1/MUS2) and telephone/entertainment (
) audio are distributed using the BlueSelect Mode. The following example indicates that the pilot, copilot, and passengers will all hear the
telephone/entertainment audio.
Figure 4-60 Blue-Select Mode (Telephone/Entertainment Distribution)
The Blue-Select Mode is entered by pressing the small knob when the volume control cursor (flashing
white annunciator) is not active. If the volume control cursor is active, press the small knob twice. The first
press will cancel the volume control cursor, the second will activate Blue-Select Mode.
The annunciator over the
Key will be flashing blue. Any combination of the annunciators over the
PILOT, COPLT, and PASS buttons may be blue. Select the desired button to turn the blue annunciator on
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or off to distribute the telephone/entertainment audio to selected crew/passenger positions. Turn the large
knob to select MUS1 or MUS2 and select the crew positions to receive the music audio.
Selecting any key other than PILOT, COPLT, PASS, MUS1, MUS2, or
will cancel Blue-Select
Mode. Pressing the small knob will also cancel Blue-Select Mode. After approximately ten seconds with no
input, the Blue-Select Mode will automatically cancel.
Adjusting Intercom Volume
When the cursor is on PILOT, COPLT, or PASS, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the intercom volume for
the listener.
Adjusting Speaker Volume
When the cursor is on SPKR, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the speaker volume of the selected
sources (COM, NAV, AUX, MKR). Alert volumes are not affected by the speaker volume control knob.
Adjusting MKR, AUX,
, and MUSIC Volume
When the cursor is on MKR, AUX,
volume of the selected source.
, MUS1 or MUS2, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the individual
Adjusting Manual Squelch
When the cursor is on MAN SQ, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the ICS Squelch Threshold (the
volume level that must be exceeded to be heard over the intercom).
Manual Squelch Annunciator; Off for
Automatic Squelch, On for Manual Squelch
Relative Volume/
Squelch Scale
Volume or Manual Squelch
Cursor
Figure 4-61 Volume/Squelch Control
SPLIT COM MODE
NOTE: Split COM performance is affected by the distance between the COM antennas and the separation
of the tuned frequencies. If the selected COM frequencies are too close together, interference may be heard
during transmission on the other radio.
During Split COM operation, both the pilot and the copilot can transmit simultaneously over separate
radios. In Split COM mode, the pilot is uses COM1 and the copilot is uses COM2.
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Pressing both MIC Keys simultaneously initiates Split COM Mode (i.e., COM1/COM2). The respective
COM1/MIC1 or COM2/MIC2 annunciators are illuminated indicating Split COM operation. Split COM
operation is cancelled by pressing one of the selected MIC Keys again.
Figure 4-62 Split COM Selected
ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS
The audio panel provides three stereo telephone/entertainment inputs:
• The telephone/entertainment (
) Key controls a telephone or entertainment device connected to the
rear of the audio panel or to the Front Panel Jack. For GSR 56 equipped aircraft, the Iridium phone audio
is connected to the rear input of the audio panel. To use the Iridium phone, ensure there is no other audio
source plugged into the Front Panel Jack.
• The MUS1 and MUS2 Key controls the Entertainment Music audio input. External audio jacks can also be
used as an entertainment input. GDL 69 (SiriusXM Radio) audio, if equipped, is wired to the MUS1 and
MUS2 inputs. The Front Panel Jack does not disable audio connected to the MUS1 and MUS2 inputs.
The Front Panel Jack can be used as an entertainment input or a telephone input. Plugging a device into the
Front Panel Jack will disable any audio source connected to the rear telephone/entertainment jack (i.e. GSR
56, if so equipped). The Front Panel Jack is a 3.5-mm stereo jack that is compatible with popular portable
entertainment devices such as MP3s, CD players, and cell phones. The headphone outputs of the entertainment
devices are plugged into the Front Panel Jack.
Distribution of the entertainment inputs are configured in Blue-Select Mode.
TELEPHONE AND ENTERTAINMENT MUTING
Telephone and entertainment muting can be enabled or disabled by the user, however it is always muted
during alerts.
Enabling/Disabling Muting
Press and hold the MUS1, MUS2, or (
) Key for two seconds to toggle muting on and off. The
aural message “Mute Music on Reception Enabled/Disabled” or “Mute Tel and Jack on Reception
Enabled/Disabled” is heard.
SIRIUSXM RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
SiriusXM Radio audio from the Data Link Receiver may be heard by the pilot and passengers simultaneously
(optional: requires subscription to SiriusXM Radio Service). Refer to the Additional Features Section for more
details on the Data Link Receiver.
Connecting a stereo input to the Stereo Input jack removes the SiriusXM Radio Audio from that input.
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4.6 AUDIO PANELS PREFLIGHT PROCEDURE
NOTE: If the pilot and/or copilot are using headsets that have a high/low switch or volume control knob,
verify that the switch is in the high position and the volume control on the headsets are at maximum volume
setting. On single‑pilot flights, verify that all other headsets are not connected to avoid excess noise in the
audio system.
NOTE: When the MAN SQ Key is pressed, the ICS squelch can be set manually by the pilot and copilot.
If manual squelch is set to full open, background noise is heard in the ICS system as well as during COM
transmissions.
AUDIO PANEL PREFLIGHT
After powering up the system, the following steps aid in maximizing the use of the Audio Panel as well as
prevent pilot and copilot induced issues. These preflight procedures should be performed each time a pilot
boards the aircraft to insure awareness of all audio levels in the Audio Panel and radios.
Manual Squelch Annunciator; Off for Automatic Squelch, Relative Volume/
Squelch Scale
On for Manual Squelch
Volume or Manual
Squelch
Cursor
Intercom Annunciators
Figure 4-63 Audio Panel Controls
Setting the Audio Panel during preflight:
1) Verify that the PILOT , COPLT and PASS annunciators are lit.
2) Adjust radio volume levels (COM, NAV) to a suitable level.
3) Use the Blue-Select Mode to distribute the telephone/entertainment (
), MUS1, and MUS2 appropriately.
4) Use the VOL/CRSR Knobs to adjust the intercom volumes to the desired level.
Once this procedure has been completed, the pilot and copilot can change settings, keeping in mind the notes
above.
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4.7 ABNORMAL OPERATION
Abnormal operation of the G1000 includes equipment failures of the G1000 components and failure of
associated equipment, including switches and external devices.
AUDIO PANEL FAIL-SAFE OPERATION
If there is a failure of the Audio Panel, a fail-safe circuit connects the pilot’s headset and microphone directly
to the COM1 transceiver. Audio is not available on the speaker during fail-safe operation.
STUCK MICROPHONE
If the push-to-talk (PTT) Key becomes stuck, the COM transmitter stops transmitting after 35 seconds of
continuous operation. An alert appears on the PFD to advise the crew of a stuck microphone.
The MIC Key Annunciator on the Audio Panel flashes as long as the PTT Key remains stuck.
Figure 4-64 Stuck Microphone Alert
COM TUNING FAILURE
In case of a COM system tuning failure, the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) is automatically tuned in
the radio in which the tuning failure occurred. Depending on the failure mode, a red X may appear on the
frequency display.
Emergency Channel
Loaded Automatically
Figure 4-65 COM Tuning Failure
PFD FAILURE, DUAL SYSTEM
If PFD1 fails, COM1 and NAV1 display a red X on both remaining displays. NAV1 is unavailable. COM1
automatically tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM1 emergency frequency is available
to both the copilot and pilot.
Emergency Channel
Loaded Automatically
Figure 4-66 Frequency Section of PFD2 Display after PFD1 Failure
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If PFD2 fails, COM2 and NAV2 display a red X on the remaining PFD display. NAV2 is unavailable. COM2
tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM2 emergency frequency is available to both the
copilot and pilot.
Figure 4-67 PFD1 Display after PFD2 Failure
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SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The G1000 is an integrated flight, engine, communication, navigation and surveillance system. This section of
the Pilot’s Guide explains flight management using the G1000.
The most prominent part of the G1000 are the full color displays: two Primary Flight Displays (PFD) and a
Multi Function Display (MFD). The information to successfully navigate the aircraft using the GPS sensors is
displayed on the PFD and the MFD. See examples in the Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2. Detailed descriptions of flight
management functions are discussed later in this section.
A brief description of the GPS navigation data on the PFD and MFD follows.
Navigation mode indicates which sensor is providing the course data (e.g., GPS, VOR) and the flight plan phase
(e.g., Departure (DPRT), Terminal (TERM), Enroute (ENR), Oceanic (OCN), RNAV Approach (LNAV, LNAV+V, L/
VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV), or Missed Approach (MAPR)). L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service levels are only
available with SBAS. L/VNAV will be flown as LNAV when SBAS is not available.
The Inset Map is a small version of the MFD Navigation Map and can be displayed in the lower left corner of
the PFD. When the system is in reversionary mode, the Inset Map is displayed in the lower right corner. The
Inset Map is displayed by pressing the INSET Softkey. Pressing the INSET Softkey again, then pressing the OFF
Softkey removes the Inset Map.
The Navigation Map displays aviation data (e.g., airports, VORs, airways, airspaces), geographic data (e.g.,
cities, lakes, highways, borders), topographic data (map shading indicating elevation), and hazard data (e.g.,
traffic, terrain, weather). The amount of displayed data can be reduced by pressing the DCLTR Softkey. The
Navigation Map can be oriented four different ways: North Up (NORTH UP), Track Up (TRK UP), Desired Track
Up (DTK UP), or Heading Up (HDG UP).
An aircraft icon is placed on the Navigation Map at the location corresponding to the calculated present position.
The aircraft position and the flight plan legs are accurately based on GPS calculations. The basemap upon which
these are placed are from a source with less resolution, therefore the relative position of the aircraft to map features
is not exact. The leg of the active flight plan currently being flown is shown as a magenta line on the navigation
map. The other legs are shown in white.
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 500 feet to 2000 nm. The current range is indicated in the
lower right corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. To change the map
range on any map, turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to zoom in ( -, decreasing), or clockwise to zoom out (+,
increasing).
The Direct-to Window, the Flight Plan Window, the Procedures Window, and the Nearest Airports Window
can be displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Details of these windows are discussed in detail later in
the section.
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Navigation Status Box
Navigation Mode
Inset Map
Location of:
- Direct To Window
- Flight Plan Window
- Procedures Window
- Nearest Airports Window
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD
Navigation Status Box
Map Orientation
Navigation Page Title
Navigation Map
- Aviation Data
- Geographic Data
- Topographic Data
- Hazard Data
Flight Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Map Range
Figure 5-2 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Page
NAVIGATION STATUS BOX
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the PFD contains two fields displaying the following
information:
PFD Navigation Status Box
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• Active flight plan leg (e.g., ‘D-> KICT’ or ‘KIXD -> KCOS’) or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘Turn right to
021˚ in 8 seconds’)
• Distance (DIS) and Bearing (BRG) to the next waypoint or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘TOD within 1
minute’)
The symbols used in the PFD status bar are:
Symbol
Description
Symbol
Description
Active Leg
Left Holding Pattern
Direct-to
Vector to Final
Right Procedure Turn
Right DME Arc
Left Procedure Turn
Left DME Arc
Right Holding Pattern
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the MFD contains four data fields, each displaying one of the
following items:
• Bearing (BRG)
• Distance (DIS)
• Desired Track (DTK)
• Endurance (END)
• Enroute Safe Altitude (ESA)
• Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA)
• Estimated Time Enroute (ETE)
• Fuel on Board (FOB)
• Fuel over Destination (FOD)
• Ground Speed (GS)
• Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA)
• True Air Speed (TAS)
• Track Angle Error (TKE)
• Track (TRK)
• Vertical Speed Required (VSR)
• Crosstrack Error (XTK)
MFD Navigation Status Box
The navigation information displayed in the four data fields can be selected on the MFD Data Bar Fields Box
on the AUX - System Setup Page. The default selections (in order left to right) are GS, DTK, TRK, and ETE.
Changing a field in the MFD Navigation Status Box:
1) Select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the MFD Data Bar Fields Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the data options list.
5) Select the desired data.
6) Press the ENT Key. Pressing the DFLTS Softkey returns all fields to the default setting.
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5.2 USING MAP DISPLAYS
Map displays are used extensively in the G1000 to provide situational awareness in flight. Most G1000 maps
can display the following information:
• Airports, NAVAIDs, airspaces, airways,
land data (highways, cities, lakes, rivers,
borders, etc.) with names
• Map range
•Wind direction and speed
• Map orientation
• Icons for enabled map features
• Aircraft icon (representing present position)
• Nav range ring
• Fuel range ring
• Map Pointer information (distance and
bearing to pointer, location of pointer,
name, and other pertinent information)
• Flight plan legs
• User waypoints
• Track vector
• Topography scale
• Topography data
• Obstacle data
The information in this section applies to the following maps unless otherwise noted:
• All Map Group Pages (MAP)
• All Waypoint Group Pages (WPT)
• AUX - Trip Planning
• All Nearest Group Pages (NRST)
• Flight Plan Pages (FPL)
• Direct-to Window
• PFD Inset Map
• Procedure Loading Pages
MAP ORIENTATION
Maps are shown in one of four different orientation options, allowing flexibility in determining aircraft
position relative to other items on the map (north up) or for determining where map items are relative to where
the aircraft is going (track up, desired track up, or heading up). The map orientation is shown in the upper
right corner of the map.
Figure 5-3 Map Orientation
• North up (NORTH UP) aligns the top of the map display to north (default setting).
• Track up (TRK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current ground track.
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• Desired track up (DTK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the desired course.
• Heading up (HDG UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current aircraft heading.
NOTE: When panning or reviewing active flight plan legs in a non-North Up orientation, the map does not
show the map orientation nor the wind direction and speed.
NOTE: Map orientation can only be changed on the Navigation Map Page. Any other displays that show
navigation data reflect the orientation selected for the Navigation Map Page:
Changing the Navigation Map orientation:
1) With the Navigation Map Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
Map Setup
Selection
Figure 5-4 Navigation Map Page Menu Window
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Map Setup Window.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob, or press the ENT Key once, to select the ‘ORIENTATION’ field.
Map Group Selection
Orientation Field
Auto North Up
- On/Off
- Minimum Range
Figure 5-5 Map Setup Menu Window - Map Group
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired orientation.
5) Press the ENT Key to select the new orientation.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the base page.
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The map can be configured to switch automatically to a north up orientation when the map range reaches a
minimum range.
Enabling/disabling Auto North Up and selecting the minimum switching range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘AUTO NORTH UP’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’ using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the range field.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select the desired range.
9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
MAP RANGE
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 500 feet to 2000 nm. The current range is indicated in
the lower right corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. When the
map range is decreased to a point that exceeds the capability of the G1000 to accurately represent the map,
a magnifying glass icon is shown to the left of the map range. To change the map range turn the Joystick
counter-clockwise to decrease the range, or clockwise to increase the range.
Range Overzoom
Figure 5-6 Map Range
AUTO ZOOM
Auto zoom allows the system to change the map display range to the smallest range clearly showing the
active waypoint. Auto zoom can be overridden by adjusting the range with the Joystick, and remains until
the active waypoint changes, a terrain or traffic alert occurs, the aircraft takes off, or the manual override times
out (timer set on Map Setup Window). Auto zoom is suspended while the map pointer is active.
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If a terrain caution or warning occurs, all navigation maps automatically adjust to the smallest map range
clearly showing the potential impact points If a new traffic advisory alert occurs, any map page capable of
displaying traffic advisory alerts automatically adjusts to the smallest map range clearly showing the traffic
advisory. When terrain or traffic alerts clear, the map returns to the previous auto zoom range based on the
active waypoint.
The auto zoom function can be turned on or off independently for the PFDs and MFD. Control of the
ranges at which the auto zoom occurs is done by setting the minimum and maximum ‘look forward’ times
(set on the Map Setup Window for the Map Group). These settings determine the minimum and maximum
distance to display based upon the aircraft’s ground speed.
• Waypoints that are long distances apart cause the map range to increase to a point where many details on
the map are decluttered. If this is not acceptable, lower the maximum look ahead time to a value that limits
the auto zoom to an acceptable range.
• Waypoints that are very short distances apart cause the map range to decrease to a point where situational
awareness may not be what is desired. Increase the minimum look ahead time to a value that limits the auto
zoom to a minimum range that provides acceptable situational awareness.
• Flight plans that have a combination of long and short legs cause the range to increase and decrease as
waypoints sequence. To avoid this, auto zoom can be disabled or the maximum/minimum times can be
adjusted.
• The ‘time out’ time (configurable on the Map Setup Page for the Map Group) determines how long auto
zoom is overridden by a manual adjustment of the range knob. At the expiration of this time, the auto
zoom range is restored. Setting the ‘time out’ value to zero causes the manual override to never time out.
• When the maximum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the upper limit becomes the maximum range available
(2000 nm).
• When the minimum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the lower limit becomes 1.5 nm.
Auto Zoom:
Off, MFD Only, PFD Only, All On
Manual Range Override
Expiration Time
Maximum Look Forward Time
Minimum Look Forward Time
Figure 5-7 Map Setup Menu Window - Map Group, Auto Zoom
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Configuring automatic zoom:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘AUTO ZOOM’ field.
6) Select ‘Off’, ‘MFD Only’, ‘PFD Only’, or ‘ALL On’.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘MAX LOOK FWD’ field.
Times are from zero to 999 minutes.
8) Use the FMS Knobs to set the time. Press the ENT Key.
9) Repeat step 8 for ‘MIN LOOK FWD’ (zero to 99 minutes) and ‘TIME OUT’ (zero to 99 minutes).
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
MAP PANNING
Map panning allows the pilot to:
• View parts of the map outside the displayed range without adjusting the map range
• Highlight and select locations on the map
• Review information for a selected airport, NAVAID or user waypoint
• Designate locations for use in flight planning
• View airspace and airway information
When the panning function is selected by pressing the Joystick, the Map Pointer flashes on the map display.
A window also appears at the top of the map display showing the latitude/longitude position of the pointer,
the bearing and distance to the pointer from the aircraft’s present position, and the elevation of the land at the
position of the pointer.
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Map Pointer
Information
Map
Pointer
Figure 5-8 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
NOTE: The map is normally centered on the aircraft’s position. If the map has been panned and there has
been no pointer movement for about 60 seconds, the map reverts back to centered on the aircraft position
and the flashing pointer is removed.
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When the Map Pointer is placed on an object, the name of the object is highlighted (even if the name was
not originally displayed on the map). When any map feature or object is selected on the map display, pertinent
information is displayed.
Information about
Point of Interest
Map Pointer on POI
Figure 5-9 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
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When the Map Pointer crosses an airspace boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace information
is shown at the top of the display. The information includes the name and class of airspace, the ceiling in feet
above Mean Sea Level (MSL), and the floor in feet MSL.
Information about
Airspace
Map Pointer on
Airspace
Figure 5-10 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Airspace
Panning the map:
1) Press the Joystick to display the Map Pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to move the Map Pointer around the map.
3) Press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and recenter the map on the aircraft’s current position.
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Reviewing information for an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint:
1) Place the Map Pointer on a waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Waypoint Information Page for the selected waypoint.
3) Press the GO BACK Softkey, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the Waypoint Information Page and return to
the Navigation Map showing the selected waypoint.
NAVAID
Information
GO BACK Softkey
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Information Window - NAVAID
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Viewing airspace information for a special-use or controlled airspace:
1) Place the Map Pointer on an open area within the boundaries of an airspace.
2) Press the ENT Key to display an options menu.
3) ‘Review Airspaces’ should already be highlighted, if not select it. Press the ENT Key to display the Airspace
Information Page for the selected airspace.
4) Press the CLR or ENT Key to exit the Airspace Information Page.
Airspace
Information
Figure 5-12 Navigation Map - Information Window - Airspace
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MEASURING BEARING AND DISTANCE
Distance and bearing from the aircraft’s present position to any point on the viewable navigation map may be
calculated using the ‘Measure Bearing and Distance’ selection from Navigation Map page menu. The bearing
and distance tool displays a dashed Measurement Line and a Measure Pointer to aid in graphically identifying
points with which to measure. Lat/Long, distance and elevation data for the Measure Pointer is provided in a
window at the top of the navigation map.
Measuring bearing and distance between any two points:
1) Press the MENU Key (with the Navigation Map Page displayed).
2) Highlight the ‘Measure Bearing/Distance’ field.
3) Press the ENT Key. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present position.
4) Move the Joystick to place the reference pointer at the desired location. The bearing and distance are displayed
at the top of the map. Elevation at the current pointer position is also displayed. Pressing the ENT Key changes
the starting point for measuring.
5) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance option, press the Joystick; or select ‘Stop Measuring’ from the Page
Menu and press the ENT Key.
Measurement
Information
Pointer Lat/Long
Measurement Line
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Measuring Bearing and Distance
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TOPOGRAPHY
All navigation maps can display various shades of topography colors representing land elevation, similar
to aviation sectional charts. Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following
procedures.
Navigation Map
Topographic Data
Navigation Map
Black Background
TOPO Softkey
Not Enabled
TOPO Softkey
Enabled
TOPO Off
TOPO On
Figure 5-14 Navigation Map - Topographic Data
Displaying/removing topographic data on all pages displaying navigation maps:
1) Press the MAP Softkey (the INSET Softkey for the PFD Inset Map).
2) Press the TOPO Softkey.
3) Press the TOPO Softkey again to remove topographic data from the Navigation Map. When topographic data
is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data (TOPO DATA) using the Navigation Map Page Menu:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘TOPO DATA’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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TOPO DATA
On/Off
TOPO DATA
Range
Figure 5-15 Navigation Map Setup Menu - TOPO DATA Setup
The topographic data range is the maximum map range on which topographic data is displayed.
NOTE: Since the PFD Inset Map is much smaller than the MFD navigation maps, items are removed on the
PFD Inset Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the Map Setup pages (e.g., a setting
of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD navigation maps, while the PFD Inset Map
removes the same item at 50 nm).
Selecting a topographical data range (TOPO DATA):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘TOPO DATA’ range field. TOPO ranges are from 500 ft to 2000 nm.
6) To change the TOPO range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
7) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
In addition, the Navigation Map can display a topographic scale (located in the lower right hand side of the
map) showing a scale of the terrain elevation and current elevation values.
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Maximum Displayed Elevation
Minimum Displayed Elevation
Aircraft Altitude (MSL)
Range of
Displayed
Elevations
Ground Elevation at Pointer
Location (only visible when
Pointer is displayed)
Figure 5-16 Navigation Map - TOPO SCALE
Displaying/removing the topographic scale (TOPO SCALE):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group and press the ENT Key.
4) Highlight the ‘TOPO SCALE’ field.
5) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
TOPO SCALE
On/Off
Figure 5-17 Navigation Map Setup Menu - TOPO SCALE Setup
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MAP SYMBOLS
This section discusses the types of land and aviation symbols that can be displayed. Each listed type of symbol
can be turned on or off, and the maximum range to display each symbol can be set. The decluttering of the
symbols from the map using the DCLTR Softkey is also discussed.
LAND SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the land menu:
Land Symbols
(Text label size can be None, Small, Medium (Med), or Large
(Lrg))
Symbol
Latitude/Longitude (LAT/LON)
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Off
2000
Interstate Highway (FREEWAY)
300
800
International Highway (FREEWAY)
300
800
US Highway (NATIONAL HWY)
30
80
State Highway (LOCAL HWY)
15
30
8
15
Railroads (RAILROAD)
15
30
LARGE CITY (> 200,000)
800
1500
MEDIUM CITY (> 50,000)
100
200
SMALL CITY (> 5,000)
States and Provinces (STATE/PROV)
20
800
50
1500
Rivers and Lakes (RIVER/LAKE)
200
500
USER WAYPOINT
150
300
Highways and Roads
Local Road (LOCAL ROAD)
N/A
Table 5-1 Land Symbol Information
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AVIATION SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the aviation menu:
Aviation Symbols
(Text label size can be None, Small, Medium (Med),
or Large (Lrg))
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Active Flight Plan Leg (ACTIVE FPL)
2000
2000
Non-active Flight Plan Leg (ACTIVE FPL)
2000
2000
2000
250
2000
500
150
300
50
100
3
Off
15
20
100
30
Non-directional Beacon (NDB WAYPOINT)
15
30
VOR (VOR WAYPOINT)
150
300
Class B Airspace/TMA (CLASS B/TMA)
200
500
Class C Airspace/TCA (CLASS C/TCA)
200
500
Class D Airspace (CLASS D)
150
300
Restricted Area (RESTRICTED)
200
500
Military Operations Area [MOA(MILITARY)]
200
500
Other/Air Defense Interdiction Zone (OTHER/ADIZ)
200
500
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
500
2000
Active Flight Plan Waypoint (ACTIVE FPL WPT)
Large Airports (LARGE APT) (Longest Runway ≥ 8100 ft)
Medium Airports (MEDIUM APT) (8100 ft > Longest
Runway ≥ 5000 ft)
Small Airports (SMALL APT) (Longest Runway < 5000 ft)
(Medium Airport if it has a tower frequency)
Taxiways (SAFETAXI)
Runway Extension (RWY EXTENSION)
Intersection (INT WAYPOINT)
See Airports, NAVAIDs
See Additional Features
N/A
Table 5-2 Aviation Symbol Information
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SYMBOL SETUP
All pages with maps can display land symbols (roads, lakes, borders, etc). Land symbols can be removed
totally (turned off).
Displaying/removing all land symbols:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The Page Menu is displayed and the cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Group Menu is displayed and the cursor flashes on the ‘Map’ option.
3) Highlight the ‘LAND DATA’ field.
4) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
LAND DATA
On/Off
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map Setup Menu - LAND DATA Setup
The label size (TEXT) sets the size at which labels appear on the display (none, small, medium, and large).
The range (RNG) sets the maximum range at which items appear on the display.
Selecting a ‘Land’ or ‘Aviation’ group item text size and range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Land’ or ‘Aviation’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Select the desired land option.
6) Select the desired text size.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected size.
8) Select the desired range.
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9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected range.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Text Label Size
(None, Small, Med, or Lrg)
Maximum Display Range
Figure 5-19 Navigation Map Setup Menu - LAND GROUP Setup
Text Label Size
(None, Small, Med, or Lrg)
Maximum Display Range
Figure 5-20 Navigation Map Setup Menu - AVIATION GROUP Setup
NOTE: Since the PFD Inset Map is much smaller than the MFD navigation maps, items are removed on the
PFD Inset Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the Map Setup pages (e.g., a setting
of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD navigation maps, while the PFD Inset Map
removes the same item at 50 nm).
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MAP DECLUTTER
The declutter feature allows the pilot to progressively step through four levels of removing map information.
The declutter level is displayed in the DCLTR Softkey and next to the Declutter Menu Option.
Declutter Level
DCLTR Softkey
Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 5-21 Navigation Map - Declutter Level Indications
Decluttering the map:
Press the DCLTR Softkey with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The current declutter level is shown. With
each softkey selection, another level of map information is removed.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed.
2) Select ‘Declutter’. The current declutter level is shown.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Decluttering the PFD Inset Map:
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
2) Press the DCLTR Softkey. The current declutter level is shown. With each selection, another level of map
information is removed.
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Table 5-3 lists the items that are decluttered at each map detail level. The ‘X’ represents map items
decluttered for each level of detail.
Item
Data Link Radar Precipitation
Data Link Lightning
Graphical METARs
Airports
Safe Taxi
Runway Labels
TFRs
Restricted
MOA (Military)
User Waypoints
Latitude/Longitude Grid
NAVAIDs (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Intersections (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Class B Airspaces/TMA
Class C Airspaces/TCA
Class D Airspaces
Other Airspaces/ADIZ
Obstacles
Cities
Roads
Railroads
State/Province Boundaries
Declutter-1 Declutter-2 Declutter-3
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Table 5-3 Navigation Map Items Decluttered for each Detail Level
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AIRWAYS
Low Altitude Airways (or Victor Airways) primarily serve smaller piston-engine, propeller-driven airplanes on
shorter routes and at lower altitudes. Airways are eight nautical miles wide and start 1,200 feet above ground
level (AGL) and extend up to but not including 18,000 feet mean sea level (MSL). Low Altitude Airways are
designated with a “V” before the airway number (hence the name “Victor Airways”) since they run primarily
between VORs.
High Altitude Airways (or Jet Routes) primarily serve airliners, jets, turboprops, and turbocharged piston
aircraft operating above 18,000 feet MSL. Jet Routes start at 18,000 feet MSL and extend upward to 45,000 feet
MSL (altitudes above 18,000 feet are called “flight levels” and are described as FL450 for 45,000 feet MSL). Jet
Routes are designated with a “J” before the route number.
Low Altitude Airways are drawn in gray (the same shade used for roads). High Altitude Airways are drawn
in green. When both types of airways are displayed, High Altitude Airways are drawn on top of Low Altitude
Airways.
When airways are selected for display on the map, the airway waypoints (VORs, NDBs and Intersections) are
also displayed.
High Altitude
Airway
(Jet Route)
Low Altitude
Airway
(Victor Airway)
Figure 5-22 Airways on MFD Navigation Page
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Airways may be displayed on the map at the pilot’s discretion using either a combination of AIRWAY Softkey
presses, or menu selections using the MENU Key from the Navigation Map Page. The Airway range can also be
programmed to only display Airways on the MFD when the map range is at or below a specific number.
Displaying/removing airways:
1) Press the MAP Softkey.
2) Press the AIRWAYS Softkey. Both High and Low Altitude Airways are displayed.
3) Press the softkey again to display Low Altitude Airways only.
4) Press the softkey again to display High Altitude Airways only.
5) Press the softkey again to remove High Altitude Airways. No airways are displayed.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘AIRWAYS’ field.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Off’, ‘All’, ‘LO Only’, or ‘HI Only’, and press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Airway Display Selection
Off, All, LO Only, HI Only
Low Altitude Airway Range
High Altitude Airway Range
Figure 5-23 Navigation Map Setup Menu - AIRWAYS Setup
The airway range is the maximum map range on which airways are displayed.
Selecting an airway range (LOW ALT AIRWAY or HI ALT AIRWAY):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Highlight the ‘LOW ALT AIRWAY’ or ‘HI ALT AIRWAY’ range field.
5) To change the range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
6) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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The following range items are configurable on the airways menu:
Airway Type
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
200
500
Low Altitude Airway (LOW ALT AIRWAY)
High Altitude Airway (HI ALT AIRWAY)
300
500
Table 5-4 Airway Range Information
TRACK VECTOR
The Navigation Map can display a track vector that is useful in minimizing track angle error. The track vector
is a solid cyan line segment extended to a predicted location. The track vector look-ahead time is selectable (30
sec, 60 sec (default), 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min) and determines the length of the track vector. The track
vector shows up to 90 degrees of a turn for the 30 and 60 second time settings. It is always a straight line for
the 2 min, 5 min, 10 min and 20 min settings.
Track Vector
Figure 5-24 Navigation Map -Track Vector
Displaying/removing the track vector:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘TRACK VECTOR’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’. Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the look
ahead time field. Use the FMS Knob to select the desired time. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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Nav Range Ring On/Off
Track Vector
- On/Off
- Look Ahead Time
Selected Altitude Arc On/Off
Fuel Range
- On/Off
- Fuel Reserve Time
Wind Vector On/Off
Figure 5-25 Navigation Map Setup Menu -TRACK VECTOR, WIND VECTOR, NAV RANGE RING, FUEL RANGE RING,
SELECTED ALTITUDE ARC Setup
WIND VECTOR
The map displays a wind vector arrow in the upper right-hand portion of the screen. Wind vector information
is displayed as a white arrow pointing in the direction in which the wind is moving for wind speeds greater than
or equal to 1 kt.
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
Figure 5-26 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
NOTE: The wind vector is not displayed until the aircraft is moving. It is not displayed on the Waypoint
Information pages.
Displaying/removing the wind vector:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘WIND VECTOR’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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NAV RANGE RING
The Nav Range Ring shows the direction of travel (ground track) on a rotating compass card. The range is
determined by the map range. The range is 1/4 of the map range (e.g., 37.5 nm on a 150 nm map).
Range (radius)
Nav Range Ring
Figure 5-27 Navigation Map - Nav Range Ring
NOTE: The Nav Range Ring is not displayed on the Waypoint Information pages, Nearest pages, or Direct-to
Window map.
Displaying/removing the Nav Range Ring:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘NAV RANGE RING’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
NOTE: The Nav Range Ring is referenced to either magnetic or true north, based on the selection on the AUX
- System Setup Page.
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FUEL RANGE RING
The map can display a fuel range ring which shows the remaining flight distance. A dashed green circle
indicates the selected range to reserve fuel. A solid green circle indicates the total endurance range. If only
reserve fuel remains, the range is indicated by a solid yellow circle.
Total Endurance Range
Time to Reserve Fuel
Range to Reserve Fuel
Figure 5-28 Navigation Map - Fuel Range Ring
Displaying/removing the fuel range ring and selecting a fuel range time:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘FUEL RNG (RSV)’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Highlight the fuel reserve time field. This time should be set to the amount of flight time equal to the amount
of fuel reserve desired.
8) To change the reserve fuel time, enter a time (00:00 to 23:59; hours:minutes). The default setting is 00:45
minutes.
9) Press the ENT Key.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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FIELD OF VIEW (SVS)
The map can display the boundaries of the PFD Synthetic Vision System (SVS) lateral field of view. The field
of view is shown as two dashed lines forming a V shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map. This is only
available if SVS is installed on the aircraft.
Lateral Field
of View
Boundaries
Figure 5-29 Navigation Map - Field of View
Displaying/removing the field of view:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘FIELD OF VIEW’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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SELECTED ALTITUDE INTERCEPT ARC
The map can display the location along the current track where the aircraft will intercept the selected altitude.
The location will be shown as a cyan arc when the aircraft is actually climbing or descending.
Range to
Altitude Arc
Figure 5-30 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
Displaying/removing the selected altitude intercept arc:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘SEL ALT ARC’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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5.3 WAYPOINTS
Waypoints are predetermined geographical positions (internal database) or pilot-entered positions, and are
used for all phases of flight planning and navigation.
Communication and navigation frequencies can be tuned “automatically” from various Waypoint Information
(WPT) pages, Nearest (NRST) pages, and the Nearest Airports Window (on PFD). This auto-tuning feature
simplifies frequency entry over manual tuning. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS section for details on autotuning.
Waypoints can be selected by entering the ICAO identifier, entering the name of the facility, or by entering
the city name. See the System Overview section for detailed instructions on entering data in the G1000. As a
waypoint identifier, facility name, or location is entered, the G1000’s Spell’N’Find™ feature scrolls through the
database, displaying those waypoints matching the characters which have been entered to that point. A direct-to
navigation leg to the selected waypoint can be initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key on any of the waypoint
pages.
Identifier Entry Field
City Entry Field
Facility
Entry Field
- Waypoint Identifier
- Type (symbol)
- Facility Name
- City
Entered Waypoint on
Map
Map Area Showing
Entered Waypoint
Waypoint Location
Figure 5-31 Waypoint Information Window
If duplicate entries exist for the entered facility name or location, additional entries may be viewed by continuing
to turn the small FMS Knob during the selection process. If duplicate entries exist for an identifier, a Duplicate
Waypoints Window is displayed when the ENT Key is pressed.
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Identifier with
Duplicates
Duplicate
Waypoints
Duplicate Message
AIRPORTS
Figure 5-32 Waypoint Information Window - Duplicate Identifier
NOTE: ‘North Up’ orientation on the Airport Information Page cannot be changed; the pilot needs to be
aware of proper orientation if the Navigation Map orientation is different from the Airport Information Page
Map.
The Airport Information Page is the first page in WPT group and allows the pilot to view airport information,
load frequencies (COM, NAV, and lighting), review runways, and review instrument procedures that may be
involved in the flight plan. See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information on loading frequencies
(auto-tuning). After engine startup, the Airport Information Page defaults to the airport where the aircraft is
located. After a flight plan has been loaded, it defaults to the destination airport. On a flight plan with multiple
airports, it defaults to the airport which is the current active waypoint.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the Airport Information
Page displays airport information in three boxes labeled ‘AIRPORT’, ‘RUNWAYS’, and ‘FREQUENCIES’. For
airports with multiple runways, information for each runway is available. This information is viewed on the
Airport Information Page by pressing the INFO softkey until INFO-1 is displayed.
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Airport Information
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Airport
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
- Lat/Long/Elev
- Fuel Available
- Time Zone (UTC Offset)
Runway Information
- Designation
- Length/Width/Surface
- Lighting Available
Airport/Runway
Diagram
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
- Availability
- Additional Information
Softkeys
Figure 5-33 Airport Information Page
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the Airport Information Page:
• Usage type: Public, Military, Private, or Heliport
• Runway surface type: Hard, Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft, Unknown, or Water
• Runway lighting type: No Lights, Part Time, Full Time, Unknown, or PCL Freq (for pilot-controlled
lighting)
• COM Availability: TX (transmit only), RX (receive only), PT (part time), i (additional information available)
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Airport Information
Airport Directory
Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
Softkeys
Figure 5-34 Airport Directory Page Example
The airport directory information is viewed on the Airport Directory Page by pressing the INFO softkey
until INFO-2 is displayed. The following are types of airport directory information shown (if available) on the
Airport Directory Page:
• Airport:
Identifier, Site
Number, Name, City, State
• Phones: Phone/Fax Numbers
• Hours: Facility Hours, Light
Hours, Tower Hours, Beacon
Hours
• Location: Sectional, Magnetic
Variation
• Frequencies: Type/Frequency
• Transportation:
Ground
Transportation Type Available
• Approach: Approach Facility
Name, Frequency, Frequency
Parameter
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• Traffic Pattern Altitudes
(TPA): Aircraft Class/Altitude
• Weather:
Service Type,
Frequency, Phone Number
• Flight Service Station (FSS):
FSS Name, Phone Numbers
• Runway: Headings, Length,
Width, Obstructions, Surface
• Obstructions: General Airport
Obstructions
• Special
Operations
at
Airport
• Instrument
Approaches:
Published
Approach,
Frequency
• NAVAIDS: Type, Identifier,
Frequency, Radial, Distance
• Noise:
Noise Abatement
Procedures
• Charts: Low Altitude Chart
Number
• Services Available: Category,
Specific Service
• Notes: Airport Notes
• Pilot Controlled Lighting:
High/Med/Low Clicks/Second
• FBO:
Type, Frequencies,
Services, Fees, Fuel, Credit
Cards, Phone/Fax Numbers
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Selecting an airport for review by identifier, facility name, or location:
1) From the Airport Information Page, press the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Selecting a runway:
1) With the Airport Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘RUNWAYS’ Box, on the runway designator.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired runway (if more than one) for the selected airport.
4) To remove the flashing cursor, press the FMS Knob.
Viewing a destination airport:
From the Airport Information Page press the MENU Key. Select ‘View Destination Airport’. The Destination
Airport is displayed.
The Airport Frequencies Box uses the descriptions and abbreviations listed in the following table:
Communication Frequencies
Approach * Control
Pre-Taxi
Arrival *
CTA *
Radar
ASOS
Departure * Ramp
ATIS
Gate
Terminal *
AWOS
Ground
TMA *
Center
Helicopter
Tower
Class B *
Multicom
TRSA *
Class C *
Other
Unicom
Clearance
Navigation Frequencies
ILS
LOC
* May include Additional Information
Table 5-5 Airport Frequency Abbreviations
A departure, arrival, or approach can be loaded using the softkeys on the Airport Information Page. See the
Procedures section for details. METARs or TAFs applicable to the selected airport can be selected for display (see
the Hazard Avoidance section for details about weather).
The G1000 provides a NRST Softkey on the PFD, which gives the pilot quick access to nearest airport
information (very useful if an immediate landing is required). The Nearest Airports Window displays a list
of up to 25 nearest airports (three entries can be displayed at one time). If there are more than three they are
displayed in a scrollable list. If there are no nearest airports available, “NONE WITHIN 200NM” is displayed.
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Bearing/Distance to Airport
Airport Identifier/
Type
Approach Available
Length of Longest
Runway
COM Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Additional Airports
(within 200 nm)
NRST Softkey
Figure 5-35 Nearest Airports Window on PFD
Pressing the ENT Key displays the PFD Airport Information Window for the highlighted airport. Pressing
the ENT Key again returns to the Nearest Airports Window with the cursor on the next airport in the list.
Continued presses of the ENT Key sequences through the information pages for all airports in the Nearest
Airports list.
Airport Information
- ID/Type/City
- Facility
Airport Information
- Usage/Time/Elev
- Region
Airport Information
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-36 Airport Information Window on PFD
The Nearest Airports Page on the MFD is first in the group of NRST pages because of its potential use in
the event of an in-flight emergency. In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and
surrounding area, the page displays nearest airport information in five boxes labeled ‘NEAREST AIRPORTS’,
‘INFORMATION’, ‘RUNWAYS’, ‘FREQUENCIES’, and ‘APPROACHES’.
The selected airport is indicated by a white arrow, and a dashed white line is drawn on the navigation map
from the aircraft position to the nearest airport. Up to five nearest airports, one runway, up to five frequencies,
and up to five approaches are visible at one time. If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled.
If there are no items for display in a boxed area, text indicating that fact is displayed. The currently selected
airport remains in the list until it is unselected.
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Navigation Map Showing Nearest Airport
Nearest Airport
Nearest Airports
- ID/Type
- Bearing/Distance
Airport Information
- Facility/City/Elevation
Runway Information
- Designation/Surface
- Length/Width
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Approaches Available
LD APR Softkey (only
available if an approach is
highlighted)
Window Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-37 Nearest Airport Page
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the PFD:
1) Press the NRST Softkey to display the Nearest Airports Window. Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the airport identifier with the FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to display the Airport Information
Window.
3) To return to the Nearest Airports Window press the ENT Key (with the cursor on ‘BACK’) or press the CLR
Key. The cursor is now on the next airport in the nearest airports list. (Repeatedly pressing the ENT Key
moves through the airport list, alternating between the Nearest Airports Window and the Airport Information
Window.)
4) Press the CLR Key or the NRST Softkey to close the PFD Nearest Airports Window.
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the NRST page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Nearest Airports Page (it is the first page of the group, so it may already
be selected). If there are no Nearest Airports available, “NONE WITHIN 200 NM” is displayed.
3) Press the APT Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Airport Window’ and
press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘NEAREST AIRPORTS’ Box. The first airport in the nearest airports
list is highlighted.
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4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport. (Pressing the ENT Key also moves to the next airport.)
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Viewing runway information for a specific airport:
1) With the Nearest Airports Page displayed, press the RNWY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select
Runway Window’; and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘RUNWAYS’ Box.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for frequency selection and the Procedures section for approaches.
The Nearest Airports Box on the System Setup Page defines the minimum runway length and surface type
used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on the MFD Nearest Airports Page. A minimum
runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways or runways that are
not appropriately surfaced from being displayed. Default settings are 0 feet (or meters) for runway length and
“HARD/SOFT” for runway surface type.
Selecting nearest airport surface matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the runway surface field in the Nearest Airports Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (ANY, HARD ONLY, HARD/SOFT).
5) Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Selecting nearest airport minimum runway length matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the minimum length field in the Nearest Airport Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the minimum runway length (zero to 25,000 feet) and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Nearest Airport Criteria
- Type of Runway Surface
- Minimum Runway Length
Figure 5-38 System Setup Page - Nearest Airport Selection Criteria
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INTERSECTIONS
NOTE: The VOR displayed on the Intersection Information Page is the nearest VOR, not necessarily the VOR
used to define the intersection.
The Intersection Information Page is used to view information about intersections. In addition to displaying
a map of the currently selected intersection and surrounding area, the Intersection Information Page displays
intersection information in three boxes labeled ‘INTERSECTION’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘NEAREST VOR’.
Selected Intersection
Intersection Identifier
Intersection Info
- Region
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Intersection
Figure 5-39 Intersection Information Page
Selecting an intersection:
1) With the Intersection Information Page displayed, enter an identifier in the Intersection Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
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1) With the Nearest Intersections Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest Intersection Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The Nearest Intersections Page can be used to quickly find an intersection close to the flight path. In addition
to displaying a map of the surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest intersections in
three boxes labeled ‘NEAREST INT’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘REFERENCE VOR’.
The selected intersection is indicated by a white arrow. Up to fifteen Intersections are visible at a time. If
there are more than can be shown, the list can be scrolled. If there are no items for display, text indicating that
fact is displayed.
NOTE: The list only includes waypoints that are within 200 nm.
Nearest Intersection
Navigation Map Showing Nearest Intersection
Intersection Information
- Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to
intersection from
aircraft position
Intersection Lat/Long
Reference VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- VOR Frequency
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
Figure 5-40 Nearest Intersections Page
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NDBS
The NDB Information Page is used to view information about NDBs. In addition to displaying a map of
the currently selected NDB and surrounding area, the page displays NDB information in four boxes labeled
‘NDB’, ‘INFORMATION’, ‘FREQUENCY’, and ‘NEAREST AIRPORT’.
Selected NDB
Navigation Map Showing Selected NDB
NDB Identifier/Type
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
NDB Information
- Type
- Region
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
Figure 5-41 NDB Information Page
NOTE: Compass locator (LOM, LMM): a low power, low or medium frequency radio beacon installed in
conjunction with the instrument landing system. When LOM is used, the locator is at the Outer Marker;
when LMM is used, the locator is at the Middle Marker.
Selecting an NDB:
1) With the NDB Information Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the NDB, or the city in which it’s
located in the NDB Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
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1) With the Nearest NDB Page displayed, press the FMS Knob
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest NDB Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The Nearest NDB Page can be used to quickly find a NDB close to the flight path. In addition to displaying
a map of the surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest NDBs in three boxes labeled
‘NEAREST NDB’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘FREQUENCY’.
A white arrow before the NDB identifier indicates the selected NDB. Up to fifteen NDBs are visible at a time.
If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. The list only includes waypoints that are within
200nm. If there are no NDBs in the list, text indicating that there are no nearest NDBs is displayed. If there are
no nearest NDBs in the list, the information and frequency fields are dashed.
Navigation Map Showing Selected NDB
Nearest NDB
NDB Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to
NDB from aircraft
position
NDB Information
- Facility Name/City
- Type
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
Figure 5-42 Nearest NDB Page
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VORS
The VOR Information Page can be used to view information about VOR and ILS signals (since ILS signals
can be received on a NAV receiver), or to quickly auto-tune a VOR or ILS frequency. Localizer information
cannot be viewed on the VOR Information Page. If a VOR station is combined with a TACAN station it is
listed as a VORTAC on the VOR Information Page and if it includes only DME, it is displayed as VOR-DME.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected VOR and surrounding area, the VOR Information
Page displays VOR information in four boxes labeled ‘VOR’, ‘INFORMATION’, ‘FREQUENCY’, and ‘NEAREST
AIRPORT’.
Selected VOR
Navigation Map Showing Selected VOR
VOR Identifier/Type
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
VOR Information
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Region
- Lat/Long
VOR Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
Figure 5-43 VOR Information Page
The VOR classes used in the VOR information box are: LOW ALTITUDE, HIGH ALTITUDE, and
TERMINAL.
Selecting a VOR:
1) With the VOR Information Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the VOR, or the city in which it’s
located in the VOR Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
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1) With the Nearest VOR Page displayed, press the FMS Knob or press the VOR Softkey.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VOR Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest VOR Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Select VOR Window’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VOR Box.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The Nearest VOR Page can be used to quickly find a VOR station close to the aircraft. Also, a NAV frequency
from a selected VOR station can be loaded from the Nearest VOR Page. In addition to displaying a map of
the surrounding area, the Nearest VOR Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VOR stations in three
boxes labeled ‘NEAREST VOR’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘FREQUENCY’. The list only includes waypoints that
are within 200 nm.
A white arrow before the VOR identifier indicates the selected VOR. Up to fifteen VORs are visible at a time.
If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. If there are no VORs in the list, text indicating
that there are no nearest VORs is displayed. If there are no nearest VORs in the list, the information is dashed.
Nearest VOR
Navigation Map Showing Nearest VOR
VOR Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
from aircraft position
VOR Information
- Facility Name/City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Lat/Long
VOR Frequency
Figure 5-44 Nearest VOR Page
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USER WAYPOINTS
The G1000 can create and store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. User waypoints can be created from any
map page (except PFD Inset Map, AUX-Trip Planning Page, or Procedure Pages) by selecting a position on the
map using the Joystick, or from the User Waypoint Information Page by referencing a bearing/distance from an
existing waypoint, bearings from two existing waypoints, or latitude and longitude. Once a waypoint has been
created, it can be renamed, deleted, or moved. Temporary user waypoints are erased upon system power down.
Selected User Waypoint
Navigation Map Showing Selected User Waypoint
User Waypoint Info
- Identifier
- Temporary/Normal
- Waypoint Type
User Wpt Comment
Reference Wpt Info
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
User Waypoint List
- Identifier
- Comment
# User Wpts Used
Softkeys
Figure 5-45 User Waypoint Information Page
Selecting a User Waypoint:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, enter the name of the User Waypoint, or scroll to the
desired waypoint in the User Waypoint List using the large FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest User Waypoints Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest USR Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Navigation Map Showing Selected User Waypoint
Selected User Waypoint
Nearest User Wpt List
- Identifier
- Bearing/Distance from
aircraft position
User Waypoint Info
- Comment
- Lat/Long
Reference Wpt Info
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
Figure 5-46 Nearest User Waypoint Page
CREATING USER WAYPOINTS
User waypoints can be created from the User Waypoint Information Page in the following ways:
Creating user waypoints from the User Waypoint Information Page:
1) Press the NEW Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Create New User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The current aircraft position is the default location of the new waypoint.
4) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
a) Select ‘RAD/RAD’ using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
b) Select ‘RAD/DIS’ using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
c) Select ‘LAT/LON’ using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
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5) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
6) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to ‘TEMPORARY’ or ‘NORMAL’ by moving the cursor to
‘TEMPORARY’ and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Are you sure you want to create the new User Waypoint AAAAAA?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
a) Select ‘RAD/RAD’ using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
b) Select ‘RAD/DIS’ using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
c) Select ‘LAT/LON’ using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to ‘TEMPORARY’ or ‘NORMAL’ by moving the cursor to
‘TEMPORARY’ and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Figure 5-47 User Waypoint Information Page Menu
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Creating user waypoints from map pages:
1) Press the Joystick to activate the panning function and pan to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key. The User Waypoint Information Page is displayed with the captured position.
NOTE: If the pointer has highlighted a map database feature, one of three things happens upon pressing
the ENT Key: 1) information about the selected feature is displayed instead of initiating a new waypoint,
2) a menu pops up allowing a choice between ‘Review Airspaces’ or ‘Create User Waypoint’, or 3) a new
waypoint is initiated with the default name being the selected map item.
3) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected name. The first reference waypoint box is highlighted.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
a) Select ‘RAD/RAD’ using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
b) Select ‘RAD/DIS’ using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
c) Select ‘LAT/LON’ using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to ‘TEMPORARY’ or ‘NORMAL’ by moving the cursor to
‘TEMPORARY’ and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
9) Press the GO BACK Softkey to return to the map page.
EDITING USER WAYPOINTS
Editing a user waypoint comment or location:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Select a user waypoint in the User Waypoint List, if required, and press the ENT Key.
3) Move the cursor to the desired field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to make any changes.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Renaming user waypoints:
1) Highlight a user waypoint in the User Waypoint List. Press the RENAME Softkey, or press the MENU Key and
select ‘Rename User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a new name.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Do you want to rename the user waypoint AAAAAA to BBBBBB?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing the location of an existing waypoint to the aircraft present position:
1) Enter a waypoint name or select the waypoint in the User Waypoint List, then press the ENT Key.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Use Present Position’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice. The new waypoint’s location is saved.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
A system generated comment for a user waypoint incorporates the reference waypoint identifier, bearing,
and distance. If a system generated comment has been edited, a new comment can be generated.
Resetting the comment field to the system generated comment:
1) Enter a waypoint name or select the waypoint in the User Waypoint List, then press the ENT Key.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Auto Comment’.
4) Press the ENT Key. The generated comment is based on the reference point used to define the waypoint.
The default type of user waypoint (normal or temporary) can be changed using the user waypoint information
page menu. Temporary user waypoints are automatically deleted upon the next power cycle.
Changing the user waypoint storage duration default setting:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Move the cursor to select ‘Waypoint Setup’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Select ‘NORMAL’ or ‘TEMPORARY’ as desired, and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor and return to the User Waypoint Information Page.
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DELETING USER WAYPOINTS
Deleting a single user waypoint:
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List, or enter a waypoint in the User Waypoint field.
2) Press the DELETE Softkey or press the CLR Key. ‘Yes’ is highlighted in the confirmation window.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List, or enter a waypoint in the User Waypoint field.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete User Waypoint’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
NOTE: The option to ‘Delete All User Waypoints’ is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all user waypoints:
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete All User Waypoints’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.4 AIRSPACES
The G1000 can display the following types of airspaces: Class B/TMA, Class C/TCA, Class D, Restricted, MOA
(Military), Other Airspace, Air Defense Interdiction Zone (ADIZ), and Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR).
Class D Airspace
MOA (Military)
Class B Airspace
Restricted Area
TFR
Alert Area
Class C Airspace
ADIZ
Warning Area
Figure 5-48 Airspaces
The Nearest Airspaces Page, Airspace Alerts Window, and Airspace Alerts on the PFD provide additional
information about airspaces and the location of the aircraft in relationship to them.
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The Airspace Alerts Box allows the pilot to turn the controlled/special-use airspace message alerts on or off.
This does not affect the alerts listed on the Nearest Airspaces Page or the airspace boundaries depicted on the
Navigation Map Page. It simply turns on/off the warning provided when the aircraft is approaching or near an
airspace.
An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below an airspace. For example,
if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/below an airspace, an alert message is
not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below an airspace and projected to enter it, the pilot
is notified with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the altitude buffer field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Turning an airspace alert on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Airspace Alerts Box
- Airspace Altitude Buffer
- Alert On/Off
(Default Settings Shown)
DFLTS Softkey
Figure 5-49 System Setup Page - Airspace Alerts
Map ranges for the airspace boundaries are selected from the Aviation Group in the Map Setup Menu. See Table
5-2 for the default and maximum ranges for each type of airspace and the symbol used to define the airspace
area.
The Nearest Airspaces Page can be used to quickly find airspaces close to the flight path. In addition, a selected
frequency associated with the airspace can be loaded from the Nearest Airspaces Page. In addition to displaying
a map of airspace boundaries and surrounding area, the Nearest Airspaces Page displays airspace information in
four boxes labeled ‘AIRSPACE ALERTS’, ‘AIRSPACE, AGENCY’, ‘VERTICAL LIMITS’, and ‘FREQUENCIES’.
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Airspace 1
Airspace 2
Airspace 3
Airspace Alerts Info
- Name
- Proximity (Ahead, Inside,
Ahead < 2nm, Within 2nm)
- Time till Intercept (only if
Ahead or Ahead < 2nm)
Airspace/Agency Info
- Airspace Type
- Controlling Agency
Airspace Vertical Limits
- Ceiling
- Floor
Associated Frequencies
- Type
- Availability/Info
- Frequency
Softkeys
Figure 5-50 Nearest Airspaces Page
Airspace alerts and associated frequencies are shown in scrollable lists on the Nearest Airspaces Page. The
ALERTS and FREQ softkeys place the cursor in the respective list. The FREQ Softkey is enabled only if one or
more frequencies exist for a selected airspace.
Selecting and viewing an airspace alert with its associated information:
1) Select the Nearest Airspaces Page.
2) Press the ALERTS Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Alerts Window’,
and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘AIRSPACE ALERTS’ Box.
3) Select the desired airspace.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Pressing the PFD MSG Softkey displays the message window on the PFD. The following airspace alerts are
displayed in the message window:
Message
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead –
less than 10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and
ahead.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near –
less than 2 nm.
Comments
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft penetrates the airspace within 10
minutes.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
Table 5-6 PFD Airspace Alert Messages
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5.5 DIRECT-TO-NAVIGATION
The Direct-to method of navigation, initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key on either the MFD or PFD, is
quicker to use than a flight plan when the desire is to navigate to a single point such as a nearby airport.
Once a direct-to is activated, the G1000 establishes a point-to-point course line from the present position to the
selected direct-to destination. Course guidance is provided until the direct-to is replaced with a new direct-to or
flight plan, or cancelled.
A vertical navigation (VNV) direct-to creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the current altitude to a selected altitude at the direct-to waypoint. Vertical navigation is based on barometric
altitudes, not on GPS altitude, and is used for cruise and descent phases of flight.
The Direct-to Window allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation. The Direct-to Window displays
selected direct-to waypoint data on the PFD and the MFD.
Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/Region
- Facility Name
- City
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Map of Selected Point
Location of Destination
- Bearing/Distance
Desired Course
Figure 5-51 Direct-to Window - MFD
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Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/City
- Facility Name
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Direct-to Point Info
- Bearing/Distance
- Desired Course
Activation Command
Figure 5-52 Direct-to Window - PFD
Any waypoint can be entered as a direct-to destination from the Direct-to Window.
Entering a waypoint identifier, facility name, or city as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed (with the active flight plan wayoint as the default
selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it counter-clockwise brings
up the waypoint selection submenu - press the CLR Key to remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the
facility name, or city field and turn the small FMS Knob to begin entering a facility name or city. If duplicate
entries exist for the entered facility or city name, additional entries can be viewed by turning the small FMS
Knob during the selection process.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the direct-to.
Any waypoint contained in the active flight plan can be selected as a direct-to waypoint from the Direct-to
Window, the Active Flight Plan Page, or the Active Flight Plan Window.
Waypoint Submenu
- Flight Plan Waypoints
- Nearest Airports
- Recent Waypoints
- User Waypoints
- Airway Waypoints
(only available when
active leg is part of an
airway)
Figure 5-53 Waypoint Submenu
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Selecting an active flight plan waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) While navigating an active flight plan, press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the
active flight plan waypoint as the default selection.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
3) Select the desired waypoint.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Or:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, or the Active Flight Plan Window on the PFD.
2) Select the desired waypoint.
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Any NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoint can be selected as a direct-to destination in the Direct-to
Window.
Selecting a NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed (with the active flight plan destination as the
default selection or a blank destination if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of FPL waypoints (the FPL list is populated only
when navigating a flight plan, and the AIRWAY list is available only when the active leg is part of an airway).
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoints.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
The Direct-to Window can be displayed from any page and allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation.
If the direct-to is initiated from any page except the WPT pages, the default waypoint is the active flight plan
waypoint (if a flight plan is active) or a blank waypoint field. Direct-to requests on any WPT page defaults to the
displayed waypoint.
Selecting any waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Select the page or window containing the desired waypoint type and select the desired waypoint.
2) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window with the selected waypoint as the direct-to
destination.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
4) Press ENT again to activate the direct-to.
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Selecting a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the NRST Softkey on the PFD; or turn the FMS Knob to display the Nearest Airports Page and press the
FMS Knob.
2) Select the desired airport (the nearest one is already selected).
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Direct-to destinations may also be selected by using the pointer on the navigation map pages. If no airport,
NAVAID, or user waypoint exists at the desired location, a temporary waypoint named ‘MAPWPT’ is automatically
created at the location of the map arrow.
Selecting a waypoint as a direct-to destination using the pointer:
1) From a navigation map page, press the Joystick to display the pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to place the pointer at the desired destination location.
3) If the pointer is placed on an existing airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint, the waypoint name is highlighted.
4) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window with the selected point entered as the direct-to
destination.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Cancelling a Direct-to:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. If a flight plan is still active, the G1000 resumes
navigating the flight plan along the closest leg.
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Page Menu
- Cancel Direct-To Navigation
Figure 5-54 Direct-to Window - Cancelling Direct-to Navigation
When navigating a direct-to, the G1000 sets a direct great circle course to the selected destination. The course
to a destination can also be manually selected using the course field (‘COURSE’) on the Direct-to Window.
Selecting a manual direct-to course:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the destination field highlighted.
2) Highlight the course field.
