Garmin | G950 | Garmin G950 G950 Pilot's Guide for the Twin Commander

Garmin G950 G950 Pilot's Guide for the Twin Commander
G950
®
Integrated Avionics System
Pilot’s Guide
®
G950 Pilot’s Guide
Garmin International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street
Olathe, KS 66062, U.S.A.
p:913.397.8200
f:913.397.8282
Garmin (Europe) Ltd.
Liberty House, Hounsdown Business Park
Southampton, Hampshire SO40 9LR U.K.
p:44 (0) 23 8052 4000
f:44 (0) 23 8052 4004
Aviation Support:44 (0) 87 0850 1243
Garmin Corporation
No. 68, Jangshu 2nd Road
Shijr, Taipei County, Taiwan
p:886/02.2642.9199
f:886/02.2642.9099
www.garmin.com
Twin Commander
Garmin AT, Inc.
2345 Turner Road SE
Salem, OR 97302, U.S.A.
p:503.391.3411
f:503.364.2138
190-01602-00
Revision B
Twin Commander
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
AUDIO PANEL & CNS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Copyright © 2014, 2015 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 2037.06 or later. Some differences in operation may be observed when
comparing the information in this manual to earlier or later software versions.
Garmin International, Inc., 1200 East 151st Street, Olathe, Kansas 66062, U.S.A.
Tel: 913/397.8200Fax: 913/397.8282
Garmin AT, Inc., 2345 Turner Road SE, Salem, OR 97302, U.S.A.
Tel: 503/391.3411Fax: 503/364.2138
Garmin (Europe) Ltd., Liberty House, Hounsdown Business Park, Southampton, SO40 9LR, U.K
Tel: 44 (0) 23 8052 4000
Fax: 44 (0) 23 8052 4004 Aviation Support:44 (0) 87 0850 1243
Garmin Corporation, No. 68, Jangshu 2nd Road, Shijr, Taipei County, Taiwan
Tel: 886/02.2642.9199Fax: 886/02.2642.9099
For after-hours emergency, aircraft on ground (AOG) technical support for Garmin panel mount and integrated avionics systems, please
contact Garmin’s AOG Hotline at 913.397.0836.
Website Address: www.garmin.com
Except as expressly provided herein, no part of this manual may be reproduced, copied, transmitted, disseminated, downloaded or stored
in any storage medium, for any purpose without the express written permission of Garmin. Garmin hereby grants permission to download
a single copy of this manual and of any revision to this manual onto a hard drive or other electronic storage medium to be viewed for
personal use, provided that such electronic or printed copy of this manual or revision must contain the complete text of this copyright notice
and provided further that any unauthorized commercial distribution of this manual or any revision hereto is strictly prohibited.
Garmin® is a registered trademark of Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries, and G950®, FliteCharts®, connext™, and SafeTaxi® are trademarks of
Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. These trademarks may not be used without the express permission of Garmin.
NavData® is a registered trademark of Jeppesen, Inc.; S-TEC® is a registered trademark of S-TEC; SiriusXM Weather and SiriusXM Satellite
Radio are provided by SiriusXM Satellite Radio, Inc. AC-U-KWIK® is a registered trademark of Penton Business Media Inc.
The Bluetooth® word mark and logos are owned by the Bluetooth SIG, Inc. and any use of such marks by Garmin is under license.
AOPA Membership Publications, Inc. and its related organizations (hereinafter collectively “AOPA”) expressly disclaim all warranties,
with respect to the AOPA information included in this data, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties
of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The information is provided “as is” and AOPA does not warrant or make any
representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Under no circumstances including negligence, shall AOPA be liable for any
incidental, special or consequential damages that result from the use or inability to use the software or related documentation, even if
AOPA or an AOPA authorized representative has been advised of the possibility of such damages. User agrees not to sue AOPA and, to
the maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AOPA from any causes of action, claims or losses related to any actual
or alleged inaccuracies in the information. Some jurisdictions do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for
incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you.
July 2015
Printed in the U.S.A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
LIMITED WARRANTY
AC-U-KWIK and its related organizations (hereafter collectively “AC-U-KWIK Organizations”) expressly disclaim all warranties with
respect to the AC-U-KWIK information included in this data, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The information is provided “as is” and AC-U-KWIK Organizations do not warrant or
make any representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Licensee agrees not to sue AC-U-KWIK Organizations and, to the
maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AC-U-KWIK Organizations from any cause of action, claims or losses related
to any actual or alleged inaccuracies in the information arising out of Garmin’s use of the information in the datasets. Some jurisdictions
do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations
or exclusions may not apply to licensee.
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
i
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Navigation and terrain separation must NOT be predicated upon the use of the terrain avoidance
feature. The terrain avoidance feature is NOT intended to be used as a primary reference for terrain avoidance
and does not relieve the pilot from the responsibility of being aware of surroundings during flight. The
terrain avoidance feature is only to be used as an aid for terrain avoidance. Terrain data is obtained from
third party sources. Garmin is not able to independently verify the accuracy of the terrain data.
WARNING: The displayed minimum safe altitudes (MSAs) are only advisory in nature and should not be
relied upon as the sole source of obstacle and terrain avoidance information. Always refer to current
aeronautical charts for appropriate minimum clearance altitudes.
WARNING: The altitude calculated by G950 GPS receivers is geometric height above Mean Sea Level and
could vary significantly from the altitude displayed by pressure altimeters, such as the GDC 74A Air Data
Computer, or other altimeters in aircraft. GPS altitude should never be used for vertical navigation. Always
use pressure altitude displayed by the G950 PFD or other pressure altimeters in aircraft.
WARNING: Do not use outdated database information. Databases used in the G950 system must be updated
regularly in order to ensure that the information remains current. Pilots using any outdated database do so
entirely at their own risk.
WARNING: Do not use basemap (land and water data) information for primary navigation. Basemap data is
intended only to supplement other approved navigation data sources and should be considered as an aid to
enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate information
from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not rely on information from a lightning detection system display as the sole basis for hazardous
weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate or
incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
ii
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: For safety reasons, G950 operational procedures must be learned on the ground.
WARNING: The Garmin G950, as installed in this aircraft, has a very high degree of functional integrity.
However, the pilot must recognize that providing monitoring and/or self-test capability for all conceivable
system failures is not practical. Although unlikely, it may be possible for erroneous operation to occur
without a fault indication shown by the G950. It is thus the responsibility of the pilot to detect such an
occurrence by means of cross-checking with all redundant or correlated information available in the cockpit.
WARNING: The United States government operates the Global Positioning System and is solely responsible
for its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy
and performance of all GPS equipment. Portions of the Garmin G950 utilize GPS as a precision electronic
NAVigation AID (NAVAID). Therefore, as with all NAVAIDs, information presented by the G950 can be
misused or misinterpreted and, therefore, become unsafe.
WARNING: To reduce the risk of unsafe operation, carefully review and understand all aspects of the G950
Pilot’s Guide documentation and the G950 Integrated Avionics System in the Airplane Flight Manual.
Thoroughly practice basic operation prior to actual use. During flight operations, carefully compare indications
from the G950 to all available navigation sources, including the information from other NAVAIDs, visual
sightings, charts, etc. For safety purposes, always resolve any discrepancies before continuing navigation.
WARNING: The illustrations in this guide are only examples. Never use the G950 to attempt to penetrate
a thunderstorm. Both the FAA Advisory Circular, Subject: Thunderstorms, and the Aeronautical Information
Manual (AIM) recommend avoiding “by at least 20 miles any thunderstorm identified as severe or giving an
intense radar echo.”
WARNING: Lamp(s) inside this product may contain mercury (HG) and must be recycled or disposed of
according to local, state, or federal laws. For more information, refer to our website at www.garmin.com/
aboutGarmin/environment/disposal.jsp.
WARNING: Because of variation in the earth’s magnetic field, operating the G950 within the following areas
could result in loss of reliable attitude and heading indications. North of 72° North latitude at all longitudes;
South of 70° South latitude at all longitudes; North of 65° North latitude between longitude 75° W and
120° W. (Northern Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 70° W and 128° W. (Northern
Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 85° E and 114° E. (Northern Russia); South of 55°
South latitude between longitude 120° E and 165° E. (Region south of Australia and New Zealand)
WARNING: Do not use GPS to navigate to any active waypoint identified as a ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ by a
system message. ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ waypoints are derived from an unknown map reference datum that
may be incompatible with the map reference datum used by GPS (known as WGS84) and may be positioned
in error as displayed.
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
iii
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
CAUTION: The PFD and MFD displays use a lens coated with a special anti-reflective coating that is very
sensitive to skin oils, waxes, and abrasive cleaners. CLEANERS CONTAINING AMMONIA WILL HARM THE
ANTI-REFLECTIVE COATING. It is very important to clean the lens using a clean, lint-free cloth and an
eyeglass lens cleaner that is specified as safe for anti-reflective coatings.
CAUTION: The Garmin G950 does not contain any user-serviceable parts. Repairs should only be made by
an authorized Garmin service center. Unauthorized repairs or modifications could void both the warranty
and the pilot’s authority to operate this device under FAA/FCC regulations.
NOTE: When using Stormscope, there are several atmospheric phenomena in addition to nearby
thunderstorms that can cause isolated discharge points in the strike display mode. However, clusters of
two or more discharge points in the strike display mode do indicate thunderstorm activity if these points
reappear after the screen has been cleared.
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE: All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen images of the G950 panel and
displays, are subject to change and may not reflect the most current G950 system and aviation databases.
Depictions of equipment may differ slightly from the actual equipment.
NOTE: This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any
interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
NOTE: Interference from GPS repeaters operating inside nearby hangars can cause an intermittent loss of
attitude and heading displays while the aircraft is on the ground. Moving the aircraft more than 100 yards
away from the source of the interference should alleviate the condition.
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the flight displays to appear dim or blank.
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals known to the State of California
to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This notice is being provided in accordance with
California’s Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would like additional information, please refer to
our web site at www.garmin.com/prop65.
iv
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
REVISION INFORMATION
NOTE: The FAA has asked Garmin to remind pilots who fly with Garmin database-dependent avionics of the
following:
• It is the pilot’s responsibility to remain familiar with all FAA regulatory and advisory guidance and information
related to the use of databases in the National Airspace System.
• Garmin equipment will only recognize and use databases that are obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen. Databases
obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen are assured compliance with all data quality requirements (DQRs) by virtue
of a Type 2 Letter of Authorization (LOA) from the FAA. A copy of the Type 2 LOA is available for each database
and can be viewed at http://fly.garmin.com by selecting ‘Type 2 LOA Status.’
• Use of a current Garmin or Jeppesen database in your Garmin equipment is required for compliance with
established FAA regulatory guidance, but does not constitute authorization to fly any and all terminal procedures
that may be presented by the system. It is the pilot’s responsibility to operate in accordance with established
AFM(S) and regulatory guidance or limitations as applicable to the pilot, the aircraft, and installed equipment.
NOTE: The pilot/operator must review and be familiar with Garmin’s database exclusion list as discussed
in SAIB CE-14-04 to determine what data may be incomplete. The database exclusion list can be viewed at
www.flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Database Exclusions List.’
NOTE: The pilot/operator must have access to Garmin and Jeppesen database alerts and consider their
impact on the intended aircraft operation. The database alerts can be viewed at www.flygarmin.com by
selecting ‘Aviation Database Alerts.’
NOTE: If the pilot/operator wants or needs to adjust the database, contact Garmin Product Support to
coordinate the revised DQRs.
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information.
These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles
and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go
to FlyGarmin.com and select ‘Report An Aviation Data Error Report.’
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
v
REVISION INFORMATION
Record of Revisions
vi
Part Number
190-01602-00
Revision
A
Date
4/29/14
190-01602-00
B
7/15/15
Page Range
Description
i – I-6
Initial release for 13.06 software.
i – I-6
Updated for GDU 15.01 software
Added GDL 88
Added Flight Stream 210
Updated for GDL 69 SXM
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Line Replaceable Units............................................ 2
Secure Digital (SD) Cards........................................ 7
System Power-up...................................................... 8
System Operation..................................................... 9
Display Operation.......................................................... 9
G950 System Annunciations......................................... 10
System Status.............................................................. 11
AHRS Operation.......................................................... 13
GPS Receiver Operation............................................... 14
G950 Controls......................................................... 19
PFD Controls............................................................... 19
MFD Controls.............................................................. 21
MFD/PFD Control Unit.................................................. 22
Softkey Function.......................................................... 24
Accessing G950 Functionality............................... 32
Menus........................................................................ 32
Data Entry.................................................................. 33
Page Groups............................................................... 34
System Settings........................................................... 38
System Utilities............................................................ 47
Display Backlighting.............................................. 51
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 Flight Instruments.................................................. 56
Airspeed Indicator....................................................... 56
Attitude Indicator........................................................ 58
Altimeter.................................................................... 59
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)........................................ 63
Vertical Deviation........................................................ 63
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............................... 64
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)................................... 69
2.2 Supplemental Flight Data..................................... 77
Temperature Displays................................................... 77
Wind Data.................................................................. 78
Vertical Navigation (VNV) Indications............................ 79
2.3 PFD Annunciations and Alerting Functions......... 80
System Annunciations.................................................. 80
Marker Beacon Annunciations...................................... 81
Traffic Annunciation..................................................... 82
Altitude Alerting.......................................................... 82
Low Altitude Annunciation........................................... 83
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height Alerting....... 83
Radar Altimeter........................................................... 84
2.4 Abnormal Operations............................................ 87
Abnormal GPS Conditions............................................ 87
Heading Failure Modes................................................ 88
Unusual Attitudes........................................................ 89
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM (EIS)
3.1 Engine Display........................................................ 92
3.2 Engine Page............................................................ 94
Torque % Gauge.......................................................... 96
Horsepower Gauge...................................................... 96
Exhaust Gas Temperature............................................. 97
Interstage turbine temperature..................................... 97
Turbine Speed Gauge................................................... 98
Fuel Flow.................................................................... 98
Electrical..................................................................... 98
Hydraulics................................................................... 99
Oil Pressure and Temperature Gauges............................ 99
Anti-Ice Group............................................................. 99
Fuel Quantity and Pressure......................................... 100
Fuel Consumed......................................................... 100
Flap Indications......................................................... 100
Trim Indications......................................................... 101
Landing Gear Indications............................................ 101
EIS Display (Reversionary Mode)................................. 102
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 Overview............................................................... 103
PFD Controls and Frequency Display............................ 104
GMA 1347D Audio Panel Controls............................... 106
MFD/PFD Control Unit................................................ 108
4.2 COM Operation..................................................... 110
COM Transceiver Selection and Activation.................... 110
COM Transceiver Manual Tuning................................. 111
Quick-tuning and Activating 121.500 MHz................... 112
Auto-tuning the COM Frequency................................. 113
Auto-tuning from the MFD......................................... 114
Frequency Spacing..................................................... 117
Automatic Squelch..................................................... 118
Volume..................................................................... 118
4.3 NAV Operation...................................................... 119
NAV Radio Selection and Activation............................ 119
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
NAV Receiver Manual Tuning...................................... 120
Auto-tuning a NAV Frequency from the MFD................ 122
Auto-tuning NAV Frequencies on Approach Activation.. 125
Marker Beacon Receiver............................................. 125
4.4 GTX 33 W/ES Mode S Transponder..................... 127
Transponder Controls................................................. 128
Transponder Mode Selection....................................... 129
Entering a Transponder Code...................................... 131
IDENT Function......................................................... 132
Flight ID Reporting.................................................... 133
4.5 Additional Audio Panel Functions...................... 134
Power-Up.................................................................. 134
Mono/Stereo Headsets............................................... 134
Speaker.................................................................... 134
Intercom................................................................... 135
Passenger Address (PA) System................................... 136
Clearance Recorder and Player.................................... 136
Entertainment Inputs................................................. 137
4.6 Audio Panel Preflight Procedure........................ 138
4.7 Abnormal Operation............................................ 140
Stuck Microphone...................................................... 140
COM Tuning Failure.................................................... 140
Audio Panel Fail-safe Operation.................................. 140
PFD Failure (Reversionary Mode)................................ 140
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 Introduction.......................................................... 141
Navigation Status Box................................................ 142
5.2 Using Map Displays.............................................. 144
Map Orientation........................................................ 144
Map Range............................................................... 146
Map Panning............................................................. 148
Measuring Bearing and Distance................................. 153
Topography............................................................... 154
Map Symbols............................................................ 157
Airways.................................................................... 163
Track Vector.............................................................. 165
Wind Vector.............................................................. 166
Nav Range Ring........................................................ 167
Fuel Range Ring........................................................ 168
Field of View (SVT)..................................................... 169
Selected Altitude Intercept Arc.................................... 170
viii
5.3 Waypoints.............................................................. 171
Airports.................................................................... 172
Intersections............................................................. 179
NDBs........................................................................ 181
VORs........................................................................ 183
User Waypoints......................................................... 185
5.4 Airspaces............................................................... 191
5.5 Direct-to-Navigation ........................................... 196
5.6 Flight Planning...................................................... 202
Flight Plan Creation................................................... 203
Adding Waypoints to an Existing Flight Plan................. 210
Adding Airways to a Flight Plan.................................. 213
Adding Procedures to a Stored Flight Plan................... 216
Flight Plan Storage.................................................... 223
Flight Plan Editing..................................................... 225
Along Track Offsets.................................................... 229
Parallel Track............................................................. 230
Activating a Flight Plan Leg........................................ 233
Inverting a Flight Plan................................................ 234
Flight Plan Views....................................................... 235
Closest Point of FPL................................................... 237
User-Defined Holding Patterns.................................... 237
5.7 Vertical Navigation.............................................. 242
Altitude Constraints................................................... 244
5.8 Procedures............................................................ 248
Departures................................................................ 249
Arrivals .................................................................... 252
Approaches .............................................................. 255
5.9 Trip Planning......................................................... 263
Trip Planning............................................................. 263
Weight Planning........................................................ 267
Weight Caution And Warning Conditions..................... 269
5.10 RAIM Prediction................................................... 270
5.11 Navigating a Flight Plan...................................... 274
5.12 Abnormal Operation............................................ 302
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 SiriusXM Weather................................................. 306
Activating Services..................................................... 306
Using SiriusXM Weather Products............................... 308
SiriusXM Weather Abnormal Operations...................... 342
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
TABLE OF CONTENTS
6.2 Garmin Connext Weather.................................... 344
Registering the Iridium Satellite System....................... 344
Registering Garmin Connext Weather.......................... 345
Accessing Garmin Connext Weather Products............... 346
Connext Data Requests.............................................. 354
Garmin Connext Weather Products.............................. 358
Abnormal Operations................................................. 373
6.3 FIS-B Weather....................................................... 375
Using FIS-B Weather Products..................................... 375
FIS-B Weather Status................................................. 397
6.4 Airborne Color Weather Radar........................... 399
System Description.................................................... 399
Principles of Pulsed Airborne Weather Radar................ 399
Safe Operating Distance............................................. 403
Basic Antenna Tilt Setup............................................. 404
Weather Mapping and Interpretation.......................... 405
Ground Mapping and Interpretation............................ 415
Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page.... 416
System Status............................................................ 417
6.5 Stormscope Lightning.......................................... 419
Setting Up Stormscope on the Navigation Map............ 419
6.6 Terrain Proximity.................................................. 424
Displaying Terrain Proximity Data................................ 424
6.7 Profile View Terrain.............................................. 429
Profile View Display................................................... 430
6.8 Terrain-SVS............................................................ 433
Displaying Terrain-SVS Data........................................ 434
Terrain-SVS Page....................................................... 436
6.9 TAWS-B.................................................................. 442
Displaying TAWS-B Data............................................. 443
TAWS-B Page............................................................ 446
TAWS-B Alerts........................................................... 448
System Status............................................................ 454
6.10 Traffic Information Service (TIS)......................... 456
Displaying TRAFFIC Data............................................ 457
Traffic Map Page........................................................ 459
TIS Alerts.................................................................. 460
System Status............................................................ 462
6.11 Garmin TAS/TCAS I Traffic.................................... 464
Theory of Operation................................................... 464
Traffic Alerts.............................................................. 467
190-01602-00 Rev. B
System Test............................................................... 468
Operation................................................................. 470
6.12 ADS-B tRAFFIC...................................................... 478
ADS-B System Overview............................................. 478
ADS-B with TAS/TCAS I............................................... 480
Conflict Situational Awareness & Alerting.................... 480
Airborne and Surface Applications............................... 483
Traffic Description...................................................... 484
Operation................................................................. 484
System Status............................................................ 493
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
S-TEC IntelliFlight 2100................................................. 497
Altitude Preselect...................................................... 497
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT)...................... 500
SVT Operation........................................................... 501
SVT Features............................................................. 503
Field of View............................................................. 512
SafeTaxi................................................................. 514
SafeTaxi Database Cycle Number and Revision............. 517
ChartView.............................................................. 520
ChartView Softkeys.................................................... 521
Terminal Procedures Charts........................................ 522
Chart Options............................................................ 530
Day/Night View......................................................... 536
ChartView Cycle Number and Expiration Date.............. 538
FliteCharts............................................................. 541
FliteCharts Softkeys................................................... 542
Terminal Procedures Charts........................................ 543
Chart Options............................................................ 550
Day/Night View......................................................... 554
FliteCharts Cycle Number and Expiration Date.............. 556
Airport Directory.................................................. 559
Airport Directory Database Cycle Number and Revision.560
Satellite Telephone and SMS Messaging........... 562
Registering With Garmin Connext............................... 562
Telephone Communication......................................... 563
Text Messaging (SMS)................................................ 578
SiriusXM Satellite Radio Entertainment............ 590
Activating SiriusXM Satellite Radio Services................. 590
Using SiriusXM Satellite Radio.................................... 592
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
Bluetooth® Management.................................... 595
Scheduler............................................................... 597
Flight Data Logging............................................. 599
Auxiliary Video (Optional)................................... 601
Video Setup.............................................................. 602
Display Selection....................................................... 602
Input Selection.......................................................... 603
Zoom/Range............................................................. 604
8.12 Abnormal Operation............................................ 605
SVT Troubleshooting.................................................. 605
Reversionary Mode.................................................... 605
Unusual Attitudes...................................................... 606
APPENDICES
Annunciations and Alerts.............................................. 609
Comparator Annunciations......................................... 613
Reversionary Sensor Annunciations............................. 613
G950 System Message Advisories............................... 617
ADS-B Status Page Messages...................................... 631
Flight Plan Import/Export Messages............................ 632
Pilot Profile Import/Export Messages........................... 632
Terrain-SVS Alerts...................................................... 633
Terrain-SVS System Status Annunciations..................... 633
TAWS-B ALERTS (Optional)......................................... 634
TAWS-B System Status Annunciations (Optional).......... 634
Database Management................................................. 637
Jeppesen Databases................................................... 638
Garmin Databases..................................................... 641
Garmin Aviation Glossary............................................. 649
Frequently Asked Questions......................................... 657
General TIS Information................................................ 661
Map Symbols.................................................................. 663
INDEX
x
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• GDC 74A/B Air Data Computer (ADC)
• GDU 1240A Multi Function Display (MFD)
• GEA 71 Engine/Airframe Unit
• GMA 1347D Audio Panel with Integrated Marker
Beacon Receiver
• GTX 33 w/ES Mode S Transponder
• GRS 77 Attitude and Heading Reference System
(AHRS)
• GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU)
• GMU 44 Magnetometer
• GDL 69/69A/69 SXM/69A SXM Data Link Receiver
• GTP 59 Temperature Probe
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• GCU 476 MFD/PFD Control Unit
EIS
• GDU 1040 Primary Flight Display (PFD)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 Integrated Flight Deck System presents flight instrumentation, position, navigation, communication,
and identification information to the pilot using flat-panel color displays. The system is distributed across the
following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
Figure 1-1 shows interactions between the LRUs. Additional/optional equipment are also shown in Figure 1-1.
The G950 is capable of interfacing with the following additional/optional equipment:
• GTX 33D w/ES Mode S Transponder
• ADF-60A ADF
• GTS 825/855 Traffic Advisory System/TCAS 1
• WX-500 Stormscope
• GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver
• S-TEC 2100 Autopilot
• GRA 5500 Radio Altimeter
• FD200CPU-8
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• DME-42 DME
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• GWX 70 Weather Radar
• GRT 10/GRC 10 Remote Control Transceiver/
Remote Control
• Flight Stream 210 Wireless Bluetooth® Gateway
AFCS
• GDL 88 ADS-B Transceiver
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
1
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 LINE REPLACEABLE UNITS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• GDU 1040 (2) – The left and right GDUs are configured as Primary Flight Displays (PFDs). Both feature 10.4inch LCD screens with 1024 x 768 resolution. The displays communicate with each other through a HighSpeed Data Bus (HSDB) Ethernet connection. Each display is also paired with an Ethernet connection to an
IAU.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• GDU 1240A (1) – The GDU 1240A features a 12-inch LCD with 1024 x 768 resolution. The unit is designated
the MFD. This unit communicates with the PFDs and with the #2 GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Unit through
a High-Speed Data Bus (HSDB) connection.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• GMA 1347D Cabin (2) – The Audio Panel integrates navigation/communication radio (NAV/COM) digital audio,
intercom, and marker beacon controls, and is installed between the displays. This unit also provides manual
control of display reversionary mode (red DISPLAY BACKUP Button; see Section 1.5, System Operation) and
communicates with both IAUs using an RS-232 digital interface.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• GCU 476 (1) – The Control Unit provides MFD/PFD and radio tuning control through an RS-232 digital
interface.
INDEX
• GIA 63W (2) – The Integrated Avionics Units (IAU) function as the main communication hubs, linking all
LRUs with the on-side display. Each IAU contains a GPS SBAS receiver, VHF COM/NAV/GS receivers, and
system integration microprocessors, and is paired with the on-side display via HSDB connection. The IAUs are
not paired together and do not communicate with each other directly.
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• GA 36 (1) and GA 37 (1) – The GA 36 is a through-mount GPS/SBAS antenna. The GA 37 is a through-mount
GPS/SBAS antenna with XM/Data Link.
GA 36
GA 37
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• GDC 74A/B (2) – The Air Data Computer (ADC) processes data from the pitot/static system and outside air
temperature (OAT) sensor. The ADC provides pressure altitude, airspeed, vertical speed, and OAT information
to the system. It communicates with the primary IAU, displays, and AHRS using an ARINC 429 digital interface.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• GEA 71 (2) – The Engine Airframe Units receive and process signals from the engine and airframe sensors.
These units communicates with both IAUs using an RS-485 digital interface.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• GTX 33 (1) and GTX 33D (1 optional) – Solid-state transponders that provide Modes A, C, S and ADS-B
capability. Both transponders can be controlled from either PFD, and only one transponder can be active at a
time. Each transponder communicates with the on-side GIA 63W through an RS-232 digital interface.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
• GRS 77 (2) – The Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) provides aircraft attitude and heading
information via ARINC 429 to both PFDs and the primary IAU. The AHRS contains advanced sensors (including
accelerometers and rate sensors) and interfaces with the Magnetometer to obtain magnetic field information,
with the ADC to obtain air data, and with both IAUs to obtain GPS information. AHRS operation is discussed
in Section 1.4, System Operation.
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
3
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• GMU 44 (2) – The Magnetometer measures local magnetic field and sends data to the AHRS for processing to
determine aircraft magnetic heading. This unit receives power directly from the AHRS and communicates with
it via an RS-485 digital interface.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
• GDL 69/69A/69 SXM/69A SXM (1) – The Data Link Satellite Radio Receiver provides real-time weather
information to the G950 MFD and PFD Inset Map, as well as digital audio entertainment. The Data Link
Receiver communicates with PFD2 via an HSDB connection. A subscription to XM Satellite Radio Service is
required to enable the GDL 69A capability.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• GWX 70 (1 optional) – Provides airborne real-time precipitation information and ground mapped radar to the
MFD via HSDB connection.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
• GRA 5500 (1 optional) – The Radar Altimeter provides Above Ground Level (AGL) altitude information and
Rate of Change of AGL altitude information via ARINC 429 connection.
INDEX
APPENDICES
• GTS 825/855 (1 optional) – The GTS 825 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) and GTS 855 TCAS I use active
interrogations of Mode S and Mode C transponders to provide Traffic Advisories to the pilot on the MFD and to
the PFD inset maps independent of the air traffic control system. The GTS communicates with PFD1 with an
HSDB connection.
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• GSR 56 (1 optional) – The Iridium Transceiver provides voice communication by means of pilot and copilot
headsets. The unit can also send and receive data over the Iridium satellite network. The GSR 56 is connected
to the #1 GIA 63W (or to the optional GDL 59) with an RS-232 digital interface.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• GA 58 (2 optional) – The GA 58 is a directional antenna for the Traffic Avoidance System.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• GRT 10/GRC 10 (1 optional) – The GRT 10 is a transceiver that provides wireless functionality to the GDL
69A for use of the GRC 10 Remote Control. The GRC 10 is the wireless hand-held unit that provides remote
control of the XM Radio functions.
GRC 10
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
GRT 10
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• GTP 59 (2) – Provides Outside Air Temperature (OAT) data to the on-side GDC 74A/B.
AFCS
• GDL 88/88D (1 optional) – Provides ADS-B Traffic in and FIS-B Weather.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
• Flight Stream 210 (1 optional) – Provides wireless Bluetooth connectivity between a compatible tablet/mobile
device and the avionics system.