3) Enter the desired course.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Reselecting the direct course from the current position:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the destination field highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
3) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
A direct-to with altitude constraints creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the aircraft’s current altitude to the altitude of the direct-to waypoint. The altitude is reached at the waypoint,
or at the specified distance along the flight path if an offset distance has been entered. All VNV altitudes prior
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to the direct-to destination are removed from the active flight plan upon successful activation of the direct-to.
All VNV altitudes following the direct-to waypoint are retained. See the section on Vertical Navigation for more
information regarding the use and purpose of VNV altitudes and offset distances.
Entering a VNV altitude and along-track offset for the waypoint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor over the ‘VNV’ altitude field.
3) Enter the desired altitude.
4) Press the ENT Key. The option to select MSL or AGL is now displayed.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now flashing in the VNV offset distance field.
7) Enter the desired along-track distance before the waypoint.
8) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
9) Press the ENT Key to activate.
Removing a VNV altitude constraint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Clear Vertical Constraints’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Page Menu
- Clear Vertical Navigation
Constraints
Figure 5-55 Direct-to Window - Clearing Vertical Constraints
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5.6 FLIGHT PLANNING
Flight planning on the G1000 consists of building a flight plan by entering waypoints one at a time, adding
waypoints along airways, and inserting departures, airways, arrivals, or approaches as needed. The G1000 allows
flight planning information to be entered from either the MFD or PFD. The flight plan is displayed on maps using
different line widths, colors, and types, based on the type of leg and the segment of the flight plan currently being
flown (departure, enroute, arrival, approach, or missed approach).
Flight Plan Leg Type
Symbol
Active non-heading Leg (TOPO On)
Active non-heading Leg (TOPO Off)
Active heading Leg (TOPO On)
Active heading Leg (TOPO Off)
Non-heading Leg in the current flight segment (TOPO On)
Non-heading Leg in the current flight segment (TOPO Off)
Heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO On)
Heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO Off)
Non-heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO On)
Non-heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO Off)
Turn Anticipation Arc (TOPO On/TOPO Off)
Table 5-7 Flight Plan Leg Symbols
Up to 99 flight plans with up to 99 waypoints each can be created and stored in memory. One flight plan can be
activated at a time and becomes the active flight plan. The active flight plan is erased when the system is turned
off and overwritten when another flight plan is activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, departure,
or arrival, the G1000 uses the waypoint information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the
database is changed or updated, the G1000 automatically updates the information if the procedure has not been
modified. If an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is no longer available, the procedure is deleted from the
affected stored flight plan(s), and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A) advising that
one or more stored flight plans need to be edited.
Whenever an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach,
departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan along with a header line describing the loaded
instrument procedure. The original enroute portion of the flight plan remains active (unless an instrument
procedure is activated) when the procedure is loaded.
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When the database is updated, the airways need to be reloaded also. Each airway segment is reloaded from
the database given the entry waypoint, the airway identifier and the exit waypoint. This reloads the sequence of
waypoints between the entry and exit waypoints (the sequence may change when the database is updated). The
update of an airway can fail during this process. If that happens, the airway waypoints are changed to regular
(non-airway) flight plan waypoints, and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A).
The following could cause the airway update to fail:
• Airway identifier, entry waypoint or exit waypoint not found in the new database.
• Airway entry/exit waypoint is not an acceptable waypoint for the airway – either the waypoint is no longer on
the airway, or there is a new directional restriction that prevents it being used.
• Loading the new airway sequence would exceed the capacity of the flight plan.
FLIGHT PLAN CREATION
There are three methods to create or modify a flight plan:
• Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• Active Flight Plan Window on the PFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• Flight Plan Catalog Page on the MFD (create/modify a stored flight plan)
Active FPL Waypoint List
- Comment
- Procedure Header
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Vertical Navigation Profile
- Active Vertical WPT Alt/ID
- Vertical Speed Target
- Flight Path Angle
- Vertical Speed Target
- Time to Top of Descent
- Vertical Deviation
Turn Anticipation
Arc
Non-Active,
Flight Plan Leg
Figure 5-56 Active Flight Plan Page
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Active Flight Plan Comment
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Waypoint List
- Waypoint ID
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Airway Identifier
Figure 5-57 Active Flight Plan Window on PFD
Catalog Contents
- # Used
- # Empty
Flight Plan List
- Comment
Selected Flight Plan Map
Selected FPL Info
- Departure Waypoint
- Destination Waypoint
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Softkeys
Figure 5-58 Flight Plan Catalog Page
The active flight plan is listed on the active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, and in the Active Flight Plan
Window on the PFD. It is the flight plan to which the G1000 is currently providing guidance, and is shown
on the navigation maps. Stored flight plans are listed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page, and are available for
activation (becomes the active flight plan).
NOTE: The system supports AFCS lateral guidance for all leg types (using NAV or FMS APPR mode). The
system does not support course deviation for any heading leg types (VA, VD, VI, VM, or VR).
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Creating an active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (only on MFD).
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window with a
waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
4) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
5) Repeat step numbers 3 and 4 to enter each additional flight plan waypoint.
6) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Creating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the NEW Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create New Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key to
display a blank flight plan for the first empty storage location.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key.
6) Repeat step numbers 4 and 5 to enter each additional flight plan waypoint.
7) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to return to the Flight Plan Catalog Page. The new
flight plan is now in the list.
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Flight plans can be imported from an SD Card or exported to an SD Card from the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Importing a Flight Plan from an SD Card
1) Insert the SD card containing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight an empty or existing flight plan.
6) Press the IMPORT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Import Flight Plan”, and press the ENT Key.
If an empty slot is selected, a list of the available flight plans on the SD card will be displayed.
Or:
If an existing flight plan is selected, an “Overwrite existing flight plan? OK or CANCEL” prompt is displayed.
Press the ENT Key to choose to overwrite the selected flight plan and see the list of available flight plans on the
SD card. If overwriting the existing flight plan is not desired, select “CANCEL” using the FMS Knob, press the
ENT Key, select another flight plan slot, and press the IMPORT Softkey again.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan for importing.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the import.
9) Press the ENT Key again to confirm the import.
Import/Export Softkeys
List of Flight Plans to Import &
Details for the Selected File
Import Successful
Figure 5-59 Flight Plan Import
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NOTE: If the imported flight plan contains a waypoint with a name that duplicates the name of a waypoint
already stored on the system, the system compares the coordinates of the imported waypoint with those of
the existing waypoint. If the coordinates are different, the imported waypoint is automatically renamed by
adding characters to the end of the name.
Exporting a Flight Plan to an SD Card
1) Insert the SD card into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be exported.
6) Press the EXPORT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Export Flight Plan”.
7) If desired, change the name for the exported file by turning the large FMS Knob to the left to highlight the
name, then use the small and large FMS knobs to enter the new name, and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the export.
9) Press the ENT Key to confirm the export.
NOTE: The exported flight plan will not contain any procedures or airways.
Import/Export Softkeys
Stored Flight Plan to be Exported &
Exported Flight Plan Name
Export Successful
Figure 5-60 Flight Plan Export
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ADDING WAYPOINTS TO AN EXISTING FLIGHT PLAN
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose the flight plan, select the
desired point of insertion, enter the waypoint, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. Flight plans
are limited to 99 waypoints (including waypoints within airways and procedures). If the number of waypoints
in the flight plan exceeds 99, the message “Flight plan is full. Remove unnecessary waypoints.” appears and the
new waypoint(s) are not added to the flight plan.
Stored Flight Plan Selected
- Memory Slot
- Comment
- Procedure Identifier
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Softkeys
Figure 5-61 Stored Flight Plan Page
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Flight Plan Full Message
Figure 5-62 Active Flight Plan Page - FPL Full
Adding a waypoint to a stored flight plan:
1) On the Flight Plan Catalog Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select “EDIT” and press the
ENT Key. The Stored Flight Plan Page is displayed.
4) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly in front of the
highlighted waypoint.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
6) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The new waypoint now exists in the flight plan.
NOTE: If the identifier entered in the Waypoint Information Window has duplicates, a Duplicate Waypoint
Window is displayed. Use the FMS Knob to select the correct waypoint.
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Figure 5-63 Duplicate Waypoints Window
Adding a waypoint to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Select the point in the flight plan before which to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly
in front of the highlighted waypoint.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
Creating and adding user waypoints to the active flight plan:
1) Press the Joystick to activate the panning function on the Active Flight Plan Page and pan to the map location
of the desired user waypoint.
2) Press the LD WPT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The user
waypoint is created with a name of USRxxx (using the next available in sequence) and is added to the end of
the active flight plan.
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ADDING AIRWAYS TO A FLIGHT PLAN
Airways can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose a flight plan (add the desired
airway entry point if not already in the flight plan), select the waypoint after the desired airway entry point,
select the airway, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. An airway can only be loaded if there is a
waypoint in the flight plan that is part of the desired airway and is not part of an arrival or approach procedure.
The G1000 also anticipates the desired airway and exit point based on loaded flight plan waypoints.
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Airways Available at TOP
Airway Waypoint Sequence
Preview of Selected Airway
Figure 5-64 Select Airway Page - Selecting Airway
Adding an airway to a flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint after the desired airway entry point. If this waypoint is not
a valid airway entry point, a valid entry point should be entered at this time.
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4) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and press the LD AIRWY Softkey, or press the MENU Key and
select “Load Airway”. The Select Airway Page is displayed. The LD AIRWY Softkey or the “Load Airway” menu
item is available only when a valid airway entry waypoint has been chosen (the waypoint ahead of the cursor
position).
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways are
shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is
highlighted.
7) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted.
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Selected Exit Point
Airway Exit Points
Available
Preview of
Selected Airway
Figure 5-65 Select Airway Page - Selecting Exit Point
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Inserted Airway Header
- Airway Identifier: [airway
identifier].[exit waypoint identifier]
(e.g., V4.SLN)
Figure 5-66 Active Flight Plan Page - Airway Inserted
RESTRICTIONS ON ADDING AIRWAYS
Some airways have directional restrictions on all or part of the route. Airway “A2” in Europe has a directional
restriction over the whole route such that it can be flown only in the direction MTD-ABB-BNE-DEVAL.
Airway “UR975” in North Africa has more complicated directional restrictions within the list of airway
waypoints AMANO, VAKOR, LIBRO, NELDA, DIRKA, GZO, KOSET, and SARKI:
• Starting from AMANO, the airway can be flown only to LIBRO.
• Starting from SARKI, the airway can be flown only to LIBRO.
• Between NELDA and GZO, the airway can be flown in either direction.
In the US, airways that are “one-way” for specified hours of operation are not uncommon. These airways
are always bidirectional in the G1000 database.
The system only allows correct airway sequences to be inserted. If the pilot subsequently inverts the flight
plan, the system inverts the airway waypoint sequence and removes the airway header.
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ADDING PROCEDURES TO A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
The G1000 allows the pilot to insert pre-defined instrument procedures from the navigation database into a
flight plan. The procedures are designed to facilitate routing of traffic leaving an airport (departure), arriving at
an airport (arrival), and landing at an airport (approach). See the procedures section for more details.
Flight Plan Name
Flight Plan Waypoint
List
Softkeys
- New Waypoint
- Load Departure
- Load Arrival
- Load Approach
- Activate Flight Plan
Figure 5-67 Stored Flight Plan Page
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DEPARTURE (DP)
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can
be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
Departure Airport
Selected Departure
Departures Available
at KMKC
Departure Waypoint
Sequence
Preview of Selected
Departure
Figure 5-68 Departure Loading Page - Selecting the Departure
Loading a departure procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD DP Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Departure”, and press the ENT Key. The
Departure Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select a departure. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a runway served by the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition for the selected departure. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected departure procedure.
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Departure Airport
Selected Departure
Selected Runway
Selected Transition
Departure Transition Points
Available
Preview of
Selected Departure
Selected Departure End
Point
Figure 5-69 Departure Loading Page - Selecting Transition
Inserted Departure Header
- Departure Identifier: [departure
airport]-[departure runway].
[departure transition].
[departure end point]
(e.g., KMKC-ALL.WLDCT2.SLN)
Figure 5-70 Stored Flight Plan Page - Departure Inserted
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ARRIVAL (STAR)
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) is loaded at the destination airport in the flight plan. Only one arrival
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
Destination Airport
Selected Arrival
Arrivals Available at KCOS
Selected Runway
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
Preview of
Selected Arrival
Figure 5-71 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Arrival
Loading an arrival procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD STAR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Arrival”, and press the ENT Key. The Arrival
Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select an arrival. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a transition for the selected arrival. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway served by the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected arrival procedure.
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Destination Airport
Selected Arrival
Selected Transition
Transitions Available with
DBRY1
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
Preview of
Selected Arrival
Figure 5-72 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
Inserted Arrival Header
- Arrival Identifier:
[arrival airport]-[arrival transition].
[arrival].[arrival runway]
(e.g., KCOS-TBE.DBRY1.ALL)
Figure 5-73 Stored Flight Plan Page - Arrival Inserted
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APPROACH (APPR)
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has an approach available. Only one
approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route for a selected approach is defined by designating
transition waypoints.
Destination Airport
Selected Approach
Approaches Available at
KCOS
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Preview of
Selected
Approach
Figure 5-74 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Approach
Loading an approach procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The
Approach Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to
the ‘APPROACH CHANNEL’ field.
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b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
5) Select a transition for the selected approach. Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the selected approach procedure.
Destination Airport
Selected Approach
Selected Transition
Transitions Available with
Selected Approach
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Preview of Selected
Approach
Load Approach?
Figure 5-75 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
Inserted Approach Header
- Approach Identifier: [approach
airport].[runway and approach type]
(e.g., KCOS-RNAVGPS 35R LPV)
Figure 5-76 Stored Flight Plan Page - Approach Inserted
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FLIGHT PLAN STORAGE
The G1000 can store up to 99 flight plans, numbered 1 through 99. The active flight plan is erased when
the G1000 is powered off or when another flight plan is activated. Details about each stored flight plan can be
viewed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page and on the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Viewing information about a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
4) The Flight Plan Information is displayed showing departure, destination, total distance, and enroute safe altitude
information for the selected Flight Plan.
5) Press the EDIT Softkey to open the Stored Flight Plan Page and view the waypoints in the flight plan.
6) Press the FMS Knob to exit the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Flight Plan Name
(Comment)
Selected Flight Plan
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan
Stored Flight Plan Info
- Departure Airport
- Destination Airport
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Figure 5-77 Stored Flight Plan Information
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Softkeys
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Storing an active flight plan from the Active Flight Plan Page or the Active Flight Plan Window:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. The flight plan is stored in the next available position in the flight
plan list on the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
ACTIVATE A FLIGHT PLAN
Activating a stored flight plan erases the active flight plan and replaces it with the flight plan being activated.
Inverting a stored flight plan reverses the waypoint order, erases the active flight plan, and replaces it with the
flight plan being activated (the stored flight plan is not changed).
Activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the ACTIVE Softkey; or press the ENT Key twice; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’,
and press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Stored Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the INVERT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key.
The ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
COPY A FLIGHT PLAN
The G1000 allows copying a flight plan into a new flight plan memory slot, allowing editing, etc., without
affecting the original flight plan. This can be used to duplicate an existing stored flight plan for use in creating
a modified version of the original stored flight plan.
Copying a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the COPY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Copy Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Copy
to Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to copy the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
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DELETE A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
Individual or all stored flight plans can be deleted from the G1000 memory.
Deleting a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the DELETE Softkey; press the CLR Key; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
NOTE: The option to delete all stored flight plans is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all stored flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Delete All’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all flight plans. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT PLAN EDITING
The active flight plan or any stored flight plan can be edited. The edits made to the active flight plan affect
navigation as soon as they are entered.
DELETING THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
The G1000 allows deletion of an active flight plan. Deleting the active flight plan suspends navigation by
the G1000.
Deleting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete all waypoints in flight
plan?’ window is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the active flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
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DELETING FLIGHT PLAN ITEMS
Individual waypoints, entire airways, and entire procedures can be deleted from a flight plan. Some waypoints
in the final approach segment (such as the FAF or MAP) can not be deleted individually. Attempting to delete
a waypoint that is not allowed results in a window displaying ‘Invalid flight plan modification.’
Deleting an individual waypoint from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire airway from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the white header of the airway to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name>?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the white header of the procedure to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove <procedure>’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
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Deleting an individual waypoint from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire airway from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the airway to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name>?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the procedure to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove <procedure>’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
CHANGING FLIGHT PLAN COMMENTS (NAMES)
The comment field (or name) of each flight plan can be changed to something that is useful for identification.
Changing the active flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
3) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing a stored flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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ALONG TRACK OFFSETS
A waypoint having an “along track offset” distance from an existing waypoint can be entered into a flight plan.
Along track offset waypoints lie along the path of the existing flight plan, and can be used to make the system
reach a specified altitude before or after reaching the specified flight plan waypoint. Offset distances can be
entered from 1 to 999 nm in increments of 1 nm. Entering a negative offset distance results in an along track
offset waypoint inserted before the selected waypoint, whereas entering a positive offset distance results in an
along track offset waypoint inserted after the selected waypoint. Multiple offset waypoints are allowed.
A waypoint must be adjacent to its parent waypoint in the flight plan, so the system limits the along-track
distance to less than the length of the leg before or after the selected waypoint. If the selected waypoint is the
active waypoint, the distance is limited to less than the distance to go to the active waypoint. Assigning an along
track offset to a leg with indeterminate length is not permitted. An along track offset is not allowed at or after
the final approach fix of an approach.
An along track offset distance cannot be modified once entered. If the along track offset distance must be
changed, the existing along track offset waypoint must be deleted and a new one created with the new offset
distance.
Along Track Offset
Waypoint and Distance
from Flight Plan Waypoint
Along Track
Offset Waypoint
and Distance
Figure 5-78 Along Track Offset
Entering an along track offset distance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the along track offset.
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3) Press the ATK OFST Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create ATK Offset Waypoint’, and
press the ENT Key.
4) Enter a positive or negative offset distance in the range of +/- 1 to 999 nm (limited by leg distances).
5) Press the ENT Key to create the offset waypoint.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
PARALLEL TRACK
The Parallel Track (PTK) feature allows creation of a parallel course offset of 1 to 50 nm left or right of the
current flight plan. When Parallel Track is activated, the course line drawn on the map pages shows the parallel
course, and waypoint names have a lower case “p” placed after the identifier.
Using direct-to, loading an approach, a holding pattern, or editing and activating the flight plan automatically
cancels Parallel Track. Parallel Track is also cancelled if a course change occurs greater than 120° or the parallel
tracks overlap as a result of the course change.
NOTE: Vertical navigation is unavailable while the Parallel Track feature is active.
Active Flight Plan prior to Parallel Track
Selecting Parallel Track
Figure 5-79 Active Flight Plan Window - Selecting Parallel Track
Activating parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The Parallel Track Window is displayed
with the direction field highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Left’ or ‘Right’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘DISTANCE’ field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a distance from 1-99 nm and press the ENT Key. ‘ACTIVATE PARALLEL
TRACK’ is highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key to activate parallel track. Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to cancel the parallel track
activation.
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Offset Direction
Offset Distance
Activation Prompt
Figure 5-80 Parallel Track Window
Original Track
Parallel Track Waypoints
- TIFTO-p
- TOP-p
- ...
- LAA-p
Activating Parallel Track
affects the active flight plan
from the current position on
(will not affect an approach)
Parallel Track
Figure 5-81 Parallel Track Active
If the parallel track proposed by the offset direction and distance is not allowed by the system, the activation
prompt is displayed, but disabled. Parallel Track cannot be activated if a course is set using direct-to or if the
active leg is the first leg of the departure procedure. Attempting to activate parallel track with these conditions
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results in the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable Invalid Route Geometry’. If an approach leg is active the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track with the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable
Approach Leg Active’. If the offset direction and distance results in an unreasonable route geometry the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because of invalid geometry.
Subdued Prompt
(Unavailable)
Unavailable Status
Invalid
Geometry
Approach
Active
Figure 5-82 Parallel Track Unavailable
If the active leg is not a track between two fixes (TF) or a course to a fix (DF) leg, the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because parallel track is not available for the
active leg type.
Offset Direction &
Distance Subdued
(Unavailable)
Cancel Prompt
Active Status
Figure 5-83 Cancelling Parallel Track
Cancelling parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The Parallel Track Window is displayed
with ‘CANCEL PARALLEL TRACK?’ highlighted.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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ACTIVATING A FLIGHT PLAN LEG
The G1000 allows selection of a highlighted leg as the “active leg” (the flight plan leg which is currently
used for navigation guidance).
Activating a flight plan leg:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the destination waypoint for the desired leg.
3) Press the ACT LEG Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Leg’, and press the ENT Key.
A confirmation window is displayed with ‘ACTIVATE’ highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan leg. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press
the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Current
Active Leg
Selected Destination
Waypoint
Activate Leg Softkey
Figure 5-84 Active Flight Plan Page - Selecting the Leg Destination Waypoint
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New Active
Flight Plan Leg
Confirmation Window
Figure 5-85 Active Flight Plan Page - New Active Leg
INVERTING A FLIGHT PLAN
Any flight plan may be inverted (reversed) for navigation back to the original departure point.
Inverting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. An ‘Invert Active Flight Plan?’
confirmation window is displayed.
3) Select ‘OK’.
4) Press the ENT Key to invert and activate the active flight plan. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the INVERT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key.
The ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
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FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
Information about flight plans can be viewed in more than one way. The active flight plan can be configured
to show cumulative distance over the length of the flight plan or the distance for each leg of the flight plan;
and the active flight plan can be viewed in a narrow or wide view. In the wide view, additional information is
displayed: Fuel Remaining (FUEL REM), Estimated Time Enroute (ETE), Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA), and
Bearing to the waypoint (BRG).
Switching between leg-to-leg waypoint distance and cumulative waypoint distance:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Press the VIEW Softkey to display the CUM and LEG-LEG Softkeys.
3) Press the CUM Softkey to view cumulative waypoint distance, or press the LEG-LEG Softkey to view leg-to-leg
waypoint distance.
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
Active Flight Plan Leg to Leg Distance
WIDE Softkey,
NARROW Softkey,
Active Flight Plan Cumulative Distance
LEG-LEG Softkey,
CUM Softkey
Figure 5-86 Active Flight Plan - Leg to Leg vs. Cumulative Distance
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Switching between wide and narrow view:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Press the VIEW Softkey to display the WIDE and NARROW Softkeys.
3) Press the WIDE Softkey to display the wide view, or press the NARROW Softkey to display the narrow view.
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
Active Flight Plan Narrow View
WIDE Softkey,
NARROW Softkey,
Active Flight Plan Wide View
LEG-LEG Softkey,
CUM Softkey
Figure 5-87 Active Flight Plan - Wide vs. Narrow View
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COLLAPSING AIRWAYS
The G1000 allows airways on the active flight plan to be collapsed or expanded from the Active Flight Plan
Page/Window. When airways have been collapsed, it is indicated on the airway heading.
When airways are collapsed, leg-to-leg computed values such as DIS or ETE shown for the exit waypoint
reflect the total of all the legs on the airway that have been hidden in the collapsed display. The DTK value is
inhibited because it is not usable in this context.
The Active Flight Plan Page always keeps the following three waypoints visible: “From” waypoint, “To”
waypoint, and “Next” waypoint. To prevent one or more of these waypoints from being hidden in a collapsed
airway segment, the airway segment that contains either the “To” or the “Next” waypoint is automatically
expanded. When an airway is loaded, airways are automatically expanded to facilitate flight plan review.
Q3.FEPOT Airway
Collapsed View
Expanded View
Figure 5-88 Expanded/Collapsed Airways
Collapsing/expanding the airways in the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Collapse Airways’ or ‘Expand Airways’, and press the ENT Key. The airways are
collapsed/expanded.
CLOSEST POINT OF FPL
‘Closest Point of FPL’ calculates the bearing and closest distance at which a flight plan passes a reference
waypoint, and creates a new user waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to a chosen reference
waypoint.
Determining the closest point along the active flight plan to a selected waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Closest Point Of FPL’’, and press the ENT Key. A window appears with the
reference waypoint field highlighted.
3) Enter the identifier of the reference waypoint and press the ENT Key. The G1000 displays the bearing (BRG) and
distance (DIS) to the closest point along the flight plan to the selected reference waypoint and creates a user
waypoint at this location. The name for the new user waypoint is derived from the identifier of the reference
waypoint.
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USER-DEFINED HOLDING PATTERNS
A holding pattern can be defined at any active flight plan waypoint, at the aircraft present position, or at a
direct-to waypoint.
Creating a user-defined hold at an active flight plan waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the hold.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The HOLD AT window appears with
the course field highlighted.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘INBOUND’ or ‘OUTBOUND’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘TIME’ or ‘DIST’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘RIGHT’ or ‘LEFT’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC TIME), and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted to add the hold into the flight plan.
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Waypoint
Selected
Hold At
Waypoint
Menu
Selection
Location of Hold
Hold Entry Course
Course Direction
(INBOUND or OUTBOUND)
Leg Length Mode Button
(TIME or DIST))
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(RIGHT or LEFT)
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further Clearance Time
Load Hold in Active Flight Plan
Figure 5-89 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at an Active Flight Plan Waypoint
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Creating a user-defined hold at the aircraft present position:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Present Position’, and press the ENT Key. The HOLD AT window appears
with the course field highlighted.
3) If desired, use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘INBOUND’ or ‘OUTBOUND’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘TIME’ or ‘DIST’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘RIGHT’ or ‘LEFT’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC TIME), and press the ENT Key.
9) Press the ENT Key while ‘ACTIVATE?’ is highlighted to create an Offroute Direct-to hold waypoint at the aircraft
present position and activate the hold.
Creating a user-defined hold at a direct-to waypoint:
1) Press a Direct-to Key and set up the direct-to waypoint as desired, but select ‘HOLD?’ instead of ‘ACTIVATE?’
when finished (MFD or PFD).
2) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘INBOUND’ or ‘OUTBOUND’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘TIME’ or ‘DIST’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘RIGHT’ or ‘LEFT’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC TIME), and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key while ‘ACTIVATE?’ is highlighted to activate the direct-to with the user-defined hold defined
at the direct-to waypoint. (If the direct-to wayoint is part of the active flight plan, the HOLD is inserted into
the active flight plan. If the direct-to waypoint is not part of the active flight plan, an off-route direct-to hold is
created.)
Exiting a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
Press the SUSP Softkey. The system will provide guidance to follow the holding pattern to the inbound course
and resume automatic waypoint sequencing.
Removing a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the HOLD waypoint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove Holding Pattern?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed from the active flight plan. Select ‘CANCEL’
and press the ENT Key to cancel the removal of the holding pattern.
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Removing a user-defined hold at an off-route direct-to:
1) Press a Direct To Key to display the DIRECT TO Window (PFD or MFD).
2) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU with the cursor on the ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ selection.
3) Press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed.
Hold At
Present
Position
Menu
Selection
Location of Hold
Hold Entry Course
Course Direction
(INBOUND or OUTBOUND)
Leg Length Mode Button
(TIME or DIST))
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(RIGHT or LEFT)
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further Clearance Time
Activate Hold
Figure 5-90 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at the Aircraft Present Position
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Waypoint
Selected
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
(INBOUND or OUTBOUND)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or
Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(RIGHT or LEFT)
Leg Length Mode Button
(TIME or DIST))
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further
Clearance Time
Hold At Direct To
Waypoint selection
Load Hold and
Activate Direct To
Figure 5-91 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at a Direct To Waypoint
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5.7 VERTICAL NAVIGATION
NOTE: The system supports vertical path guidance and altitude constraints for the following leg types: AF,
CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FC, FD, PI, RF, and TF. Altitude constraints are not retained in stored flight plans.
The G1000 system Vertical Navigation (VNV) feature provides vertical profile guidance during the enroute
and teminal phases of flight. Guidance based on specified altitudes at waypoints in the active flight plan or to a
direct-to waypoint is provided. It includes vertical path guidance to a descending path, which is provided as a
linear deviation from the desired path. The desired path is defined by a line joining two waypoints with specified
altitudes or as a vertical angle from a specified waypoint/altitude. The vertical waypoints are integrated into the
active flight plan.
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Disabled (fields dashed)
ENBL VNV Softkey
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Enabled (valid data)
CNCL VNV Softkey
Figure 5-92 Enabling/Disabling Vertical Navigation
Enabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the ENBL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Enable VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is enabled, and vertical guidance begins with the waypoint shown in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box
(defaults first waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude enabled for vertical navigation (e.g., HABUK)).
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Disabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the CNCL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Cancel VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is disabled.
Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ), and time
to top of descent/bottom of descent (TIME TO TOD/BOD) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI)
and Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) on the PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ, and TIME TO
TOD items displayed in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box are dashed. VNV remains disabled until manually
enabled. Vertical guidance in reversionary mode can only be enabled for a direct-to waypoint.
The G1000 allows a vertical navigation direct-to to any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV Direct-to Softkey on the Active Flight Plan Page
allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV direct-to
waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan from current
position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with
altitude constraint activated by pressing the Direct-to Key also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass
flight plan waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent
(TOD) point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached.
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Prior to VNV Direct-to
VNV Direct-To Softkey
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Current Vertical Navigation Profile
After VNV Direct-to
VNV PROF Softkey
Figure 5-93 Vertical Navigation Direct-To
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Activating a vertical navigation direct-to:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint.
NOTE: The selected waypoint must have a designated altitude constraint (cyan number) to be used. If not,
the first waypoint in the flight plan with a designated altitude constraint is selected.
3) Press the VNV Direct-To Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘VNV Direct-To’, and press the ENT Key.
An ‘Activate vertical Direct-to to: NNNNNFT at XXXXXX?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. Vertical guidance begins to the altitude constraint for the selected waypoint.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The vertical navigation profile can be modified by directly entering a vertical speed target (VS TGT) and/or flight
path angle (FPA) in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box.
Modifying the VS TGT and FPA:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the VNV PROF Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select VNV Profile Window’, and press the ENT
Key. The cursor is now located in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs as needed to edit the values.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ALTITUDE CONSTRAINTS
The G1000 system can use altitude constraints associated with lateral waypoints to give guidance for vertical
navigation. These altitudes are, depending on the specific instance, manually entered or retrieved from the
published altitudes in the navigation database. The navigation database only contains altitudes for procedures
that call for “Cross at” altitudes. If the procedure states “Expect to cross at,” then the altitude is not in the
database. In this case the altitude may be entered manually.
Displayed Text
Examples
Cross AT
or ABOVE
5,000 ft
Large White Text
Large Cyan Text
Cross AT
2,300 ft
Small Cyan Text
Cross AT
or BELOW
3,000 ft
Small Cyan Subdued
Text
Altitude Constraint
Examples
Small White Text with
Altitude Restriction Bar
Figure 5-94 Waypoint Altitude Constraints
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White Text
Cyan Text
Cyan Subdued Text
Large Altitude calculated by the system
Text estimating the altitude of the aircraft as
it passes over the navigation point. This
altitude is provided as a reference and is
not designated to be used in determining
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude has been entered manually.
Altitude is designated for use in giving
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude does not match the published
altitude in navigation database or no
published altitude exists.
The system cannot use this
altitude in determining vertical
speed and deviation guidance
because of an invalid constraint
condition.
Small
Text
Altitude is designated for use in giving
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude has been retrieved from the
navigation database or has been entered
manually and matches a published
altitude in the navigation database.
The system cannot use this
altitude in determining vertical
speed and deviation guidance
because of an invalid constraint
condition.
Altitude is not designated to be used in
determining vertical speed and deviation
guidance. Altitude has been retrieved
from the navigation database and is
provided as a reference.
Table 5-8 Altitude Constraint Size and Color Coding
Altitudes associated with approach procedures are “not-designated”. This means the system will not
automatically use the altitudes loaded with the approach for giving vertical speed and deviation guidance. Note
that these altitudes are displayed as white text up to, but not including, the FAF. The FAF is always a “reference
only” altitude and cannot be designated, unless the selected approach does not provide vertical guidance. In
this case, the FAF altitude can be designated.
Altitudes that have not been designated for use in vertical guidance can be “designated” using the ENT
Key. The altitude can now be used to give vertical guidance. Other displayed altitudes may change due to recalculations or be rendered invalid as a result of manually changing an altitude to a designated altitude.
Designating a waypoint altitude to be used for vertical guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter editing mode.
4) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical guidance.
Designating a procedure waypoint altitude to be used for vertical guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude.
3) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical guidance.
Altitude constraints are displayed and entered in feet mean sea level (MSL) values to the nearest hundred. An
altitude constraint in feet above ground level (AGL) format is supported for airports. When a database altitude
restriction is displayed, the G1000 allows entry of a different altitude when creating a waypoint, effectively
overriding the database restriction (only before the FAF). When a database altitude restriction of type “AT or
ABOVE” or “AT or BELOW” is activated, the system uses the “AT” portion of the restriction to define the vertical
profile.
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An altitude constraint is invalid if:
• Meeting the constraint requires the aircraft to climb
• Meeting the constraint requires the maximum flight path angle or maximum vertical speed to be exceeded
• The altitude constraint results in a TOD behind the aircraft present position
• The constraint is within a leg type for which altitude constraints are not supported
• The altitude constraint is added to the FAF of an approach that provides vertical guidance (i.e., ILS or GPS
SBAS approach)
• The altitude constraint is added to a waypoint past the FAF.
Entering/modifiying an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Enter an altitude constraint value using the FMS Knobs. To enter altitudes as a flight level, turn the small
FMS Knob counter-clockwise past zero or clockwise past 9 on the first character, and the system automatically
changes to show units of Flight Level. Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight the first zero and enter
the three digit flight level.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport, an additional choice
is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
Altitude constraints can be modified or deleted after having been added to the flight plan. In the event
an altitude constraint is deleted and the navigation database contains an altitude restriction for the lateral
waypoint, the G1000 displays the altitude restriction from the database provided no predicted altitude
can be provided. The G1000 also provides a way to reinstate a published altitude constraint that has been
edited.
Deleting an altitude constraint provided by the navigation database:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove VNV altitude constraint?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key.
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Deleting an altitude constraint that has been manually entered:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘REMOVE’ and press the ENT Key. The manually entered altitude is deleted (it is replaced by a system
calculated altitude, if available).
Reverting a manually entered altitude constraint back to the navigation database value:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘REVERT’ and press the ENT Key. The altitude is changed to the navigation database value.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Modifying a system calculated altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. An ‘Edit or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘EDIT’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Edit the value using the FMS Knobs, and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.8 PROCEDURES
The G1000 can access the whole range of instrument procedures available. Departures (DPs), arrivals (STARs),
and non-precision and precision approaches (APPRs) are stored within the database and can be loaded using the
Procedures (PROC) Key.
The selected procedure for the departure or arrival airport is added to the active flight plan. No waypoints are
required to be in the active flight plan to load procedures; however, if the departure and arrival airport are already
loaded, the procedure loading window defaults to the appropriate airport, saving some time selecting the correct
airport on the Procedure Loading Page. Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “load” or “activate”
is given. “Loading” adds the approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation
guidance. This allows continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps
the procedure available on the Active Flight Plan Page for quick activation when needed. “Activating” also adds
the procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in
the approach.
The system adds terminal procedures to the flight plan based on leg types coded within that procedure in the
navigation database. If the terminal procedure in the flight plan contains an identifier like ‘6368ft’, that indicates
a leg that terminates when the specified altitude (6368 feet) has been exceeded. A heading leg in the flight plan
displays ‘hdg’ preceding the DTK (e.g. ‘hdg 008°’). A flight plan leg requiring the pilot to manually intitiate
sequencing to the next leg displays ‘MANSEQ’ as the identifier.
Heading Leg Terminating at the
Specified Altitude
Manually Sequenced Heading Leg
Figure 5-95 Procedure Leg Identifiers
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DEPARTURES
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can be
loaded at a time in a flight plan. If a departure is loaded when another departure is already in the active flight
plan, the new departure replaces the previous departure. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
LOADING A DEPARTURE INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading a departure into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT DEPARTURE’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Departure Loading Page is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select a departure from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure.
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Departure Preview
Figure 5-96 Departure Selection
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Selected Departure
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Loaded Departure
Figure 5-97 Departure Loading
Viewing available departures at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the DP Softkey. The Departure Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The cursor
moves to the Runway box. The departure is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The departure is previewed on the map.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The departure is previewed on the map.
7) Press the INFO-1 Softkey or the INFO-2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
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Loading a departure into the active flight plan from the Departure Information Page:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the DP Softkey. The Departure Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Select a different departure, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on the map.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The cursor
moves to the Runway box. The departure is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The departure is previewed on the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The departure is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the Departure Information Page Menu.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Departure’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure into the active flight plan.
REMOVING A DEPARTURE FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, departures can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing a departure procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the departure header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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ARRIVALS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available. Only one arrival
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an arrival is loaded when another arrival is already in the active
flight plan, the new arrival replaces the previous arrival. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
LOADING AN ARRIVAL INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT ARRIVAL’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Arrival Loading Page is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select an arrival from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure.
Destination Airport
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Figure 5-98 Arrival Selection
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Selected Arrival
Loaded Arrival
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-99 Arrival Loading
Viewing available arrivals at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the STAR Softkey. The Arrival Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport Information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Arrival. The arrival is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor moves
to the Transition box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Runway box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
7) Press the INFO-1 Softkey or the INFO-2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
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Loading an arrival into the active flight plan from the Arrival Information Page:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the STAR Softkey. The Arrival Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Select a different arrival, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the arrival. The arrival is previewed on the map.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor moves
to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The arrival is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Runway box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the Arrival Information Page Menu.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Arrival’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure into the active flight plan.
REMOVING AN ARRIVAL FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, arrivals can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing an arrival from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the arrival header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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APPROACHES
NOTE: If certain GPS parameters (SBAS, RAIM, etc.) are not available, some published approach procedures
for the desired airport may not be displayed in the list of available approaches.
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available, and provides guidance
for non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach procedures.
Only one approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an approach is loaded when another approach
is already in the active flight plan, the new approach replaces the previous approach. The route is defined by
selection of an approach and the transition waypoints.
Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “load” or “activate” is given. “Loading” adds the
approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This allows
continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps the procedure
available on the Active Flight Plan Page for quick activation when needed. “Activating” also adds the procedure
to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in the approach.
When selecting an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure name indicates the procedure
can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures do not have this designation, meaning the GPS
receiver can be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. If the GPS receiver cannot be used for
primary guidance, the appropriate navigation receiver must be used for the selected approach (e.g., VOR or
ILS). The final course segment of ILS approaches, for example, must be flown by tuning the NAV receiver to
the proper frequency and selecting that NAV receiver on the CDI.
The G1000 SBAS GPS allows for flying LNAV, LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LP+V and LPV approach service
levels according to the published chart. The ‘+V’ designation adds advisory vertical guidance for assistance in
maintaining a constant vertical glidepath similar to an ILS glideslope on approach. This guidance is displayed
on the system PFD in the same location as the ILS glideslope using a magenta diamond. The active approach
service level is annunciated on the HSI as shown in the following table:
HSI Annunciation
Description
LNAV
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV
minima
LNAV+V
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV
minima. Advisory vertical guidance is provided
L/VNAV
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV/
(available only if VNAV minima (downgrades to LNAV if SBAS
SBAS available) unavailable)
LP
RNAV GPS approach using published LP minima
(available only if (downgrades to LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
SBAS available)
LP+V
RNAV GPS approach using published LP minima
(available only if Advisory vertical guidance is provided
SBAS available) (downgrades to LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
LPV
RNAV GPS approach using published LPV
(available only if minima
SBAS available)
Example on HSI
Approach Service Level
- LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV
Table 5-9 Approach Types
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LOADING AN APPROACH INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading an approach into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT APPROACH’, and press the ENT Key. The Approach Loading Page is displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to
the APPROACH CHANNEL field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
4) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
5) Minimums
a) To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’, and press the ENT Key. Turn
the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the
temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘LOAD?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
NOTE: When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED
FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV
receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
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Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Destination Airport
Approach Preview
Approach Choices
Figure 5-100 Approach Selection
Selected Approach
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Loaded Approach
LOAD or ACTIVATE? Annunciation
Figure 5-101 Approach Loading
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Viewing available approaches at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the APR Softkey. The Approach
Information Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Approach. The approach is previewed on
the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available approaches. Press the ENT Key to select the approach. The
cursor moves to the Transition box. The approach is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Minimums box. The approach is previewed on the map.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select minimums on or off. Press the ENT Key.
a) When minimums are selected on, the cursor moves to the minimum altitude field . Use the small FMS Knob to
select the altitude. Press the ENT Key.
b) If temperature compensated minimums was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Use the small
FMS Knob to select the temperature. Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the Sequence box. The approach
is previewed on the map.
Or:
a) When minimums are selected off, the cursor moves to the Sequence box. The approach is previewed on the
map.
7) Press the INFO-1 or the INFO-2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
Loading an approach into the active flight plan from the Nearest Airport Page:
1) Select the Nearest Airports Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired nearest airport. The airport is
previewed on the map.
3) Press the APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Approach Window’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired approach.
5) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Load Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The
Approach Loading Page is displayed with the transitions field highlighted.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired transition, and press the ENT Key.
7) Minimums
a) To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’, and press the ENT Key. Turn
the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the
temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key. The ‘LOAD?’ field is highlighted.
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8) Press the ENT Key with ‘LOAD?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure. The system continues
navigating the current flight plan until the approach is activated. When GPS is not approved for the selected
final approach course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the
approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
ACTIVATING AN APPROACH
A previously loaded approach can be activated from the Procedures Window.
Activating a previously loaded approach:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed with ‘Activate Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
In many cases, it may be easiest to “load” the full approach while still some distance away, enroute to the
destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, use the steps above to select ‘Activate Vector-To-Final’ — which
makes the inbound course to the FAF waypoint active.
Activating a previously loaded approach with vectors to final:
1) Press the PROC Key to display the Procedures Window.
2) Highlight ‘ACTIVATE VECTOR-TO-FINAL’ and press the ENT Key.
Loading and activating an approach using the MENU Key:
1) From the Approach Loading Page, press the MENU Key. The page menu is displayed with ‘Load & Activate
Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT
APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to
a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
REMOVING AN APPROACH FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, approaches can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing an approach from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the approach header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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MISSED APPROACH
Activating a missed approach in the active flight plan:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘ACTIVATE MISSED APPROACH’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The aircraft automatically sequences to the MAHP.
Or:
Press the TO/GA Switch.
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6368ft’) is
not part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along
the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded.
This altitude is provided by the navigation database, and may be below, equal to, or above the published
minimums for this approach. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,368 feet)
after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of
6,368 feet is reached. After reaching 6,368 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case
MOGAL). If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established
to the published fix (MOGAL) to begin the missed approach procedure..
Course to Altitude Leg
Figure 5-102 Course to Altitude
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed Approach
Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if the
aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to Altitude leg
when the missed approach procedure is activated.
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TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED ALTITUDE
If desired, the system can compensate the loaded approach altitudes based on a pilot-supplied temperature
at the destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C, the system increases
the approach altitudes accordingly. A temperature compensated altitude is displayed in slanted text.
Activating temperature compensated altitude:
1) From the Active Flight Plan Page, press the MENU Key. The Page Menu is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION Window is displayed.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select the temperature at the <airport>. The compensated altitude is computed as
the temperature is selected.
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered in the TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION Window
on the MFD, or in the REFERENCES Window on the PFD. There is only one compensation temperature for
the system, therefore, changing the temperature will affect both the loaded approach altitudes and the
minimums. Refer to the Flight Instruments section for information about applying temperature compensation
to the MDA/DH.
5) Press the ENT Key. ‘ACTIVATE COMPENSATION?’ is highlighted.
6) Press the ENT Key. The compensated altitudes for the approach are shown in the flight plan.
Selected
Temperature
FAF Altitude
Compensated
Altitude
Temperature
Compensation
Selected
Figure 5-103 Temperature Compensation
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ACTIVATE
COMPENSATION?
Highlighted
CANCEL
COMPENSATION?
Highlighted
Figure 5-104 Activating/Cancelling Temperature Compensation
Compensated
Altitudes
Uncompensated
Altitudes
Figure 5-105 Temperature Compensation in the Active Flight Plan
Cancelling temperature compensated altitude:
1) From the Active Flight Plan Page, press the MENU Key. The Page Menu is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION Window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘CANCEL COMPENSATION?’ is highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key. The temperature compensated altitudes for the approach are cancelled.
NOTE: Activating/cancelling temperature compensation for the loaded approach altitudes does not select/
deselect temperature compensated minimums (MDA/DH), nor does selecting/deselecting temperature
compensated minimums activate/cancel temperature compensated approach altitudes.
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5.9 TRIP PLANNING
The G1000 allows the pilot to view trip planning information, fuel information, and other information for
a specified flight plan or flight plan leg based on automatic data, or based on manually entered data. Weight
planning is also available, based on fuel data and the active flight plan (to estimate remaining fuel).
TRIP PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the statistics is done on the Trip Planning Page
located in the AUX Page Group.
Selected Flight Plan Segment
- FPL Number/Cumulative Legs (CUM or REM) or Leg Number (NN)
- Waypoints Defining Selected Flight Plan/Flight Plan Leg
Trip Planning Page Mode
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan/
Flight Plan Leg
- Automatic/Manual
Trip Input Data (sensor/pilot)
- Departure Time (local)
- Ground Speed
- Fuel Flow
- Fuel On Board Aircraft
- Calibrated Airspeed
- Indicated Altitude
- Barometric Pressure
- Total Air Temperature
Trip Statistics
Desired Track Distance Est. Time Enroute Est. Time of Arrival Enroute Safe Altitude Sunrise Time (local) Sunset Time (local) -
Other Statistics
- Density Altitude
- True Airspeed (TAS)
Fuel Statistics
Efficiency Total Endurance Remaining Fuel Remaining Endurance Fuel Required Total Range -
Softkeys
- Automatic/Manual Page Mode
- Flight Plan/Waypoint Mode
Figure 5-106 Trip Planning Page
The trip planning inputs are based on sensor inputs (automatic page mode) or on pilot inputs (manual page
mode). Some additional explanation of the sources for some of the inputs is as follows:
• Departure time (DEP TIME) - This defaults to the current time in automatic page mode. The computations
are from the aircraft present position, so the aircraft is always just departing.
• Calibrated airspeed (CALIBRATED AS) - The primary source is from the air data system, and the secondary
source of information is GPS ground speed.
• Indicated altitude (IND ALTITUDE) - The primary source is the barometric altitude, and the secondary source
of information is GPS altitude.
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TRIP STATISTICS
The trip statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and the entire flight plan (CUM) selected,
the waypoints are the starting and ending waypoints of the selected flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
waypoints are the endpoints of the selected leg.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and the remaining flight plan (REM)
selected, the ‘from’ waypoint is the present position of the aircraft and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the
active flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
‘from’ waypoint is the current aircraft position and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the selected leg.
In waypoint (WPTS) mode these are manually selected waypoints (if there is an active flight plan, these
default to the endpoints of the active leg).
Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has already
been flown.
• Desired Track (DTK) - DTK is shown as nnn° and is the desired track between the selected waypoints.
It is dashed unless only a single leg is selected.
• Distance (DIS) - The distance is shown in tenths of units up to 99.9, and in whole units up to 9999.
• Estimated time enroute (ETE) - ETE is shown as hours:minutes until less than an hour, then it is shown
as minutes:seconds.
• Estimated time of arrival (ETA) - ETA is shown as hours:minutes and is the local time at the
destination.
- If in waypoint mode then the ETA is the ETE added to the departure time.
- If a flight plan other than the active flight plan is selected it shows the ETA by adding to the departure
time all of the ETEs of the legs up to the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA
is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
- If the active flight plan is selected the ETA reflects the current position of the aircraft and the current leg
being flown. The ETA is calculated by adding to the current time the ETEs of the current leg up to the
selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg of the flight
plan was selected.
• Enroute safe altitude (ESA) - The ESA is shown as nnnnnFT
• Destination sunrise and sunset times (SUNRISE, SUNSET) - These times are shown as hours:minutes
and are the local time at the destination.
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FUEL STATISTICS
The fuel statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs. Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has
already been flown.
• Fuel efficiency (EFFICIENCY) - This value is calculated by dividing the current ground speed by the
current fuel flow.
• Time of fuel endurance (TOTAL ENDUR) - This time is shown as hours:minutes. This value is obtained
by dividing the amount of fuel on board by the current fuel flow.
• Fuel on board upon reaching end of selected leg (REM FUEL) - This value is calculated by taking the
amount of fuel onboard and subtracting the fuel required to reach the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel endurance remaining at end of selected leg (REM ENDUR) - This value is calculated by taking the time
of fuel endurance and subtracting the estimated time enroute to the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel required for trip (FUEL REQ) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time to go by the fuel
flow.
• Total range at entered fuel flow (TOTAL RANGE) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time of fuel
endurance by the ground speed.
OTHER STATISTICS
These statistics are calculated based on the system sensor inputs or the manual trip planning inputs.
• Density altitude (DENSITY ALT)
• True airspeed (TRUE AIRSPEED)
The pilot may select automatic (AUTO) or manual (MANUAL) page mode, and flight plan (FPL) or waypoint
(WPTS) mode. In automatic page mode, only the FPL, LEG, or waypoint IDs are editable (based on FPL/WPTS
selection).
Selected Flight Plan NN -
Selected Leg(s)
00 is Active FPL
01-99 are Stored FPLs
Starting and Ending Waypoint of
Selected Flight Plan Segment
Stored Flight Plan
- CUM: Beginning to End of FPL
- NN: Beginning to End of Selected Leg
Active Flight Plan
- REM: Pres. Pos. to End of FPL
- NN: Pres. Pos. to End of Selected Leg
Figure 5-107 Trip Planning Page - Flight Plan Mode
Selected Flight Plan
Selected Leg(s)
Not Available
Not Available
Selected Starting and Ending Waypoints
Figure 5-108 Trip Planning Page - Waypoint Mode
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Selecting automatic or manual page mode:
Press the AUTO Softkey or the MANUAL Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Auto Mode’ or ‘Manual
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting flight plan or waypoint mode:
Press the FPL Softkey or the WPTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Flight Plan Mode’ or ‘Waypoints
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting a flight plan and leg for trip statistics:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the flight plan number field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired flight plan number.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CUM’ or ‘REM’. The statistics for each leg can be viewed by turning the
small FMS Knob to select the desired leg. The Inset Map also displays the selected data.
Selecting waypoints for waypoint mode:
1) Press the WPTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the ENT Key. The
cursor is positioned in the waypoint field directly below the FPL field.
2) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint (or select from the Page Menu ‘Set WPT to Present Position’
if that is what is desired), and press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the second waypoint field.
3) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint, and press the ENT Key. The statistics for the selected leg
are displayed.
In manual page mode, the other eight trip input data fields must be entered by the pilot, in addition to flight
plan and leg selection.
Entering manual data for trip statistics calculations:
1) Press the MANUAL Softkey or select ‘Manual Mode’ from the Page Menu, and press the ENT Key. The cursor
may now be positioned in any field in the top right two boxes.
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to move the cursor onto the DEP TIME field and enter the desired value. Press the ENT Key.
The statistics are calculated using the new value and the cursor moves to the next entry field. Repeat until all
desired values have been entered.
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WEIGHT PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the data is done on the Weight and Fuel
Planning Page located in the AUX Page Group.
NOTE: All weight planning data fields display data rounded to the nearest 10 pounds.
A/C Payload Calculator
Fuel Weight Calculator
Basic Empty Weight Entry Pilot & Stores Weight Entry Basic Operating Weight Calc. Passenger(s) Weight Entry Cargo Weight Entry Zero Fuel Weight Calculation -
- Zero Fuel Weight Calculation
- Fuel on Board Entry (or sync)
- Aircraft Weight Calculation
- Est. Landing Weight Calculation
- Estimated Landing Fuel Calculation
- Fuel Reserve Entry
- Excess Fuel Calculation
Fuel Calculations:
Current Fuel Remaining Fuel Used (since last sync) Total Fuel Range Time to Destination Fuel over Destination Total Fuel Endurance -
Empty Weight Softkey
Fuel On Board Sync Softkey
(sets FOB to sensor actual)
(selects Basic Empty
Weight)
Figure 5-109 Weight Planning Page
Entering basic empty weight:
1) Select the EMPTY WT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Basic Empty Weight’, and press the ENT
Key to select the ‘BASIC EMPTY WEIGHT’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the basic empty weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering a pilot and stores weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘PILOT AND STORES’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the pilot and stores weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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The basic operating weight is calculated by adding the basic empty weight and the pilot and stores weight.
Entering the number of passengers:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘PASSENGERS #’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the number of passengers.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering the average passenger weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the passenger weight field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the average passenger weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The total weight of passengers is calculated by multiplying the number of passengers by the average passenger
weight.
Entering the cargo weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘CARGO’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the cargo weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The ‘ZERO FUEL WEIGHT’ is calculated by adding the basic empty, pilot and stores, passenger, and cargo
weights.
Entering a fuel on board weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘FUEL ON BOARD’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel on board.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering fuel reserve:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘FUEL RESERVES’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel reserves amount.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor
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Synchronizing the fuel on board with the actual measured fuel on board:
Select the FOB SYNC Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Synchronize Fuel on Board’, and press the
ENT Key. The actual measured fuel on board is displayed in the ‘FUEL ON BOARD’ field.
When the aircraft is in the air and a destination waypoint has been entered, the fuel calculations can be
completed.
• Estimated landing weight = zero fuel weight + estimated landing fuel weight.
• Estimated landing fuel weight = fuel on board weight - (fuel flow x ETE)
• Excess fuel weight = estimated landing fuel weight - fuel reserves weight
If the aircraft is on the ground or a destination waypoint has not been entered, the following fields display
invalid values consisting of six dashes:
• Estimated landing weight
• Estimated landing fuel weight
• Excess fuel weight
WEIGHT CAUTION AND WARNING CONDITIONS
If the zero fuel weight is greater than the maximum allowable zero fuel weight, then the zero fuel weight is
displayed in yellow.
If the aircraft weight is greater than the maximum allowable takeoff weight, then the aircraft weight is displayed
in yellow.
If the estimated landing weight is greater than the maximum allowable landing weight, then the estimated
landing weight is displayed in yellow.
If the estimated landing fuel weight is positive, but less than or equal to the fuel reserves weight, the following
values are displayed in yellow:
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
If the estimated landing fuel weight is zero or negative, then the following values are displayed in red:
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
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5.10 RAIM PREDICTION
RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to calculate
a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nm for oceanic, 2.0 nm for enroute, 1.0 nm for terminal,
and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of flight, RAIM is
available nearly 100% of the time. The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a
specified date and time. RAIM computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival
date and time. Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not
available. RAIM prediction must be initiated manually if there is concern over SBAS coverage at the destination
or some other reason that compromises navigation precision. If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the
final approach course, the approach does not become active. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the
missed approach procedure must be flown.
RAIM PREDICTION Box
- Prediction Waypoint
- Arrival Time
- Arrival Date
- RAIM Status
RAIM Softkey
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
Figure 5-110 RAIM Prediction
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Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. The RAIM Prediction ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window with a
waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
4) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint; or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key with ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ highlighted to begin the computation.
Predicting RAIM availability at the aircraft present position:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. The RAIM Prediction ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set WPT to Present Position’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key with ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ highlighted to begin the computation.
Status of the RAIM computation for the selected waypoint, time, and date is displayed at the bottom of the
RAIM PREDICTION Box as follows:
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ - RAIM has not been computed.
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’ - RAIM calculation is in progress.
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’ - RAIM is predicted to be available.
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’ - RAIM is predicted to be unavailable.
The Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) provides increased navigation accuracy when available. SBAS
can be enabled or disabled manually on the GPS Status Page.
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SBAS Status
SBAS SELECTION Box
- EGNOS Enable/Disable
- MSAS Enable/Disable
- WAAS Enable/Disable
RAIM Softkey
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
Figure 5-111 SBAS Display - Active
Enabling/Disabling SBAS:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
2) Press the SBAS softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘EGNOS’, ‘MSAS’ or ‘WAAS’.
4) Press the ENT Key to disable SBAS. Press the ENT Key again to enable SBAS.
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SBAS Status
SBAS SELECTION Box
- EGNOS Enable/Disable
- MSAS Enable/Disable
- WAAS Enable/Disable
RAIM Softkey
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
Figure 5-112 SBAS Display - Inactive
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5.11 NAVIGATING A FLIGHT PLAN
The following discussion is an example of navigating a flight plan with the SBAS capable GPS system while the
G1000 provides vertical guidance through descents. A lateral flight plan (LNAV) would be navigated in much the
same way, but would not include vertical guidance when the final approach course is active.
NOTE: The following example flight plan is for instructional purposes only. All database information depicted
should be considered not current.
The example is a flight plan from KMKC to KCOS filed using the TIFTO2 departure, various Victor Airways,
and the DBRY1 arrival with the transition at TBE. The flight plan includes an enroute altitude of 12,000 feet, an
LPV (WAAS) approach selected for runway 35R, and a missed approach executed at the Missed Approach Point
(MAP). A few enroute changes are demonstrated.
1) Prior to departure, the TIFTO2 departure, the airways, and the DBRY1 arrival at KCOS are loaded. See the
Procedures section for loading departures and arrivals. Note the magenta arrow in Figure 5-113 indicating the
active departure leg.
After takeoff, ATC assigns a heading of 240º.
2) Figure 5-113 shows the aircraft on the assigned heading of 240º. ‘TERM’ (Terminal) is the current CDI flight
phase displayed on the HSI indicating 1.0 nm CDI scaling.
Figure 5-113 Assigned Heading of 240º
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3) ATC now assigns routing to join V4. A heading of 290º is assigned to intercept V4. The aircraft turns to heading
290° as seen in Figure 5-114.
Figure 5-114 Assigned Heading of 290º
4) Enter V4 into the flight plan.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
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b) The desired entry point for V4 (TOP) must be entered. Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight
plan insertion point (SLN) as shown in Figure 5-115. When the V4 entry point (TOP) is inserted, it is placed
immediately above the highlighted waypoint (SLN).
Figure 5-115 Begin Adding V4 to the Flight Plan
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. Enter the desired entry point for V4,
Topeka VOR (TOP), as shown in Figure 5-116.
Figure 5-116 Entering V4 Entry Point
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d) Press the ENT Key. TOP is inserted into the flight plan as in Figure 5-117.
Figure 5-117 TOP Inserted into the Flight Plan
e) With SLN still highlighted as in Figure 5-117, turn the small FMS Knob clockwise. The Waypoint Information
Page is displayed and the LD AIRWY Softkey is now available.
f) Press the LD AIRWY Softkey to display the list of available airways for TOP as seen in Figure 5-118.
Figure 5-118 List of Available Airways for TOP
g) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight V4 in the list as seen in Figure 5-118.
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h) Press the ENT Key. The list of available exits for V4 is now displayed as in Figure 5-119.
Figure 5-119 List of Available Exits for V4
i) If necessary, turn either FMS Knob to select the desired exit. In this case Salina VOR (SLN) is selected as in
Figure 5-119.
j) Press the ENT Key. The selected airway and exit are displayed, and the prompt “LOAD?” highlighted as in
Figure 5-120.
Figure 5-120 Ready to Load V4
k) Press the ENT Key.
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l) V4 is now loaded into the flight plan as shown in Figure 5-121.
Figure 5-121 V4 is Loaded in the Flight Plan
5) Making V4 the active leg of the flight plan.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ULNAZ. The TO waypoint of the leg is selected in order to activate the leg.
c) Press the ACT LEG Softkey. The confirmation window is now displayed as in Figure 5-122. Note the TOP to
ULNAZ leg is actually part of V4.
Figure 5-122 Comfirm Active Leg
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d) Verify the displayed leg is the desired leg and press the ENT Key. Note in Figure 5-123, the magenta arrow in
the flight plan window and magenta line on the map indicating V4 is now the active flight plan leg. Note the
phase of flight remained in Terminal (TERM) mode up to this point because a departure leg was active. Since a
leg after the departure is now active, the current CDI flight phase is ENR (Enroute) and CDI scaling has changed
to 2.0 nm.