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
5
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AUX
VIDEO
#1
GDU 1040
(PFD1)
#3
GDU 1240A
(MFD)
GCU 476
(Display
Controller)
GTS 825/855
(TAS, TCAS I)
GWX 70
(Weather
Radar)
EIS
#1
GMA 1347D
(Audio Panel)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
GSR 56
(Iridium)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
WX-500
(Lightning
Detection)
GDL 88/88D
(ADS-B
Transceiver)
#1 GDC 74A or 74B
(Air Data
Computer)
#2 GIA 63W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
DME-42
(DME)
#2 GMU 44
(Magnetometer)
VHF COM
VHF COM
GPS/SBAS
GPS/SBAS
#1 GRS 77
(Attitude &
Heading)
G/S
#2 GRS 77
(Attitude &
Heading)
AK-451
(ELT)
VOR/LOC
G/S
Flight
Director
Flight
Director
AFCS Mode
Logic
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
GRT 10/GRC 10
(XM Remote
Control)
#2 GDC 74A or 74B
(Air Data
Computer)
#1 GMU 44
(Magnetometer)
VOR/LOC
FD200CPU-8
(Entertainment)
GDL 69/A/SXM
(XM Weather/
Audio Datalink)
#2
GMA 1347D
(Audio Panel)
#1 GIA 63W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
ADF-60A
(ADF)
#2
GDU 1040
(PFD2)
Flight Stream
210
(Bluetooth
Transceiver)
#1 GEA 71 (Engine
& Airframe I/F)
Servo Logic
AFCS Mode
Logic
Servo Logic
#2 GEA 71 (Engine
& Airframe I/F)
AFCS
#1 GTX 33 w/ES
(Transponder)
#2 GTX 33D w/ES
(Transponder)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
STEC 2100
(Autopilot)
GRA 5500
(Radio
Altimeter)
APPENDICES
Garmin Equipment
Non-Garmin Equipment
Optional
Garmin Equipment
Optional
Non-Garmin Equipment
Figure 1-1 System Block Diagram
NOTE: For information on non-Garmin equipment shown in Figure 1-1, consult the applicable interface
INDEX
user’s guide. This document assumes that the reader is already familiar with the operation of this additional
equipment.
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1.2 SECURE DIGITAL (SD) CARDS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Ensure the G950 System is powered off before inserting an SD card.
NOTE: Refer to Appendix B for instructions on updating the aviation database.
EIS
The PFD and MFD data card slots use Secure Digital (SD) cards and are located on the upper right side of the
display bezels. Each display bezel is equipped with two SD card slots. SD cards are used for aviation database
and system software updates as well as terrain database storage.
Installing an SD card:
1) Insert the SD card in the SD card slot (the front of the card should be flush with the face of the display bezel).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) To eject the card, gently press on the SD card to release the spring latch.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SD Card Slots
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 1-2 Display Bezel SD Card Slots
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
7
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.3 SYSTEM POWER-UP
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 System is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical
busses. The PFDs, MFD, and supporting sub-systems include both power-on and continuous built-in test features
that exercise the processor, RAM, ROM, external inputs, and outputs to provide safe operation.
EIS
NOTE: Refer to Appendix A for system-specific annunciations and alerts.
During system initialization, test annunciations are displayed, as shown in Figure 1-4. All system annunciations
should disappear typically within the first minute of power-up. Upon power-up, key annunciator lights also
become momentarily illuminated on the Audio Panel and the display bezels.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
On the PFDs, the AHRS begins to initialize and displays “AHRS ALIGN: Keep Wings Level”. The AHRS should
display valid attitude and heading fields typically within the first minute of power-up. The AHRS can align itself
both while taxiing in a straight line and during level flight.
When the MFD powers up, the Power-up screen (Figure 1-3) displays the following information:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• System version
• Airport Terrain database name and version
• Copyright
• Obstacle database name and version
• Land database name and version
• Navigation database name, version, and effective dates
• Safe Taxi database information
• Airport Directory name, version and effective dates
• Terrain database name and version
• FliteCharts/ChartView database information
Current database information includes valid operating dates, cycle number, and database type. When this
information has been reviewed for currency (to ensure that no databases have expired), the pilot is prompted to
continue.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Pressing the ENT Key (or right-most softkey) acknowledges this information, and theWeight Planning Page is
displayed upon pressing the key a second time. When the system has acquired a sufficient number of satellites to
determine a position, the aircraft’s current position is shown on the Navigation Map Page.
Figure 1-4 Example MFD Power-up Screen
INDEX
Figure 1-3 PFD Initialization
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1.4 SYSTEM OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Refer to Appendix A for detailed descriptions of all annunciations and alerts. The G950 System alerts
the pilot when backup paths are utilized by the LRUs.
The displays are connected together via a single Ethernet bus for high-speed communication. As shown in
Figure 1-1, each IAU is connected to a display. This section discusses normal and reversionary G950 display
operation, AHRS modes, GPS receiver operation, and G950 System Annunciations.
EIS
DISPLAY OPERATION
NOTE: In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be adjusted from the PFDs (see Section 1.7). In
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
reversionary mode, it can be adjusted from the remaining display(s).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
In normal operating mode, the PFDs present graphical flight instrumentation (attitude, heading, airspeed,
altitude, vertical speed), replacing the traditional flight instrument cluster (see the Flight Instruments Section
for more information). The MFD normally displays a full-color moving map with navigation information (see
the Flight Management Section), while the left portion of the MFD is dedicated to the Engine Indication System
(see the EIS Section). Both displays offer control for COM and NAV frequency selection.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 1-7 System Normal Operation
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Reversionary mode is a mode of operation in which all important flight information is presented identically on
at least one of the remaining displays (see Figure 1-9). Transition to reversionary mode should be straightforward
for the pilot, for flight parameters are presented in the same format as in normal mode.
In the event of a display failure, the G950 system automatically switches to reversionary (backup) mode. In
reversionary mode, all important flight information is presented on the remaining display(s) in the same format
as in normal operating mode.
APPENDICES
• PFD1 failure – MFD and PFD2 remain in normal mode.
• MFD failure – Both PFDs automatically switch to reversionary mode.
• PFD2 failure – MFD and PFD1 remain in normal mode.
Reversionary mode may be manually activated on all displays by pressing the Audio Panel’s red DISPLAY
BACKUP Button. Pressing this button again deactivates reversionary mode.
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
9
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NAV1 and COM1 Flagged Invalid (provided by the failed display)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 1-8 Reversionary Mode
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Should the connection between a PFD or MFD and the GIA 63W functions become inoperative, the GIA
63W can no longer communicate with the PFD or MFD (refer to Figure 1-1). As a result, the NAV and COM
functions provided to the failed PFD or MFD by the GIA 63W are flagged as invalid (red “X”) on the remaining
PFD or MFD (see Figure 1-8). The system reverts to backup paths for the AHRS, ADC, Engine/Airframe Unit,
and Transponder, as required. The change to backup paths is completely automated for all LRUs and no pilot
action is required.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
G950 SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
AFCS
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red ‘X’ is typically displayed over the instrument experiencing
failed data (Figure 1-10 displays many possible flags and responsible LRUs). Upon G950 power-up, certain
instruments remain invalid as equipment begins to initialize. All instruments should be operational within one
minute of power-up. If any instrument remains flagged, the G950 should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized
repair facility.
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
GDC 74A Air
Data Computer
GRS 77 AHRS
or
GMU 44
Magnetometer
APPENDICES
GEA 71 Engine
Airframe Unit
or
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Unit
INDEX
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
GDC 74A Air
Data Computer
10
Figure 1-10 G950 System Failure Annunciations
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
GTX 33 Transponder
or
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM STATUS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The System Status Page displays the statuses, serial numbers, and software version numbers for all detected
system LRUs. Active LRUs are indicated by green check marks; failed, by red ‘X’s. Failed LRUs should be noted
and a service center or Garmin-authorized dealer informed.
The LRU and ARFRM Softkeys on the System Status Page select the applicable list (LRU INFO or AIRFRAME
window) through which the FMS Knob can be used to scroll information within the selected window.
EIS
Pressing the MFD1 DB Softkey (label background changes to grey indicting the softkey is selected) places
the cursor in the DATABASE window. Use the FMS Knob to scroll through database information for the MFD.
Pressing the softkey again will change the softkey label to PFD1 DB. PFD 1 database information is now
displayed in the DATABASE window. Pressing the softkey a third time will change the softkey label to PFD2
DB (only if three tube system, otherwise will go to MFD1 DB again). PFD 2 database information is now
displayed in the DATABASE window.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The ANN TEST Softkey, when pressed, causes an annunciation test tone to be played.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 1-11 Example System Status Page
INDEX
Pertinent information on all system databases is also displayed on this page. Refer to the Appendices and
Additional Features sections for more information about databases.
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
11
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Viewing database information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) To place the cursor in the ‘Database’ Box,
a) Press the DB Softkey (repeat until desired database is shown; MFD1, PFD1, or PFD2).
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Highlight ‘Select Dbase Window’ and press the ENT Key.
EIS
3) Use the FMS Knob to scroll through the box to view database status information.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The G950 uses aural tones to convey the priority of airframe-specific alerts. The alerting system’s annunciation
tone may be tested from the System Status Page. Refer to the Appendices for airframe-specific alerts.
Testing the system annunciation tone:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
2) Press the ANN TEST Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
b) Highlight ‘Enable Annunciator Test Mode’ and press the ENT Key.
12
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AHRS OPERATION
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering while AHRS is not operating normally may degrade AHRS accuracy.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) performs attitude, heading, and vertical acceleration
calculations for the G950 System, utilizing GPS, magnetometer, and air data in addition to information from
its internal sensors. Attitude and heading information are updated on the PFD(s) while the AHRS receives
appropriate combinations of information from the external sensor inputs.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
YES
NO
Mag Data AND Air Data
Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
Mag Data Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
GPS Data Available and Reliable?
EIS
The AHRS (GRS 77) corrects for shifts and variations in the Earth’s magnetic field by applying the Magnetic
Field Variation Database. The Magnetic Field Variation Database is derived from the International Geomagnetic
Reference Field (IGRF). The IGRF is a mathematical model that describes the Earth’s main magnetic field and its
annual rate of change. The database is updated approximately every 5 years. See the Appendices for information
on updating the Magnetic Field Variation Database. The system will prompt you on startup when an update is
available. Failure to update this database could lead to erroneous heading information being displayed to the
pilot.
AHRS no-Mag/
no-Air Mode
Heading Invalid
Heading Invalid
AHRS no-GPS
Mode
AHRS coast-on-gyros
until invalid
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AHRS no-Mag
Mode
AFCS
AHRS Normal
Mode
NO
YES
Air Data Available and Reliable?
Attitude/Heading Invalid
APPENDICES
Figure 1-12 AHRS Operation
Loss of GPS, magnetometer, or air data inputs is communicated to the pilot by message advisory alerts. Any
failure of the internal AHRS inertial sensors results in loss of attitude and heading information (indicated by red
‘X’ flags over the corresponding flight instruments).
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
13
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Two GPS inputs are provided to the AHRS. If GPS information from one of the inputs fails, the AHRS uses
the remaining GPS input and an alert message is issued to inform the pilot. If both GPS inputs fail, the AHRS
can continue to provide attitude and heading information to the PFD(s) as long as magnetometer and airspeed
data are available and valid.
If the magnetometer input fails, the AHRS continues to output valid attitude information; however, the
heading output on the PFD(s) is flagged as invalid with a red ‘X’.
Failure of the air data input has no effect on the AHRS output while AHRS is receiving valid GPS information.
Invalid/unavailable airspeed data in addition to GPS failure results in loss of all attitude and heading information.
EIS
GPS RECEIVER OPERATION
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Each Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU) contains a GPS receiver. Internal system checking is performed to
ensure both GPS receivers are providing accurate data to the PFD(s). When both GPS receivers are providing
accurate data, the GPS receiver producing the better solution is used by the system. Information collected by
the specified receiver (GPS1 for the #1 IAU or GPS2 for the #2 IAU) may be viewed on the AUX - GPS Status
Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Viewing GPS receiver status information:
1) Use the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Auxiliary Page Group (see Section 1.6 for information on
navigating MFD page groups).
2) Use the small FMS Knob to select GPS Status Page (third page in the AUX Page Group).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) To change the selected GPS receiver:
Press the desired GPS Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
b) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the receiver which is not selected and press the ENT Key.
14
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Satellite Constellation
Diagram
Satellite Signal
Information
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
GPS
Receiver
Status
EIS
RAIM
Availability
Prediction
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Satellite
Signal
Strength
Bars
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 1-13 GPS Status Page
AFCS
GPS sensor annunciations are most often seen after system power-up when one GPS receiver has acquired
satellites before the other or one of the GPS receivers has not yet acquired an SBAS signal. While the aircraft
is on the ground, the SBAS signal may be blocked by obstructions causing one GPS receiver to have difficulty
acquiring a good signal. Also, while airborne, turning the aircraft may result in one of the GPS receivers
temporarily losing the SBAS signal. If no failure message exists, check the GPS Status Page and compare the
information for GPS1 and GPS2. Discrepancies may indicate a problem.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
GPS RECEIVER STATUS
APPENDICES
The GPS solution type (ACQUIRING, 2D NAV, 2D DIFF NAV, 3D NAV, 3D DIFF NAV) for the active
GPS receiver (GPS1 or GPS2) is shown in the upper right of the GPS Status Page. When the receiver is
in the process of acquiring enough satellite signals for navigation, the receiver uses satellite orbital data
(collected continuously from the satellites) and last known position to determine the satellites that should be
in view. ACQUIRING is indicated as the solution until a sufficient number of satellites have been acquired
for computing a solution.
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
When the receiver is in the process of acquiring a 3D differential GPS solution, 3D NAV is indicated as the
solution until the 3D differential fix has finished acquisition. Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS)
status should be indicated as INACTIVE at this point. When acquisition is complete, the solution status
changes to 3D DIFF NAV and SBAS becomes active.
15
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of the SBAS coverage area, it may
be desirable to disable SBAS (although it is not recommended). When disabled, the SBAS field in the GPS
Status box indicates DISABLED.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• SBAS Selection (SBAS Softkey is pressed)(WAAS, EGNOS, or MSAS capable systems only)
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of the WAAS, EGNOS, or MSAS
coverage area, it may be desirable to disable the reception of the applicable SBAS signal (although it is not
recommended). When disabled, the SBAS field in the GPS Status box indicates DISABLED. There may be a
small delay for the GPS Status box to be updated upon WAAS, EGNOS, and MSAS enabling/disabling.
EIS
Disabling SBAS
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, select the SBAS Softkey.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired SBAS system.
4) Press the ENT Key to uncheck the box.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Figure 1-14 Enable/Disable SBAS
AFCS
RAIM PREDICTION
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to
calculate a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nautical miles for oceanic and enroute, 1.0
nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of
flight, RAIM is available nearly 100% of the time.
APPENDICES
The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a specified date and time. RAIM
computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival date and time. In most cases
performing RAIM prediction is not necessary. However, in some cases, the selected approach may be outside
the SBAS coverage area and it may be necessary to perform a RAIM prediction for the intended approach.
INDEX
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not available. The
G950 automatically monitors RAIM and warns with an alert message when it is not available. If RAIM is not
predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become active, as indicated by
the messages “Approach is not active”. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the missed approach
procedure must be flown.
16
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Predicting RAIM availability:
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) Press the RAIM Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window.
5) Enter the desired waypoint:
EIS
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired waypoint by identifier, facility, or city name and press the ENT Key.
Refer to Section 1.7 for instructions on entering alphanumeric data into the G950.
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
a) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
b) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoints, if required.
c) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint. The G950 automatically fills in the
identifier, facility, and city fields with the information for the selected waypoint.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
d) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
6) Enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
7) Enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) With the cursor highlighting ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one
of the following is displayed:
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
AFCS
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
Predicting RAIM availability at present position
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
4) Press the MENU Key.
APPENDICES
5) With ‘Set WPT to Present Position’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
17
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
9) With the cursor highlighting ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one
of the following is displayed:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
SATELLITE INFORMATION
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Satellites currently in view are shown at their respective positions on a satellite constellation diagram.
This sky view is always oriented north-up, with the outer circle representing the horizon, the inner circle
representing 45° above the horizon, and the center point showing the position directly overhead. Each satellite
is represented by an oval containing the Pseudo-random noise (PRN) number (i.e., satellite identification
number). Satellites whose signals are currently being used are represented by solid ovals.
The GPS Status Page can be helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due to poor satellite
coverage or installation problems. As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength bar is displayed
for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite PRN number (01-32 or 120-138 for WAAS) below each
bar. The progress of satellite acquisition is shown in three stages, as indicated by signal bar appearance:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- No bar—Receiver is looking for the indicated satellite
- Hollow bar—Receiver has found the satellite and is collecting data
- Cyan bar—Receiver has collected the necessary data and the satellite signal can be used
- Green bar—Satellite is being used for the GPS solution
- Checkered bar—Receiver has excluded the satellite (Fault Detection and Exclusion)
- “D” indication—Denotes the satellite is being used as part of the differential computations
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission that must be collected (signal strength bar is hollow) before
the satellite may be used for navigation (signal strength bar becomes solid).
AFCS
Using the current satellite signal information, they system calculates the aircraft’s GPS position, time,
altitude, ground speed, and track for the aircraft (displayed below the satellite signal accuracy measurements
for reference). The following quantities denote the accuracy of the aircraft’s GPS fix:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU)—A statistical error indication; the radius of a circle centered on an
estimated horizontal position in which actual position has 95% probability of lying
APPENDICES
• Horizontal Dilution of Precision (HDOP)—Measures satellite geometry quality (i.e., number of satellites
received and where they are relative to each other) on a range from 0.0 to 9.9, with lower numbers denoting
better accuracy
INDEX
• Horizontal and Vertical Figures of Merit (HFOM and VFOM)—Measures of horizontal and vertical position
uncertainty; the current 95% confidence horizontal and vertical accuracy values reported by the GPS
receiver
18
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1.5 G950 CONTROLS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 controls have been designed to simplify operation of the system and minimize workload and the time
required to access sophisticated functionality. Controls are located on the PFD and MFD bezels and the Audio
Panel. PFD and MFD controls and softkeys are discussed in this section. Audio Panel controls are described in
the Audio Panel and CNS section; see the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information about NAV/COM
controls.
PFD CONTROLS
2
3
5
4
6
7
8
9
EIS
1
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
11
14
12
15
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
13
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
10
16
18
17
1
4
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
5
APPENDICES
3
NAV VOL/ID Knob Turn to control NAV audio volume (shown in the NAV Frequency Box as a
percentage)
Press to toggle Morse code identifier audio ON/OFF
Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies
NAV Frequency
Transfer Key
Turn to tune NAV receiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for kHz)
NAV Knob
Press to toggle cyan tuning box between NAV1 and NAV2
Turn to manually select a heading
Heading Knob
Press to display a digital heading momentarily to the left of the HSI and synchronize
the Selected Heading to the and current heading
Turn to change map range
Joystick
Press to activate Map Pointer for map panning
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2
AFCS
Figure 1-15 PFD Controls
19
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
6
7
EIS
8
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
9
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
10
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
11
Turn large knob for altimeter barometric pressure setting
Turn small knob to adjust course (only when HSI is in VOR or OBS Mode)
Press to re-center the CDI and return course pointer directly TO bearing of active
waypoint/station
Turn to tune COM transceiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for
COM Knob
kHz)
Press to toggle cyan tuning box between COM1 and COM2
The selected COM (green) is controlled with the COM MIC Key (Audio Panel).
Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies
COM Frequency
Transfer Key
Press and hold 2 seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically
(EMERG)
into the active frequency field
COM VOL/SQ Knob Turn to control COM audio volume level (shown as a percentage in the COM
Frequency Box)
Press to turn the COM automatic squelch ON/OFF
Direct-to Key ( ) Activates the direct-to function and allows the user to enter a destination waypoint
and establish a direct course to the selected destination (specified by identifier,
chosen from the active route)
Displays flight plan information
FPL Key
CRS/BARO Knob
12
CLR Key
(DFLT MAP)
13
MENU Key
14
PROC Key
15
ENT Key
16
FMS Knob
Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus
Press and hold to display the MFD Navigation Map Page (MFD only).
Displays a context-sensitive list of options for accessing additional features or making
setting changes
Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs), and
approach procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan or selected airport
Validates/confirms menu selection or data entry
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press to turn the selection cursor ON/OFF.
(Flight Management Data Entry: With cursor ON, turn to enter data in the highlighted field (large
knob moves cursor location; small knob selects character for highlighted cursor
System Knob)
location)
Scrolling: When a list of information is too long for the window/box, a scroll bar
appears, indicating more items to view. With cursor ON, turn large knob to scroll
through the list.
Page Selection: Turn knob on MFD to select the page to view (large knob selects a
page group; small knob selects a specific page from the group)
17 Softkey Selection
Press to select softkey shown above the bezel key on the PFD/MFD display
Keys
18 ALT Knob
Sets the Selected Altitude, shown above the Altimeter (the large knob selects the
thousands, the small knob selects the hundreds)
20
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The NAV, CRS/BARO, COM, FMS, and ALT knobs are concentric dual knobs, each having small (inner)
and large (outer) control portion. When a portion of the knob is not specified in the text, either may be used.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Large (Outer) Knob
Small (Inner) Knob
Figure 1-16 Dual Concentric Knob
EIS
MFD CONTROLS
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
8
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
12
10
13
11
14
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
9
AFCS
15
16
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 1-17 MFD Controls
1
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
APPENDICES
NAV VOL/ID Knob Turn to control NAV audio volume (shown in the NAV Frequency Box as a percentage)
Press to toggle Morse code identifier audio ON/OFF
2 NAV Frequency
Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies
Transfer Key
3 NAV Knob
Turn to tune NAV receiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for kHz)
Press to toggle cyan tuning box between NAV1 and NAV2
4 Joystick
Turn to change map range
Press to activate Map Pointer for map panning
21
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
5
CRS/BARO Knob
6
COM Knob
7
EIS
8
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
9
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
10
Turn for altimeter barometric pressure setting
Turn to tune COM transceiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for
kHz)
Press to toggle cyan tuning box between COM1 and COM2
The selected COM (green) is controlled with the COM MIC Key (Audio Panel).
Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies
COM Frequency
Transfer Key
Press and hold 2 seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically
(EMERG)
into the active frequency field
COM VOL/SQ Knob Turn to control COM audio volume level (shown as a percentage in the COM
Frequency Box)
Press to turn the COM automatic squelch ON/OFF
Direct-to Key ( ) Activates the direct-to function and allows the user to enter a destination waypoint
and establish a direct course to the selected destination (specified by identifier,
chosen from the active route)
Displays flight plan information
FPL Key
11
CLR Key
(DFLT MAP)
12
MENU Key
13
PROC Key
14
ENT Key
15
FMS Knob
Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus
Press and hold to display the MFD Navigation Map Page (MFD only).
Displays a context-sensitive list of options for accessing additional features or making
setting changes
Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs), and
approach procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan or selected airport
Validates/confirms menu selection or data entry
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Press to turn the selection cursor ON/OFF.
(Flight Management Data Entry: With cursor ON, turn to enter data in the highlighted field (large knob
moves cursor location; small knob selects character for highlighted cursor location)
System Knob)
Scrolling: When a list of information is too long for the window/box, a scroll bar
appears, indicating more items to view. With cursor ON, turn large knob to scroll
through the list.
Page Selection: Turn knob on MFD to select the page to view (large knob selects a
page group; small knob selects a specific page from the group)
16 Softkey Selection
Press to select softkey shown above the bezel key on the PFD/MFD display
Keys
MFD/PFD CONTROL UNIT
INDEX
The optional MFD/PFD Control Unit is a pedestal-mounted user interface allowing for ease of data entry,
MFD/PFD operation, and NAV/COM tuning. Many procedures in this Pilot’s Guide can be performed using
the MFD/PFD Control Unit rather than the display bezel controls. Indicators above the PFD, MFD, NAV, and
COM keys are illuminated when their respective control mode(s) are selected. The unit is in MFD control mode
by default on system power-up.
22
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1
2
3
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NAV/COM radio tuning can be accomplished in either PFD or MFD control mode. The appropriate frequency
box on the selected display is outlined by a cyan selection box, which flashes for a few seconds to indicate
Control Unit activity (refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information about NAV/COM tuning).
Selection of a different display control or radio tuning mode results in cancelation of the previous radio tuning
mode.
4
EIS
5
19
18
17
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
16
15
6
14
12
8
11
10
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
7
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
13
9
Figure 1-4 GCU 476 MFD/PFD Control Unit (Optional)
AFCS
FPL Key
2
Direct-to Key (
3
5
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
6
) Activates the direct-to function and allows the user to enter a destination waypoint
and establish a direct course to the selected destination (specified by identifier,
chosen from the active route)
Displays a context-sensitive list of options for accessing additional features or
MENU Key
making setting changes
Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs), and
PROC Key
approach procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan or selected airport
Turn to change map range
Joystick
Press to activate Map Pointer for map panning
Alphanumeric Keys Allow data entry (rather than using the FMS Knob to select characters/numbers)
APPENDICES
4
Displays flight plan information
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1
23
BKSP Key
Moves cursor back one character space and removes last character entered
8
SPC Key
Adds a space character
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
9
ENT Key
Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry
10
CLR Key
11
SEL Key
Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus
Press and hold to display the MFD Navigation Map Page (MFD only).
Arrows move cyan Softkey Selection Box (Figure 1-10) on selected display
Press the center to activate the selected softkey
12
Decimal Key
13
Plus-Minus (±) Key Toggles entry between the + and - characters
14
NAV Key
Selects/deselects NAV radio tuning mode on the MFD/PFD Control Unit
15
COM Key
Selects/deselects COM radio tuning mode on the MFD/PFD Control Unit
16
Frequency Transfer Transfers between active and standby selected COM or NAV tuning frequencies
Key
Press and hold 2 seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically
(EMERG)
into the active frequency field
17
PFD Key
When selected, the MFD/PFD Control Unit can be used to access PFD functions
18
MFD Key
19
FMS/NAV-COM
Knob
When selected, the MFD/PFD Control Unit can be used to access MFD functions
(default display control mode)
NAV/COM Tuning Modes: Acts as the NAV or COM Knob
PFD/MFD Control Modes: Acts as the FMS Knob
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
7
EIS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Enters a decimal point character
AFCS
SOFTKEY FUNCTION
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The softkeys are located along the bottoms of the displays. The softkeys shown depend on the softkey level
or page being displayed. The bezel keys below the softkeys can be used to select the appropriate softkey. When
a softkey is pressed, its color changes to black text on gray background and remains this way until it is turned
off, at which time it reverts to white text on black background. When a softkey function is disabled, the softkey
label is subdued (dimmed).
Softkeys revert to the previous level after 45 seconds of inactivity.
APPENDICES
Softkey
On
Softkey Selection Box
(using Control Unit)
Softkey
Names
(Displayed)
Bezel-Mounted
Softkeys (Press)
INDEX
Figure 1-19 Softkeys (Second-Level PFD Configuration)
24
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PFD SOFTKEYS
The CDI, IDENT, TMR/REF, NRST, and ALERTS softkeys undergo a momentary change to black text on
gray background when selected, and automatically switch back to white text on black background.
(optional)
INSET
SENSOR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The PFD softkeys provide control over flight management functions, including GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic,
and lightning (optional). Each softkey sublevel has a BACK Softkey which can be pressed to return to the
previous level. The MSG Softkey is visible at all softkey levels (label changes if messages are issued).
(optional)
PFD
OBS
CDI
DME
XPDR
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
ALERTS
EIS
Figure 1-20 Top Level PFD Softkeys
INSET
OFF
DCLTR (3)
DCLTR
WX LGND
DCLTR-2
WIND
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
(optional)
AFCS
TOPO
APPENDICES
TERRAIN
DFLTS
SYN VIS STRMSCP
NEXRAD-B
or
PRECIP
or
NEXRAD-C
or
NEXRAD-C
US
(US/RGNL only
Displays icon and age
on the Inset Map for the selected weather products
avail with
FIS-B weather)
RGNL
Displays traffic information
on Inset Map
TRAFFIC: No Traffic displayed on Inset Map
PFD
TRFC-1: Traffic displayed on Inset Map
TRFC-2: Traffic Only display shown
Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes) and elevation scale on
Inset Map
Displays terrain information on Inset Map
(optional)
DMEDisplays
BRG2 on Inset Map ALT
HSI FMT
ALERTS
BACK
BRG
1
UNIT STD BARO
Stormscope
information
(optional)
Displays NEXRAD-B weather and coverage on Inset Map (optional GDL 69/
69A/69 SXM/ 69A SXM
only)
Press
the BRG1/BRG2
Press the BACK Softkey to return
softkeys
to GSR
the top-level
Displays Connext precipitationtoondisplay/remove
Inset Map (optional
56 only) softkeys.
TRFC-2
WX LGND
DCLTR-3
TRAFFIC
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
DCLTR-1
Displays Inset Map in PFD lower left corner
(optional)
Removes Inset Map
PRECIP (optional)
or
NEXRAD-B DL LTNG
Selects desired amount of(optional)
map detail; cycles
through
levels:
(optional)
or
or declutter
ALERTS
TOPO
TERRAIN STRMSCP NEXRAD-C XM LTNG METAR
BACK
DCLTR (No Declutter): All map features visible
DCLTR-1: Declutters land data
DCLTR-2: Declutters land and
SUA data Press the BACK Softkey to return
NEXRAD-C
TRFC-1
to the
top-level
softkeys.
DCLTR-3: Removes everything except for the
active
flight plan
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
INSET
OFF
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Press the CDI Softkey to cycle through
navigation sources:
- GPS
- NAV1 (VOR/LOC)
- NAV2 (VOR/LOC)
the Bearing Information
windows and cycle through
Displays NEXRAD-C bearing
weather and
coverage on Inset Map (optional GDL 69/
sources:
69A/69 SXM/ 69A SXM only)
- NAV1/NAV2
GPS and coverage on Inset Map (optional GDL 88 only):
Cycles through NEXRAD-C- weather
METERS
IN
HPA
BACK
ALERTS
BACK
ALERTS
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
OPTN1
OPTN2
OPTN3
OFF
INDEX
NEXRAD-C:
NEXRAD-C
weather displayed on Inset MapBACK ALERTS
360 HSINoARC
HSI
US:
Continental US NEXRAD-C weather displayed on Inset Map
RGNL:
Regional NEXRAD-C weather displayed on Inset Map
25
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
(optional)
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
INSET
XM LTNG
or
DL LTNG
PFD
OBS
CDI
XPDR
DME
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
ALERTS
Displays SiriusXM lightning information on Inset Map (optional GDL 69/ 69A/69 SXM/
Press the CDI Softkey to cycle through
69A SXM only)
navigation sources:
Displays Connext Weather- GPS
lightning information on Inset Map (optional GSR 56 only)
- NAV1
(VOR/LOC)
Displays METAR information
on Inset
Map (optional)
METAR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
(optional)
SENSOR
- NAV2 (VOR/LOC)
INSET
EIS
(optional)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
OFF
DCLTR
WX LGND
TOPO
DCLTR-1
TRFC-1
DCLTR-2
TRFC-2
PRECIP (optional)
or
NEXRAD-B DL LTNG
(optional)
(optional)
or
or
TERRAIN STRMSCP NEXRAD-C XM LTNG METAR
NEXRAD-C
(US/RGNL only
avail with
FIS-B weather)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
DCLTR-3
PFD
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SENSOR
AFCS
ADC1
(optional)
SYN VIS
ADC2
AHRS1
AHRS2
US
RGNL
Figure 1-21 INSET Softkeys
(optional)
SENSOR
PFD
OBS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
INSET
Press the BACK Softkey to return
to the top-level softkeys.