Figure 5-123 V4 Now Active Leg
6) The aircraft continues on heading 290º. When crosstrack distance is less than 2.0 nm, the XTK disappears from
the HSI and the CDI is positioned on the last dot indicating a 2.0 nm distance from the centerline of the next
course.
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7) As the CDI approaches center, the aircraft turns onto the active leg as seen in Figure 5-124.
Figure 5-124 Turn on to Active Leg
8) At SLN, Victor Airway 244 (V244) is intercepted. Turn prompts are displayed in the PFD Navigation Status Box
as seen in Figure 5-125.
Figure 5-125 Turn to Intercept V244
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9) As seen in Figure 5-126, V244 is now the active flight plan leg.
Figure 5-126 V244 Now Active Leg
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10) At Lamar VOR (LAA) V263 is intercepted. See Figure 5-127.
Figure 5-127 HYS to LAA Leg Active
11) ATC grants clearance to proceed direct to the OPSHN intersection to begin the arrival procedure. ATC advises
to expect an altitude of 10,000 feet at OPSHN.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to select OPSHN in the flight plan list.
c) Press the Direct-to (
) Key. The Direct-to Window is now displayed as shown in Figure 5-128.
Figure 5-128 Direct To OPSHN
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d) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the VNV altitude field as shown in Figure 5-129.
Figure 5-129 Enter VNV Altitude
e) An altitude of 10,000 feet is entered as requested by ATC.
f) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the VNV offset field as shown in Figure 5-130.
Figure 5-130 Enter VNV Offset Distance
g) Enter the offset, or distance from the waypoint at which to reach the selected altitude. In this case, three miles
prior to OPSHN is entered. In other words, the G1000 gives vertical guidance so the aircraft arrives at an
altitude of 10,000 feet three miles prior to OPSHN.
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h) Press the ENT Key twice to activate the direct-to. Note, in Figure 5-131, the magenta arrow indicating the
direct-to OPSHN after the offset waypoint for OPSHN. The preceding offset waypoint indicates the offset
distance and altitude that were previously entered. The remaining waypoints in the loaded arrival procedure
have no database specified altitudes, therefore, dashes are displayed. Keep the CDI centered and maintain a
track along the magenta line to OPSHN.
Note the Direct-to waypoint is within the loaded arrival procedure, therefore, phase of flight scaling for the CDI
changes to Terminal Mode and is annunciated by displaying ‘TERM’ on the HSI.
NOTE: If the loaded arrival procedure has waypoints with altitude constraints retrieved from the database
that will be used as is, the altitude must be manually accepted by placing the cursor over the desired
altitude, then pressing the ENT Key. The altitude is now displayed as cyan meaning it will be used by the
system to determine vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Figure 5-131 Direct-to Active
12) The aircraft is proceeding to OPSHN. The expected approach is the RNAV LPV approach to runway 35R, so it is
selected.
a) Press the PROC Key to display the Procedures Window.
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b) ‘SELECT APPROACH’ should be highlighted as shown in Figure 5-132.
Figure 5-132 Procedures Window
c) Press the ENT Key. A list of available approaches for the destination airport is displayed as in Figure 5-133.
Figure 5-133 List of Available Approaches
d) Turn either FMS Knob to select the LPV approach for 35R as shown in Figure 5-133.
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e) Press the ENT Key. A list of available transitions for the selected approach is displayed as in Figure 5-134.
Figure 5-134 List of Available Transitions
f) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired transition. In this case, the Initial Approach Fix (IAF) at HABUK is
used.
g) Press the ENT Key.
h) Barometric Minimums (Figure 5-135)
To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, and press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
Figure 5-135 Barometric Minimums Set
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i) With ‘LOAD?’ highlighted, again press the ENT Key. The selected approach is added to the flight plan as seen
in Figure 5-136.
Figure 5-136 Loaded Approach
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13) Note the altitude constraints associated with each of the approach waypoints as seen in Figure 5-137. These
altitudes are loaded from the database and are displayed as cyan text, indicating these values are “designated”
for use in computing vertical deviation guidance.
Note: To no longer use the displayed altitude for calculating vertical deviation guidance, perform the following:
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired altitude.
c) Press the CLR Key.
d) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
After making the altitude “non-designated”, it is displayed as white text.
Altitude constraint values associated with the Final Approach Fix (FAF) and waypoints beyond the FAF cannot be
designated for vertical guidance. These altitude values are always displayed as white text, as in Figure 5-137.
Vertical guidance from the FAF and on to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) is given using the SBAS GPS altitude
source, therefore, the displayed altitude values are for reference only.
Figure 5-137 Vertical Guidance is Active to the FAF
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14) As the aircraft approaches OPSHN, it may be desirable to adjust the speed, or steepness of the upcoming
descent. The default Flight Path Angle (FPA) is -3.0 degrees and a required vertical speed is computed to
maintain the -3.0 FPA. To change the vertical flight path, perform the following steps.
a) Press the VNV PROF Softkey to place the cursor in the target vertical speed field (VS TGT) as shown in Figure
5-138.
b) At this point, the descent vertical speed can be selected, or the FPA can be selected. Turn the large FMS Knob
to select the desired selection field, then turn the small FMS Knob to enter the desired value.
Note the information now displayed in the ‘CURRENT VNV PROFILE’ box. Also, note the offset waypoint (orange
box) and gray circle are now displayed on the map. The gray circle marks the Top of Descent (TOD). In this
example, vertical guidance is provided at the TOD that results in a -3.0 degree FPA descent to an altitude of
10,000 feet upon reaching the offset waypoint.
Figure 5-138 Adjusting the Descent
c) Press the ENT Key.
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15) As seen in Figure 5-139, the aircraft is approaching TOD. Note the target vertical speed required to reach the
selected altitude. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) and the Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) are
now displayed on the PFD as shown in Figure 5-139. When the aircraft is within one minute of the TOD, it is
annunciated as shown in Figure 5-140, and an aural alert ‘Vertical track’ will be heard.
Figure 5-139 Approaching Top of Descent (TOD)
Target Altitude
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
Required Vertical
Speed Indicator
(RVSI)
Figure 5-140 VDI & RVSI Upon Reaching Top of Descent (TOD)
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16) Upon reaching TOD, a descent vertical speed is established by placing the VSI pointer in line with the RVSI as
shown in Figure 5-141.
Keep Vertical Deviation
Pointer Centered
Align Actual Vertical Speed
with
Required Vertical Speed
Figure 5-141 VDI & RVSI Showing Correctly Established Descent
17) When the aircraft is one minute from the bottom of descent (BOD) it is annunciated as shown in Figure 5-142.
Upon reaching the offset waypoint for OPSHN, the aircraft is at 10,000 feet.
Figure 5-142 Approaching Bottom of Descent (BOD) at OPSHN Offset Waypoint
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18) The aircraft is approaching OPSHN. The upcoming turn and next heading are annunciated at the top left of the
PFD as seen in Figure 5-143. Initiate the turn and maneuver the aircraft on a track through the turn radius to
intercept the magenta line for the OPSHN to FSHER leg and center the CDI.
Figure 5-143 Turn to intercept OPSHN to FSHER Leg
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19) After passing OPSHN, the next leg of the arrival turns magenta as shown in Figure 5-144. The magenta arrow
in the flight plan list now indicates the OPSHN to FSHER leg of the arrival procedure is now active.
Figure 5-144 Tracking the OPSHN to FSHER Leg
20) The flight continues through the arrival procedure to PYNON (see Figure 5-145). At a point 31 nm from the
destination airport, the phase of flight scaling for the CDI changes to Terminal Mode and is annunciated by
displaying ‘TERM’ on the HSI.
A descent to HABUK is in the next leg. Note the TOD point on the map. Annunciations for the upcoming turn
and descent, as well as the VDI and RVSI, appear on the PFD as the flight progresses.
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Figure 5-145 Approaching PYNON
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21) Upon passing PYNON the approach procedure automatically becomes active. The approach may be activated
at any point to proceed directly to the IAF. In this example, the aircraft has progressed through the final
waypoint of the arrival and the flight plan has automatically sequenced to the IAF as the active leg, activating
the approach procedure (see Figure 5-146).
Figure 5-146 Approach is Now Active
Note: To manually activate the approach procedure, perform the following steps:
a) Press the PROC Key.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘ACTIVATE APPROACH’ as shown in Figure 5-147.
c) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
Figure 5-147 Manually Activate Approach
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22) The IAF is the next waypoint. At the TOD, establish a descent vertical speed as previously discussed in Step 16.
The aircraft altitude is 9,000 feet upon reaching HABUK.
Figure 5-148 Descending Turn to the Initial Approach Fix (IAF)
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23) After crossing FALUR the next waypoint is the FAF. The flight phase changes to LPV on the HSI indicating the
current phase of flight is in Approach Mode and the approach type is LPV. CDI scaling changes accordingly and is
used much like a localizer when flying an ILS approach. The RVSI is no longer displayed and the VDI changes to
the Glidepath Indicator (as shown in Figure 5-149) when the final approach course becomes active.
Figure 5-149 Descending to the FAF
The descent continues through the FAF (CEGIX) using the Glidepath Indicator, as one would use a glideslope
indicator, to obtain an altitude “AT” 7,800 feet at the FAF. Note the altitude restriction lines over and under (At)
the altitude in the ‘ALT’ field in Figure 5-149.
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24) After crossing CEGIX, the aircraft continues following the glidepath to maintain the descent to “AT or ABOVE”
6,370 feet at the Missed Approach Point (MAP) (RW35R) as seen in Figure 5-150.
Figure 5-150 Descending to the Missed Approach Point
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6368ft’) is not part
of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along the runway
centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded. This altitude
is provided by Jeppesen, and may be below, equal to, or above the published minimums for this approach. In
this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,368 feet) after crossing the MAP, a direct-to
is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of 6,368 feet is reached. After reaching
6,368 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case MOGAL). If the aircraft altitude is
above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to the published fix (MOGAL) to
begin the missed approach procedure.
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure. For
example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed Approach Hold
Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if the aircraft
altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to Altitude leg when the
missed approach procedure is activated.
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25) Upon reaching the MAP, it is decided to execute a missed approach. Automatic waypoint sequencing is
suspended past the MAP. Press the SUSP Softkey on the PFD to resume automatic waypoint sequencing
through the missed approach procedure.
A direct-to is initiated to MOGAL, which is the Missed Approach Hold Point (MAHP) as seen in Figure 5-151.
The aircraft is climbing to 10,000 feet. The CDI flight phase now changes from LPV to MAPR as seen on the HSI.
Figure 5-151 Missed Approach Active
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26) The aircraft continues climbing to “AT or ABOVE” 10,000 feet at MOGAL. A holding pattern is established at
the MAHP (MOGAL) as shown in Figure 5-152.
Figure 5-152 Establishing the Holding Pattern
27) The aircraft maintains 10,000 feet while following the magenta line through the hold as in Figure 5-153.
Figure 5-153 Hold Established
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5.12 ABNORMAL OPERATION
NOTE: The Inset Map is removed from the PFD any time aircraft pitch is greater than +30° or less than –20°,
or when a 65° bank angle is reached.
This section discusses the Dead Reckoning mode of operation and the subsequent indications.
NOTE: Dead Reckoning Mode only functions in Enroute (ENR) or Oceanic (OCN) phase of flight. In all other
phases, an invalid GPS solution produces a “NO GPS POSITION” annunciation on the map and the G1000
stops using GPS.
While in Enroute or Oceanic phase of flight, if the G1000 detects an invalid GPS solution or is unable to
calculate a GPS position, the system automatically reverts to Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode. In DR Mode, the G1000
uses its last-known position combined with continuously updated airspeed and heading data (when available) to
calculate and display the aircraft’s current estimated position.
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the G1000 in DR Mode may become increasingly
unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. If while in DR Mode airspeed and/or heading data
is also lost or not available, the DR function may not be capable of accurately tracking estimated position and,
consequently, the system may display a path that is different than the actual movement of the aircraft. Estimated
position information displayed by the G1000 through DR while there is no heading and/or airspeed data available
should not be used for navigation.
DR Mode is inherently less accurate than the standard GPS/SBAS Mode due to the lack of satellite measurements
needed to determine a position. Changes in wind speed and/or wind direction compound the relative inaccuracy
of DR Mode. Because of this degraded accuracy, other navigation equipment must be relied upon for position
awareness until GPS-derived position data is restored.
DR Mode is indicated on the G1000 by the appearance of the letters ‘DR’ superimposed in yellow over the
‘own aircraft’ symbol as shown in Figure 5-154. In addition, ‘DR’ is prominently displayed in yellow on the HSI
slightly above and to the right of the aircraft symbol on the CDI as shown in Figure 5-154. The CDI deviation
bar remains, but is removed from the display after 20 minutes in DR Mode. The autopilot will remain coupled
in DR mode as long as the deviation info is available (20 min.) Lastly, but at the same time, a ‘GPS NAV LOST’
alert message appears on the PFD. Normal navigation using GPS/SBAS source data resumes automatically once
a valid GPS solution is restored.
As a result of operating in DR Mode, all GPS-derived data is computed based upon an estimated position and
is displayed as yellow text on the display to denote degraded navigation source information as shown in Figure
5-154.
Also, while the G1000 is in DR Mode, both TAWS and Terrain Proximity are disabled. Additionally, the accuracy
of all nearest information (airports, airspaces, and waypoints) is questionable. Finally, airspace alerts continue to
function, but with degraded accuracy.
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Distance &
Bearing
Current
Track
Indicator
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Wind Data
GPS Navigation
Lost Message
Bearing
Pointer/
Distance
Nav Data Bar
All data except
Active Leg,
TAS, and DTK
are in yellow
Wind Data
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Subdued Aircraft
Symbol
Figure 5-154 Dead Reckoning Mode - GPS Derived Data Shown in Yellow
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SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Hazard avoidance features available for the G1000 are designed to aid situational awareness and provide advisory
information with regard to potential hazards to flight safety associated with weather, terrain, and air traffic.
Weather
• GDL 69A SiriusXM Weather (Subscription Optional)
• GSR 56 Garmin Connext Weather (Subscription Optional)
• GWX 68 Airborne Color Weather Radar
• L-3 WX-500 Stormscope Lightning Detection System (Optional)
Terrain Avoidance
• Terrain Proximity
• Terrain-SVS (included with SVT option)
• Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B (TAWS-B)
Traffic
• Traffic Information Service (TIS)
• Garmin GTS 825 Traffic Advisory System I (TAS) (Optional)
• Garmin GTS 855 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System I (TCAS I) (Optional)
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6.1 SIRIUSXM WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
The GDL 69A is a remote-mounted satellite data link receiver which provides SiriusXM Weather information.
The system shows received graphical weather information and associated text on the Multi Function Display
(MFD) and the Primary Flight Display (PFD) Inset Map. The GDL 69A can also receive SiriusXM Satellite
Radio entertainment services. Both weather data and audio entertainment programming operate in the S-band
frequency range to provide continuous reception capabilities at any altitude throughout North America.
Both services are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit www.siriusxm.
com.
ACTIVATING SERVICES
Before SiriusXM Weather can be used, the service must be activated. Service is activated by providing
SiriusXM with coded IDs unique to the installed GDL 69A. SiriusXM Satellite Radio (audio) and SiriusXM
Weather (data) services each have coded IDs. The Data and Audio Radio IDs must be provided to SiriusXM to
activate the weather service and entertainment subscriptions, respectively. These IDs are located on:
• The XM Information Page on the MFD (Figure 6-1)
• The XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the GDL 69A.
• The label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
Contact the installer if the Audio and Data Radio IDs cannot be located.
SiriusXM uses the coded IDs to send an activation signal that allows the system to provide weather data and/
or audio entertainment programming provided through the GDL 69A.
Establishing an account for SiriusXM services:
1) Select the XM Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Select the INFO Softkey to display the AUX - XM Information Page.
3) Note the Data Radio ID (for SiriusXM Weather) and/or the Audio Radio ID (for SiriusXM Satellite Radio).
4) Contact SiriusXM customer service through the phone number listed on its website.
5) Provide SiriusXM customer service the Data Radio ID and/or Audio Radio ID, in addition to payment information,
and desired weather product subscription package.
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Activating the SiriusXM Weather service:
1) Once a SiriusXM Weather account has been established, select the XM Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Select the INFO Softkey to display the XM Information Page.
3) Observe the list of Weather Products. A white empty box appears next to an unavailable weather product; a
green filled box appears next to an available weather product. During activation, it may take several minutes
for weather products in the chosen subscription package to become available.
4) When the available weather products displayed match the weather products offered in the chosen SiriusXM
Weather product subscription package, press the LOCK Softkey.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘YES’.
6) To complete activation, press the ENT Key.
Data Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Weather)
Audio Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Satellite Radio)
Weather Products
(Available Products
for Service Class
Indicated in Green)
Select to Display XM
Information page
Figure 6-1 XM Information Page
Select to Lock
Subscription
Information
USING SIRIUSXM WEATHER PRODUCTS
The principal map page for viewing SiriusXM Weather data is the Weather Data Link (XM) Page in the Map
Page Group. This is the only map display capable of showing information for all available SiriusXM Weather
products.
Viewing the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT) Page.
3) If the page title contains ‘CNXT’, it will be necessary to change the data link weather source from Garmin
Connext to SiriusXM Weather. Refer to the next procedure to change the source.
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Changing the weather data link source (SiriusXM or Garmin Connext):
1) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) If necessary, turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT) Page.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display XM Weather’ or ‘Display Connext Weather’ and press
the ENT Key. Weather Data Link Page title and softkeys change to correspond to selected data link weather
source.
NEXRAD
Weather
Product Symbol
and Product
Ages (U.S. and
Canada)
NEXRAD
Weather Product
Selected for
Display
Figure 6-2 Weather Data Link (XM) Page
For each enabled SiriusXM Weather product, the system displays a weather product icon and product age.
The product age is the elapsed time (in minutes) since the weather data provider compiled the weather product.
The product age display does not indicate the age of the information contained within the weather product,
which can be significantly older than the displayed weather product age.
The SiriusXM Weather service broadcasts weather products at specific intervals (defined in the Broadcast
Rate column in Table 6-1). If for any reason, a product is not broadcast within the Expiration Time intervals
(see Table 6-1), the system removes the expired data from the display, and shows dashes instead of the product
age. This ensures the displayed information is consistent with what is currently being transmitted by the
SiriusXM Weather service. If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age
changes to yellow. If data for a weather product is not available, the system displays ‘N/A’ next to the weather
product symbol instead of the product age.
Table 6-1 shows the weather product symbols, the expiration times and the broadcast rates. The broadcast
rate represents the interval at which the SiriusXM Weather service transmits new signals that may or may not
contain updated weather products. It does not represent the rate at which the weather information is updated
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or when the Data Link Receiver receives new data. SiriusXM and its weather data suppliers define and control
the data update intervals, which are subject to change.
SiriusXM Weather Product
Product
Symbol
Next-generation Radar (NEXRAD)
Expiration Time Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
(Minutes)
5 (U.S.)
30
10 (Canada)
Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
60
15
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
30
7.5
SiriusXM Lightning (XM LTNG)
30
5
Cell Movement (CELL MOV)
30
12
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
60
12
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
90
12
City Forecast (CITY)
90
12
Surface Analysis (SFC)
60
12
Freezing Levels (FRZ LVL)
120
12
Winds Aloft (WIND)
90
12
County Warnings (COUNTY)
60
5
Cyclone Warnings (CYCLONE)
60
12
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD) (ICNG)
90
22
Pilot Weather Report (PIREPs)
90
12
Air Report (AIREPs)
90
12
Turbulence (TURB)
180
12
No Radar Coverage
no product image
30
5
Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs)
Terminal Aerodrome Reports (TAFs)
no product image
no product image
60
60
12
12
Table 6-1 SiriusXM Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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Navigation Map Page
Weather Data Link
(XM) Page
AUX - Trip Planning
Page
Nearest Page Group
Flight Plan Pages
NEXRAD
+
+
+
+
+
+
No Radar Coverage
+
+
+
+
+
+
SiriusXM Weather Product
Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
+
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
+
Weather Information
Page
PFD Inset Map
Table 6-2 shows which SiriusXM Weather products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on specific
maps.
SiriusXM Lightning (XM LTNG)
+
+
+
+
+
+
Cell Movement (CELL MOV)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
METAR
+
+
+
+
City Forecast (CITY)
+
Surface Analysis (SFC)
+
Freezing Levels (FRZ LVL)
+
Winds Aloft (WIND)
+*
+
County Warnings (COUNTY)
+
Cyclone Warnings (CYCLONE)
+
Icing Potential (ICNG)
+
PIREPs
+
AIREPs
+
Turbulence (TURB)
+
TFRs
TAFs
+
+
* Winds Aloft data on the Navigation Map Page available inside the Profile View Window.
Table 6-2 SiriusXM Weather Product Display Maps
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Softkeys control the display of weather information on most MFD pages and the PFD Inset Map (Figure
6-3 shows the weather product softkeys for the Weather Data Link (XM) Page). When a weather product is
selected for display, the corresponding softkey label changes to gray to indicate the product is enabled.
NEXRAD ECHO TOP CLD TOP XM LTNG CELL MOV
CYCLONE SFC OFF
FRZ LVL
SIG/AIR
METAR
LEGEND MORE WX CHKLIST
WIND OFF ICNG OFF TURB OFF AIREPS
PIREPS
COUNTY
BACK
SFC Softkey label changes
to reflect current selection.
WIND/ICNG/TURB Softkey labels
change to reflect current selection.
OFF
CURRENT
12 HR
24 HR
36 HR
48 HR
Select the BACK Softkey
to move up one level.
LEGEND
BACK
PREV and NEXT Softkeys cycle through Winds Aloft,
Icing, and Turbulence altitude selection softkeys.
PREV
OFF
SFC
3000
6000
9000
12000
15000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
36000
39000
42000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
1000
3000
6000
9000
12000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
39000
42000
45000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
15000
36000
Figure 6-3 Weather Data Link (XM) Page Weather Product Softkeys
Displaying SiriusXM Weather products on the PFD Inset Map:
1) On the PFD, press the INSET Softkey.
2) If the PFD Inset Map is showing the traffic map, press the TFRC-2 Softkey to display the navigation map.
3) Press the desired weather product softkey(s) to enable/disable the display of SiriusXM Weather products on the
Inset Map.
4) To display or remove the weather product icon and age box for displayed weather products on the inset map,
press the WX LGND Softkey.
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link (XM) Page control the map range
settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the
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weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The menus
also provide the ability to enable/disable the display of weather products, and provide the equivalent to using
the softkeys.
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-4).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘PRODUCT GROUP 1’ or ‘PRODUCT GROUP 2’, and press the ENT Key (Figure
6-5).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, maximum map range settings,
etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-4 Weather Data Link (XM)
Page Menu
Figure 6-5 Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Setup Menu
Restoring default Weather Data Link (XM) Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
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3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Highlight the desired default(s) to restore (all or for selection) and press ENT Key.
Maps besides the Weather Data Link (XM) Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map
Page.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-6).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-7).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-8).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, maximum map range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-6 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-7 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-8 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
If multiple data link weather services are installed, surch as the optional GSR 56 Garmin Connext Weather
service, customizing the display settings for the corresponding weather products shown in Table 6-3 will result
in identical settings for a comparable weather product from another service provider.
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Garmin Connext Weather
Product (CNXT)
Precipitation
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD)
(PRECIP)
Cloud Top
Infrared Satellite
(CLD TOP)
(IR SAT)
SiriusXM Lightning
Garmin Connext Data Link
Lightning (DL LTNG)
(XM LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
(PIREPs)
SiriusXM Weather Product
Table 6-3 Corresponding Weather Data Link Product Settings
Each active weather product has an associated legend which can be displayed on the Weather Data Link (XM)
Page and on most MFD pages displaying a navigation map.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products (on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page):
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the LEGEND Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the window.
4) To remove the XM Weather Legends Window, select the LEGEND Softkey, or press the ENT or the CLR Keys, or
press the FMS Knob.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products (on the Navigation Map Page):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the MAP Softkey.
3) Select the LEGEND Softkey (available if one or more SiriusXM Weather products are enabled for display).
4) To remove the Legend Window, select the LEGEND Softkey, or press the ENT or the CLR Keys, or press the FMS
Knob.
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Additional information about the following can be displayed by panning over the display on the map:
• Echo Tops
• METARs
• Cloud Tops
• County Warnings
• Cell Movement
• TFRs
• SIGMETs
• AIREPs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPs
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
Additional
Information
on Weather
Feature
Selected with
Map Pointer
Flash Flood
Warning
Selected with
Map Pointer
Figure 6-9 Panning on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
NEXRAD
NOTE: NEXRAD cannot be displayed simultaneously with terrain, echo tops, turbulence, or airborne weather
radar data on the same map.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider compiles the available
individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time to indicate when
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it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual images--gathered from
each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The
data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the SiriusXM Weather service, whose satellites transmit this
information during the next designated refresh time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current radar synopsis
and may not depict the current weather conditions. The NEXRAD weather product should never be used as a
basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
Figure 6-10 NEXRAD Data on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying NEXRAD weather information:
1) Select the MAP Softkey. This step is not applicable on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the NEXRAD Softkey.
Composite data from all the NEXRAD radar sites in the United States is shown. This data is composed of
the maximum reflectivity from the individual radar sweeps. The display of the information is color-coded
to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can be viewed on the Weather Data Link
(XM) Page. For the NEXRAD legend (Figure 6-11), select the LEGEND Softkey when NEXRAD is selected for
display.
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No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-11 NEXRAD Legend
The display of no radar coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is enabled. Areas
where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information are not currently available or are not being
collected are indicated in gray shade of purple.
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
• NEXRAD base reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine cloud layers or precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet snow, wet
hail, and rain.
• NEXRAD base reflectivity is sampled at the minimum antenna elevation angle. An individual NEXRAD
site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information about storms directly over
the site.
• When zoomed in to a range of 30 nm, each square block on the display represents an area of four square
kilometers. The intensity level reflected by each square represents the highest level of NEXRAD data
sampled within the area (Figure 6-12).
• Below 52ºN, if the type of precipitation is unavailable, the system displays the precipitation using the
color codes associated with rain.
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Block Area is 4 km2
Figure 6-12 NEXRAD Data - Zoomed
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
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NEXRAD Limitations (Canada)
• Radar coverage extends to 55ºN.
• Any precipitation displayed between 52ºN and 55ºN is displayed as mixed regardless of actual precipitation
type.
• Below 52ºN, if the type of precipitation is unavailable, the system displays the precipitation using the
color codes associated with rain.
No Coverage Above 55ºN
Precipitation
Above 52ºN
Displays as
Mixed
Figure 6-13 NEXRAD Data - Canada
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ECHO TOPS
NOTE: Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time as Cloud Tops or NEXRAD data on the Weather Data
Link (XM) Page.
The Echo Tops weather product (Figure 6-14) shows the location, elevation, and direction of the highest
radar echo. The highest radar echo does not indicate the top of a storm or clouds; rather it indicates the
highest altitude at which precipitation is detected. Information is derived from NEXRAD data.
Figure 6-14 Echo Tops Weather Product
Displaying Echo Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the ECHO TOP Softkey.
To display the Echo Tops legend (Figure 6-15), select the LEGEND Softkey when Echo Tops is selected for
display. Since Echo Tops and Cloud Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Echo Tops is enabled on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page,
the system disables the NEXRAD and Cloud Tops weather products.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-15 Echo Tops Legend
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The display of No Radar Coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is enabled. Areas
where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is not being collected
are indicated in gray shade of purple.
CLOUD TOPS
NOTE: Cloud Tops and Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
The Cloud Tops weather product (Figure 6-16) depicts cloud top altitudes as determined from satellite
imagery.
Figure 6-16 Cloud Tops Weather Product
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the CLD TOP Softkey.
To display the Cloud Tops legend (Figure 6-17), select the LEGEND Softkey when Cloud Tops is selected for
display. Since Cloud Tops and Echo Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Cloud Tops is activated on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page,
the system disables the Echo Tops weather product.
Figure 6-17 Cloud Tops Legend
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SIRIUSXM LIGHTNING
The SiriusXM Lightning weather product (Figure 6-18) shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground
lightning strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. The exact
location of the lightning strike is not displayed.
Lightning
Strikes
Figure 6-18 SiriusXM Lightning Weather Product
Displaying SiriusXM Lightning information:
1) Select the MAP Softkey. This step is not necessary on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the XM LTNG Softkey.
To display the SiriusXM Lightning legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page (Figure 6-19), select the
LEGEND Softkey when SiriusXM Lightning is selected for display.
Figure 6-19 Lightning Legend
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CELL MOVEMENT
The Cell Movement weather product (Figure 6-20) shows the location and movement of storm cells as
identified by the ground-based system. Cells are represented by yellow squares, with direction of movement
indicated with short, orange arrows.
Storm Cells
Figure 6-20 Cell Movement Weather Product
On most applicable maps, Cell Movement appears when the NEXRAD weather product is enabled. On
the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, Cell Movement data can be selected independently from NEXRAD. Cell
Movement data can be displayed on the following maps:
• PFD Inset Map
• AUX - Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map
• Nearest Pages
Displaying Cell Movement information:
1) Select the MAP Softkey. This step is not necessary on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the NEXRAD Softkey (CEL MOV Softkey on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page). For Cell Movement to
be displayed on maps other than the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, Cell Movement must be enabled in the
Navigation Map Setup Menu (see the procedure ‘Setting up and customizing weather data for the Navigation
Map Page’).
To display the Cell Movement legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, (Figure 6-21), select the
LEGEND Softkey when Cell Movement is selected for display.
Figure 6-21 Cell Movement Legend
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SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
The National Weather Service (NWS) issues SIGMETs (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and
AIRMETs (AIRmen’s METeorological Information) for potentially hazardous weather. The NWS issues
Convective SIGMETs for hazardous convective weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A
localized SIGMET indicates a SIGMET affecting a small geographic area.
AIRMET IFR
AIRMET Turbulence
Figure 6-22 SIGMET/AIRMET Data
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map Pointer over the icon.
4) Press the ENT key. Figure 6-23 shows sample SIGMET text.
To display the SIGMET and AIRMET legend (Figure 6-24), select the LEGEND Softkey when SIGMETs and
AIRMETs are selected for display.
Figure 6-23 Sample SIGMET Text
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Figure 6-24 SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
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METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure as reported for METARs is given in hectopascals (hPa), except for in the United
States, where it is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are reported in Celsius.
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service area.
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud base heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an
airport or observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and
other critical data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the
report. METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
Instructions for
Viewing METAR
and TAF Text
Selected Airport
Figure 6-25 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR data is displayed first in a
decoded fashion, followed by its original text. The original text may contain information not found in the
decoded version. The system displays TAF information only in its original form, when a TAF is available.
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Displaying METAR and TAF text:
1) On the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, select the METAR Softkey.
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Select the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that the METAR text must
be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
METAR Text for the
Selected Airport
METAR Symbol
TAF Text for the
Selected Airport
Figure 6-26 METAR and TAF Text on the Weather Information Page
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Original METAR text is also accessible while panning the map cursor over a METAR flag on any map page
on which a METAR is displayed. The METAR text is shown in a box near the METAR flag.
In addition, METAR flags and their associated text are displayed on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
METAR flags appears next to waypoints in the flight plan with an associated METAR.
Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint. The METAR text will appear in the ‘SELECTED
WAYPOINT WEATHER’ window below.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the Active Flight Plan
Page.
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page (Figure 6-27), select the LEGEND
Softkey when METARs are enabled for display.
Information in the METAR text determines the color of the METAR flag. A gray METAR flag appears for
a reporting station when its METAR text does not contain adequate information to determine the METAR
category (e.g. VFR, IFR).
Figure 6-27 METAR Legend
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SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CITY FORECAST
NOTE: Surface Analysis and City Forecast data are displayed only within the installed navigation database
coverage area.
Surface Analysis and City Forecast information is available for current and forecast weather conditions.
Forecasts are available for intervals of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours.
Figure 6-28 12 Hour Surface Analysis and City Forecast Data
Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the SFC Softkey.
4) Select the desired forecast time: CURRENT, 12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, or 48 HR. The SFC Softkey label changes
to reflect the forecast time selected.
To display the Surface Analysis and City Forecast legend (Figure 6-29), select the LEGEND Softkey when the
Surface Analysis and City Forecast weather product is displayed.
Figure 6-29 Surface Analysis Legend
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FREEZING LEVELS
The Freezing Level weather product shows the color-coded contour lines for the altitude and location at
which the first isotherm is found (Figure 6-30). When no data is displayed for a given altitude, the data for
that altitude has not been received, or is out of date and has been removed from the display. New data will
appear when it becomes available.
Figure 6-30 Freezing Level Data
Displaying Freezing Level information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the FRZ LVL Softkey.
To display the Freezing Level legend (Figure 6-31), select the LEGEND Softkey when Freezing Level data is
displayed.
Figure 6-31 Freezing Level Legend
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WINDS ALOFT
The Winds Aloft weather product (Figure 6-32) shows the predicted wind speed and direction at the
surface and at selected altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3,000-foot increments from the surface up to
42,000 feet MSL.
Displaying Winds Aloft data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the WIND Softkey.
4) Select the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Select the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The WIND Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Figure 6-32 Winds Aloft Weather Product at 24,000 Feet
To display the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-33), select the LEGEND Softkey when Winds Aloft is selected
for display.
Figure 6-33 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the optional Profile View feature on the
Navigation Map Page (Figure 6-34). The displayed wind components are relative to current aircraft altitude
and track, but not to aircraft speed.
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Weather Product
Age
Wind Component
Velocity and
Direction Arrows
Altitude Scale
Figure 6-34 Winds Aloft Weather Product with Profile View (Navigation Map Page)
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in Table 6-4.
Headwind
Symbol
Tailwind
Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind
Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
5 knots
10 knots
50 knots
Table 6-4 Profile View Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
Showing/Hiding Profile View (containing winds aloft data)
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the PROFILE Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current
state) and press the ENT Key.
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Winds Aloft data inside the Profile View is enabled by default when the Profile View is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display in Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-35).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Profile Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-36).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Profile Winds’ (Figure 6-37).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-35 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-36 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-37 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
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COUNTY WARNINGS
The County Warnings weather product (Figure 6-38) provides specific public awareness and protection
weather warnings from the National Weather Service (NWS). This can include information on tornadoes,
severe thunderstorms, and flood conditions.
Additional
Information
on Flood
Warning
Selected
with Map
Pointer
Flood
Warning
Figure 6-38 County Flood Warning
Displaying County Warning information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the COUNTY Softkey.
To display the County Warnings legend (Figure 6-39), select the LEGEND Softkey when County Warnings
are selected to be displayed.
Figure 6-39 County Warnings Legend
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CYCLONE
The Cyclone weather product (Figure 6-40) shows the current location of cyclones (hurricanes), tropical
storms, and their projected tracks. The system displays the projected track information in the form of
DD/HH:MM.
Cyclone
Figure 6-40 Cyclone Weather Product Selected for Display
Displaying cyclone (hurricane) track information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the CYCLONE Softkey.
To display the Cyclone legend (Figure 6-41), select the LEGEND Softkey when Cyclones are selected to be
displayed.
Figure 6-41 Cyclone Legend
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ICING (CIP & SLD)
Current Icing Product (CIP) data shows a graphical view of the icing environment (Figure 6-42). Icing
severity is displayed in four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extreme (not specific to aircraft type). The
CIP product is not a forecast, but a presentation of the conditions at the time of the analysis.
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing conditions are characterized by the presence of relatively large,
super cooled water droplets indicative of freezing drizzle and freezing rain aloft. SLD threat areas are depicted
as magenta dots over the CIP colors. SLD conditions may be extremely hazardous to all aircraft.
Displaying Icing data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the ICNG Softkey.
4) Select the desired altitude level: 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet. Press the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle through
the altitude softkeys. The ICNG Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Icing
Potential
SLD
Threat
Figure 6-42 Icing Data at 21,000 Feet
To display the Icing Potential legend (Figure 6-43), press the LEGEND Softkey when Icing is selected for
display.
Figure 6-43 Icing Potential Legend
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TURBULENCE
The Turbulence weather product (Figure 6-44) identifies the potential for erratic movement of high-altitude
air mass associated winds. Turbulence is classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme, at altitudes between
21,000 and 45,000 feet. Turbulence data is intended to supplement AIRMETs and SIGMETs.
Displaying Turbulence data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the TURB Softkey.
4) Select the desired altitude level: 21,000 feet up to 45,000 feet. Select the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The TURB Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Severe
Turbulence
Moderate
Turbulence
Light
Turbulence
Figure 6-44 Turbulence Weather Product at 21,000 Feet
To display the Turbulence legend (Figure 6-45), select the LEGEND Softkey when Turbulence is selected
for display.
Figure 6-45 Turbulence Legend
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PIREPS AND AIREPS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) describe in-flight weather conditions encountered by pilots. When
significant weather conditions are reported or forecast, Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities are required to solicit
PIREPs. A PIREP may contain adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions,
windshear, turbulence, and type of aircraft flown. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Another type of PIREP is an Air Report (AIREP). Commercial airlines typically generate AIREPs.
Instructions for
Viewing PIREP
and AIREP Text
Urgent
PIREP
Routine
PIREP
Selected
AIREP
Figure 6-46 AIREPs and PIREPs on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying PIREP and AIREP text:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Select the AIREPS or PIREPS Softkey.
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle appears around the weather report
when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with PIREP or AIREP text. The data is first displayed
in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information
not present in the decoded version.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP or AIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
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Age of report in HH:MM
Decoded PIREP Text
Original PIREP Text
Selected PIREP
Figure 6-47 PIREP Text on the Weather Information Page
To display the PIREP or AIREP legend (Figure 6-48), select the LEGEND Softkey when PIREPs or AIREPs
are selected for display.
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
Figure 6-48 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
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TFRS
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
In the United States, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issues Temporary Flight Restrictions
(TFRs) to designate areas where flight is restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons
including national security, law enforcement, fire suppression, natural disasters., airshows, and large sporting
events. TFRs may be issued at any time, and TFR data displayed is only intended to supplement official TFR
information obtained from Flight Service Stations (FSS), and air traffic control.
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system displays
‘TFR N/A’ in the upper-left corner of maps on which TFRs can be displayed.
TFR Summary
Data
TFR
Selected
with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-49 TFR Data on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying TFR Data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page or Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Joystick and pan the map pointer to highlight a TFR border. The system displays TFR summary
information for the highlighted TFR above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Review Airspaces’ and press the ENT Key. The system displays the
TFR Information window.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the TFR Information window.
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Figure 6-50 Full Text for Selected TFR
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page control the map range settings above which TFR data is
decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is selected, the
TFR product data is removed from the map.
Maps other than the Navigation Map Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be displayed:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-51).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-52).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product maximum map range setting (Figure 6-53).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (range settings or ‘Off’ to disable display of TFRs).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-51 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-52 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-53 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
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6.2 GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
NOTE: The availability of specific Garmin Connext Weather products varies by region. For product coverage
information, refer to https://fly.garmin.com/fly-garmin/connext/worldwide-weather/.
The optional Garmin GSR 56 provides the Garmin Connext data link weather service to the system. The system
displays graphical weather information and associated text on the Multi Function Display (MFD) and on the
Primary Flight Display (PFD) Inset Map.
The system provides Garmin Connext Weather information after the flight crew selects either a manual or
automatic Connext Data Request on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page on the MFD.
Before the Garmin Connext weather service can be used, an account must first be established. Refer to the
Additional Features section for more information.
REGISTERING THE SYSTEM FOR GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
When an account is established, Garmin customer service provides an Access Code which must be entered
on the system in order to complete the registration process.
Registering the system to receive Garmin Connext Weather:
1) Ensure the aircraft is outside and has a clear view of the sky.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the MAP page group.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the MAP - WEATHER DATA LINK (CNXT or XM) Page. If ‘XM’ is displayed in
the page title, it will be necessary to change the data link source to Garmin Connext (CNXT) before continuing.
Refer to ‘Viewing the Weather Data Link Page’ procedure to change the data link source to Garmin Connext
Weather prior to registration.
4) If the system displays the ‘Connext Registration’ window, proceed to step 7. Otherwise, press the MENU Key.
The Page Menu appears as seen in Figure 6-54.
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Figure 6-54 Select ‘Register With Connext’
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Register With Connext’ in the menu list.
6) Press the ENT Key. The Connext Registration Window is displayed as shown in Figure 6-55.
Figure 6-55 Enter Access Code
7) Enter the access code provided by customer service in the ACCESS CODE field.
8) Press the ENT Key. ‘REGISTER’ is highlighted as in Figure 6-55.
9) Press the ENT Key. The GSR 56 contacts the Garmin Connext service using the Iridium satellite network.
Registration is complete when the STATUS field displays ‘REGISTERED’.
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ACCESSING GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER PRODUCTS
The principal map for viewing Garmin Connext Weather information is the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
in the Map Page Group (Figure 6-56). This is the only map display capable of showing information for all
available Garmin Connext weather products. No weather data appears until an initial Connext Data Request
has been completed successfully.
Viewing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT) Page.
3) If the page title contains ‘XM’, it will be necessary to change the data link weather source from SiriusXM
Weather to Garmin Connext Weather. Refer to the next procedure to change the source.
Changing the weather data link source (Garmin Connext or SiriusXM):
1) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) If necessary, turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT) Page.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display Connext Weather’ or ‘Display XM Weather’ and press
the ENT Key. Weather Data Link Page title and softkeys change to correspond to selected data link weather
source.
Precipitation
Weather
Product Symbol
and Product
Age in Minutes
Precipitation
Weather Product
Selected for
Display
Figure 6-56 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
When a weather product is selected for display on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page, a box containing a
symbol or name for the product and its age (in minutes) are shown in the upper right (Figure 6-56) of the page.
If weather data has not been requested, or is not available from the source, ‘N/A’ is shown next to the product
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symbol instead of the product age. The age of the weather product is based on the time difference between
when the requested data was assembled on the ground and the current GPS time. The Garmin Connext
Weather service updates its weather products continuously, or refreshes them at specific intervals, depending
on the product (defined in the Refresh Rate column in Table 6-5). The product age display does not indicate
the age of the information contained within the weather product, which can be significantly older than the
displayed weather product age.
If for any reason, a weather product is not refreshed within the defined Expiration Time intervals (see Table
6-5), the product is considered expired and is removed from the display. The age of the expired product is
replaced by dashes. If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age changes
from white to yellow.
Table 6-5 shows the Garmin Connext weather product symbols, the expiration times and the refresh rates.
The refresh rate represents the interval at which the Garmin Connext ground-based servers make available the
most current known weather data. It does not represent the rate at which new content is received from various
weather sources around the world.
NOTE: The availability of specific Garmin Connext Weather products varies by region. For product coverage
information, refer to https://fly.garmin.com/fly-garmin/connext/worldwide-weather/.
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
Symbol
Radar Precipitation
(PRECIP)
Infrared Satellite
(IR SAT)
Garmin Connext Data Link
Lightning (DL LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Temporary Flight Restrictions
no product image
(TFRs)
Terminal Aerodrome Reports
no product image
(TAFs)
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
30
Refresh Rate
(Minutes)
U.S.: 3*
Canada: 3*†
Europe: 15
Australia: 15ˆ
60
30
30
Continuous
60
Continuous
90
Continuous
90
Continuous
90
Continuous
60
Continuous
60
Continuous
* The composite precipitation image is updated every 3 minutes, but individual radar sites may take
between 3 and 10 minutes to provide new data.
†
Canadian radar precipitation data provided by Environment Canada.
ˆ Australian radar precipitation data provided by the Australia Bureau of Meteorology
Table 6-5 Garmin Connext Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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Infrared Satellite (IR SAT)
Flight Plan Pages
+
Nearest Page Group
+
AUX - Trip Planning
Page
+
Weather Information
Page
Weather Data Link
(CNXT) Page
Precipitation (PRECIP)
Navigation Map Page
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
PFD Inset Map
Table 6-6 shows which Garmin Connext Weather products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on
specific maps.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning
(DL LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
+
METARs
+
+
+
+
Winds Aloft (WIND)
+
+
+*
+
PIREPs
No Radar Coverage
+
+
+
+
TFRs
+
+
+
+
+
+
TAFs
* Winds Aloft data on the Navigation Map Page available inside the Profile View Window.
Table 6-6 Garmin Connext Weather Product Display Maps
Softkeys control the display of weather information on most MFD pages and the PFD Inset Map (Figure 6-57
shows the weather product softkeys for the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page). When a weather product is
selected for display, the corresponding softkey label changes to gray to indicate the product display is enabled.
PRECIP
IR SAT
DL LTNG
SIG/AIR
WIND OFF
METAR
LEGEND MORE WX CHKLIST
PIREPS
BACK
WIND Softkey label changes
to reflect current selection.
Press the BACK Softkey
to move up one level.
PREV and NEXT Softkeys cycle through Winds Aloft
altitude selection softkeys.
PREV
OFF
SFC
3000
6000
9000
12000
15000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
36000
39000
42000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
Figure 6-57 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Softkeys (MFD)
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The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page control the map
range settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the maximum weather product map range setting is selected, the system removes the weather product from the
map. The menus also provide controls for enabling/disabling the display of weather products, in addition to
using the softkeys.
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-58).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘PRODUCT GROUP 1’ or ‘PRODUCT GROUP 2’, and press the ENT Key (Figure
6-59).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, maximum map range settings,
etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-58 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Menu
Figure 6-59 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Setup Menu
Restoring default Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘PRODUCT GROUP 1’ or ‘PRODUCT GROUP 2’, and press the ENT Key (Figure
6-59).
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5) Highlight the product group name (to restore default settings to the entire product group) or an individual
weather product, then press the ENT Key.
6) Highlight ‘Restore All Defaults’ or ‘Restore Selection Default’, and press the ENT Key.
If multiple data link weather services are installed, customizing the display settings for the corresponding
weather products shown in Table 6-7 will result in identical settings for a comparable weather product from
another service provider.
Garmin Connext Weather
Product (CNXT)
Precipitation
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD)
(PRECIP)
Cloud Top
Infrared Satellite
(CLD TOP)
(IR SAT)
SiriusXM Lightning
Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning
(DL LTNG)
(XM LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
(PIREPs)
SiriusXM Weather Product
Table 6-7 Corresponding Weather Data Link Product Settings
Maps besides the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation
Map Page.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-60).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-61).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-62).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, maximum map range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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Figure 6-60 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-61 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-62 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
Each active weather product has an associated legend which can be displayed on the Weather Data Link
(CNXT) Page. If no weather product softkeys are selected, the LEGEND Softkey will be unavailable.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Select the LEGEND Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the window.
4) To remove the Legend Window, select the LEGEND Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products (on the Navigation Map Page):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the MAP Softkey.
3) Select the LEGEND Softkey (available if one or more SiriusXM Weather products are enabled for display).
4) To remove the Legend Window, select the LEGEND Softkey, or press the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS
Knob.
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Additional information about the following can be displayed by panning over the display on the map:
• Infrared Satellite (IR SAT)
• METARs
• SIGMETs
• TFRs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPs
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
Additional
information for
selected PIREP
PIREP selected
with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-63 Panning on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
CONNEXT WEATHER DATA REQUESTS
The Connext Data Request window provides the flight crew with the options to enable or disable the requested
weather coverage area(s), choose automatic weather update intervals (if desired), and the ability to send or
cancel weather data requests. The status of the Garmin Connext data request process is also displayed.
Before a Garmin Connext data request can occur, a valid request coverage area must be defined from which
all currently available Garmin Connext weather products will be retrieved. At a minimum, either the aircraft’s
present position or a waypoint (as part of a flight plan or entered directly in the ‘WAYPOINT’ coverage field) must
be part of the request coverage area, otherwise the request status window will indicate ‘INVALID COVERAGE
AREA’ and the system will not allow a request to occur.
It is not necessary for a destination (based on an active flight plan), a flight plan, or waypoint to be specified
prior to enabling these coverage areas; however no weather data will be retrieved for these option(s) until a
flight plan or waypoint is provided, respectively.
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Requesting Garmin Connext weather data manually:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-64).
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired coverage option(s) and press the ENT Key to add or remove
a check from one of more of the following coverage selections (Figures 6-65, 6-66):
• PRESENT POSITION – Requests data based on current location.
• DESTINATION – Requests data based on the active flight plan destination (Direct-To destinations excluded).
See the Flight Management section for more information about entering and activating flight plans.
• FPL – Requests data along an active flight plan, if one exists. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired
flight plan look-ahead distance option (or choose ‘REMAINING FPL’ to request the remainder of the flight
plan), then press the ENT Key.
• WAYPOINT – Requests data based on a waypoint (which may be off-route). Turn the large and small FMS
Knobs to enter a waypoint, then press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob highlight to the ‘DIAMETER / RTE WIDTH’ (diameter/route width) distance field and
turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired diameter and route width of the request, then press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob until the ‘SEND REQ’ button is highlighted. Press the ENT Key to initiate the request
immediately or press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page without requesting
weather data.
Figure 6-64 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Menu
Figure 6-65 Connext Data Request Window
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Present Position Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Next 80 nm of Flight Plan
Selected, 200 nm Route
Width Requested
Destination Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Off-Route Waypoint
Selected, 200 nm Diameter
Requested
Figure 6-66 Connext Weather Data Request Results with Precipitation Displayed
During a Connext Data Request, the REQUEST STATUS window initially displays “Contacting Connext...”.
Once a connection is established, the REQUEST STATUS window displays “Receiving Wx Data... Time
Remaining:” with an estimated data transfer time (either in minutes or seconds). If desired, the Connext Data
Request window may be closed while the data request is processing by pressing the FMS Knob; the data request
will continue to process in the background. Connext Data Requests typically take between 1 to 4 minutes to
complete depending on the size of the selected weather coverage area(s), the amount of weather activity present
(such as precipitation), and the Iridium signal strength.
The system retrieves all available Garmin Connext weather products within the selected coverage area(s)
during an initial Connext Data Request. Enabling or disabling the display of the weather product does not affect
which weather products are retrieved during a Connext Data Request.
To reduce data usage during subsequent requests, the system retains previously retrieved textual weather
products such as METARs and TAFs, so long as they have not expired. The system also retrieves any new
textual weather products matching the current coverage area, and all graphical weather products during each
data request.
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If the Connext Data Request was successful, the REQUEST STATUS window (if shown) indicates ‘OK’. Refer
to the Abnormal Operations discussion later in this section for more information on the messages received if the
request is unsuccessful, with possible causes.
Cancelling Connext Data Request in Progress:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) With the ‘CANCEL REQ’ option highlighted, press the ENT Key. The REQUEST STATUS window indicates ‘Request
Canceled’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
The flight crew can schedule Connext Data Requests to recur automatically. Auto requests remain enabled
until the flight crew disables them, or the system power is cycled. When an automatic data request is enabled,
the REQUEST STATUS Window displays the number of minutes or seconds until the automatic data request
occurs.
NOTE: If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to the system entering Reversionary Mode,
the automatic weather data requests continue in Reversionary Mode, however the Connext Data Request
window and its associated options will not be available.
Enabling/disabling automatic Connext Data Requests:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Choose the desired weather coverage options.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘UPDATE RATE’ setting. Then turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the
desired automatic update frequency (Off, 5 Min, 10 Min, 15 Min, 20 Min, 30 Min, 45 Min, or 60 Min).
6) The ‘SEND REQ” button is highlighted and a countdown timer is displayed in the ‘REQUEST STATUS’ based
on the currently selected update rate. Press the ENT Key to immediately send an immediate Connext Data
Request.
Or:
Press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
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GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER PRODUCTS
PRECIPITATION
The Precipitation weather product provides radar precipitation information in selected radar coverage areas.
This information comes from individual weather radar sites and weather data sources such as government
agencies. Each radar site or source may provide weather data at differing rates and times. Periodically,
the Garmin Connext service compiles the available information to form a composite image, and assigns a
single time to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the Precipitation weather product.
Individual images--gathered from each radar site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed
Precipitation weather product age.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the Precipitation weather product, the
displayed weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current
radar synopsis and may not depict the current weather conditions. The Precipitation weather product should
never be used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the
information it contains.
Boundary of
Connext Data
Request area
(shown for
Precipitation
weather product)
No Radar Coverage
within requested
within request area
Figure 6-67 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page with Precipitation
Displaying Precipitation weather information:
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Select the PRECIP Softkey.
Radar data shown represents lowest level, base reflectivity, of radar returns. The display of the information
is color-coded to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can be viewed on the
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Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page. For the Precipitation legend (Figure 6-68), select the LEGEND Softkey when
Precipitation is selected for display.
No Radar Coverage
Boundary of Connext
Data Request
Figure 6-68 Precipitation Data Legend
The display of no radar coverage is enabled when Precipitation is selected for display. Areas where
precipitation radar coverage is not currently available or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of
purple. A white boundary line with white tick marks depicts the selected coverage area of the Connext Data
Request. The boundary encloses the precipitation data when this weather product is displayed.
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the Precipitation
display directly correlate to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous weather
can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different radar echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). Weather
radars measure the reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
Precipitation Limitations
Radar images may have certain limitations:
• Radar base reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine cloud layers or precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet snow, wet
hail, and rain.
• Radar base reflectivity is sampled at the minimum antenna elevation angle. An individual radar site
cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information about storms directly over the
site.
• When zoomed in to a range of 30 nm, each square block on the display represents an area of four square
kilometers.
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The following may cause abnormalities in displayed radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
INFRARED SATELLITE
The Infrared Satellite (IR SAT) weather product (Figure 6-69) depicts cloud top temperatures from satellite
imagery. Brighter cloud top colors indicate cooler temperatures occurring at higher altitudes.
Temperature
range of
selected data
Map Pointer
on selected
Infrared Satellite
Information
Figure 6-69 Infrared Satellite Data on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Select the IR SAT Softkey.
To display the Infrared Satellite legend (Figure 6-70), select the LEGEND Softkey when Infrared Satellite data
is selected for display.
Figure 6-70 Infrared Satellite Legend
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GARMIN CONNEXT DATA LINK LIGHTNING
The Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning (DL LTNG) weather product (Figure 6-71) shows the approximate
location of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a twokilometer region. Neither cloud-to-cloud nor the exact location of the lightning strike is displayed.
Lightning
Strikes
Figure 6-71 Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning
Displaying Lightning information:
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Select the DL LTNG Softkey.
To display the lightning legend on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page (Figure 6-72), select the LEGEND
Softkey when the Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning weather product is enabled for display.
Figure 6-72 Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning Legend
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SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
SIGMETs (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMETs (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET can be displayed when significant
weather conditions are not widespread.
The entire SIGMET or AIRMET is displayed as long as any portion of it is issued within the coverage area
of the Connext Data Request.
Additional information
for selected SIGMET/
AIRMET
AIRMET selected
with Map Pointer
Figure 6-73 SIGMET/AIRMET Data
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Select the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map Pointer to highlight the
border of the desired SIGMET/AIRMET.
4) Press the ENT key. Figure 6-74 shows sample SIGMET text.
To display the SIGMET and AIRMET legend (Figure 6-75), select the LEGEND Softkey when SIGMETs and
AIRMETs are selected for display.
Figure 6-74 Sample SIGMET Text
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METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service area.
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud base heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an
airport or observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and
other critical data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the
report. METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
Instructions for
Viewing METAR
and TAF Text
Selected
Airport
Figure 6-76 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. TAF information is displayed in its
original form when a TAF is available.
Displaying METAR and TAF text:
1) On the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page, select the METAR Softkey.
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
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Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Select the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note the METAR text must be
completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
Decoded METAR
Text
Original METAR
Text
METAR
Symbol
TAF
Available
Figure 6-77 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Original METAR text is also accessible while panning the map cursor over a METAR flag on any map page
on which a METAR is displayed. The METAR text is shown in a box near the METAR flag.
In addition, METAR flags and their associated text are displayed on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
METAR flags appears next to waypoints in the flight plan with an associated METAR.
Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint. The METAR text will appear in the ‘SELECTED
WAYPOINT WEATHER’ window below.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the Active Flight Plan
Page.
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To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page (Figure 6-78), select the LEGEND
Softkey when METARs are enabled for display.
Information in the METAR text determines the color of the METAR flag. A gray METAR flag appears for
a reporting station when its METAR text does not contain adequate information to determine the METAR
category (e.g. VFR, IFR).
Figure 6-78 METAR Legend
WINDS ALOFT
The Winds Aloft weather product (Figure 6-79) shows the predicted wind speed and direction at the
surface and at selected altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3,000-foot increments from the surface up to
42,000 feet MSL.
Displaying Winds Aloft data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the WIND Softkey.
4) Select the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Select the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The WIND Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Figure 6-79 Winds Aloft Data at 33,000 Feet
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To display the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-80), select the LEGEND Softkey when Winds Aloft is selected
for display.
Figure 6-80 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Profile View on the Navigation Map Page
(Figure 6-81). The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track, but not to aircraft
speed.
Weather Product
Age
Wind Component
Velocity and
Direction Arrows
Altitude Scale
Figure 6-81 Winds Aloft Weather Product with Profile View (Navigation Map Page)
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in Table 6-8.
Headwind
Symbol
Tailwind
Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind
Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
5 knots
10 knots
50 knots
Table 6-8 Profile View Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
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Showing/Hiding Profile View (containing winds aloft data)
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the PROFILE Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current
state) and press the ENT Key.
Winds Aloft data inside the Profile View is enabled by default when the Profile View is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display in Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-82).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Profile Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-83).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Profile Winds’ (Figure 6-84).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-82 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-83 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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PIREPS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) describe in-flight weather encountered by pilots. A PIREP may contain
adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions, wind shear, turbulence, and type
of aircraft flown. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Instructions for
Viewing PIREP
Text
Urgent
PIREP
Routine
PIREP
Selected
Figure 6-85 PIREPs on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Displaying PIREP text:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the PIREPS Softkey.
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather report
when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The PIREP is first displayed in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the
original text may contain additional information not found in the decoded version.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to close the PIREP text window and return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT)
Page.
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Decoded PIREP Text
Original PIREP Text
Figure 6-86 PIREP Text on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
To display the PIREP legend (Figure 6-87), select the LEGEND Softkey when PIREPs are selected for display.
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
Figure 6-87 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
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ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
If the system cannot complete a Connext Data Request, one or more messages will appear in the request status
window.
Weather Request Status
Message
Auto requests inhibited
Send manual request to reset.
Description
The system has disabled automatic weather data requests due to excessive errors.
Automatic weather data requests have stopped. Send a manual weather data request to
resume automatic updates.
Auto update retry: ## Seconds The system will attempt another automatic weather data request after an error occurred
during the previous request. Displays estimated time until next automatic request occurs.
Connext Comm Error [2]
A communications error has occurred with the GIA or GDL 59.
Connext Comm Error [4]
This occurs if multiple weather data requests have recently failed, or the GIA or GDL 59 is
off-line. If this error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [5]
The Iridium or Garmin Connext services are not accessible. Check Iridium signal strength.
If this error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [6]
A communications error has occurred. If this error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [7]
The system halted the weather data request due to excessive delays while receiving
weather data. Verify Iridium signal strength and re-try data request.
Connext Comm Error [8]
Connext Login Invalid
A ground-based server error has occurred or invalid data received.
There is a problem with the Garmin Connext registration. In the United States, contact
Garmin at 1-866-739-5687. Outside the United States, call 913-397-8200, wait for the
operator, and request extension 1135.
The Garmin Connext weather data server is temporarily out of service, but is expected to
return to service in less than 30 minutes.
The Garmin Connext weather data server will be out of service for at least 30 minutes.
The Connext Data Request does not sufficiently define a coverage area on which to
retrieve weather data. Verify the selections in the Connext Weather Coverage Window,
then issue another Connext Data Request.
The system is not currently subscribed to the Garmin Connext Weather service, or the
access code is incorrect. Verify the access code. In the United States, contact Garmin at
1-866-739-5687. Outside the United States, call 913-397-8200, wait for the operator,
and request extension 1135.
The weather data request area exceeds size limits. Reduce weather coverage area and
re-send data request.
The user has cancelled a weather data request.
The ground-based server halted the weather data request due to excessive delays. Re-send
data request.