Displays softkeys for selecting the #1 and #2 AHRS and Air Data Computers (optional)
Selects
the #1 Air Data Computer
(optional)
DME
BRG2
HSI FMT
ALERTS
BACK
ALT UNIT STD BARO
Selects the #2BRG
Air1 Data
Computer
Selects the #1 AHRS
Press the BRG1/BRG2
Press the BACK Softkey to return
Selects the #2 AHRS
WIND
DFLTS
ALERTS
BACK
CDI
softkeys to display/remove to the top-level softkeys.
the Bearing Information
(optional)
windows
and cycle through
DMEsources:
XPDR
IDENT TMR/REF NRST
ALERTS
bearing
- NAV1/NAV2
- GPS
360 HSI
BACK
ARC HSI
ALERTS
Press the BACK Softkey to
return to the top level softkeys.
APPENDICES
ADC1
ADC2
OPTN1
OPTN2
METERS
AHRS1
AHRS2
IN
HPA
OPTN3
OFF
Figure
1-22 SENSOR
Softkeys
INDEX
PATHWAY SYN TERR HRZN HDG APTSIGNS
BACK
ALERTS
BACK
ALERTS
BACK
ALERTS
ALERTS
XPDR
26
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYN VIS
PATHWAY
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
METERS
IN
HPA
STD BARO
Cycles the Bearing 1 Information Window through:
NAV1: Waypoint frequency/identifier and distance information
GPS: Waypoint identifier and GPS distance information
OFF: Removes window
Displays softkeys to select the HSI format
Displays HSI as a 360° compass rose
Displays HSI as a 140° viewable arc (Bearing Information windows unavailable)
Cycles the Bearing 2 Information Window through:
NAV2: Waypoint frequency/identifier and distance information
GPS: Waypoint identifier and GPS distance information
OFF: Removes window
Displays softkeys for changing the Altimeter barometric setting and altitude displays to
metric units
Displays the current and Selected altitudes in meters in addition to feet, when selected
Displays the Altimeter barometric setting in inches of mercury (in Hg)
Displays the Altimeter barometric setting in hectopascals (hPa)
Sets barometric pressure to 29.92 in Hg (1013 hPa if metric display is selected)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ALT UNIT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HSI FRMT
360 HSI
ARC HSI
BRG2
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
BRG1
EIS
DFLTS
WIND
OPTN1
OPTN2
OPTN3
OFF
DME
Displays second-level softkeys for additional PFD configuration
Displays the softkeys for enabling or disabling Synthetic Vision features
Displays rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the
active flight plan
Enables synthetic terrain depiction
Displays compass heading along the Zero-Pitch line
Displays position markers for airports within approximately 15 nm of the current aircraft
position. Airport identifiers are displayed when the airport is within approximately 9 nm.
Resets PFD to default settings, including changing units to standard
Displays softkeys to select and configure wind data
Headwind/tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed components
Wind direction arrow with numeric speed
Wind direction arrow with numeric headwind/tailwind and crosswind speed
Removes wind information from display
Displays/removes the DME Information Window (optional)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYN TERR
HRZN HDG
APTSIGNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PFD
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
27
DCLTR-1
TRFC-1
DCLTR-2
TRFC-2
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
(US/RGNL only
avail with
FIS-B weather)
DCLTR-3
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Press the BACK Softkey to return
to the top-level softkeys.
NEXRAD-C
US
RGNL
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
PFD
(optional)
(optional)
SYN VIS
DFLTS
WIND
DME
BRG1
HSI FMT
BRG2
ALT UNIT STD BARO
BACK
ALERTS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Press the BRG1/BRG2
Press the BACK Softkey to return
softkeys to display/remove to the top-level softkeys.
the Bearing Information
windows and cycle through
bearing sources:
- NAV1/NAV2
- GPS
360 HSI
ARC HSI
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
METERS
OPTN1
OPTN2
OPTN3
IN
HPA
OFF
BACK
ALERTS
BACK
ALERTS
BACK
ALERTS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PATHWAY SYN TERR HRZN HDG APTSIGNS
ALERTS
AFCS
Figure 1-23 PFD ConfigurationXPDR
Softkeys
STBY
ON
ALT
GND
VFR
CODE
IDENT
BACK
ALERTS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press the BACK Softkey to return
to the top-level softkeys.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
IDENT
BKSP
BACK
ALERTS
INDEX
APPENDICES
Press the BACK Softkey to return
to the top-level softkeys.
28
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
DCLTR-1
TRFC-1
DCLTR-2
TRFC-2
NEXRAD-C
(US/RGNL only
avail with
FIS-B weather)
DCLTR-3
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
US
RGNL
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
OBS
Press the BACK Softkey to return
to the top-level softkeys.
Selects OBS Mode on the CDI when navigating by GPS (only available with active
leg)
Cycles through GPS, VOR1, and VOR2 navigation sources on the HSI
Displays the DME Tuning Window, allowing tuning and selection of the DME
(optional)
(optional)
Displays
transponder
mode
selection softkeys:
DME
BRG2
HSI FMT
ALERTS
BACK
BRG1
ALT UNIT STD BARO
Selects standby mode (Transponder does not reply to any interrogations)
Selects Mode A (Transponder
replies to interrogations)
Press the BRG1/BRG2
Press the BACK Softkey to return
softkeys reporting
to display/remove
to the top-level
softkeys.
Selects Mode C – altitude
mode (Transponder
replies
to identification and
the Bearing Information
altitude interrogations)
windows and cycle through
bearingMode
sources:
Manually selects Ground
(Transponder does not allow Mode A and Mode C
- NAV1/NAV2
replies, but does permit- acquisition
squitter and replies to discretely addressed Mode
GPS
S interrogations)
360 HSI ARC HSI
BACK
ALERTS
Automatically enters
the VFR code (1200 in U.S.A. only)
Displays transponder code selection softkeys 0-7
Use numbers to
enter code
METERS
IN
HPA
BACK
ALERTS
Removes numbers entered, one at a time
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds, identifying the
transponder
BACK
ALERTS
OPTN2
OPTN3 return
OFF on the ATC screen
Displays/removes Timer/References Window
Displays/removes Nearest Airports Window
ALERTS
APTSIGNS
Displays/removes Messages Window
PFD
(optional)
XPDR SYN VIS
STBY
ON
ALT
WIND
DFLTS
SYN TERR HRZN HDG
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TMR/REF
NRST
PATHWAY
MSG
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
OPTN1
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
VFR
CODE
0—7
BKSP
IDENT
EIS
GND
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
CDI
DME
XPDR
ON
ALT
GND
VFR
CODE
IDENT
BACK
AFCS
STBY
ALERTS
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
IDENT
BKSP
BACK
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press the BACK Softkey to return
to the top-level softkeys.
ALERTS
APPENDICES
Press the BACK Softkey to return
to the top-level softkeys.
Figure 1-24 XPDR Softkeys
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
29
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD SOFTKEYS
MFD softkeys vary depending on the page selected. Navigation Map Page softkeys are described here.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ENGINE
DCLTR SHW CHRT
MAP
DCLTR
DCLTR-1
EIS
DCLTR-2
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
(optional)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TRAFFIC
PROFILE
TOPO
TERRAIN
PRECIP
or
DL LTNG
NEXRAD-B
(optional)
or
or
AIRWAYS STRMSCP NEXRAD-C XM LTNG
AIRWAYS
NEXRAD-C
AIRWY ON
US
AIRWY LO
RGNL
DCLTR-3
(optional)
(optional) (optional)
METAR
LEGEND
BACK
Press the BACK softkey to
return to the top-level softkeys.
(US/RGNL only
avail with
FIS-B weather)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AIRWY HI
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 1-25 MFD Softkeys (EIS, Navigation Map Page)
30
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MAP
TERRAIN
AIRWAYS
Displays NEXRAD-C weather and coverage on Navigation Map (optional GDL 69 only)
Cycles through NEXRAD-C weather and coverage on Navigation Map (optional GDL 88
only):
NEXRAD-C: No NEXRAD-C weather displayed on Navigation Map
US:
Continental US NEXRAD-C weather displayed on Navigation Map
RGNL:
Regional NEXRAD-C weather displayed on Navigation Map
Displays SiriusXM lightning on Navigation Map (optional GDL 69/69A/69 SXM/
69A SXM only)
Displays Connext Weather lightning on Navigation Map (optional GSR 56 only)
Displays/removes Graphical METARs on Navigation Map (optional)
Displays/removes METAR legend on Navigation Map (optional)
Returns to top-level softkeys
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through declutter levels:
DCLTR (No Declutter): All map features visible
DCLTR-1: Removes land data
DCLTR-2: Removes land and SUA data
DCLTR-3: Removes everything except the active flight plan
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
SHW CHRT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
METAR
LEGEND
BACK
DCLTR (3)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
XM LTNG
or
DL LTNG
EIS
STRMSCP
NEXRAD-B
or
PRECIP
or
NEXRAD-C
or
NEXRAD-C
Displays EIS - Engine Page; select again to exit page (see the EIS Section for more
information)
Enables second-level Navigation Map softkeys
Displays/removes traffic information on Navigation Map
Displays/removes profile view on Navigation Map
Displays/removes topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes) on Navigation
Map
Displays/removes terrain information on Navigation Map
Selects the desired display of Airways; cycles through:
AIRWY ON: All Airways displayed
AIRWY LO: Low Altitude (Victor) Airways displayed
AIRWY HI: High Altitude Airways (Jetways) displayed
AIRWAYS: Airways are not displayed
Displays/removes Stormscope information on Navigation Map (optional)
Displays NEXRAD-B weather and coverage on Navigation Map (optional GDL 69/
69A/69 SXM/ 69A SXM only)
Displays Connext precipitation on Navigation Map (optional GSR 56 only)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TRAFFIC
PROFILE
TOPO
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE
When available, displays optional airport and terminal procedure charts
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
31
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.6 ACCESSING G950 FUNCTIONALITY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
MENUS
EIS
The G950 has a dedicated MENU Key that when pressed displays a context-sensitive list of options. This
options list allows the user to access additional features or make settings changes which specifically relate to
the currently displayed window/page. There is no all-encompassing menu. Some menus provide access to
additional submenus that are used to view, edit, select, and review options. Menus display ‘NO OPTIONS’
when there are no options for the window/page selected. The main controls used in association with all
window/page group operations are described in Section 1.5, G950 Controls.
Navigating a menu:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press the MENU Key to display the menu.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through a list of available options (a scroll bar always appears to the right of the
window/box when the option list is longer than the window/box).
3) Press the ENT Key to select the desired option.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Press the CLR Key or FMS Knob to remove the menu and cancel the operation.
Options for FPL Window
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
No Options for
NRST Window
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 1-26 Page Menu Examples
32
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DATA ENTRY
Alphanumeric data (e.g., Flight ID, waypoint identifiers, barometric minimum descent altitude) are directly
entered into the G950 using the FMS Knob corresponding to the display (PFD or MFD).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In some instances, such as when entering an identifier, the G950 tries to predict the desired identifier based
on the characters being entered. In this case, if the desired identifier appears, use the ENT Key to confirm the
entry without entering the rest of the identifier manually. This can save the pilot from entering all the characters
of the identifier.
EIS
Besides character-by-character data entry, the system also provides a shortcut for entering waypoint identifiers.
When the cursor is on a field awaiting entry of a waypoint identifier, turning the small FMS Knob counterclockwise accesses five different lists of waypoint identifiers for quick selection: flight plan (FPL), nearest
(NRST), recently-entered (RECENT), user (USER), and airway (AIRWAY)(AIRWAY available when active leg is
part of an airway). The G950 automatically fills in the identifier, facility, and city fields with the information
for the selected waypoint.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Using the FMS Knob to enter data:
1) If needed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field.
3) Begin entering data.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
a) To quickly enter a waypoint identifier, turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of
waypoints in the active flight plan (list is titled FPL). If desired, turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to scroll
through lists of nearest waypoints (NRST) and recently-entered waypoints (RECENT).
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to select a character for the first placeholder.
AFCS
Turning the knob clockwise scrolls through the alphabet (where appropriate) toward the letter Z, starting at
K, and the digits zero through nine. Afterwards, turning the knob counter-clockwise scrolls in the opposite
direction.
b) Use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next placeholder in the field.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
c) Repeat, using the small FMS Knob to select a character and the large FMS Knob to move the cursor, until
the field is complete.
d) Press the ENT Key to confirm entry.
APPENDICES
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to cancel data entry (the field reverts back to its previous information).
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
33
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PAGE GROUPS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Information on the MFD is presented on pages which are grouped according to function. In the bottom right
corner of the screen, a page group window is displayed by turning either FMS Knob. The page group tabs are
displayed along the bottom of the window. The page titles are displayed in a list above the page group tabs. The
current page group and current page within the group are shown in cyan. For some of these pages (Airport/
Procedures/Weather Information, XM, Procedure Loading), the active title of the page changes while the page
name in the list remains the same.
EIS
NOTE: Refer to other supporting sections in this Pilot’s Guide for details on specific pages.
Page Group
Active Page Title
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
MFD
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pages in
Current
Group
Page Groups
Figure 1-27 Page Title and Page Groups
AFCS
The main page groups are navigated using the FMS Knob; specific pages within each group can vary
depending on the configuration of optional equipment.
Selecting a page using the FMS Knob:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to display the list of page groups; continue turning the large FMS Knob until the
desired page group is selected
INDEX
APPENDICES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired page within a specific page group.There are also several pages
(Airport Information and XM Information pages) which are selected first from within a main page group with
the FMS Knobs, then with the appropriate softkey at the bottom of the page. In this case, the page remains set
to the selected screen until a different screen softkey is pressed.
34
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• Map Page Group (MAP)
Navigation Map
Traffic Map (TAS optional)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Weather Radar (optional)
Stormscope (optional)
Weather Data Link (optional)
Terrain (Terrain SVS (optional)/
TAWS (optional))
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 1-28 Map Pages
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Waypoint Page Group (WPT)
Airport/Procedures/Weather Information Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Airport Information
(INFO-1 Softkey)
- Airport Directory Information
(INFO-2 Softkey)
- Departure Information
(DP Softkey)
AFCS
- Arrival Information
(STAR Softkey)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Approach Information
(APR Softkey)
- Weather Information (optional)
(WX Softkey)
Intersection Information
APPENDICES
NDB Information
Airport/Procedures/
Weather Information
Pages
VOR Information
User Waypoint Information
Figure 1-29 Waypoint Pages
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
35
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Auxiliary Page Group (AUX)
Weight Planning
Trip Planning
Utility
GPS Status
System Setup
XM Satellite pages (optional)
- XM Information
(INFO Softkey)
- XM Radio
(RADIO Softkey)
Satellite Phone Pages (optional)
- Telephone
(TEL Softkey)
- SMS
(SMS Softkey)
System Status
Video
ADS-B Status
Bluetooth Management
XM
Pages
Satellite
Phone
Pages
Figure 1-30 Auxiliary Pages
Maintenance data is continuously recorded by the Central Maintenance Computer (CMC). At the discretion
of the Aircraft Manufacturer, this data may be displayed on an OEM DIAGNOSTICS Page accessible from within
the AUX Page Group.
AFCS
• Nearest Page Group (NRST)
Nearest Airports
Nearest Intersections
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Nearest NDB
Nearest VOR
Nearest User Waypoints
APPENDICES
Nearest Frequencies
INDEX
Nearest Airspaces
Figure 1-31 Nearest Pages
36
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
In addition to the main page groups accessed exclusively using the FMS Knob, there are pages for flight
planning (FPL) and loading procedures (PROC) which are accessed by key. In some instances, softkeys may be
used to access the Procedure Loading pages.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Flight Plan pages are accessed using the FPL Key on the MFD. Main pages within this group are selected
by turning the small FMS Knob.
• Flight Plan Page Group (FPL)
Active Flight Plan
Flight Plan Catalog
EIS
- Stored Flight Plan
(NEW Softkey)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 1-32 Flight Plan Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Procedure Loading pages may be accessed at any time on the MFD by pressing the PROC Key. A menu
is initialized, and when a departure, approach, or arrival is selected, the appropriate Procedure Loading page is
opened. These pages can also be accessed from the Active and Stored Flight Plan pages using the LD softkeys.
Turning the FMS Knob does not scroll through the Procedure Loading pages (note the single page icon in the
lower right corner).
• Procedure Loading Page Group (PROC)
AFCS
Departure Loading
Arrival Loading
Approach Loading
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 1-33 Procedure Loading Pages
INDEX
Information on optional electronic checklist pages is offered later in this section. Checklist pages may be
accessed from any page on the MFD using the CHKLIST Softkey.
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
37
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM SETTINGS
The System Setup Page allows management of the following system parameters:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Date/time
• Displayed navigation angle reference, temperature,
and position settings
• Baro transition alert
(see Flight Instruments Section)
EIS
• Airspace alerts
(see the Flight Management Section)
• Arrival alerts
• MFD Navigation Status Box fields
(see the Flight Management Section)
• CDI scaling for GPS navigation source
(see the Flight Instruments Section)
• COM channel spacing
(see the Audio Panel and CNS Section)
• Criteria for displaying nearest airports
(see the Flight Management Section)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Audio alerts
APPENDICES
Figure 1-34 System Setup Page
Restoring system setup defaults:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
INDEX
2) Press the DFLTS Softkey.
Or:
38
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Restore Defaults’ and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
PILOT PROFILES
EIS
System settings may be saved under a pilot profile. When the system is powered on, the last selected
pilot profile is shown on the MFD Power-up Screen (Figure 1-5). The G950 can store up to 25 profiles;
the currently active profile, the amount of memory used, and the amount of memory available are shown at
the top of the System Setup Page in the box labeled ‘Pilot Profile’. From here, pilot profiles may be created,
selected, renamed, or deleted.
Creating a profile:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CREATE’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Create Profile’ window is displayed.
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter a profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key. Pilot profile names
cannot begin with a blank as the first letter.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) In the next field, use the small FMS Knob to select the desired settings upon which to base the new profile.
Profiles can be created based on Garmin factory defaults, default profile settings (initially based on Garmin
factory defaults unless edited by the pilot), or current system settings.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘CREATE’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to create the profile
Or:
AFCS
Use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CREATE and ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to activate the new profile.
9) To cancel the process, select ‘CANCEL’ with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key.
Selecting an active profile:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the active profile field in the Pilot Profile Box.
APPENDICES
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the pilot profile list and highlight the desired profile.
5) Press the ENT Key. The G950 loads and displays the system settings for the selected profile.
Renaming a profile:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
39
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘RENAME’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5) In the ‘Rename Profile’ window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to rename.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter a new profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘RENAME’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
9) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
EIS
Deleting a profile:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘DELETE’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) In the ‘Delete Profile’ window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to delete.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) With ‘DELETE’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
8) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If an SD card is inserted into the top slot of the MFD, pilot profiles may imported from the SD card into the
system, or exported from the system to the SD card.
Because system settings may vary from one airframe to another, always verify system settings from an
imported profile are consistent with the desired settings.
AFCS
Importing a profile from an SD card:
1) Insert an SD card containing the pilot profile(s) into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Select the IMPORT Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Import Pilot Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
4) The system displays the Pilot Profile Importing window with ‘IMPORT’ highlighted. To change the selected
profile to be imported from the SD card (shown as ‘SELECT FILE’), turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the
profile file name, then turn the small FMS Knob to highlight a profile from the list, and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
5) If desired, the profile name to be used after profile has been imported can be changed by turning the FMS
Knob to highlight the ‘PROFILE NAME’ field, then use the large and small FMS Knobs to enter the name, and
press the ENT Key. Imported profile names cannot begin with a blank space or be named ‘DEFAULT’, ‘GARMIN
DEFAULTS’ or ‘DEFAULT SETTINGS’.
40
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6) With ‘IMPORT’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
7) If the imported profile name is the same as an existing profile on the system, the system displays an ‘Overwrite
existing file? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to replace profile on the system with the profile
imported from the SD card, or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to the
Pilot Profile Importing window.
8) If successful, the system displays ‘Pilot profile import succeeded.’ in the IMPORT RESULTS window below. With
‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT or CLR Keys or press the FMS Knob to return to the AUX - System Setup Page.
The imported profile becomes the active profile.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Pilot Profiles Available for Import from
SD Card (‘STEVE’S PROFILE’ Selected)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pilot Profile Importing and Import
Results Window
Import Successful
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 1-35 Pilot Profile Import (AUX - System Setup Page)
Exporting a profile to an SD card:
1) Insert the SD card for storing the Pilot Profile into the top card slot on the MFD.
AFCS
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, activate the desired pilot profile to export. Only the currently active Pilot Profile can be exported.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Select the EXPORT Softkey. The system displays the Pilot Profile Exporting window.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Export Pilot Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
5) To export the pilot profile using the current supplied name, press the ENT Key with ‘EXPORT’ highlighted. To
change the profile file name turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘SELECT FILE’ field, then enter the new
name with the large and small FMS Knobs, then press the ENT Key. Then press the ENT Key with ‘EXPORT’
highlighted.
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
6) If the profile name to be exported is the same as an existing profile file name on the SD card, the system displays
an ‘Overwrite existing file? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to replace the profile on the SD card
with the profile to be exported, or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to
the Pilot Profile Exporting window without exporting the profile.
41
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
7) If successful, the EXPORT RESULTS window displays ‘Pilot profile export succeeded.’ With ‘OK’ highlighted,
press the ENT or CLR Keys, or press the FMS Knob to return to the AUX - System Setup Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Pilot Profile Exporting Window, Enter a
Name to Use for Exported Profile
Export Successful
Figure 1-36 Pilot Profile Export on the AUX - System Setup Page
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
DATE/TIME
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The system time is displayed in the lower right corner of the PFDs. Time and date format (local 12-hr,
local 24-hr, or UTC) are modified on the System Setup Page. Universal Coordinated Time (UTC; also called
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or Zulu) date and time are calculated directly from the GPS satellites signals
and cannot be changed. An offset is provided to add or subtract the desired amount of time (hours:minutes)
from UTC to define current local time.
Configuring the system time:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
AFCS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Time Format’ field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired format and press the ENT Key to confirm selection. The ‘Time
Offset’ field is highlighted (for local time formats).
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time offset (±HH:MM) and press the ENT Key to confirm selection.
42
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DISPLAY UNITS
Units in which various quantities are displayed on the G950 screens can be changed on the System Setup
Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Changing a display units setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Display Units’ box.
Temperature
Celsius*
Fahrenheit
Gallons
Pounds*
Pounds*
Kilograms
HDDD°MM.MM’*
HDDD°MM’SS.S”
UTM/UPS
Fuel and
Fuel Flow
Weight
Position**
All temperatures on PFD(s)
Total Air Temperature (Trip Planning Page)
Fuel parameters (Trip Planning Page)
Altimeter
Vertical Speed Indicator
VNV altitudes (Active Flight Plan)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
N/A
N/A
All positions
N/A
APPENDICES
Feet*
Meters
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Altitude and
Vertical Speed
Airspeed Indicator
True Airspeed (PFD)
Wind speed vector
Map range (Traffic Page, Terrain
Proximity/TAWS Page)
CDI scaling (System Setup)
Fuel range calculation (EIS)
AFCS
Nautical*
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Distance and
Speed ***
Exceptions
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Affected Quantities
Heading
Course
Bearing
Track
Desired Track
Wind direction (Trip Planning Page)
Crosstrack error (HSI)
Bearing distances (information windows)
DME distance (information window)
Flight plan distances
Map ranges
DIS, GS, TAS, XTK fields (Navigation Status Box)
All distances on MFD
Altitude buffer distance (System Setup)
Arrival Alert trigger distance (System Setup)
All speeds on MFD
All altitudes on MFD
All elevations on MFD
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Category
Settings
Navigation Angle Magnetic*
True
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select from a list of measurement units and press the ENT Key when the desired
unit is highlighted.
INDEX
* Default setting
** Contact a Garmin-authorized service center to change this setting
*** Not configurable
Table 1-1 Display Units Settings (System Status Page)
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43
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AIRSPACE ALERTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Airspace Alert feature provides a message alert when the aircraft is approaching or near a controlled or
special-use airspace. The altitude buffer setting increases the range above or below an airspace for which an
alert is generated; the default value is 200 feet. Alerts for the following airspaces can be turned on/off from
the System Setup Page:
• Class B/TMA
• Class D
• MOA (Military)
• Class C/TCA
• Restricted
• Other airspaces
EIS
Turning Airspace Alerts off does not affect the alerts listed on the Nearest Airspaces Page or the airspace
boundaries depicted on the Navigation Map Page.
Turning an airspace alert on or off:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the altitude buffer field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
ARRIVAL ALERTS
AFCS
Arrival alerts provide notification upon reaching a specified distance from the final destination (the direct-to
waypoint or the last waypoint in a flight plan). Once this trigger distance (up to 99.9 units) has been reached,
the Navigation Status Box on the PFD(s) display(s) an “Arrival at [waypoint]” message.
Enabling/disabling arrival alerting and changing the trigger distance:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ON/OFF field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
APPENDICES
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the distance field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
INDEX
6) Enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO ALERTS
The gender of the voice used to announce audio alerts may be set to male or female on the System Setup
Page. See the Appendices for voice alerts.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Changing the audio alert voice:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the voice in the Audio Alert Box.
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and highlight the desired voice and press the ENT Key.
GPS CDI
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The GPS CDI Box on the System Setup Page allows the pilot to define the scale for the Course Deviation
Indicator (CDI) when GPS is the selected navigation source and also displays the current system value for the
CDI scale. The range values represent full scale deflection for the CDI to either side. The default setting is
‘Auto’ (refer to the CDI description in the Flight Instruments Section for information on CDI scaling).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If a lower CDI scale setting is selected (i.e., 1.0 or 0.3 nm), the higher scale settings are not selected during
any phase of flight. Note that the Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) protection limits follow
the selected CDI scale and corresponding flight phase.
Changing the selected GPS CDI setting:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Selected’ in the ‘GPS CDI’ box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting (2 nm, 1 nm, 0.3 nm, Auto) and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
COM CONFIGURATION
The COM Configuration Box on the System Setup Page allows the pilot to select 8.33 kHz or 25.0 kHz
COM frequency channel spacing.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Changing COM channel spacing:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
APPENDICES
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the channel spacing field in the COM Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired spacing and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
45
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
NEAREST AIRPORTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Nearest Airports Box on the System Setup Page defines the minimum runway length and surface type
used when determining the nine nearest airports to display on the MFD Nearest Airports Page. A minimum
runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways or runways that are
not of appropriate surface from being displayed. Default settings are 0 feet (or meters) for runway length and
“any” for runway surface type.
Selecting nearest airport surface matching criteria (any, hard only, hard/soft, water):
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
EIS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the runway surface field in the Nearest Airports Box.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (any, hard only, hard/soft, water) and press the
ENT Key.
Selecting nearest airport minimum runway length matching criteria:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the minimum length field in the Nearest Airport Box.
4) Enter the minimum runway length (zero to 99,999 feet) and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
CDI/BARO SYNCHRONIZATION
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
See the Flight Instruments section for a discussion on synchronizing both PFD’s Course Deviation Indicators
and the altimeter barometric settings.
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM UTILITIES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
For flight planning purposes, timers, trip statistics, and a scheduler feature are provided on the AUX - Utility
Page. The timers available include a stopwatch-like generic timer, a total time in flight timer, a record of the
time of departure, and an optional hour meter. Trip statistics—odometer, trip odometer, and average trip and
maximum groundspeeds—are displayed from the time of the last reset. A scheduler feature is also provided so
the pilot can enter reminder messages to be displayed at specified intervals in the Alerts Window on the PFD(s)
(see Figure 1-38).
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 1-38 Utility Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
TIMERS
APPENDICES
The generic timer can be set to count up or down from a specified time (HH:MM:SS). When the countdown
on the timer reaches zero the digits begin to count up from zero. If the timer is reset before reaching zero
on a countdown, the digits are reset to the initial value. If the timer is counting up when reset, the digits are
zeroed.
Setting the generic timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
47
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (UP/DN) and press the ENT Key.
4) If a desired starting time is desired:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
a) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the HH:MM:SS field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘START?’ and press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to
‘STOP?’.
6) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘STOP?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘RESET?’.
EIS
7) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘RESET?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘START?’ and the
digits are reset.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The flight timer can be set to count up from zero starting at system power-up or from the time that the
aircraft lifts off; the timer can also be reset to zero at any time.
Setting the flight timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the flight timer.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (PWR-ON or IN-AIR) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the flight timer:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Reset Flight Timer’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
AFCS
The G950 records the time at which departure occurs, measured from system power-up or aircraft lift off.
The displayed departure time can also be reset to display the current time at the point of reset. The format in
which the time is displayed is controlled from the System Setup Page.
Setting the departure timer starting criterion:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the departure time.
APPENDICES
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (PWR-ON or IN-AIR) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the departure time:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Reset Departure Time’ and press the ENT Key.
The optional Hour Meter runs while the aircraft is in the air.
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRIP STATISTICS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The odometer and trip odometer record the total mileage traveled from the last reset; these odometers can
be reset independently. Resetting the trip odometer also resets the average trip groundspeed. Maximum
groundspeed for the period of time since the last reset is also displayed.