The Iridium voice telephone has interrupted the weather data request. Retry request when
Iridium voice telephone is not in use.
Connext Server Temporarily
Inop
Connext Server Inop
Invalid Coverage Area
No Connext Subscription
Reduce Request Area
Request Cancelled
Request Failed - Try Again
Transfer Preempted
Table 6-9 Abnormal Weather Data Request Status Messages
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GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER IN REVERSIONARY MODE
When the system is operating in Reversionary Mode, only those weather products which can be displayed
on the PFD Inset Map will be available for display (see Table 6-6 for a list of weather products and their
associated map availability).
If manual weather data requests were enabled prior to entering Reversionary Mode, no new Garmin Connext
Weather data can be retrieved while operating in Reversionary Mode. If automatic weather data requests
were enabled prior to Reversionary Mode operation, the system will continue the automatic data requests in
Reversionary Mode (provided automatic requests have not been inhibited due to a system error).
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6.3 AIRBORNE COLOR WEATHER RADAR
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The Garmin GWX 68 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a 4-color digital pulsed radar with 6.5 kilowatts
of output power. It combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with a high-definition target
display. The pulse width is four microseconds (µs) on all ranges except the 2.5 nm range. The GWX 68 uses a
one µs pulse width at this range to reduce the targets smearing together on the display for better target definition
at close range.
The Piper PA-46 Meridian uses a 10-inch phased array antenna that is fully stabilized to accommodate 30º
of pitch and roll.
To focus radar scanning on specific areas, Sector Scanning offers pilot-adjustable horizontal scan angles of
20º, 40º, 60º, or 90º. A vertical scanning function helps to analyze storm tops, gradients, and cell buildup
activity at various altitudes.
Radar features include:
• Extended Sensitivity Time Constant (STC) logic that automatically correlates distance of the return echo with
intensity, so cells do not suddenly appear to get larger as they get closer.
• WATCH® (Weather ATtenuated Color Highlight) helps identify possible shadowing effects of short-range cell
activity, identifying areas where radar return signals are weakened or attenuated by intense precipitation (or
large areas of lesser precipitation) and may not fully reflect the weather behind a storm.
• Weather Alert that looks ahead for intense cell activity in the 80-320 nm range, even if these ranges are not
being displayed.
PRINCIPLES OF PULSED AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
The term RADAR is an acronym for RAdio Detecting And Ranging. Pulsed radar locates targets by transmitting
a microwave pulse beam that, upon encountering a target, is reflected back to the radar receiver as a return
echo. The microwave pulses are focused and radiated by the antenna, with the most intense energy in the
center of the beam and decreasing intensity near the edge. The same antenna is used for both transmitting and
receiving. The returned signal is then processed and displayed on the MFD.
Radar detection is a two-way process that requires 12.36 µs for the transmitted microwave pulses to travel out
and back for each nautical mile of target range. It takes 123.6 µs for a transmitted pulse to make the round trip
if a target is ten nautical miles away.
Airborne weather radar should be used to avoid severe weather, not for penetrating severe weather. The
decision to fly into an area of radar targets depends on target intensity, spacing between the targets, aircraft
capabilities, and pilot experience. Pulse type weather radar detects only precipitation, not clouds or turbulence.
The display may indicate clear areas between intense returns, but this does not necessarily mean it is safe to fly
between them. Only Doppler radar can detect turbulence.
Airborne weather radar has other capabilities beyond weather detection. It also has the ability to detect and
provide distance to cities, mountains, coastlines, rivers, lakes, and oceans.
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NEXRAD AND AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
Both Airborne Weather Radar and NEXRAD measure weather reflectivity in decibels (dB). A decibel is a
logarithmic expression of the ratio of two quantities. Airborne Weather Radar measures the ratio of power
against the gain of the antenna, while NEXRAD measures the energy reflected back to the radar, or the radar
reflectivity ratio.
Both systems use colors to identify the different echo intensities, but the colors are not interchangeable.
Airborne color radar values used by Garmin Airborne Color Weather Radar should not be confused with
NEXRAD radar values.
ANTENNA BEAM ILLUMINATION
The radar beam is much like the beam of a spotlight. The further the beam travels, the wider it becomes.
The radar is only capable of seeing what is inside the boundaries of the beam. The figure below depicts a radar
beam’s characteristics. The figure illustrates vertical dimensions of the radar beam, although the same holds
true for the horizontal dimensions. In other words, the beam is as wide as it is tall. Note that it is possible to
miss areas of precipitation on the radar display because of the antenna tilt setting. With the antenna tilt set to
zero in this illustration, the beam overshoots the precipitation at 15 nautical miles.
Altitude (x1000 ft.)
80
Antenna at Zero Tilt
18,000 ft.
10°
0
0
15
Half Power at
es
Beam Sidelob
Max Power at Beam Center
18,000 ft.
30
45
60
75
90
Range (nautical miles)
Figure 6-88 Radar Beam from a 10 inch Antenna
The curvature of the earth can also be a factor in missing areas of precipitation, especially at range settings of
150 nautical miles or more. Here the beam overshoots the precipitation at less than 320 nautical miles.
320 nm
Figure 6-89 Radar Beam in Relation to the Curvature of the Earth
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RADAR SIGNAL ATTENUATION
The phenomenon of radar signal attenuation affects the operation of weather radar. When the radar signal
is transmitted, it is progressively absorbed and scattered, making the signal weaker. This weakening, or
attenuation, is caused by two primary sources, distance and precipitation.
Attenuation because of distance is due to the fact that the radar energy leaving the antenna is inversely
proportional to the square of the distance. The reflected radar energy from a target 40 miles away that fills
the radar beam is one fourth the energy reflected from an equivalent target 20 miles away. This would appear
to the operator that the storm is gaining intensity as the aircraft gets closer. Internal signal processing within
the GWX 68 system compensates for much of this distance attenuation.
Attenuation due to precipitation is not as predictable as distance attenuation. It is also more intense. As the
radar signal passes through moisture, a portion of the radar energy is reflected back to the antenna. However,
much of the energy is absorbed. If precipitation is very heavy, or covers a large area, the signal may not
reach completely through the area of precipitation. The weather radar system cannot distinguish between an
attenuated signal and an area of no precipitation. If the signal has been fully attenuated, the radar displays
a radar shadow. This appears as an end to the precipitation when, in fact, the heavy rain may extend much
further. A cell containing heavy precipitation may block another cell located behind the first, preventing it
from being displayed on the radar. Never fly into these shadowed areas and never assume that all of the heavy
precipitation is being displayed unless another cell or a ground target can be seen beyond the heavy cell. The
WATCH® feature of the GWX 68 Weather Radar system can help in identifying these shadowed areas. Areas
in question appear as shadowed or gray on the radar display. Proper use of the antenna tilt control can also
help detect radar shadows.
Attenuation can also be due to poor maintenance or degradation of the radome. Even the smallest amount
of wear and scratching, pitting, and pinholes on the radome surface can cause damage and system inefficiency.
RADAR SIGNAL REFLECTIVITY
Precipitation
Precipitation or objects more dense than water, such as the surface of the earth or solid structures, are
detected by the weather radar. The weather radar does not detect clouds, thunderstorms, or turbulence
directly. It detects precipitation associated with clouds, thunderstorms, and turbulence. The best radar
signal reflectors are raindrops, wet snow, or wet hail. The larger the raindrop, the better the reflectivity. The
size of the precipitation droplet is the most important factor in radar reflectivity. Because large drops in a
small concentrated area are characteristic of a severe thunderstorm, the radar displays the storm as a strong
return. Ice crystals, dry snow, and dry hail have low levels of reflectivity as shown in the illustration, and
often not displayed by the radar. Additionally, a cloud that contains only small raindrops, such as fog or
drizzle, does not reflect enough radar energy to produce a measurable target return.
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Figure 6-90 Precipitation Type and Reflectivity
Ground Returns
The intensity of ground target returns depends upon the angle at which the radar beam strikes the
ground target (Angle of Incidence) and the reflective properties of that target. The gain can be adjusted so
shorelines, rivers, lakes, and cities are well defined. Increasing the gain too much causes the display to fill
in between targets, thus obscuring some landmarks.
Cities normally provide a strong return signal. While large buildings and structures provide good returns,
small buildings can be shadowed from the radar beam by the taller buildings. As the aircraft approaches
and shorter ranges are selected, details become more noticeable as the highly reflective regular lines and
edges of the city become more defined.
Bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, and oceans are not good reflectors and normally do not provide good
returns. The energy is reflected in a forward scatter angle with inadequate energy being returned. They
can appear as dark areas on the display. However, rough or choppy water is a better reflector and provides
stronger returns from the downwind sides of the waves.
Mountains also provide strong return signals to the antenna, but also block the areas behind. However,
over mountainous terrain, the radar beam can be reflected back and forth in the mountain passes or off
canyon walls, using up all or most of the radar energy. In this case, no return signal is received from this
area, causing the display to show a dark spot which could indicate a pass where no pass exists.
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Angle of Incidence
The angle at which the radar beam strikes the target is called the Angle of Incidence. The figure illustrates
the incident angle (‘A’). This directly affects the detectable range, the area of illumination, and the intensity
of the displayed target returns. A large incident angle gives the radar system a smaller detectable range and
lower display intensity due to minimized reflection of the radar energy.
Figure 6-91 Angle of Incidence
A smaller incident angle gives the radar a larger detectable range of operation and the target display shows
a higher intensity. Since more radar energy is reflected back to the antenna with a low incident angle, the
resulting detectable range is increased for mountainous terrain.
SAFE OPERATING DISTANCE
The following information establishes a minimum safe distance from the antenna for personnel near
operating weather radar. The minimum safe distance is based on the FCC’s exposure limit at 9.3 to 9.5 GHz for
general population/uncontrolled environments, which is 1 mW/cm2. See Advisory Circular 20-68B for more
information on safe distance determination.
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVEL (MPEL)
The zone in which the radiation level exceeds the US Government standard of 1 mW/cm2 is the semicircular
area of at least 11 feet from the 12-inch antenna. All personnel must remain outside of this zone. With a
scanning or rotating beam, the averaged power density at the MPEL boundary is significantly reduced.
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MPEL
Boundary
9.16 ft. for 10”
antenna
Figure 6-92 MPEL Boundary
BASIC ANTENNA TILT SETUP
The following discussion is a simple method for setting up the weather radar antenna tilt for most situations.
It is not to be considered an all encompassing setup that works in all situations, but this method does provide
good overall parameters for the monitoring of threats. Ultimately, it is desired to have the antenna tilted so that
the bottom of the radar beam is four degrees below parallel with the ground. The following example explains
one way of achieving this.
With the aircraft flying level, adjust the antenna tilt so ground returns are displayed at a distance that equals
the aircraft’s current altitude (AGL) divided by 1,000. For example, if the aircraft is at 14,000 feet, adjust the
tilt so the front edge of ground returns are displayed at 14 nautical miles. Note this antenna tilt angle setting.
Now, raise the antenna tilt 6 degrees above this setting. The bottom of the radar beam is now angled down 4º
from parallel with the ground.
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PRACTICAL APPLICATION USING THE BASIC TILT SETUP
With the antenna tilt set as previously described, any displayed target return should be scrutinized when
flying at altitudes between 2,000 and 30,000 feet AGL. If the displayed target advances on the screen to
within five nautical miles of the aircraft, avoid it. This may be either weather or ground returns that are
2,000 feet or less below the aircraft. Raising the antenna tilt 4 degrees can help separate ground returns from
weather returns in relatively flat terrain. This aligns the bottom of the radar beam parallel with the ground.
Return the antenna tilt to the previous setting after a few sweeps.
If the aircraft is above 29,000 feet, be cautious of any target return that gets to within 30 nautical miles.
This is likely a thunderstorm that has a top high enough that the aircraft cannot fly over it safely.
If the aircraft altitude is 15,000 feet or lower, setting the displayed range to 60 miles may be more helpful.
Closely monitor anything that enters the display.
4000
Change in Antenna Tilt
+4°
+3°
+2°
+1°
0°
-1°
-2°
-3°
-4°
3000
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
10 nm
4000
Vertical Change of Radar Beam (feet)
Also, after setting up the antenna tilt angle as described previously, ground returns can be monitored for
possible threats. The relationship between antenna tilt angle, altitude, and distance is one degree of tilt equals
100 feet of altitude for every one nautical mile.
Figure 6-93 Vertical Change in Radar Beam per Nautical Mile
Therefore, with the antenna tilt set so that the bottom of the beam is four degrees below parallel with
the ground, a target return at 10 nm is approximately 4,000 feet below the aircraft; at 20 nm, 8,000 feet;
at 50 nm, 20,000 feet. In other words, at this tilt setting, a ground return (such as a mountain peak) being
displayed at 10 nm would have a maximum distance below the aircraft of 4,000 feet. A ground target return
being displayed at 5 nm would have a maximum distance below the aircraft of 2,000 feet.
This setup provides a good starting point for practical use of the GWX 68. There are many other factors to
consider in order to become proficient at using weather radar in all situations.
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WEATHER MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
WEATHER DISPLAY INTERPRETATION
When evaluating various target returns on the weather radar display, the colors denote precipitation
intensity and rates shown in the table.
Weather Mode Color
Intensity
Black
Green
Yellow
Red
Magenta
< 23 dBZ
23 dBZ to < 32 dBZ
32 dBZ to < 41 dBZ
41 dBZ to < 50 dBZ
50 dBZ and greater
Approximate
Precipitation Rate
(in/hr.)
< .01.
.01 - 0.1.
0.1 - 0.5
0.5 - 2
>2
Table 6-10 Precipitation Intensity Levels
Thunderstorms
Updrafts and downdrafts in thunderstorms carry water through the cloud. The more severe the drafts, the
greater the number and size of the precipitation droplets. With this in mind, the following interpretations
can be made from what is displayed on the weather radar. Avoid these areas by an extra wide margin.
• In areas where the displayed target intensity is red or magenta (indicating large amounts of precipitation),
the turbulence is considered severe.
• Areas that show steep color gradients (intense color changes) over thin bands or short distances suggest
irregular rainfall rate and strong turbulence.
• Areas that show red or magenta are associated with hail or turbulence, as well as heavy precipitation.
Vertical scanning and antenna tilt management may be necessary to identify areas of maximum intensity.
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Along squall lines (multiple cells or clusters of cells in a line) individual cells may be in different stages
of development. Areas between closely spaced, intense targets may contain developing clouds not having
enough moisture to produce a return. However, these areas could have strong updrafts or downdrafts.
Targets showing wide areas of green are generally precipitation without severe turbulence.
Irregularities in the target return may also indicate turbulence, appearing as hooks, fingers, or scalloped
edges. These irregularities may be present in green areas with no yellow, red, or magenta areas and should
be treated as highly dangerous areas. Avoid these areas as if they are red or magenta.
Squall Line
Steep Gradient
Hook or Finger
Scalloped Edge
Figure 6-94 Cell Irregularities
Thunderstorm development is rapid. A course may become blocked within a short time. When displaying
shorter ranges, periodically select a longer range to see if problems are developing further out. That can
help prevent getting trapped in a blind alley or an area that is closed at one end by convective weather.
Figure 6-95 The Blind Alley - Horizontal Scan
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In areas of multiple heavy cells, use the Vertical Scan feature along with antenna tilt management to
examine the areas. Remember to avoid shadowed areas behind targets.
The Blind Alley at Close Range
The Large Storm Behind
Figure 6-96 The Blind Alley
Tornadoes
There are no conclusive radar target return characteristics which identify a tornado. However, tornadoes
may be present if the following characteristics are observed:
• A narrow, finger-like portion extends and in a short time curls into a hook and closes on itself.
• A hook, which may be in the general shape of the numeral 6 (numeral 9 in the southern hemisphere),
especially if bright and projecting from the southwest quadrant (northeast quadrant in the southern
hemisphere) of a major thunderstorm.
• V-shaped notches.
• Doughnut shapes.
These shapes do not always indicate tornadoes, and tornado returns are not limited to these characteristics.
Confirmed radar observations of tornadoes most often have not shown shapes different from those of a
normal thunderstorm display.
Hail
Hail results from updrafts carrying water high enough to freeze. Therefore, the higher the top of a
thunderstorm, the greater the probability that it contains hail. Vertically scanning the target return can
give the radar top of a thunderstorm that contains hail. Radar top is the top of a storm cell as detected by
radar. It is not the actual top, or true top of the storm. The actual top of a storm cell is seen with the eyes
in clear air and may be much higher than the radar top. The actual top does not indicate the top of the
hazardous area.
Hail can fall below the minimum reflectivity threshold for radar detection. It can have a film of water on
its surface, making its reflective characteristics similar to a very large water droplet. Because of this film of
water, and because hail stones usually are larger than water droplets, thunderstorms with large amounts
of wet hail return stronger signals than those with rain. Some hail shafts are extremely narrow (100 yards
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or less) and make poor radar targets. In the upper regions of a cell where ice particles are dry (no liquid
coating), target returns are less intense.
Hail shafts are associated with the same radar target return characteristics as tornados. U-shaped cloud
edges three to seven miles across can also indicate hail. These target returns appear quite suddenly along
any edge of the cell outline. They also change in intensity and shape in a matter of seconds, making vigilant
monitoring essential.
OPERATION IN WEATHER MODE
WARNING: Begin transmitting only when it is safe to do so. When transmitting while the aircraft is on the
ground, no personnel or objects should be within 11 feet of the antenna.
CAUTION: In Standby mode, the antenna is parked at the center line. It is always a good idea to put the
radar in Standby mode before taxiing the aircraft to prevent the antenna from bouncing on the bottom stop
and possibly causing damage to the radar assembly.
When the weather radar system is in the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically switches
to Standby mode on landing.
In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system automatically switches to Standby mode. The system
remains in Standby mode until both displays are restored. In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system
cannot be controlled.
Radar Mode
Scan Line
Antenna Stabilization Status
Figure 6-97 Horizontal Scan Display
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Displaying weather on the Weather Radar Page:
1) Select the Weather Radar Page in the Map Page Group with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the MODE Softkey.
3) While on the ground, select the STANDBY Softkey. A one-minute warm-up period is initiated (countdown is
displayed on the screen). After the warm-up is complete, the radar enters the Standby Mode.
a)
Select the WEATHER Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
Figure 6-98 Confirming Activating Radar
b)
Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight YES and press the ENT Key to continue radar activation.
Or:
If the aircraft is airborne, select the WEATHER Softkey. A 1 minute warm-up period is initiated (countdown is
displayed on the screen). After the warm-up is complete, the radar begins transmitting.
4) Turn the Joystick to select the desired map range.
5) The horizontal scan is initially displayed (Figure 6-97). If desired, select the VERTICAL Softkey to change to
vertical scanning.
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Vertically scanning a storm cell:
NOTE: Vertical scanning of a storm cell should be done with the aircraft wings level to avoid constant
adjustment of the Bearing Line.
1) While in the Horizontal Scan view, select the BRG Softkey. This places the cursor in the BEARING field and
displays the Bearing Line.
If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Bearing
Line. Press the ENT Key.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line on the desired storm cell or other area to be vertically
scanned.
Scan Line
Bearing Line
Figure 6-99 Bearing Line on Horizontal Scan
4) Select the VERTICAL Softkey. A vertical scan of the selected area is displayed (Figure 6-100).
5) The small FMS Knob may be used to move the scanned bearing line a few degrees right or left.
6) Turn the Joystick to adjust the range.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
8) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, select the HORIZON Softkey to return to the Horizontal Scan view
and repeat the previous steps.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust bearing from left to right.
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Figure 6-100 Vertical Scan Display
Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle
In order to make an accurate interpretation of a storm cell, the radar beam should be pointed at the wet
part of the weather cell to record the proper rainfall intensity (color level). The ideal aiming point is just
below the freezing level of the storm. The best way to find this point is to use the Vertical Scan feature. The
antenna tilt angle can be centered on the strongest return area in the vertical scan to get a more accurate
view of the coverage and intensity of the target in the horizontal scan.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Horizontal Scan display:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the TILT field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired antenna tilt angle.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt up and down.
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Adjusting antenna tilt on the Vertical Scan display:
1) Select the TILT Softkey to activate the cursor in the TILT field and display the Tilt Line.
If the Tilt Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Tilt Line. Press
the ENT Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the antenna tilt angle. The selected tilt angle is implemented when Horizontal
Scan is selected again.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt.
Tilt Line
Scan Line
Figure 6-101 Adjusting Tilt on Vertical Scan Display
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Adjusting Gain:
WARNING: Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity. Remember to return the gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the
actual intensity of precipitation.
1) Select the GAIN Softkey to activate the cursor in the GAIN field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the gain for the desirable level. The gain setting is visible in the GAIN field
as a movable horizontal bar in a flashing box. The line pointer is a reference depicting the calibrated position.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
4) Select the GAIN Softkey again to recalibrate the gain. ‘CALIBRATED’ is displayed in the GAIN field.
Manual Gain Set Below Calibrated
Calibrated Gain
Figure 6-102 Gain Calibration
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Sector Scan:
1) While in horizontal scan mode, select the BRG Softkey to display the Bearing Line and place the cursor in the
BEARING field. If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select
Show Bearing Line.
2) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-103 Selecting Sector Scan Position
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line in the desired position. The location of the Bearing Line
becomes the center point of the Sector Scan.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the SECTOR SCAN field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select FULL, 60˚, 40˚, or 20˚ scan.
6) If desired, readjust the Bearing Line as discussed previously to change the center of the Sector Scan.
7) Select the BRG Softkey again to remove the Bearing Line and cursor. The bearing reference is reset to 0º.
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Figure 6-104 40˚ Sector Scan
Antenna Stabilization
When radar stabilization is active, the radar tilt is corrected for pitch and roll, and therefore is kept steady
with respect to the horizon. The commanded tilt angle is kept constant with respect to the earth. When the
stabilization is disabled, corrections are no longer made for pitch and roll, and the radar tilt angle is kept
constant with respect to the aircraft reference system.
Enabling/Disabling Antenna Stabilization:
1) To activate or deactivate the antenna stabilization, select the MODE Softkey.
2) Select the STAB ON Softkey to activate antenna stabilization or select the STAB OFF Softkey to deactivate. The
current stabilization condition is shown in the upper right of the weather radar display.
Weather Attenuated Color Highlight (WATCH®)
WATCH® identifies deceptively strong or unknown intensity parts of a storm. While in horizontal scan
mode, this feature can be used as a tool to determine areas of possible inaccuracies in displayed intensity due
to weakening of the radar energy. This weakening is known as attenuation. The radar energy weakens as
it passes through areas of intense precipitation, large areas of lesser precipitation, and distance. Issues with
the radome attenuates the radar energy. All these factors have an effect on the return intensity. The more
energy that dissipates, the lesser the displayed intensity of the return. Accuracy of the displayed intensity
of returns located in the shaded areas are suspect. Make maneuvering decisions with this information in
mind. Proper antenna tilt management should still be employed to determine the extent of attenuation in
a shaded area.
To activate or deactivate the WATCH® feature, select the WATCH Softkey.
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Displayed intensity is questionable.
Potentially stronger than displayed.
Horizontal Scan Without WATCH®
Areas of
Attenuated Signal
Horizontal Scan With WATCH®
Figure 6-105 Horizontal Scan Without and With WATCH®
Weather Alert Target Bands and Weather Alert PFD Message
The Weather Alert feature indicates the presence of heavy precipitation between the ranges of 80 and 320
nm regardless of the currently displayed range. Weather Alert targets appear as red bands along the outer
range ring at the approximate azimuth of the detected returns.
If a Weather Alert is detected within ±10° of the aircraft heading, and the WX ALRT Softkey is enabled
on the Weather Radar Page, the system also displays ‘WX ALERT - Possible severe weather ahead.’ on the
PFD in the Messages Window.
Weather Alert Target Bands
Figure 6-106 Weather Alert Indications
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If the antenna tilt is adjusted too low, a weather alert can be generated by ground returns. To prevent
weather alerts from appearing on the PFD in the Messages Window, deselect the WX ALRT Softkey on
the Weather Radar Page on the MFD. The system continues to display weather alert target bands on the
Weather Radar Page even if the PFD weather alert message is disabled.
Figure 6-107 Weather Alert on PFD
GROUND MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
A secondary use of the weather radar system is for the presentation of terrain. This can be a useful tool for
verifying aircraft position. A picture of the ground is represented much like a topographical map that can be
used as a supplement to the navigation map on the MFD.
Ground Map mode uses a different gain range than Weather mode. Different colors are also used to represent
the intensity levels. The displayed intensity of ground target returns are defined in the table below. Use of the
GAIN and TILT controls help improve contrast so that specific ground targets can be recognized more easily.
As previously discussed, the type and orientation of the target in relation to the aircraft affects the intensity
displayed.
When the weather radar system is in either the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby mode upon landing.
Ground Map
Mode Color
Black
Cyan
Yellow
Magenta
Blue
Intensity
0 dB
> 0 dB to < 9 dB
9 dB to < 18 dB
18 dB to < 27 dB
27 dB and greater
Table 6-11 Ground Target Return Intensity Levels
Operation in Ground Map Mode
1) Select the MODE Softkey.
2) Select the GROUND Softkey to place the radar in Ground Map mode.
3) Select the BACK Softkey.
4) Select the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the TILT field.
6) Adjust the antenna tilt angle by turning the small FMS Knob to display ground returns at the desired distance.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
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WEATHER RADAR OVERLAY ON THE NAVIGATION MAP PAGE
The Map - Weather Radar Page is the principal map page for viewing airborne weather radar information.
Weather radar information may also be shown as an overlay on the Navigation Map Page on the MFD as an
additional reference.
When the airborne weather radar overlay is enabled, a weather radar information box appears in the upperright corner of the Navigation Map Page. It indicates the selected weather mode, radar bearing, and antenna
tilt angle. The overlay is capable of showing radar information while the radar is in horizontal scan mode.
If the radar is operating in vertical scan mode while the overlay is enabled, the system indicates ‘N/A’ in the
information box to indicate the airborne weather radar overlay is not available until the horizontal scan mode
is selected on the Weather Radar Page.
Radar Overlay Enabled Icon
Radar Mode
Selected
Radar
Bearing
Radar Range
Scan Line
Antenna Tilt
Angle
Boundary of
Selected Radar
Scan
Navigation Map
Range
Figure 6-108 Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page
Enabling/Disabling Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the MAP Softkey.
3) Select the WX RADAR Softkey.
Or:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group, then press the ENT Key.
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4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the product selections and highlight the WX RADAR overlay selection
(‘On’ or ‘Off’). Turn the small FMS knob to highlight the desired selection.
5) To remove the menu, press the FMS Knob or CLR Key.
Weather radar controls on the Navigation Map Page are limited to adjustment of the radar range, bearing,
and antenna tilt angle. The airborne weather radar overlay is viewable at Navigation Map Ranges between five
and 800 nautical miles (ten to 1,500 kilometers). At map ranges beyond these limits, the system removes the
weather radar information from the map. Adjusting the range on the Navigation Map Page simultaneously
adjusts the range of the weather radar proportionally. This radar range is annunciated on the range arc that
appears when the overlay is enabled and a radar scan is active. When the radar range is adjusted on the
Navigation Map Page, system synchronizes the same range to the Weather Radar Page.
The radar bearing is adjustable in one degree increments on the Navigation Map Page by pushing the Joystick
left or right when the overlay is enabled. A left or right arrow next to the bearing readout indicates the direction
of the selected bearing. The cyan radar bearing line is only viewable on the Weather Radar Page. While the
bearing line is not shown on the Navigation Map Page, adjusting the bearing on the Navigation Map Page while
Sector Scan is enabled centers the radar scan on the selected bearing, and the radar scan boundaries adjust
accordingly on the Navigation Map Page.
Radar antenna tilt angle is adjustable in 0.25 degree increments on the Navigation Map Page. Push the
Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward. Push the Joystick down to adjust the antenna tilt angle
upward. An up or down arrow next to the antenna tilt angle setting indicates the direction of the antenna tilt
angle.
The weather radar overlay uses the same colors as those shown on the Weather Radar Page to indicate the
intensity of radar returns. However, the display of gray WATCH radar attenuation and red weather alert
target bands is exclusive to the Weather Radar Page. Because data link radar precipitation and terrain present
information using similar colors, enabling the airborne weather radar overlay on the Navigation Map Page
disables the display of the data link radar and terrain information for this page.
SYSTEM STATUS
The system displays the radar mode annunciation in the upper left corner of the Weather Radar Page. It
also appears in the upper right corner of the Navigation Map Page when the Weather Radar overlay is enabled.
Additional information may be displayed in the center of the Weather Radar Page as a banner annunciation.
Radar Mode
Radar Mode Annunciation Box (Weather
Radar Page and Navigation Map Page)
Weather Radar Page Center
Banner Annunciation
Standby
STANDBY
STANDBY
Standby (During Warm-Up)
STANDBY
WARM-UP
XX
(XX indicates number of
seconds remaining in warm-up)
Weather
WEATHER
None
Ground Mapping
Off
Radar Failed*
GROUND MAPPING
OFF
FAIL
None
OFF
RADAR FAIL
* See Table 6-14 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-12 Radar Modes on the Weather Radar Page
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The system displays the status of the radar antenna stabilization feature in the upper right corner of the
Weather Radar Page.
Radar Antenna
Description
Stabilization Status
STAB ON
Antenna stabilization is selected on.
STAB OFF
Antenna stabilization is selected off.
The radar is not receiving pitch and roll information.
STAB INOP
The antenna stabilization feature is inoperative.
Table 6-13 Antenna Stabilization Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
If the unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown as a banner in the center of the Weather
Radar Page
Weather Radar
Page Center Banner
Description
Annunciation
BAD CONFIG
The radar configuration is invalid. The radar should be serviced.
RDR FAULT
The radar unit is reporting a fault. The radar should be serviced.
The system is not receiving valid data from the radar unit. The system
RADAR FAIL
should be serviced.
Table 6-14 Abnormal Radar Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
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6.4 STORMSCOPE LIGHTNING
The optional L-3 WX-500 Stormscope® system is not intended for hazardous thunderstorm
penetration. Weather information on the G1000 MFD is approved for weather avoidance only. Refer to the
WX-500 User’s Guide for a detailed description of Stormscope operation.
NOTE:
NOTE: Stormscope Lightning cannot be displayed at the same time as data link lightning products from
SiriusXM or Garmin Connext Weather.
The following pages can display Stormscope data:
• PFD Inset Map
• Stormscope Page
• Navigation Map
• AUX - Trip Planning Page
• Nearest Pages
The Map - Stormscope Page is the principal page for viewing Stormscope data. Stormscope data can be displayed
on other map pages as an additional reference. To display Stormscope data on any map besides the Stormscope
Page, press the MAP Softkey (or the INSET Softkey for the PFD Inset Map), then press the STRMSCP Softkey.
These pages can also display cell or strike data using the yellow lightning strike symbology shown in Table 6-15.
Lightning Age
Symbol
Strike is less than 6 seconds old
Strike is between 6 and 60 seconds old
Strike is between 1 and 2 minutes old
Strike is between 2 and 3 minutes old
Table 6-15 Lightning Age and Symbols
SETTING UP STORMSCOPE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
Setting up Stormscope options on the Navigation Map:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Setup’ selected (Figure 6-109), press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the group selection window. Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Weather’,
and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight and move between the product selections (Figure 6-110).
5) When an item is highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the option.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page (Figure 6-111).
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The following Stormscope options are available (Figure 6-110):
• STRMSCP LTNG – Turns the display of Stormscope data on or off.
• STRMSCP MODE – Selects the CELL or STRIKE mode of lightning activity. Cell mode identifies clusters
or cells of electrical activity. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
• STRMSCP SMBL – Selects the range at which Stormscope data displays. Stormscope data is removed
when a map range greater than the STRMSCP SMBL value is selected.
Figure 6-109 Navigation Map
Page Menu
Figure 6-110 Map Setup Menu
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CELL AND STRIKE MODE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
On the Navigation Map, cell mode identifies cells of lightning activity. Stormscope identifies clusters of
electrical activity that indicate cells. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
Selecting the ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Setup’ selected, press the ENT Key.
3) Select the ‘Weather’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on ‘STRMSCP LTNG’.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘STRMSCP MODE’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to change between ‘CELL’ and ‘STRIKE’ options. When an item is selected, press the
ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Map
Orientation
Stormscope
Lightning Strikes
Stormscope
Enabled
Icon
50 nm Map
Range
Figure 6-111 Navigation Map Page with Stormscope Lightning Data
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn
(Figure 6-112). This is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to
the nose of the aircraft.
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Manually clearing Stormscope data on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Clear Stormscope® Lightning’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-112 Navigation Map Page Options Menu
ZOOM RANGE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
Stormscope lightning data can be displayed up to 800 nm zoom range (in North Up orientation) on the
Navigation Map Page. However, in Track Up orientation at the 500 nm range, a portion of Stormscope lightning
data can be behind the aircraft and therefore not visible on the Navigation Map. Since the range for Stormscope
data is 400 nm diameter total (200 nm in front and 200 nm behind), the 500 nm range in North Up orientation
shows all the data.
At a map range of less than 25 nm, Stormscope lightning data is not displayed, but can still be present.
The maximum zoom range can also be set on the Navigation Map. Note that Stormscope data above the
selected maximum zoom range is decluttered.
Selecting a Stormscope range on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘MAP SETUP’.
3) Select the ‘Weather’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘STRMSCP SMBL’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the maximum display range.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
To change the display range on the Navigation Map Page, turn the RANGE Knob clockwise to zoom out or
counter-clockwise to zoom in.
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SELECTING THE STORMSCOPE PAGE
Stormscope lightning data can be displayed at the ranges of 25 nm, 50 nm, 100 nm, and 200 nm.
Adjusting the Stormscope Map Range:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Stormscope Page.
3) To change the map range, turn the RANGE Knob clockwise to zoom out or counter-clockwise to zoom in.
Figure 6-113 Stormscope Page
Changing between ‘cell’ and ‘strike’ mode:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Select the MODE Softkey. The CELL and STRIKE softkeys are displayed.
3) Select the CELL Softkey to display ‘CELL’ data or select the STRIKE Softkey to display ‘STRIKE’ data. ‘CELL’ or
‘STRIKE’ is displayed in the mode box in the upper left corner of the Stormscope Page.
4) Select the BACK Softkey to return to the Stormscope Page.
Or:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between ‘CELL’ and ‘STRIKE’ options.
4) When an item is selected, press the ENT Key.
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If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn
(Figure 6-114). This is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the
nose of the aircraft.
Manually clearing Stormscope data:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Clear Lightning Data’ (Figure 6-114).
4) Press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the CLEAR Softkey.
Figure 6-114 Stormscope Page Options Menu
Changing the viewing mode between 360˚ and 120˚:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Select the VIEW Softkey. The 360 and ARC softkeys are displayed.
3) Select the 360 Softkey to display a 360˚ viewing area or select the ARC Softkey to display a 120˚ viewing area.
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the Stormscope Page.
Or:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between ‘View Arc’ and ‘View 360˚ options.
4) When an item is selected, press the ENT Key.
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6.5 TERRAIN PROXIMITY
WARNING: Do not use Terrain Proximity information for primary terrain avoidance. Terrain Proximity is
intended only to enhance situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed if the aircraft is outside of the terrain database coverage area.
NOTE: The optional Terrain-SVS or TAWS-B systems will take precedence over Terrain Proximity.
G1000 Terrain Proximity is a terrain awareness system that does not comply with TSO-C151b certification
standards. It increases situational awareness and aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). Do not
confuse Terrain Proximity with a Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS). TAWS is more sophisticated
and robust, and it is TSO-C151b certified. Terrain Proximity does not provide warning annunciations or voice
alerts. It only provides color indications on map displays when terrain and obstacles are within a certain altitude
threshold from the aircraft. Although the terrain and obstacle color map displays are the same, TAWS uses more
sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles.
Terrain Proximity requires the following components to operate properly:
• Valid 3-D GPS position
• Valid terrain/obstacle database
Terrain Proximity displays altitudes of terrain and obstructions relative to the aircraft position and altitude with
reference to a database that may contain inaccuracies. Terrain and obstructions are shown only if they are in the
database. Terrain and obstacle information should be used as an aid to situational awareness. They should never
be used to navigate or maneuver around terrain.
Note that all obstructions may not be available in the terrain and obstacle database. No terrain and obstacle
information is shown without a valid 3-D GPS position.
The G1000 GPS receiver provides the horizontal position and altitude. GPS altitude is derived from satellite
position. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above
mean sea level calculated geometrically. GSL altitude is used to determine terrain and obstacle proximity. GSL
altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that
normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL
altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source.
Terrain and obstacle databases are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position and altitude, the Terrain Proximity
feature portrays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and altitude of the
aircraft. GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and predict the aircraft’s flight path in relation to
the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this way, the pilot can view predicted dangerous terrain and obstacle
conditions.
DISPLAYING TERRAIN PROXIMITY DATA
The Map - Terrain Proximity Page is the principal page for viewing terrain and obstacle information. The
system uses the symbols and colors in Figure 6-115 and Table 6-16 to represent obstacles and aircraft altitude
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on the Terrain Proximity Page. Terrain Proximity uses black, yellow, and red to represent terrain information
relative to aircraft altitude. The color of each obstacle is associated with the altitude of the aircraft.
Terrain Above Aircraft Altitude
Red terrain is above
or within 100 ft below
the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude
100 ft Threshold
1000 ft
Yellow terrain is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Black terrain is more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Figure 6-115 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain Proximity
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Gray obstacle* is more than 1000 ft below
aircraft altitude
* Gray obstacles not shown on the Terrain-SVS Page.
Table 6-16 Terrain Proximity Obstacle Colors and Symbology
Display of terrain and obstacle information is available as an additional reference on the following maps and
pages:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Page
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps other than the Terrain Proximity Page):
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey).
2) Select the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
When Terrain Proximity is selected on maps other than the Terrain Proximity Page, an icon to indicate the
feature is enabled for display and a legend for Terrain Proximity colors are shown (Figure 6-119).
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
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data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD, while the
range setting also affects the PFD Inset Map.
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles recognized by
Terrain Proximity as yellow or red are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within
the setting limit.
Maps besides the Terrain Proximity Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
The maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the
Navigation Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20
nm, the highest obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-116).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-117).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-118).
• TERRAIN DATA – Turns the display of terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
• OBSTACLE DATA – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-116 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-117 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-118 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Map Group
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Additional information about obstacles can be displayed by panning over the display on the map. The map
panning feature is enabled by pressing the RANGE Knob. The map range is adjusted by turning the RANGE
Knob. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
Additional Information
on Obstacle Selected
with Map Pointer
Red Terrain Area
(Above or Within 100’
Below Aircraft Altitude)
Yellow Terrain Area
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below Aircraft Altitude)
Red Lighted Obstacles
(Above or Within 100’
Below Aircraft Altitude)
Lighted Obstacle Selected
with Map Pointer
Terrain Display
Enabled Icon
Terrain Legend
Figure 6-119 Terrain Information on the Navigation Map Page
TERRAIN PROXIMITY PAGE
The Map - Terrain Proximity Page is the principal page for showing terrain and obstacle data in relation to the
aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs)
can be displayed for reference.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the RANGE Knob from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
Displaying the Terrain Proximity Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain Proximity Page.
3) To change the view,
a) Press the VIEW Softkey.
b) Press the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘View Arc’ or ‘View 360º’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key to change the view.
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Showing/hiding aviation information on the Terrain Proximity Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft GPSderived GSL Altitude
Red Terrain
(Above or Within 100’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Map Range Rings
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’ Below
the Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Figure 6-120 Terrain Proximity Page
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Red Terrain
(Above or Within 100’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Map Range Arcs
Black Terrain
(Terrain More than 1000’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Figure 6-121 Terrain Proximity Page (ARC View)
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6.6 TERRAIN-SVS
WARNING: Do not use Terrain-SVS information for primary terrain avoidance. Terrain-SVS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed if the aircraft is outside of the terrain database coverage area.
NOTE: Terrain-SVS is included with the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) system. If equipped with TAWS-B,
the TAWS-B option will take precedence over Terrain-SVS.
G1000 Terrain-SVS is a terrain awareness system available with the Synthetic Vision System (SVS). SVS
functionality is offered as an optional enhancement. Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B (TAWS-B)
(if equipped) or standard Terrain-SVS is integrated within SVS to provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the
presence of threatening terrain relevant to the projected flight path. For detailed information regarding SVS, refer
to the Synthetic Vision System (SVS) section of the G1000 Pilot’s Guide.
Terrain-SVS does not comply with TSO-C151b certification standards. It increases situational awareness and
aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). Do not confuse Terrain-SVS with TAWS-B. TAWS-B is more
sophisticated and robust, and it is TSO-C151b certified. Although the terrain and obstacle color map displays
are the same, TAWS-B uses more sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles.
Terrain-SVS does not provide the following:
• Premature Descent Alerting (PDA)
• Excessive Descent Rate (EDR)
• Negative Climb Rate (NCR)
• Descent to 500 Feet Callout (DFC)
Terrain-SVS requires the following components to operate properly:
• Valid 3-D GPS position
• Valid terrain/obstacle database
Terrain-SVS displays altitudes of terrain and obstructions relative to the aircraft position and altitude with
reference to a database that may contain inaccuracies. Terrain and obstructions are shown only if they are in the
database. Terrain and obstacle information should be used as an aid to situational awareness. They should never
be used to navigate or maneuver around terrain.
Note that all obstructions may not be available in the terrain and obstacle database. No terrain and obstacle
information is shown without a valid 3-D GPS position.
The G1000 GPS receiver provides the horizontal position and altitude. GPS altitude is derived from satellite
position. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above
mean sea level calculated geometrically. GSL altitude is used to determine terrain and obstacle proximity. GSL
altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that
normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL
altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source.
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Terrain and obstacle databases are referenced to GSL. Using the GPS position and altitude, the Terrain-SVS
feature portrays a 3-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and altitude of the
aircraft. GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and predict the aircraft’s flight path in relation to
the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this way, the pilot can view predicted dangerous terrain and obstacle
conditions.
DISPLAYING TERRAIN-SVS DATA
Terrain-SVS uses yellow (caution) and red (warning) to depict terrain and obstacles with heights greater than
200 feet above ground level, AGL. Alerts are given relative to aircraft altitude. Colors are adjusted automatically
as the aircraft altitude changes. The colors and symbols shown in the figure and tables below are used to
represent terrain, obstacles, and potential impact points.
Potential Impact Point
Terrain above or
within 100 ft
below the aircraft
altitude
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Unlighted Obstacle
1000 ft
Terrain between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the
aircraft altitude
Terrain more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Figure 6-122 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain-SVS
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Gray obstacle* is more than 1000 ft below
aircraft altitude
* Gray obstacles not shown on the Terrain-SVS Page.
Table 6-17 Terrain-SVS Obstacle Colors and Symbology
Potential Impact
Point Symbol
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
Warning
Caution
Table 6-18 Terrain-SVS Potential Impact Point Symbols with Alert Types
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The Map - Terrain-SVS Page is the principal page for viewing terrain and obstacle information. In addition,
Terrain-SVS information can be displayed on the following pages and maps for reference:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Pages
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps other than the Terrain-SVS Page):
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey).
2) Select the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
When Terrain-SVS is selected on maps other than the Terrain-SVS Page, an icon to indicate the feature is
enabled for display and a legend for Terrain-SVS terrain colors is shown.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD, while the
range setting also affects the PFD Inset Map.
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles for which warnings
and cautions are issued are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting
limit.
Maps other than the Terrain-SVS Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The
maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the Navigation
Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20 nm, the highest
obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-123).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Map Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-124).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-125).
• TERRAIN DATA – Turns the display of terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
• OBSTACLE DATA – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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Figure 6-123 Navigation Map
Page Menu
Figure 6-124 Navigation Map Page
Setup Menu
Figure 6-125 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu,
Map Group
TERRAIN-SVS PAGE
The Terrain-SVS Page is specialized to show terrain, obstacle, and potential impact point data in relation
to the aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other
NAVAIDs) can be displayed for reference. If an obstacle and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect,
the display automatically zooms in to the closest potential point of impact on the Terrain-SVS Page.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft; the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the RANGE Knob from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings or arcs.
Displaying the Terrain-SVS Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain-SVS Page.
Changing the Terrain-SVS Page view:
1) Select the VIEW Softkey.
2) Press the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘View Arc’ or ‘View 360º’, dependent on current state, and press the ENT Key to change the view.
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Showing/hiding aviation information on the Terrain-SVS Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’, dependent on current state, and press the ENT Key.
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft GPSderived GSL Altitude
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’ Below
the Aircraft Altitude)
Map Range Rings
Red Terrain
(Above or Within 100’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Annunciation
Window
Figure 6-126 Terrain-SVS Page, 360º View
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’ Below
the Aircraft Altitude)
Map Range Arcs
Red Terrain
(Above or Within 100’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below the Aircraft Altitude)
Annunciation
Window
Figure 6-127 Terrain-SVS Page (ARC View)
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TERRAIN-SVS ALERTS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within Terrain-SVS software algorithms.
Terrain-SVS alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an alert is
issued, visual annunciations are displayed and aural alerts are simultaneously issued. Table 6-19 shows TerrainSVS alert types with corresponding annunciations and aural messages.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The Terrain-SVS Alert Annunciation is
shown to the upper left of the Altimeter on the PFD and below the Terrain Legend on the MFD. If the TerrainSVS Page is not displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the MFD pop-up
alert:
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the Terrain-SVS Page)
Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-128 Alert Annunciation on the PFD
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Figure 6-129 Alert Pop-up on the MFD
Potential
Impact Points
Alert
Annunciation
Figure 6-130 Terrain-SVS Alert Annunciation on the MFD
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TERRAIN-SVS INHIBIT
FLTA aural and visual alerts can be manually inhibited. Use caution when inhibiting Terrain-SVS as the
system should be enabled when appropriate. When Terrain-SVS is inhibited, the alert annunciation ‘TER
INH’ is shown on the PFD and in the annunciation window on the MFD.
Figure 6-131 Terrain-SVS Alerting Disabled
(Terrain-SVS Inhibited) Annunciation
Inhibiting/enabling Terrain-SVS alerting:
1) Select the Terrain-SVS Page.
2) Select the INHIBIT Softkey to inhibit or enable Terrain-SVS (choice dependent on current state).
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Inhibit Terrain-SVS’ or ‘Enable Terrain-SVS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
If Terrain-SVS alerts are inhibited when the Final Approach Fix is the active waypoint during a GPS SBAS
approach, a LOW ALT annunciation may appear on the PFD next to the altimeter if the current aircraft
altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed altitude at the Final Approach Fix. See the Flight Instruments
Section for details.
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
MFD
Pop-Up Alert (except
Terrain-SVS Page)
Aural Message
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning (IOI)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution (IOI)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-19 Terrain-SVS Alerts Summary
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FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values in Figure 6-132. When an RTC alert is issued, a potential impact point is displayed on the
Terrain-SVS Page.
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is below the elevation of a terrain or obstacle cell in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts are
accompanied by a potential impact point displayed on the Terrain-SVS Page. The alert is annunciated when
the projected vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes in Figure 6-132.
Required Terrain Clearance
RTC Level (FT)
RTC Descending (FT)
Required Terrain ClearanceClearance
(FT)
Minimum Terrain/Obstacle
(FT)
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Distance From Runway (NM)
Distance
From Runway (NM)
Figure 6-132 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
FLTA alerts are automatically inhibited when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination runway
elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends.
SYSTEM STATUS
During power-up, Terrain-SVS conducts a system test of its aural and visual annunciations. An aural alert is
issued at test completion.
Alert Type
PFD/MFD* Alert
Annunciation
Aural Message
System Test in Progress
System Test Pass
None
None
Terrain System Test Fail
“Terrain System Test OK”
“Terrain System Failure”
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-20 Terrain-SVS System Test Status Annunciations
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Terrain-SVS continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status,
and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert, “Terrain System Failure” is
generated along with the ‘TER FAIL’ alert annunciation.
Terrain-SVS requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should
the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TER N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the Terrain-SVS Page. The voice alert, “Terrain
System Not Available” is generated. When the GPS signal is re-established and the aircraft is within the
database coverage area, the voice alert “Terrain System Available” is generated.
Alert Cause
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable
or invalid. Terrain-SVS
operating with PFD Terrain or
Obstacle databases
Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid, invalid
software configuration, audio
fault
No GPS position
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
None
Terrain-SVS Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Aural Message
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
TERRAIN FAIL
“Terrain System Failure”
NO GPS POSITION
“Terrain System Not Available”
“Terrain System Available” when
GPS position returns
“Terrain System Not Available”
“Terrain System Available” when
sufficient GPS signal is received
“Terrain System Not Available”
“Terrain System Available” when
aircraft re-enters coverage area
Excessively degraded GPS
signal
None
Out of database coverage
area
None
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-21 Terrain-SVS Status Annunciations
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6.7 TAWS-B
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain and obstacle avoidance. TAWS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle information is not displayed if the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain
database coverage area.
NOTE: The data contained in the TAWS databases comes from government agencies. Garmin accurately
processes and cross-validates the data but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
TAWS-B (Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B) provides increased situational awareness and aids
in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). TAWS-B provides visual annunciations and voice alerts when
terrain and obstacles are within the given altitude threshold from the aircraft. The displayed alerts and warnings
are advisory in nature only.
TAWS-B satisfies TSO-C151b Class B requirements for certification.
TAWS-B requires the following to operate properly:
• A valid terrain/obstacle/airport terrain database
• A valid 3-D GPS position solution
TAWS-B uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. Terrain information is based
on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may be
shown if available in the database. Garmin verifies the data to confirm accuracy of the content, per TSO-C151b.
However, the displayed information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and data may be inaccurate.
TAWS-B uses information provided from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude. GPS
altitude is derived from satellite measurements. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic
sea level (GSL), which is the height above mean sea level (MSL) calculated geometrically. The system uses GSL
altitude to determine TAWS-B alerts. GSL altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject
to variations in pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not
require local altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source. Therefore,
GSL altitude provides a highly accurate and reliable MSL altitude source to calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
The terrain and obstacle databases used by TAWS-B are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position and GSL
altitude, TAWS-B displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and
altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the system uses the GPS position and GSL altitude to calculate and “predict”
the aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this manner, TAWS-B can provide
advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain and obstacle conditions.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
from the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude shown on the TAWS-B Page.
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DISPLAYING TAWS-B DATA
TAWS-B uses yellow (caution) and red (warning) to depict terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than
200 feet above ground level, AGL) alerts relative to aircraft altitude. Colors are adjusted automatically as the
aircraft altitude changes. The colors and symbols in the figure and tables below are used to represent terrain,
obstacles, and potential impact points.
Potential Impact Point
Terrain above or
within 100 ft
below the aircraft
altitude
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Unlighted Obstacle
1000 ft
Terrain between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the
aircraft altitude
Terrain more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Figure 6-133 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for TAWS-B
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Gray obstacle* is more than 1000 ft below
aircraft altitude
* Gray obstacles not shown on the TAWS-B Page.
Table 6-22 TAWS-B Obstacle Colors and Symbology
Potential Impact
Point Symbol
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
Warning
Caution
Table 6-23 TAWS-B Potential Impact Point Symbols with Alert Types
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TAWS-B information can be displayed on the following maps:
• PFD Inset Navigation Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Pages
• TAWS-B Page
• System Pages (when terrain is enabled on the
Navigation Map Page)
TAWS-B relative terrain and obstacle information is also available for display in the optional Profile View
Window on the Navigation Map Page. Refer to the Profile View Terrain discussion in this section for more
information.
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps except the TAWS-B Page or PFD Inset Navigation
Map):
1) Press the MAP Softkey.
2) Press the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
Displaying terrain and obstacle information on the PFD Inset Navigation Map:
1) On the PFD, press the INSET Softkey.
2) If the PFD Inset Map is showing the traffic map, press the TFRC-2 Softkey to display the navigation map.
3) Press the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
The system displays a TAWS-B icon with the terrain legend when terrain and obstacles are enabled on MFD
maps. The legend appears without the terrain icon on the dedicated TAWS-B Page.
Figure 6-134 TAWS-B Icon and Legend
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If the crew selects a map range larger than the selected map
range setting, the data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to
the MFD, while the range setting also affects the PFD Inset Map.
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles for which warnings
and cautions are issued are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting
limit.
Maps besides the TAWS-B Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The
maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the Navigation
Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20 nm, the highest
obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
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Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-135).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-136).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-137).
• TERRAIN DATA – Enables/disables display of terrain data and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
• OBSTACLE DATA – Enables/disables display off obstacle data and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-135 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-136 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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TAWS-B PAGE
The Map - TAWS-B Page is specialized to show terrain, obstacle, and potential impact point data in relation
to the aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. It is the principal map page for viewing
TAWS-B information. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs) can be displayed for reference. If an
obstacle and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the display automatically zooms in to the closest
potential point of impact on the TAWS-B Page.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the Joystick from one to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
Displaying the TAWS-B Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the TAWS-B Page.
Changing the TAWS-B Page view:
1) Select the VIEW Softkey.
2) Select the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘View Arc’ or ‘View 360º’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key to change the view
Showing/hiding aviation information on the TAWS-B Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
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Red Terrain
(Terrain Above
or Within 100’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
Aircraft Altitude
Above Geodetic Sea
Level (GSL)
Black Terrain
(Terrain More than
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Red obstacle is
above or within
100’ below the
aircraft altitude
Yellow Terrain
(Terrain Between
100’ and 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
Map Range Rings
Yellow obstacle is
between 100’ and
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude
Terrain Legend
Annunciation Window
Figure 6-138 TAWS-B Page
Red Terrain
(Terrain Above
or Within 100’
Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Aircraft Altitude
Above Geodetic
Sea Level (GSL)
Map Range Arc
Black Terrain
(Terrain More
than 1000’
Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Yellow Terrain
(Terrain
Between
100’ and
1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Yellow obstacle
is between
100’ and 1000’
below the
aircraft altitude
Red obstacle is
above or within
100’ below the
aircraft altitude
Terrain Legend
Annunciation Window
Figure 6-139 TAWS-B Page (ARC View)
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TAWS-B ALERTS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within TAWS-B software algorithms.
TAWS-B alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an alert is
issued, the system provides visual annunciations and voice alerts. Table 6-24 shows TAWS-B alert types with
corresponding annunciations and voice alerts.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The TAWS-B Alert Annunciation is
shown to the upper left of the Altimeter on the PFD and below the Terrain Legend on the MFD. If the TAWS-B
Page is not displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up alert:
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the TAWS-B Page)
Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-140 TAWS-B PFD Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-141 Navigation Map Page
TAWS-B Pop-up Alert
Terrain Display Enabled
Terrain Legend
Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-142 Navigation Map Page
(After TAWS-B Pop-up Alert Acknowledgment)
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Alert Type
PFD/MFD†
MFD Pop-Up Alert
Alert
(Except TAWS-B Page)
Annunciation
Voice Alert
Excessive Descent Rate
Warning (EDR)
“Pull Up”
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Warning (RTC)
*
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
*
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
*
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
or
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Warning (ROC)
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Warning (IOI)
or
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Caution (RTC)
or
Imminent Terrain Impact
Caution (ITI)
or
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Caution (ROC)
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Caution (IOI)
Negative Climb Rate
Caution (NCR)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
or
Imminent Terrain Impact
Warning (ITI)
Premature Descent Alert
Caution (PDA)
Altitude Callout “500”
Excessive Descent Rate
Caution (EDR)
*
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
“Sink Rate”
*
or
“Don’t Sink”*
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
† Annunciation is shown on TAWS-B Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
* Alerts with multiple messages are configurable at installation and are installation-dependent. Alerts for the default
configuration are indicated with asterisks.
Table 6-24 TAWS-B Alerts Summary
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EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide suitable notification when the
aircraft is determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain at an excessive speed. Figure 6-143 shows the
parameters for the alert as defined by TSO-C151b.
6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
4000
NK
: “SI
ion
Caut
3500
”
RATE
3000
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
Descent Rate (FPM)
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
500
Figure 6-143 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE (FLTA)
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance feature of TAWS-B compares the aircraft’s projected flight path
with known terrain and obstacles in their respective databases and issues four types of alerts as either a
caution or a warning:
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values in Figure 6-144. When an RTC alert is issued, a potential impact point is displayed on the
TAWS-B Page.
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is below the elevation of a terrain or obstacle cell in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts
are accompanied by a potential impact point displayed on the TAWS-B Page. The alert is annunciated when
the projected vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes in Figure 6-144.
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Required Terrain Clearance
RTC Level (FT)
RTC Descending (FT)
800
700
Required Terrain Clearance (FT)
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Distance From Runway (NM)
Figure 6-144 FLTA Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Values
FLTA alerts are automatically inhibited when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination runway
elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends.
PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway (Figure 6-145).
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
800
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
600
500
400
300
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-145 PDA Alerting Threshold
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PDA and FLTA visual annunciations and voice alerts can be manually inhibited. Discretion should be used
when inhibiting these alerts, and the system should be enabled when appropriate. When PDA and FLTA
alerts are inhibited, the alert annunciation ‘TAWS INH’ is shown on the PFD and MFD (Figure 6-146).
Figure 6-146 TAWS Alerting Disabled
(TAWS-B Inhibited) Annunciation
Inhibiting/enabling TAWS-B PDA and FLTA alerting:
1) Select the TAWS-B Page.
2) Select the INHIBIT Softkey to inhibit or enable TAWS (choice dependent on current state).
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Inhibit TAWS’ or ‘Enable TAWS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
If TAWS-B alerts are inhibited when the Final Approach Fix is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach,
a ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation may appear on the PFD next to the Altimeter if the current aircraft altitude is at
least 164 feet below the prescribed altitude at the Final Approach Fix. See the Flight Instruments Section for
details.
FIVE HUNDRED ALTITUDE VOICE CALLOUT ALERT
The purpose of the voice alert “Five-hundred” is to provide an advisory alert of when the aircraft descends
to within 500 feet above the terrain or runway threshold. When the aircraft is within 5 nm of an airport, the
“Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the nearest runway threshold elevation. When the aircraft is more
than 5 nm of the nearest airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the height above terrain.
There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the “Five Hundred” voice alert.
NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff.
The voice alert “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by an annunciation and a pop-up terrain
alert on the display. NCR alerting is only active when departing from an airport and when the following
conditions are met:
• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
• Distance from the departure airport is 2 nm or less
• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
Figures 6-114 and 6-115 shows the NCR alerting parameters based on altitude loss and sink rate, respectively,
as defined by TSO-C151b.
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1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
500
“DON’T SINK”
400
300
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-147 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
500
400
“DON’T SINK”
300
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-148 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
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SYSTEM STATUS
During power-up, TAWS-B conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts. The system test
can also be manually initiated. The system issues a voice alert when the test has concluded. TAWS-B System
Testing is disabled when ground speed exceeds 30 knots.
PFD/MFD Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
System Test in Progress
System Test Pass
None
TAWS-B System Test Fail
TAWS-B
Page Center
Annunciation
Voice Alert
TAWS TEST
None
None
“TAWS System Test OK”
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
Table 6-25 TAWS-B System Test Status Annunciations
Manually testing the TAWS-B System:
1) Select the TAWS-B Page.
2) Press the MENU Key (Figure 6-149).
3) Select ‘Test TAWS System’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the selection.
Figure 6-149 TAWS-B Page Menu
TAWS-B continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status, and
GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert “TAWS System Failure” is generated
along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
TAWS-B requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should the
navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TAWS N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the TAWS-B Page. The voice alert “TAWS Not
Available” is generated. When sufficient GPS signal is received and the aircraft is within the terrain database
coverage area, the voice alert “TAWS Available” is generated.
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Alert Cause
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or
invalid. TAWS operating
with PFD Terrain or Obstacle
databases
Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid on all
displays, invalid software
configuration, TAWS audio
fault
No GPS position
PFD/MFD*
Annunciation
None
TAWS-B Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Voice Alert
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
NO GPS POSITION
“TAWS Not Available”
None
“TAWS Not Available”
Excessively degraded GPS
signal, aircraft outside of
terrain database coverage area
*Annunciation appears on MFD pages when terrain is displayed.
Table 6-26 TAWS-B Abnormal Conditions
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6.8 PROFILE VIEW TERRAIN
The system offers an optional Profile View of terrain and obstacles relative to the aircraft’s current flight path and
altitude on the Navigation Map Page of the MFD. This Profile View does not provide terrain or obstacle caution or
warning annunciations or voice alerts systems, nor does it display potential impact points inside the Profile View.
The Profile View uses the same colors for obstacle and relative terrain information as the Terrain Proxmity, TerrainSVS or TAWS-B systems; refer to those discussions for more information on relative terrain colors and symbols.
Enabling/Disabling Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the PROFILE Softkey to enable or disable Profile View.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
Enabling/Disabling Profile View Terrain on the Navigation Map (when Profile View is enabled):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the TERRAIN Softkey.
PROFILE VIEW DISPLAY
When the Profile View is enabled, it is displayed in a window below the Navigation Map. Altitude is shown
along a vertical scale, with an aircraft icon positioned at the current altitude. Distance is represented horizontally
along the bottom of the Profile View, and increases from left (present position) to right.
When the Navigation Map range is adjusted with the Joystick, the horizontal distance of the Profile View is
adjusted proportionately to be 1/2 of the Navigation Map range distance down to one nautical mile, at which
point Profile View is no longer available (‘PROFILE NOT AVAILABLE’ is displayed).
When terrain and obstacles are shown on the Navigation Map Page, this information also appears in the
Profile View Window. If the Navigation Map range is adjusted beyond the maximum map range for terrain and
obstacle data appear on the Navigation Map, this information is also removed from the Profile View Window.
Refer to the terrain discussions for information selecting the maximum map range to display terrain and
obstacles on navigation maps.
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Profile Path
Range
Markers
Terrain Legend
Navigation Map
Range
Altitude Scale
Profile View Length
is One Half of the
Navigation Map
Range
Distance Scale
Figure 6-150 Profile View on Navigation Map with Terrain Display Enabled
Obstacles with heights greater than 200 feet AGL appear relative to aircraft altitude along the altitude scale.
The top of the obstacle symbol on the scale represents the obstacle’s height AGL. If the obstacle’s height AGL
is higher than can be represented by the obstacle symbol itself (e.g. for unusually tall obstacles), a vertical line
appears below the obstacle symbol in order to depict the top of the obstacle symbol at its height AGL, as shown
in Figure 6-151.
Figure 6-151 Profile View with Tall Obstacles
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PROFILE PATH
The contents of the Profile View Window are based on the current aircraft track (or heading if track is
unavailable), and the system shows the highest known terrain or obstacles within a predetermined width from
the present position to the end of the profile range inside the Profile View Window. This width is determined by
the phase of flight, as annunciated on the HSI, and is widest during enroute and oceanic phases, and narrowest
during approach and departure phases (Table 6-27).
Flight Phase
Approach
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Total Profile
View Width
0.6 nm
0.6 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
4.0 nm
Table 6-27 Profile View Width Scale
The Profile Path display is a visual cue which represents the horizontal and lateral boundaries of the Profile
View on the Navigation Map Page. This path is depicted as a white rectangle and is only available when Profile
View is enabled. White range markers both edges of the Profile Path match the range markers along the
distance scale inside the Profile View Window. The Profile View distance must be at least four nautical miles
(or 7.5 km if configured for metric units) in order for the path display to appear on the Navigation Map Page.
The pilot can enable or disable the Profile Path display on the Navigation Map. The pilot can also select
the maximum navigation map range to show the Profile Path. If a map range is selected beyond the selected
maximum range, the system removes the Profile Path display.
Customizing the Profile Path display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-152).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Profile’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-153).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-154).
• PROFILE PATH – Turns the display of the Profile Path on or off and sets maximum range at which Profile Path
is shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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Figure 6-152 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-153 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-154 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu,
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6.9 TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE (TIS)
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the displays.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
NOTE: TIS is available only when the aircraft is within the service volume of a TIS-capable terminal radar
site. Aircraft without an operating transponder are invisible to Traffic Advisory Systems (TAS), Traffic Alert
and Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS), and to TIS. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown
without altitude separation data or climb descent indication.
NOTE: TIS is disabled if another traffic system is installed.
Traffic Information Service (TIS) assists the flight crew in detection and avoidance of other aircraft. TIS uses the
Mode S transponder for the traffic data link. TIS receives traffic information from ground stations, and provides
updates every five seconds. The system displays up to eight traffic targets within a 7.5-nm radius, from 3000
feet below to 3500 feet above the requesting aircraft. The system displays traffic with the following symbology:
TIS Symbol
Description
Non-Threat Traffic
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-28 TIS Traffic Symbols
A Traffic Advisory (TA) indicates that the current track of the intruder could result in a collision. When traffic
meets the advisory criteria for the TA, a solid yellow circle symbol appears. A TA which is detected, but is outside
the range of the map, causes a banner message to appear in the lower left corner of the map and a half TA symbol
to appear at the relative bearing of the intruder.
TIS also provides a vector line showing the direction in which the traffic is moving, to the nearest 45°. Traffic
information for which TIS is unable to determine the bearing (non-bearing traffic) is displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map Page (Figure 6-159) or in a banner at the lower left corner of maps other than the Traffic Map Page
on which traffic can be displayed.
The altitude difference between the requesting aircraft and other intruder aircraft is displayed above/below the
traffic symbol in hundreds of feet. If the other aircraft is above the requesting aircraft, the altitude separation
appears above the traffic symbol; if below, the altitude separation appears below. Altitude trend is displayed as
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an up/down arrow (for vertical speeds at least 500 feet per minute in either direction) to the right of the target
symbol. Traffic symbols for aircraft without altitude reporting capability appear without altitude separation or
climb/descent information.
DISPLAYING TRAFFIC DATA
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps (when TIS is operating):
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option is
installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Displaying traffic information (maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Select the MAP Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, an the system displays a status icon to
indicate the feature is enabled for display.
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
Traffic
Advisory,
500’ Below,
Climbing
Non-Threat
Traffic,
Altitude Not
Reported
Traffic Display
Enabled Icon
TIS Banner
Annunciations
Figure 6-155 TIS Traffic on the Navigation Map Page
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Displaying traffic information (PFD Inset Map):
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data on the inset map (TRFC-1).
3) Press the softkey again to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
4) Press the softkey again to remove traffic data.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of traffic. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which traffic data (symbols
and labels) are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use settings based on those selected for the
Navigation Map Page.
Customizing traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-156).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Traffic’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-157).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-158).
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA ONLY - Displays Traffic Advisories only
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown (with the option to turn off)
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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Figure 6-156 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-157 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-158 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The Traffic Map Page is specialized to show surrounding TIS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current
position and altitude, without clutter from the basemap. It is the principal map page for viewing TIS traffic
information. Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range
is adjustable with the Joystick from two to 12 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is on the
ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. Once the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches from Standby to
Operating Mode and the system begins to display traffic information. Refer to the System Status discussion for
more information.
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Confirm TIS is in Operating Mode:
Select the OPERATE Softkey to begin displaying traffic.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ (shown if TIS is in Standby Mode) and press the ENT Key.
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Traffic Mode Annunciation
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
“TIS Not Available”
Voice Alert Status
Traffic Advisory
500’ Below,
Climbing
“Non-Bearing”
Traffic
(System Unable to
Determine Bearing)
Distance is 4.0 nm,
500’ Above,
Descending
Traffic
Advisory OffScale, 400’
Below, Level
Non-Threat
Traffic, Altitude
Not Reported
Traffic Status
Banners
Figure 6-159 Traffic Map Page
Select to
Mute “TIS Not
Available” Voice
Alert
TIS ALERTS
When the number of TAs on the Traffic Map Page increases from one scan to the next, the following occur:
• A single “Traffic” voice alert is generated.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears to the top left of the Attitude Indicator on the PFD, flashing for 5 seconds
and remaining displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with traffic.
To reduce the number of nuisance alerts due to proximate aircraft, the “Traffic” voice alert is generated only
when the number of TAs increases. For example, when the first TA is displayed, a voice and visual annunciation
are generated. As long as a single TA remains on the display, no additional voice alerts are generated. If a second
TA appears on the display or if the number of TAs initially decreases and then subsequently increases, another
voice alert is generated.
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Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-160 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
A “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert occurs when the TIS service becomes unavailable or is out of range.
TIS may be unavailable in the radar coverage area due to the following:
• Radar site TIS Mode S sensor is not operational or is out of service
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is beyond the maximum range of the TIS-capable Mode S radar site.
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is above the radar site in the cone of silence and out of range of an adjacent site.
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is below radar coverage. In flat terrain, the coverage extends from about 3000
feet upward at 55 miles. Terrain and obstacles around the radar site can further decrease radar coverage in all
directions.
• Traffic does not have an operating transponder.
The “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert can be manually muted to reduce nuisance alerting. TNA muting
status is shown in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Muting the “TIS Not Available” voice alert:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Select the TNA MUTE Softkey. The status is displayed in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘‘’Not Available” Mute On’ (shown if TNA muting is currently off) and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM STATUS
The system performs an automatic test of TIS during power-up. If TIS passes the test, TIS enters Standby
Mode (on the ground) or Operating Mode (in the air). If TIS fails the power up test, the system displays an
annunciation in the center of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Map Page
Center Banner
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the transponder*
Data is being received from the transponder, but
a failure is detected in the data stream*
The transponder has failed*
UNAVAILABLE
TIS is unavailable or out of range
* Contact a service center or Garmin dealer for corrective action
Table 6-29 TIS Failure Annunciations
System Test
has Failed
Data Not
Received from
Transponder
Figure 6-161 TIS Power-up Test Failure
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is on the
ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. If traffic is selected for display on another map while Standby
Mode is selected, the traffic display enabled icon is crossed out (also the case whenever TIS has failed). Once
the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches to Operating Mode and traffic information is displayed. The mode can be
changed manually using softkeys or the page menu.
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Mode
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
TIS Operating
OPERATING
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TIS Standby
FAIL
TIS Failed
Table 6-30 TIS Modes
Switching between TIS modes:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Select the STANDBY or OPERATE Softkey select a mode. The mode is displayed in the upper left corner of the
Traffic Map Page.
Or:
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Operate Mode’ or ‘Standby Mode’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key. The
annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner
of maps on which traffic can be displayed (Table 6-31).
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
AGE MM:SS
TRFC COAST
TRFC RMVD
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
TRFC UNAVAIL
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending)
Appears if traffic data is not refreshed within 6 seconds
If after another 6 seconds data is not received, traffic is removed from the display
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced as the age increases
The displayed data is not current (6 to 12 seconds since last message)
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced when this message is displayed
Traffic is removed because it is too old for coasting (12 to 60 seconds since last message)
Traffic may exist within the selected display range, but it is not displayed
Traffic data has failed
Traffic has not been detected
The traffic service is unavailable or out of range
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-31 TIS Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.10 TAS/TCAS I TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate information
from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
NOTE: Pilots should be aware of on-board traffic system limitations. These systems require transponders
of other aircraft to respond to system interrogations. If the transponders do not respond to interrogations
due phenomena such as antenna shading or marginal transponder performance, traffic may be displayed
intermittently, or not at all. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude
separation data or climb descent indication. Pilots should remain vigilant for traffic at all times.
NOTE: TIS is disabled when a TAS or TCAS I system is installed.
The optional Garmin GTS 825 is a Traffic Advisory System (TAS). The optional Garmin GTS 855 is a Traffic
Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS I). The traffic system enhances flight crew situational awareness by
displaying traffic information for transponder-equipped aircraft. The system also provides visual annunciations
and voice traffic alerts to assist the crew in visually acquiring traffic. Differences between the TAS and TCAS I
system are noted where applicable.
The traffic system is capable of tracking up to 45 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode A or C transponders,
and up to 30 intruders equipped with Mode S transponders. A maximum of 30 aircraft with the highest threat
potential can be displayed simultaneously. No traffic surveillance is provided for aircraft without operating
transponders.
THEORY OF OPERATION
When the traffic system is in Operating Mode, the unit interrogates the transponders of aircraft in its vicinity
while monitoring transponder replies. The traffic system uses this information to determine the distance,
relative bearing, and if reported, the altitude vertical trend, and other information for each aircraft within its
surveillance range. The traffic system then calculates a closure rate to each intruder based on the projected
Closest Point of Approach (CPA). If the closure rate meets the threat criteria for a Traffic Advisory (TA), visual
and aural alerting is provided.
SURVEILLANCE VOLUME AND SYMBOLOGY
The traffic surveillance system monitors the airspace within ±10,000 feet of own altitude. Under ideal
conditions, the unit scans transponder traffic up to 40 nm in the forward direction. Range is somewhat
reduced to the sides and aft of own aircraft due to the directional interrogation signal patterns. In areas of
greater transponder traffic density or when TCAS II systems from other aircraft are detected, the on-board
traffic system automatically reduces its interrogation transmitter power (and therefore range) in order to limit
potential interference from other signals.
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When paired with a 1090 MHz extended squitter transponder, the traffic system uses Automatic Dependent
Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) data from participating airborne aircraft transponders to enhance the
positional accuracy and display of traffic within the TAS/TCAS I surveillance range. Traffic data supplied
only by ADS-B Ground Based Transceivers (GBTs) is not displayed.
NOTE: Do not confuse this functionality with full ADS-B capability, which can provide traffic information
from ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and ADS-B traffic outside of the TAS/TCAS I surveillance
volume. This system is limited to displaying ADS-B information from suitably equipped airborne aircraft
within the TAS/TCAS I surveillance volume.
Traffic Symbol
Description
Non-Threat Traffic
Proximity Advisory (PA)
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-32 TAS/TCAS I Symbol Description
Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Points in the
direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Points in
the direction of the aircraft track.
Non-threat traffic with ADS-B directional information. Points in the
direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic with ADS-B directional information, but positional accuracy
is degraded. Points in the direction of the aircraft track.
Table 6-33 TAS/TCAS I Traffic with ADS-B Symbology
A Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as a yellow circle or triangle, alerts the crew to a potentially hazardous
intruding aircraft, if the closing rate, distance, and vertical separation meet TA criteria. A Traffic Advisory
that is beyond the selected display range (off scale) is indicated by a half TA symbol at the edge of the screen
at the relative bearing of the intruder.
A Proximity Advisory (PA), displayed as a solid white diamond or triangle, indicates the intruding aircraft
is within ±1200 feet and is within a 6 nm range, but is still not considered a TA threat.
A Non-threat Advisory, shown as an open white diamond or triangle, is displayed for traffic beyond 6 nm
that is neither a TA or PA.
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A solid white rounded arrow indicates either a PA or Non-Threat traffic with ADS-B directional information,
but the position of the traffic is shown with degraded accuracy.
Relative altitude, when available, is displayed above or below the corresponding intruder symbol in
hundreds of feet (Figure 6-162). When this altitude is above own aircraft, it is preceded by a ‘+’ symbol; a
minus sign ‘-’ indicates traffic is below own aircraft.
A vertical trend arrow to the right of the intruder symbol (Figure 6-162) indicates climbing or descending
traffic with an upward or downward-pointing arrow respectively.
Relative Altitude
Vertical trend arrow
Figure 6-162 Intruder Altitude and Vertical Trend Arrow
If the intruding aircraft is providing ADS-B track information, this is displayed as a vector line extending
beyond the traffic symbol in the direction of the track (Figure 6-163).
Vector Line indicates
intruder aircraft track
Figure 6-163 Intruder Traffic with ADS-B Directional
Information and Track
Flight IDs may also be displayed with traffic symbols; see the Flight IDs discussion in this section for more
information.
On-ground aircraft with Mode S transponders are not displayed.
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TA ALERTING CONDITIONS
The traffic system automatically adjusts its TA sensitivity level to reduce the likelihood of nuisance TA
alerting during flight phases likely to be near airports. The system uses Level A TA sensitivity when the
landing gear is extended; Level B TA sensitivity applies in all other conditions.
Sensitivity Intruder Altitude
Level
Available
A
Yes
A
No
B
Yes
B
No
TA Alerting Conditions
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of horizontal separation and vertical
separation is within 600 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 nm and vertical separation is within 600 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of separation.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of horizontal separation and vertical
separation is within 800 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 nm and vertical separation is within 800 feet.
Intruder range is less than 20 seconds.
Table 6-34 TA Sensitivity Level and TA Alerting Criteria
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TRAFFIC ALERTS
When the traffic system detects a new TA, the following occur:
• A single “Traffic!” voice alert is generated, followed by additional voice information about the bearing, relative
altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table 6-35). The announcement
“Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” indicates the traffic is in front of own aircraft, above own altitude,
and approximately four nautical miles away.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears at the top right of the airspeed on the PFD, flashes for five seconds, and
remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area (Figure 6-164).
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with TA traffic.
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined (Figures 6-166 and 6-169), a yellow text banner will be
displayed in the center of the Traffic Map Page and in the lower-left of maps with traffic displayed instead of
a TA symbol. The text will indicate “TA” followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow
for the TA traffic, if known.
A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the conditions that initially triggered the TA are no
longer present.
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-164 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Distance
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
Table 6-35 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
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SYSTEM TEST
NOTE: Traffic surveillance is not available during the system test. Use caution when performing a system
test while in-flight.
The traffic system provides a system test mode to verify the system is operating normally. The test takes about
ten seconds to complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols is displayed on the
Traffic Map Page (Figure 6-165). The traffic system issues a voice alert when the test is completed. If the system
passes the test, the traffic system enters Standby Mode. If the system test fails, the system enters Failure Mode.
Traffic System
Test Passed
Test Failed
GTS 825 (TAS)
“TAS System Test Passed”
“TAS System Test Failed”
GTS 855 (TCAS I)
“TCAS One System Test Passed”
“TCAS One System Test Failed”
Table 6-36 GTS 825 and 855 System Test Voice Alerts
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Turn the Joystick to set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full traffic test pattern display.
4) Select the TEST Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Test Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key.
Test Mode Annunciation
Operating
Mode
Non-Threat
Traffic at
11 o’clock,
Distance 3.6
nm, 1000’
Above, Level
Proximity
Traffic at
1 o’clock,
Distance
3.6 nm,
1000’ Below,
Descending
TA at 9 o’clock,
Distance 2.0
nm, 200’ Below,
Climbing
Figure 6-165 System Test in Progress with Test Pattern
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OPERATION
NOTE: The traffic system automatically transitions from STANDBY to OPERATE mode eight seconds after
takeoff. The system automatically transitions from OPERATE to STANDBY mode 24 seconds after landing.
After power-up, the traffic system is in Standby Mode. The unit must be in Operating Mode for traffic to be
displayed and for TAs to be issued.
Selecting the OPERATE Softkey allows the traffic system to switch from Standby Mode to Operating Mode
as necessary. Selecting the STANDBY Softkey forces the unit into Standby Mode.
Switching from Operating Mode to Standby Mode:
On the Traffic Page, select the STANDBY Softkey
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Standby Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key.
Switching from Standby Mode to Operating Mode:
On the Traffic Page, select the OPERATE Softkey
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Operate Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key. The GTS 850 switches from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as necessary.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The Map - Traffic Map Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position
and altitude, without basemap clutter. It is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Aircraft
orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick
from two to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner of the page.
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Operating
Mode
Traffic Display
Range
Altitude
Mode
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
Traffic Advisory,
500’ Below,
Climbing
“No Bearing”
Traffic (Bearing
Undetermined),
Distance 4.0
nm, 500’ Above,
Descending
Traffic
Advisory OffScale, 400’
Below, Level
Proximity Traffic,
900’ Above,
Level, Flight ID
Displayed
Non-Threat
Traffic,
Altitude Not
Reported
Figure 6-166 Traffic Map Page
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Select the OPERATE Softkey to begin displaying traffic. ‘OPERATING’ is displayed in the Traffic mode field.
4) Select the STANDBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. ‘STANDBY’ is displayed in the Traffic
mode field.
5) Turn the Joystick clockwise to display a larger area or counter-clockwise to display a smaller area.
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Altitude Display
The Pilot can select the volume of airspace in which non-threat and proximity traffic is displayed. TAs
occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, select the ALT MODE Softkey.
2) Select one of the following Softkeys:
• ABOVE: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 9000 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• NORMAL: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below
the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• BELOW: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9000 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the Traffic Page, select the BACK Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following (see softkey description in step 2 above):
•
ABOVE
•
NORMAL
•
BELOW
•
UNRESTRICTED
3) Select the ENT Softkey.
Flight ID Display
NOTE: This feature requires the installation of a transponder with the Automatic Dependent Surveillance -
Broadcast (ADS-B) Out capability.
The Flight IDs of other aircraft (when available) can displayed on the Traffic Map Page (Figure 6-167).
When a flight ID is received, it will appear above or below the corresponding traffic symbol on the Traffic
Map Page when this option is enabled.
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Flight ID
Figure 6-167 Traffic Map Page with Flight IDs Enabled
Enabling/Disabling Flight ID Display:
On the Traffic Map Page, select the FLT ID Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Show Flight IDs’ or ‘Hide Flight IDs’ (choice dependent on current state)
(Figure 6-168).
3) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-168 Traffic Map Page Menu
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Traffic Map Page Display Range
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable with the
Joystick from two to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
Changing the display range on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the Joystick.
2) The following range options are available:
•
2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm
•
24 and 40 nm
ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps on the MFD when the unit is operating:
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
• Trip Planning Page
• System Pages
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option
is installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Displaying traffic information (MFD maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Select the MAP Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, a traffic icon is shown to indicate traffic
is enabled for display (Figure 6-169).
Displaying traffic on the Navigation Map
1) Ensure the traffic system is operating. With the Navigation Map displayed, select the MAP Softkey.
2) Select the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map as shown in the figure.
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Non-Threat
Traffic
Traffic
Advisory
Proximity
Traffic
Proximity
Traffic
TA Off Scale
Banner
Traffic Icon
“No Bearing”
Traffic Advisory
Figure 6-169 Traffic on Navigation Map
Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-170).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-171).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections (Figure 6-172).
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
- TA ONLY - Displays Traffic Advisories only
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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Figure 6-170 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-171 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-172 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD Inset Map by pressing the INSET Softkey. A traffic map
will appear in heading up orientation. Traffic information can also be overlaid with navigation, topographic
and optional data link weather information.
Displaying traffic information (PFD Inset Map):
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data on the inset map (TRFC-1).
3) Press the softkey again to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
4) Press the softkey again to remove traffic data.
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SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic System
Mode
Self-test Initiated
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
TEST
(also shown in white in center of page)
OPERATING
Operating
Standby
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
Failed*
FAIL
* See Table 6-38 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-37 Traffic System Modes
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Traffic Map Page
Annunciation
NO DATA
Description
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
DATA FAILED
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure
FAILED
Incorrect data format received from the traffic unit
Table 6-38 Traffic Failure Annunciations
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TCAS DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending).
Traffic system has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly
formatted data)
Data is not being received from the traffic system.
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-39 Traffic Status Annunciations
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
NOTE: The approved Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) always supersedes this Pilot’s Guide.
The GFC 700 is a digital Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), fully integrated within the G1000 System
avionics architecture. The System Overview section provides a block diagram to support this system description.
GFC 700 AFCS functionality in the Piper PA-46 Meridian is distributed across the following Line Replaceable
Units (LRUs):
• GDU 1040 Primary Flight Displays (PFDs) (2)
• GSA 81 AFCS Servos (4)
• GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
• GSM 86 Servo Gearboxes (4)
• GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Units (IAUs) (2)
The GFC 700 AFCS can be divided into these main operating functions:
• Flight Director (FD) — The Piper PA-46 Meridian has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU and
referred to as pilot-side and copilot-side. Commands for the selected flight director are displayed on both PFDs.
The flight directors provide:
– Command Bars showing pitch/roll guidance
– Vertical/lateral mode selection and processing
– Autopilot communication
• Autopilot (AP) — Autopilot operation occurs within the pitch, roll, and pitch trim servos and yaw trim
adapter. It also provides servo monitoring and automatic flight control in response to flight director steering
commands, Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) attitude and rate information, and airspeed.
• Yaw Damper (YD) — The yaw servo is self-monitoring and provides Dutch roll damping and turn coordination
in response to yaw rate, roll angle, lateral acceleration, and airspeed.
• Manual Electric Pitch Trim (MEPT) — The pitch trim servo provides manual electric pitch trim capability
when the autopilot is not engaged.
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7.1 AFCS CONTROLS
The AFCS Control Unit is positioned above the MFD, and has the following controls:
HDG Key
APR Key
Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode
4
NAV Key
FD Key
5
XFR Key
Selects/deselects Navigation Mode
Activates/deactivates the flight director only
Pressing once turns on the selected flight director in the default vertical and lateral
modes. Pressing again deactivates the flight director and removes the Command
Bars. If the autopilot is engaged, the key is disabled.
Transfers between the pilot and copilot flight directors and controls which flight
director the autopilot is tracking
Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode
Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode
Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode
Adjust the Selected Course (while in VOR, LOC, or OBS Mode) in 1° increments on
the Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) of the corresponding PFD
Press to re-center the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) and return course pointer
directly TO the bearing of the active waypoint/station
Speed function disabled. If pressed, “SPD KEY DISABLED - The SPD key is disabled
for this model aircraft” is sent to the message window.
Adjusts the reference in Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change
modes
Selects/deselects Vertical Path Tracking Mode for Vertical Navigation flight control
Controls the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments (a finer resolution of 10 feet is
available under approach conditions)
Engages/disengages the yaw damper
Engages/disengages the autopilot
Manually selects/deselects Low Bank Mode
Selects/deselects Backcourse Mode
Adjusts the Selected Heading and bug in 1° increments on the HSI (both PFDs)
Press to synchronize the Selected Heading to the current heading on the pilot-side PFD
1
2
3
Selects/deselects Approach Mode
ALT Key
7 VS Key
8 FLC Key
17 CRS Knobs
6
9
10
SPD Key
NOSE UP/DN
Wheel
12 VNV Key
13 ALT SEL Knob
11
14
15
16
18
19
YD Key
AP Key
BANK Key
BC Key
HDG Knob
1
2
3
4
19
18
17
16
5
15
14
6
7
13
12
8
11
10
Annunciator Light
9
Figure 7-1 GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
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The following AFCS controls are located separately from the AFCS Control Unit:
AP DISC Switch
(Autopilot
Disconnect)
CWS Button
(Control Wheel
Steering)
Disengages the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director and interrupts pitch trim
operation
An AP DISC Switch is located on each control wheel.
This switch may be used to acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the
associated aural tone.
While pressed, allows manual control of the aircraft while the autopilot is engaged and
synchronizes the flight director’s Command Bars with the current aircraft pitch (if
not in a Vertical Navigation, Glideslope, or Glidepath Mode) and roll (if in Roll Hold
Mode)
A CWS Button is located on each control wheel.
TO/GA Switch
(Takeoff/Go
Around)
Upon release of the CWS Button, the flight director may establish new pitch and roll
references, depending on the current vertical and lateral modes. CWS operation
details are discussed in the respective mode sections of this manual.
Selects flight director Takeoff (on ground) or Go Around (in air) Mode
If an approach procedure is loaded this button also activates the missed approach when
the selected navigation source is GPS or when the navigation source is VOR/LOC and
a valid frequency has been tuned.
The TO/GA Switch is located on the left throttle.
Used to command manual electric pitch trim
MEPT Switch
(Manual Electric An MEPT Switch is located on each control wheel.
Pitch Trim)
This composite switch is split into left and right sides. The left switch is the ARM
contact and the right switch controls the DN (forward) and UP (rearward) contacts.
Pushing the MEPT ARM Switch disengages the autopilot, if currently engaged, but
does not affect yaw damper operation. The MEPT ARM Switch may be used to
acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the associated aural tone.
Manual trim commands are generated only when both sides of the switch are operated
simultaneously. If either side of the switch is active separately for more than three
seconds, MEPT function is disabled and ‘PTRM’ (Pitch Trim Failure) is displayed as
the AFCS Status Annunciation on the PFDs. The function remains disabled until
both sides of the switch are inactivated.
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7.2 FLIGHT DIRECTOR OPERATION
The flight director function provides pitch and roll commands to the AFCS and displays them on the PFDs.
With the flight director active, the aircraft can be hand-flown to follow the path shown by the Command Bars.
Maximum commanded pitch (-15°, +17.5°) and roll (22°) angles, vertical acceleration, and roll rate are limited to
values established during AFCS certification. The flight director also provides commands to the autopilot.
ACTIVATING THE FLIGHT DIRECTOR
An initial press of a key listed in Table 7-1 (when the flight director is not active) activates the pilot-side flight
director in the listed modes. The flight director may be turned off and the Command Bars removed from the
displays by pressing the FD Key again. The FD Key is disabled when the autopilot is engaged.
Control Pressed
Modes Selected
ALT Key
VS Key
FLC Key
VNV Key
Lateral
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Go Around (in air)
Takeoff (on ground)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default
Roll Hold (default)
NAV Key
Navigation**
BC Key
Backcourse***
APR Key
Approach**
HDG Key
Heading Select
FD Key
AP Key
CWS Button
TO/GA Switch
ROL
ROL
ROL
TO
GA
ROL
ROL
ROL
ROL
GPS
VOR
LOC
BC
GPS
VOR
LOC
HDG
Vertical
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Go Around (in air)
TO
Takeoff (on ground)
GA
Altitude Hold
ALT
Vertical Speed
VS
Flight Level Change
FLC
Vertical Path Tracking* VPTH
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
*Valid VNV flight plan must be entered before VNV Key press activates flight director.
**The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS
course before NAV or APR Key press activates flight director.
***The selected navigation receiver must have a valid LOC signal before BC Key press
activates flight director.
Table 7-1 Flight Director Activation
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
AFCS STATUS BOX
Flight director mode annunciations are displayed on the PFDs when the flight director is active. Flight
director selection and autopilot and yaw damper statuses are shown in the center of the AFCS Status Box.
Lateral flight director modes are displayed on the left and vertical on the right. Armed modes are displayed in
white and active in green.
Lateral Modes
Armed
Active
Yaw
Autopilot Damper
Status
Status
Flight Director Active
Indicator Arrow
Vertical Modes
Mode
Reference
Armed
AFCS Status Box
Selected
Altitude
Command
Bars
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Bug
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Crosstrack
Figure 7-2 PFD AFCS Display
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODES
Flight director modes are normally selected independently for the pitch and roll axes. Unless otherwise
specified, all mode keys are alternate action (i.e., press on, press off). In the absence of specific mode selection,
the flight director reverts to the default pitch and/or roll mode(s). Mode keys on the AFCS controller are
accompanied by annunciator lights (Figure 7-1) which are illuminated when their respective modes are armed
or active.
Armed modes are annunciated in white and active in green in the AFCS Status Box. Under normal operation,
when the control for the active flight director mode is pressed, the flight director reverts to the default mode(s)
for the axis(es). Automatic transition from armed to active mode is indicated by the white armed mode
annunciation moving to the green active mode field and flashing for 10 seconds.
If the information required to compute a flight director mode becomes invalid or unavailable, the flight
director automatically reverts to the default mode for that axis. A flashing yellow mode annunciation and
annunciator light indicate loss of sensor (ADC) or navigation data (VOR, LOC, GPS, VNV, SBAS) required to
compute commands. When such a loss occurs, the system automatically begins to roll the wings level (enters
Roll Hold Mode) or maintain the pitch angle (enters Pitch Hold Mode), depending on the affected axis. The
flashing annunciation stops when the affected mode key is pressed or another mode for the axis is selected. If
after 10 seconds no action is taken, the flashing annunciation stops.
Figure 7-3 Loss of VOR Signal
The flight director is automatically disabled if the attitude information required to compute the default flight
director modes becomes invalid or unavailable.
SWITCHING FLIGHT DIRECTORS
The Garmin AFCS in the Piper PA-46 Meridian has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU. Only
one flight director is active (selected) at a time. Flight directors may be switched by pressing the XFR Key.
Both PFDs display the selected flight director, indicated by an arrow pointing toward either the pilot or copilot
side, in the center of the AFCS Status Box. The annunciator light arrow for the selected flight director is also
illuminated beside the XFR Key. When the flight directors are switched, the vertical and lateral modes revert
to default.
Pilot-side Flight Director
Copilot-side Flight Director
Figure 7-4 Flight Director Selection Indications
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
COMMAND BARS
Upon activation of the flight director, Command Bars are displayed in magenta on the PFD. If the aircraft
is being flown by hand, the command bars are displayed hollow (Figure 7-5). The Command Bars do not
override the Aircraft Symbol. The Command Bars move together vertically to indicate pitch commands and
bank left or right to indicate roll commands.
Command Bars (Autopilot Engaged)
Command Bars
Command Bars (Pilot Hand Flying Aircraft)
Aircraft Symbol
Figure 7-5 Command Bars
If the attitude information being sent to the flight director becomes invalid or unavailable, the Command Bars
are removed from the display. The flight director Command Bars also disappear if the pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚
or bank exceeds 65˚.
UNDERSPEED PROTECTION
Underspeed Protection is available when the optional Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) system is
installed and the autopilot is on. It is designed to discourage aircraft operation below minimum established
airspeeds.
When aircraft airspeed reaches 100 knots IAS, a yellow MINSPD annunciation (Figure 7-6) will appear above
the airspeed indicator. When the airspeed trend vector (specific to each flap setting) reaches a predetermined
airspeed, a single aural “AIRSPEED” will sound, alerting the pilot to the impending underspeed condition.
Airspeed
Indicator
Figure 7-6 MINSPD Annunciation
If the aircraft continues to decelerate, Underspeed Protection functionality depends on which vertical flight
director mode is selected. For the purpose of this discussion, the vertical flight director modes can be divided
into two categories: Those in which it is important to maintain altitude for as long as possible (altitude-critical
modes), and those in which maintaining altitude is less crucial (non-altitude critical modes).
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
ALTITUDE-CRITICAL MODES (ALT, GS, GP, TO, GA, FLC)
If the aircraft decelerates to stall warning, the lateral and vertical flight director modes will change from
active to armed (Figure 7-7), and the autopilot will provide input causing the aircraft to pitch down and the
wings to level.
Lateral and
Vertical FD
Modes Armed
Figure 7-7 Lateral and Vertical Flight Director Modes Armed
An aural “AIRSPEED” alert will sound every five seconds and a red CAS message “USP ACTIVE” annunciation
(Figure 7-8) will appear to the right of the vertical speed indicator. The pitch down force will continue until
the aircraft reaches a pitch attitude at which IAS equals the IAS at which stall warning turns off, plus two
knots.
Figure 7-8 Underspeed Protect Active Annunciation
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to above the IAS at which stall warning turns
off, plus two knots, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical reference and
the vertical and lateral flight director modes will change from armed to active.
NON-ALTITUDE CRITICAL MODES (VS, VNAV, IAS,)
If the aircraft decelerates to an IAS below the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed, a red “UNDERSPEED
PROTECT ACTIVE” annunciation (Figure 7-8) will appear to the right of the vertical speed indicator. The
vertical flight director mode will change from active to armed (Figure 7-9), and the autopilot will cause
the aircraft to pitch down until reaching a pitch attitude at which IAS equals the minimum commandable
autopilot airspeed.
Vertical FD
Mode Armed
Figure 7-9 Vertical Flight Director Mode Armed
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to an IAS above the minimum commandable
autopilot airspeed, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical reference and
the vertical flight director mode will change from armed to active.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.3 VERTICAL MODES
Table 7-2 lists the vertical modes with their corresponding controls and annunciations. The mode reference is
displayed next to the active mode annunciation for Altitude Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes.
The NOSE UP/DN Wheel can be used to change the vertical mode reference while operating under Pitch Hold,
Vertical Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode. Increments of change and acceptable ranges of values for each of
these references using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel are also listed in the table.
Vertical Mode
Pitch Hold
Selected Altitude Capture
Altitude Hold
Vertical Speed
Flight Level Change
Vertical Path Tracking
VNV Target Altitude Capture
Glidepath
Glideslope
Go Around
Takeoff
Level
Description
Holds the current aircraft pitch
attitude; may be used to climb/
descend to the Selected Altitude
Captures the Selected Altitude
Holds the current Altitude Reference
Maintains the current aircraft vertical
speed; may be used to climb/descend
to the Selected Altitude
Maintains the current aircraft
airspeed while the aircraft is climbing/
descending to the Selected Altitude
Captures and tracks descent legs of
an active vertical profile
Captures the Vertical Navigation
(VNV) Target Altitude
Captures and tracks the SBAS
glidepath on approach
Captures and tracks the ILS glideslope
on approach
Commands a constant pitch angle
and wings level in the air
Commands a constant pitch angle
and wings level on the ground in
preparation for takeoff
Autopilot engages and commands
pitch angle necessary to establish
zero vertical fpm
Reference
Range
Reference
Change
Increment
-15° to
+17.5°
0.5°
nnnn fpm
-2000 to
+2000 fpm
100 fpm
nnn kt
90 to
188 kts
1 kt
Control Annunciation
(default)
PIT
*
ALTS
ALT Key ALT nnnnn ft
VS Key
VS
FLC Key FLC
VNV
Key
VPTH
**
ALTV
APR
Key
TO/GA
Switch
***
GP
GS
GA
9.0°
TO
7.0°
LVL
N/A
* ALTS armed automatically when PIT, VS, FLC, or GA active, and under VPTH when Selected Altitude is to be captured instead
of VNV Target Altitude
** ALTV armed automatically under VPTH when VNV Target Altitude is to be captured instead of Selected Altitude
*** Level mode can only become activated as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the Additional
Features section for a detailed discussion of the optional ESP feature.
Table 7-2 Flight Director Vertical Modes
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
PITCH HOLD MODE (PIT)
When the flight director is activated (the FD Key is pressed) or switched (the XFR Key is pressed), Pitch Hold
Mode is selected by default. Pitch Hold Mode is indicated as the active vertical mode by the ‘PIT’ annunciation.
This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter), since
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Pitch Hold Mode is activated.
In Pitch Hold Mode, the flight director maintains a constant pitch attitude, the pitch reference. The pitch
reference is set to the aircraft pitch attitude at the moment of mode selection. If the aircraft pitch attitude
exceeds the flight director pitch command limitations, the flight director commands a pitch angle equal to the
nose-up/down limit.
CHANGING THE PITCH REFERENCE
When operating in Pitch Hold Mode, the pitch reference can be adjusted by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new pitch reference, then releasing the
CWS Button
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Command Bars Maintain
Desired Pitch Reference
Figure 7-10 Pitch Hold Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SELECTED ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTS)
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed with activation of the following modes:
• Pitch Hold
• Go Around
• Vertical Speed
• Vertical Path Tracking (if the Selected Altitude is to
be captured instead of the VNV Target Altitude)
• Flight Level Change
The white ‘ALTS’ annunciation indicates Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed (see Figure 7-10 for
example). The ALT SEL Knob is used to set the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter) until Selected
Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to Selected Altitude
Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed (Figure 7-11). This automatic transition is indicated by the
green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation.
The Selected Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTS’ annunciation.
At 50 feet from the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from Selected Altitude
Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and holds the Selected Altitude (shown as the Altitude Reference). As Altitude
Hold Mode becomes active, the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes
green for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic transition.
Altitude Reference
(in this case, equal to
Selected Altitude)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-11 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
CHANGING THE SELECTED ALTITUDE
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in Selected Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Use of the ALT SEL Knob to change the Selected Altitude while Selected Altitude Capture Mode is active
causes the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode with Selected Altitude Capture Mode armed for the
new Selected Altitude.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
ALTITUDE HOLD MODE (ALT)
Altitude Hold Mode can be activated by pressing the ALT Key; the flight director maintains the current aircraft
altitude (to the nearest 10 feet) as the Altitude Reference. The flight director’s Altitude Reference, shown in the
AFCS Status Box, is independent of the Selected Altitude, displayed above the Altimeter. Altitude Hold Mode
active is indicated by a green ‘ALT’ annunciation in the AFCS Status Box.
Altitude Hold Mode is automatically armed when the flight director is in Selected Altitude Capture Mode
(see Figure 7-11). Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically transitions to Altitude Hold Mode when
the altitude error is less than 50 feet. In this case, the Selected Altitude becomes the flight director’s Altitude
Reference.
CHANGING THE ALTITUDE REFERENCE
NOTE: Turning the ALT SEL Knob while in Altitude Hold Mode changes the Selected Altitude, but not the
flight director’s Altitude Reference, and does not cancel the mode.
With the CWS Button depressed, the aircraft can be hand-flown to a new Altitude Reference. When the
CWS Button is released at the desired altitude, the new altitude is established as the Altitude Reference.
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Altitude
Reference
Selected
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
to Maintain Altitude Reference
Figure 7-12 Altitude Hold Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
VERTICAL SPEED MODE (VS)
In Vertical Speed Mode, the flight director acquires and maintains a Vertical Speed Reference. Current aircraft
vertical speed (to the nearest 100 fpm) becomes the Vertical Speed Reference at the moment of Vertical Speed
Mode activation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the
Altimeter) since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Vertical Speed Mode is selected.
When Vertical Speed Mode is activated by pressing the VS Key, ‘VS’ is annunciated in green in the AFCS Status
Box along with the Vertical Speed Reference. The Vertical Speed Reference is also displayed above the Vertical
Speed Indicator. A Vertical Speed Reference Bug corresponding to the Vertical Speed Reference is shown on
the indicator.
CHANGING THE VERTICAL SPEED REFERENCE
The Vertical Speed Reference (shown both in the AFCS Status Box and above the Vertical Speed Indicator)
may be changed by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Vertical Speed Reference, then releasing
the CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
Vertical Speed
Mode Active
Vertical Speed
Reference
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb to
Attain Vertical Speed Reference
Figure 7-13 Vertical Speed Hold Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT LEVEL CHANGE MODE (FLC)
NOTE: The Selected Altitude should be set before selecting Flight Level Change Mode.
Flight Level Change Mode is selected by pressing the FLC Key. This mode acquires and maintains the
Airspeed Reference while climbing or descending to the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter). When
Flight Level Change Mode is active, the flight director continuously monitors Selected Altitude, airspeed, and
altitude.
The Airspeed Reference is set to the current airspeed upon mode activation. Flight Level Change Mode is
indicated by a green ‘FLC’ annunciation beside the Airspeed Reference in the AFCS Status Box. The Airspeed
Reference is also displayed directly above the Airspeed Indicator, along with a bug corresponding to the Airspeed
Reference along the tape.
Engine power must be adjusted to allow the autopilot to fly the aircraft at a pitch attitude corresponding
to the desired flight profile (climb or descent) while maintaining the Airspeed Reference. The flight director
maintains the current altitude until either engine power or the Airspeed Reference are adjusted and does not
allow the aircraft to climb or descend away from the Selected Altitude.
Flight Level Change
Mode Active
Airspeed
Reference
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Airspeed
Reference
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to Attain Selected Altitude
Figure 7-14 Flight Level Change Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
CHANGING THE AIRSPEED REFERENCE
The Airspeed Reference (shown in both the AFCS Status Box and above the Airspeed Indicator) may be
adjusted by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Airspeed Reference, then releasing the
CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
VERTICAL NAVIGATION MODES (VPTH, ALTV)
NOTE: VNV is disabled when parallel track or Dead Reckoning Mode is active. Refer to the Flight Management
Section for more information on VNV flight plans.
NOTE: The Selected Altitude takes precedence over any other vertical constraints.
Vertical Navigation (VNV) flight control is available for enroute/terminal cruise and descent operations when
VNV flight planning is available. Conditions for availability include, but are not limited to:
• The selected navigation source is GPS.
• A VNV flight plan (with at least one altitude-constrained waypoint) or vertical direct-to is active.
• VNV is enabled (VNV ENBL Softkey pressed on the MFD).
• Crosstrack error is valid and within certain limits.
• Desired/actual track are valid or track angle error is within certain limits.
• The VNV Target Altitude of the active waypoint is no more than 250 ft above the current aircraft altitude.
The flight director may be armed for VNV at any time, but no target altitudes are captured during a climb.
The Command Bars provide vertical profile guidance based on specified altitudes (entered manually or loaded
from the database) at waypoints in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to. The appropriate VNV flight control
modes are sequenced by the flight director to follow the path defined by the vertical profile. Upon reaching
the last waypoint in the VNV flight plan, the flight director transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and cancels any
armed VNV modes.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
VERTICAL PATH TRACKING MODE (VPTH)
NOTE: If another vertical mode key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is selected, Vertical Path
Tracking Mode reverts to armed.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The
autopilot guides the aircraft back to the descent path upon release of the CWS Button.
When a vertical profile (VNV flight plan) is active and the VNV Key is pressed, Vertical Path Tracking
Mode is armed in preparation for descent path capture. ‘VPTH’ (or ‘/V’ when Glidepath or Glideslope Mode
is concurrently armed) is annunciated in white in addition to previously armed modes. If applicable, the
appropriate altitude capture mode is armed for capture of the next VNV Target Altitude (ALTV) or the Selected
Altitude (ALTS), whichever is greater.
Figure 7-15 Vertical Path Tracking Armed Annunciations
Prior to descent path interception, the Selected Altitude must be set below the current aircraft altitude by
at least 75 feet. For the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path Tracking Mode,
acknowledgment is required within five minutes of descent path interception by:
• Pressing the VNV Key
• Adjusting the Selected Altitude
If acknowledgment is not received within 1 minute of descent path interception, the white ‘VPTH’
annunciation starts to flash. Flashing continues until acknowledged or the descent path is intercepted. If
the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed and the
descent is not captured.
In conjunction with the “TOD [top of descent] within 1 minute” annunciation in the PFD Navigation Status
Box and the “Vertical track” voice message, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, vertical deviation, and
vertical speed required) appear on the PFDs in magenta (Figure 7-12).
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Vertical Path Tracking
Armed, (Flashing Indicates
Acknowledgment Required)
Selected
Altitude
Below VNV
Target
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
VNV Target
Altitude
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Terminal
Phase of
Flight
Figure 7-16 Vertical Path Capture
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
When a descent leg is captured (i.e., vertical deviation becomes valid), Vertical Path Tracking becomes
active and tracks the descent profile (Figure 7-17). An altitude capture mode (‘ALTS’ or ‘ALTV’) is armed as
appropriate.
Vertical Path
Tracking Active
VNV Target Altitude
Capture Armed
VNV Target
Altitude
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Terminal
Phase of
Flight
Required
Vertical
Speed
Indication
(RVSI)
Command Bars Indicate Descent to
Maintain Required Vertical Speed
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
Figure 7-17 Vertical Path Tracking Mode
If the altimeter barometric setting is adjusted while Vertical Path Tracking is active, the flight director
increases/decreases the descent rate by up to 500 fpm to re-establish the aircraft on the descent path (without
commanding a climb). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNV vertical
deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to reestablish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target Altitude,
the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Automatic Reversion to Pitch Hold Mode
Several situations can occur while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active which cause the flight director to
revert to Pitch Hold Mode:
• Vertical deviation exceeds 200 feet during an overspeed condition.
• Vertical deviation experiences a discontinuity that both exceeds 200 feet in magnitude and results in the
vertical deviation exceeding 200 feet in magnitude. Such discontinuities are usually caused by flight plan
changes that affect the vertical profile.
• Vertical deviation becomes invalid (the Vertical Deviation Indicator is removed from the PFD).
• A display enters Reversionary Mode (this does not apply to an active vertical direct-to).
Unless VNV is disabled, Vertical Path Tracking Mode and the appropriate altitude capture mode become
armed following the reversion to Pitch Hold Mode to allow for possible profile recapture.
Non-Path Descents
Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes can also be used to fly non-path descents
while VNV flight control is selected. If the VS or FLC Key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is
selected, Vertical Path Tracking Mode reverts to armed along with the appropriate altitude capture mode to
allow profile re-capture.
Figure 7-18 Flight Level Change VNV Non-Path Descent
To prevent immediate profile re-capture, the following must be satisfied:
• At least 10 seconds have passed since the non-path transition was initiated
• Vertical deviation from the profile has exceeded 250 feet, but is now less than 200 feet
Pressing the VNV Key twice re-arms Vertical Path Tracking for immediate profile re-capture.
VNV TARGET ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTV)
NOTE: Armed VNV Target Altitude and Selected Altitude capture modes are mutually exclusive. However,
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed implicitly (not annunciated) whenever VNV Target Altitude Capture
Mode is armed.
VNV Target Altitude Capture is analogous to Selected Altitude Capture Mode and is armed automatically
after the VNV Key is pressed and the next VNV Target Altitude is to be intercepted before the Selected
Altitude. The annunciation ‘ALTV’ indicates that the VNV Target Altitude is to be captured. VNV Target
Altitudes are shown in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to, and can be entered manually or loaded
from a database (see the Flight Management Section for details). At the same time as “TOD within 1 minute”
is annunciated in the Navigation Status Box, the active VNV Target Altitude is displayed above the Vertical
Speed Indicator (see Figure 7-16).
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to VNV Target
Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic transition is indicated by the green
‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation. The
VNV Target Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTV’ annunciation and remains displayed
above the Vertical Speed Indicator. The Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) is removed once VNV
Target Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
At 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from VNV Target
Altitude Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and tracks the level leg. As Altitude Hold Mode becomes active, the
white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes green for 10 seconds to indicate
the automatic transition. The flight director automatically arms Vertical Path Tracking, allowing upcoming
descent legs to be captured and subsequently tracked.
Altitude Reference (In
This Case, Equal To
VNV Altitude Target)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-19 VNV Altitude Capture
Changing the VNV Target Altitude
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Changing the current VNV Target Altitude while VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode is active causes the
flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode. Vertical Path Tracking and the appropriate altitude capture
mode are armed in preparation to capture the new VNV Target Altitude or the Selected Altitude, depending
on which altitude is to be intercepted first.
VNV target altitudes can be changed while editing the active flight plan (see the Flight Management
Section for details).
GLIDEPATH MODE (GP)
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glidepath Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glidepath upon release of the CWS Button.
Glidepath Mode is used to track the SBAS-based glidepath. When Glidepath Mode is armed, ‘GP’ is
annunciated in white in the AFCS Status Box.
Selecting Glidepath Mode:
1) Ensure a GPS approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V) is loaded into the active flight plan.
The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan (cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
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NOTE: Some RNAV (GPS) approaches provide a vertical descent angle as an aid in flying a stabilized
approach. These approaches are NOT considered Approaches with Vertical Guidance (APV). Approaches
that are annunciated on the HSI as LNAV or LNAV+V are considered Nonprecision Approaches (NPA) and
are flown to an MDA even though vertical glidepath (GP) information may be provided.
WARNING: When flying an LNAV approach (with vertical descent angle) with the autopilot coupled, the
aircraft will not level off at the MDA even if the MDA is set in the altitude preselect.
Upon reaching the glidepath, the flight director transitions to Glidepath Mode and begins to capture and
track the glidepath.
Figure 7-20 Glidepath Mode Armed
Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured:
• The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF).
• Vertical deviation is valid.
• The CDI is at less than full scale deviation
• Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
GPS Approach
Mode Active
GPS is
LNAV/VNAV
Selected
Approach
Navigation
Active
Source
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Glidepath
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate
Descent on Glidepath
Figure 7-21 Glidepath Mode
Glidepath
Indicator
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
GLIDESLOPE MODE (GS)
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glideslope Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glideslope upon release of the CWS Button.
Glideslope Mode is available for LOC/ILS approaches to capture and track the glideslope. When Glideslope
Mode is armed (annunciated as ‘GS’ in white), LOC Approach Mode is armed as the lateral flight director mode.
Selecting Glideslope Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
Figure 7-22 Glideslope Mode Armed
Once LOC is the navigation source, the localizer and glideslope can be captured. Upon reaching the glideslope,
the flight director transitions to Glideslope Mode and begins to capture and track the glideslope.
Active ILS
Frequency Tuned
NAV2 (localizer) is Selected
Navigation Source
Approach
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate Descent
on Localizer/Glideslope Path
Figure 7-23 Glideslope Mode
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TAKE OFF AND GO AROUND MODES (TO/GA)
In Takeoff and Go Around modes, the flight director commands a constant set pitch attitude. The TO/GA
Switch is used to select both modes. The mode entered by the flight director depends on whether the aircraft
is on the ground. Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when the aircraft is at least 400 feet
below the Selected altitude at the time Takeoff or Go Around Mode is selected.
Takeoff Mode provides an attitude reference during rotation and takeoff. This mode can be selected only
while on the ground by pushing the TO/GA Switch. The flight director Command Bars assume a wings-level,
pitch-up attitude. Autopilot engagement while Takeoff Mode is active is inhibited while the aircraft is on the
ground.
Pressing the TO/GA Switch while in the air activates the flight director in a wings-level, pitch-up attitude,
allowing the execution of a missed approach or a go around. Attempts to modify the aircraft attitude (i.e., with
the NOSE UP and NOSE DN Keys or CWS Button) result in reversion to Pitch Hold Mode.
Go Around Mode Active
Autopilot Disconnect Annunciation
Flashes Yellow for 5 seconds
Command Bars
Indicate Climb
Takeoff Mode Active
Figure 7-24 Takeoff and Go Around Mode
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LEVEL MODE (LVL)
Level (LVL) mode becomes active only as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the
Additional Features section for a detailed discussion of the optional ESP feature.
When the normal flight envelope thresholds have been exceeded for more than 50% of the last 20 seconds,
Level mode is activated. The autopilot will engage and provide input to bring the aircraft back into straight
and level flight based on zero degrees roll angle and zero feet per minute vertical speed. An aural “ENGAGING
AUTOPILOT” alert sounds and the lateral and vertical flight director annunciations will display “LVL”. The
AFCS will remain in Level mode until the pilot selects another mode.
Figure 7-25 Level Mode
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7.4 LATERAL MODES
The following table relates each Garmin AFCS lateral mode to its respective control and annunciation. Refer to
the vertical modes section for information regarding Go Around mode.
NOTE: The Garmin AFCS may generate a lower bank angle than the maximum roll command limit in degrees
indicated in Table 7-3 by the amount needed to produce a turn rate equal to or less than standard rate.
Lateral Mode
Description
Control Annunciation
Holds the current aircraft roll
attitude or rolls the wings level,
(default)
depending on the commanded
bank angle
Limits the maximum commanded BANK
roll angle
Key
Captures and tracks the Selected HDG
Heading
Key
Roll Hold
Low Bank
Heading Select **
Navigation, GPS **
Navigation, VOR Enroute Capture/Track **
Navigation, LOC Capture/Track
(No Glideslope)
Captures and tracks the selected
navigation source (GPS, VOR,
LOC)
NAV
Key
Captures and tracks a localizer
BC Key
signal for backcourse approaches
Backcourse Capture/Track
Approach, GPS
Approach, LOC Capture/Track
(Glideslope Mode automatically armed)
Go Around
Takeoff
Level
ROL
22°
*
15°
HDG
22°
GPS
22°
22° Capture
10° Track
22° Capture
10° Track
22° Capture
10° Track
22°
22° Capture
10° Track
22° Capture
10° Track
VOR
LOC
BC
GPS
Approach, VOR Capture/Track
Captures and tracks the selected
navigation source (GPS, VOR, APR Key
LOC)
Commands a constant pitch
angle and wings level in the air
TO/GA
Commands a constant pitch angle Switch
and wings level on the ground in
preparation for takeoff
Autopilot engages and commands
***
wings level
Maximum Roll
Command Limit
VAPP
LOC
GA
Wings Level
TO
Wings Level
LVL
Wings Level
* No annunciation appears in the AFCS Status Box. The acceptable bank angle range is indicated in green along the Roll Scale
of the Attitude Indicator.
** The Heading, Navigation GPS and Navigation VOR mode maximum roll command limit will be limited to the Low Bank
mode value if it is engaged.
*** Level mode can only become activated as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the Additional
Features section for a detailed discussion of the optional ESP feature.
Table 7-3 Flight Director Lateral Modes
The CWS Button does not change lateral references for Heading Select, Navigation, Backcourse, or Approach
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading/Course upon release of the CWS Button.
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ROLL HOLD MODE (ROL)
NOTE: If Roll Hold Mode is activated as a result of a mode reversion, the flight director rolls the wings level.
When the flight director is activated or switched, Roll Hold Mode is selected by default. This mode is
annunciated as ‘ROL’ in the AFCS Status Box. The current aircraft bank angle is held, subject to the bank angle
condition.
Figure 7-26 Roll Hold Mode Annunciation
Bank Angle
< 6°
6 to 22°
> 22°
Flight Director Response
Rolls wings level
Maintains current aircraft roll attitude
Limits bank to 30°
Table 7-4 Roll Hold Mode Responses
CHANGING THE ROLL REFERENCE
The roll reference can be changed by pressing the CWS Button, establishing the desired bank angle, then
releasing the CWS Button.
LOW BANK MODE
When in Low Bank Mode, the flight director limits the maximum commanded roll angle to 15°. Low bank
arc limits are displayed in green along the Roll Scale.
Low Bank Mode can be manually selected/deselected by pressing the BANK Key while in Heading Select or
Navigation Modes (GPS and VOR). The annunciator light next to the BANK Key illuminates while Low Bank
Mode is selected.
Low Bank Arc
Figure 7-27 Low Bank Mode Limits
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HEADING SELECT MODE (HDG)
Heading Select Mode is activated by pressing the HDG Key. Heading Select Mode acquires and maintains the
Selected Heading. The Selected Heading is shown by a light blue bug on the HSI and in the box to the upper
left of the HSI.
CHANGING THE SELECTED HEADING
NOTE: Pressing the HDG Knob synchronizes the Selected Heading to the current heading.
The Selected Heading is adjusted using the HDG Knob. Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the
aircraft does not change the Selected Heading. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading
upon release of the CWS Button.
Turns are commanded in the same direction as Selected Heading Bug movement, even if the bug is turned
more than 180° from the present heading (e.g., a 270° turn to the right). However, Selected Heading changes
of more than 330° at a time result in turn reversals.
Heading Select
Mode Active
Selected
Heading
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
Selected
Heading
Bug
Command Bars Track
Selected Heading
Figure 7-28 Heading Select Mode
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NAVIGATION MODES (GPS, VOR, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
flight director to enter Navigation Mode.
Pressing the NAV Key selects Navigation Mode. Navigation Mode acquires and tracks the selected navigation
source (GPS, VOR, LOC). The flight director follows GPS roll steering commands when GPS is the selected
navigation source. When the navigation source is VOR or LOC, the flight director creates roll steering commands
from the Selected Course and deviation. Navigation Mode can also be used to fly non-precision GPS and LOC
approaches where vertical guidance is not required.
If the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) shows greater than one dot when the NAV Key is pressed, the selected
mode is armed. If the CDI is less than one dot, Navigation Mode is automatically captured when the NAV Key
is pressed. The armed annunciation appears in white to the left of the active lateral mode.
Figure 7-29 GPS Navigation Mode Armed
When the CDI has automatically switched from GPS to LOC during a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation
Mode remains active, providing GPS steering guidance until the localizer signal is captured. LOC Navigation
Mode is armed automatically when the navigation source switch takes place if the APR Key is not pressed prior
to the automatic source switch.
If Navigation Mode is active and either of the following occur, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode
(wings rolled level):
• Different VOR tuned while in VOR Navigation Mode (VOR Navigation Mode reverts to armed)
• Navigation source manually switched (with the CDI Softkey)
• During a LOC/ILS approach, the FAF is crossed while in GPS Navigation Mode after the automatic navigation
source switch from GPS to LOC
CHANGING THE SELECTED COURSE
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Navigation Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS flight plan) when the
CWS Button is released.
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Pitch Hold
Mode Active
GPS Navigation
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate Left
Turn to Track GPS Course and Climb
to Intercept Selected Altitude
GPS is Selected
Navigation Source
Figure 7-30 Navigation Mode
APPROACH MODES (GPS, VAPP, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
flight director to enter Approach Mode.
Approach Mode is activated when the APR Key is pressed. Approach Mode acquires and tracks the selected
navigation source (GPS, VOR, or LOC), depending on loaded approach. This mode uses the selected navigation
receiver deviation and desired course inputs to fly the approach. Pressing the APR Key when the CDI is greater
than one dot arms the selected approach mode (annunciated in white to the left of the active lateral mode). If
the CDI is less than one dot, the LOC is automatically captured when the APR Key is pressed.