Resetting trip statistics readouts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key. The following reset options for trip statistics are displayed:
EIS
• Reset Trip ODOM/AVG GS—Resets trip average ground speed readout and odometer
• Reset Odometer—Resets odometer readout only
• Reset Maximum Speed—Resets maximum speed readout only
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Reset All—Resets flight timer, departure timer, odometers, and groundspeed readouts
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired reset option and press the ENT Key. The selected parameters are reset
to zero and begin to display data from the point of reset.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SCHEDULER
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., “Change oil”, “Switch
fuel tanks”, “Overhaul”). Messages can be set to display based on a specific date and time (event), once the
message timer reaches zero (one-time; default setting), or recurrently whenever the message timer reaches
zero (periodic). Message timers set to periodic alerting automatically reset to the original timer value once
the message is displayed. When power is cycled, messages are retained until deleted, and message timer
countdown is restarted.
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
AFCS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty scheduler message naming field.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the message text to be displayed in the Alerts Window and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the field next to ‘Type’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select set the message alert type:
• Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
APPENDICES
• One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
• Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HHH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
49
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MMM-YYY) and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
EIS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the name field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
5) Press the ENT Key to confirm message deletion.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Scheduler messages appear in the Alerts Window on the PFD(s) and cause the ALERTS Softkey label
to change to ‘ADVISORY’. Pressing the ADVISORY Softkey opens the Alerts Window and acknowledges
the scheduler message. The softkey reverts to the ‘ALERTS’ label and when pressed, the Alerts Window is
removed from the display and the scheduler message is deleted from the message list.
PFD
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 1-39 PFD Alerts Window
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1.7 DISPLAY BACKLIGHTING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Backlighting of the PFD, MFD and Audio Panel keys can be adjusted automatically or manually. The automatic
setting (default) uses photocells to adjust for ambient lighting conditions. Photocell calibration curves are preconfigured to optimize display appearance through a broad range of cockpit lighting conditions. In normal
display mode, backlighting can only be adjusted from the PFDs. In Reversionary Mode, it can be adjusted from
the remaining display(s).
Adjusting display backlighting manually:
EIS
1) Press the PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘AUTO’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD DSPL’. No
other window can be displayed on the PFD while the PFD Setup Menu is displayed. Pressing the MENU Key
while any other PFD window is displayed does not display the PFD Setup Menu.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MANUAL’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘AUTO’ next to ‘MFD DSPL’ and repeat steps 2-4.
5) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Adjusting key backlighting manually:
1) Press the PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘AUTO’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD DSPL’.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘PFD DSPL’.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘PFD KEY’.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘AUTO’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MANUAL’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘MFD DSPL’.
8) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘MFD KEY’ and repeat steps 4-7.
9) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
PFD
Figure 1-42 PFD Setup Menu
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51
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Blank Page
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: If the airspeed, attitude, altitude, or heading indications become unusable, refer to the backup
instruments.
Two Primary Flight Displays (PFDs) feature large horizons, airspeed, attitude, altitude, vertical speed, and
course deviation information. In addition to the flight instruments, navigation, communication, terrain, traffic,
and weather information are also presented on the PFDs and explained in other sections of this Pilot’s Guide.
• Airspeed Indicator, showing
– Indicated airspeed
EIS
The following flight instruments and supplemental flight data are displayed on the PFDs:
• Outside air temperature (OAT)
• Horizontal Situation Indicator, showing
– Turn Rate Indicator
– Airspeed awareness ranges
– Bearing pointers and information windows
– Vspeed reference bugs
– Navigation source
– Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
• Altimeter, showing
– Bearing pointers and information windows
• Transponder Mode, Code, and Ident/Reply
– Barometric setting
• Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
– Reference altitude
• Timer/References Window, showing
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope, and Glidepath
Indicators
– Generic timer
• Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
– Barometric minimum descent altitude (MDA)
– Vspeed values
AFCS
• Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
– Trend vector
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Attitude Indicator with slip/skid indication
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
– True airspeed
• Wind data
The PFDs also display various alerts and annunciations.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
53
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
21
20
19
1
18
17
16
2
EIS
15
14
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3
4
13
5
12
6
11
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
10
9
7
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8
1
NAV Frequency Box
12
Turn Rate Indicator
2
Airspeed Indicator
13
Barometric Altimeter Setting
3
True Airspeed
14
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
4
Groundspeed
15
Reference Altitude Bug
5
Current Heading
16
Altimeter
6
Horizontal Situation Indicator ( HSI)
17
Reference Altitude
7
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
18
COM Frequency Box
8
Softkeys
19
Navigation Status Box
9
System Time
20
Slip/Skid Indicator
10
Transponder Data Box
21
Attitude Indicator
11
Heading Bug
INDEX
Figure 2-1 Primary Flight Display (Default)
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
13
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1
12
11
10
EIS
9
2
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8
3
7
4
6
8
CAS Window
2
Selected Heading
9
Vertical Speed Indicator
3
Wind Data Box
10
Glidepath Indicator
4
Inset Map
11
Reversionary Sensor Window
5
Bearing Information Windows
12
Comparator Window
6
Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height
Flight Plan Window
13
Terrain Annunciation
AFCS
Traffic Annunciation
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1
7
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 2-2 Additional PFD Information
APPENDICES
INDEX
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55
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
NOTE: Refer to the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) for airspeed criteria and Vspeed values.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The true airspeed is
displayed in knots below the Airspeed Indicator. The ground speed is displayed in knots to the left of the true
airspeed. The numeric labels and major tick marks on the moving tape are shown at intervals of 10 knots. The
minor tick marks on the moving tape are shown at intervals of five knots. Speed indication starts at 20 knots,
with 80 knots of airspeed viewable at any time. The indicated airspeed is displayed inside the black pointer.
The pointer remains black until reaching the high airspeed limit, at which point it turns red.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Airspeed
Trend
Vector
Indicated
Airspeed
Vspeed
Reference
Bug
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
VMC
Ground
Speed
Red
Pointer
above VMO
True
Airspeed
AFCS
Figure 2-3 Airspeed Indicator Ranges
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
A color-coded speed range strip is located on the moving tape. White indicates flaps operating range and
green indicates normal operating range. Speeds above the maximum operating speed, VMO or MMO depending
on aircraft altitude, appear in the high speed warning range, represented on the airspeed tape by red/white
“barber pole” coloration. An open red circle on the airspeed tape represents VMC.
APPENDICES
The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical magenta line that appears to the right of the color-coded speed range
strip when airspeed is either accelerating or decelerating. One end of the magenta line is anchored to the
tip of the airspeed pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down corresponding to the rate of
acceleration or deceleration. For any constant rate of acceleration or deceleration, the moving end of the line
shows approximately what the indicated airspeed value will be in six seconds. If the trend vector crosses VMO/
MMO, the number in the indicated airspeed pointer changes to yellow. The trend vector is absent if the speed
remains constant or if any data needed to calculate airspeed is not available due to a system failure.
INDEX
Vspeeds can be changed (except for VLE) and their bugs turned on/off from the Timer/References Window.
When active (on), the Vspeeds are displayed at their respective locations to the right of the airspeed scale.
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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Bug
VYSE
YSE
VR
R
VAPP
APP
VLE
LE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Vspeed
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Landing Takeoff
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Table 2-1 Vspeed Bug Labels
EIS
Vspeeds are categorized as either takeoff or landing. The order in which the categories are displayed is
determined by whether the aircraft is on the ground or in the air. If the aircraft is on the ground, the takeoff
Vspeeds are displayed at the top of the Vspeed list. If the aircraft is in the air, the landing Vspeeds are displayed
at the top.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Changing Vspeeds and turning Vspeed bugs on/off:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired Vspeed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Use the small FMS Knob to change the Vspeed in 1-kt increments (when a speed has been changed from a
default value, an asterisk appears next to the speed).
4) Press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ON/OFF field
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ON or counterclockwise to OFF.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Timer/References Menu
Timer/References Window
Figure 2-4 Timer/References Window and Menu
Vspeed bugs can be turned on or off and values restored all at once or by category (takeoff and landing).
APPENDICES
Modifying Vspeeds (on, off, restore defaults):
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired selection.
INDEX
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
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57
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ATTITUDE INDICATOR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a white horizon line. The
Attitude Indicator displays the pitch, roll, and slip/skid information.
9
8
1
7
EIS
2
6
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3
4
5
1
Roll Pointer
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
Aircraft Symbol
5
Land Representation
6
Pitch Scale
7
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-5 Attitude Indicator
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Above and below the horizon line, major pitch marks and numeric
labels are shown for every 10˚, up to 80˚. Minor pitch marks are shown for intervening 5˚ increments, up to
25˚ below and 45˚ above the horizon line. Between 20˚ below to 20˚ above the horizon line, minor pitch marks
occur every 2.5˚.
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚ and 60˚ and minor tick
marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the zero. Angle of bank is indicated by the position
of the pointer on the roll scale.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the bar beneath the roll pointer. The indicator bar moves with the roll pointer and
moves laterally away from the pointer to indicate uncoordinated flight. Slip (inside the turn) or skid (outside
the turn) is indicated by the location of the bar relative to the pointer.
INDEX
Figure 2-6 Slip/Skid Indication
58
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ALTIMETER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Altimeter displays 600 feet of barometric altitude values at a time on a moving tape rolling number gauge.
Numeric labels and major tick marks are shown at intervals of 100 feet. Minor tick marks are at intervals of 20
feet. The indicated altitude is displayed inside the black pointer.
The Selected Altitude is displayed above the Altimeter in the box indicated by a selection bug symbol. A bug
corresponding to this altitude is shown on the tape. If the Selected Altitude exceeds the range shown on the
tape, the bug appears at the upper or lower edge of the tape. When the metric value is selected it is displayed
in a separate box above the Selected Altitude.
EIS
A magenta Altitude Trend Vector extends up or down the left of the altitude tape, the end resting at the
approximate altitude to be reached in six seconds at the current vertical speed. The trend vector is not shown
if altitude remains constant or if data needed for calculation is not available due to a system failure.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Setting the Selected Altitude:
T urn the ALT Knob to set the Selected Altitude. Turn the large knob for 1000-ft increments, small knob for 100ft increments. If set to Metric mode, the large knob adjusts the Selected Altitude in 500-meter increments; the
small knob adjusts the Selected Altitude in 50-meter increments.
Selected
Altitude
(Meters)
Indicated
Altitude
(Meters)
AFCS
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Indicated
Altitude
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selected
Altitude
Altitude
Trend
Vector
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If a Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height (MDA/DH) value has been set, this altitude is also available for
the Selected Altitude.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
MDA/DH
Altitude
Bug
Barometric
Setting Box
(Hectopascals)
Barometric
Setting
APPENDICES
Figure 2-7 Altimeter
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
59
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Altitudes can also be displayed in meters (Figure 2-7). The metric altitude readout appears in a box above the
altitude in feet. Note that the altitude tape does not change scale when metric altitude is selected.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Displaying altitude in meters:
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT UNIT Softkey.
3) Press the METERS Softkey to turn on metric altitude readouts.
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury (in Hg) or hectopascals
(hPa) when metric units are selected. Adjusting the altimeter barometric pressure setting creates discontinuities
in VNV vertical deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the
aircraft to re-establish on the descent patch. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target
Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Turn the BARO Knob to select the desired setting.
Selecting standard barometric pressure (29.92 in Hg):
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the STD BARO Softkey.
Figure 2-8 Standard Barometric Setting
AFCS
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units:
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT UNIT Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the IN Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in inches of mercury (in Hg).
Or, press the HPA Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in hectopascals (hPa).
INDEX
APPENDICES
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
60
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
If the barometric altimeter settings differ between PFDs, the readouts turn yellow. Once the settings are
synchronized (BARO turned on), they remain synchronized until the setting is turned off.
Synchronizing the altimeter barometric pressure settings:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) On the MFD, select the AUX - System Setup Page using the FMS Knob.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight BARO in the Synchronization box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ON or counterclockwise to OFF.
EIS
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Barometric Settings not Synchronized on
PFD displayed in yellow
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 2-9 Baro Synchronization
(AUX - System Setup Page)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
61
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
A Baro Transition Alert is provided to alert the pilot to change the barometric pressure setting when crossing
the transition altitude in either direction. This is displayed by the flashing cyan barometric pressure setting
when crossing the transition altitude.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Setting the Baro Transition Alert:
1) On the MFD, use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Altitude in the Baro Transition Alert box.
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to turn the alert OFF or ON and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to change the altitude and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 2-10 Baro Transition Alert
(AUX - System Setup Page)
62
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI; Figure 2-11) displays the aircraft vertical speed on a fixed scale with labels
at 1000 and 2000 fpm and minor tick marks every 500 fpm. Digits appear in the pointer when the climb or
descent rate is greater than 100 fpm. If the rate of ascent/descent exceeds 2000 fpm, the pointer appears at the
edge of the tape and the rate appears inside the pointer.
A magenta chevron is displayed on the VSI to indicate the Required Vertical Speed for reaching a VNV target
altitude once the “TOD [Top of Descent] within 1 minute” alert has generated.
VERTICAL DEVIATION
EIS
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator is available when SBAS is available.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI; Figure 2-11) is a magenta chevron indicating the baro-VNV vertical
deviation when Vertical Navigation (VNV) is being used. The VDI appears in conjunction with the “TOD within
1 minute” alert. The VDI is removed from the display if vertical deviation becomes invalid. See the Flight
Management Section for details on VNV features, and refer to Section 2.2, Supplemental Flight Data, for more
information about VNV indications on the PFD.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Glideslope Indicator (Figure 2-12) appears to the left of the Altimeter whenever an ILS frequency is
tuned in the active NAV field. A green diamond acts as the Glideslope Indicator, like a glideslope needle on
a conventional indicator. If a localizer frequency is tuned and there is no glideslope, “NO GS” is displayed in
place of the diamond.
VNV Target
Altitude
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The glidepath is analogous to the glideslope for GPS approaches supporting SBAS vertical guidance (LNAV+V,
L/VNAV, LPV). When an approach of this type is loaded into the flight plan and GPS is the selected navigation
source, the Glidepath Indicator (Figure 2-13) appears as a magenta diamond during the approach. If the
approach type downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the diamond.
AFCS
Marker
Beacon
Annunciation
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Vertical Glideslope
Speed
Indicator
Pointer
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Glipepath
Indicator
APPENDICES
Required
Vertical
Speed
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Figure 2-12 Glideslope Indicator
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
Figure 2-13 Glidepath Indicator
INDEX
Figure 2-11 Vertical Speed and
Deviation Indicator (VSI and VDI)
63
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) displays a rotating compass card in a heading-up orientation. Letters
indicate the cardinal points with numeric labels every 30˚. Major tick marks are at 10˚ intervals and minor tick
marks are at 5˚ intervals. A digital reading of the current heading appears on top of the HSI, and the current
track is represented on the HSI by a magenta diamond connected to a gray dashed line. The HSI also presents
turn rate, course deviation, bearing, and navigation source information. The HSI is available in two formats, a
360˚ compass rose and a 140˚ arc.
Changing the HSI display format:
EIS
1) Press the PFD Softkey
2) Press the HSI FRMT Softkey.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Press the 360 HSI or ARC HSI Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The 360˚ HSI contains a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI), with a Course Pointer, To/From Indicator, and a
sliding deviation bar and scale. The course pointer is a single line arrow (GPS, VOR1, and LOC1) or a double
line arrow (VOR2 and LOC2) which points in the direction of the set course. The To/From arrow rotates with
the course pointer and is displayed when the active NAVAID is received.
15
14
13
1
12
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2
11
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
3
4
10
5
9
6
9
7
8
1
Turn Rate Indicator
9
Lateral Deviation Scale
2
Current Track Indicator
10
Flight Phase
3
To/From Indicator
11
Course Pointer
4
Navigation Source
12
Heading Bug
5
Aircraft Symbol
13
Turn Rate and Heading Trend Vector
6
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
14
Current Heading
7
Rotating Compass Card
15
Lubber Line
8
OBS Mode Active
Figure 2-14 Horizontal Situation Indicator (360˚ HSI)
64
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Course Pointer
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Arc HSI is a 140˚ expanded section of the compass rose. The Arc HSI contains a Course Pointer,
combined To/From Indicator and a sliding deviation indicator, and a deviation scale. Upon station passage, the
To/From Indicator flips and points to the tail of the aircraft, just like a conventional To/From flag. Depending
on the navigation source, the CDI on the Arc HSI can appear in two different ways, an arrowhead (GPS, VOR,
OBS) or a diamond (LOC).
Current Track Indicator
Flight Phase
Annunciation
EIS
Navigation
Source
Lateral
Deviation
Scale
Course
Deviation
and To/From
Indicator
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 2-15 Arc HSI
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Selected Heading is shown to the upper left of the HSI for 3 seconds after being adjusted The cyan bug
on the compass rose corresponds to the Selected Heading. While the HSI is displayed as an arc, if the Heading
Bug is adjusted off the shown portion of the compass rose, the digital reading is displayed.
Adjusting the Selected Heading:
Turn the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading.
Press the HDG Knob to synchronize the bug to the current heading.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Selected Course is shown to the upper right of the HSI for 3 seconds after being adjusted. While the
HSI is displayed as an arc, the Selected Course is displayed whenever the Course Pointer is not within the 140˚
currently shown.
Adjusting the Selected Course:
AFCS
Turn the CRS Knob to set the Selected Course.
Press the CRS Knob to re-center the CDI and return the course pointer to the bearing of the active waypoint or
navigation station.
Current Heading
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Current Track Indicator
APPENDICES
Selected
Course
Selected
Heading
Bug
Selected
Heading
Figure 2-16 Heading and Course Indications
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
65
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Navigation angles (track, heading, course, bearing) are corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag
Var) or referenced to true north (T), set on the AUX - System Setup Page. When an approach referenced to
true north has been loaded into the flight plan, the system generates a message to change the navigation angle
setting to True at the appropriate time.
Figure 2-17 Heading and Course Indications (True)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Changing the navigation angle true/magnetic setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Nav Angle in the Display Units box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
• TRUE - References angles to true north (T)
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• MAGNETIC - Angles corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag Var)
INDEX
Figure 2-18 Navigation Angle Settings
(AUX - System Setup Page)
66
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TURN RATE INDICATOR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Turn Rate Indicator is located directly above the rotating compass card. Tick marks to the left and right
of the lubber line denote half-standard and standard turn rates. A magenta Turn Rate Trend Vector shows the
current turn rate. The end of the trend vector gives the heading predicted in 6 seconds, based on the present
turn rate. A standard-rate turn is shown on the indicator by the trend vector stopping at the standard turn
rate tick mark, corresponding to a predicted heading of 18˚ from the current heading. At rates greater than
4 deg/sec, an arrowhead appears at the end of the magenta trend vector and the prediction is no longer valid.
Standard
Turn Rate
EIS
Arrow Shown
for Turn Rate
> 4 deg/sec
Half-standard
Turn Rate
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 2-19 Turn Rate Indicator and Trend Vector
BEARING POINTERS AND INFORMATION WINDOWS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: When the Arc HSI is displayed, the Bearing Information windows and pointers are disabled.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Two bearing pointers and associated information can be displayed on the HSI for NAV and GPS sources by
pressing the PFD Softkey then a BRG Softkey. The bearing pointers are cyan and are single-line (BRG1) or
double-line (BRG2). A pointer symbol is shown in the information window to indicate the navigation source.
The bearing pointers never override the CDI and are visually separated from the CDI by a white ring. Bearing
pointers may be selected but not necessarily visible due to data unavailability.
Tuning Mode
Bearing 1
Pointer
Frequency
AFCS
Distance
Bearing 2
Pointer
DME Information Window
No
Waypoint
Selected
Station
Identifier
APPENDICES
Bearing
Pointer
Source
Icon
Bearing 1 Information Window
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Distance to
Bearing Source
Pointer
Bearing
Icon
Source
Bearing 2 Information Window
Figure 2-20 HSI with Bearing and DME Information
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
67
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
When a bearing pointer is displayed, the associated information window is also displayed. The Bearing
Information windows (Figure 2-20) are displayed at the lower sides of the HSI and give the following
information:
• Pointer icon (BRG1 = single line, BRG2 = double line)
• GPS-derived great circle distance to bearing
source
• Station/waypoint identifier (NAV, GPS)
• Frequency (NAV)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Bearing source (NAV, GPS, ADF)
EIS
When the NAV radio is tuned to an ILS frequency the bearing source and the bearing pointer is removed
from the HSI. When NAV1 or NAV2 is the selected bearing source, the frequency is replaced by the station
identifier when the station is within range. If GPS is the bearing source, the active waypoint identifier is
displayed instead of a frequency.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and NO DATA is displayed in the information window if
the NAV radio is not receiving a VOR station or if GPS is the bearing source and an active waypoint is not
selected.
Selecting bearing display and changing sources:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press a BRG Softkey to display the desired bearing pointer and information window with a NAV source.
3) Press the BRG Softkey again to change the bearing source to GPS.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the BRG Softkey a third time to change the bearing source to ADF (note: ADF radio installation is optional).
5) To remove the bearing pointer and information window, press the BRG Softkey again.
DME INFORMATION WINDOW
AFCS
NOTE: DME radio installation is optional.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The DME Information Window is displayed above the BRG1 Information Window and shows the DME
label, tuning mode (NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD), frequency, and distance. When a signal is invalid, the distance
is replaced by “–.– – NM”. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for information on tuning the radios.
Displaying the DME Information Window:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the DME Softkey to display the DME Information Window above the BRG1 Information Window.
INDEX
APPENDICES
3) To remove the DME Information Window, press the DME Softkey again.
68
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
NOTE: During a heading change of greater than 105˚ with respect to the course, the CDI on the Arc HSI
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
switches to the opposite side of the deviation scale and displays reverse sensing.
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer along a lateral deviation
scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data is not valid, the CDI is not
displayed.
360º HSI
EIS
Arc HSI
Flight
Phase
Flight
Phase
CDI
CDI
Scale
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Navigation
Source
Scale
Navigation
Source
CDI
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Crosstrack
Error
Figure 2-21 Course Deviation Indicator
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The CDI can display two sources of navigation, GPS or VOR/LOC. The color indicates the current navigation
source, magenta for GPS and green for VOR and LOC. The full scale limits for the CDI are defined by a GPSderived distance when navigating GPS. When navigating using a VOR or localizer (LOC), the CDI uses the
same angular deviation as a mechanical CDI. If the CDI exceeds the maximum deviation on the scale (two dots)
while navigating with GPS, the crosstrack error (XTK) is displayed below the white aircraft symbol.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Yellow
Indicates
Navigation
Source
Selected on
Both PFDs
is not
Synchronized
APPENDICES
Figure 2-22 Navigation Sources
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
69
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Changing navigation sources:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the CDI Softkey again to change from VOR1 or LOC1 to VOR2 or LOC2. This places the cyan tuning box
over the NAV2 standby frequency.
1) Press the CDI Softkey to change from GPS to VOR1 or LOC1. This places the cyan tuning box over the NAV1
standby frequency in the upper left corner of the PFD.
3) Press the CDI Softkey a third time to return to GPS.
NAV1 Selected for Tuning
EIS
NAV2 Selected for Tuning
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
GPS
Selected
LOC1
Selected
VOR2
Selected
Pressing the CDI Softkey
Cycles through
Navigation Sources
Figure 2-23 Selecting a Navigation Source
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The system automatically switches from GPS to LOC navigation source and changes the CDI scaling accordingly
when all of the following occur:
• A localizer or ILS approach has been loaded into the active flight plan
AFCS
• The final approach fix (FAF) is the active leg, the FAF is less than 15 nm away, and the aircraft is moving
toward the FAF
• A valid localizer frequency has been tuned
• The GPS CDI deviation is less than 1.2 times full-scale deflection
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
GPS steering guidance is still provided after the CDI automatically switches to LOC until LOC capture, up
to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) for an ILS approach, or until GPS information becomes invalid. Activating a
Vector-to-Final (VTF) also causes the CDI to switch to LOC navigation source. GPS steering guidance is not
provided after the switch.
70
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
If the same VOR/LOC navigation source is selected on both PFDs, the navigation source annunciation
appears yellow on both displays if not synchronized (Figure 2-22). Once the CDIs are synchronized (CDI
Synchronization turned on), they remain synchronized until the selection is turned off.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Synchronizing the CDIs:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup Page using the FMS Knob.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight CDI in the Synchronization box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ON or counterclockwise to OFF.
EIS
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 2-24 CDI Synchronization
(AUX - System Setup Page)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
71
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
GPS CDI SCALING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When GPS is the selected navigation source, the flight plan legs are sequenced automatically and
annunciations appear on the HSI for the flight phase. Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in
magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the color changes to yellow. If the current leg in the flight plan
is a heading leg, HDG LEG is annunciated in magenta beneath the aircraft symbol.
EIS
The current GPS CDI scale setting is displayed as System CDI on the AUX - System Setup Page and the fullscale deflection setting may also be changed (2.0 nm, 1.0 nm, 0.3 nm, or Auto) from this page. If the selected
scaling is smaller than the automatic setting for enroute and terminal phases, the CDI is scaled accordingly
and the selected setting is displayed rather than the flight phase annunciation.
Changing the selected GPS CDI setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Selected in the GPS CDI box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
APPENDICES
Figure 2-25 GPS CDI Setting
(AUX - System Setup Page)
INDEX
When set to Auto (default), the GPS CDI scale automatically adjusts to the desired limits based upon the
current phase of flight (Figure 2-26, Table 2-2).
72
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Enroute
Terminal
Approach
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
0.3
0
3 nm
1.0 nm
Terminal
Refer to accompanying
approach CDI scaling figures
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Departure
Dep
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CDI Full-scale Deflection
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Missed
Approach
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 2-26 Automatic CDI Scaling
• Once a departure procedure is activated, the CDI is scaled for departure (0.3 nm).
• The system switches from departure to terminal CDI scaling (1.0 nm) under the following conditions:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not aligned with the departure runway
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not a CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF (see
Glossary for leg type definitions)
- After any leg in the departure procedure that is not a CA or FA
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• At 30 nm from the departure airport, the enroute phase of flight is automatically entered and CDI scaling
changes to 2.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
- When navigating with an active departure procedure, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change
until the aircraft arrives at the last departure waypoint (if more than 30 nm from the departure airport) or
the leg after the last departure waypoint has been activated or a direct-to waypoint is activated.
AFCS
• If after completing the departure procedure the nearest airport is more than 200 nm away from the aircraft
and the approach procedure has not yet commenced, the CDI is scaled for oceanic flight (4.0 nm).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Within 31 nm of the destination airport (terminal area), the CDI scale gradually ramps down from 2.0 nm
to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
- Upon reaching the first waypoint of an arrival route that is more than 31 nm from the destination airport,
the flight phase changes to terminal and the CDI scale begins to transition down from 2.0 nm to 1.0 nm
over a distance of 1.0 nm.
APPENDICES
• During approach, the CDI scale ramps down even further (Figures 2-27 and 2-28). This transition normally
occurs within 2.0 nm of the final approach fix (FAF). The CDI switches to approach scaling automatically
once the approach procedure is activated or if Vectors-To-Final (VTF) are selected.
- If the active waypoint is the FAF, the ground track and the bearing to the FAF must be within 45° of the
final approach segment course.
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
- If the active waypoint is part of the missed approach procedure, the active leg and the preceding missed
approach legs must be aligned with the final approach segment course and the aircraft must not have
passed the turn initiation point.
73
2 nm
FAF
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2 nm
FAF
EIS
angle based
on database
information
course width
angle set
by system
CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
CDI scale is set to the smaller of 0.3 nm
or an angle set by the system
350 ft
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
CDI Full-scale Deflection
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Landing
Threshold
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
Figure 2-27 Typical LNAV and LNAV+V Approach CDI Scaling
Figure 2-28 Typical LNAV/VNAV, LP and LPV Approach CDI Scaling
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• When a missed approach is activated, the CDI scale changes to 0.3 nm.
• The system automatically switches back to terminal mode under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not aligned with the final approach path
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not a CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- After any leg in the missed approach procedure that is not a CA or FA
Flight Phase
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Annunciation*
DPRT
TERM
ENR
OCN
Approach
(Non-precision)
LNAV
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Approach
(Non-precision with
Vertical Guidance)
Approach
(LNAV/VNAV)
Approach
(LPV)
Approach
(LP)
Missed Approach
Automatic CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
1.0 nm decreasing to 350 feet depending on
variables (Figure 2-27)
LNAV + V
L/VNAV
LPV
1.0 nm decreasing to a specified course width, then
0.3 nm, depending on variables (Figure 2-28)
LP
MAPR
0.3 nm
* Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in magenta, but when cautionary
conditions exist the color changes to yellow.
INDEX
Table 2-2 Automatic GPS CDI Scaling
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
OBS MODE
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Enabling Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode suspends the automatic sequencing of waypoints in a GPS
flight plan (GPS must be the selected navigation source), but retains the current Active-to waypoint as the
navigation reference even after passing the waypoint. OBS is annunciated to the lower right of the aircraft
symbol when OBS Mode is selected.
EIS
While OBS is enabled, a course line is drawn through the Active-to waypoint on the moving map. If
desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled, the GPS flight
plan returns to normal operation, with automatic sequencing of waypoints, following the course set in OBS
Mode. The flight plan on the moving map retains the modified course line.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
GPS
Selected
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Extended
Course
Line
OBS Mode
Enabled
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Again
Disables OBS Mode
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Enables
OBS Mode
Figure 2-29 Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode
Enabling/disabling OBS Mode while navigating a GPS flight plan:
AFCS
1) Press the OBS Softkey to select OBS Mode.
2) Turn the CRS Knob to select the desired course to/from the waypoint. Press the CRS Knob to synchronize the
Selected Course with the bearing to the next waypoint.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the OBS Softkey again to return to automatic waypoint sequencing.
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
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75
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
As the aircraft crosses the missed approach point (MAP), automatic approach waypoint sequencing is
suspended. SUSP appears on the HSI at the lower right of the aircraft symbol. The OBS Softkey label
changes to indicate the suspension is active as shown in Figure 2-30. Pressing the SUSP Softkey, deactivates
the suspension and resumes automatic sequencing of approach waypoints.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SUSP
Softkey
SUSP
Annunciation
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-30 Suspending Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
2.2 SUPPLEMENTAL FLIGHT DATA
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Pressing the DFLTS Softkey turns off metric Altimeter display, the Inset Map and wind data display.
In addition to the flight instruments, the PFDs also display various supplemental information, including
temperature, wind data, and Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications.
TEMPERATURE DISPLAYS
EIS
The Outside Air Temperature (OAT) is displayed in degrees Celsius (°C) in the lower left corner of the PFD
under normal conditions, or below the true airspeed in Reversionary Display Mode.
Normal Display
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Reversionary Mode
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 2-31 Outside Air Temperature
INDEX
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
77
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
WIND DATA
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
No Data
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Wind direction and speed in knots can be displayed relative to the aircraft in a window to the upper left of
the HSI. When the window is selected for display, but wind information is invalid or unavailable, the window
displays NO WIND DATA. Wind data can be displayed in three different ways.
Figure 2-32 Wind Data
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Displaying wind data:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the WIND Softkey to display wind data to the left of the HSI.
3) Press one of the OPTN softkeys to change how wind data is displayed:
• OPTN 1: Headwind/tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed components
AFCS
• OPTN 2: Wind direction arrow and speed
• OPTN 3: Wind direction arrow with headwind/tailwind and crosswind components
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) To remove the window, press the OFF Softkey.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNV) INDICATIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When a VNV flight plan has been activated, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, RVSI, VDI) appear on the
PFD in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” message and “Vertical track” voice alert. See the Flight
Management section for details on VNV features. VNV indications are removed from the PFD according to the
criteria listed in the table.
Top of Descent Message
EIS
VNV Target
Altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
GPS is the
Selected
Navigation
Source
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Phase of
Flight
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-33 Vertical Navigation Indications (PFD)
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
VNV Indication Removed
Criteria
Required Vertical
Vertical
VNV Target
Speed (RVSI)
Deviation (VDI)
Altitude*
Aircraft > 1 min before the next TOD due to flight plan change
X
X
X
VNV cancelled (CNCL VNV Softkey pressed on MFD)
X
X
X
Distance to active waypoint cannot be computed due to
unsupported flight plan leg type (see Flight Management
X
X
X
Section)
Aircraft > 250 feet below active VNV Target Altitude
X
X
X
Current crosstrack or track angle error has exceeded limit
X
X
X
Active altitude-constrained waypoint can not be reached within
X
X
maximum allowed flight path angle and vertical speed
APPENDICES
INDEX
Table 2-3 VNV Indication Removal Criteria
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.3 PFD ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTING FUNCTIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The following annunciations and alerting functions are displayed on the PFD. Refer to Appendix A for more
information on alerts and annunciations.
SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Messages appear in the Alerts Window (in the lower right corner of the PFD; Figure 2-34) when a warning,
caution, advisory alert, or G950 message advisory occurs. System alert messages are provided for awareness of
G950 system problems or status and may not require pilot action. The Alerts Window allows system alerts to be
displayed simultaneously. The FMS Knob can be used to scroll through the alert messages. The Alerts Window
is enabled/disabled by selecting the ALERTS Softkey. If the window is already open when a new message is
generated, selecting the ALERTS Softkey to acknowledge the message causes it to turn gray.
Comparator
Window
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Reversionary
Sensor
Window
CAS Window
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
System
Messages
Window
Softkey
Annunciation
APPENDICES
Figure 2-34 G950 Alerting System
INDEX
The ADVISORY Softkey provides general information to the pilot that may not need immediate attention.
A flashing ADVISORY Softkey annunciation (no aural tone) indicates the presence of a message advisory. The
flashing ADVISORY Softkey annunciation continues to flash until acknowledged (by pressing the ADVISORY
Softkey).
Figure 2-35 Softkey Annunciation
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Critical values generated by redundant sensors are monitored by comparators. If differences in the sensors
exceed a specified amount, the Comparator Window appears in the upper right corner of the PFD and the
discrepancy is annunciated in the Comparator Window as a ‘MISCOMP’ (miscompare). If one or both of the
sensed values are unavailable, it is annunciated as a ‘NO COMP’ (no compare).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Figure 2-36 Comparator Window
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Reversionary sensor selection is annunciated in a window on the right side of the PFD. These annunciations
reflect reversionary sensors selected on one or both PFDs. Pressing the SENSOR Softkey accesses the ADC1,
ADC2, AHRS1, and AHRS2 softkeys. These softkeys allow switching of the sensors being viewed on each
PFD. With certain types of sensor failures, the G950 may make some sensor selections automatically. The GPS
sensor cannot be switched manually.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-37 Reversionary Sensor Window
MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATIONS
AFCS
Marker Beacon Annunciations are displayed on the PFD to the left of the Selected Altitude. Outer marker
reception is indicated in blue, middle in yellow, and inner in white. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section
for more information on Marker Beacon Annunciations.
Middle Marker
Inner Marker
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Outer Marker
APPENDICES
Altimeter
Figure 2-38 Marker Beacon Annunciations
INDEX
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
81
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
TRAFFIC ANNUNCIATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The systems displays a ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation on the PFD, in addition to traffic symbology on various maps.
Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section and Appendix F for more details about the traffic system displays and
annunciations. The following occur automatically with a Traffic Advisory (TA):
• The PFD Inset Map is enabled and displays traffic.
• A flashing black-on-yellow ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears to the top left of the Attitude Indicator for five
seconds, and remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
• The traffic system generates a voice alert; refer to the Hazard Avoidance section for more information.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Traffic
Symbols
Figure 2-39 Traffic Annunciation and Inset Map with Traffic Displayed
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ALTITUDE ALERTING
Altitude Alerting provides the pilot with a visual alert when approaching the Selected Altitude. Whenever
the pilot changes the Selected Altitude, the Altitude Alerter is reset. The following occur when approaching the
Selected Altitude:
AFCS
• Upon passing through 1000 feet of the Selected Altitude, an aural tone is heard and the Selected Altitude
changes to black text on a cyan background and flashes for five seconds.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• When the aircraft passes within 200 feet of the Selected Altitude an aural tone is heard. The Selected Altitude
changes to cyan text on a black background and flashes for five seconds.
• After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the pilot flies outside the deviation band (±200 feet of the Selected
Altitude) an aural tone is heard. The Selected Altitude changes to yellow text on a black background and
flashes for five seconds.
APPENDICES
Within 1000 ft
Within 200 ft
Deviation of ±200 ft
INDEX
Figure 2-40 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
LOW ALTITUDE ANNUNCIATION
NOTE: A Low Altitude Annunciation is available only when SBAS is available, and the optional Terrain-SVS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
or TAWS-B system is inhibited, unavailable, or has failed.
When the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach using vertical guidance,
a Low Altitude Annunciation may appear if the current aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed
altitude at the FAF. A black-on-yellow LOW ALT annunciation appears to the top left of the Altimeter, flashes
for several seconds, then remains displayed until the condition is resolved.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 2-41 Low Altitude on GPS SBAS Approach
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT ALERTING
For altitude awareness, a Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA)/Decision Height (DH) altitude can be set.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If desired, the system can also compensate this altitude based on a pilot-supplied temperature at the
destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C, the system increases the
displayed MDA/DH accordingly.
When alerting active, the altitude setting is displayed to the lower left of the altimeter and with a bug at
the corresponding altitude along the altimeter (once the altitude is within the visible range of the tape). The
following visual annunciations alert the pilot when approaching the MDA or DH:
AFCS
• When the aircraft altitude descends to within 2500 feet of the MDA/DH setting, a box labeled ‘BARO MIN’
or ‘RA MIN’ or ‘COMP MIN’ (based on the pilot selection) appears with the altitude in cyan text (or magenta
for TEMP COMP). The bug appears in cyan (or magenta for TEMP COMP) on the altitude tape at the
corresponding altitude once in range.
• When the aircraft passes through 100 feet of the MDA or DH, the bug and text become white.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Once the aircraft reaches the MDA/DH, the bug and text become yellow and the system issues a ‘Minimums
Minimums’ voice alert.
Within 2500 ft
Within 100 ft
Altitude Reached
APPENDICES
INDEX
Barometric
Minimum
Bug
Barometric
Minimum
Box
Figure 2-42 Barometric MDA/DH Alerting Visual Annunciations
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
83
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Alerting is inhibited while the aircraft is on the ground and until the aircraft reaches 150 feet above the MDA.
If the aircraft proceeds to climb after having reached the MDA, once it reaches 50 feet above the MDA, alerting
is disabled.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The MDA/DH may be set from either PFD and is synchronized on both PFDs. The function is reset when the
power is cycled or a new approach is activated.
Setting the Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height and bug:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Minimums field.
EIS
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select BARO, RAD ALT or TEMP COMP. OFF is selected by default. Press the ENT
Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired altitude (from zero to 16,000 feet when ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’
is selected, or up to 2,500 feet when ‘RAD ALT’ is selected).
5) If TEMP COMP was selected, press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field and then
enter the temperature (-59˚C to 59˚C)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
Figure 2-43 BARO and TEMP COMP MDA/DH
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered in the REFERENCES Window on the PFD, or
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION Window on the MFD. There is only one compensation temperature
for the system, therefore, changing the temperature will affect both the loaded approach altitudes and
the minimums. Refer to the Flight Management section for information about applying temperature
compensation to approach altitudes.
RADAR ALTIMETER
APPENDICES
When the radar height (the aircraft altitude above ground level detected by the radar altimeter) is between
zero and 2500 feet, the current value is displayed in green to the right of the current aircraft heading (Figure
2-44). Display of radar height becomes more sensitive as the height above ground decreases (Table 2-4).
INDEX
Radar Altimeter
Figure 2-44 Current Radar Height
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
0 to 200 feet
5 feet
200 to 1500 feet
10 feet
1500 to 2500 feet
50 feet
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Shown to Nearest
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Radar Height Range
Table 2-4 Radar Altimeter Sensitivity
EIS
When the radar altimeter is selected as the altitude source for the minimum descent altitude alerting function
(Figure 2-45), the color of the radar height changes to yellow upon reaching at or below the MDA/DH (Figure
2-46).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 2-45 RAD ALT Setting
(Timer/References Window)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-46 RA as Altitude Source for MDA/DH
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
A ground line (Figure 2-47) appears on the Altimeter to display the aircraft’s height relative to the ground,
with diagonal lines appearing below the ground line. If the radar altimeter information becomes invalid, an
‘RA FAIL’ annunciation apears in yellow in the RA box (Figure 2-48). The Radar Altimeter test is done on the
MFD but is displayed on the PFDs to the right of the current heading (Figure 2-49).
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Radar
Altimeter
Ground
Line
Radar Altimeter
Minimums Box
APPENDICES
Figure 2-47 Altimeter Displaying the Ground Line (RAD ALT)
INDEX
Figure 2-48 Radar Altimeter with Invalid Data
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85
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Enabling/Disabling the Radar Altimeter Test Mode:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX page group on the MFD.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
3) Press the RA TEST Softkey to enable or disable the test.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
EIS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘Enable RA Test Mode’ or ‘Disable RA Test Mode’ (choice dependent on
current state).
3) Press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When test mode is active, ‘RA TEST’ is annunciated above the RA box and 50 feet will be displayed in the
RA box.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-49 Radar Altimeter with Test Annunciation
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
2.4 ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
ABNORMAL GPS CONDITIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The annunciations listed in Table 2-5 can appear on the HSI when abnormal GPS conditions occur (Figure
2-50). Refer to the Flight Management Section for more information on Dead Reckoning Mode.
Annunciation
LOI
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
DR
Description
Loss of Integrity Monitoring–GPS integrity is insufficient for the current
phase of flight
Integrity OK–GPS integrity has been restored to within normal limits
(annunciation displayed for five seconds)
Dead Reckoning–System is using projected position rather than GPS position
to compute navigation data and sequence active flight plan waypoints
EIS
INTEG OK
Location
Lower left of
aircraft symbol
Lower left of
aircraft symbol
Upper right of
aircraft symbol
Table 2-5 Abnormal GPS Conditions Annunciated on HSI
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-50 Example HSI Annunciations
AFCS
In Dead Reckoning Mode the CDI is removed from the display when GPS is the selected navigation source.
The following items on the PFD are then shown in yellow:
• Current Track Bug
• Wind Data
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Ground Speed
• Distances in the Bearing Information Windows
• GPS bearing pointers
APPENDICES
These items should be verified when operating in Dead Reckoning Mode as they become increasingly
inaccurate over time.
INDEX
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
87
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
HEADING FAILURE MODES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If the system is unable to determine the aircraft heading, but GPS-based track information is available, the
HSI displays the ground track instead of heading using HSI Track Mode. In this mode, a magenta ‘TRK’
annunciation and track readout appear on the HSI. In addition, a yellow ‘HDG’ annunciation with a red X
appear above the ‘TRK’ annunciation to indicate the HSI is displaying track instead of heading.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
If both the heading and track are unavailable, the HSI displays a yellow ‘HDG’ annunciation with a red X over
the heading readout box. The system also removes directional numbers and letters from the HSI.
HSI Track Mode (Heading Unavailable, Track Available)
Heading and Track Unavailable
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-53 Heading Failure Displays on the HSI
NOTE: When heading information is unavailable, the system removes the bearing pointers from the HSI, and
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
removes wind data from the PFD and navigation maps.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
Nose High
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When the aircraft enters an unusual pitch attitude, red chevrons pointing toward the horizon warn of extreme
pitch. The chevrons are displayed on the Attitude Indicator, starting at 50˚ above and 30˚ below the horizon
line.
Nose Low
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 2-51 Pitch Attitude Warnings
• PFD Setup Menu
• Flight director Command Bars
• Inset Map
• Windows displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD:
• Outside air temperature (OAT)
– Timer/References
• Selected Altitude
• Wind data
– Nearest Airports
• VNV Target Altitude
• Selected Heading readout
– Flight Plan
• Ground Speed
• Selected Course readout
– Messages
• True Airspeed
• Transponder Status Box
– Procedures
• System Time
• Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height readout
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Traffic Annunciations
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚, some information displayed on the PFD is removed. The
Altimeter and Airspeed, Attitude, Vertical Speed, and Horizontal Situation indicators remain on the display
and the Bearing Information, Alerts, and Annunciation windows can be displayed during such situations. The
following information is removed from each PFD and their softkeys are disabled when the aircraft experiences
unusual attitudes:
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope,
and Glidepath Indicators
• Altimeter Barometric Setting
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
89
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Blank Page
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM (EIS)
NOTE: Refer to the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) for limitations.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 offers improved flight operations and reduces crew workload by automatically monitoring critical
system parameters during all phases of flight using the following:
• The Engine Indication System (EIS) displays electrical, fuel, engine, and flight control information on the
left side of the Multi Function Display (MFD). EIS information can also be fully expanded to an entire page by
pressing the ENGINE Softkey or turning the large FMS Knob to select the EIS - Engine Page.
EIS
In combination with the EIS, aural alerts, additional avionics messages, and master indicators are used to
inform the crew of aberrant flight conditions. The system also provides an improved level of maintenance data
for the ground crew.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS Display
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 3-1 MFD with EIS display
APPENDICES
Green bands on the instruments indicate normal ranges of operation; amber and red bands indicate caution
and warning, respectively. White or uncolored bands indicate areas outside of normal operation not yet in the
caution or warning ranges. When unsafe operating conditions occur, the corresponding displays flash to indicate
cautions and warnings. If sensory data to an instrument becomes invalid or unavailable, a red “X” is displayed
across the instrument.
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
91
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3.1 ENGINE DISPLAY
1
EICAS
EIS
1
2
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2
3
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3
4
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4
5
5
6
AFCS
7
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6
7
8
APPENDICES
8
Figure 3-3 Engine Display in Reversionary Mode
INDEX
Figure 3-2 Engine Display
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1 Torque %
Displays torque as a percentage of maximum safe torque
or
Horsepower (HP x 100)
(EGT °C)
or
Interstage Turbine
Temperature (ITT °C)
Displays Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) in degrees Celsius (°C)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2 Exhaust Gas Temperature
Displays engine horsepower
Displays Interstage Turbine Temperature in degrees Celsius (°C)
Displays gas generator turbine speed (N1) as a percentage of revolutions
per minute (rpm)
4 Oil Pressure and
Displays oil pressure in pounds per square inch (psi) and oil temperature in
degrees Celsius (°C)
Temperature Indicators
Quantity Indicators
6 Landing Gear Status (LDG
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5 Fuel Pressure, Flow, and
EIS
3 Turbine Speed (% RPM)
Displays fuel pressure in pounds per square inch (psi), fuel flow in
pounds per hour (pph), and fuel quantity in pounds (lbs)
Displays landing gear status
GEAR)
Displays flap position
8 Trim Positions (TRIM)
Display aileron, rudder, and elevator (ELEV) trim positions
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7 Flap Position (FLAPS)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
93
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.2 ENGINE PAGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The EIS - Engine Page displays all engine, fuel, fuel calculation, electrical, and trim information. To access
this page, press the ENGINE Softkey or turn the large FMS Knob and select the EIS - Engine Page.
15
14
13
12
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
EICAS
EIS
1
4
11
10
9
8
AFCS
5
6
7
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 3-4 Engine Page
94
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1 Torque %
Displays torque as a percentage of maximum safe torque
or
Horsepower (HP x 100)
(EGT °C)
or
Interstage Turbine
Temperature (ITT °C)
Displays Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) in degrees Celsius (°C)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2 Exhaust Gas Temperature
Displays engine horsepower
Displays Interstage Turbine Temperature in degrees Celsius (°C)
Displays gas generator turbine speed (N1) as a percentage of revolutions
per minute (rpm)
4 Fuel Flow Indicator
Displays fuel flow in pounds per hour (pph)
EIS
3 Turbine Speed (% RPM)
(FLOW PPH)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5 Hydraulic Pressure
Displays hydraulic pressure in pounds per square inch (psi)
(HYDRAULICS)
6 Landing Gear Status
Displays landing gear status
7 Trim Position Indicators
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Indicator
(LDG GEAR)
Display aileron, rudder, and elevator (ELEV) trim positions
(TRIM)
8 Flap Position Indicator
Displays flap position
Displays propeller (PROP), generator inlet (GEN INLET), and left/right
pitot/static anti-ice in amperes (AMPS)
10 Fuel Consumed
Displays fuel used in pounds (lbs)
11 Fuel Quantity Indicator
Displays fuel quantity in pounds (lbs)
AFCS
9 Anti-Ice Group (ANTI-ICE)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
(FLAPS)
(FUEL QTY - LBS)
12 Fuel Pressure Indicator
Displays fuel pressure in pounds per square inch (psi)
13 Oil Temperature Indicator
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
(FUEL PRESS - PSI)
Displays oil temperature in degrees Celsius (°C)
(OIL TEMP - °C)
14 Oil Pressure Indicator
Displays oil pressure in pounds per square inch (psi)
15 Electrical Group
(ELECTRICAL)
APPENDICES
(OIL PRESS - PSI)
Displays generator current in amperes (AMPS), generator voltage (VDC),
and external power (EXT POWER) voltage (VDC)
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
95
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
TORQUE % GAUGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Torque Pressure gauges display engine power in PSI and are located at the top of the EIS display. The
gauges include an arc that indicates torque pressure ranges and a digital torque indication. The green band
indicates the normal pressure range. The red band indicates the warning range. If the indicated pressure is in
the warning range, the TORQUE % and the digital indication will flash red and white and the triangle pointer
will be red.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EICAS
EIS
When operating in BETA mode, an amber BETA indication will display in the upper left corner of the Torque
Pressure gauges.
Figure 3-5 Torque Pressure Gauge
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HORSEPOWER GAUGE
The Horsepower gauges display engine power are located at the top of the EIS display. The gauges include an
arc that indicates horsepower ranges and a digital horsepower indication. The green band indicates the normal
range. The red band indicates the warning range. If the indicated value is in the warning range, the HP x 100%
and the digital indication will flash red and white and the triangle pointer will be red.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When operating in BETA mode, an amber BETA indication will display in the upper left corner of the
Horsepower gauges.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 3-6 Horsepower Gauge
96
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The EGT gauges are displayed below the Torque Pressure or Horsepower gauges. These gauges include an
arc that indicates temperature ranges and a digital temperature display. The upper right corner of the gauges
display a digital display of the max temperature that marks the beginning of the warning ranges.
EIS
Figure 3-7 Exhaust Gas Temperature Gauge
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The green band indicates the normal operating range. The red band indicates the warning range. If the
indicated temperature is in the warning range, the EGT ºC x100 and the digital temperature indication will flash
red and white. The warning range is variable and is dependent on the phase of the engines. In some situations,
the digital max temperature display in the upper right corner will be replaced with an amber ‘SRL’.
When operating in bypass mode a cyan ‘BYP’ will appear in the upper left corner of the EGT gauges.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
While in start phase, a red triangle pointer on the outside of the arc will show the beginning of the warning
range. The arc will also show an amber band which marks the cautionary range. If the indicated temperature
is in the cautionary range, the EGT ºC x100 and the digital temperature indication will flash amber and black.
When the ignition is engaged, an amber ‘IGN’ will be displayed in the upper right corner of the gauge (Figure
3-8).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 3-8 Exhaust Gas Temperature Gauge (Start Phase)
AFCS
INTERSTAGE TURBINE TEMPERATURE
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Interstage Turbine Temperature (ITT) Gauge is displayed below the Torque % or Horsepower gauge. The
gauge differs for engine start and running conditions. A red triangle is displayed during engine start as an aide
to not exceed maximum starting temperatures, and is displayed in both normal and reversionary modes. The
red band indicates the warning range. If the indicated value is in the warning range, the ITT ºC x100 and the
digital indication will flash red and white and the triangle pointer will be red.
APPENDICES
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Figure 3-10 ITT Gauge Normal Mode
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
Figure 3-9 ITT Gauge - Start Mode
97
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
TURBINE SPEED GAUGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Turbine Speed gauges are located beneath the EGT gauges and display the turbine speed as a percentage
of revolutions per minute (RPM). The gauges include an arc that indicates the Turbine RPM ranges and a digital
indication. The green band indicates the normal turbine RPM range. The red bands indicate the warning
ranges. The amber band indicates the cautionary range. If the indicated turbine RPM is in the cautionary range
the % RPM and the digital indication will flash amber and black. If the indicated turbine RPM is in the warning
range, the % RPM and the digital indication will flash red and white.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EICAS
EIS
A Negative Torque Sensing condition will be indicated by an amber ‘NTS’ that will display in the upper left
corner of the Turbine Speed Gauge.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 3-11 Turbine Speed Gauge
FUEL FLOW
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Fuel Flow display shows the fuel flow in each tank in pounds per hour (PPH). The gauges include an arc
that indicates fuel flow ranges and a digital fuel flow indication.
AFCS
Figure 3-12 Fuel Flow Gauge
ELECTRICAL
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
DC current and voltage for both generators and voltage for the external power are shown as digital displays
in the Electrical Group on the Engine Page.
Generator Voltage
APPENDICES
Generator Current
External Power Voltage
INDEX
Figure 3-13 Electrical Group
98
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HYDRAULICS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Hydraulic Pressure is shown in pounds per square inch (psi) as a digital display on the Engine Page. Text will
flash amber for caution (470-799 psi) for 5 seconds, or red for warning (0-469 or 1250-2000 psi) for 5 seconds
if hydraulic pressure levels are above or below appropriate levels.
Figure 3-14 Hydraulic Pressure
EIS
OIL PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE GAUGES
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Engine oil pressure and temperature for each engine are shown along vertical bar indicators. Oil pressure
is shown in pounds per square inch (psi) and temperature in degrees Celsius (°C). If the oil pressure pointer
enters the amber band, a caution is issued. If the oil pressure or oil temperature pointers enter the red band, a
warning is issued.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 3-15 Oil Pressure and Temperature Gauges
ANTI-ICE GROUP
AFCS
The propeller, generator inlet, and pitot/static de-icing heater current (AMPS) values are shown as digital
displays in the Anti-Ice Group on the Engine Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 3-16 Anti-Ice Group
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
99
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
FUEL QUANTITY AND PRESSURE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The fuel display shows the fuel quantity in pounds (lbs). Fuel quantity is shown along a vertical slider scale
with corresponding displays below each gauge. A total fuel quantity display is shown at the bottom of the
display between the fuel quantity gauges. Single tank equipped aircraft have a single vertical slider and a digital
display in the lower right corner. A caution or warning is issued for low fuel quantity.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EICAS
EIS
The Fuel Pressure display shows fuel pressure in pounds per square inch (psi). Fuel pressure is taken from
two locations on single tank equipped aircraft, so a dual display is used. Fuel pressure is shown along a vertical
slider scale with corresponding displays below each gauge. A caution or warning is issued for low fuel pressure.
Fuel Tank
Quantities
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Total Fuel
Quantity
Fuel Quantity
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 3-17 Fuel Display - Dual Tanks
Figure 3-18 Fuel Display - Single Tank
AFCS
Fuel Tank
Pressure
Figure 3-19 Fuel Pressure Display
FUEL CONSUMED
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Fuel Consumed is shown on the Engine Page in pounds (LBS).
Figure 3-20 Fuel Consumed
APPENDICES
FLAP INDICATIONS
INDEX
Flap positions are labeled UP, 1/2, and Down (DN).
Figure 3-21 Flap Indications
100
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRIM INDICATIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Elevator Trim indication is shown along a vertical slide bar scale. The green tick mark indicates takeoff
position for the rudder trim. The Rudder and Aileron Trim indications are shown along a horizontal slide bar
scales.
EIS
Figure 3-22 Trim Indications
LANDING GEAR INDICATIONS
Position
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Landing Gear statuses are shown using the indications in the following table.
Engine Page
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Not In
Transition
and Not
Down and
Locked
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
In Transition
AFCS
Down and
Locked
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Invalid Data
APPENDICES
Table 3-1 Landing Gear Indications
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
101
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
EIS DISPLAY (REVERSIONARY MODE)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In the event of a PFD1, PFD2 or MFD display failure, the display(s) operating in Reversionary Mode
are configured to present PFD symbology together with the EIS Display (refer to the System Overview for
information about display reversionary mode).
The Engine Display, in reversionary mode, is identical to the normal EIS Display on the MFD.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EICAS
EIS
EIS Display
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 3-23 Reversionary Mode (EIS Shown)
102
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
4.1 OVERVIEW
The Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) system includes the Audio Panel, communication radios,
navigation radios, and Mode S transponder. The System Overview Section provides a block diagram description
of the Audio Panel and CNS system interconnection.
CNS operation in the G950 is performed by the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• Integrated Avionics Unit (2)
• GTX33 w/ES Mode S Transponder
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Multifunction Display (MFD)
• GMA 1347D Audio Panel with Integrated Marker
Beacon Receiver
EIS
• Primary Flight Display (PFD)
• MFD/PFD Control Unit
The MFD/PFD controls are used to tune the communication transceivers and navigation radios.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Audio Panel provides the traditional audio selector functions of microphone and receiver audio selection.
The Audio Panel includes an intercom system (ICS) between the pilot, copilot, and passengers, a marker beacon
system, and a COM clearance recorder. Ambient noise from the aircraft radios is reduced by a feature called
Master Avionics Squelch (MASQ). When no audio is detected, MASQ processing further reduces the amount of
background noise from the radios.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Mode S Transponder is controlled with softkeys and the FMS Knob located on the Primary Flight Display
(PFD). The Transponder Data Box is located to the left of the System Time Box. The data box displays the active
four-digit code, mode, and a reply status (Figure 4-1).
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
103
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
PFD CONTROLS AND FREQUENCY DISPLAY
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1
9
10
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
11
12
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 4-1 PFD Controls, NAV/COM Frequency Tuning Boxes, and NRST Window
104
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
NAV Frequency Box – Displays NAV standby and active frequency fields, volume, and station ID. The
frequency of the NAV radio selected for navigation is displayed in green.
5
COM Frequency Box – Displays COM standby and active frequency fields and volume. The selected COM
transceiver frequency is displayed in green.
6
COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Press to move the tuning box (light blue box) and Frequency Transfer Arrow between COM1 and
COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this key
for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Press to turn the COM automatic squelch on
and off. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency field as a percentage.
9
Nearest Airports Window – Display by pressing NRST Softkey.
10
ENT Key – Validates or confirms an Auto-tune selection.
11
FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob, used to enter transponder codes and Auto-tune entries
when NRST Window is present. Press the FMS Knob to turn the selection cursor on and off. The large
knob moves the cursor in the window. The small knob selects individual characters for the highlighted
cursor location.
12
Transponder Data Box – Indicates the selected transponder code, operating mode, reply, and ident status
for the applicable transponder.
AFCS
4
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
Press to move the tuning box (light blue box) and Frequency Transfer Arrow between NAV1 and NAV2.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
EIS
2
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to turn the Morse code identifier audio on
and off. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
105
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
GMA 1347D AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
18
19
20
21
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
17
22
23
24
AFCS
Figure 4-2 Audio Panel Controls
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: When a key is selected, a triangular annunciator above the key is illuminated.
106
1
COM1 MIC – Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM receiver to be heard. COM2 receive can be
added by pressing the COM2 Key.
2
COM1 – When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard.
3
COM2 MIC – Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM receiver to be heard. COM1 receive can be
added by pressing the COM1 Key.
4
COM2 – When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard.
5
COM3 MIC – Reserved for optional COM radio.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SPKR – Selects and deselects the cabin speaker (if installed). COM and NAV receiver audio can be heard
on the speaker.
11
MKR/MUTE – Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker beacon receiver
audio. Unmutes automatically when new marker beacon audio is received. Also, stops play of recorded
COM audio.
12
HI SENS – Press to increase marker beacon receiver sensitivity. Press again to return to low sensitivity.
13
DME – Turns optional DME audio on or off.
14
NAV1 – When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
15
ADF – Turns optional ADF receiver audio on or off.
16
NAV2 – When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
17
AUX – Not used in the Twin Commander.
18
MAN SQ – Enables manual squelch for the intercom. When the intercom is active, press the PILOT Knob
to illuminate SQ. Turn the PILOT/PASS Knobs to adjust squelch.
19
PLAY – Press once to play the last recorded COM audio. Press again while audio is playing and the
previous block of recorded audio will be played. Each subsequent press plays each previously recorded
block. Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key during play of a memory block stops play.
20
INTR COM – Selects and deselects the pilot/copilot intercom on both Audio Panels.
21
CABIN – Initiates intercom communications with passengers in the cabin.
22
ICS Knob – Press to switch between volume and squelch control as indicated by illumination of VOL or
SQ. Turn to adjust intercom volume or squelch. The MAN SQ Key must be selected to allow squelch
adjustment.