VOR Approach Mode (VAPP) provides greater sensitivity for signal tracking than VOR Navigation Mode.
Selecting VOR Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid VOR frequency is tuned
2) Ensure that VOR is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
When GPS Approach Mode is armed, Glidepath Mode is also armed.
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Selecting GPS Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a GPS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan
(cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Figure 7-31 GPS Approach Mode Armed
LOC Approach Mode allows the autopilot to fly a LOC/ILS approach with a glideslope. When LOC Approach
Mode is armed, Glideslope Mode is also armed automatically. LOC captures are inhibited if the difference
between aircraft heading and localizer course exceeds 105°.
Selecting LOC Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
If the following occurs, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level):
• Approach Mode is active and a Vectors-To-Final is activated
• Approach Mode is active and Navigation source is manually switched
• During a LOC/ILS approach GPS Navigation Mode is active and the FAF is crossed after the automatic
navigation source switch from GPS to LOC
CHANGING THE SELECTED COURSE
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Approach Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS flight plan) when the
CWS Button is released.
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BACKCOURSE MODE (BC)
NOTE: When making a backcourse approach, set the Selected Course to the localizer front course.
Backcourse Mode captures and tracks a localizer signal in the backcourse direction. The mode may be
selected by pressing the BC Key. Backcourse Mode is armed if the CDI is greater than one dot when the mode
is selected. If the CDI is less than one dot, Backcourse Mode is automatically captured when the BC Key is
pressed. The flight director creates roll steering commands from the Selected Course and deviation when in
Backcourse Mode.
Backcourse
Mode Active
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
LOC2 is Selected
Navigation Source
Figure 7-32 Backcourse Mode
CHANGING THE SELECTED COURSE
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not reset any reference data while in Backcourse
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course when the CWS Button is released.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
LEVEL MODE (LVL)
Level (LVL) mode becomes active only as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the
Additional Features section for a detailed discussion of the optional ESP feature.
When the normal flight envelope thresholds have been exceeded for more than 50% of the last 20 seconds,
Level mode is activated. The autopilot will engage and provide input to bring the aircraft back into straight
and level flight based on zero degrees roll angle and zero feet per minute vertical speed. An aural “ENGAGING
AUTOPILOT” alert sounds and the lateral and vertical flight director annunciations will display “LVL”. The
AFCS will remain in Level mode until the pilot selects another mode.
Figure 7-33 Level Mode
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7.5 AUTOPILOT AND YAW DAMPER OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the POH for specific instructions regarding emergency procedures.
The Piper PA-46 Meridian autopilot and yaw damper operate the flight control surface servos to provide
automatic flight control. The autopilot controls the aircraft pitch and roll attitudes following commands received
from the flight director. Pitch and yaw autotrim provide trim commands to the pitch trim servo and yaw trim
adapter to relieve any sustained effort required by the pitch and yaw servos, respectively. Autopilot operation is
independent of the yaw damper
The yaw damper reduces Dutch roll tendencies and coordinates turns. It can operate independently of the
autopilot and may be used during normal hand-flight maneuvers. Yaw rate commands are limited to 6 deg/sec
by the yaw damper.
FLIGHT CONTROL
Pitch and roll commands are provided to the servos based on the active flight director modes. Yaw damping
is provided by the yaw servo. Servo motor control limits the maximum servo speed and torque. The servo
gearboxes are equipped with slip-clutches set to certain values. This allows the servos to be overridden in case
of an emergency.
PITCH AXIS AND TRIM
The autopilot pitch axis uses pitch rate to stabilize the aircraft pitch attitude during flight director maneuvers.
Flight director pitch commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with pitch damper control, and sent
to the pitch servo motor. The pitch servo measures the output effort (torque) and provides this signal to the
pitch trim servo. The pitch trim servo commands the motor to reduce the average pitch servo effort.
When the autopilot is not engaged, the pitch trim servo may be used to provide manual electric pitch
trim (MEPT). This allows the aircraft to be trimmed using a control wheel switch rather than the trim
wheel. Manual trim commands are generated only when both halves of the MEPT Switch are operated
simultaneously. Trim speeds are scheduled with airspeed to provide more consistent response.
ROLL AXIS
The autopilot roll axis uses roll rate to stabilize aircraft roll attitude during flight director maneuvers. The
flight director roll commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with roll damper control, and sent to
the roll servo motor.
YAW AXIS
The yaw damper uses yaw rate and roll attitude to dampen the aircraft’s natural Dutch roll response.
It also uses lateral acceleration to coordinate turns. Yaw damper operation is independent of autopilot
engagement.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
ENGAGEMENT
NOTE: Autopilot engagement/disengagement is not equivalent to servo engagement/disengagement. Use
the CWS Button to disengage the pitch and roll servos while the autopilot remains active.
When the AP Key is pressed, the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director (if not already active) are activated
and the annunciator lights on the AFCS controller for the autopilot and yaw damper are illuminated. The flight
director engages in Pitch and Roll Hold Modes when initially activated.
Autopilot
Engaged
Yaw
Damper
Engaged
Figure 7-34 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Engaged
When the YD Key is pressed, the system engages the yaw damper independently of the autopilot and the yaw
damper annunciator light is illuminated.
Autopilot and yaw damper status are displayed in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Engagement is indicated
by green ‘AP’ and ‘YD’ annunciations, respectively.
CONTROL WHEEL STEERING
During autopilot operation, the aircraft may be hand-flown without disengaging the autopilot. Pressing and
holding the CWS Button disengages the pitch and roll servos from the flight control surfaces and allows the
aircraft to be hand-flown. At the same time, the flight director is synchronized to the aircraft attitude during
the maneuver. CWS activity has no effect on yaw damper engagement.
The ‘AP’ annunciation is temporarily replaced by ‘CWS’ in white for the duration of CWS maneuvers.
Control Wheel Steering
Figure 7-35 CWS Annunciation
In most scenarios, releasing the CWS Button reengages the autopilot with a new reference. Refer to flight
director mode descriptions for specific CWS behavior in each mode.
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DISENGAGEMENT
NOTE: Pressing the AP Key does not disengage the yaw damper.
The autopilot may be manually disengaged by pushing the AP DISC, TO/GA, or MEPT ARM Switch, or the
AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit. Manual disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow ‘AP’
annunciation and a three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert. The AP DISC or MEPT ARM Switch may be
used to cancel the aural alert.
Figure 7-36 Manual Autopilot Disengagement
The YD Key and AP DISC Switches can be used to disengage the yaw damper (the autopilot, if engaged, also
disengages when the AP DISC Switch is pressed). The ‘YD’ and ‘AP’ annunciations turn yellow and flash for 5
seconds upon disengagement.
Figure 7-37 Yaw Damper Disengagement
Automatic autopilot disengagement is indicated by a flashing red and white ‘AP’ annunciation and by the
autopilot disconnect aural alert, which continue until acknowledged by pushing the AP DISC or MEPT ARM
Switch. Automatic autopilot disengagement occurs due to:
• System failure
• Invalid sensor data
• Inability to compute default flight director modes (FD also disengages automatically)
Yaw damper disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow ‘YD’ annunciation. Automatic yaw
damper disengagement occurs when autopilot disengagement is caused by failure in a parameter also affecting
the yaw damper. This means the yaw damper can remain operational in some cases where the autopilot
automatically disengages. A localized failure in the yaw damper system or invalid sensor data also cause yaw
damper disengagement.
Figure 7-38 Automatic Autopilot and
Yaw Damper Disengagement
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7.6 EXAMPLE FLIGHT PLAN
NOTE: The following example flight plan and diagrams (not to be used for navigation) in this section are
for instructional purposes only and should be considered not current. Numbered portions of accompanying
diagrams correspond to numbered procedure steps.
This scenario-based set of procedures (based on the example flight plan found in the Flight Management
Section) shows various GFC 700 AFCS modes used during a flight. In this scenario, the aircraft departs Charles
B. Wheeler Downtown Airport (KMKC), enroute to Colorado Springs Airport (KCOS). After departure, the
aircraft climbs to 12,000 ft and airway V4 is intercepted, following ATC vectors.
Airway V4 is flown to Salina VOR (SLN) using VOR navigation, then airway V244 is flown using a GPS flight
plan. The ILS approach for runway 35L and LPV (WAAS) approach for runway 35R are shown and a missed
approach is executed.
0
33
30
27
30
27
30
24
24
21
27
24
27
15
12
21
18
15
18
9
24
21
12
6
Lamar
VOR
(LAA)
Topeka
VOR
(TOP)
12
Hays
VOR
(HYS)
9
V 244
Salina
VOR
(SLN)
9
3
V4
18
V 244
9
6
0
33
15
6
KCOS
KMKC
30
3
3
3
6
0
33
0
33
12
21
15
18
Figure 7-39 Flight Plan Overview
DEPARTURE
Climbing to the Selected Altitude and flying an assigned heading:
1) Before takeoff, use the ALT SEL Knob to set the Selected Altitude to 12,000 feet.
2) In this example, Vertical Speed Mode is used to capture the Selected Altitude (Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, or
Flight Level Change Mode may be used).
a) Press the VS Key to activate Vertical Speed Mode.
The Vertical Speed Reference may be adjusted after Vertical Speed Mode is selected using the NOSE UP/DN
Wheel or pushing the CWS Button while hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new Vertical Speed Reference.
b) Press the AP Key to engage the autopilot in a climb using Vertical speed Mode.
3) Use the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading, complying with ATC vectors to intercept Airway V4.
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Press the HDG Key to activate Heading Select Mode while the autopilot is engaged in the climb. The autopilot
follows the Selected Heading Bug on the HSI and turns the aircraft to the desired heading.
4) As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
At 50 feet from the Selected Altitude, the green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds; the autopilot
transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft.
HD
GM
od
e
3
Selected Altitude of 12,000 MSL
ALT Mode
4
KMKC
1
2
VS
e
Mod
Figure 7-40 Departure
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INTERCEPTING A VOR RADIAL
During climb-out, the autopilot continues to fly the aircraft in Heading Select Mode. Airway V4 to Salina
VOR (SLN) should now be intercepted. Since the enroute flight plan waypoints correspond to VORs, flight
director Navigation Mode using either VOR or GPS as the navigation source may be used. In this scenario, VOR
Navigation Mode is used for navigation to the first VOR waypoint in the flight plan.
Intercepting a VOR radial:
1) Arm VOR Navigation Mode:
a) Tune the VOR frequency.
b) Press the CDI Softkey to set the navigation source to VOR.
c) Use the CRS1 or CRS2 Knob to set the Selected Course to the desired value, 255°. Note that at this point, the
flight director is still in Heading Select Mode and the autopilot continues to fly the Selected Heading, 290°.
d) Press the NAV Key. This arms VOR Navigation Mode and the white ‘VOR’ annunciation appears to the left of
the active lateral mode.
2) As the aircraft nears the Selected Course, the flight director transitions from Heading Select to VOR Navigation
Mode and the ‘VOR’ annunciation flashes green. The autopilot begins turning to intercept the Selected
Course.
3) The autopilot continues the turn until the aircraft is established on the Selected Course.
0
33
3
30
Hd
29 g
0o
V4
6
27
3
255
9
o
Salina
VOR
(SLN)
24
VO
R
NA
V
Mo
de
2
HD
G
12
M
od
e,
VO
R
Ar
m
ed
15
1
21
18
Figure 7-41 Intercepting a VOR Radial
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FLYING A FLIGHT PLAN/GPS COURSE
NOTE: Changing the navigation source cancels Navigation Mode and causes the flight director to revert
back to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level).
As the aircraft closes on Salina VOR, GPS is used to navigate the next leg, airway V244. The aircraft is
currently tracking inbound on Airway V4.
Flying a GPS flight plan:
1) Transition from VOR to GPS Navigation Mode:
a) Press the CDI Softkey until GPS is the selected navigation source.
b) Press the NAV Key to activate GPS Navigation Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft along the active flight
plan leg.
2) Following the flight plan, the autopilot continues to steer the aircraft under GPS guidance. Note that in GPS
Navigation Mode, course changes defined by the flight plan are automatically made without pilot action
required.
0
33
30
0
33
3
V4
6
3
o
075
30
e
V Mod
PS NA
6
27
G
12
21
18
12
15
24
9
Hays
VOR
(HYS)
Salina
VOR
(SLN)
V 244
2
24
27
076
1
9
o
260
o
e
d
AV Mo
VOR N
15
21
18
Figure 7-42 Transition to GPS Flight Plan
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DESCENT
While flying the arrival procedure, the aircraft is cleared for descent in preparation for the approach to KCOS.
Three methods are presented for descent:
• Flight Level Change descent – Flight Level Change Mode can be used to descend to the Selected Altitude at a
constant airspeed. This descent method does not account for flight plan waypoint altitude constraints.
• Vertical Path Tracking descent – Vertical Path Tracking Mode is used to follow the vertical descent path
defined in the GPS flight plan. Altitude constraints correspond to waypoints in the flight plan. Before VNV
flight control can provide vertical profile guidance, a VNV flight plan must be entered and enabled.
• Non-path descent in a VNV scenario – A VNV flight plan is entered and enabled, however Pitch Hold, Vertical
Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode can be used to descend to the VNV Target Altitude prior to reaching the
planned TOD. Flight Level Change Mode is used in the example.
Flight Level Change descent:
1) Select Flight Level Change Mode:
a) Using the ALT SEL Knob, set the Selected Altitude to 10,000 feet.
b) Press the FLC Key to activate Flight Level Change Mode. The annunciation ‘FLC’ appears next to the
Airspeed Reference, which defaults to the current aircraft airspeed. Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed
automatically.
2) Use the NOSE UP/DN Wheel or push the CWS Button while hand-flying the aircraft to adjust the commanded
airspeed while maintaining the same power, or reduce power to allow descent in Flight Level Change Mode
while the autopilot maintains the current airspeed.
3) As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the Selected Altitude; the
autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft.
1
Cruise Altitude of 12,000 MSL
ALT Mode
2
FLC
Mod
e
3
Selected Altitude of 10,000 MSL
ALT Mode
Figure 7-43 FLC Descent
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Vertical Path Tracking descent to VNV Target Altitude:
1) Select VNV flight control:
a) Press the VNV Key to arm Vertical Path Tracking Mode. The white annunciation ‘VPTH’ appears.
b) Using the ALT SEL Knob, set the Selected Altitude below the flight plan’s VNV Target Altitude of 10,000 feet.
If the Selected Altitude is not at least 75 feet below the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director captures the
Selected Altitude rather than the VNV Target Altitude once Vertical Path Tracking Mode becomes active (ALTS
becomes armed rather than ALTV).
c) If Vertical Path Tracking Mode is armed more than 5 minutes prior to descent path capture, acknowledgment is
required for the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path Tracking Mode. To proceed with
descent path capture if the white ‘VPTH’ annunciation begins flashing, do one of the following
• Press the VNV Key
• Turn the ALT SEL Knob to adjust the Selected Altitude
If the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed and the
descent is not captured.
2) When the top of descent (TOD) is reached, the flight director transitions to Vertical Path Tracking Mode and
begins the descent to the VNV Target Altitude. Intention to capture the VNV Target Altitude is indicated by the
white ‘ALTV’ annunciation.
3) As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director transitions to VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude;
the autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft at the vertical waypoint.
1
ALT Mode
TOD
Cruise Altitude of 12,000 MSL
2
VPT
HM
ode
3
VNAV Target Altitude of 10,000 MSL
BOD
ALT Mode
Selected Altitude (set below VNAV Target Altitude)
Along-track Offset, 3 nm before OPSHN
3 nm
Figure 7-44 VPTH Descent
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Non-path descent using Flight Level Change Mode:
1) Command a non-path descent to an intermediate altitude above the next VNV flight plan altitude. Use Flight
Level Change Mode:
a) Using the ALT SEL Knob, set the Selected Altitude below the current aircraft altitude to an altitude (in this case,
9,400 feet) at which to level off between VNV flight plan altitudes.
b) Press the FLC Key before the planned TOD during an altitude hold while VPTH is armed. The Airspeed Reference
defaults to the current aircraft airspeed. Vertical Path Tracking and Selected Altitude Capture Mode are armed
automatically.
2) Reduce power to allow descent in Flight Level Change Mode. The autopilot maintains the Airspeed Reference.
3) As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the Selected Altitude; the
autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft. After leveling off, reset the Selected Altitude
at or below 9000 ft.
4) When the next TOD is reached, Vertical Path Tracking becomes active (may require acknowledgment to allow
descent path capture).
5) As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director transitions to VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude;
the autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft at the vertical waypoint.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
VP
TH
M
od
e
Planned
TOD
2
BOD
ALT Mode
1
FL
C
Pla
nn
M
od
e
Selected Altitude of 9,400 MSL
VNAV Target Altitude of 10,000 MSL
3
ed
De
sce
nt
ALT Mode
Pa
th
TOD
4
VP
TH
Mo
VNAV Target Altitude of 9,000 MSL
de
5
BOD
ALT Mode
Selected Altitude
3 nm
OPSHN
HABUK
Figure 7-45 Non-path Descent
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APPROACH
Flying an ILS approach:
1) Transition from GPS Navigation Mode to Heading Select Mode.
a) Select the Runway 35L ILS approach for KCOS and select ‘VECTORS’ for the transition. Load and activate the
approach into the flight plan.
b) Use the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading after getting vectors from ATC.
c) Press the HDG Key. The autopilot turns the aircraft to the desired heading.
d) Use Heading Select Mode to comply with ATC vectors as requested.
2) Arm LOC Approach and Glideslope modes.
a) Ensure the appropriate localizer frequency is tuned.
b) Press the APR Key when cleared for approach to arm Approach and Glideslope modes. ‘LOC’ and ‘GS’ appear
in white as armed mode annunciations.
c) The navigation source automatically switches to LOC. After this switch occurs, the localizer signal can be captured
and the autopilot and flight director determine when to begin the turn to intercept the final approach course. The
flight director now provides guidance to the missed approach point.
3) There are two options available at this point, as the autopilot flies the ILS approach:
• Push the AP DISC Switch at the decision height and land the aircraft.
• Use the TO/GA Switch to execute a missed approach.
KCOS
LOC APR/
GS Mode
3
PETEY
2
G
HD
e
od
M
PYNON
1
GPS NAV Mode
Figure 7-46 ILS Approach to KCOS
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Flying a RNAV GPS approach with vertical guidance:
1) Arm flight director modes for a RNAV GPS approach with vertical guidance:
a) Make sure the navigation source is set to GPS (use CDI Softkey to change navigation source).
b) Select the Runway 35R LPV approach for KCOS. Load and activate the approach into the flight plan.
2) Press the APR Key once clearance for approach has been received. GPS Approach Mode is activated and
Glidepath Mode is armed.
3) Once the glidepath is captured, Glidepath Mode becomes active. The flight director now provides guidance to
the missed approach point.
4) There are two options available at this point, as the autopilot flies the approach:
• Push the AP DISC Switch at the decision height and land the aircraft.
• Use the TO/GA Switch to execute a missed approach.
KCOS
4
3
GPS APR/
GP Mode
CEGIX
2
FALUR
HABUK
PYNON
1
GPS NAV Mode
Figure 7-47 LPV Approach to KCOS
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
GO AROUND/MISSED APPROACH
NOTE: As a result of calculations performed by the system while flying the holding pattern, the display may
re-size automatically and the aircraft may not precisely track the holding pattern as depicted on the PFD and
MFD.
Flying a missed approach:
1) Push the TO/GA Switch at the Decision height and apply go around power to execute a missed approach. The
flight director Command Bars establish a nose-up climb to follow. If flying an ILS or LOC approach the CDI also
switches to GPS as the navigation source.
Note that when the TO/GA Switch is pushed, the missed approach is activated.
Flashes 5 sec
2) Start the climb to the prescribed altitude in the published Missed Approach Procedure (in this case, 10,000 ft).
Press the NAV Key to have the autopilot fly to the hold.
3) Use the ALT SEL Knob to set a Selected Altitude to hold.
To hold the current airspeed during the climb, press the FLC Key.
As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the Selected Altitude; the
autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft.
4) The autopilot flies the holding pattern after the missed approach is activated. Annunciations are displayed in
the Navigation Status Box, above the AFCS Status Box.
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4
MOGAL
GPS NAV Mode
3
2
GA Mode
KCOS
1
Figure 7-48 Go Around/Missed Approach
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.6 AFCS ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
AFCS STATUS ALERTS
The annunciations in Table 7-5 (listed in order of increasing priority) can appear on the PFDs (Figure 7-49)
above the Airspeed and Attitude indicators. Only one annunciation may occur at a time, and messages are
prioritized by criticality.
AFCS Status
Annunciation
Figure 7-49 AFCS Status Annunciation
Alert Condition
Rudder Mistrim Right
Rudder Mistrim Left
Aileron Mistrim Right
Aileron Mistrim Left
Elevator Mistrim Down
Elevator Mistrim Up
Pitch Trim Failure
(or stuck MEPT Switch)
Yaw Damper Failure
Annunciation
Description
Yaw servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
Roll servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
Pitch servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
If AP engaged, take control of the aircraft and disengage AP
If AP disengaged, move MEPT switches separately to unstick
YD control failure
Roll Failure
Roll axis control failure; AP inoperative
Pitch Failure
Pitch axis control failure; AP inoperative
System Failure
Preflight Test
AP and MEPT are unavailable; FD may still be available
Performing preflight system test; aural alert sounds at completion
Do not press the AP DISC Switch during servo power-up and preflight system tests
as this may cause the preflight system test to fail or never to start (if servos fail
their power-up tests). Power must be cycled to the servos to remedy the situation.
Preflight system test failed; aural alert sounds at failure
Table 7-5 AFCS Status Alerts
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
OVERSPEED PROTECTION
NOTE: Overspeed protection is not active in Altitude Hold, Glideslope or Glidepath modes.
While Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, Flight Level Change, Vertical Path Tracking, or an altitude capture mode is
active, airspeed is monitored by the flight director. Overspeed protection is provided to limit the flight director’s
pitch command in situations where the flight director cannot acquire and maintain the mode reference for the
selected vertical mode without exceeding the certified maximum autopilot airspeed.
When Overspeed Protection is active, the Airspeed Reference appears in a box above the Airspeed Indicator,
flashing a yellow ‘MAXSPD’ annunciation. Engine power should be reduced and/or the pitch reference adjusted
to slow the aircraft. The annunciation disappears when the overspeed condition is resolved.
Airspeed
Indicator
Figure 7-50 Overspeed Annunciation
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
NOTE: With the availability of SafeTaxi®, ChartView, or FliteCharts®, it may be necessary to carry another
source of charts on-board the aircraft.
Additional features of the system include the following:
• Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) (Optional)
• SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment
• SafeTaxi® diagrams
• Scheduler
• ChartView and FliteCharts® electronic charts
• Flight Data Logging
• AOPA or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory
• Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) System
• Satellite telephone and SMS messaging service
(Optional)
The optional Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) provides a three-dimensional forward view of terrain features
on the PFD. SVT imagery shows the pilot’s view of relevant features in relation to the aircraft attitude, as well as
the flight path pertaining to the active flight plan.
SafeTaxi diagrams provide detailed taxiway, runway, and ramp information at more than 700 airports in the
United States. By decreasing range on an airport that has a SafeTaxi diagram available, a close up view of the
airport layout can be seen.
The FliteCharts and optional ChartView provide on-board electronic terminal procedures charts. Electronic
charts offer the convenience of rapid access to essential information. Either ChartView or FliteCharts may be
configured in the system, but not both.
The AOPA and AC-U-KWIK Airport Directories offer detailed information for a selected airport, such as available
services, hours of operation, and lodging options.
Iridium Telephone Service and SMS messaging is an optional subscription service offered through Garmin Connext
and Iridium Satellite LLC.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment audio feature of the GDL 69A Data Link Receiver handles
more than 170 channels of music, news, and sports. SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers more entertainment choices
and longer range coverage than commercial broadcast stations.
The Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display short term or long term reminder messages such as
Switch fuel tanks, Phase 1 inspection, or Altimeter/Transponder Check in the Alerts Window on the PFD.
The Flight Data Logging feature automatically stores critical flight and engine data on an SD data card.
Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each 1GB of available space on the card.
The Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) system discourages aircraft operation outside the normal flight
envelope.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.1 SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY (SVT)
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or reliability
upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
The Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) is a visual enhancement to the G1000 Integrated Flight Deck. SVT
depicts a forward-looking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The field of
view is 30 degrees to the left and 35 degrees to the right. SVT information is shown on the Primary Flight Display
(PFD), or on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode (Figure 8‑108). The depicted imagery is
derived from the aircraft attitude, heading, GPS three-dimensional position, and a nine arc-second database of
terrain, obstacles, and other relevant features. The terrain data resolution of nine arc-seconds, meaning that
the terrain elevation contours are stored in squares measuring nine arc-seconds on each side, is required for the
operation of SVT. Loss of any of the required data, including temporary loss of the GPS signal, will cause SVT to
be disabled until the required data is restored.
The SVT terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical map display),
large water features, towers, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are included in the obstacle database. Cultural
features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad tracks, cities, and state boundaries are not displayed even
if those features are found on the MFD map. The terrain display also includes a north–south east–west grid with
lines oriented with true north and spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation relative to the terrain.
The optional Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) or standard Terrain-SVT is integrated within
SVT to provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the presence of terrain and obstacle threats relevant to the
projected flight path. Terrain alerts are displayed in red and yellow shading on the PFD.
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or fidelity on
which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must not be predicated
solely upon the use of the Terrain–SVS or TAWS terrain or obstacle data displayed by the SVT.
The following SVT enhancements appear on the PFD:
508
• Pathways
• Airport Signs
• Flight Path Marker
• Runway Display
• Horizon Heading Marks
• Terrain Alerting
• Traffic Display
• Obstacle Alerting
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-1 Synthetic Vision Imagery
SVT OPERATION
SVT is activated from the PFD using the softkeys located along the bottom edge of the display. Selecting the
softkeys turns the related function on or off. When SVT is enabled, the pitch scale increments are reduced to
10 degrees up and 7.5 degrees down.
SVT functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. The PFD Softkey leads into the PFD function
Softkeys, including synthetic vision. Selecting the SYN VIS Softkey displays the SVT feature softkeys. The
softkeys are labeled PATHWAY, SYN TERR, HRZN HDG, and APTSIGNS. The BACK Softkey returns to
the previous level of softkeys. Synthetic Terrain must be active before any other SVT feature may be activated.
HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS, and PATHWAY Softkeys are only available when the SYN TERR Softkey is
activated (gray with black characters). After activating the SYN TERR Softkey, the HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS,
and PATHWAY softkeys may be activated in any combination to display desired features. When system power
is cycled, the last selected state (on or off) of the SYN TERR, HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS, and PATHWAY
softkeys is remembered by the system.
• PATHWAY Softkey enables display of rectangular boxes that represent course guidance.
• SYN TERR Softkey enables synthetic terrain depiction.
• HRZN HDG Softkey enables horizon heading marks and digits.
• APTSIGNS Softkey enables airport signposts.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
PFD
SYN VIS
BACK
Pressing the BACK Softkey
returns to the top-level softkeys.
BACK
PATHWAY SYN TERR HRZN HDG APTSIGNS
Pressing the BACK Softkey returns to the previous level of softkeys.
Figure 8-2 SVT Softkeys
Activating and deactivating SVT:
1) Select the PFD Softkey.
2) Select the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Select the SYN TERR Softkey. The SVT display will cycle on or off with the SYN TERR Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Pathways:
1) Select the PFD Softkey.
2) Select the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Select the PATHWAY Softkey. The Pathway feature will cycle on or off with the PATHWAY Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Horizon Headings:
1) Select the PFD Softkey.
2) Select the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Select the HRZN HDG Softkey. The horizon heading display will cycle on or off with the HRZN HDG Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Airport Signs:
1) Select the PFD Softkey.
2) Select the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Select the APTSIGNS Softkey. Display of airport signs will cycle on or off with the APTSIGNS Softkey.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SVT FEATURES
Selected
Altitude
Airport
Runway
Pathways
Color
Matches CDI
Indicating
NAV Source
Flight
Path
Marker
Airplane
Symbol
Zero
Pitch Line
(ZPL) with
Compass
Heading
Marks
Synthetic
Terrain
SVT
Softkeys
Figure 8-3 SVT on the Primary Flight Display
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude deviation
information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
PATHWAYS
Pathways provide a three-dimensional perspective view of the selected route of flight shown as colored
rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active flight plan. The box
size represents 700 feet wide by 200 feet tall during enroute, oceanic, and terminal flight phases. During
an approach, the box width is 700 feet or one half full scale deviation on the HSI, whichever is less. The
height is 200 feet or one half full scale deviation on the VDI, whichever is less. The altitude at which the
pathway boxes are displayed is determined by the higher of either the selected altitude or the VNAV altitude
programmed for the active leg in the flight plan (Figure 8-4).
The color of the rectangular boxes may be magenta, green, or white depending on the route of flight and
navigation source selected. The active GPS or GPS overlay flight plan leg is represented by magenta boxes
that correspond to the Magenta CDI. A localizer course is represented by green boxes that correspond to a
green CDI. An inactive leg of an active flight plan is represented by white boxes corresponding to a white line
drawn on the Inset map or MFD map indicating an inactive leg.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selected
Altitude
Programmed
Altitudes
Figure 8-4 Programmed and Selected Altitude
Pathways provide supplemental glidepath information on an active ILS, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, and some LNAV
approaches. Pathways are intended as an aid to situational awareness and should not be used independent
of the CDI, VDI, glide path indicator, and glide slope indicator. They are removed from the display when
the selected navigation information is not available. Pathways are not displayed beyond the active leg when
leg sequencing is suspended and are not displayed on any portion of the flight plan leg that would lead to
intercepting a leg in the wrong direction.
Departure and Enroute
Prior to intercepting an active flight plan leg, pathways are displayed as a series of boxes with pointers at
each corner that point in the direction of the active waypoint. Pathways are not displayed for the first leg
of the flight plan if that segment is a Heading-to-Altitude leg. The first segment displaying pathways is the
first active GPS leg or active leg with a GPS overlay. If this leg of the flight plan route is outside the SVT
field of view, pathways will not be visible until the aircraft has turned toward this leg. While approaching
the center of the active leg and prescribed altitude, the number of pathway boxes decreases to a minimum
of four.
Pathways are displayed along the flight plan route at the highest of either the selected altitude or the
programmed altitude for the leg. Climb profiles cannot be displayed due to the variables associated with
aircraft performance. Flight plan legs requiring a climb are indicated by pathways displayed at a level above
the aircraft at the altitude selected or programmed.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Descent and Approach
Pathways are shown descending only for a programmed descent (Figures 8-5, 8-6). When the flight plan
includes programmed descent segments, pathways are displayed along the descent path provided that the
selected altitude is lower than the programmed altitude.
During a Vectors-to-Final (VTF) approach transition, pathways are displayed along the final approach
course inbound to the Missed Approach Point (MAP). Pathways are shown level at the selected altitude
or at the next programmed crossing altitude, whichever is higher, up to the point along the final approach
course where the altitude intercepts the extended vertical descent path, glidepath, or glideslope. From
the vertical path descent, glidepath, or glideslope intercept point, the pathways are shown inbound to the
Missed Approach Point (MAP) along the published lateral and vertical descent path.
During an ILS approach, the initial approach segment is displayed in magenta at the segment altitudes
if GPS is selected as the navigation source on the CDI. When switching to localizer inbound with LOC
selected as the navigation source on the CDI, pathways are displayed in green along the localizer and glide
slope.
VOR, LOC BC, and ADF approach segments that are approved to be flown using GPS are displayed in
magenta boxes. Segments that are flown using other than GPS or ILS, such as heading legs or VOR final
approach courses are not displayed.
Selected Altitude
set for Enroute
Selected Altitude
set for Departure
Climbs NOT
displayed
by pathway
Non-programmed descents NOT displayed by pathway
TOD
Selected Altitude
for Step Down
Programmed descent
displayed by pathway
Selected Altitude or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
Figure 8-5 SVT Pathways, Enroute and Descent
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Missed Approach
Upon activating the missed approach, pathways lead to the Missed Approach Holding Point (MAHP) and
are displayed as a level path at the published altitude for the MAHP, or the selected altitude, whichever is
the highest. If the initial missed approach leg is a Course-to-Altitude (CA) leg, the pathways boxes will
be displayed level at the altitude published for the MAHP. If the initial missed approach leg is defined by
a course using other than GPS, pathways are not displayed for that segment. In this case, the pathways
displayed for the next leg may be outside the field of view and will be visible when the aircraft has turned
in the direction of that leg.
Pathways are displayed along each segment including the path required to track course reversals that are
part of a procedure, such as holding patterns. Pathways boxes will not indicate a turn to a MAHP unless a
defined geographical waypoint exists between the MAP and MAHP.
FAF
Descent displayed
by pathway
Selected Altitude
or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
MAP Climbs NOT displayed
by pathway
Turn Segment
NOT displayed
by pathway
MAHP
Figure 8-6 SVT Pathways, Approach, Missed Approach, and Holding
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT PATH MARKER
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at groundspeeds
above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft accounting for wind speed
and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM is always available when the Synthetic Terrain feature is in operation. The FPM represents the
direction of the flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display, while the airplane symbol
represents the aircraft heading.
The FPM works in conjunction with the Pathways feature to assist the pilot in maintaining desired altitudes
and direction when navigating a flight plan. When on course and altitude the FPM is aligned inside the
pathway boxes as shown (Figure 8-7).
The FPM may also be used to identify a possible conflict with the aircraft flight path and distant terrain or
obstacles. Displayed terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s flight path extending above the FPM could indicate
a potential conflict, even before an alert is issued by TAWS. However, decisions regarding terrain and/or
obstacle avoidance should not be made using only the FPM.
Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
Wind
Vector
Figure 8-7 Flight Path Marker and Pathways
ZERO PITCH LINE
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the horizon when the terrain
horizon is difficult to distinguish from other terrain being displayed. It may not align with the terrain
horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or when the aircraft is flown at high altitudes.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
HORIZON HEADING
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows approximately 60 degrees of compass
heading in 30‑degree increments on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and digits appearing
on the zero pitch line are not visible behind either the airspeed or altitude display. Horizon Heading is used
for general heading awareness, and is activated and deactivated by selecting the HRZN HDG Softkey.
TRAFFIC
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the SVT display or may appear as a
partial symbol.
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic systems.
Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting closer, and smaller
when they are further away. Traffic within 250 feet laterally of the aircraft will not be displayed on the SVT
display. Traffic symbols and coloring are consistent with that used for traffic displayed in the Inset map or
MFD traffic page. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not be displayed on the SVT display. For
more details refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard Avoidance section.
AIRPORT SIGNS
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic terrain
display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately 15 nm from
an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the identifier until
the aircraft is approximately eight nautical miles from the airport. Airport signs are not shown behind the
airspeed or altitude display. Airport signs are activated and deactivated by selecting the APTSIGNS Softkey.
Traffic
Airport
Sign
without
Identifier
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
Airport
Sign with
Identifier
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
Figure 8-8 Airport Signs
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
RUNWAYS
WARNING: Do not use SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of the aircraft
to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these runways are not
displayed.
Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding terrain. All
runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database. In some situations,
where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be layered. As runways are
displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are displayed in white. Other runways will be gray
in color. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that runway will appear brighter and be outlined
with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft gets closer
to the runway, more detail such as runway numbers and centerlines will be displayed.
Runway
Selected for
Approach
Other
Runway
on Airport
Figure 8-9 Airport Runways
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TERRAIN-SVS AND TAWS ALERTING
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward-looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA)
alerts, and corresponds to the red and yellow X symbols on the Inset Map and MFD map displays. For more
detailed information regarding Terrain-SVS and TAWS, refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section.
In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on the
synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVT field of view to the left or right of the aircraft.
TERRAIN
Annunciation
Terrain
Caution
Potential
Impact
Point
Figure 8-10 Terrain Alert
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower symbols found
on the Inset map and MFD maps and charts. Obstacle symbols appear in the perspective view with relative
height above terrain and distance from the aircraft. Unlike the Inset map and MFD moving map display,
obstacles on the synthetic terrain display do not change colors to warn of potential conflict with the aircraft’s
flight path until the obstacle is associated with an actual FLTA alert. Obstacles greater than 1000 feet below the
aircraft altitude are not shown. Obstacles are shown behind the airspeed and altitude displays.
TERRAIN
Annunciation
Obstacle
Warning
Potential
Impact
Point
Figure 8-11 Obstacle
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FIELD OF VIEW
The PFD field of view can be represented on the MFD Navigation Map Page. Two dashed lines forming a
V‑shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map, represent the forward viewing area shown on the PFD.
Configuring field of view:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Map Setup and press the ENT Key.
Field of
View
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Map Setup Menu, Map Group, Field of View Option
Figure 8-12 Option Menus
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Map Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Map Group options to FIELD OF VIEW.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select On or Off.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The following figure compares the PFD forward looking depiction with the MFD plan view and FIELD OF
VIEW turned on.
Lines
Depict
PFD Field
of View
SVT View on the PFD
Field of View on the MFD
Figure 8-13 PFD and MFD Field of View Comparison
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.2 SAFETAXI
The SafeTaxi feature gives greater map detail when viewing airports at close range. The maximum map ranges
for enhanced detail are pilot configurable. When viewing at ranges close enough to show the airport detail,
the map reveals taxiways with identifying letters/numbers, airport Hot Spots, and airport landmarks including
ramps, buildings, control towers, and other prominent features. Resolution is greater at lower map ranges. When
the MFD display is within the SafeTaxi ranges, the airplane symbol on the airport provides enhanced position
awareness.
Designated Hot Spots are recognized at airports with many intersecting taxiways and runways, and/or complex
ramp areas. Airport Hot Spots are outlined to caution pilots of areas on an airport surface where positional
awareness confusion or runway incursions happen most often. Hot Spots are defined with a magenta circle or
outline around the region of possible confusion.
Any map page that displays the navigation view can also show the SafeTaxi airport layout within the maximum
configured range. The following is a list of pages where the SafeTaxi feature can be seen:
• Navigation Map Page
• VOR Information Page
• Inset Map (PFD)
• User Waypoint Information Page
• Weather Datalink Page
• Trip Planning Page
• Airport Information Page
• Nearest Pages
• Intersection Information Page
• Active and Stored Flight Plan Pages
• NDB Information Page
During ground operations the aircraft’s position is displayed in reference to taxiways, runways, and airport
features. In the example shown, the aircraft is on taxiway Bravo inside the High Alert Intersection boundary
on KSFO airport. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta. When panning over the airport, features such as
runway holding lines and taxiways are shown at the cursor.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Taxiway
Identification
Aircraft
Position
Airport Hot
Spot Outline
Airport
Features
Figure 8-14 SafeTaxi Depiction on the Navigation Map Page
DCLTR Softkey
Removes
Taxiway
Markings
The DCLTR Softkey (declutter) label advances to DCLTR-1, DCLTR -2, and DCLTR-3 each time the softkey is
selected for easy recognition of decluttering level. Selecting the DCLTR Softkey removes the taxiway markings
and airport feature labels. Selecting the DCLTR-1 Softkey removes VOR station ID, the VOR symbol, and
intersection names if within the airport plan view. Selecting the DCLTR-2 Softkey removes the airport runway
layout, unless the airport in view is part of an active route structure. Selecting the DCLTR-3 Softkey cycles back
to the original map detail. Refer to Map Declutter Levels in the Flight Management Section.
Configuring SafeTaxi range:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Map Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-15 Navigation Map PAGE MENU, Map Setup Option
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Aviation Group options to SAFETAXI.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the range of distances.
6) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired distance for maximum SafeTaxi display range.
7) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
SAFETAXI
Option
SafeTaxi
Range
Options
Figure 8-16 MAP SETUP Menu, Aviation Group, SAFETAXI Range Options
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SAFETAXI DATABASE CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
SafeTaxi database is revised every 56 days. SafeTaxi is always available for use after the expiration date.
When turning on the system, the Power-up Page indicates whether the databases are current, out of date, or
not available.
SafeTaxi Database
Figure 8-17 Power-up Page, SafeTaxi Database
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Normal operation. SafeTaxi database is valid and within current cycle.
SafeTaxi database has expired.
Database card contains no SafeTaxi data.
Table 8-1 SafeTaxi Annunciation Definitions
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The SafeTaxi Region, Version, Cycle, Effective date and Expires date of the database cycle can also be found
on the AUX - System Status page, as seen in Figure 8-18.
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is
shown.
The SafeTaxi database cycle number shown in Figure 8-18, 14S3, is deciphered as follows:
14 – Indicates the year 2014
S – Indicates the data is for SafeTaxi
3 – Indicates the third issue of the SafeTaxi database for the year
The SafeTaxi EFFECTIVE date 07–MAY–14 is the beginning date for the current database cycle. SafeTaxi
EXPIRES date 02–JUL–14 is the revision date for the next database cycle.
SafeTaxi Data
Figure 8-18 AUX – System Status Page, SafeTaxi Current Information
SafeTaxi information appears in blue and yellow text. The EFFECTIVE date appears in blue when data is
current and in yellow when the current date is before the effective date. The EXPIRES date appears in blue
when data is current and in yellow when expired (Figures 8‑18 and 8-19). NOT AVAILABLE appears in blue
in the REGION field if SafeTaxi data is not available on the database card (Figure 8‑19). An expired SafeTaxi
database is not disabled and will continue to function indefinitely.
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey a second time. The softkey label will change to PFD1 DB. The DATABASE
window will now be displaying database information for PFD1. As before, scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is shown.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Select the PFD1 DB Softkey. The softkey label will change to PFD2 DB. The DATABASE window will now
display database information for PFD2. Again, scroll through the listed information by turning the FMS Knob
or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is shown.
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for instructions on revising the SafeTaxi database.
Figure 8-19 illustrates possible SafeTaxi database conditions that may appear on the AUX - System Status
Page. The EFFECTIVE date is the beginning date for this database cycle. If the present date is before the
effective date, the EFFECTIVE date appears in yellow and the EXPIRES date appears in blue. The EXPIRES date
is the revision date for the next database cycle. NOT AVAILABLE indicates that SafeTaxi is not available on the
database card or no database card is inserted.
Current Date is before Effective Date
SafeTaxi Database has Expired
SafeTaxi Database Not Installed
Figure 8-19 AUX – System Status Page, SafeTaxi Database Status
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.3 CHARTVIEW
ChartView resembles the paper version of Jeppesen terminal procedures charts. The charts are displayed in full
color with high-resolution. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft position on the moving map in the planview
of approach charts and on airport diagrams. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Inset boxes (Figure 8-20) are not considered within the chart
boundaries. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol reaches a chart boundary line, or inset box, the aircraft symbol
is removed from the display.
Figure 8-20 shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, the grey shading is for
illustrative purposes only and will not appear on the published chart or MFD display. These off-scale areas
appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted geographical position of this
information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when the aircraft
symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart planview, not to
the off-scale area.
Inset Box
Off-Scale
Area
Off-Scale
Areas
Figure 8-20 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
The ChartView database subscription is available from Jeppesen, Inc. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Airport Diagrams
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• NOTAMs
• Approaches
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CHARTVIEW SOFTKEYS
ChartView functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey displays the available terminal chart and
advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT OPT, CHRT, INFO, DP, STAR, APR, WX, NOTAM,
and GO BACK. The chart selection softkeys shown below appear on the Airport Information Page.
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey advances to the next level of softkeys: ALL, HEADER, PLAN, PROFILE,
MINIMUMS, FIT WDTH, FULL SCN, and BACK.
While viewing the CHRT OPT Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
SHW CHRT
CHRT OPT
CHRT
INFO-1
DP
HEADER
PLAN
APR
WX
NOTAM
GO BACK
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey returns
to the top-level softkeys and previous page.
INFO-2
ALL
STAR
PROFILE
MINIMUMS FIT WDTH FULL SCN
BACK
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns
to the Chart Selection Softkeys.
Figure 8-21 ChartView SHW CHRT, Chart Selection, and Chart Option Softkeys
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Nearest Airport Page, or Flight Plan Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the OPTIONS Menu to Show Chart.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page OPTIONS Menu
Figure 8-22 Option Menus
When no terminal procedure chart is available for the nearest airport or the selected airport, the banner
CHART NOT AVAILABLE appears on the screen. The CHART NOT AVAILABLE banner does not refer to
the Jeppesen subscription, but rather the availability of a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a
selected airport.
Figure 8-23 Chart Not Available Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the banner
UNABLE TO DISPLAY CHART is then displayed.
Figure 8-24 Unable To Display Chart Banner
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
When a chart is not available by selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts
may be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, selecting the
SHW CHRT Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is the one associated with the WPT – Airport Information page. Usually this is the airport
runway diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are
available, that page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport
is shown.
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Flight Plan Page, or Nearest Airports Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the Airport Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the Approach Box. (Select the APR Softkey
if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Approach Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
Chart Scale
Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
Scroll Through
Entire Chart
With the
Joystick
Figure 8-25 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
While the APPROACH Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. Once the desired chart
is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart page can be scrolled using the Joystick. Pressing the
Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
The aircraft symbol is shown on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft position is within
the boundaries of the chart. The aircraft symbol is not displayed when the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears
(Figure 8‑29). If the Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, the aircraft symbol is not shown. The
Aircraft Not Shown Icon may appear at certain times, even if the chart is displayed to scale.
Selecting the CHRT Softkey switches between the ChartView diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the CHRT Softkey switches between the DeKalb Peachtree (KPDK) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the WPT – Airport Information page.
Press CHRT Softkey
to Switch Between
ChartView and WPT Airport Information Page
Figure 8-26 CHRT Softkey, Airport Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram chart when the view is on a terminal
procedure chart. If the displayed chart is the airport diagram chart, pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey
returns to the Airport Information Page.
The aircraft position is shown in magenta on the ChartView diagrams when the location of the aircraft is
within the chart boundaries. In the example shown, the aircraft is turning onto Taxiway Bravo on the Charlotte,
NC (KCLT) airport.
Another source for additional airport information is from the INFO Box above the chart for certain airports.
This information source is not related to the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey. When the INFO Box is selected
using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. The Charlotte, NC airport has five additional charts offering
information; the Airport Diagram, Take-off Minimums, Class B Airspace, Airline Parking Gate Coordinates, and
Airline Parking Gate Location. (The numbers in parentheses after the chart name are Jeppesen designators.)
Figure 8-27 Airport Information Page, INFO View, Full Screen Width
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
In the example shown in Figure 8-27, the Class B Chart is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays the
Charlotte Class B Airspace Chart (Figure 8-28).
Figure 8-28 Airport Information Page, Class B Chart Selected from INFO View
Selecting the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
Chart Not
To Scale
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-29 Departure Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
Chart Not
To Scale
Change Range
and Scroll
Through the
Chart With the
Joystick
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-30 Arrival Information Page
Selecting the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
Figure 8-31 Approach Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, and includes weather data such
as METAR and TAF from the XM Data Link Receiver, when available. Weather information is available only
when an XM Data Link Receiver is installed and the SiriusXM Weather subscription is current.
WX Info
When
Available
WX Softkey
Selected
Figure 8-32 Weather Information Page
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
Recent NOTAMS applicable to the current ChartView cycle are included in the ChartView database. Selecting
the NOTAM Softkey shows the local NOTAM information for selected airports, when available. When NOTAMS
are not available, the NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled. The NOTAM Softkey may appear
on the Airport Information Page and all of the chart page selections.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-33 NOTAM Softkey Enabled
NOTAM Softkey
Appears When
NOTAMS are
Available for
Selected Airport
Local
NOTAM on
Selected
Airport
NOTAM Softkey
Selected
Figure 8-34 Airport Information Page, Local NOTAMs
Selecting the NOTAM Softkey again removes the NOTAMS information.
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page, Nearest Pages, or Flight
Plan Page).
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CHART OPTIONS
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level (Figure 8-21).
Selecting the ALL Softkey shows the entire approach chart on the screen.
Entire Chart
Shown
Figure 8-35 Approach Information Page, ALL View
Selecting the HEADER Softkey shows the header view (approach chart briefing strip) on the screen.
Approach
Chart
Briefing Strip
Figure 8-36 Approach Information Page, Header View
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the PLAN Softkey shows the approach chart two dimensional plan view.
Approach
Chart Plan
View
Figure 8-37 Approach Information Page, Plan View
Selecting the PROFILE Softkey displays the approach chart descent profile strip.
Approach
Chart Descent
Profile Strip
Figure 8-38 Approach Information Page, Profile View, Full Screen Width
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the MINIMUMS Softkey displays the minimum descent altitude/visibility strip at the bottom of the
approach chart.
Minimum
Descent
Altitude/
Visibility Strip
Figure 8-39 Approach Information Page, Minimums View, Full Screen Width
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
If the chart scale has been adjusted to view a small area of the chart, selecting the FIT WIDTH Softkey
changes the chart size to fit the available screen width.
Select FIT WDTH
Softkey to Show
Full Chart Width
Figure 8-40 Airport Information Page, FIT WDTH Softkey Selected
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the FULL SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
Selecting Additional Information:
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, select the FULL SCN Softkey to display the information windows
(AIRPORT, INFO).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the AIRPORT, INFO, RUNWAYS, or FREQUENCIES Box (INFO Box shown).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the INFO Box choices. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired
choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
Available
Information
Select FULL SCN
Softkey to Switch
Between Full Screen
and Chart with Info
Window
Figure 8-41 Airport Information Page, Full Screen and Info Window
Selecting the BACK Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the FULL SCREEN and COLOR SCHEME Options.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the On and Off Full Screen Options.
Chart Setup Option
Full Screen On/Off Selection
Figure 8-42 Page Menus
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
ChartView can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a dark
environment. When the CHART SETUP Box is selected the softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-43 Waypoint Information Page, OPTIONS Menu
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the COLOR SCHEME Option (Figure 8‑44).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between Day, Auto, and Night Options.
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the Chart Setup Menu.
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Figure 8-44 Arrival Information Page, Day View
Figure 8-45 Arrival Information Page, Night View
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CHARTVIEW CYCLE NUMBER AND EXPIRATION DATE
The ChartView database is revised every 14 days. Charts are still viewable during a period that extends from
the cycle expiration date to the disables date. ChartView is disabled 70 days after the expiration date and is no
longer available for viewing. After the expiration date, the ChartView database is no longer current, however,
data displayed on the actual charts may still be current. When viewing charts after the ChartView database has
expired, ensure the displayed chart is current before using.
When turning on the system, the Power-up Page displays the current status of the ChartView database. See
the table below for the various ChartView Power-up Page displays and the definition of each.
ChartView Database
Figure 8-46 Power-up Page, ChartView Database
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Blank Line. system is not configured for ChartView. Contact a Garminauthorized service center for configuration.
System is configured for ChartView but no chart database is installed.
Contact Jeppesen for a ChartView database.
Normal operation. ChartView database is valid and within current
cycle.
ChartView database is within 1 week after expiration date. A new cycle
is available for update.
ChartView database is beyond 1 week after expiration date, but still
within the 70 day viewing period.
ChartView database has timed out. Database is beyond 70 days after
expiration date. ChartView database is no longer available for viewing.
System time is not available. GPS satellite data is unknown or the
system has not yet locked onto satellites. Check database cycle number
for effectivity.
System is verifying chart database when new cycle is installed for the
first time.
After verifying, chart database is found to be corrupt. ChartView is not
available.
Table 8-2 ChartView Power-up Page Annunciations and Definitions
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The ChartView time critical information can also be found on the AUX - System Status page. The database
CYCLE number, EXPIRES, and DISABLES dates of the ChartView subscription appear in either blue or yellow
text. When the ChartView EXPIRES date is reached, ChartView becomes inoperative 70 days later. This is
shown as the DISABLES date. When the DISABLES date is reached, charts are no longer available for viewing.
The SHW CHRT Softkey label then appears subdued and is disabled until a revised issue of ChartView is
installed.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the ChartView database information is
shown.
The ChartView database cycle number shown in the figure, 1404, is deciphered as follows:
14 – Indicates the year 2014
04 – Indicates the fourth issue of the ChartView database for the year
The EXPIRES date 06–MAR–14 is the date that this database should be replaced with the next issue.
The DISABLES date 15–MAY–14 is the date that this database becomes inoperative.
ChartView
Data
Figure 8-47 AUX – System Status Page, ChartView Current and Available
The ChartView database is obtained directly from Jeppesen. Refer to Updating Jeppesen Databases in
Appendix B for instructions on revising the ChartView database.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Other possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown in Figure 8-48. The EXPIRES date, in yellow,
is the revision date for the next database cycle. The DISABLES date, in yellow, is the date that this database
cycle is no longer viewable. CYCLE NOT AVAILABLE in blue, indicates no ChartView data is available on the
database card or no database card is inserted.
ChartView has Expired, but is not Disabled
ChartView Database is Disabled
ChartView Database is Not Available
Figure 8-48 AUX – System Status Page, ChartView Database Status
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.4 FLITECHARTS
FliteCharts resemble the paper version of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts. The charts are displayed
with high-resolution and in color for applicable charts. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft position on the
moving map in the planview of approach charts.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. An aircraft symbol may be displayed within an off-scale area
depicted on some charts.
Figure 8-49 shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, these areas are not shaded on
the published chart. These off-scale areas appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the
depicted geographical position of this information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual geographic
position. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is
relative to the chart planview, not to the off-scale area.
The FliteCharts database subscription is available from Garmin. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Approaches
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• Airport Diagrams
Off-Scale
Areas
Off-Scale
Area
Off-Scale
Areas
Off-Scale
Area
Figure 8-49 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
FLITECHARTS SOFTKEYS
FliteCharts functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey displays the available terminal chart
and advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT OPT, CHRT, INFO, DP, STAR, APR, WX, and
GO BACK. The chart selection softkeys appear on the Airport Information Page.
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the available terminal chart and advances to the next level of
softkeys: ALL, FIT WDTH, FULL SCN, and BACK.
While viewing the CHRT OPT Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
NOTAMs are not available with FliteCharts. The NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled.
SHW CHRT
CHRT OPT
CHRT
INFO-1
INFO-2
ALL
DP
STAR
WX
APR
GO BACK
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey returns
to the top-level softkeys and previous page.
FIT WDTH
FULL SCN
BACK
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns
to the Chart Selection Softkeys.
Figure 8-50 FliteCharts SHW CHRT, Chart Selection, and Chart Option Softkeys
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Nearest Airport Page, or Flight Plan Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the OPTIONS Menu to Show Chart.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page OPTIONS Menu
Figure 8-51 Option Menus
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner CHART NOT AVAILABLE appears on the screen.
The CHART NOT AVAILABLE banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability
of a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
Figure 8-52 Chart Not Available Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the banner
UNABLE TO DISPLAY CHART is then displayed.
Figure 8-53 Unable To Display Chart Banner
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
When a chart is not available by selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts
may be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, selecting the
SHW CHRT Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is one associated with the WPT – Airport Information page. Usually this is the airport runway
diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are available, that
page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport is shown.
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Flight Plan Page, or Nearest Airports Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the Airport Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the Approach Box. (Select the APR Softkey
if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Approach Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
Chart Not
To Scale
Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
Pan Entire
Chart With
the Joystick
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-54 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
While the APPROACH Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. Once the desired chart is
selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart can be panned using the Joystick. Pressing the Joystick
centers the chart on the screen.
The Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE.
Selecting the CHRT Softkey switches between the FliteCharts diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the CHRT Softkey switches between the Charlotte, NC (KCLT) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the WPT – Airport Information page.
Select CHRT Softkey
to Switch Between
FliteCharts and WPT Airport Information Page
Figure 8-55 CHRT Softkey, Airport Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram chart when the view is on a terminal
procedure chart. If the displayed chart is the airport diagram chart, pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey
returns to the Airport Information Page.
Another source for additional airport information is from the INFO Box above the chart (Figure 8-55) or to
the right of the chart (Figure 8-56) for certain airports. This information source is not related to the INFO-1 or
INFO-2 Softkey. When the INFO Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. The Charlotte,
NC airport has three additional charts offering information; the Airport Diagram, Alternate Minimums, and
Take-off Minimums.
Info Box
Selected
Figure 8-56 Airport Information Page, INFO View with Airport Information
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
In the example shown in Figure 8-56, TAKE OFF MINIMUMS is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays the
IFR Alternate Minimums Chart (Figure 8-57).
Figure 8-57 Airport Information Page, ALTERNATE MINIMUMS Selected from INFO View
Selecting the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
Figure 8-58 Departure Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
Figure 8-59 Arrival Information Page
Pressing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available. The aircraft symbol is shown
on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft position is within the boundaries of the chart. The
aircraft symbol is not displayed when the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears. If the Chart Scale Box displays a
banner NOT TO SCALE, the aircraft symbol is not shown.
Figure 8-60 Approach Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, when available, and includes
weather data such as METAR and TAF from the XM Data Link Receiver. Weather information is available only
when an XM Data Link Receiver is installed and the SiriusXM Weather subscription is current.
Selecting Additional Information:
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, select the WX Softkey to display the information windows (AIRPORT,
INFO).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the INFO Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the INFO Box choices. When the INFO Box is selected the softkeys are blank.
If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to
complete the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
Info Available
on This Airport
WX Info
When
Available
Chart Not
To Scale
Softkeys are
Blank during
Info Box
Selection
Figure 8-61 Weather Information Page, WX Softkey Selected
WX Softkey
Selected
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page or Flight Plan Page).
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CHART OPTIONS
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level (Figure 8-50).
Selecting the ALL Softkey shows the entire chart on the screen.
Entire Chart
Shown
Figure 8-62 Airport Information Page, ALL View Selected
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the FIT WIDTH Softkey fits the width of the chart in the display viewing area. In the example
shown, the chart at close range is replaced with the full width chart.
Select FIT WDTH
Softkey to Show
Full Chart Width
Figure 8-63 Approach Information Page, FIT WDTH Softkey Selected
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the FULL SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
Select FULL SCN
Softkey to Switch
Between Full Screen
Chart and Chart with
Info Window
Figure 8-64 Airport Information Page, Full Screen and Info Window
Selecting the BACK Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the FULL SCREEN and COLOR SCHEME Options.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the On and Off Full Screen Options.
Chart Setup Option
Full Screen On/Off Selection
Figure 8-65 Page Menus
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
FliteCharts can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a dark
environment. When the CHART SETUP Box is selected the softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-66 Waypoint Information Page, OPTIONS Menu
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the COLOR SCHEME Option (Figure 8‑67).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between Day, Auto, and Night Options.
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the Chart Setup Menu.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-67 Approach Information Page, Day View
Figure 8-68 Approach Information Page, Night View
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLITECHARTS CYCLE NUMBER AND EXPIRATION DATE
FliteCharts data is revised every 28 days. Charts are still viewable during a period that extends from the cycle
expiration date to the disables date. FliteCharts is disabled 180 days after the expiration date and are no longer
available for viewing upon reaching the disables date. After the expiration date, the FliteCharts database is no
longer current, however, data displayed on the actual charts may still be current. When viewing charts after the
FliteCharts database has expired, ensure the displayed chart is current before using.
When turning on the system, the Power-up Page displays the current status of the FliteCharts database. See
the table below for the various FliteCharts Power-up Page displays and the definition of each.
FliteCharts Database
Figure 8-69 Power-up Page, FliteCharts Database
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Blank Line. system is not configured for FliteCharts. Contact a Garminauthorized service center for configuration.
System is configured for FliteCharts but no chart database is installed.
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for the FliteCharts
database
Normal operation. FliteCharts database is valid and within current
cycle.
FliteCharts database is beyond the expiration date, but still within the
180 day viewing period.
FliteCharts database has timed out. Database is beyond 180 days
after expiration date. FliteCharts database is no longer available for
viewing.