23
MSTR Knob – Turn to adjust Copilot/Passenger intercom volume or squelch. The MAN SQ Key must be
selected to allow squelch adjustment.
24
DISPLAY BACKUP Button – Manually selects Reversionary Mode.
APPENDICES
10
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
MUSIC – Toggles the Music 1 input on or off. Pressing and holding toggles music muting on or off.
AFCS
9
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TEL – Selects and deselects telephone audio.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
8
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
PA – Selects the passenger address system. The selected COM transmitter is deselected when the PA Key
is pressed.
EIS
7
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
COM3 – Reserved for optional COM radio.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
107
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
MFD/PFD CONTROL UNIT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The MFD/PFD Control Unit is a pedestal-mounted interface allowing MFD/PFD operation, data entry, COM
and NAV tuning, and transponder control. Many procedures can be performed using the MFD/PFD Control
Unit rather than the PFD display bezel controls. Annunciators above the PFD, MFD, NAV, and COM keys are
illuminated when their respective control modes are selected. The unit is in MFD control mode by default on
system power-up.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
COM and NAV radio tuning can be accomplished in either MFD or PFD control mode. The appropriate
frequency box on the selected display is outlined by a light blue selection box, which flashes for a few seconds to
indicate control unit activity. Selection of a different display control or radio tuning mode results in cancelation
of the previous radio tuning mode.
1
13
12
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
11
10
9
2
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8
3
AFCS
7
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6
5
4
Figure 4-3 MFD/PFD Control Unit
APPENDICES
Tuning Selection
Box
INDEX
Figure 4-4 Frequency Tuning with the MFD/PFD Control Unit
108
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
5
CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus.
6
SEL Key – Arrows move light blue Softkey Selection Box on selected display. Press the center to activate
the selected softkey
7
Decimal Key – Enters a decimal point.
8
NAV Key – Selects NAV radio tuning mode on the MFD/PFD Control Unit. The NAV tuning box is
outlined with a light blue selection line when the NAV frequency is active on the control unit.
9
COM Key – Selects COM radio tuning mode on the MFD/PFD Control Unit. The COM tuning box is
outlined with a light blue selection line when the COM frequency is active on the control unit.
10
Frequency Transfer Key (EMERG) – Transfers the standby and active COM or NAV frequencies. Press
and hold for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the COM
active frequency field.
11
PFD Key – When selected, the control unit is used to access PFD functions.
12
MFD Key – When selected, the control unit is used to access MFD functions (default control mode).
13
FMS/NAV-COM Knob – NAV/COM Tuning Modes: Acts as the NAV or COM Knob. MFD/PFD Control
Modes: Acts as the FMS Knob.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
BKSP Key – Moves cursor back one character space and removes last character entered.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Alphanumeric Keys – Allows data entry (rather than using the FMS Knob to select characters/numbers).
EIS
2
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
MENU Key – Displays a list of options for accessing additional features or making setting changes.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
109
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.2 COM OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
COM TRANSCEIVER SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
NOTE: During PA Mode, the COM MIC Annunciator is extinguished and the COM active frequency color
changes to white, indicating that neither COM transmitter is active.
NOTE: When turning on the G950 for use, the system remembers the last frequencies used and the active
EIS
COM transceiver state prior to shutdown.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the left side and the
two standby frequencies are on the right. The COM transceiver is selected for transmitting by pressing the
COM MIC Keys on the Audio Panel. During reception of audio from the COM radio selected for transmission,
audio from the other COM radio is muted.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
An active COM frequency displayed in green indicates that the COM transceiver is selected on the Audio
Panel (COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key). Both active COM frequencies appearing in white indicate that no COM
radio is selected for transmitting (PA Key is selected on the Audio Panel).
Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency in the tuning
box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Active
Fields
Standby
Fields
AFCS
Tuning Box
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
COM2 Radio is Selected
on the Audio Panel
Figure 4-5 Selecting a COM Radio for Transmit
INDEX
APPENDICES
COM3 is reserved for an optional COM radio.
110
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRANSMIT/RECEIVE INDICATIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
During COM transmission, a white TX appears by the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. On the Audio Panel, when the active COM is transmitting, the active transceiver COM MIC
Key Annunciator flashes approximately once per second.
During COM signal reception, a white RX appears by the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. Entertainment audio, if selected, is muted during active COM radio reception. Refer to
Additional Audio Panel Functions later in this section, and details on the Data Link Receiver in the Additional
Features Section.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Transmit and
Receive Indicators
Annunciator
Flashes During
Transmission
Figure 4-6 COM Radio Transmit and Receive Indications
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
COM TRANSCEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The COM frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the right side of each PFD.
Manually tuning a COM frequency:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Turn the COM Knob to tune the desired frequency in the COM Tuning Box (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz).
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the COM VOL/SQ Knob.
Turn the VOL/SQ Knob to adjust
volume. Press the Knob to Turn
Automatic Squelch On or Off
AFCS
4) Press the COM VOL/SQ Knob to turn automatic squelch on and off.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press the Frequency Transfer
Key to Transfer COM
Frequencies Between Active
and Standby Frequency Boxes
Turn the COM Knob to
Tune the Frequency in
the Tuning Box
APPENDICES
Figure 4-7 COM Frequency Tuning
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
111
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Manual frequency tuning from the MFD/PFD Control Unit
1) Press the COM Key to select the COM frequency box.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the NAV/COM Knob to tune the desired frequency in the COM Tuning Box (large knob for MHz; small knob
for kHz).
3) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
EIS
Second, Turn the NAV/COM Knob
to Enter a Frequency into the
COM Standby Frequency Field
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Third, Press the Frequency
Transfer Key to Move the
Frequency to the Active Field
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
First, Press the COM Key to
Place the Tuning Selection
Box on the COM frequencies
Figure 4-8 Frequency Tuning from the MFD/PFD Control Unit
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SELECTING THE RADIO TO BE TUNED
AFCS
Press the small COM Knob to transfer the frequency tuning box and Frequency Transfer Arrow between the
upper and lower radio frequency fields.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press the COM Knob to
Switch the Tuning Box From
One COM Radio to the Other
Figure 4-9 Switching COM Tuning Boxes
APPENDICES
QUICK-TUNING AND ACTIVATING 121.500 MHZ
INDEX
Pressing and holding the COM Frequency Transfer Key for two seconds automatically loads the emergency
COM frequency (121.500 MHz) in the active field of the COM radio selected for tuning (the one with the
transfer arrow). In the example shown, pressing the Audio Panel COM2 MIC Key activates the transceiver.
Press for Two Seconds
to Load 121.500 MHz
Figure 4-10 Quickly Tuning 121.500 MHz
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTO-TUNING THE COM FREQUENCY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
COM frequencies can be automatically tuned from the following:
• Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies Page (ARTCC, FSS,
WX)
• WPT – Airport Information Page
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces Page
• NRST – Nearest Airports Page
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE PFD
EIS
COM frequencies for the nearest airports can be automatically tuned from the Nearest Airports Window on
the PFD. When the desired frequency is entered, it becomes a standby frequency. Pressing the Frequency
Transfer Key places this frequency into the COM Active Frequency Field.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Auto-tuning a COM frequency for a nearby airport from the PFD:
1) Press the NRST Softkey on the PFD to open the Nearest Airports Window. A list of 25 nearest airport identifiers
and COM frequencies is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the list and highlight the desired COM frequency.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the COM Standby Tuning Box.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 4-11 Nearest Airports Window
Select the NRST
Softkey to Open
the Nearest
Airports Window
INDEX
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113
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE MFD
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the COM Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT
page group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
Auto-tuning a COM frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the COM frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob or
selecting the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency.
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
Press the ENT Key to
Load a Highlighted
Frequency into
the COM Standby
Frequency Box
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Turn the FMS
Knob to Scroll
Through a List
of Frequencies
Figure 4-12 Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Or:
1) On the Nearest Airports, Frequencies, or Airspaces page, press the MENU Key to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor on the desired selection.
AFCS
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-13 Nearest Pages Menus
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
On the WPT - Airport Information Page, the cursor can be placed on the frequency field by pressing the
FMS Knob and scrolling through the list. The frequency is transferred to the COM Standby Field with the
ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected Airport
Identifier and
Information
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Runway
Information
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Press ENT Key to load
frequency into PFD
COM Standby Field.
Cursor then advances
to the next frequency.
Select INFO Softkey for
AIRPORT, RUNWAYS,
and FREQUENCIES
Windows
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 4-14 WPT – Airport Information Page
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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115
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
COM frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST – Nearest Airspaces, NRST – Nearest Frequencies,
and NRST – Nearest Airports Pages on the MFD in a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU
Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-15 NRST – Nearest Airspaces, NRST – Nearest Airports, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FREQUENCY SPACING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing
(118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel spacing
is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in the complete 3040-channel list.
COM channel spacing is set on the System Setup Page of the AUX Page Group.
25-kHz Channel
Spacing
EIS
8.33-kHz Channel
Spacing
Figure 4-16 COM Channel Spacing
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Changing COM frequency channel spacing:
1) Select the AUX – System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Channel Spacing Field in the COM Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired channel spacing.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the channel spacing selection.
While the COM CONFIG Window is selected, the G950 softkeys are blank.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Select 8.33-kHz
or 25.0-kHz
COM Frequency
Channel Spacing
APPENDICES
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
Figure 4-17 AUX – System Setup Page
117
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUTOMATIC SQUELCH
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Automatic Squelch quiets unwanted static noise when no audio signal is received, while still providing good
sensitivity to weak COM signals. To disable Automatic Squelch, press the VOL/SQ Knob. When Automatic
Squelch is disabled, COM audio reception is always on. Continuous static noise is heard over the headsets and
speaker, if selected. Pressing the VOL/SQ Knob again enables Automatic Squelch.
EIS
When Automatic Squelch is disabled, a white SQ appears next to the COM frequency.
Squelch
Indication
Press the COM VOL/
SQ Knob to turn off
Automatic Squelch.
Press again to restore
Automatic Squelch.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-18 Overriding Automatic Squelch
VOLUME
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
COM radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob. Turning the knob
clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume. When adjusting volume,
the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication remains for two seconds after
the change.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 4-19 COM Volume Level
COM Volume
Level Remains
for Two Seconds
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4.3 NAV OPERATION
NAV RADIO SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; two standby fields and two active fields. The active
frequencies are on the right side and the standby frequencies are on the left.
EIS
A NAV radio is selected for navigation by pressing the CDI Softkey located on the PFD. The active NAV
frequency selected for navigation is displayed in green. Pressing the CDI Softkey once selects NAV1 as the
navigation radio. Pressing the CDI Softkey a second time selects NAV2 as the navigation radio. Pressing the
CDI Softkey a third time activates GPS mode. Pressing the CDI Softkey again cycles back to NAV1.
While cycling through the CDI Softkey selections, the NAV Tuning Box and the Frequency Transfer Arrow are
placed in the active NAV Frequency Field and the active NAV frequency color changes to green.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The three navigation modes that can be cycled through are:
• VOR1 (or LOC1) – If NAV1 is selected, a green single line arrow (not shown) labeled either VOR1 or LOC1
is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV1 frequency is displayed in green.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• VOR2 (or LOC2) – If NAV2 is selected, a green double line arrow (shown) labeled either VOR2 or LOC2 is
displayed on the HSI and the active NAV2 frequency is displayed in green.
• GPS – If GPS Mode is selected, a magenta single line arrow (not shown) appears on the HSI and neither NAV
radio is selected. Both active NAV frequencies are then displayed in white.
Active
Fields
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Standby
Fields
Tuning Box
AFCS
The NAV Radio is
Selected by Selecting
the CDI Softkey
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-20 Selecting a NAV Radio for Navigation
APPENDICES
See the Flight Instruments Section for selecting the DME and Bearing Information windows and using VOR
as the source for the bearing pointer.
The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code station identifier that is received from the
navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station identifier is still required, and can be accomplished
by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pressing the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
INDEX
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
119
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NAV radios are selected for listening by pressing the corresponding keys on the Audio Panel. Pressing the
NAV1, NAV2, DME, or ADF Key selects and deselects the navigation radio source. Selected audio can be heard
over the headset and the speakers (if selected). All radios can be selected individually or simultaneously.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-21 Selecting a NAV Radio Receiver
NAV RECEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The NAV frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the left side of the MFD and PFDs.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Manually tuning a NAV frequency:
1) Turn the NAV Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box.
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the NAV VOL/ID Knob to turn the Morse code identifier audio on and off.
AFCS
Turn VOL/ID Knob to adjust
volume. Press Knob to Turn
Morse Code On or Off.
Press the Frequency Transfer Key to
Transfer NAV Frequencies Between
Active and Standby Frequency Fields
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Turn the NAV Knob to
Tune the Frequency in
the Tuning Box
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 4-22 NAV Frequency Tuning
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SELECTING THE RADIO TO BE TUNED
Press the small NAV Knob to transfer the frequency tuning box and Frequency Transfer Arrow between the
upper and lower radio frequency fields.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Press the NAV Knob to
Switch the Tuning Box From
One NAV Radio to the Other
EIS
Figure 4-23 Switching NAV Tuning Boxes
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
VOR/LOC ID
When the Morse code Identifier audio is on for a NAV radio, a white ID appears to the left of the active
NAV frequency.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Morse Code Identifier
for the GHM VOR is On
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
In the example shown, in order to listen to either station identifier, press the NAV1 or NAV2 Key on the
Audio Panel. Pressing the VOL/ID Knob turns off the Morse code audio only in the radio with the NAV
Tuning Box. To turn off both NAV IDs, transfer the NAV Tuning Box between NAV1 and NAV2 by pressing
the small NAV Knob and pressing the VOL/ID Knob again to turn the Morse code off in the other radio.
Station
Identifier
Figure 4-24 NAV Radio ID Indication
AFCS
VOLUME
NAV Radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/ID Knob. Turning the knob
clockwise increases volume, counterclockwise decreases volume.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When adjusting, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication remains
for two seconds after the change.
APPENDICES
NAV Volume
Level Remains
for Two Seconds
Figure 4-25 NAV Volume Levels
INDEX
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121
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTO-TUNING A NAV FREQUENCY FROM THE MFD
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
• WPT – VOR Information
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies (FSS, WX)
• NRST – Nearest Airports
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces
NAV frequencies can be selected and loaded from the following MFD pages:
• WPT – Airport Information
• NRST – Nearest VOR
EIS
The MFD provides auto-tuning of NAV frequencies from waypoint and nearest pages. During enroute
navigation, the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV standby frequency field. During approach
activation the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV active frequency field.
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT page
group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Auto-tuning a NAV frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the NAV frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob or
selecting the appropriate softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV identifier or NAV frequency.
3) On the Nearest VOR, Nearest Airspaces, and Nearest Airports pages, select the FREQ Softkey to place the cursor
on the NAV frequency.
4) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV radio.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
AFCS
Turn the FMS
Knob to Scroll
Through a List
of Frequencies
Press the ENT
Key to Load
a Highlighted
Frequency into
the NAV Standby
Frequency Box
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-26 NAV Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
Or:
1) When on the NRST pages, press the MENU Key to display the page menu.
APPENDICES
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor in the desired window.
INDEX
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV radio.
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest VOR Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-27 Nearest Pages Menus
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
In the example shown, the VOR list is selected with the VOR Softkey or from the page menu. The FMS Knob
or ENT Key is used to scroll through the list. The cursor is placed on the frequency with the FREQ Softkey and
loaded into the NAV Tuning Box with the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press the ENT
Key to Load
the Frequency
into the NAV
Standby Field.
APPENDICES
Select the VOR Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Identifier
Select the FREQ Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Frequency
Figure 4-28 Loading the NAV Frequency from the NRST – Nearest VOR Page
INDEX
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123
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
While enroute, NAV frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST – Nearest Airports,
WPT – Airport Information, WPT – VOR Information, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages on the MFD in
a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
INDEX
Figure 4-29 NRST – Nearest Frequencies, WPT – VOR Information, WPT – Airport Information, and
NRST – Nearest Airports Pages
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTO-TUNING NAV FREQUENCIES ON APPROACH ACTIVATION
NOTE: The primary NAV frequency is auto-tuned upon loading a VOR or ILS/Localizer approach.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: When an ILS/LOC approach has been activated in GPS Mode, the system switches to NAV Mode as
the final approach course is intercepted (within 15 nm of the FAF). See the Flight Management Section for
details.
NAV frequencies are automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box on approach activation.
EIS
When loading or activating a VOR or ILS/LOC approach, the approach frequency is automatically transferred
to a NAV frequency field as follows:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, the approach frequency is transferred to the NAV1 or NAV2
active frequency fields. The frequency that was previously in the NAV1 or NAV2 active frequency fields are
transferred to standby.
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, and if the approach frequency is already loaded into the NAV1
or NAV2 standby frequency field, the standby frequency is transferred to active.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• If the current CDI navigation source is NAV1 or NAV2, the approach frequency is transferred to the standby
frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
MARKER BEACON RECEIVER
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: The marker beacon indicators operate independently of marker beacon audio and cannot be turned
off.
The marker beacon receiver is used as part of the ILS. The marker beacon receiver is always on and detects
any marker beacon signals within the reception range of the aircraft.
AFCS
The receiver detects the three marker tones – outer, middle, and inner – and provides the marker beacon
annunciations located to the left of the Altimeter on the PFD.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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125
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Middle Marker
Indication
Inner Marker
Indication
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Outer Marker
Indication
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Figure 4-30 Marker Beacon Annunciations on the PFD
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 4-31 Marker Beacon Keys
The Audio Panel provides three different states of marker beacon operation; On, Muted, and Deselected.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key selects and deselects marker beacon audio. The key annunciator indicates when
marker beacon audio is selected.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
During marker beacon audio reception, pressing the MKR/MUTE Key mutes the audio but does not affect the
marker annunciations (Figure 4-31). The marker tone is silenced, then waits for the next marker tone. The
MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is illuminated, indicating audio muting. The audio returns when the next marker
beacon signal is received. If the MKR/MUTE Key is pressed during signal reception (O, M, I indication) while
marker beacon audio is muted, the audio is deselected and the MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is extinguished.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Pressing the HI SENS Key switches between high and low marker beacon receiver sensitivity. The HI SENS
function (annunciator illuminated) is used to provide an earlier indication when nearing a marker during an
approach. The LO SENS function (annunciator extinguished) results in a narrower marker dwell while over a
station.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4.4 GTX 33 W/ES MODE S TRANSPONDER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The GTX 33 Extended Squitter Mode S Transponders provide Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S interrogation and
reply capabilities. The optional GTX 33 with diversity incorporates antennas mounted on the top and bottom of
the aircraft for dependable operation while maneuvering. Selective addressing or Mode Select (Mode S) capability
includes the following features:
• Level-2 reply data link capability (used to exchange information between aircraft and ATC facilities)
• Surveillance identifier capability
EIS
• Flight ID (Flight Identification) reporting – The Mode S Transponder reports aircraft identification as either the
aircraft registration or a unique Flight ID.
• Altitude reporting
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Airborne status determination
• Transponder capability reporting
• Mode S Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) requirements
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Acquisition squitter – Acquisition squitter, or short squitter, is the transponder 24-bit identification address.
The transmission is sent periodically, regardless of the presence of interrogations. The purpose of acquisition
squitter is to enable Mode S ground stations and aircraft equipped with a Traffic Avoidance System (TAS) to
recognize the presence of Mode S-equipped aircraft for selective interrogation.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Extended squitter – The extended squitter is transmitted periodically and contains information such as altitude
(barometric and GPS), GPS position, and aircraft identification. The purpose of extended squitter is to provide
aircraft position and identification to ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and other aircraft.
The Hazard Avoidance Section provides more details on traffic avoidance systems.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
127
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
TRANSPONDER CONTROLS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Mode Selection, and
Code Selection. When the top-level XPDR Softkey is selected, the Mode Selection softkeys appear: STBY, ON,
ALT, VFR, CODE, IDENT, BACK.
When the CODE Softkey is selected, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, IDENT, BKSP,
BACK. The digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Selecting the numbered softkeys in sequence enters
the transponder code. If an error is made, selecting the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the
previous digit. Selecting the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous digit.
EIS
Selecting the BACK Softkey during code selection reverts to the Mode Selection Softkeys. Selecting the BACK
Softkey during mode selection reverts to the top-level softkeys.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on either PFD. Code entry must be completed with either
the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
Selecting the IDENT Softkey while in Mode or Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to the
top-level softkeys.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
XPDR
IDENT
CODE
IDENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
(Optional)
XPDR1
XPDR2
STBY
ON
ALT
VFR
BACK
MSG
AFCS
Selecting the BACK Softkey
returns to the top-level softkeys.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
IDENT
BKSP
BACK
MSG
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns to the mode selection softkeys.
Figure 4-32 Transponder Softkeys (PFD)
Selecting and activating Transponder 1 or Transponder 2:
APPENDICES
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the XPDR1 or XPDR2 Softkey to select and activate the other transponder.
INDEX
When turning on the G950 for use, the system activates Transponder 1 as the default unit, regardless of which
transponder was active prior to shutdown. When switching between Transponder 1 and Transponder 2, the code
and mode remain the same. If a new code is entered in the active transponder, switching transponders does not
bring back the previous code.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTION
Mode selection can be automatic (Altitude Modes) or manual (Standby, ON, and Altitude Modes). The STBY,
ON, and ALT Softkeys can be accessed by selecting the XPDR Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting a transponder mode:
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Select the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode.
STANDBY MODE (MANUAL)
EIS
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by selecting the STBY Softkey. In Standby, the transponder does
not reply to interrogations, but new codes can be entered. When Standby is selected, a white STBY indication
and transponder code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box. In all other modes, these fields
appear in green.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
STBY Mode (White
Code Number and
Mode)
Figure 4-33 Standby Mode
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
MANUAL ON MODE
AFCS
ON Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the ON Softkey. ON Mode generates Mode A and Mode S
replies as well as transmission of acquisition and extended squitters, including ADS-B out. Mode C altitude
reporting is inhibited. In ON Mode, a green ON indication and transponder code appear in the mode field
of the Transponder Data Box.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
ON Mode
(No Altitude
Reporting)
Figure 4-34 ON Mode
APPENDICES
INDEX
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129
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
ALTITUDE MODE (AUTOMATIC OR MANUAL)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The white Altitude Reporting Mode is normally selected automatically when the aircraft is on the ground.
White Altitude Mode may also be selected manually by pressing the ALT Softkey while on the ground. White
Altitude Mode generates Mode S replies to discrete interrogations as well as transmission of acquisition and
extended squitters including ADS-B out. Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call replies are inhibited.
If Altitude Mode is selected while on the ground, a white ALT indication and transponder code appear in
the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
EIS
ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-35 Altitude Mode
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The green Altitude Mode is automatically selected when the aircraft becomes airborne. Green Altitude
Mode may also be selected manually by pressing the ALT Softkey while airborne. Green Altitude Mode
generates Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S replies as well as transmissions of acquisition and extended squitters
including ADS-B out.
If Altitude Mode is selected while airborne, a green ALT indication and transponder code appear in the
mode field of the Transponder Data Box, and all transponder replies requesting altitude information are
provided with pressure altitude information.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting)
AFCS
Figure 4-36 Altitude Mode
REPLY STATUS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When the transponder sends replies to interrogations, a white R indication appears momentarily in the
reply status field of the Transponder Data Box.
APPENDICES
Reply to
Interrogation
INDEX
Figure 4-37 Reply Indication
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENTERING A TRANSPONDER CODE
Entering a transponder code with softkeys:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Select the CODE Softkey to display the Transponder Code Selection Softkeys, for digit entry.
3) Select the digit softkeys to enter the code in the code field. When entering the code, the next softkey in sequence
must be selected within 10 seconds, or the entry is cancelled and restored to the previous code. Selecting the
BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the previous digit. Five seconds after the fourth digit has been
entered, the transponder code becomes active.
EIS
Entering
a Code
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-38 Entering a Code
Entering a transponder code with the PFD FMS Knob:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Select the XPDR and the CODE Softkeys as in the previous procedure to enable code entry.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the first two code digits.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
Pressing the CLR Key or small FMS Knob before code entry is complete cancels code entry and restores the
previous code. Waiting for 10 seconds after code entry is finished activates the code automatically.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Turn the Small
FMS Knob to
Enter Two Code
Digits at a Time
Press the
ENT Key to
Complete
Code Entry
Turn the Large
FMS Knob
to Move the
Cursor to the
Next Code Field
Figure 4-39 Entering a Code with the FMS Knob
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
VFR CODE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The VFR code can be entered either manually or by selecting the XPDR Softkey, then the VFR Softkey.
When the VFR Softkey is selected, the pre-programmed VFR code is automatically displayed in the code field
of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting the VFR Softkey again restores the previous identification code.
The pre-programmed VFR Code is set at the factory to 1200. If a VFR code change is required, contact a
Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
EIS
VFR Code
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
IDENT FUNCTION
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 4-40 VFR Code
Selecting the IDENT Softkey sends a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The indication
distinguishes the identing transponder from all the others on the air traffic controller’s screen. The IDENT
Softkey appears on all levels of transponder softkeys. When the IDENT Softkey is selected, a green IDNT
indication is displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for a duration of 18 seconds.
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT Softkey is inoperative.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
After the IDENT Softkey is selected while in Mode or Code Selection, the system reverts to the top-level
softkeys.
IDNT
Indication
AFCS
Select the
IDENT Softkey
to Initiate the
ID Function
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-41 IDENT Softkey and Indication
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT ID REPORTING
NOTE: If the Flight ID is required but the system is not configured for it, contact a Garmin-authorized service
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
center for configuration.
When the Flight ID must be entered before flight operation, the identifier is placed in the Timer/References
Window on the PFD. The Flight ID is not to exceed seven characters. No space is needed when entering Flight
ID. When a Flight ID contains a space, the system automatically removes it upon completion of Flight ID entry.
If configuration is set to “SAME AS TAIL” the aircraft tail number will always be displayed.
EIS
Entering a Flight ID:
1) Select the TMR/REF Softkey to display the Timer/References Window.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the selection cursor, if not already activated.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll down to the Flight ID.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the desired Flight ID.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete Flight ID entry. The word “updating” appears until the new entry is completed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If an error is made during Flight ID entry, pressing the CLR Key returns to the original Flight ID entry. While
entering a Flight ID, turning the FMS Knob counterclockwise moves the cursor back one space for each detent
of rotation. If an incorrect Flight ID is discovered after the unit begins operation, reenter the correct Flight ID
using the same procedure.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Flight ID
PFD Entry
Figure 4-42 Timer/References Window, Entering Flight ID
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.5 ADDITIONAL AUDIO PANEL FUNCTIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
POWER-UP
The Audio Panel performs a self-test during power-up. During the self-test all Audio Panel annunciator lights
illuminate for approximately two seconds. Once the self-test is completed, most of the settings are restored to
those in use before the unit was last turned off.
MONO/STEREO HEADSETS
EIS
Stereo headsets are recommended for use with the G950.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Using a monaural headset in a stereo jack shorts the right headset channel output to ground. While this does
not damage the Audio Panel, a person listening on a monaural headset hears only the left channel in both ears.
If a monaural headset is used at one of the passenger positions, any other passenger using a stereo headset hears
audio in the left ear only.
SPEAKER
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
All of the radios can be heard over the cabin speaker (if installed). Pressing the SPKR Key selects and
deselects the cabin speaker. Speaker audio is muted when the PTT is pressed. Certain aural alerts and warnings
(autopilot, traffic, altitude) are always heard on the speaker, even when the speaker is not selected.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The speaker volume is adjustable within a nominal range. Volume can be adjusted though configuration.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 4-43 Speaker Key
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
INTERCOM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pressing the INTR COM Key on either Audio Panel selects and deselects the intercom on both Audio Panels.
The annunciator is lit when the intercom is active. The intercom connects the pilot and copilot together. Either
the pilot or copilot may select or deselect the intercom.
The CABIN Key initiates two way communication between the pilot or copilot and the passengers in the
cabin. The annunciator is lit when the cabin intercom is active on either Audio Panel.
EIS
When the flight crew wants to communicate with the passengers, the pilot or copilot presses the CABIN
Key to signal that communication is desired. The cabin signal must be acknowledged to begin intercom
conversation.
The MAN SQ Key allows either automatic or manual control of the intercom squelch setting. Pressing the
MAN SQ Key enables manual squelch control, indicated by the MAN SQ annunciator.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is extinguished (Automatic Squelch is on), the ICS Knob controls only the
volume (pressing the ICS Knob has no effect on the VOL/SQ selection).
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is illuminated (Manual Squelch), the ICS Knob controls either volume or
squelch (selected by pressing the ICS Knob and indicated by the VOL or SQ annunciation).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Manual Squelch Annunciator;
Off for Automatic Squelch, On
for Manual Squelch
Pilot/Copilot
ICS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Cabin Annunciator; On for
Cabin Intercom, Flashes for
Cabin to Flight Deck Hail
Selects and Deselects
Cabin Intercom
AFCS
Press to switch between
VOL and SQ. Turn to
adjust Squelch when SQ
Annunciation is lit, Volume
when VOL Annunciation
is lit.
Volume Annunciation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Master Volume
Control for Pilot
Side or Copilot
Side
Squelch Annunciation
Figure 4-44 Intercom Control
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
PASSENGER ADDRESS (PA) SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A passenger address system is available for delivering voice messages over the cabin speaker. When the PA
Key is pressed on the Audio Panel, the COM MIC Annunciator is extinguished, and the active COM frequency
changes to white, indicating that there is no COM selected. A Push-to-Talk (PTT) must be pressed to deliver PA
announcements. The PA Annunciator flashes about once per second while the PTT is depressed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
PA Key is Selected on
the Audio Panel
Figure 4-45 PA Key Selected for Cabin Announcements
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
CLEARANCE RECORDER AND PLAYER
The Audio Panel contains a digital clearance recorder that records up to 2.5 minutes of the selected COM
radio signal. Recorded COM audio is stored in separate memory blocks. Once 2.5 minutes of recording time
have been reached, the recorder begins recording over the stored memory blocks, starting from the oldest
block.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The PLAY Key controls the play function. Pressing the PLAY Key once plays the latest recorded memory
block. The PLAY Annunciator flashes to indicate when play is in progress. The PLAY Annunciator turns off
after the present memory block has finished playing.
AFCS
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key during play of a memory block stops play. If a COM input signal is detected
during play of a recorded memory block, play is halted.
Pressing the PLAY Key while audio is playing begins playing the previously recorded memory block. Each
subsequent press of the PLAY Key selects the previously recorded memory block.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Powering off the unit automatically clears all recorded blocks.
INDEX
Figure 4-46 Play Key
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS
NOTE: Music1 and Music2 audio cannot be completely turned off. Audio level for the crew and passengers
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
can be adjusted by a Garmin-authorized service center.
The Audio Panel provides two stereo auxiliary entertainment inputs: Music1 and Music2. The pilot and
copilot hear Music1 and the passengers hear Music2. These inputs are compatible with popular portable
entertainment devices such as MP3 players and other tablet devices. Two 3.5-mm stereo phone jacks can be
installed in convenient locations for audio connection. The headphone outputs of the entertainment devices
are plugged into the Music1 or Music2 jacks.
EIS
The current ICS state of isolation affects the distribution of the entertainment input (see Table 4‑1).
CREW MUSIC
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Crew music (Music1) can be heard by the pilot and copilot when both the PILOT and the COPLT ICS
Annunciators are extinguished. Crew music can also be heard by the pilot when the COPLT Annunciator is
illuminated and by the copilot when the PILOT Annunciator is illuminated.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Music Muting
Crew music muting occurs when aircraft radio or marker beacon activity is heard. Crew music is always
soft muted when an interruption occurs from these sources. Soft muting is the gradual return of music to
its original volume level. The time required for music volume to return to normal is between one-half and
four seconds.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Music Muting Enable/Disable
Pressing and holding the MKR/MUTE Key for three seconds switches crew music muting on and off.
When switching, either one or two beeps are heard; one beep indicates that music muting is enabled, two
beeps indicate music muting is disabled. Crew music muting is reset (enabled) during power up.
AFCS
PASSENGER MUSIC
Passenger music (Music2) can be heard only by the passengers and is never muted.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.6 AUDIO PANEL PREFLIGHT PROCEDURE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: If the flight crew is using headsets that have a high/low switch or volume control knob, verify that
the switch is in the high position and the volume control on the headsets are at max volume setting. On
single‑pilot flights, verify that all other headsets are not connected to avoid excess noise in the audio
system.
NOTE: When the MAN SQ Key is pressed, the flight crew is now able to set the ICS squelch manually. If
EIS
manual squelch is set to full open (SQ annunciated and the small knob turned counterclockwise) background
noise is heard in the ICS system as well as during COM transmissions.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
After powering up the G950 system the following steps aid the flight crew in maximizing the use of the Audio
Panels as well as prevent flight crew induced issues. These preflight procedures should be performed each time a
flight crew boards the aircraft to insure awareness of all audio levels in the Audio Panels and radios.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Automatic/Manual
Squelch
Pilot/Copilot
ICS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Cabin ICS
Master Volume
Control
AFCS
ICS Volume and
Squelch Control
Volume Annunciation
Squelch Annunciation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Reversionary Mode
for PFD1 and MFD
Reversionary Mode
for PFD2 and MFD
Pilot Side
Copilot Side
APPENDICES
Figure 4-47 Audio Panel Controls
INDEX
Independent radio volume adjustments made using the PFD controls affect only the audio output for each
radio selected for adjustment. Radio volume adjustment affects both crew positions equally for each radio that
is adjusted. Turning the master volume control located on either Audio Panel affects only the audio heard in the
corresponding crew position headset. Thus, radio volume adjustments may be overridden by each crew position
independently using the master volume control on the Audio Panel for the respective crew position. The master
volume control for each Audio Panel affects all other system audio output for the pilot or copilot headset.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Setting the Audio Panels during preflight:
1) Verify that the INTR COM Key is selected.
2) Verify manual squelch is set to minimum.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Turn the MSTR Knob (Master Volume Control) on both Audio Panels clockwise two full turns. This sets the
headset audio level to max volume (least amount of attenuation).
4) Adjust radio volume levels (COM, NAV, etc.) to a suitable level.
5) Adjust the ICS volume Knob on each Audio Panel to the desired intercom level.
EIS
6) Reset squelch to automatic, or adjust to the appropriate level manually.
Once this procedure has been completed, the master volume controls on both Audio Panels may now be
adjusted. The flight crew can change settings, keeping in mind the notes above.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Pilot Master
Volume Control
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Radio Volume
Knobs Adjust
Radio Level
NAV Radio
Audio
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Master Volume
Knobs Adjust
Headphone
Volume Level
COM Radio
Audio
AFCS
Copilot Master
Volume Control
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-48 Radio and Headphone Volume Controls
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.7 ABNORMAL OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Abnormal operation of the G950 includes equipment failures of the G950 components and failure of associated
equipment, including switches and external devices.
STUCK MICROPHONE
If the push-to-talk (PTT) Key becomes stuck, the COM transmitter stops transmitting after 35 seconds of
continuous operation. An alert appears on the PFD to advise the crew of a stuck microphone.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key Annunciator on the Audio Panel flashes as long as the PTT Key remains
stuck.
Figure 4-49 Stuck Microphone Alert
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
COM TUNING FAILURE
In case of a COM system tuning failure, the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) is automatically tuned in
the radio in which the tuning failure occurred. Depending on the failure mode, a red X may appear on the
frequency display.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Emergency Channel
Loaded Automatically
Figure 4-50 COM Tuning Failure
AFCS
AUDIO PANEL FAIL-SAFE OPERATION
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
If there is a failure of the Audio Panel, a fail-safe circuit connects the pilot’s headset and microphone directly
to the COM1 transceiver. Audio will not be available on the speaker.
PFD FAILURE (REVERSIONARY MODE)
INDEX
APPENDICES
The red DISPLAY BACKUP Button selects the Reversionary Mode. See the System Overview Section for
more information on Reversionary Mode.
Figure 4-51 Display Backup Button
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The G950 is an integrated flight, engine, communication, navigation and surveillance system. This section of
the Pilot’s Guide explains flight management using the G950.
EIS
The most prominent part of the G950 are the full color displays: two Primary Flight Displays (PFD) and a
Multi Function Display (MFD). The information to successfully navigate the aircraft using the GPS sensors is
displayed on the PFD and the MFD. See examples in the Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2. Detailed descriptions of flight
management functions are discussed later in this section.
A brief description of the GPS navigation data on the PFD and MFD follows.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Navigation mode indicates which sensor is providing the course data (e.g., GPS, VOR) and the flight plan phase
(e.g., Departure (DPRT), Terminal (TERM), Enroute (ENR), Oceanic (OCN), RNAV Approach (LNAV, LNAV+V,
L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV), or Missed Approach (MAPR)). L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service levels are
only available with SBAS L/VNAV approaches will be flown as a Baro VNAV approach when SBAS is not available.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Inset Map is a small version of the MFD Navigation Map and can be displayed in the lower left corner of
the PFD. When the system is in reversionary mode, the Inset Map is displayed in the lower right corner. The
Inset Map is displayed by pressing the INSET Softkey. Pressing the INSET Softkey again, then pressing the OFF
Softkey removes the Inset Map.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Navigation Map displays aviation data (e.g., airports, VORs, airways, airspaces), geographic data (e.g.,
cities, lakes, highways, borders), topographic data (map shading indicating elevation), and hazard data (e.g.,
traffic, terrain, weather). The amount of displayed data can be reduced by pressing the DCLTR Softkey. The
Navigation Map can be oriented four different ways: North Up (NORTH UP), Track Up (TRK UP), Desired Track
Up (DTK UP), or Heading Up (HDG UP).
AFCS
An aircraft icon is placed on the Navigation Map at the location corresponding to the calculated present position.
The aircraft position and the flight plan legs are accurately based on GPS calculations. The basemap upon which
these are placed are from a source with less resolution, therefore the relative position of the aircraft to map features
is not exact. The leg of the active flight plan currently being flown is shown as a magenta line on the navigation
map. The other legs are shown in white.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 500 feet to 2000 nm. The current range is indicated in the
lower right corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. To change the map
range on any map, turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to zoom in ( -, decreasing), or clockwise to zoom out (+,
increasing).
APPENDICES
The Direct-to Window, the Flight Plan Window, the Procedures Window, and the Nearest Airports Window
can be displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Details of these windows are discussed in detail later in
the section.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Navigation Status Box
Navigation Mode
Inset Map
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Location of:
- Direct To Window
- Flight Plan Window
- Procedures Window
- Nearest Airports Window
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Navigation Status Box
Navigation Page Title
Map Orientation
Navigation Map
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Aviation Data
- Geographic Data
- Topographic Data
- Hazard Data
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Map Range
APPENDICES
Flight Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Leg
Figure 5-2 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Page
NAVIGATION STATUS BOX
INDEX
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the PFD contains two fields displaying the following
information:
PFD Navigation Status Box
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• Active flight plan leg (e.g., ‘D-> KICT’ or ‘KIXD -> KCOS’) or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘Turn right to
021˚ in 8 seconds’)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Distance (DIS) and Bearing (BRG) to the next waypoint or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘TOD within 1
minute’)
The symbols used in the PFD status bar are:
Symbol
Description
Active Leg
Symbol
Description
Left Holding Pattern
Vector to Final
Right Procedure Turn
Right DME Arc
Left Procedure Turn
Left DME Arc
EIS
Direct-to
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Right Holding Pattern
Bearing
Distance
Desired Track
Endurance
ETE to Final Destination
Enroute Safe Altitude
Estimated Time of Arrival
Estimated Time Enroute
FOB
FOD
GS
ISA
LDG
MSA
TAS
TRK
Fuel on Board
Fuel over Destination
Ground Speed
ISA Relative Temperature
ETA at Final Destination
Minimum Safe Altitude
True Air Speed
Track
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
BRG
DIS
DTK
END
ENR
ESA
ETA
ETE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the MFD contains four data fields, each displaying one of the
following items:
AFCS
MFD Navigation Status Box
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The navigation information displayed in the four data fields can be selected on the MFD Data Bar Fields Box
on the AUX - System Setup Page. The default selections (in order left to right) are GS, DTK, TRK, and ETE.
Changing a field in the MFD Navigation Status Box:
APPENDICES
1) Select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the MFD Data Bar Fields Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the data options list.
INDEX
5) Select the desired data.
6) Press the ENT Key. Pressing the DFLTS Softkey returns all fields to the default setting.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.2 USING MAP DISPLAYS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Map displays are used extensively in the G950 to provide situational awareness in flight. Most G950 maps can
display the following information:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
• Airports, NAVAIDs, airspaces, airways,
land data (highways, cities, lakes, rivers,
borders, etc.) with names
• Map range
•Wind direction and speed
• Map orientation
• Icons for enabled map features
• Aircraft icon (representing present position)
• Nav range ring
• Fuel range ring
• Map Pointer information (distance and
bearing to pointer, location of pointer,
name, and other pertinent information)
• Flight plan legs
• User waypoints
• Track vector
• Topography scale
• Topography data
• Obstacle data
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The information in this section applies to the following maps unless otherwise noted:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• All Map Group Pages (MAP)
• All Waypoint Group Pages (WPT)
• AUX - Trip Planning
• All Nearest Group Pages (NRST)
• Flight Plan Pages (FPL)
• Direct-to Window
• PFD Inset Map
• Procedure Loading Pages
MAP ORIENTATION
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Maps are shown in one of four different orientation options, allowing flexibility in determining aircraft
position relative to other items on the map (north up) or for determining where map items are relative to where
the aircraft is going (track up, desired track up, or heading up). The map orientation is shown in the upper
right corner of the map.
Figure 5-3 Map Orientation
INDEX
• North up (NORTH UP) aligns the top of the map display to north (default setting).
• Track up (TRK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current ground track.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• Desired track up (DTK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the desired course.
• Heading up (HDG UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current aircraft heading.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: When panning or reviewing active flight plan legs in a non-North Up orientation, the map does not
show the map orientation nor the wind direction and speed.
NOTE: Map orientation can only be changed on the Navigation Map Page. Any other displays that show
navigation data reflect the orientation selected for the Navigation Map Page:
EIS
Changing the Navigation Map orientation:
1) With the Navigation Map Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Map Setup
Selection
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-4 Navigation Map Page Menu Window
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Map Setup Window.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob, or press the ENT Key once, to select the ‘ORIENTATION’ field.
AFCS
Map Group Selection
Orientation Field
Auto North Up
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- On/Off
- Minimum Range
APPENDICES
Figure 5-5 Map Setup Menu Window - Map Group
INDEX
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired orientation.
5) Press the ENT Key to select the new orientation.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the base page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
The map can be configured to switch automatically to a north up orientation when the map range reaches a
minimum range.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Enabling/disabling Auto North Up and selecting the minimum switching range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
EIS
5) Highlight the ‘AUTO NORTH UP’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’ using the small FMS Knob.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the range field.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select the desired range.
9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
MAP RANGE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 500 feet to 2000 nm. The current range is indicated in
the lower right corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. When the
map range is decreased to a point that exceeds the capability of the G950 to accurately represent the map,
a magnifying glass icon is shown to the left of the map range. To change the map range turn the Joystick
counter-clockwise to decrease the range, or clockwise to increase the range.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Range Overzoom
APPENDICES
Figure 5-6 Map Range
AUTO ZOOM
INDEX
Auto zoom allows the system to change the map display range to the smallest range clearly showing the
active waypoint. Auto zoom can be overridden by adjusting the range with the Joystick, and remains until
the active waypoint changes, a terrain or traffic alert occurs, the aircraft takes off, or the manual override times
out (timer set on Map Setup Window). Auto zoom is suspended while the map pointer is active.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If a terrain caution or warning occurs, all navigation maps automatically adjust to the smallest map range
clearly showing the potential impact points If a new traffic advisory alert occurs, any map page capable of
displaying traffic advisory alerts automatically adjusts to the smallest map range clearly showing the traffic
advisory. When terrain or traffic alerts clear, the map returns to the previous auto zoom range based on the
active waypoint.
The auto zoom function can be turned on or off independently for the PFDs and MFD. Control of the
ranges at which the auto zoom occurs is done by setting the minimum and maximum ‘look forward’ times
(set on the Map Setup Window for the Map Group). These settings determine the minimum and maximum
distance to display based upon the aircraft’s ground speed.
EIS
• Waypoints that are long distances apart cause the map range to increase to a point where many details on
the map are decluttered. If this is not acceptable, lower the maximum look ahead time to a value that limits
the auto zoom to an acceptable range.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Waypoints that are very short distances apart cause the map range to decrease to a point where situational
awareness may not be what is desired. Increase the minimum look ahead time to a value that limits the auto
zoom to a minimum range that provides acceptable situational awareness.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Flight plans that have a combination of long and short legs cause the range to increase and decrease as
waypoints sequence. To avoid this, auto zoom can be disabled or the maximum/minimum times can be
adjusted.
• The ‘time out’ time (configurable on the Map Setup Page for the Map Group) determines how long auto
zoom is overridden by a manual adjustment of the range knob. At the expiration of this time, the auto
zoom range is restored. Setting the ‘time out’ value to zero causes the manual override to never time out.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• When the maximum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the upper limit becomes the maximum range available
(2000 nm).
• When the minimum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the lower limit becomes 1.5 nm.
Manual Range Override
Expiration Time
AFCS
Auto Zoom
Off, MFD Only, PFD Only, All On
Maximum Look Forward Time
Minimum Look Forward Time
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-7 Map Setup Menu Window - Map Group, Auto Zoom
INDEX
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147
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Configuring automatic zoom:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘AUTO ZOOM’ field.
6) Select ‘Off’, ‘MFD Only’, ‘PFD Only’, or ‘ALL On’.
EIS
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘MAX LOOK FWD’ field.
Times are from zero to 999 minutes.
8) Use the FMS Knobs to set the time. Press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
9) Repeat step 8 for ‘MIN LOOK FWD’ (zero to 99 minutes) and ‘TIME OUT’ (zero to 99 minutes).
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
MAP PANNING
Map panning allows the pilot to:
• View parts of the map outside the displayed range without adjusting the map range
• Highlight and select locations on the map
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Review information for a selected airport, NAVAID or user waypoint
• Designate locations for use in flight planning
• View airspace and airway information
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
When the panning function is selected by pressing the Joystick, the Map Pointer flashes on the map display.
A window also appears at the top of the map display showing the latitude/longitude position of the pointer,
the bearing and distance to the pointer from the aircraft’s present position, and the elevation of the land at the
position of the pointer.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Map Pointer
Information
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Map
Pointer
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-8 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: The map is normally centered on the aircraft’s position. If the map has been panned and there has
been no pointer movement for about 60 seconds, the map reverts back to centered on the aircraft position
and the flashing pointer is removed.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When the Map Pointer is placed on an object, the name of the object is highlighted (even if the name was
not originally displayed on the map). When any map feature or object is selected on the map display, pertinent
information is displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Information about
Point of Interest
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Map Pointer on POI
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-9 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
AFCS
When the Map Pointer crosses an airspace boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace information
is shown at the top of the display. The information includes the name and class of airspace, the ceiling in feet
above Mean Sea Level (MSL), and the floor in feet MSL.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Information about
Airspace
INDEX
APPENDICES
Map Pointer on
Airspace
Figure 5-10 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Airspace
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Panning the map:
1) Press the Joystick to display the Map Pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to move the Map Pointer around the map.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and recenter the map on the aircraft’s current position.
Reviewing information for an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint:
1) Place the Map Pointer on a waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Waypoint Information Page for the selected waypoint.
EIS
3) Press the GO BACK Softkey, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the Waypoint Information Page and return to
the Navigation Map showing the selected waypoint.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NAVAID
Information
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
GO BACK Softkey
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Information Window - NAVAID
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Viewing airspace information for a special-use or controlled airspace:
1) Place the Map Pointer on an open area within the boundaries of an airspace.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the ENT Key to display an options menu.
3) ‘Review Airspaces’ should already be highlighted, if not select it. Press the ENT Key to display the Airspace
Information Page for the selected airspace.
4) Press the CLR or ENT Key to exit the Airspace Information Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Airspace
Information
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 5-12 Navigation Map - Information Window - Airspace
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MEASURING BEARING AND DISTANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Distance and bearing from the aircraft’s present position to any point on the viewable navigation map may be
calculated using the ‘Measure Bearing and Distance’ selection from Navigation Map page menu. The bearing
and distance tool displays a dashed Measurement Line and a Measure Pointer to aid in graphically identifying
points with which to measure. Lat/Long, distance and elevation data for the Measure Pointer is provided in a
window at the top of the navigation map.
Measuring bearing and distance between any two points:
1) Press the MENU Key (with the Navigation Map Page displayed).
EIS
2) Highlight the ‘Measure Bearing/Distance’ field.
3) Press the ENT Key. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present position.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Move the Joystick to place the reference pointer at the desired location. The bearing and distance are displayed
at the top of the map. Elevation at the current pointer position is also displayed. Pressing the ENT Key changes
the starting point for measuring.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance option, press the Joystick; or select ‘Stop Measuring’ from the Page
Menu and press the ENT Key.
Measurement Information
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pointer Lat/Long
Measurement Line
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Measuring Bearing and Distance
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
TOPOGRAPHY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
All navigation maps can display various shades of topography colors representing land elevation, similar
to aviation sectional charts. Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following
procedures.
Navigation Map
Topographic Data
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Navigation Map
Black Background
TOPO Softkey
Not Enabled
TOPO Softkey
Enabled
TOPO Off
TOPO On
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-14 Navigation Map - Topographic Data
Displaying/removing topographic data on all pages displaying navigation maps:
1) Press the MAP Softkey (the INSET Softkey for the PFD Inset Map).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the TOPO Softkey.
3) Press the TOPO Softkey again to remove topographic data from the Navigation Map. When topographic data
is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data (TOPO DATA) using the Navigation Map Page Menu:
AFCS
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘TOPO DATA’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
INDEX
APPENDICES
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TOPO DATA
On/Off
TOPO DATA
Range
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-15 Navigation Map Setup Menu - TOPO DATA Setup
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The topographic data range is the maximum map range on which topographic data is displayed.
NOTE: Since the PFD Inset Map is much smaller than the MFD navigation maps, items are removed on the
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PFD Inset Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the Map Setup pages (e.g., a setting
of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD navigation maps, while the PFD Inset Map
removes the same item at 50 nm).
Selecting a topographical data range (TOPO DATA):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
AFCS
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘TOPO DATA’ range field. TOPO ranges are from 500 ft to 2000 nm.
6) To change the TOPO range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
7) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
APPENDICES
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
In addition, the Navigation Map can display a topographic scale (located in the lower right hand side of the
map) showing a scale of the terrain elevation and current elevation values.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Maximum Displayed Elevation
Minimum Displayed Elevation
Aircraft Altitude (MSL)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Range of
Displayed
Elevations
Ground Elevation at Pointer
Location (only visible when
Pointer is displayed)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-16 Navigation Map - TOPO SCALE
Displaying/removing the topographic scale (TOPO SCALE):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group and press the ENT Key.
4) Highlight the ‘TOPO SCALE’ field.
5) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
INDEX
TOPO SCALE
On/Off
Figure 5-17 Navigation Map Setup Menu - TOPO SCALE Setup
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MAP SYMBOLS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
This section discusses the types of land and aviation symbols that can be displayed. Each listed type of symbol
can be turned on or off, and the maximum range to display each symbol can be set. The decluttering of the
symbols from the map using the DCLTR Softkey is also discussed.
LAND SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the land menu:
Land Symbols
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
EIS
(Text label size can be None, Small, Medium (Med), or Large
(Lrg))
Latitude/Longitude (LAT/LON)
Off
2000
Interstate Highway (FREEWAY)
300
800
International Highway (FREEWAY)
300
800
US Highway (NATIONAL HWY)
30
80
State Highway (LOCAL HWY)
15
30
8
15
Railroads (RAILROAD)
15
30
LARGE CITY (> 200,000)
800
1500
MEDIUM CITY (> 50,000)
100
200
SMALL CITY (> 5,000)
States and Provinces (STATE/PROV)
20
800
50
1500
Rivers and Lakes (RIVER/LAKE)
200
500
USER WAYPOINT
150
300
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
N/A
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Local Road (LOCAL ROAD)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Highways and Roads
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Table 5-1 Land Symbol Information
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AVIATION SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the aviation menu:
Aviation Symbols
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
(Text label size can be None, Small, Medium (Med),
or Large (Lrg))
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Active Flight Plan Leg (ACTIVE FPL)
2000
2000
Non-active Flight Plan Leg (ACTIVE FPL)
2000
2000
2000
200
2000
500
150
300
50
100
3
Off
15
20
100
30
Non-directional Beacon (NDB WAYPOINT)
15
30
VOR (VOR WAYPOINT)
150
300
Class B Airspace/TMA (CLASS B/TMA)
200
500
Class C Airspace/TCA (CLASS C/TCA)
200
500
Class D Airspace (CLASS D)
150
300
Restricted Area (RESTRICTED)
200
500
Military Operations Area [MOA(MILITARY)]
200
500
Other/Air Defense Interdiction Zone (OTHER/ADIZ)
200
500
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
500
2000
Active Flight Plan Waypoint (ACTIVE FPL WPT)
Large Airports (LARGE APT) (Longest Runway ≥ 8100 ft)
Medium Airports (MEDIUM APT) (8100 ft > Longest
Runway ≥ 5000 ft)
Small Airports (SMALL APT) (Longest Runway < 5000 ft)
(Medium Airport if it has a tower frequency)
Taxiways (SAFETAXI)
Runway Extension (RWY EXTENSION)
Intersection (INT WAYPOINT)
APPENDICES
Symbol
See Airports, NAVAIDs
See Additional Features
N/A
INDEX
Table 5-2 Aviation Symbol Information
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYMBOL SETUP
All pages with maps can display land symbols (roads, lakes, borders, etc). Land symbols can be removed
totally (turned off).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Displaying/removing all land symbols:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The Page Menu is displayed and the cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Group Menu is displayed and the cursor flashes on the ‘Map’ option.
EIS
3) Highlight the ‘LAND DATA’ field.
4) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
LAND DATA
On/Off
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map Setup Menu - LAND DATA Setup
AFCS
The label size (TEXT) sets the size at which labels appear on the display (none, small, medium, and large).
The range (RNG) sets the maximum range at which items appear on the display.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selecting a ‘Land’ or ‘Aviation’ group item text size and range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
APPENDICES
3) Select the ‘Land’ or ‘Aviation’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Select the desired land option.
6) Select the desired text size.
INDEX
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected size.
8) Select the desired range.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected range.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Text Label Size
(None, Small, Med, or Lrg)
Maximum Display Range
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-19 Navigation Map Setup Menu - LAND GROUP Setup
Maximum Display Range
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Text Label Size
(None, Small, Med, or Lrg)
APPENDICES
Figure 5-20 Navigation Map Setup Menu - AVIATION GROUP Setup
NOTE: Since the PFD Inset Map is much smaller than the MFD navigation maps, items are removed on the
INDEX
PFD Inset Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the Map Setup pages (e.g., a setting
of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD navigation maps, while the PFD Inset Map
removes the same item at 50 nm).
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MAP DECLUTTER
The declutter feature allows the pilot to progressively step through four levels of removing map information.
The declutter level is displayed in the DCLTR Softkey and next to the Declutter Menu Option.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Declutter Level
EIS
DCLTR Softkey
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 5-21 Navigation Map - Declutter Level Indications
Decluttering the map:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Press the DCLTR Softkey with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The current declutter level is shown. With
each softkey selection, another level of map information is removed.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed.
2) Select ‘Declutter’. The current declutter level is shown.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the ENT Key.
Decluttering the PFD Inset Map:
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
AFCS
2) Press the DCLTR Softkey. The current declutter level is shown. With each selection, another level of map
information is removed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Table 5-3 lists the items that are decluttered at each map detail level. The ‘X’ represents map items
decluttered for each level of detail.
Item
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Data Link Radar Precipitation
Data Link Lightning
Graphical METARs
Airports
Safe Taxi
Runway Labels
TFRs
Restricted
MOA (Military)
User Waypoints
Latitude/Longitude Grid
NAVAIDs (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Intersections (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Class B Airspaces/TMA
Class C Airspaces/TCA
Class D Airspaces
Other Airspaces/ADIZ
Obstacles
Cities
Roads
Railroads
State/Province Boundaries
Declutter-1 Declutter-2 Declutter-3
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 5-3 Navigation Map Items Decluttered for each Detail Level
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AIRWAYS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Low Altitude Airways (or Victor Airways) primarily serve smaller piston-engine, propeller-driven airplanes on
shorter routes and at lower altitudes. Airways are eight nautical miles wide and start 1,200 feet above ground
level (AGL) and extend up to but not including 18,000 feet mean sea level (MSL). Low Altitude Airways are
designated with a “V” before the airway number (hence the name “Victor Airways”) since they run primarily
between VORs.
EIS
High Altitude Airways (or Jet Routes) primarily serve airliners, jets, turboprops, and turbocharged piston
aircraft operating above 18,000 feet MSL. Jet Routes start at 18,000 feet MSL and extend upward to 45,000 feet
MSL (altitudes above 18,000 feet are called “flight levels” and are described as FL450 for 45,000 feet MSL). Jet
Routes are designated with a “J” before the route number.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Low Altitude Airways are drawn in gray (the same shade used for roads). High Altitude Airways are drawn
in green. When both types of airways are displayed, High Altitude Airways are drawn on top of Low Altitude
Airways.
When airways are selected for display on the map, the airway waypoints (VORs, NDBs and Intersections) are
also displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
High Altitude
Airway
(Jet Route)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Low Altitude
Airway
(Victor Airway)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-22 Airways on MFD Navigation Page
INDEX
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163
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Airways may be displayed on the map at the pilot’s discretion using either a combination of AIRWAY Softkey
presses, or menu selections using the MENU Key from the Navigation Map Page. The Airway range can also be
programmed to only display Airways on the MFD when the map range is at or below a specific number.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Displaying/removing airways:
1) Press the MAP Softkey.
2) Press the AIRWAYS Softkey. Both High and Low Altitude Airways are displayed.
3) Press the softkey again to display Low Altitude Airways only.
EIS
4) Press the softkey again to display High Altitude Airways only.
5) Press the softkey again to remove High Altitude Airways. No airways are displayed.
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ group, and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘AIRWAYS’ field.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Off’, ‘All’, ‘LO Only’, or ‘HI Only’, and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Airway Display Selection
Off, All, LO Only, HI Only
Low Altitude Airway Range
High Altitude Airway Range
AFCS
Figure 5-23 Navigation Map Setup Menu - AIRWAYS Setup
The airway range is the maximum map range on which airways are displayed.
Selecting an airway range (LOW ALT AIRWAY or HI ALT AIRWAY):
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ group, and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
4) Highlight the ‘LOW ALT AIRWAY’ or ‘HI ALT AIRWAY’ range field.
5) To change the range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
6) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The following range items are configurable on the airways menu:
Airway Type
Symbol
Low Altitude Airway (LOW ALT AIRWAY)
High Altitude Airway (HI ALT AIRWAY)
300
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
200
500
500
Table 5-4 Airway Range Information
EIS
TRACK VECTOR
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Navigation Map can display a track vector that is useful in minimizing track angle error. The track vector
is a solid cyan line segment extended to a predicted location. The track vector look-ahead time is selectable (30
sec, 60 sec (default), 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min) and determines the length of the track vector. The track
vector shows up to 90 degrees of a turn for the 30 and 60 second time settings. It is always a straight line for
the 2 min, 5 min, 10 min and 20 min settings.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Track Vector
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-24 Navigation Map -Track Vector
Displaying/removing the track vector:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
AFCS
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Highlight the ‘TRACK VECTOR’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’. Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the look
ahead time field. Use the FMS Knob to select the desired time. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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Wind Vector On/Off
Nav Range Ring On/Off
Track Vector
- On/Off
- Look Ahead Time
SVT Field of View On/Off
Selected Altitude Arc On/Off
Fuel Range Ring
- On/Off
- Fuel Reserve Time
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-25 Navigation Map Setup Menu - WIND VECTOR On/Off, NAV RANGE RING On/Off, FIELD OF VIEW On/Off,
SEL ALT ARC On/Off, TRACK VECTOR Setup, FUEL RNG (RSV) Setup
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
WIND VECTOR
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The map displays a wind vector arrow in the upper right-hand portion of the screen. Wind vector information
is displayed as a white arrow pointing in the direction in which the wind is moving for wind speeds greater than
or equal to 1 kt.