Table 8-3 FliteCharts Power-up Page Annunciations and Definitions
Other possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown in Figure 8-70. ‘FliteCharts Expires’ plus a
date in white, indicates the chart database is current. ‘Chart data is out of date!’ in yellow, indicates charts are
still viewable, but approaching the disable date.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
When the 180 day grace period has expired, ‘Chart data is disabled.’ in yellow indicates that the FliteCharts
database has expired and is no longer viewable. ‘Chart Data: N/A’ appears in white if no FliteCharts data is
available on the database card or no database card is inserted.
FliteCharts time critical information can also be found on the AUX - System Status page. The FliteCharts
database REGION, CYCLE number, EFFECTIVE, EXPIRES, and DISABLES dates of the subscription appear in
either blue or yellow text. Dates shown in blue are current data. Dates shown in yellow indicate the data is not
within the current subscription period.
FliteCharts becomes inoperative 180 days after the FliteCharts EXPIRES date is reached, and is no longer
available for viewing. This date is shown as the DISABLES date. After the disable date the SHW CHRT Softkey
label appears subdued and is unavailable until a revised issue of FliteCharts is installed.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the FliteCharts database information is
shown.
The FliteCharts database cycle number shown in the figure, 1405, is deciphered as follows:
14 – Indicates the year 2014
05 – Indicates the fifth issue of the FliteCharts database for the year
The FliteCharts EFFECTIVE date 07–MAY–14 is the first date that this database is current.
The FliteCharts EXPIRES date 04–JUN–14 is the last date that this database is current.
The DISABLES date 01–DEC–14 is the date that this database becomes inoperative.
FliteCharts
Data
Figure 8-70 AUX – System Status Page, FliteCharts Current and Available
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The FliteCharts database is provided from Garmin. Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for
instructions on revising the FliteCharts database.
The other four possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown here. The EFFECTIVE date, in
yellow, indicates the current date preceeds the date the FliteCharts database becomes effective. The EXPIRES
date, in yellow, is the revision date for the next database cycle. The DISABLES date, in yellow, is the date that
this database cycle is no longer viewable. NOT AVAILABLE in blue, indicate the FliteCharts database is not
available on the database card or no database card is inserted.
Current Date is Before Effective Date
FliteCharts Expired, but is not Disabled
FliteCharts Database is Disabled
FliteCharts Database is Not Available
Figure 8-71 AUX – System Status Page, FliteCharts Datbase Status
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.5 AIRPORT DIRECTORY
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) and optional AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory databases
offer detailed information regarding services, hours of operation, lodging options, and more. This information
is viewed on the Airport Information Page by selecting the INFO Softkey until INFO-2 is displayed as shown in
Figure 8-72.
Both Airport Directories are available for downloading at flygarmin.com. However, copy only one of the
databases to the Supplemental Data Card. The system cannot recognize both databases simultaneously.
Selecting the Airport Directory Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT’ page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AIRPORT INFORMATION Page. Initially, information for the airport closest
to the aircraft’s present position is displayed.
3) If necessary, select the INFO softkey until INFO-2 is displayed.
Figure 8-72 AOPA Information on the Airport Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
AIRPORT DIRECTORY DATABASE CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
The Airport Directory databases are revised every 56 days. Check fly.garmin.com for the current database.
The Airport Directory is always available for use after the expiration date. When turning on the system, the
Power-up Page indicates whether the databases are current, out of date, or not available.
Airport Directory Database
Figure 8-73 Power-up Page, Airport Directory Database
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Normal operation. Airport Directory database is valid and within
current cycle.
Airport Directory database has expired.
Database card contains no Airport Directory data.
Table 8-4 Airport Directory Annunciation Definitions
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The Airport Directory Region, Version, Cycle, Effective date and Expires date of the database cycle can also be
found on the AUX - System Status page, as seen in Figure 8-74.
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the Airport Directory database information
is shown.
The Airport Directory database cycle number shown in the figure, 14D2, is deciphered as follows:
14 – Indicates the year 2014
D – Indicates the data is for Airport Directory
2 – Indicates the second issue of the Airport Directory database for the year
The Airport Directory EFFECTIVE date 15–APR–14 is the beginning date for the current database cycle. The
Airport Directory EXPIRES date 14–JUL–14 is the revision date for the next database cycle.
Airport Directory
Data
Figure 8-74 AUX – System Status Page, Airport Directory Current Information
Airport Directory information appears in blue and yellow text. The EFFECTIVE date appears in blue when
data is current and in yellow when the current date is before the effective date. The EXPIRES date appears in
blue when data is current and in yellow when expired (Table 8-4). NOT AVAILABLE appears in blue in the
REGION field if Airport Directory data is not available on the database card. An expired Airport Directory
database is not disabled and will continue to function indefinitely.
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8.6 SATELLITE TELEPHONE AND SMS MESSAGING
NOTE: Separate accounts must be established to access the Iridium satellite network for voice and Garmin
Connext for data transmission of maintenance reports.
The optional GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver provides Iridium Satellite Telephone service and SMS text messaging.
Iridium telephone and text messaging are available to the flight crew through the Multi-function Display, audio
panel and headset. The system provides a telephone handset interface to be used for voice communication
between the aircraft cabin and the cockpit and for Iridium telephone service in the aircraft cabin.
Operation of these features in the cockpit is accomplished through the AUX-TELEPHONE and AUX-TEXT
MESSAGING Pages. For operation using the cabin handset, consult the instructions provided with the handset.
REGISTERING WITH GARMIN CONNEXT
A subscriber account must be established prior to using the Iridium Satellite System. Before setting up an
Iridium account, obtain the serial number of the Iridium Transceiver (GSR1, if installed) and the System ID by
selecting the AUX- SYSTEM STATUS Page as shown in Figure 8-75. Contact Garmin Connext at 1-866-739-5687
in the United States or 913-397-8200, ext. 1135.
Iridium Transceiver Serial Number
System ID Number
Figure 8-75 Identification Needed for Iridium Registration
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION
The pilot or copilot can place and answer calls on the Iridium satellite network. Control and monitoring of
telephone functions are accomplished through the AUX-TELEPHONE Page.
Viewing the Telephone Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select SATELLITE PHONE.
3) If necessary, press the TEL Softkey to display the AUX-TELEPHONE Page.
The PHONE STATUS display, as shown in Figure 8-76, gives a graphical representation of the current
disposition of voice and/or data transmissions. Table 8-5 describes symbology used on Phone Status display.
Satellite
Signal
Strength
External
Phone
Internal
Phones
Figure 8-76 Phone Status Display
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Internal
Phone
External
Phone
Description
Phone is Idle
Phone is ringing
Phone has a dial tone (off hook) or connected to another phone
Phone dialed is busy
Phone is dialing another phone
Phone has failed
Phone status not known
Phone is disabled
Phone is reserved for data transmission
Calling other phone or incoming call from other phone
Other phone is on hold
Phones are connected
Table 8-5 Telephone Symbols
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
ENABLE/DISABLE THE IRIDIUM TELEPHONE SYSTEM
The Iridium Satellite Telephone System may be turned on or off by using the page menu.
Figure 8-77 Enable Iridium Telephone System
To enable the Iridium telephone system:
1) With the AUX-TELEPHONE Page displayed, select the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Enable Iridium Transmission’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
To disable the Iridium telephone system:
1) With the AUX-TELEPHONE Page displayed, select the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable Iridium Transmission’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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INCOMING CALLS
When viewing MFD pages other than the AUX-TELEPHONE Page, a pop-up alert similar to Figure 8-78
will be displayed and an aural alert “Incoming Call” will be heard. The pop-up alert may be inhibited at
times, such as during takeoff. In addition to the pop-up alert, a ringing phone symbol will be displayed to
the right of the MFD page title as shown in Figure 8-78. Also, the voice alert “Incoming Call” will be heard
on the selected cockpit audio.
Incoming Call Pop-up
Incoming Call Symbol on MFD Page
Figure 8-78 Incoming Call
Answering an incoming call in the cockpit:
1) Press the
Key on the audio panel.
2) Select the ANSWER Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
While viewing the AUX-TELEPHONE Page:
NOTE: The Push-to-Talk switch is not utilized for telephone communication. The microphone is active after
selecting the ANSWER Softkey, and stays active until the call is terminated.
1) Press the
Key on the audio panel.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
3) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Answer Incoming Call’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
Selecting the IGNORE Softkey will extinguish the pop-up window and leave the current call unanswered.
Selecting the IGNRE ALL Softkey will extinguish the pop-up window for the current and all future incoming
calls and leave the current call unanswered. Selecting the TEL Softkey will display the AUX-TELEPHONE
Page allowing additional call information to be viewed before answering.
Disabling incoming call alerts:
1) With the AUX-TELEPHONE Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable Incoming Call Alerts’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The voice and pop-up alert will not be displayed now when an incoming call is received.
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OUTGOING CALLS
Voice calls can be made from the cockpit to an external phone through the Iridium Satellite Network.
NOTE: The Push-to-Talk switch is not utilized for telephone communication. The microphone is active after
selecting the ANSWER Softkey, and stays active until the call is terminated.
To make a call:
1) Press the
Key on the audio panel.
2) Select the DIAL Softkey on the MFD. A display similar to Figure 8-79 will be shown.
Or:
While viewing the AUX-TELEPHONE Page:
a) Press the
Key on the audio panel.
b) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
c) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Dial a Phone Call’.
d) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-79 Enter Phone Number
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3) Enter the desired telephone number by selecting the number softkeys on the MFD or by pressing the numeric
keys on the MFD Control Unit. The International dialing sequence is necessary to place a call from the cockpit
to an external phone: Country Code + City/Area Code (if any) + Telephone Number.
The following country codes may be used when calling other satellite telephone systems.
Satellite System
Inmarsat
ICO
Ellipso
Iridium
Globalstar
Country Code
870
8810 or 8811
8812 or 8813
8816 or 8817
8818 or 8819
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘OK’ is highlighted as in Figure 8-80.
Figure 8-80 Make the Call
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5) Press the ENT Key. The system will begin calling the number, as in Figure 8-81.
Figure 8-81 System is Making the Connection
When the phone is answered, the connection is established as shown in Figure 8-82. To exit the call, select
the HANGUP Softkey.
When numeric entries are required while a call is connected, such as selecting menu items like “dial zero to
get an operator”, select the KEYPAD Softkey to access the numeric softkeys.
Figure 8-82 Phone is Answered, Connection Complete
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PLACING A CALL ON HOLD
Placing a call on hold:
Select the HOLD Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Put Current Call On Hold’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
The cockpit phone is now isolated from the call as seen in Figure 8-83. Select the HOLD Softkey again to
resume the call.
Figure 8-83 Cockpit Phone on Hold
TEXT MESSAGING (SMS)
The pilot or copilot can send and receive text messages on the Iridium satellite network. Messages may be
sent to an email address or text message capable cellular telephone. Message length is limited to 160 characters,
including the email address.
The text messaging user interface is mainly through the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page.
Viewing the Text Messaging Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the SATELLITE PHONE.
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3) If necessary, select the SMS Softkey to display the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page as shown in Figure 8-84.
Figure 8-84 Text Messaging Page
Message Symbol
Description
Received text message that has not been opened
Received text message that has been opened
Saved text message, draft not sent
System is sending text message
Text message has been sent
System failed to send text message
Predefined text message
Table 8-6 Text Message Symbols
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VIEWING A TEXT MESSAGE WHEN RECEIVED
When viewing MFD pages other than the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, a pop-up alert similar to Figure
8-85 will be displayed when a new text message is received.
New Text Message Pop-up
New Text Message Symbol on MFD Page
Figure 8-85 New Text Message Received
Select the VIEW Softkey to view the message (Figure 8-86). Selecting the IGNORE Softkey will extinguish
the pop-up window and leave the text message unopened. Selecting the IGNR ALL Softkey will extinguish
the pop-window and ignore all future incoming text messages. Selecting the SMS Softkey will display the
AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page.
Figure 8-86 Text Message Displayed from Pop-Up Alert
The pop-up alerts may be enabled or disabled through the Page Menu.
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Enabling/disabling incoming text message pop-up alerts:
1) With the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable New Message Popups’ or ‘Enable New Message
Popups’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The pop-up alert will not be displayed when an incoming text message is received.
Figure 8-87 Disabling New Text Message Pop-Ups
REPLY TO A TEXT MESSAGE
After reading a text message, a reply may be sent.
Replying to a text message:
While viewing the text message, select the REPLY Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Reply To Message’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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SENDING A TEXT MESSAGE
Text messages may be sent from the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page.
Sending a new text message:
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the NEW Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-88 Composing a New Text Message
2) The TEXT MESSAGE DRAFT Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘TO’ field. Enter the desired
telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used
to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by selecting the NUMBERS Softkey.
Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters. Special characters can be
accessed by selecting the SYMBOLS Softkey. See Figure 8-88.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘MESSAGE’ field.
4) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 2.
5) Press the ENT Key.
6) Select the SEND Softkey to send the message immediately, or select the SAVE Softkey to save the message in
Outbox for sending at a later time. Select the CANCEL Softkey to delete the message.
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PREDEFINED TEXT MESSAGES
Time and effort can be saved in typing text messages that are used repeatedly by saving these messages as
a predefined message.
Creating a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
Figure 8-89 Creating/Editing Predefined Messages
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select ‘Edit Predefined Messages’ as shown in Figure 8-89.
3) Press the ENT Key. The PREDEFINED MESSAGES view is now displayed.
4) Select the NEW Softkey.
Or:
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a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Predefined Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The PREDEFINED SMS TEXT MESSAGE Window is now displayed as shown in Figure 8-90.
Figure 8-90 Composing a Predefined Message
5) The cursor is displayed in the ‘TITLE’ field. Enter the desired message title. Entry can be accomplished through
the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys
on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD
by selecting the NUMBERS Softkey. Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha
characters. Special characters can be accessed by selecting the SYMBOLS Softkey.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘MESSAGE’ field.
7) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 5.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Select the SAVE Softkey. The new predefined message is now shown in the displayed list. Selecting the
CANCEL Softkey will delete the message without saving.
10) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
11) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Stop Editing Predefined Message’.
12) Press the ENT Key.
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Sending a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the NEW Softkey.
2) The TEXT MESSAGE DRAFT Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘TO’ field. Enter the desired
telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used
to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by selecting the NUMBERS Softkey.
Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters. Special characters can be
accessed by selecting the SYMBOLS Softkey. See Figure 8-91.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘MESSAGE’ field (Figure 8-91).
Figure 8-91 Composing a New Text Message
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4) Select the PREDEFD Softkey. The PREDEFINED MESSAGE MENU Window is displayed as seen in Figure 8-92.
Figure 8-92 Predefined Message List
5) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired predefined message.
6) Press the ENT Key. The predefined message text is inserted into the message field. If desired, the message can
be edited by using the FMS Knobs.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Select the SEND Softkey to transmit the message.
TEXT MESSAGE BOXES
Received text messages reside in the Inbox as ‘Read’ or ‘Unread’ messages. The Outbox contains ‘Sent” and
‘Unsent’ text messages. Saved messages that are meant to be sent later are stored as Drafts. Each text message
box may be viewed separately, or together in any combination.
Show Inbox messages:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the INBOX Softkey
(Figure 8-93).
Or:
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1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Inbox Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
Figure 8-93 Text Message Inbox
Show Outbox messages:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the OUTBOX
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Outbox Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
Show Draft messages:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the DRAFTS
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Draft Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
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MANAGING TEXT MESSAGES
The viewed messages may be listed according to the date/time the message was sent or received, the type of
message (read, unread, sent, unsent, etc.), or by message address.
Viewing messages sorted by message date/time:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the TIME Softkey
(Figure 8-93).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Date/Time’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window (Figure 8-93).
Viewing messages sorted by message type:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the TYPE Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Type’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
Viewing messages sorted by address:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the ADDRESS
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Address’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
Viewing the content of a text message:
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the desired message box.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
4) Select the VIEW Softkey.
Or:
Press the ENT Key.
Or:
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a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘View Selected Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Message content is displayed as shown in Figure 8-94.
Figure 8-94 Viewing Message Content
5) To close the text message, select the CLOSE Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Close Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Marking selected message as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Select the MRK READ Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark Selected Message As Read’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
The message symbol now indicates the message has been opened.
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Marking all messages as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark All New Messages As Read’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed.
4) With cursor highlighting ‘YES’, press the ENT Key. The message symbols now indicate all the message have
been opened.
Delete a message:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Select the DELETE Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Delete Selected Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
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8.7 SIRIUSXM SATELLITE RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
NOTE: Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section for information about SiriusXM Weather products.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment feature of the GDL 69A Data Link Receiver is available for
the pilot’s and passengers’ enjoyment. The GDL 69A can receive SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment services
at any altitude throughout the Continental U.S. Entertainment audio is not available on the GDL 69 Data Link
Receiver.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers a variety of radio programming over long distances without having to constantly
search for new stations. Based on signals from satellites, coverage far exceeds land-based transmissions.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio services are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit
www.siriusxm.com.
ACTIVATING SIRIUSXM SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES
The service is activated by providing SiriusXM Satellite Radio with either one or two coded IDs, depending on
the equipment. Either the Audio Radio ID or the Data Radio ID, or both, must be provided to SiriusXM Satellite
Radio to activate the entertainment subscription.
It is not required to activate both the entertainment and weather service subscriptions with the GDL 69A.
Either or both services can be activated. SiriusXM Satellite Radio uses one or both of the coded IDs to send an
activation signal that, when received by the GDL 69A, allows it to play entertainment programming.
These IDs are located:
• On the label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
• On the XM Information Page on the MFD (Figure 8-95)
• On the XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit (available at www.garmin.com, P/N
190-00355-04)
Contact the installer if the Data Radio ID and the Audio Radio ID cannot be located.
NOTE: The LOCK Softkey on the XM Information Page (Auxiliary Page Group) is used to save GDL 69A
activation data when the SiriusXM services are initially set up. It is not used during normal SiriusXM
Satellite Radio operation, but there should be no adverse effects if inadvertently selected during flight.
Refer to the GDL 69/69A XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions (190-00355-04, Rev K or later) for
further information.
Activating the SiriusXM Satellite Radio services:
1) Contact SiriusXM Satellite Radio. Follow the instructions provided by SiriusXM Satellite Radio services.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select XM RADIO.
4) Select the INFO Softkey to display the XM Information Page.
5) Verify that the desired services are activated.
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6) Select the LOCK Softkey.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight YES.
8) To complete activation, press the ENT Key.
Data
Radio ID
Audio
Radio ID
Weather
Products
Window
LOCK Softkey
is Used to Save
Activation Data
During Initial
Setup
RADIO
and INFO
Softkeys
Figure 8-95 XM Information Page
If SiriusXM Weather services have not been activated, the weather product boxes will appear empty on the
XM Information Page and a yellow Activation Required message is displayed in the center of the Weather
Data Link Page (Map Page Group). The Service Class refers to the groupings of weather products available for
subscription.
USING SIRIUSXM SATELLITE RADIO
The XM Radio Page provides information and control of the audio entertainment features of the SiriusXM
Satellite Radio.
Selecting the XM Radio Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select XM RADIO.
3) Select the RADIO Softkey to show the XM Radio Page where audio entertainment is controlled.
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Active
Channels
Channel
List
Categories
Field
Figure 8-96 XM Radio Page
ACTIVE CHANNEL AND CHANNEL LIST
The Active Channel Box on the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected channel that the SiriusXM
Radio is using.
The Channels List Box of the XM Radio Page shows a list of the available channels for the selected category.
Channels can be stepped through one at a time or may be selected directly by channel number.
Selecting a channel from the channel list:
1) While on the XM Radio Page, select the CHNL Softkey.
2) Select the CH + Softkey to go up through the list in the Channel Box, or move down the list with the CH – Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to highlight the channel list and turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the channels.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
Selecting a channel directly:
1) While on the XM Radio Page, select the CHNL Softkey.
2) Select the DIR CH Softkey. The channel number in the Active Channel Box is highlighted.
3) Select the numbered softkeys located on the bottom of the display to directly select the desired channel number.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
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CATEGORY
The Category Box of the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected category of audio. Categories of
channels such as jazz, rock, or news can be selected to list the available channels for a type of music or other
contents. One of the optional categories is PRESETS to view channels that have been programmed.
Selecting a category:
1) Select the CATGRY Softkey on the XM Radio Page.
2) Select the CAT + and CAT - Softkeys to cycle through the categories.
Or:
Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Categories list. Highlight the desired category with the small FMS Knob
and press the ENT Key. Selecting All Categories places all channels in the list.
Figure 8-97 Categories List
PRESETS
Up to 15 channels from any category can be assigned a preset number. The preset channels are selected by
selecting the PRESETS and MORE Softkeys. Then the preset channel can be selected directly and added to
the channel list for the Presets category.
Setting a preset channel number:
1) On the XM Radio Page, while listening to an Active Channel that is wanted for a preset, select the PRESETS
Softkey to access the first five preset channels (PS1 - PS5).
2) Select the MORE Softkey to access the next five channels (PS6 – PS10), and again to access the last five
channels (PS11 – PS15). Selecting the MORE Softkey repeatedly cycles through the preset channels.
3) Select any one of the (PS1 - PS15) softkeys to assign a number to the active channel.
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4) Select the SET Softkey on the desired channel number to save the channel as a preset.
Press PRESETS to
Access the Preset
Channels Softkeys
Press MORE to Cycle
Through the Preset
Channels
Press SET to
Save Each
Preset Channel
Figure 8-98 Accessing and Selecting Preset SiriusXM Channels
Selecting the BACK Softkey, or 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, returns the system to the top level softkeys.
VOLUME
Radio volume is shown as a percentage. Volume level is controlled by selecting the VOL Softkey, which
brings up the MUTE Softkey and the volume increase and decrease softkeys.
Adjusting the volume:
1) With the XM Radio Page displayed, press the VOL Softkey.
2) Press the VOL – Softkey to reduce volume or press the VOL + Softkey to increase volume. (Once the VOL
Softkey is pressed, the volume can also be adjusted using the small FMS Knob.)
Figure 8-99 Volume Control
Radio volume may also be adjusted at each passenger station.
Mute SiriusXM audio:
1) Select the XM Radio Page or XM Information Page.
2) Press the MUTE Softkey to mute the audio. Press the MUTE Softkey again to unmute the audio.
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8.8 SCHEDULER
The Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., Hot Section Inspection or
Phase 1 Maintenance Check) in the Alerts Window on the PFD. Messages can be set to display based on a specific
date and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero (one-time; default setting), or recurrently whenever
the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set to periodic alerting automatically reset to the
original timer value once the message is displayed. When power is cycled, all messages are retained until deleted,
and message timer countdown is resumed.
Figure 8-100 Scheduler (Utility Page)
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty scheduler message naming field.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the message text to be displayed in the Alerts Window and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the field next to Type.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the message type:
• Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
• One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
• Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MM-YY) and press the ENT Key.
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
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Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the name field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
5) Press the ENT Key while the message line is cleared to clear the message text.
Scheduler messages appear in the Alerts Window on the PFD. When a scheduler message is waiting, the
ALERTS Softkey label flashes. Selecting the ALERTS Softkey opens the Alerts Window and acknowledges the
scheduler message. Selecting the ALERTS Softkey again removes the Alerts Window from the display, and the
scheduler message is deleted from the message queue.
Figure 8-101 PFD Alerts Window
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8.9 FLIGHT DATA LOGGING
NOTE: Some aircraft installations may not provide all aircraft/engine data capable of being logged by the
system.
The Flight Data Logging feature will automatically store critical flight and engine data on an SD data card (up
to 16GB) inserted into the top card slot of the MFD. Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each
1GB of available space on the card.
Data is written to the SD card once each second while the MFD is powered on. All flight data logged on a
specific date is stored in a file named in a format which includes the date, time, and nearest airport identifier. The
file is created automatically each time the G1000 system is powered on, provided an SD card has been inserted.
The status of the Flight Data Logging feature can be viewed on the AUX-UTILITY Page. If no SD card has been
inserted, “NO CARD” is displayed. When data is being written to the SD card, “LOGGING DATA” is displayed.
The .csv file may be viewed with Microsoft Excel® or other spreadsheet applications.
The following is a list of the types of data recorded. Not all data types are applicable to all aircraft. For example,
EGT and CHT would not apply to turbine aircraft.
The following is a list of data parameters the G1000 system is capable of logging for this aircraft.
• Local Date (YYYY-MM-DD)
• Local Time (HH:MM:SS)
• Active Waypoint Distance (nm)
• Active
Waypoint
Bearing
(degrees mag.)
• UTC Offset (HH:MM)
• Mag. Variation (degrees)
• Active Waypoint Identifier
• Voltage (volts)
• Generator Amps(amps)
• Alternator Amps (amps)
• AFCS On ( 0 – false, 1 – true)
• Latitude (degrees)
• AFCS Roll Mode (e.g. HDG,
LOC, GPS, VOR, ROL)
• Longitude (degrees)
• Right Fuel Qty (bs)
• Left Fuel Qty (lbs)
• AFCS Pitch Mode (e.g. ALT, GS,
GP, VS)
• Barometric Altitude (feet)
• Altimeter Setting (in. Hg.)
• GPS Altitude (ft)
• Pitch Commanded (degrees)
598
• Roll Commanded (degrees)
• OAT (deg. C)
• True Airspeed (kts)
• Selected Vertical Speed (fpm)
• Vertical Speed (fpm)
• HSI Selection (GPS,NAV1/2)
• GPS Fix (e.g. 2D, 3D, 3DDiff)
• Indicated Airspeed (kts)
• Horizontal Alert Limit (HAL,
meters)
• Gnd Speed (kts)
• Vertical Alert Limit (VAL, meters)
• Vertical Speed (fpm)
• NAV1 Frequency (MHz)
• NAV2 Frequency (MHz)
• Horizontal Protection Level
(HPLWAS, meters)
• Pitch (degrees)
• Roll (degrees)
• Horizontal Protection Level
(HPLFD, meters)
• Vertical
Protection
Level
(VPLWAS, meters)
• COM1 Frequency (MHz)
• COM2 Frequency (MHz)
• Lateral Acceleration (g)
• CDI Deflection (0.0 to 1.0)
• VDI Deflection (0.0 to 1.0)
• Normal Acceleration (g)
• Heading (degrees magnetic)
• Course (deg)
• Wind Direction (degrees mag.)
• Wind Speed (kts)
• Gnd Trk (degrees magnetic)
• Fuel Flow (gph)
• Fuel Temperature (deg. C)
• Oil Temperature (deg. F)
• Oil Pressure (psi)
• Power (%)
• ITT (deg. F)
• Torque (ft. lbs.)
• PROP (rpm)
• NG (%)
• ITT (deg. C)
• N1 (%)
• Vacuum (In/Hg)
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The file containing the recorded data will appear in the format shown in Figure 8-102. This file can be imported
into most computer spreadsheet applications.
Local Date
YYMMDD
Local 24hr Time
HHMMSS
Nearest Airport
(A blank will be
inserted if no
airport is found)
log_140210_104506_KIXD.csv
Figure 8-102 Log File Format
Data logging status can be monitored on the AUX-UTILITY Page.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.10 ELECTRONIC STABILITY & PROTECTION (ESP™)
Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) is an optional feature that is intended to discourage the exceedance of
attitude, established airspeed and angle of attack parameters. This feature will only function when the aircraft is
above 200 feet AGL and the autopilot is not engaged.
ESP engages when the aircraft exceeds one or more conditions (pitch, roll, and/or Vmo) beyond the normal flight
parameters. Enhanced stability for each condition is provided by applying a force to the appropriate control surface
to return the aircraft to the normal flight envelope. This is perceived by the pilot as resistance to control movement
in the undesired direction when the aircraft approaches a steep attitude, high airspeed, or when a stall is imminent.
As the aircraft deviates further from the normal attitude, angle of attack, or airspeed continues to increase, the
force increases (up to an established maximum) to encourage control movement in the direction necessary to return
to the normal attitude and/or airspeed range. Except in the case of high airspeed, when maximum force is reached,
force remains constant up to the maximum engagement limit. Above the maximum engagement limit, forces are no
longer applied. There is no maximum engagement related to a high airspeed condition.
When ESP has been engaged for more than ten seconds (cumulative; not necessarily consecutive seconds) of a
20-second interval, the autopilot is automatically engaged with the flight director in Level Mode, bringing the aircraft
into level flight. An aural “Engaging Autopilot” alert is played and the flight director mode annunciation will indicate
‘LVL’ for vertical and lateral modes.
The pilot can interrupt ESP by pressing and holding either the Control Wheel Steering (CWS) or Autopilot
Disconnect (AP DISC) switch. Upon releasing the CWS or AP DISC switch, ESP force will again be applied,
provided aircraft attitude, angle of attack and/or airspeed are within their respective engagement limits. ESP can also
be overridden by overpowering the servo’s mechanical torque limit.
ESP can be enabled or disabled on the AUX-SYSTEM SETUP 2 Page on the MFD.
To enable or disable ESP:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, select the SETUP 2 Softkey to display the AUX-SYSTEM SETUP 2 Page. If the AUX-SYSTEM SETUP 2
is already displayed, proceed to step 4.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the STABILITY & PROTECTION field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘ENABLE’ or ‘DISABLE’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
ESP is automatically enabled on system power up.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
ROLL ENGAGEMENT
Roll Limit Indicators are displayed on the roll scale at 45° right and left, indicating where ESP will engage
(see Figure 8-103). As roll attitude exceeds 45°, ESP will engage and the on-side Roll Limit Indicator will move
to 30°, as shown in Figure 8-104. The Roll Limit Indicator is now showing where ESP will disengage as roll
attitude decreases.
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45°)
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45°)
Figure 8-103 ESP Roll Engagement Indication (ESP NOT Engaged)
ESP Engage (45°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 44°
Before ESP Engage
ESP Disengage (30°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 46°
After ESP Engage
Figure 8-104 Roll Increasing to ESP Engagement
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Once engaged, ESP force will be applied between 30° and 75°, as illustrated in Figure 8-105. The force
increases as roll attitude increases and decreases as roll attitude decreases. The applied force is intended to
encourage pilot input that returns the airplane to a more normal roll attitude. As roll attitude decreases, ESP
will disengage at 30°.
º
30
20º
10º
0º
10º
20º
º
º
90º
90º
75º
75º
º
60
60
º
º
45
45
30
Figure 8-105 ESP Roll Operating Range When Engaged
(Force Increases as Roll Increases & Decreases as Roll Decreases)
ESP is automatically disengaged if the aircraft reaches the autopilot roll engagement attitude limit of 75°
(Figure 8-106).
ESP Upper Disengage Limit (75°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 74°
Figure 8-106 Roll Attitude Autopilot Engagement Limit (ESP Engaged)
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
PITCH ENGAGEMENT
ESP engages at 17° nose-up and 15° nose-down. Once ESP is engaged, it will apply opposing force between
14° and 50° nose-up and between 12° and 50° nose-down, as indicated in Figure 8-107. Maximum opposing
force is applied between 21° and 50° nose-up and between 21° and 50° nose-down.
The opposing force increases or decreases depending on the pitch angle and the direction of pitch travel. This
force is intended to encourage movement in the pitch axis in the direction of the normal pitch attitude range
for the aircraft.
There are no indications marking the pitch ESP engage and disengage limits in these nose-up/nose-down
conditions.
50˚
45˚
45˚
40˚
40˚
35˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
50˚
25˚
20˚
20˚
15˚
15˚
10˚
10˚
5˚
5˚
0˚
0˚
5˚
5˚
10˚
10˚
15˚
15˚
20˚
20˚
25˚
25˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
25˚
35˚
40˚
40˚
45˚
45˚
50˚
50˚
Figure 8-107 ESP Pitch Operating Range When Engaged
(Force Increases as Pitch Increases & Decreases as Pitch Decreases)
HIGH AIRSPEED PROTECTION
Exceeding Vmo or Mmo will result in ESP applying force to raise the nose of the aircraft. When the high
airspeed condition is remedied, ESP force is no longer applied.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.11 ABNORMAL OPERATION
SVT TROUBLESHOOTING
SVT is intended to be used with traditional attitude, heading, obstacle, terrain, and traffic inputs. SVT is
disabled when valid attitude or heading data is not available for the display. In case of invalid SVT data, the
PFD display reverts to the standard blue-over-brown attitude display.
SVT becomes disabled without the following data resources:
• Attitude data
• Heading data
• GPS position data
• 9 Arc-second Terrain data
• Obstacle data
• TAWS function is not available, in test mode, or failed
• The position of the aircraft exceeds the range of the terrain database.
REVERSIONARY MODE
SVT can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If it is enabled when switching
to Reversionary Mode, SVT will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The standard, non-SVT PFD display will
be shown in the interim.
Figure 8-108 SVT Reversionary Mode
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
Unusual attitudes are displayed with red chevrons overlaid on the display indicating the direction to fly to
correct the unusual attitude condition. The display shows either a brown or blue colored bar at the top or
bottom of the screen to represent earth or sky. This is intended to prevent losing sight of the horizon during
extreme pitch attitudes.
Figure 8-109 Unusual Attitude Display
The blue colored bar is also displayed when terrain gradient is great enough to completely fill the display.
Blue Band
Terrain
Completely
Fills Display
Figure 8-110 Blue Sky Bar with Full Display Terrain
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
GDL 69/69A DATA LINK RECEIVER TROUBLESHOOTING
Some quick troubleshooting steps listed below can be performed to find the possible cause of a failure.
• Ensure the owner/operator of the aircraft in which the Data Link Receiver is installed has subscribed to
SiriusXM Satellite Radio
• Ensure the SiriusXM subscription has been activated
• Perform a quick check of the circuit breakers to ensure that power is applied to the Data Link Receiver
• Ensure that nothing is plugged into the Music jack(s) because this would prevent SiriusXM Satellite Radio
from being heard
For troubleshooting purposes, check the LRU Information Box on the AUX - System Status Page for Data Link
Receiver (GDL 69/69A) status, serial number, and software version number. If a failure has been detected in the
GDL 69/69A the status is marked with a red X.
Selecting the System Status Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page (the last page in the AUX Page Group).
Figure 8-111 LRU Information Window on System Status Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
If a failure still exists, the following messages may provide insight as to the possible problem:
Message
Message Location
CHECK ANTENNA
XM Information Page (MFD)
UPDATING
XM Information Page (MFD))
Description
Data Link Receiver antenna error; service
required
Data Link Receiver updating encryption code
XM Information Page Weather Datalink Page Loss of signal; signal strength too low for
(MFD)
receiver
NO SIGNAL
LOADING
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Acquiring channel audio or information
OFF AIR
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Channel not in service
--------
XM Radio Page (MFD)
WEATHER DATA LINK FAILED
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
ACTIVATION REQUIRED
XM Information Page (MFD)
Missing channel information
No communication from Data Link Receiver
within last 5 minutes
SiriusXM subscription is not activated
DETECTING ACTIVATION
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
WAITING FOR DATA...
190-01843-00 Rev. A
SiriusXM subscription is activating.
SiriusXM subscription confirmed downloading
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
weather data.
Table 8-7 GDL 69/69A Data Link Receiver Messages
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
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190-01843-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
NOTE: The Piper Meridian Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) supersedes information found in this document.
The G1000 Alerting System conveys alerts using the following:
• CAS Window: The CAS Window displays abbreviated annunciation text. Text color is based on alert levels
described in the following section. The CAS Window is located to the right of the Altimeter and Vertical Speed
Indicator. A white horizontal line separates annunciations that are acknowledged from annunciations that are
not yet acknowledged. Higher priority annunciations are displayed towards the top of the window.
• MESSAGES Window: The MESSAGES Window displays text messages for up to 64 prioritized messages.
Pressing the MSG Softkey displays the MESSAGES Window. Pressing the MSG Softkey a second time removes
the MESSAGES Window from the display. When the MESSAGES Window is displayed, the FMS Knob can be
used to scroll through the message list.
• Softkey Annunciation: When a new system message is issued, the MSG Softkey flashes to alert the flight
crew of a new message. It continues to flash until acknowledged by pressing the softkey. Active messages are
displayed in white text. Messages that have become inactive change to gray text. The MSG Softkey flashes if
the state of a displayed message changes or a new message is displayed. The inactive messages can be removed
from the Alets Window by pressing the flashing MSG Softkey.
• System Annunciations: Typically, a large red ‘X’ appears over instruments whose information is supplied by
a failed Line Replaceable Unit (LRU). See the G1000 System Annunciations Section for more information.
System Annunciation
(Red ‘X’)
CAS Window
MESSAGES Window
Softkey Annunciation
Figure A-1 G1000 Alerting System
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APPENDIX A
• Audio Alerting System: The G1000 System issues audio alert tones when specific system conditions are met.
See the Alert Level Definitions Section for more information. The annunciation tone may be tested from the
AUX - System Status Page.
Testing the system annunciation tone:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
2) Press the ANN TEST Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Highlight ‘Enable Annunciator Test Mode’ and press the ENT Key.
Figure A-2 System Status Page, Annunciation Tone Testing
Press to Test
Annunciation Tone
CAS MESSAGES
The following messages are configured specifically for the Piper Meridian. See the POH for recommended
pilot actions.
ALERT LEVEL DEFINITIONS
• WARNING: This level of alert requires immediate pilot attention. A warning alert is shown in the CAS
Window and is accompanied by a repeating triple chime. Text appearing in the CAS Window is RED. A
warning alert is also accompanied by a flashing WARNING Softkey annunciation, as shown in Figure A-3.
Pressing the WARNING Softkey acknowledges the presence of the warning alert and stops the aural alert.
• CAUTION: This level of alert indicates the existence of abnormal conditions on the aircraft that may require
pilot intervention. A caution alert is shown in the CAS Window and is accompanied by a double chime.
Text appearing in the CAS Window is YELLOW. A caution alert is also accompanied by a flashing CAUTION
Softkey annunciation, as shown in Figure A-3. Pressing the CAUTION Softkey acknowledges the presence of
the caution alert.
• ADVISORY: This level of alert provides general information to the pilot. Text appearing in the CAS Window
is WHITE and is accompanied by a single chime. An advisory alert does not require acknowlegement.w
WARNING
CAUTION
Figure A-3 Softkey Annunciation (MSG Softkey Labels)
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APPENDIX A
DISPLAY INHIBITS
Inhibits prevent certain CAS messages from being displayed during the following conditions:
If two alert levels of the same message are active simultaneously (e.g., DOOR AJAR warning and DOOR
AJAR advisory) only the higher alert level is displayed; or if a GEA or GIA fails, all CAS messages depending
on sensors associated with that LRU are automatically inhibited. Inhibits cannot be activated by invalid
sensor data.
WARNING MESSAGES
Warning Messages
ALTERNATOR FAIL
BLEED OVERTEMP
CABIN ALT 12K
CHECK GEAR
DOOR AJAR
ENGINE FIRE
FLAP FAIL
FUEL IMBALANCE
FUEL PRESS LOW
FUEL QTY
GEAR SYS
GENERATOR FAIL
HYDR PUMP ON
PITOT HEAT FAIL
PROP HEAT FAIL
SURF DEICE FAIL
USP ACTIVE
WDSHLD OVRTMP
Description
Alternator has failed
Bleed over temperature
Cabin altitude above 12,000 feet
Landing gear not down and locked
Cabin door is not closed
Engine fire
A flap system failure has occurred
Fuel imbalance is over 125 lbs
Fuel pressure is low
Fuel quantity is less than 100 lbs
A component of the gear system has failed
Generator has failed
Hydraulic pump is on
Both left and right pitot heat have failed
Propeller heat failure
Surface de-ice fail
Underspeed protection active
Windshield heater over-temperature or controller malfunction
CAUTION MESSAGES
Caution Messages
BETA
CABIN ALT 10K
CHECK GEAR
CHIP DETECT
CPCS FAIL
CPCS FAULT
FEATHER
FIRE DTECT FAIL
FUEL FILTER
FUEL IMBALANCE
FUEL QTY
GEAR SYS
HYDR PUMP ON
OXYGEN
L PITOT HT FAIL
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Description
Propeller is operating in Beta mode
Cabin altitude is above 10,000 feet
Landing gear not down and locked
Chip detected
An error was detected by the CAPS interface
A fault was detected on the CAPS interface
Propeller is feathered or a failure has occurred in the feather system
Fire detection system has failed
Fuel filter approaching bypass and requires maintenance
Fuel imbalance is over 40 lbs
Fuel quantity is less than 180 lbs
A component of the gear system has failed
Hydraulic pump is on. Caution has 15 sec. delay
Oxygen system has been turned on
Left pitot heat has failed
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APPENDIX A
Caution Messages
R PITOT HT FAIL
PITOT HEAT OFF
PROP HEAT FAIL
STALL WARN FAIL
STARTER ENGAGED
SURF DEICE FAIL
Description
Right pitot heat has failed
Pitot heat is off
Propeller heat failure
Failure detected in stall warning system
Starter engaged when Ng is more than 56% for more than 10 sec.
Surface de-ice fail
ADVISORY MESSAGES
Advisory Messages
AV1 FAN FAIL
AV2 FAN FAIL
BETA
DOOR AJAR
EMER BLEED ON
FEATHER
L FUEL PUMP ON
R FUEL PUMP ON
FUEL TEMP
IGNITION ON
MFD FAN FAIL
OXYGEN
PFD1 FAN FAIL
PFD2 FAN FAIL
STALL HEAT ON
STARTER ENGAGED
Description
The #1 cooling fan for remote avionics has failed
The #2 cooling fan for remote avionics has failed
Propeller is operating in Beta mode
Cabin door is not closed
Emergency bleed is on
Prop is feathered
Left fuel pump is on. Inhibited if fuel pump is on for fuel autobalance when imbalance < 40 lbs.
Right fuel pump is on. Inhibited if fuel pump is on for fuel autobalance when imbalance < 40 lbs.
Fuel temperature is low
Engine ignition is on
The cooling fan for the MFD has failed
Oxygen system has been turned on
The cooling fan for PFD1 has failed
The cooling fan for PFD2 has failed
Stall heat is on
Starter engaged when Ng is less than 56%
VOICE ALERTS
The following audio alerts are announced by the system using a voice of male or female gender (see the AUX
- System Setup Page to change the audio alert voice). If the optional Terrain Awareness and Warning System is
installed, voice alerts are also generated (refer to the TAWS Alerts section).
Voice Alert
“Airspeed”
“Minimums, Minimums”
“Vertical track”
“Timer Expired”
“Traffic”
“TIS not available”
“Traffic, Traffic”
Alert Trigger
Airspeed has exceeded VMO.
The aircraft has descended below the preset minimum descent altitude or decision altitude.
The aircraft is one minute from Top of Descent (only if vertical navigation is enabled).
Countdown timer on the PFD has reached zero.
The Traffic Information Service (TIS) has issued a Traffic Advisory alert.
The aircraft is outside the TIS coverage area (not available with TAS installed).
Played when first Traffic Advisory (TA) is issued with an optional TAS System. “Traffic” for
each subsequent TA.
“TAS System Test OK”
Played when the optional TAS system passes a pilot-initiated self test.
“TAS System Test Fail”
Played when the optional TAS system fails a pilot-initiated self test.
“TCAS One System Test Passed” Played when the optional TCAS system passes a pilot-initiated self test.
“TCAS One System Test Failed” Played when the optional TCAS system fails a pilot-initiated self test.
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APPENDIX A
COMPARATOR ANNUNCIATIONS
Comparator Window
Text
ALT MISCOMP
IAS MISCOMP
HDG MISCOMP
PIT MISCOMP
ROL MISCOMP
ALT NO COMP
IAS NO COMP
HDG NO COMP
PIT NO COMP
ROL NO COMP
Condition
Difference in altitude sensors is > 200 ft.
If both airspeed sensors detect < 35 knots, this is inhibited.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 35 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 10 kts.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 80 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 7 kts.
Difference in heading sensors is > 6 degrees.
Difference in pitch sensors is > 5 degrees.
Difference in roll sensors is > 6 degrees.
No data from one or both altitude sensors.
No data from one or both airspeed sensors.
No data from one or both heading sensors.
No data from one or both pitch sensors.
No data from one or both roll sensors..
Comparator
Window
Reversionary
Sensor
Window
Figure A-4 Comparator and Reversionary Sensor Annunciation Windows
REVERSIONARY SENSOR ANNUNCIATIONS
Reversionary Sensor
Window Text
BOTH ON ADC1
BOTH ON ADC2
BOTH ON AHRS1
BOTH ON AHRS2
BOTH ON GPS1
BOTH ON GPS2
USING ADC1
USING ADC2
USING AHRS1
USING AHRS2
USING GPS1
USING GPS2
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Condition
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number one Air Data Computer.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number two Air Data Computer.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number one Attitude & Heading Reference System.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number two Attitude & Heading Reference System.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number one GPS receiver.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number two GPS receiver.
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 Air Data Computer.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 Air Data Computer.
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 AHRS.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 AHRS.
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 GPS.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 GPS.
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APPENDIX A
G1000 SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
When a new system message is issued, the MSG Softkey flashes to alert the flight crew of a new message. It
continues to flash until acknowledged by pressing the softkey. Active messages are displayed in white text.
Messages that have become inactive change to gray text. The MSG Softkey flashes if the state of a displayed
message changes or a new message is displayed. The inactive messages can be removed from the MESSAGES
Window by pressing the flashing MSG Softkey.
The G1000 System Messages convey messages to the flight crew regarding problems with the G1000 system.
Typically, a large red ‘X’ appears in a window when a related LRU fails or detects invalid data.
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red ‘X’ is typically displayed on windows associated with the
failed data. The following section describes various system annunciations. Refer to the POH for additional
information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
NOTE: Upon power-up of the G1000 system, certain windows remain invalid as G1000 equipment begins to
initialize. All windows should be operational within one minute of power-up. Should any window continue
to remain flagged, the G1000 system should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized repair facility.
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Units
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Units
GDC 74A Air
Data Computer
GRS 77 AHRS
Or
GMU 44
Magnetometer
GEA 71 Engine
Airframe Unit
Or
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Unit
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Units
GDC 74A Air Data Computer
GTX 33/33D Transponder Or GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Units
Figure A-5 G1000 System Failure Annunciations
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APPENDIX A
System Annunciation
Comment
System Annunciation
Attitude and Heading
Reference System is aligning.
Display system is not receiving
altitude input from the air data
computer.
Display system is not receiving
attitude information from the
AHRS.
Display system is not receiving
vertical speed input from the
air data computer.
AHRS calibration incomplete or
configuration module failure.
System is not receiving valid
heading input from GMU, but
is receiving GPS-derived track
information.
This annunciation is only seen
when the autopilot is engaged.
The annunciation indicates an
AHRS monitor has detected
an abnormal flight parameter,
possibly caused by strong
turbulence. In this case, the
situation should correct itself
within a few seconds. If there
is an actual failure, a red “X”
soon appears over the Attitude
Indicator.
GPS information is either
not present or is invalid for
navigation use.
Note that AHRS utilizes
GPS inputs during normal
operation. AHRS operation
may be degraded if GPS signals
are not present (see POH).
Display system is not receiving
valid heading input from AHRS.
Display system is not receiving
airspeed input from air data
computer.
Other Various Red X
Indications
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Comment
CDI is not receiving valid data
from the corresponding GIA.
Does not apply when the CDI is
set to GPS.
Display system is not receiving
valid ISA information from air
data computer.
Display system is not receiving
valid OAT information from air
data computer.
Display system is not receiving
valid transponder information.
Different versions of GDU
software are installed in the
PFD and MFD. This can also
indicate different versions
of the navigation database
installed in the PFD and MFD.
A cross-talk error between the
PFD and MFD will also cause
this annunciation.
A red ‘X’ through any other
display field (such as engine
instrumentation display)
indicates that the field is not
receiving valid data.
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APPENDIX A
G1000 SYSTEM MESSAGES
This section describes various G1000 system messages. Certain messages are issued due to an LRU or an LRU
function failure. Such messages are normally accompanied by a corresponding red ‘X’ annunciation as shown
previously in the G1000 System Annunciation section.
NOTE: This section provides information regarding G1000 message advisories that may be displayed by
the system. Knowledge of the aircraft, systems, flight conditions, and other existing operational priorities
must be considered when responding to a message. Always use sound pilot judgment. The POH takes
precedence over any conflicting guidance found in this section.
MFD & PFD MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Message
DATA LOST – Pilot stored data was
lost. Recheck settings.
XTALK ERROR – A flight display
crosstalk error has occurred.
PFD1 SERVICE – PFD1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
PFD2 SERVICE – PFD2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
MFD1 SERVICE – MFD1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
MANIFEST – PFD1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – PFD2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – MFD1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
PFD1 CONFIG – PFD1 config error.
Config service req’d.
PFD2 CONFIG – PFD2 config error.
Config service req’d.
MFD1 CONFIG – MFD1 config error.
Config service req’d.
SW MISMATCH – GDU software
version mismatch. Xtalk is off.
PFD1 COOLING – PFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
PFD2 COOLING – PFD2 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
MFD1 COOLING – MFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
616
Comments
The pilot profile data was lost. System reverts to default pilot profile and settings. The
pilot may reconfigure the MFD & PFDs with preferred settings, if desired.
The MFD and PFDs are not communicating with each other. The G1000 system should
be serviced.
The PFD and/or MFD self-test has detected a problem. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The PFD and/or MFD has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The PFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
G1000 system should be serviced.
The MFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
G1000 system should be serviced.
The MFD and PFDs have different software versions installed. The G1000 system
should be serviced.
The PFD and/or MFD is overheating and is reducing power consumption by dimming
the display. If problem persists, the G1000 system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
190-01843-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Message
PFD1 KEYSTK – PFD1 [key name] Key
is stuck.
PFD2 KEYSTK – PFD2 [key name] Key
is stuck.
MFD1 KEYSTK – MFD [key name] Key
is stuck.
CNFG MODULE – PFD1 configuration
module is inoperative.
PFD1 VOLTAGE – PFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage
PFD2 VOLTAGE – PFD2 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage
MFD1 VOLTAGE – MFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage
Comments
A key is stuck on the PFD and/or MFD bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing
it several times. The G1000 system should be serviced if the problem persists.
The PFD1 configuration module backup memory has failed. The G1000 system should
be serviced.
The PFD1 voltage is low. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The PFD2 voltage is low. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The MFD voltage is low. The G1000 system should be serviced.
DATABASE MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Message
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 navigation
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 navigation
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 navigation
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 basemap
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 basemap
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 basemap
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 terrain database
error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 terrain database
error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain
database missing.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 terrain database
missing.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 terrain database
missing.
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Comments
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the navigation database. Attempt to
reload the navigation database. If problem persists, the G1000 system should be
serviced.
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the basemap database.
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Ensure that the data
card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the G1000 system
should be serviced.
The terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified
LRU. Ensure that the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem
persists, the G1000 system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
617
APPENDIX A
Message
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 obstacle
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 obstacle
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
database missing.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 obstacle
database missing.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 obstacle
database missing.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 airport terrain
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 airport terrain
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 airport terrain
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 airport terrain
database missing.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 airport terrain
database missing.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 airport terrain
database missing.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Chartview
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 FliteCharts
database error exists.
Comments
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the obstacle database. Ensure that the
data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the G1000
system should be serviced.
The obstacle database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified
LRU. Ensure that the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem
persists, the G1000 system should be serviced.
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the airport terrain database. Ensure that
the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the G1000
system should be serviced.
The airport terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the
specified LRU. Ensure that the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If
problem persists, the G1000 system should be serviced.
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi database. Ensure that the
data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the G1000
system should be serviced.
The MFD and/or PFDs detected a failure in the ChartView database (optional
feature). Ensure that the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If
problem persists, the G1000 system should be serviced.
The MFD and/or PFDs detected a failure in the FliteCharts database (optional
feature). Ensure that the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If
problem persists, the G1000 system should be serviced.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Airport
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the Airport Directory database. Ensure that
Directory database error exists.
the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 Airport Directory should be serviced.
database error exists.
618
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
190-01843-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Message
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 multiple
database errors exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 multiple
database errors exists.
DB MISMATCH – Navigation database
mismatch. Xtalk is off.
Comments
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in more than one database. If problem
persists, the system should be serviced.
The PFDs and MFD have different navigation database versions or regions installed.
Crossfill is off. Check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or
regions. Also, check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization
function not completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off,
then on.
DB MISMATCH – Standby Navigation The PFDs and MFD have different standby navigation database versions or regions
database mismatch.
installed. Check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or regions.
Also, check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization function
not completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Terrain database
The PFDs and MFD have different terrain database versions or regions installed.
mismatch.
Check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or regions. Also,
check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization function not
completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Obstacle database
The PFDs and MFD have different obstacle database versions or regions installed.
mismatch.
Check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or regions. Also,
check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization function not
completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Airport Terrain
The PFDs and MFD have different airport terrain database versions or regions
database mismatch.
installed. Check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or regions.
Also, check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization function
not completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
NAV DB UPDATED – Active navigation System has updated the active navigation database from the standby navigation
database updated.
database.
TERRAIN DSP – [PFD1, PFD2 or MFD1] One of the terrain, airport terrain, or obstacle databases required for TAWS in the
Terrain awareness display unavailable. specified PFD or MFD is missing or invalid.
GMA 350 MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Message
GMA1 FAIL – GMA1 is inoperative.
GMA1 CONFIG – GMA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
MANIFEST – GMA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GMA1 SERVICE – GMA1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Comments
The audio panel self-test has detected a failure. The audio panel is unavailable. The
G1000 system should be serviced.
The audio panel configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory.
The G1000 system should be serviced.
The audio panel has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The audio panel self-test has detected a problem in the unit. Certain audio functions may
still be available, and the audio panel may still be usable. The G1000 system should be
serviced when possible.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
619
APPENDIX A
GIA 63W MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Message
GIA1 CONFIG – GIA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GIA2 CONFIG – GIA2 config error.
Config service req’d.
GIA1 CONFIG – GIA1 audio config
error. Config service req’d.
GIA2 CONFIG – GIA2 audio config
error. Config service req’d.
GIA1 COOLING – GIA1 temperature
too low.
GIA2 COOLING – GIA2 temperature
too low.
GIA1 COOLING – GIA1 over
temperature.
GIA2 COOLING – GIA2 over
temperature.
GIA1 SERVICE – GIA1 needs service.
Return the unit for repair.
GIA2 SERVICE – GIA2 needs service.
Return the unit for repair.
HW MISMATCH – GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA1 communication
halted.
HW MISMATCH – GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA2 communication
halted.
MANIFEST – GIA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – GIA2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – GFC software mismatch,
communication halted.
COM1 TEMP – COM1 over temp.
Reducing transmitter power.
COM2 TEMP – COM2 over temp.
Reducing transmitter power.
COM1 SERVICE – COM1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
COM2 SERVICE – COM2 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
620
Comments
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 configuration settings do not match backup configuration
memory. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 have an error in the audio configuration. The G1000 system
should be serviced.
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 temperature is too low to operate correctly. Allow units to
warm up to operating temperature.
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 temperature is too high. If problem persists, the G1000 system
should be serviced.
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 self-test has detected a problem in the unit. The G1000 system
should be serviced.
A GIA mismatch has been detected, where only one is SBAS capable.
The GIA1 and/or GIA 2 has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
Incorrect servo software is installed, or gain settings are incorrect.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in COM1 and/or COM2. The
transmitter is operating at reduced power. If the problem persists, the G1000 system
should be serviced.
The system has detected a failure in COM1 and/or COM2. COM1 and/or COM2 may
still be usable. The G1000 system should be serviced when possible.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
190-01843-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Message
COM1 PTT – COM1 push-to-talk key
is stuck.
COM2 PTT – COM2 push-to-talk key
is stuck.
COM1 RMT XFR – COM1 remote
transfer key is stuck.
COM2 RMT XFR – COM2 remote
transfer key is stuck.
COM1 CONFIG – COM1 configuration
error.
COM2 CONFIG– COM2 configuration
error.
MANIFEST – COM1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – COM2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
LOI – GPS integrity lost. Crosscheck
with other NAVS.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. Insufficient satellites.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. Position error.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. GPS fail.
ABORT APR – Loss of GPS navigation.
Abort approach.
APR DWNGRADE – Approach
downgraded.
APR ADVISORY – SBAS VNAV not
available. Using Baro VNAV.
TRUE APR – True north approach.
Change HDG reference to TRUE.
GPS1 SERVICE – GPS1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GPS2 SERVICE – GPS2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
NAV1 SERVICE – NAV1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
NAV2 SERVICE – NAV2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Comments
The COM1 and/or COM2 external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or
“pressed”) position. Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation.
If the problem persists, the G1000 system should be serviced.
The COM1 and/or COM2 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”)
position. Press the transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem
persists, the G1000 system should be serviced.
COM1 and/or COM2 configuration settings do not match backup configuration
memory. The G1000 system should be serviced.
COM1 and/or COM2 software mismatch. The system should be serviced.
GPS integrity is insufficient for the current phase of flight.
Loss of GPS navigation due to insufficient satellites.
Loss of GPS navigation due to position error.
Loss of GPS navigation due to GPS failure.
Abort approach due to loss of GPS navigation.
Vertical guidance generated by SBAS is unavailable, use LNAV only minimums.
SBAS VNAV not available. Check GPS sensor.
Displayed after passing the first waypoint of a true north approach when the nav
angle is set to ‘AUTO’.
A failure has been detected in the GPS1 and/or GPS2 receiver. The receiver may still
be available. The G1000 system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the NAV1 and/or NAV2 receiver. The receiver may still
be available. The G1000 system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
621
APPENDIX A
Message
NAV1 RMT XFR – NAV1 remote
transfer key is stuck.
NAV2 RMT XFR – NAV2 remote
transfer key is stuck.
MANIFEST – NAV1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – NAV2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
G/S1 FAIL – G/S1 is inoperative.
G/S2 FAIL – G/S2 is inoperative.
G/S1 SERVICE – G/S1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
G/S2 SERVICE – G/S2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
Comments
The remote NAV1 and/or NAV2 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”)
state. Press the transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists,
the G1000 system should be serviced.
NAV1 and/or NAV2 software mismatch. The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 1 and/or receiver 2. The G1000
system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 1 and/or receiver 2. The receiver
may still be available. The G1000 system should be serviced when possible.
GEA 71 MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Message
GEA1 CONFIG – GEA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GEA2 CONFIG – GEA2 config error.
Config service req’d.
MANIFEST – GEA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – GEA2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
Comments
The GEA1 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The G1000 system should be serviced.
The GEA2 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The G1000 system should be serviced.
The #1 GEA 71 has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The #2 GEA 71 has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
GTX 33ES/33DES MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Message
XPDR1 CONFIG – XPDR1 config error.
Config service req’d.
XPDR2 CONFIG – XPDR2 config error.
Config service req’d.
MANIFEST – GTX1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – GTX2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
XPDR1 SRVC – XPDR1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
XPDR2 SRVC – XPDR2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
622
Comments
The transponder configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration
memory. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The transponder configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration
memory. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The transponder has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The transponder has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The #1 transponder should be serviced when possible.
The #2 transponder should be serviced when possible.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
190-01843-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Message
XPDR1 FAIL – XPDR1 is inoperative.
XPDR2 FAIL – XPDR2 is inoperative.
XPDR1 ADS-B FAIL – XPDR1 is
unable to transmit ADS-B messages.
XPDR2 ADS-B FAIL – XPDR2 is
unable to transmit ADS-B messages.
Comments
There is no communication with the #1 transponder.
There is no communication with the #2 transponder.
ADS-B is inoperative. The transponder may not be receiving a valid GPS position.
Other transponder functions may be available. Service when possible.
GRS 77 MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Message
AHRS1 TAS – AHRS1 not receiving
airspeed.
AHRS2 TAS – AHRS2 not receiving
airspeed.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 using backup
GPS source.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 using backup
GPS source.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
any GPS information.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 not receiving
any GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
backup GPS information.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 not receiving
backup GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 operating
exclusively in no-GPS mode.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 operating
exclusively in no-GPS mode.
AHRS MAG DB – AHRS magnetic
model database version mismatch.
AHRS1 SRVC – AHRS1 Magnetic-field
model needs update.
AHRS2 SRVC – AHRS2 Magnetic-field
model needs update.
GEO LIMITS – AHRS1 too far North/
South, no magnetic compass.
GEO LIMITS – AHRS2 too far North/
South, no magnetic compass.
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Comments
The #1 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS
relies on GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The G1000 system should
be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS
relies on GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The G1000 system should
be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is using the backup GPS path. Primary GPS path has failed. The G1000
system should be serviced when possible.
The #2 AHRS is using the backup GPS path. Primary GPS path has failed. The G1000
system should be serviced when possible.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving any or any useful GPS information. Check AFMS
limitations. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving any or any useful GPS information. Check AFMS
limitations. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS information. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS information. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The #1 AHRS is operating exclusively in no-GPS mode. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The #2 AHRS is operating exclusively in no-GPS mode. The G1000 system should be
serviced.
The #1 AHRS and #2 AHRS magnetic model database versions do not match.
The #1 AHRS earth magnetic field model is out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The #2 AHRS earth magnetic field model is out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The aircraft is outside geographical limits for approved AHRS operation. Heading is
flagged as invalid.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
623
APPENDIX A
Message
MANIFEST – GRS1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – GRS2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
AHRS1 SERVICE – AHRS1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
AHRS2 SERVICE – AHRS2 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
AHRS1 CONFIG – AHRS1 config error.
Config service req’d.
AHRS2 CONFIG – AHRS2 config error.
Config service req’d.
AHRS1 CAL – AHRS1 calibration version
error. Srvc req’d.
AHRS2 CAL – AHRS2 calibration version
error. Srvc req’d.
Comments
The #1 AHRS has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the #1 AHRS. The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the #2 AHRS. The system should be serviced.
AHRS configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The system should be serviced.
AHRS configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS calibration version error. The system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS calibration version error. The system should be serviced.
GMU 44 MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Message
HDG FAULT – AHRS1 magnetometer
fault has occurred.
HDG FAULT – AHRS2 magnetometer
fault has occurred.
MANIFEST – GMU1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – GMU2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
Comments
A fault has occurred in the #1 GMU 44. Heading is flagged as invalid. The AHRS uses
GPS for backup mode operation. The G1000 system should be serviced.
A fault has occurred in the #2 GMU 44. Heading is flagged as invalid. The AHRS uses
GPS for backup mode operation. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The GMU 44 has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
GDL 69A MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Message
GDL69 CONFIG – GDL 69 config
error. Config service req’d.
GDL69 FAIL – GDL 69 has failed.
Comments
GDL 69 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The G1000 system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GDL 69. The receiver is unavailable. The G1000
system should be serviced
MANIFEST – GDL software mismatch, The GDL 69 has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
communication halted.
624
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
190-01843-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
GWX 68 MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Message
GWX CONFIG – GWX config error.
Config service req’d.
GWX FAIL – GWX is inoperative.
GWX SERVICE – GWX needs service.
Return unit for repair.
MANIFEST – GWX software
mismatch, communication halted.
WX ALERT – Possible severe weather
ahead.
Comments
GWX 68 configuration settings do not match those of the GDU configuration. The
G1000 system should be serviced.
The GDU is not recieving status packet from the GWX 68 or the GWX 68 is reporting
a fault. The GWX 68 radar system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GWX 68. The GWX 68 may still be usable.
The GWX 68 has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The GWX 68 indicates severe weather within ±10 degrees of the aircraft heading at a
range of 80 to 320 nm.
GTS 825/855 MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Message Advisory
GTS CONFIG – GTS Config error.
Config service req'd.
GTS MANIFEST – GTS software
mismatch, communication halted.
Comments
The GTS and GDU have different copies of the GTS configuration, or the Mode S
address is invalid. The G1000 system should be serviced.
The GTS has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
GDC 74A MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Message
ADC1 ALT EC – ADC1 altitude error
correction is unavailable.
ADC2 ALT EC – ADC2 altitude error
correction is unavailable.
ADC1 AS EC – ADC1 airspeed error
correction is unavailable.
ADC2 AS EC – ADC2 airspeed error
correction is unavailable.
ADC1 SERVICE – ADC1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
ADC2 SERVICE – ADC2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
MANIFEST – GDC1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – GDC2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Comments
GDC1 or GDC2 is reporting that the altitude error correction is unavailable.
GDC1 or GDC2 is reporting that the airspeed error correction is unavailable.
The GDC1 should be serviced..
The GDC2 should be serviced..
The GDC 74B has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
625
APPENDIX A
GCU 476 MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Message
GCU CNFG – GCU Config error.
Config service req’d.
GCU FAIL – GCU is inoperative.
MANIFEST – GCU software mismatch,
communication halted.
GCU KEYSTK – GCU [key name] Key
is stuck.
Comments
GCU 476 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The G1000 system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GCU 476. The GCU 476 is unavailable.
The GCU 476 has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
A key is stuck on the GCU 476 bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it
several times. The G1000 system should be serviced if the problem persists.
GMC 710 MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Message
GMC CONFIG – GMC Config error.
Config service req’d.
GMC FAIL – GMC is inoperative.
MANIFEST – GMC software
mismatch. Communication halted.
GMC KEYSTK – GMC [key name] Key
is stuck.
Comments
Error in the configuration of the GMC 710.
A failure has been detected in the GMC 710. The GMC 710 is unavailable.
The GMC 710 has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
A key is stuck on the GMC 710 bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it
several times. The G1000 system should be serviced if the problem persists.
GSR 56 MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Message
GSR1 FAIL – GSR1 has failed.
Comments
A failure has been detected in the #1 GSR 56. The system should be serviced.
MISCELLANEOUS MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Message
Comments
FPL WPT LOCK – Flight plan waypoint Upon power-up, the G1000 system detects that a stored flight plan waypoint is
is locked.
locked. This occurs when an navigation database update eliminates an obsolete
waypoint. The flight plan cannot find the specified waypoint and flags this message.
This can also occur with user waypoints in a flight plan that is deleted.
Remove the waypoint from the flight plan if it no longer exists in any database,
Or
Update the waypoint name/identifier to reflect the new information.
FPL WPT MOVE – Flight plan
The system has detected that a waypoint coordinate has changed due to a new
waypoint moved.
navigation database update. Verify that stored flight plans contain correct waypoint
locations.
TIMER EXPIRD – Timer has expired.
The system notifies the pilot that the timer has expired.
DB CHANGE – Database changed.
This occurs when a stored flight plan contains procedures that have been manually
Verify user modified procedures.
edited. This alert is issued only after an navigation database update. Verify that the
user-modified procedures in stored flight plans are correct and up to date.
DB CHANGE – Database changed.
This occurs when a stored flight plan contains an airway that is no longer consistent
Verify stored airways.
with the navigation database. This alert is issued only after an navigation database
update. Verify use of airways in stored flight plans and reload airways as needed.
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Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
190-01843-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Message
FPL TRUNC – Flight plan has been
truncated.
LOCKED FPL – Cannot navigate
locked flight plan.
WPT ARRIVAL – Arriving at waypoint
-[xxxx]
STEEP TURN – Steep turn ahead.
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead less
than 10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and
ahead.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less
than 2 nm.
APR INACTV – Approach is not active.
SLCT FREQ – Select appropriate
frequency for approach.
SLCT NAV – Select NAV on CDI for
approach.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
bad geometry.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
invalid leg type.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
past IAF.
UNABLE V WPT – Can’t reach current
vertical waypoint.
VNV – Unavailable. Unsupported leg
type in flight plan.
VNV – Unavailable. Excessive track
angle error.
VNV – Unavailable. Excessive
crosstrack error.
VNV – Unavailable. Parallel course
selected.
NO WGS84 WPT – Non WGS 84
waypoint for navigation -[xxxx]
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Comments
This occurs when a newly installed navigation database eliminates an obsolete
approach or arrival used by a stored flight plan. The obsolete procedure is removed
from the flight plan. Update flight plan with current arrival or approach.
This occurs when the pilot attempts to activate a stored flight plan that contains
locked waypoint. Remove locked waypoint from flight plan. Update flight plan with
current waypoint.
Arriving at waypoint [xxxx], where [xxxx] is the waypoint name.
A steep turn is 15 seconds ahead. Prepare to turn.
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft will penetrate the airspace within
10 minutes.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
The system notifies the pilot that the loaded approach is not active. Activate
approach when required.
The system notifies the pilot to load the approach frequency for the appropriate NAV
receiver. Select the correct frequency for the approach.
The system notifies the pilot to set the CDI to the correct NAV receiver. Set the CDI to
the correct NAV receiver.
Bad parallel track geometry.
Invalid leg type for parallel offset.
IAF waypoint for parallel offset has been passed.
The current vertical waypoint can not be reached within the maximum flight path
angle and vertical speed constraints. The system automatically transitions to the next
vertical waypoint.
The lateral flight plan contains a procedure turn, vector, or other unsupported leg
type prior to the active vertical waypoint. This prevents vertical guidance to the active
vertical waypoint.
The current track angle error exceeds the limit, causing the vertical deviation to go
invalid.
The current crosstrack exceeds the limit, causing vertical deviation to go invalid.
A parallel course has been selected, causing the vertical deviation to go invalid.
The position of the selected waypoint [xxxx] is not calculated based on the WGS84
map reference datum and may be positioned in error as displayed. Do not use GPS to
navigate to the selected non-WGS84 waypoint.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
627
APPENDIX A
Message
TRAFFIC FAIL – Traffic device has
failed.
STRMSCP FAIL – Stormscope has
failed.
FAILED PATH – A data path has failed.
MAG VAR WARN – Large magnetic
variance. Verify all course angles.
SCHEDULER [#] – <message>.
SVT – SVT DISABLED: Out of available
terrain region.
SVT – SVT DISABLED: Terrain DB
resolution too low.
CHECK CRS – Database course for
LOC1 / [LOC ID] is [CRS]°.
CHECK CRS – Database course for
LOC2 / [LOC ID] is [CRS]°.
[PFD1, PFD2, or MFD1] CARD 1 REM
– Card 1 was removed. Reinsert card.
[PFD1, PFD2, or MFD1] CARD 2 REM
– Card 2 was removed. Reinsert card.
[PFD1, PFD2, or MFD1] CARD 1 ERR
– Card 1 is invalid.
[PFD1, PFD2, or MFD1] CARD 2 ERR
– Card 2 is invalid.
EXCEEDANCE – Engine exceedance
data is being logged.
SPD KEY DISABLED - The SPD key is
disabled for this model aircraft.
REGISTER GFDS – Data services are
inoperative, register w/ GFDS.
TRN AUD FAIL – Trn Awareness audio
source unavailable.
TERRAIN AUD CFG – Trn Awareness
audio config error. Service req’d.
HOLD EXPIRED – Holding EFC time
expired.
BARO MISMATCH – Correct baro
mismatch for VNAV guidance.
TERRAIN DISABLED – Terrain
Awareness DB resolution too low.
628
Comments
The G1000 is no longer receiving data from the traffic system. The traffic device
should be serviced.
Stormscope has failed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
A data path connected to the GDU or the GIA 63/W has failed.
The GDU’s internal model cannot determine the exact magnetic variance for
geographic locations near the magnetic poles. Displayed magnetic course angles may
differ from the actual magnetic heading by more than 2°.
Message criteria entered by the user.
Synthetic Vision is disabled because the aircraft is not within the boundaries of the
installed terrain database.
Synthetic Vision is disabled because a terrain database of sufficient resolution (9 arcsecond or better) is not currently installed.
Selected course for LOC1 differs from published localizer course by more than 10
degrees.
Selected course for LOC2 differs from published localizer course by more than 10
degrees.
The SD card was removed from the top card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The SD
card needs to be reinserted.
The SD card was removed from the bottom card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The
SD card needs to be reinserted.
The SD card in the top card slot of the specified PFD or MFD contains invalid data.
The SD card in the bottom card slot of the specified PFD or MFD contains invalid data.
An engine exceedance log has been captured.
The SPD Key on GMC 710 has no function in this aircraft model.
The system is not registered with Garmin Flight Data Services, or it’s current
registration data has failed authentication.
The audio source for terrain awareness is offline. Check GIA1 or GIA 2.
Terrain audio alerts are not configured properly. The system should be serviced
Expect Further Clearance (EFC) time has expired for the User Defined Hold.
Altimeter setting is not the same on PFD1 and PFD2. Synchronize settings for VNAV
guidance.
TAWS is disabled because a terrain database of sufficient resolution (9 arc-second or
better) is not currently installed.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
190-01843-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Message
GDU ZOOM LIMITED – Map zoom
has been automatically limited.
CURSOR LIMITED – Map panning
limit has been reached.
AV AFT FAN FAIL – The cooling fan for
remote avionics has failed.
CPCS CONFIG ERROR – Unexpected
config strapping.
GAE 43 FAILURE – Using controller
cabin information.
ESP OFF – ESP selected off.
ESP FAIL – ESP is inoperative.
ESP DEGRADE – ESP IAS mode is
inoperative.
ESP CONFIG – ESP config error.
Config service req’d.
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Comments
Increases in map range are automatically limited at > 68 degrees 35 minutes north or
south.
Map cursor panning is limited to < 89 degrees north or south.
The cooling fan for the aft remote avionics has failed.
Electronic Stability and Protection has been disabled on the SYSTEM SETUP 2 page.
The ESP function has failed and is inoperative. The system should be serviced.
IAS mode of ESP is inoperative. The system should be serviced.
ESP is not configured properly. The system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
629
APPENDIX A
FLIGHT PLAN IMPORT/EXPORT MESSAGES
In some circumstances, some messages may appear in conjunction with others.
Flight Plan Import/Export Results
‘Flight plan successfully imported.’
‘File contained user waypoints only. User
waypoints imported successfully. No stored
flight plan data was modified.’
‘No flight plan files found to import.’
‘Flight plan import failed.’
‘Flight plan partially imported.’
‘File contained user waypoints only.’
‘Too many points. Flight plan truncated.’
‘Some waypoints not loaded. Waypoints
locked.’
‘User waypoint database full. Not all loaded.’
‘One or more user waypoints renamed.’
‘Flight plan successfully exported.’
‘Flight export failed.’
Description
A flight plan file stored on the SD card was successfully imported as a stored flight plan.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints. These
waypoints have been saved to the system user waypoints. No flight plans stored in the
system have been modified.
The SD card contains no flight plan data.
Flight plan data was not successfully imported from the SD card.
Some flight plan waypoints were successfully imported from the SD card, however others
had errors and were not imported. A partial stored flight plan now exists in the system.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints. One or
more of these waypoints did not import successfully.
The flight plan on the SD card contains more waypoints than the system can support. The
flight plan was imported with as many waypoints as possible.
The flight plan on the SD card contains one or more waypoints that the system cannot find
in the navigation database. The flight plan has been imported, but must be edited within
the system before it can be activated for use.
The flight plan file on the SD card contains user waypoints. The quantity of stored user
waypoints has exceeded system capacity, therefore not all the user waypoints on the SD
card have been imported. Any flight plan user waypoints that were not imported are
locked in the flight plan. The flight plan must be edited within the system before it can be
activated for use.
One or more imported user waypoints were renamed when imported due to naming
conflicts with waypoints already existing in the system.
The stored flight plan was successfully exported to the SD card.
The stored flight plan was not successfully exported to the SD card. The SD card may not
have sufficient available memory or the card may have been removed prematurely.
PILOT PROFILE IMPORT/EXPORT MESSAGES
Pilot Profile Import/Export Results
‘No pilot profile plan files found to import.’
‘Overwrite existing profile?’
‘Profile name invalid. Enter a different
profile name.’
‘All available pilot profiles in use. Delete a
profile before importing another.’
‘Pilot profile import failed.’
‘Pilot profile import succeeded.’
‘Overwrite existing file?’
‘Pilot profile export failed.’
‘Pilot profile export succeeded.’
630
Description
Displayed if the SD card does not have one or more valid pilot profile filenames.
Displayed if the profile name matches the name of existing profile.
Displayed if the profile name is invalid.
Displayed if the maximum number for pilot profiles has been reached.
Displayed if the importing operation fails for any other reason.
Displayed if the importing operation succeeds.
Displayed if the filename matches the name of an existing file on the SD card.
Displayed if the export operation fails.
Displayed if the export operation succeeds.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
190-01843-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
AFCS ALERTS
System Status Field
Figure A-6 AFCS System Status Field
The following alert annunciations appear in the AFCS System Status field on the PFD.
Condition
Pitch Failure
Roll Failure
Yaw Damper Failure
Pitch Trim Failure
(or stuck MEPT Switch)
System Failure
Elevator Mistrim Down
Elevator Mistrim Up
Annunciation Description
PTCH
ROLL
YAW
PTRM
AFCS
↓ELE
↑ELE
Aileron Mistrim Right
AIL→
Aileron Mistrim Left
←AIL
Rudder Mistrim Right
RUD→
Rudder Mistrim Left
←RUD
Preflight Test
PFT
PFT
Pitch axis control failure. AP is inoperative.
Roll axis control failure. AP is inoperative.
YD control failure; AP is inoperative
If AP engaged, take control of the aircraft and disengage AP
If AP disengaged, move MEPT switches separately to unstick
AP and MEPT are unavailable. FD may still be available.
A condition has developed causing the pitch servo to provide a sustained force. Be
prepared to apply nose down control wheel force upon autopilot disconnect.
A condition has developed causing the pitch servo to provide a sustained force. Be
prepared to apply nose up control wheel force upon autopilot disconnect.
A condition has developed causing the roll servo to provide a sustained right force.
Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and observe any maximum fuel imbalance
limits.
A condition has developed causing the roll servo to provide a sustained left force.
Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and observe any maximum fuel imbalance
limits.
A condition has developed causing the yaw servo to provide a sustained force.
Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and observe any maximum fuel imbalance
limits.
A condition has developed causing the yaw servo to provide a sustained force.
Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and observe any maximum fuel imbalance
limits.
Performing preflight system test; aural alert sounds at completion
Preflight system test failed; aural alert sounds at failure
NOTE: Do not press the AP/YD DISC TRIM INTRPT switch during servo power-up and preflight system tests
as this may cause the preflight system test to fail or never to start (if servos fail their power-up tests). Power
must be cycled to the servos to remedy the situation.
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
631
APPENDIX A
TERRAIN-SVS ALERTS
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert (except
Terrain-SVS Page
Aural Message
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
TERRAIN
WARNING TERRAIN
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
TERRAIN
WARNING TERRAIN
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
TERRAIN
WARNING OBSTACLE
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning (IOI)
TERRAIN
WARNING OBSTACLE
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
TERRAIN
CAUTION-TERRAIN
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
TERRAIN
TERRAIN AHEAD
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
TERRAIN
CAUTION-OBSTACLE
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution (IOI)
TERRAIN
OBSTACLE AHEAD
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Alert Type
* Annunciation is shown on the Terrain-SVS Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
TERRAIN-SVS SYSTEM STATUS ANNUNCIATIONS
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
TERRAIN-SVS Page Center
Banner Annunciation
Aural Message
TER TEST
TERRAIN TEST
None
None
None
“Terrain System Test OK”
Terrain Alerting Inhibited
TER INH
None
None
No GPS position
TER N/A
NO GPS POSITION
“Terrain System Not Available”†
TER N/A
None
“Terrain System Not Available”†
TER FAIL
TERRAIN FAIL
“Terrain System Failure”
None
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
Alert Type
System Test in progress
System Test pass
Excessively degraded GPS signal; or
Out of database coverage area
Terrain System Test Fail;
Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid;
Invalid software configuration; or
System audio fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid, TerrainSVS operating with PFD Terrain or
Obstacle databases
* Annunciation is shown on the Terrain-SVS Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
† “Terrain System Available” (in-flight only) when sufficient GPS signal received, or terrain database coverage re-entered.
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APPENDIX A
TAWS-B ALERTS
Annunciations appear on the PFD and the MFD. Pop-up alerts appear only on the MFD.
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert (except
TAWS-B Page)
Aural Message
Excessive Descent Rate Warning (EDR)
PULL UP
PULL-UP
“Pull Up”
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
PULL UP
TERRAIN-PULL-UP
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
PULL UP
TERRAIN AHEAD-PULL-UP
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
PULL UP
OBSTACLE AHEAD-PULL-UP
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull
Up”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning (IOI)
PULL UP
OBSTACLE-PULL-UP
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
TERRAIN
CAUTION-TERRAIN
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
TERRAIN
TERRAIN AHEAD
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
TERRAIN
CAUTION-OBSTACLE
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution (IOI)
TERRAIN
OBSTACLE AHEAD
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
Premature Descent Alert Caution (PDA)
TERRAIN
TOO LOW-TERRAIN
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
Excessive Descent Rate Caution (EDR)
TERRAIN
SINK RATE
“Sink Rate”
Negative Climb Rate Caution (NCR)
TERRAIN
DON’T SINK
“Don’t Sink”
Alert Type
Altitude Callout “500”
* Annunciation is shown on the TAWS-B Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
633
APPENDIX A
TAWS-B SYSTEM STATUS ANNUNCIATIONS
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
TAWS-B Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Aural Message
TAWS TEST
TAWS TEST
None
None
None
“TAWS System Test OK”
TAWS-B FLTA Alerting Inhibited
TAWS INH
None
None
No GPS position
TAWS N/A
NO GPS POSITION
“TAWS Not Available”†
TAWS N/A
None
“TAWS Not Available”†
TAWS FAIL
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
None
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
Alert Type
System Test in progress
System Test pass
Excessively degraded GPS signal; or
Out of database coverage area
TAWS-B System Test Fail;
Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid;
Invalid software configuration; or
System audio fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid, TAWS-B
operating with PFD Terrain or
Obstacle databases
* Annunciation is shown on the TAWS-B Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
† “TAWS Available” (in-flight only) when sufficient GPS signal received, or terrain database coverage re-entered.
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APPENDIX B
DATABASE MANAGEMENT
CAUTION: Never disconnect power to the system when loading a database. Power interuption during the
database loading process could result in maintenance being required to reboot the system.
The system uses Secure Digital (SD) cards to load and store various types of data. For basic flight operations,
SD cards are required for database storage as well as navigation and ChartView database updates. Not all SD cards
are compatible with the system. Use only SD cards supplied by Garmin or the aircraft manufacturer.
CAUTION: When downloading updates to the Navigation Database, copy the data to an SD card other than
a Garmin Supplemental Data Card. Otherwise, data corruption can occur.
NOTE: When loading database updates, the ‘DB Mismatch’ message will be displayed until database
synchronization is complete, followed by turning system power off, then on. Synchronization can be
monitored on the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page.
NOTE: Loading a database in the system prior to its effective date will result in the expiration date on the
power-up screen and the effective date on the AUX-System Status Page being displayed in yellow.
NOTE: The FAA has asked Garmin to remind pilots who fly with Garmin database-dependent avionics of the
following:
• It is the pilot’s responsibility to remain familiar with all FAA regulatory and advisory guidance and information
related to the use of databases in the National Airspace System.
• Garmin equipment will only recognize and use databases that are obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen. Databases
obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen are assured compliance with all data quality requirements (DQRs) by virtue
of a Type 2 Letter of Authorization (LOA) from the FAA. A copy of the Type 2 LOA is available for each database
and can be viewed at http://fly.garmin.com by selecting ‘Type 2 LOA Status.’
• Use of a current Garmin or Jeppesen database in your Garmin equipment is required for compliance with
established FAA regulatory guidance, but does not constitute authorization to fly any and all terminal procedures
that may be presented by the system. It is the pilot’s responsibility to operate in accordance with established
AFM(S) and regulatory guidance or limitations as applicable to the pilot, the aircraft, and installed equipment.
NOTE: The pilot/operator must review and be familiar with Garmin’s database exclusion list as discussed
in SAIB CE-14-04 to determine what data may be incomplete. The database exclusion list can be viewed at
www.flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Database Exclusions List.’
NOTE: The pilot/operator must have access to Garmin and Jeppesen database alerts and consider their
impact on the intended aircraft operation. The database alerts can be viewed at www.flygarmin.com by
selecting ‘Aviation Database Alerts.’
NOTE: If the pilot/operator wants or needs to adjust the database, contact Garmin Product Support to
coordinate the revised DQRs.
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
635
APPENDIX B
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information.
These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles
and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go
to FlyGarmin.com and select “Aviation Data Error Report.
JEPPESEN DATABASES
The Jeppesen navigation database is updated on a 28-day cycle. The ChartView database is updated on a
14-day cycle. If the ChartView database is not updated within 70 days of the expiration date, ChartView will
no longer function. Both of these databases are provided directly from Jeppesen.
The ChartView database should be copied to the Garmin supplied Supplemental Data Card which will reside
in the bottom card slot on the MFD. The navigation database must be installed from the Jeppesen or user
supplied SD data card. Contact Jeppesen (www.jeppesen.com) for subscription and update information.
NOTE: After the navigation database is installed, the card may be removed.
Updating the active Jeppesen navigation database (not using the Dual Navigation Database or
Automatic Database Synchronization Features):
1) With the system OFF, insert the SD card containing the navigation database update into the top card slot of the
display (PFD or MFD) to be updated (label of SD card facing left).
2) Turn the system ON. A prompt similar to the following is displayed in the upper left corner of the display:
Figure B-1: Standby Navigation Database Prompt
3) Press the NO Softkey to proceed to loading the active database.
4) A prompt similar to the following is displayed, press the YES Softkey to update the active navigation database.
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APPENDIX B
Figure B-2 Database Update Confirmation
5) After the update completes, the display starts in normal mode. Do not remove power while the display is
starting.
6) Turn the system OFF and remove the SD card from the top card slot.
7) Repeat steps 1 through 6 for the other displays (PFD1, PFD2 or MFD). Remove the SD card when finished.
8) Apply power to the system and press the ENT Key to acknowledge the startup screen.
9) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page group on the MFD.
10) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page.
11) Press the Display Database Selection Softkey to show active navigation database information for each display (MFD1
DB, PFD1 DB, PFD2 DB). Verify the correct active navigation database cycle information is shown for each display.
DUAL NAVIGATION DATABASE FEATURE
The dual navigation database feature allows each display to store an upcoming navigation database on the
bottom SD card so that the system can automatically load it to replace the active database when the new
database becomes effective (the next cycle becomes available seven days prior to its effective date).
If a navigation database loader card is inserted into the top SD card slot of a display, and an SD card is in the
bottom slot, the system will prompt the user (upon on-ground power up) as to whether the database should
be stored on the bottom SD card as the standby database. If the user responds affirmatively, the system will
copy the navigation database from the top SD card to the bottom SD card. As long as the bottom SD card
remains in the card slot, this standby navigation database will be available for the system to use as the active
database as soon as it becomes effective.
The system checks the active and standby databases upon (on-ground only) power-up. If the standby
database is current and the active database is out of date, the display will upload the standby database into the
active internal database location. Uploading the standby database to the active location takes approximately
45-55 seconds. The pilot is alerted that the update is complete by a system alert message, ‘NAV DB UPDATED’.
In some situations, such as an overnight flight in which departure date is prior to the effective date
of the standby database and arrival date is after the effective date, it may be desired to force the loaded
standby database into active service earlier than the system would otherwise make the change. This can be
accomplished by selecting the STBY DB Softkey on the AUX-System Status Page. Turn system power off,
then on to complete the database change.
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637
APPENDIX B
Loading a standby navigation database:
1) With the system OFF, insert the SD card containing the new navigation database version into the top card slot
of the MFD.
2) Verify that an SD card is inserted in the bottom slot of each PFD and the MFD.
3) Turn the system ON. A prompt similar to the following is displayed.
Figure B-3 Standby Navigation Database Prompt
4) Press the YES Softkey. The navigation database is copied to the SD card in the bottom card slot of the MFD.
5) After the navigation database files are copied to the bottom SD card, the display will appear as shown in Figure
B-4.
Figure B-4 Standby Navigation Database Update Complete
6) As instructed on the display, press any key to continue. The display will now appear as shown in Figure B-5.
Figure B-5 Navigation Database Verification Prompt
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APPENDIX B
7) Press any key to continue. The display will now appear as shown in Figure B-6.
Figure B-6 Active Navigation Database Prompt
8) Press the NO Softkey. The display now starts in normal mode. Since the database effective date is not yet valid,
it should not be loaded as the active database. The display now starts in normal mode. Do not remove power
while the display is starting.
9) Press the ENT Key to acknowledge the startup screen.
10) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page group on the MFD.
11) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page.
12) The new database is copied to the SD card in the bottom card slot of each PFD. Progress can be monitored in
the SYNC STATUS field. When copying is finished, ‘Complete’ is displayed.
13) Turn system power OFF.
14) Remove the SD card from the top card slot of the MFD.
15) Turn system power ON.
16) Press the ENT Key to acknowledge the startup screen.
17) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page group on the MFD.
18) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page.
19) Press the Display Database Selection Softkey to show standby navigation database information for each display
(MFD1 DB, PFD1 DB, PFD2 DB). Verify the correct standby navigation database cycle information is shown
for each display.
NOTE: The system compares the active databases on each PFD and the MFD, and displays a system alert
message ‘DB Mismatch’ if they are not identical. Similarly, if the standby databases on each PFD and the
MFD are not identical, the system will display a ‘DB Mismatch’ alert for the standby navigation databases.
GARMIN DATABASES
The following databases are stored on Supplemental Data Cards provided by Garmin:
• Expanded Basemap
• Terrain
• Airport Terrain
• Obstacle
190-01843-00 Rev. A
• SafeTaxi
• FliteCharts
• Airport Directory
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APPENDIX B
After subscribing to the desired database product, these database products will be downloaded to two
Supplemental Data Cards. Insert each Supplemental Data Card into the correct location shown in Figure B-7.
These cards must not be removed except to update the databases stored on each card.
PFD1
PFD2
MFD
Figure B-7 Correct Database Locations
Since these databases are not stored internally in the displays, a Supplemental Data Card containing identical
database versions must be kept in each display unit.
The basemap database contains data for the topography and land features, such as rivers, lakes, and towns.
It is updated only periodically, with no set schedule. There is no expiration date.
The terrain database contains the terrain mapping data. The airport terrain database contains increased
resolution terrain data around airports. These databases are updated periodically and have no expiration date.
The obstacle database contains data for obstacles, such as towers, that pose a potential hazard to aircraft.
Obstacles 200 feet and higher are included in the obstacle database. It is very important to note that not all
obstacles are necessarily charted and therefore may not be contained in the obstacle database. This database is
updated on a 56-day cycle.
NOTE: The data contained in the terrain and obstacle databases comes from government agencies. Garmin
accurately processes and cross-validates the data, but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of
the data.
The AOPA or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory provides data on airports and heliports throughout the U.S. or
worldwide, respectively. The AOPA Directory offers detailed information for over 5,300 U. S. airports, along
with the names and phone numbers of thousands of FBOs. These databases are updated every 56 days. The
AC-U-KWIK Directory offers detailed information for more than 8,000 airports with runways longer than 3,000
feet worldwide.
The SafeTaxi database contains detailed airport diagrams for selected airports. These diagrams aid in following
ground control instructions by accurately displaying the aircraft position on the map in relation to taxiways,
ramps, runways, terminals, and services. This database is updated on a 56-day cycle.
The FliteCharts database contains procedure charts for the United States only. This database is updated on a
28-day cycle. If not updated within 180 days of the expiration date, FliteCharts will no longer function.
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APPENDIX B
AUTOMATIC DATABASE SYNCHRONIZATION FEATURE
The automatic database synchronization feature automatically transfers the database from a single SD
database card to the SD cards on each PFD and the MFD to ensure that all databases are synchronized
throughout the system. After power-up, the system compares all copies of each applicable database. If similar
databases do not match, the most recent valid database is automatically copied to each card in the system that
does not already contain that database.
The following databases are checked and synchronized: Basemap, Safetaxi, Airport Terrain, Obstacle,
Airport Directory (AOPA or AC-U-KWIK), and Terrain. This feature applies only to databases that are stored
on the SD card that resides in the bottom slot of each display. This feature does not apply to the active
navigation database which is stored internally in each display, or to the charts databases (FliteCharts and
ChartView) which are only required to be present on the MFD. The typical procedure would be to download
new databases to the MFD card, then synchronize the data to the PFDs.
NOTE: The 9-arc second terrain database may take as long as 100 minutes to synchronize using this method.
Therefore the user may want to transfer the data using a PC, or connect the system to a ground power
source while performing the database synchronization.
The synchronization progress may be monitored on the AUX-System Status Page in the Sync Status section
of the Database Window (Figure B-8). This section shows the synchronization status of each applicable
database, including the percent complete, time remaining, and to which displays the databases are being
copied. When the synchronization is complete, the status is listed as ‘Complete’, followed by the displays to
which the databases were copied. This sub-section is only present when a sync is occurring or has occurred
on the current power-up.
An indication of ‘Complete’ still requires a power cycle before the synchronized databases will be used by
the system.
Figure B-8 AUX-System Status Page, Database Window
The Display Database Softkey (Figure B-11) is used to place the cursor in the Database Window. Upon
first press of the Display Database Softkey, the softkey will change to a selected state (black text on gray
background) and the cursor will appear in the Database Window. At this point the user can scroll through
all databases in the Database Window to view status information. If the Display Database Softkey is pressed
190-01843-00 Rev. A
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APPENDIX B
repeatedly, the softkey will cycle through PFD1, PFD2, and MFD. Database status information in the Database
Window will reflect the database of the selected PFD or MFD. After a successful sync and restart, verify that
the proper databases are now in use on the AUX–System Status Page (Figure B-8).
If an error occurs during the synchronization, an error message will be displayed, followed by the affected
display in the Sync Status section of the Database Window (Figure B-9). If a synchronization completes on
one display, but an error occurs on another, the error message will be displayed with the affected diaplay
listed after it. When an error message (Table B-1) is displayed, the problem must be corrected before the
synchronization can be completed. A power cycle is required to restart synchronization when ‘Card Full’ or
‘Err’ is shown.
Database Synchronization Error Message
Figure B-9 Synchronization Error Message
Error Message
Canceled
Card Full
Err
Timeout
Description
Database synchronization has been canceled by removing the bottom SD card in display being updated
SD card does not contain sufficient memory
Displayed for all other errors that may cause the synchronization process to be halted
System timed-out prior to the database transfer completing
Table B-1
UPDATING GARMIN DATABASES
The Garmin database updates can be obtained by following the instructions detailed in the ‘Aviation
Databases’ section of the Garmin website (fly.garmin.com). Once the updated files have been downloaded
from the website, a PC equipped with an appropriate SD card reader is used to unpack and program the
new databases onto the existing Supplemental Data Cards. Equipment required to perform the update is as
follows:
• Windows-compatible PC computer (Windows XP, Vista, or Window 7)
• SD Card Reader: SanDisk SDDR-93, SanDisk SDDR-99, Verbatim #96504, or equivalent
• Updated database obtained from the Garmin website
• Existing Supplemental Database SD Cards (010-00330-42, or -43) from both PFDs and MFD
In some cases it may be necessary to obtain an unlock code from Garmin in order to make the database
product functional. It may also be necessary to have the system configured by a Garmin authorized service
facility in order to use some database features.
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APPENDIX B
Updating Basemap, SafeTaxi, Airport Terrain, Obstacle, and Airport Directory Databases
These databases may be copied to one Supplemental Data Card, then automatically synchronized to other
card in the system:
1) With system power OFF, remove the MFD database card from the bottom card slot of the MFD.
2) Update the basemap, SafeTaxi, airport terrain, obstacle and/or airport directory databases on the MFD card.
3) Insert the MFD database card into the bottom card slot of the MFD.
4) Apply power to the system, check that the databases are initialized and displayed on the power-up screen
(Figure B-10). If a ‘Verifying’ message is seen, wait for the system to finish loading before proceeding to step 5.
Figure B-10 Database Information on the Power-up Screen
5) Acknowledge the Power-up Page agreement by pressing the ENT Key or the right most softkey.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page group on the MFD.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page.
8) Monitor the Sync Status in the Database Window. Wait for all databases to complete synching, indicated by
‘Complete’ being displayed as seen in Figure B-9.
9) Remove and reapply power to the system.
10) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page group on the MFD.
11) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page.
12) Press the Display Database Selection Softkey to show database information for each display (MFD1 DB, PFD1
DB, PFD2 DB). Verify the correct database cycle information is shown for each database for each display.
MFD1 DB
Unselected
190-01843-00 Rev. A
MFD1 DB
PFD1 DB
PFD2 DB
MFD1 DB Selected PFD1 DB Selected PFD2 DB Selected
Figure B-11 Display Database Softkey
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APPENDIX B
UPDATING TERRAIN, FLITECHARTS, AND CHARTVIEW DATABASES
1) With system power OFF, remove the Supplemental Data Card from the bottom card slot of the MFD and PFDs.
2) Copy the updated terrain database to each of the Supplemental Data Cards. Copy the updated FliteCharts or
ChartView database to one Supplemental Data Card.
3) Insert the updated Supplemental Data Cards into the bottom card slot of the MFD and PFDs. The Supplemental
Data Card containing the FliteCharts or ChartView database is inserted in the MFD.
4) Apply power to the system, check that the databases are initialized and displayed on the power-up screen
(Figure B-10). A ‘Verifying’ message may be seen. If this message is present, wait for the system to finish
loading before proceeding to step 5.
5) Acknowledge the Power-up Page agreement by pressing the ENT Key or the right most softkey.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page group on the MFD.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page.
8) Press the Display Database Selection Softkey to show database information for each display (MFD1 DB, PFD1
DB, PFD2 DB). Verify the correct database cycle information is shown for each database for each display.
9) Remove power from the system.
MAGNETIC FIELD VARIATION DATABASE UPDATE
A copy of the current magnetic field variation database (MV DB) is included with the navigation database.
At startup, the system compares this version of the MV DB with that presently being used by each AHRS
(GRS1 and GRS2). If the system determines the MV DB needs to be updated, a prompt is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page, as shown in Figure B-12. Note, in the following example, GRS1 is the first AHRS to
indicate an update is available. In actuality, this is dependent on which AHRS is the first to report status to the
system. GRS2 may be displayed before GRS1. The order is not important, only that both AHRS be updated.
Figure B-12 GRS1 Magnetic Field Variation Database Update Prompt
Loading the magnetic field variation database update:
1) With ‘OK’ highlighted, as seen in Figure B-12, press the ENT Key on the MFD. A progress monitor is displayed
as shown in Figure B-13.
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APPENDIX B
Figure B-13 Uploading Database to GRS1
2) When the upload is complete, the prompt for the next GRS upload is displayed, as seen in Figure B-14.
Figure B-14 GRS2 Magnetic Field Variation Database Update Prompt
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key on the MFD. A progress monitor is displayed as shown in Figure B-15.
When the upload is complete, the system is ready for use.
Figure B-15 Uploading Database to GRS2
190-01843-00 Rev. A
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APPENDIX B
Blank Page
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190-01843-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
GARMIN AVIATION GLOSSARY
ACARS
ACC
ACT, ACTV
ADC
ADF
ADI
ADIZ
ADS-B
AF
AFCS
AFM
AFMS
AFRM
AGL
AHRS
AIM
AIRMET
AIRREP
ALRT
ALT
ALT, ALTN
ALTS
ALTV
AMPS
ANNUNC
ANT
AOA
AOG
AOPA
AP
AP DISC
APPR, APR
APT
APTSIGNS
ARINC
ARSPC
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Airborne Communications Addressing and
Reporting System
Accuracy
Active, Activate, Altitude Compensated Tilt
Air Data Computer
Automatic Direction Finder
Attitude Direction Indicator
Air Defense Identification Zone
Automatic Dependent SurveillanceBroadcast
Arc to Fix Leg
Automatic Flight Control System
Airplane Flight Manual
Airplane Flight Manual Supplement
Airframe
Above Ground Level
Attitude and Heading Reference System
Aeronautical Information Manual
Airman’s Meteorological Information
Air Reports
Alert
Altitude
Alternator
Selected Altitude Capture Mode
VNAV Altitude Capture Mode
Amperes
Annunciation
Antenna
Angle of Attack
Aircraft On Ground
Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association
Autopilot
Autopilot Disconnect
Approach
Airport, Aerodrome
Airport Signs
Aeronautical Radio Incorporated
Airspace
ARTCC
ARV
AS
ASB
ASOS
ATC
ATCRBS
ATIS
ATK
AUTOSEQ
AUX
AVG
AWOS
Air Route Traffic Control Center
Arrival
Airspeed
Aviation Support Branch
Automated Surface Observing System
Air Traffic Control
ATC Radar Beacon System
Automatic Terminal Information Service
Along Track
Automatic Sequence
Auxiliary
Average
Automated Weather Observing System
B
B ALT
BARO
BATT
BC
Bearing
BFO
BKSP
BRG
Both Runways
Barometric Altitude
Barometer, Barometric
Battery
Backcourse
The compass direction from the present
position to a destination waypoint.
Beat Frequency Oscillator
Backspace
Bearing
°C
C
CA
CAL
CALC
Calibrated
Airspeed
CAS
CD
CDI
CDU
CF
CH, CHNL
Degrees Celsius
Center Runway
Course to Altitude Leg
Calibrated
Calculator
Indicated airspeed corrected for
installation and instrument errors.
Crew Alerting System
Course to DME Distance Leg
Course Deviation Indicator
Control Display Unit
Course to Fix Leg
Channel
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APPENDIX C
CHT
CHKLIST
CI
CLD
CLR
CM
CN
CNS
CO
COM
CONFIG
COOL
COPLT
Course
Course to
Steer
CPDLC
CPL
CR
CRG
CRNT
Crosstrack
Error
CRS
CRSR
CSC
CTA
CTR
CTRL
Cumulative,
CUM
CVR
CVRG
CWS
CYL
648
Cylinder Head Temperature
Checklist
Course to Intercept Leg
Cloud
Clear
Centimeter
Canada
Communication, Navigation, &
Surveillance
Carbon Monoxide
Communication Radio
Configuration
Coolant
Copilot
The line between two points to be
followed by the aircraft.
The recommended direction to steer
in order to reduce course error or stay
on course. Provides the most efficient
heading to get back to the desired course
and proceed along the flight plan.
Controller Pilot Datalink Communications
Couple
Course to Radial Leg
Cockpit Reference Guide
Current
The distance the aircraft is off a desired
course in either direction, left or right.
Course, Course to Steer
Cursor
Current Speed Control
Control Area
Center
Control
The total of all legs in a flight plan.
Cockpit Voice Recorder
Coverage
Control Wheel Steering
Cylinder
D ALT
DB, DBASE
dBZ
DCLTR, DECLTR
DEC FUEL
DEG
DEIC, DEICE
DEP
Desired Track
DEST
DEV
DF
DFLT
DG
DGRD
DH
Dilution of
Precision
DIR
DIS
Distance
DL LTNG
DME
DN
DOP
DP
DPRT
DR
DSBL
DTK
E
EAS
ECU
Efficiency
Density Altitude
Database
Decibels ‘Z’ (Radar Return)
Declutter
Decrease Fuel
Degree
De-icing
Departure
The desired course between the active
“from” and “to” waypoints.
Destination
Deviation
Direct to Fix Leg
Default
Directional Gyro
Degrade
Decision Height
A measure of GPS satellite geometry
quality on a scale of one to ten (lower
numbers equal better geometry, where
higher numbers equal poorer geometry).
Direction
Distance
The ‘great circle’ distance from the
present position to a destination
waypoint.
Datalink Lightning
Distance Measuring Equipment
Down
Dilution of Precision
Departure Procedure
Departure
Dead Reckoning
Disabled
Desired Track
Empty, East
Engine and Airframe Systems
Engine Control Unit
A measure of fuel consumption,
expressed in distance per unit of fuel.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
190-01843-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
EGNOS
European Geostationary Navigation
Overlay Service
EGT
Exhaust Gas Temperature
EICAS
Engine Indication and Crew Alerting
System
EIS
Engine Indication System
ELEV
Elevation, Elevator
EMER, EMERG, Emergency
EMERGCY
EMI
Electromagnetic Interference
END, ENDUR
Endurance
Endurance
Flight endurance, or total possible flight
time based on available fuel on board.
ENG
Engine
ENGD
Engaged
ENR
Enroute
Enroute Safe The recommended minimum altitude
Altitude
within ten miles left or right of the desired
course on an active flight plan or directto.
ENT
Enter
EPE
Estimated Position Error
EPU
Estimated Position Uncertainty
ERR
Error
ESA
Enroute Safe Altitude
ESP
Electronic Stability and Protection
Estimated
A measure of horizontal GPS position
Position Error error derived by satellite geometry
conditions and other factors.
Estimated
The estimated time at which the aircraft
Time of Arrival should reach the destination waypoint,
based upon current speed and track.
Estimated
The estimated time it takes to reach
Time Enroute the destination waypoint from the
present position, based upon current
groundspeed.
ETA
Estimated Time of Arrival
ETE
Estimated Time Enroute
EXPIRD
Expired
°F
FA
FAA
FADEC
190-01843-00 Rev. A
Degrees Fahrenheit
Course From Fix to Altitude Leg
Federal Aviation Administration
Full Authority Digital Engine Control
FAF
FAIL
FC
FCC
FCST
FD
Final Approach Fix
Failure
Course From Fix to Distance Leg
Federal Communication Commission
Forecast
Flight Director, Course From Fix to DME
Distance Leg
FDE
Fault Detection and Exclusion
FF, FFLOW
Fuel Flow
FIS-B
Flight Information Services-Broadcast
FISDL
Flight Information Service Data Link
FL
Flight Level
FLC
Flight Level Change
FM
Course From Fix to Manual Termination
Leg
FMS
Flight Management System
FOB
Fuel On Board
FOD
Fuel Over Destination
FPA
Flight Path Angle
FPL
Flight Plan
FPM
Feet Per Minute, Flight Path Marker
FREQ
Frequency
FRMT
Format
FRZ
Freezing
FSS
Flight Service Station
FT
foot/feet
Fuel Flow
The fuel flow rate, expressed in units of
fuel per hour.
Fuel On Board The total amount of usable fuel on board
the aircraft.
FWD
Forward
G/S
GA
GAL, GL
GBOX
GCU
GCS
GDC
GDL
GDR
Glideslope
Go-Around
Gallon(s)
Gearbox
Garmin Control Unit
Ground Clutter Suppression
Garmin Air Data Computer
Garmin Satellite Data Link
Garmin Data Radio
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APPENDIX C
GDU
GEA
GEO
GFC
GIA
GLS
GMA
GMC
GMT
GMU
GND
GPH
GPN
GPS
GPWS
Grid MORA
Groundspeed
Ground Track
GRS
GS
GSA
GSD
GSL
GSR
GTC
GTS
GTX
GWX
HA
HDG
HDOP
Heading
650
Garmin Display Unit
Garmin Engine/Airframe Unit
Geographic
Garmin Flight Control
Garmin Integrated Avionics Unit
Global Navigation Satellite Landing
System
Garmin Audio Panel System
Garmin Mode Controller
Greenwich Mean Time
Garmin Magnetometer Unit
Ground
Gallons per Hour
Garmin Part Number
Global Positioning System
Ground Proximity Warning System
Grid Minimum Off-Route Altitude; One
degree latitude by one degree longitude
in size and clears the highest elevation
reference point in the grid by 1,000 feet
for all areas of the grid or 2,000 feet for
mountainous
The velocity that the aircraft is travelling
relative to a ground position.
See Track
Garmin Reference System
Ground Speed, Glideslope
Garmin Servo Adapter
Garmin Data Concentrator
Geodetic Sea Level
Garmin Satellite Radio
Garmin Touchscreen Controller
Garmin Traffic System
Garmin Transponder
Garmin Weather Radar
Hold Terminating at Altitude Leg
Heading
Horizontal Dilution of Precision
The direction an aircraft is pointed,
based upon indications from a magnetic
compass or a properly set directional gyro.
HF
HFOM
Hg
HI
HI SENS
HM
Horizontal
Figure of
Merit
hPa
HPL
HR
HRZN HDG
HSDB
HSI
HT
HUL
Hz
I
IAF
IAS
IAT
IAU
ICAO
ICS
ID
IDENT, IDNT
IF
IFR
IG
ILS
IMC
IN
INACTV
INC FUEL
IND
Indicated
High Frequency, Hold Terminating at Fix
Leg
Horizontal Figure of Merit
Mercury
High
High Sensitivity
Hold with Manual Termination Leg
A measure of the uncertainty in the
aircraft’s horizontal position.
Hectopascal
Horizontal Protection Level
Hour
Horizon Heading
High-Speed Data Bus
Horizontal Situation Indicator
heat
Horizontal Uncertainty Level
Hertz (cycles per second)
Inner Marker
Initial Approach Fix
Indicated Air Speed
Indicated Air Temperature
Integrated Avionics Unit
International Civil Aviation Organization
Intercom System
Identification/Morse Code Identifier
Identification
Initial Fix
Instrument Flight Rules
Imperial Gallon
Instrument Landing System
Instrument Meteorological Conditions
Inch
Inactive
Increase Fuel
Indicator, Indicated
Information provided by properly
calibrated and set instrumentation on the
aircraft panel.
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
190-01843-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
INFO
IN Hg
INT
INTEG
IrDA, IRDA
ISA
ITT
Information
Inches of Mercury
Intersection(s)
Integrity (RAIM unavailable)
Infrared Data Association
International Standard Atmosphere
Interstage Turbine Temperature, InterTurbine Temperature
KEYSTK
KG
kHz
KM
KT
Key Stuck
Kilogram
Kilohertz
Kilometer
Knot
L
LAT
LBL
LB
LCD
LCL
LDA
LED
Left Over Fuel
On Board
Left, Left Runway
Latitude
Label
Pound
Liquid Crystal Display
Local
Landing Distance Available
Light Emitting Diode
The amount of fuel remaining on board
after the completion of one or more legs
of a flight plan or direct-to.
Left Over Fuel The amount of flight time remaining,
Reserve
based on the amount of fuel on board
after the completion of one or more legs
of a flight plan or direct-to, and a known
consumption rate.
Leg
The portion of a flight plan between two
waypoints.
LGND
Legend
LIFR
Low Instrument Flight Rules
LNAV
Lateral Navigation
LO
Low
LOC
Localizer
LOI
Loss of Integrity (GPS)
LON
Longitude
LPV
Localizer Performance with Vertical
Guidance
190-01843-00 Rev. A
LRU
LT
LTNG
LVL
Line Replaceable Unit
Left
Lightning
Level
M
Meter, Middle Marker
MMO (VMO)
Maximum Speed
Mach Number Mach number is the ratio of the true
airspeed to the speed of sound.
MAG
Magnetic
MAG VAR
Magnetic Variation
MAHP
Missed Approach Hold Point
MAN IN
Manifold Pressure (inches Hg)
MAN SQ
Manual Squelch
MAP
Missed Approach Point
MASQ
Master Avionics Squelch
MAX
Maximum
MAXSPD
Maximum Speed (overspeed)
MDA
Barometric Minimum Descent Altitude
MEPT
Manual Electric Pitch Trim
MET
Manual Electric Trim
METAR
Aviation Routine Weather Report
MFD
Multi Function Display
MFW
Multi Function Window
MGRS
Military Grid Reference System
MHz
Megahertz
MIC
Microphone
MIN
Minimum
Minimum Safe Uses Grid MORAs to determine a safe
Altitude
altitude within ten miles of the aircraft
present position.
MKR
Marker Beacon
MOA
Military Operations Area
MON
Monitor
MOV
Movement
MORA
Minimum Off-Route Altitude
MPEL
Maximum Permissible Exposure Level
MPM
Meters per Minute
MSA
Minimum Safe Altitude
MSAS
Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation
System
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APPENDIX C
652
MSG
MSL
MT, M
mV
MVFR
Message
Mean Sea Level
Meter
Millivolt(s)
Marginal Visual Flight Rules
N
NAV
NAVAID
NDB
NEXRAD
NM
NoPT
NOTAM
NRST
North
Navigation
Navigation Aid
Non-Directional Beacon
Next Generation Radar
Nautical Mile(s)
No Procedure Turn Required (procedure
shall not be executed without ATC
clearance)
Notice To Airman
Nearest
O
OAT
OBS
OFST
OXY
Outer Marker
Outside Air Temperature
Omni Bearing Selector
Offset
Oxygen
P ALT
PA
PASS
PC
PFD
PI
PIREP
PIT, PTCH
POH
POHS
POS, POSN
PPH
PPM
P. POS
PRES, PRESS
PROC
Pressure Altitude
Passenger Address, Proximity Advisory
Passenger(s)
Personal Computer
Primary Flight Display
Procedure Turn to Course Intercept Leg
Pilot Report
Pitch
Pilot’s Operating Handbook
Pilot’s Operating Handbook Supplement
Position
Pounds per Hour
Parts per Million
Present Position
Pressure
Procedure(s), Procedure Turn
PROP
PROX
PSI
PT
PTK
PTT
PWR
Propeller
Proximity
Pounds per Square Inch
Procedure Turn
Parallel Track
Push-to-Talk
Power
QTY
Quantity
R
RA
RAD
RA, RAD ALT
RAIM
RAM
RAT
RCVR
REF
REM
REQ
RES
REV
RF
Right, Right Runway
Resolution Advisory, Radio Altimeter
Radial
Radio Altimeter
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring
Random Access Memory
Return Air Temperature
Receiver
Reference
Remaining (fuel remaining), Reminder
Required
Reserve (fuel reserve entered by pilot)
Reverse, Revision, Revise
Radio Frequency, Constant Radius Turn to
Fix Leg
Radio Magnetic Indicator
Remote
Area Navigation
Range
Required Navigation Performance
Runway
Roll
Read Only Memory
Revolutions Per Minute
Reset Fuel
Reserve (fuel reserve entered by pilot)
Right
Reversionary
Receive
RMI
RMT
RNAV
RNG
RNP
RNWY, RWY
ROL
ROM
RPM
RST FUEL
RSV
RT
RVRSNRY
RX
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
190-01843-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
S
SA
SAT
SBAS
SCIT
SD
SEC
SEL, SLCT
SELCAL
SENS
SFC
SIAP
SID
SIG/AIR
SIGMET
SIM
SLD
SLP/SKD
SMBL
SMS
SPC
SPD
SPI
SPKR
SQ
SRVC, SVC
SSID
STAB
STAL
STAR
STATS
STBY
STD
STRMSCP
SUA
SUSP
SVT, SYN VIS
SW
SYNC
190-01843-00 Rev. A
South
Selective Availability
Static Air Temperature
Satellite-Based Augmentation System
Storm Cell Identification and Tracking
Secure Digital
Second(s)
Select
Selective Calling
Sense
Surface
Standard Instrument Approach Procedures
Standard Instrument Departure
SIGMET/AIRMET
Significant Meteorological Information
Simulator
Supercooled Large Droplet
Slip/Skid
Symbol
Short Message System
Space
Speed
Special Position Identification
Speaker
Squelch
Service
Wi-Fi Service Set Identifier
Stabilization
Stall
Standard Terminal Arrival Route
Statistics
Standby
Standard
Stormscope
Special Use Airspace
Suspend
Synthetic Vision Technology
Software
Synchronize
SYN TERR
SYN VIS
SYS
Synthetic Terrain
Synthetic Vision
System
T
TA
TACAN
TAF
TAS
TAT
TAWS
TCA
TCAS
TEL
TEMP
TERM
TF
TFR
TGT
T HDG
TIS
TIT
TKE
TMA
TMR/REF
TOC
TOD
TOGA, TO/GA
TOLD
TOPO
TORA
TOT
Track
True
Traffic Advisory
Tactical Air Navigation System
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
True Airspeed, Traffic Advisory System
Total Air Temperature
Terrain Awareness and Warning System
Terminal Control Area
Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System
Telephone
Temperature
Terminal
Track Between Two Fixes Leg
Temporary Flight Restriction
Target
True Heading
Traffic Information Service
Turbine Inlet Temperature
Track Angle Error
Terminal Maneuvering Area
Timer/Reference
Top of Climb
Top of Descent
Take-Off, Go-Around
Takeoff and Landing Data
Topographic
Takeoff Run Available
Total
Direction of aircraft movement relative to
a ground position; also ‘Ground Track’.
The angle difference between the desired
track and the current track.
Track
Terminal Radar Service Area
Truncated
Total
Track Angle
Error
TRK
TRSA
TRUNC
TTL
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
653
APPENDIX C
654
TURB
TURN
TX
Turbulence
Procedure Turn
Transmit
UNAVAIL
US
USR
UTC
UTM/UPS
Unavailable
United States
User
Coordinated Universal Time
Universal Transverse Mercator/ Universal
Polar Stereographic Grid
V
V, Vspeed
V1
V2
VAPP
VLE
VLNDx
VLO
VMC
VMO (MMO)
VNE
VR
VREF
VT
VX
VY
VYSE
V DEV
VA
VAC
VAPP
VAR
VD
VDC
VERT
Vertical Figure
of Merit
Vertical Speed
Required
Volts
Velocity (airspeed)
Takeoff Decision Speed
Takeoff Safety Speed
Approach Climb Speed
Maximum Landing Gear Extended Speed
Approach Speed (Flaps at x°)
Maximum Landing Gear Operating Speed
Minimum Control Speed
Maximum Speed
Never-Exceed Speed
Takeoff Rotate Speed
Landing Approach Speed
Takeoff Flap Retraction Speed
Best Angle of Climb Speed
Best Rate of Climb Speed
Best Single-Engine Rate of Climb Speed
Vertical Deviation
Heading Vector to Altitude Leg
Volts Alternating Current
VOR Approach
Variation
Heading Vector to DME Distance Leg
Volts Direct Current
Vertical
A measure of the uncertainty in the
aircraft’s vertical position.
The vertical speed necessary to descend/
climb from a current position and altitude
to a defined target position and altitude,
based upon current groundspeed.
VFOM
VFR
VHF
VI
VLOC
VM
VPATH, VPTH
VPL
VPROF
VR
VS
VSI
VSR, VS REQ
VTF
Vertical Figure of Merit
Visual Flight Rules
Very High Frequency
Heading Vector to Intercept Leg
VOR/Localizer Receiver
Heading Vector to Manual Termination
Leg
Visual Meteorological Conditions
Vertical Navigation
Volume
VHF Omnidirectional Range
VHF Omnidirectional Range Station and
Tactical Air Navigation
Vertical Path
Vertical Protection Level
VNAV Profile, Vertical Profile
Heading Vector to Radial Leg
Vertical Speed
Vertical Speed Indicator
Vertical Speed Required
Vector to Final
W
WAAS
WARN
WATCH
WGS-84
WPT
WT
WW
WX
Watt(s), West
Wide Area Augmentation System
Warning
Weather Attenuated Color Highlight
World Geodetic System - 1984
Waypoint(s)
Weight
World Wide
Weather
XFER, XFR
XM LTNG
XPDR
XTALK
XTK
Transfer
SiriusXM Lightning
Transponder
Cross-Talk
Cross-Track
YD
Yaw Damper
VMC
VNAV, VNV
VOL
VOR
VORTAC
Garmin G1000 Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-46 Meridian
190-01843-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX D
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
If a particular aspect of G1000 operational capability is not addressed by these commonly asked questions or in
the index, contact Garmin (see the copyright page or back cover for contact information) or a Garmin-authorized
dealer. Garmin is dedicated to supporting its products and customers.
What is SBAS?
The Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) uses a system of ground stations to correct any GPS signal
errors. These ground stations correct for errors caused by ionospheric disturbances, timing, and satellite
orbit errors. It also provides vital integrity information regarding the health of each GPS satellite. The signal
correction is then broadcast through geostationary satellites. This correction information can then be received
by any SBAS-enabled GPS receiver.
SBAS is designed to provide the additional accuracy, availability, and integrity necessary to enable users to rely
on GPS for all phases of flight.
There are several SBAS systems serving different parts of the world. The Wide Area Augmentation System
(WAAS) is currently available in the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. The European Geostationary
Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) offers coverage of Europe, parts of the Middle East, and parts of northern
Africa. The Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS) covers mainly Japan.
How does SBAS affect approach operations?
Both LNAV/VNAV and LPV approaches use the accuracy of SBAS to include vertical (glide path) guidance
capability. The additional accuracy and vertical guidance capability allows improved instrument approaches to
an expanded number of airports throughout the U.S.
The implementation of RNAV LP and LPV approaches further improves precision approach capabilities.
RNAV LPV approaches are designed to make full use of the improved GPS signal from the SBAS. This approach
combines localizer precision lateral guidan