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
AFCS
Figure 5-26 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
NOTE: The wind vector is not displayed until the aircraft is moving. It is not displayed on the Waypoint
Information pages.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Displaying/removing the wind vector:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
APPENDICES
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘WIND VECTOR’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
INDEX
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NAV RANGE RING
The Nav Range Ring shows the direction of travel (ground track) on a rotating compass card. The range is
determined by the map range. The range is 1/4 of the map range (e.g., 37.5 nm on a 150 nm map).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Range (radius)
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Nav Range Ring
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-27 Navigation Map - Nav Range Ring
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: The Nav Range Ring is not displayed on the Waypoint Information pages, Nearest pages, or Direct-to
Window map.
Displaying/removing the Nav Range Ring:
AFCS
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘NAV RANGE RING’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
APPENDICES
NOTE: The Nav Range Ring is referenced to either magnetic or true north, based on the selection on the AUX
- System Setup Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FUEL RANGE RING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The map can display a fuel range ring which shows the remaining flight distance. A dashed green circle
indicates the selected range to reserve fuel. A solid green circle indicates the total endurance range. If only
reserve fuel remains, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle.
Total Endurance Range
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Time to Reserve Fuel
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Range to Reserve Fuel
Figure 5-28 Navigation Map - Fuel Range Ring
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Displaying/removing the fuel range ring and selecting a fuel range time:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
AFCS
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘FUEL RNG (RSV)’ field.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Highlight the fuel reserve time field. This time should be set to the amount of flight time equal to the amount
of fuel reserve desired.
APPENDICES
8) To change the reserve fuel time, enter a time (00:00 to 23:59; hours:minutes). The default setting is 00:45
minutes.
9) Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FIELD OF VIEW (SVT)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The map can display the boundaries of the PFD Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) lateral field of view. The
field of view is shown as two dashed lines forming a V shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map. This is
only available if SVT is installed on the aircraft.
EIS
Lateral Field
of View
Boundaries
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-29 Navigation Map - Field of View
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Displaying/removing the field of view:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘FIELD OF VIEW’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
AFCS
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SELECTED ALTITUDE INTERCEPT ARC
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The map can display the location along the current track where the aircraft will intercept the selected altitude.
The location will be shown as a cyan arc when the aircraft is actually climbing or descending.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Range to
Altitude Arc
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-30 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
Displaying/removing the selected altitude intercept arc:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘SEL ALT ARC’ field.
AFCS
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5.3 WAYPOINTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Waypoints are predetermined geographical positions (internal database) or pilot-entered positions, and are
used for all phases of flight planning and navigation.
Communication and navigation frequencies can be tuned “automatically” from various Waypoint Information
(WPT) pages, Nearest (NRST) pages, and the Nearest Airports Window (on PFD). This auto-tuning feature
simplifies frequency entry over manual tuning. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS section for details on autotuning.
City Entry Field
Facility
Entry Field
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Identifier Entry Field
EIS
Waypoints can be selected by entering the ICAO identifier, entering the name of the facility, or by entering the
city name. See the System Overview section for detailed instructions on entering data in the G950. As a waypoint
identifier, facility name, or location is entered, the G950’s Spell’N’Find™ feature scrolls through the database,
displaying those waypoints matching the characters which have been entered to that point. A direct-to navigation
leg to the selected waypoint can be initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key on any of the waypoint pages.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Waypoint Identifier
- Type (symbol)
- Facility Name
- City
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Entered Waypoint on
Map
Map Area Showing
Entered Waypoint
Waypoint Location
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-31 Waypoint Information Window
APPENDICES
If duplicate entries exist for the entered facility name or location, additional entries may be viewed by continuing
to turn the small FMS Knob during the selection process. If duplicate entries exist for an identifier, a Duplicate
Waypoints Window is displayed when the ENT Key is pressed.
INDEX
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171
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Identifier with
Duplicates
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Duplicate
Waypoints
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Duplicate Message
AIRPORTS
Figure 5-32 Waypoint Information Window - Duplicate Identifier
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: ‘North Up’ orientation on the Airport Information Page cannot be changed; the pilot needs to be
aware of proper orientation if the Navigation Map orientation is different from the Airport Information Page
Map.
AFCS
The Airport Information Page is the first page in WPT group and allows the pilot to view airport information,
load frequencies (COM, NAV, and lighting), review runways, and review instrument procedures that may be
involved in the flight plan. See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information on loading frequencies
(auto-tuning). After engine startup, the Airport Information Page defaults to the airport where the aircraft is
located. After a flight plan has been loaded, it defaults to the destination airport. On a flight plan with multiple
airports, it defaults to the airport which is the current active waypoint.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the Airport Information
Page displays airport information in three boxes labeled ‘AIRPORT’, ‘RUNWAYS’, and ‘FREQUENCIES’. For
airports with multiple runways, information for each runway is available. This information is viewed on the
Airport Information Page by pressing the INFO softkey until INFO-1 is displayed.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Airport Information
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Airport
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
- Lat/Long/Elev
- Fuel Available
- Time Zone (UTC Offset)
Runway Information
- Designation
- Length/Width/Surface
- Lighting Available
EIS
Airport/Runway
Diagram
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Identification
- Frequency
- Availability
- Additional Information
Softkeys
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-33 Airport Information Page
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the Airport Information Page:
• Usage type: Public, Military, Private, or Heliport
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Runway surface type: Hard, Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft, Unknown, or Water
• Runway lighting type: No Lights, Part Time, Full Time, Unknown, or PCL Freq (for pilot-controlled
lighting)
• COM Availability: TX (transmit only), RX (receive only), PT (part time), i (additional information available)
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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173
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Airport Directory
Information
Airport Information
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
Softkeys
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-34 Airport Directory Page Example
The airport directory information is viewed on the Airport Directory Page by pressing the INFO softkey
until INFO-2 is displayed. The following are types of airport directory information shown (if available) on the
Airport Directory Page:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Airport:
Identifier, Site
Number, Name, City, State
• Phones: Phone/Fax Numbers
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
• Hours: Facility Hours, Light
Hours, Tower Hours, Beacon
Hours
• Location: Sectional, Magnetic
Variation
• Frequencies: Type/Frequency
• Runway: Headings, Length,
Width, Obstructions, Surface
• Obstructions: General Airport
Obstructions
• Special
Operations
at
Airport
• Instrument
Approaches:
Published
Approach,
Frequency
• NAVAIDS: Type, Identifier,
Frequency, Radial, Distance
• Noise:
Noise Abatement
Procedures
• Charts: Low Altitude Chart
Number
• Services Available: Category,
Specific Service
• Notes: Airport Notes
• Pilot Controlled Lighting:
High/Med/Low Clicks/Second
• FBO:
Type, Frequencies,
Services, Fees, Fuel, Credit
Cards, Phone/Fax Numbers
INDEX
APPENDICES
• Transportation:
Ground
Transportation Type Available
• Approach: Approach Facility
Name, Frequency, Frequency
Parameter
• Traffic Pattern Altitudes
(TPA): Aircraft Class/Altitude
• Weather:
Service Type,
Frequency, Phone Number
• Flight Service Station (FSS):
FSS Name, Phone Numbers
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting an airport for review by identifier, facility name, or location:
1) From the Airport Information Page, press the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Selecting a runway:
1) With the Airport Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
EIS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘RUNWAYS’ Box, on the runway designator.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired runway (if more than one) for the selected airport.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) To remove the flashing cursor, press the FMS Knob.
Viewing a destination airport:
From the Airport Information Page press the MENU Key. Select ‘View Destination Airport’. The Destination
Airport is displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Airport Frequencies Box uses the descriptions and abbreviations listed in the following table:
Navigation Frequencies
ILS
LOC
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Communication Frequencies
Approach * Control
Pre-Taxi
Arrival *
CTA *
Radar
ASOS
Departure * Ramp
ATIS
Gate
Terminal *
AWOS
Ground
TMA *
Center
Helicopter
Tower
Class B *
Multicom
TRSA *
Class C *
Other
Unicom
Clearance
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
* May include Additional Information
Table 5-5 Airport Frequency Abbreviations
APPENDICES
A departure, arrival, or approach can be loaded using the softkeys on the Airport Information Page. See the
Procedures section for details. METARs or TAFs applicable to the selected airport can be selected for display (see
the Hazard Avoidance section for details about weather).
The G950 provides a NRST Softkey on the PFD, which gives the pilot quick access to nearest airport
information (very useful if an immediate landing is required). The Nearest Airports Window displays a list
of up to 25 nearest airports (three entries can be displayed at one time). If there are more than three they are
displayed in a scrollable list. If there are no nearest airports available, “NONE WITHIN 200NM” is displayed.
INDEX
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175
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Bearing/Distance to Airport
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Airport Identifier/
Type
Approach Available
Length of Longest
Runway
COM Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Additional Airports
(within 200 nm)
NRST Softkey
Figure 5-35 Nearest Airports Window on PFD
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pressing the ENT Key displays the PFD Airport Information Window for the highlighted airport. Pressing
the ENT Key again returns to the Nearest Airports Window with the cursor on the next airport in the list.
Continued presses of the ENT Key sequences through the information pages for all airports in the Nearest
Airports list.
Airport Information
- ID/Type/City
- Facility
AFCS
Airport Information
- Usage/Time/Elev
- Region
Airport Information
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Lat/Long
APPENDICES
The Nearest Airports Page on the MFD is first in the group of NRST pages because of its potential use in
the event of an in-flight emergency. In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and
surrounding area, the page displays nearest airport information in five boxes labeled ‘NEAREST AIRPORTS’,
‘INFORMATION’, ‘RUNWAYS’, ‘FREQUENCIES’, and ‘APPROACHES’.
INDEX
Figure 5-36 Airport Information Window on PFD
The selected airport is indicated by a white arrow, and a dashed white line is drawn on the navigation map
from the aircraft position to the nearest airport. Up to five nearest airports, one runway, up to three frequencies,
and up to three approaches are visible at one time. If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled.
If there are no items for display in a boxed area, text indicating that fact is displayed. The currently selected
airport remains in the list until it is unselected.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Navigation Map Showing Nearest Airport
Nearest Airport
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Nearest Airports
- ID/Type
- Bearing/Distance
Airport Information
- Facility/City/Elevation
EIS
Runway Information
- Designation/Surface
- Length/Width
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Approaches Available
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
LD APR Softkey (only
available if an approach is
highlighted)
Window Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-37 Nearest Airport Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the PFD:
1) Press the NRST Softkey to display the Nearest Airports Window. Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the airport identifier with the FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to display the Airport Information
Window.
AFCS
3) To return to the Nearest Airports Window press the ENT Key (with the cursor on ‘BACK’) or press the CLR
Key. The cursor is now on the next airport in the nearest airports list. (Repeatedly pressing the ENT Key
moves through the airport list, alternating between the Nearest Airports Window and the Airport Information
Window.)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the CLR Key or the NRST Softkey to close the PFD Nearest Airports Window.
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the NRST page group.
APPENDICES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Nearest Airports Page (it is the first page of the group, so it may already
be selected). If there are no Nearest Airports available, “NONE WITHIN 200 NM” is displayed.
3) Press the APT Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Airport Window’ and
press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘NEAREST AIRPORTS’ Box. The first airport in the nearest airports
list is highlighted.
INDEX
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177
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport. (Pressing the ENT Key also moves to the next airport.)
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Viewing runway information for a specific airport:
1) With the Nearest Airports Page displayed, press the RNWY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select
Runway Window’; and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘RUNWAYS’ Box.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
EIS
See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for frequency selection and the Procedures section for approaches.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Nearest Airports Box on the System Setup Page defines the minimum runway length and surface type
used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on the MFD Nearest Airports Page. A minimum
runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways or runways that are
not appropriately surfaced from being displayed. Default settings are 0 feet (or meters) for runway length and
“HARD/SOFT” for runway surface type.
Selecting nearest airport surface matching criteria:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the runway surface field in the Nearest Airports Box.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (ANY, HARD ONLY, HARD/SOFT, WATER).
5) Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Selecting nearest airport minimum runway length matching criteria:
AFCS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the minimum length field in the Nearest Airport Box.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the minimum runway length (zero to 25,000 feet) and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Nearest Airport Criteria
INDEX
- Type of Runway Surface
- Minimum Runway Length
Figure 5-38 System Setup Page - Nearest Airport Selection Criteria
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
INTERSECTIONS
NOTE: The VOR displayed on the Intersection Information Page is the nearest VOR, not necessarily the VOR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
used to define the intersection.
The Intersection Information Page is used to view information about intersections. In addition to displaying
a map of the currently selected intersection and surrounding area, the Intersection Information Page displays
intersection information in three boxes labeled ‘INTERSECTION’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘NEAREST VOR’.
Selected Intersection
EIS
Intersection Identifier
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Intersection Info
- Region
- Lat/Long
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Nearest VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Intersection
AFCS
Figure 5-39 Intersection Information Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selecting an intersection:
1) With the Intersection Information Page displayed, enter an identifier in the Intersection Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
INDEX
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179
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
1) With the Nearest Intersections Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest Intersection Box.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The Nearest Intersections Page can be used to quickly find an intersection close to the flight path. In addition
to displaying a map of the surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest intersections in
three boxes labeled ‘NEAREST INT’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘REFERENCE VOR’.
EIS
The selected intersection is indicated by a white arrow. Up to fifteen intersections are visible at a time. If
there are more than can be shown, the list can be scrolled. If there are no items for display, text indicating that
fact is displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: The list only includes waypoints that are within 200 nm.
Navigation Map Showing Nearest Intersection
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Nearest Intersection
Intersection Information
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to
intersection from
aircraft position
AFCS
Intersection Lat/Long
Reference VOR Info
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- VOR Frequency
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 5-40 Nearest Intersections Page
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NDBS
Selected NDB
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The NDB Information Page is used to view information about NDBs. In addition to displaying a map of
the currently selected NDB and surrounding area, the page displays NDB information in four boxes labeled
‘NDB’, ‘INFORMATION’, ‘FREQUENCY’, and ‘NEAREST AIRPORT’.
Navigation Map Showing Selected NDB
NDB Identifier/Type
EIS
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
NDB Information
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Type
- Region
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-41 NDB Information Page
AFCS
NOTE: Compass locator (LOM, LMM): a low power, low or medium frequency radio beacon installed in
conjunction with the instrument landing system. When LOM is used, the locator is at the Outer Marker;
when LMM is used, the locator is at the Middle Marker.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selecting an NDB:
1) With the NDB Information Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the NDB, or the city in which it’s
located in the NDB Box.
APPENDICES
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
1) With the Nearest NDB Page displayed, press the FMS Knob
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest NDB Box.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The Nearest NDB Page can be used to quickly find a NDB close to the flight path. In addition to displaying
a map of the surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest NDBs in three boxes labeled
‘NEAREST NDB’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘FREQUENCY’.
EIS
A white arrow before the NDB identifier indicates the selected NDB. Up to fifteen NDBs are visible at a time.
If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. The list only includes waypoints that are within
200nm. If there are no NDBs in the list, text indicating that there are no nearest NDBs is displayed. If there are
no nearest NDBs in the list, the information and frequency fields are dashed.
Nearest NDB
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Navigation Map Showing Selected NDB
NDB Identifier/Symbol
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Bearing/Distance to
NDB from aircraft
position
NDB Information
AFCS
- Facility Name/City
- Type
- Lat/Long
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NDB Frequency
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 5-42 Nearest NDB Page
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
VORS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The VOR Information Page can be used to view information about VOR and ILS signals (since ILS signals
can be received on a NAV receiver), or to quickly auto-tune a VOR or ILS frequency. Localizer information
cannot be viewed on the VOR Information Page. If a VOR station is combined with a TACAN station it is
listed as a VORTAC on the VOR Information Page and if it includes only DME, it is displayed as VOR-DME.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected VOR and surrounding area, the VOR Information
Page displays VOR information in four boxes labeled ‘VOR’, ‘INFORMATION’, ‘FREQUENCY’, and ‘NEAREST
AIRPORT’.
Navigation Map Showing Selected VOR
EIS
Selected VOR
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
VOR Identifier/Type
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
VOR Information
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Region
- Lat/Long
VOR Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
AFCS
Figure 5-43 VOR Information Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The VOR classes used in the VOR information box are: LOW ALTITUDE, HIGH ALTITUDE, and
TERMINAL.
Selecting a VOR:
APPENDICES
1) With the VOR Information Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the VOR, or the city in which it’s
located in the VOR Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Or:
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
1) With the Nearest VOR Page displayed, press the FMS Knob or press the VOR Softkey.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VOR Box.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest VOR Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Select VOR Window’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VOR Box.
EIS
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Nearest VOR Page can be used to quickly find a VOR station close to the aircraft. Also, a NAV frequency
from a selected VOR station can be loaded from the Nearest VOR Page. In addition to displaying a map of
the surrounding area, the Nearest VOR Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VOR stations in three
boxes labeled ‘NEAREST VOR’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘FREQUENCY’. The list only includes waypoints that
are within 200 nm.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
A white arrow before the VOR identifier indicates the selected VOR. Up to fifteen VORs are visible at a time.
If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. If there are no VORs in the list, text indicating
that there are no nearest VORs is displayed. If there are no nearest VORs in the list, the information is dashed.
Navigation Map Showing Nearest VOR
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Nearest VOR
VOR Identifier/Symbol
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
from aircraft position
VOR Information
APPENDICES
- Facility Name/City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Lat/Long
VOR Frequency
INDEX
Figure 5-44 Nearest VOR Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
USER WAYPOINTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 can create and store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. User waypoints can be created from any
map page (except PFD Inset Map, AUX-Trip Planning Page, or Procedure Pages) by selecting a position on the
map using the Joystick, or from the User Waypoint Information Page by referencing a bearing/distance from an
existing waypoint, bearings from two existing waypoints, or latitude and longitude. Once a waypoint has been
created, it can be renamed, deleted, or moved. Temporary user waypoints are erased upon system power down.
Selected User Waypoint Navigation Map Showing Selected User Waypoint
EIS
User Waypoint Info
- Identifier
- Temporary/Normal
- Waypoint Type
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
User Wpt Comment
Reference Wpt Info
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
User Waypoint List
- Identifier
- Comment
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
# User Wpts Used
Softkeys
AFCS
Figure 5-45 User Waypoint Information Page
Selecting a User Waypoint:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, enter the name of the User Waypoint, or scroll to the
desired waypoint in the User Waypoint List using the large FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest User Waypoints Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest USR Box.
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INDEX
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
185
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Selected User Waypoint
Navigation Map Showing Selected User Waypoint
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Nearest User Wpt List
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
- Identifier
- Bearing/Distance from
aircraft position
User Waypoint Info
- Comment
- Lat/Long
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Reference Wpt Info
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-46 Nearest User Waypoint Page
CREATING USER WAYPOINTS
User waypoints can be created from the User Waypoint Information Page in the following ways:
Creating user waypoints from the User Waypoint Information Page:
AFCS
1) Press the NEW Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Create New User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the ENT Key. The current aircraft position is the default location of the new waypoint.
4) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
APPENDICES
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
INDEX
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into the
INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
6) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “TEMPORARY” or “NORMAL” by moving the cursor
to “TEMPORARY” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Are you sure you want to create the new User Waypoint AAAAAA?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into the
INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “TEMPORARY” or “NORMAL” by moving the cursor
to “TEMPORARY” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
AFCS
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-47 User Waypoint Information Page Menu
INDEX
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187
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Creating user waypoints from map pages:
1) Press the Joystick to activate the panning function and pan to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the ENT Key. The User Waypoint Information Page is displayed with the captured position.
NOTE: If the pointer has highlighted a map database feature, one of three things happens upon pressing
the ENT Key: 1) information about the selected feature is displayed instead of initiating a new waypoint,
2) a menu pops up allowing a choice between ‘Review Airspaces’ or ‘Create User Waypoint’, or 3) a new
waypoint is initiated with the default name being the selected map item.
EIS
3) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected name. The first reference waypoint box is highlighted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into the
INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “TEMPORARY” or “NORMAL” by moving the cursor
to “TEMPORARY” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AFCS
9) Press the GO BACK Softkey to return to the map page.
EDITING USER WAYPOINTS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Editing a user waypoint comment or location:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Select a user waypoint in the User Waypoint List, if required, and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
3) Move the cursor to the desired field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to make any changes.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
INDEX
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Renaming user waypoints:
1) Highlight a user waypoint in the User Waypoint List. Press the RENAME Softkey, or press the MENU Key and
select ‘Rename User Waypoint’.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Enter a new name.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Do you want to rename the user waypoint AAAAAA to BBBBBB?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
EIS
Changing the location of an existing waypoint to the aircraft present position:
1) Enter a waypoint name or select the waypoint in the User Waypoint List, then press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Use Present Position’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice. The new waypoint’s location is saved.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
A system generated comment for a user waypoint incorporates the reference waypoint identifier, bearing,
and distance. If a system generated comment has been edited, a new comment can be generated.
Resetting the comment field to the system generated comment:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Enter a waypoint name or select the waypoint in the User Waypoint List, then press the ENT Key.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Auto Comment’.
4) Press the ENT Key. The generated comment is based on the reference point used to define the waypoint.
AFCS
The default type of user waypoint (normal or temporary) can be changed using the user waypoint information
page menu. Temporary user waypoints are automatically deleted upon the next power cycle.
Changing the user waypoint storage duration default setting:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Move the cursor to select ‘Waypoint Setup’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Select ‘NORMAL’ or ‘TEMPORARY’ as desired, and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor and return to the User Waypoint Information Page.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
DELETING USER WAYPOINTS
Deleting a single user waypoint:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List, or enter a waypoint in the User Waypoint field.
2) Press the DELETE Softkey or press the CLR Key. ‘Yes’ is highlighted in the confirmation window.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
EIS
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List, or enter a waypoint in the User Waypoint field.
2) Press the MENU Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Select ‘Delete User Waypoint’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: The option to ‘Delete All User Waypoints’ is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all user waypoints:
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete All User Waypoints’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5.4 AIRSPACES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 can display the following types of airspaces: Class B/TMA, Class C/TCA, Class D, Restricted, MOA
(Military), Other Airspace, Air Defense Interdiction Zone (ADIZ), and Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR).
Class D Airspace
MOA (Military)
EIS
Class B Airspace
Restricted Area
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
TFR
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Alert Area
Class C Airspace
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
ADIZ
Warning Area
APPENDICES
Figure 5-48 Airspaces
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
The Nearest Airspaces Page, Airspace Alerts Window, and Airspace Alerts on the PFD provide additional
information about airspaces and the location of the aircraft in relationship to them.
191
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Airspace Alerts Box allows the pilot to turn the controlled/special-use airspace message alerts on or off.
This does not affect the alerts listed on the Nearest Airspaces Page or the airspace boundaries depicted on the
Navigation Map Page. It simply turns on/off the warning provided when the aircraft is approaching or near an
airspace.
An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below an airspace. For example,
if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/below an airspace, an alert message is
not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below an airspace and projected to enter it, the pilot
is notified with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
EIS
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the altitude buffer field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Turning an airspace alert on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Airspace Alerts Box
- Airspace Altitude Buffer
- Alert On/Off
(Default Settings Shown)
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
DFLTS Softkey
Figure 5-49 System Setup Page - Airspace Alerts
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Map ranges for the airspace boundaries are selected from the Aviation Group in the Map Setup Menu. See Table
5-2 for the default and maximum ranges for each type of airspace and the symbol used to define the airspace
area.
AFCS
The Nearest Airspaces Page can be used to quickly find airspaces close to the flight path. In addition, a selected
frequency associated with the airspace can be loaded from the Nearest Airspaces Page. In addition to displaying
a map of airspace boundaries and surrounding area, the Nearest Airspaces Page displays airspace information in
four boxes labeled ‘AIRSPACE ALERTS’, ‘AIRSPACE, AGENCY’, ‘VERTICAL LIMITS’, and ‘FREQUENCIES’.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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193
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Airspace 1
Airspace 2 Airspace 3
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Airspace Alerts Info
- Name
- Proximity (Ahead, Inside,
Ahead < 2nm, Within 2nm)
- Time till Intercept (only if
Ahead or Ahead < 2nm)
Airspace/Agency Info
EIS
- Airspace Type
- Controlling Agency
Airspace Vertical Limits
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Associated Frequencies
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Ceiling
- Floor
Softkeys
- Type
- Availability/Info
- Frequency
Figure 5-50 Nearest Airspaces Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Airspace alerts and associated frequencies are shown in scrollable lists on the Nearest Airspaces Page. The
ALERTS and FREQ softkeys place the cursor in the respective list. The FREQ Softkey is enabled only if one or
more frequencies exist for a selected airspace.
Selecting and viewing an airspace alert with its associated information:
AFCS
1) Select the Nearest Airspaces Page.
2) Press the ALERTS Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Alerts Window’,
and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘AIRSPACE ALERTS’ Box.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Select the desired airspace.
INDEX
APPENDICES
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pressing the PFD ALERTS Softkey displays the message window on the PFD. The following airspace alerts are
displayed in the alerts window:
Comments
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft penetrates the airspace
within 10 minutes.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
EIS
Message
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead –
less than 10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and ahead.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near –
less than 2 nm.
Table 5-6 PFD Airspace Alert Messages
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Smart Airspace function de-emphasizes airspaces above or below the current aircraft altitude. The function
does not require the aircraft present position or flight path to enter the lateral boundaries of the airspace. If the
current aircraft altitude is within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace, the airspace boundary is
shown normally. If the current aircraft altitude is not within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace,
the airspace boundary is shown subdued.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 5-51 Smart Airspace
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Smart Airspace Off
Smart Airspace On
APPENDICES
Turning smart airspace on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘GROUP’ Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Aviation’ in the ‘GROUP’ Box and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘SMART AIRSPACE’ field in the Aviation Map Setup Window.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn smart airspace ON or counterclockwise to turn smart airspace OFF.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.5 DIRECT-TO-NAVIGATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Direct-to method of navigation, initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key on either the MFD or PFD, is
quicker to use than a flight plan when the desire is to navigate to a single point such as a nearby airport.
Once a direct-to is activated, the G950 establishes a point-to-point course line from the present position to the
selected direct-to destination. Course guidance is provided until the direct-to is replaced with a new direct-to or
flight plan, or cancelled.
EIS
A vertical navigation (VNV) direct-to creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the current altitude to a selected altitude at the direct-to waypoint. Vertical navigation is based on barometric
altitudes, not on GPS altitude, and is used for cruise and descent phases of flight.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Direct-to Window allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation. The Direct-to Window displays
selected direct-to waypoint data on the PFD and the MFD.
Direct-to Point Info
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Identifier/Symbol/Region
- Facility Name
- City
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Map of Selected Point
Location of Destination
- Bearing/Distance
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Desired Course
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 5-52 Direct-to Window - MFD
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Direct-to Point Info
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
- Identifier/Symbol/City
- Facility Name
Direct-to Point Info
- Bearing/Distance
- Desired Course
Activation Command
EIS
Figure 5-53 Direct-to Window - PFD
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Any waypoint can be entered as a direct-to destination from the Direct-to Window.
Entering a waypoint identifier, facility name, or city as a direct-to destination:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed (with the active flight plan wayoint as the default
selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it counter-clockwise brings
up the waypoint selection submenu - press the CLR Key to remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the
facility name, or city field and turn the small FMS Knob to begin entering a facility name or city. If duplicate
entries exist for the entered facility or city name, additional entries can be viewed by turning the small FMS
Knob during the selection process.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the direct-to.
Any waypoint contained in the active flight plan can be selected as a direct-to waypoint from the Direct-to
Window, the Active Flight Plan Page, or the Active Flight Plan Window.
AFCS
Waypoint Submenu
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Flight Plan Waypoints
- Nearest Airports
- Recent Waypoints
- User Waypoints
- Airway Waypoints
(only available when
active leg is part of an
airway)
APPENDICES
Figure 5-54 Waypoint Submenu
INDEX
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197
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting an active flight plan waypoint as a direct-to destination:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
1) While navigating an active flight plan, press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the
active flight plan waypoint as the default selection.
3) Select the desired waypoint.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
EIS
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Or:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, or the Active Flight Plan Window on the PFD.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Select the desired waypoint.
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Any NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoint can be selected as a direct-to destination in the Direct-to
Window.
Selecting a NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoint as a direct-to destination:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed (with the active flight plan destination as the
default selection or a blank destination if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of FPL waypoints (the FPL list is populated only
when navigating a flight plan, and the AIRWAY list is available only when the active leg is part of an airway).
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoints.
AFCS
4) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
APPENDICES
Selecting any waypoint as a direct-to destination:
INDEX
The Direct-to Window can be displayed from any page and allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation.
If the direct-to is initiated from any page except the WPT pages, the default waypoint is the active flight plan
waypoint (if a flight plan is active) or a blank waypoint field. Direct-to requests on any WPT page defaults to the
displayed waypoint.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
1) Select the page or window containing the desired waypoint type and select the desired waypoint.
2) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window with the selected waypoint as the direct-to
destination.
4) Press ENT again to activate the direct-to.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the NRST Softkey on the PFD; or turn the FMS Knob to display the Nearest Airports Page and press the
FMS Knob.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Select the desired airport (the nearest one is already selected).
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
EIS
Direct-to destinations may also be selected by using the pointer on the navigation map pages. If no airport,
NAVAID, or user waypoint exists at the desired location, a temporary waypoint named ‘MAPWPT’ is automatically
created at the location of the map arrow.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selecting a waypoint as a direct-to destination using the pointer:
1) From a navigation map page, press the Joystick to display the pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to place the pointer at the desired destination location.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) If the pointer is placed on an existing airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint, the waypoint name is highlighted.
4) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window with the selected point entered as the direct-to
destination.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Cancelling a Direct-to:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
AFCS
3) With ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. If a flight plan is still active, the G950 resumes
navigating the flight plan along the closest leg.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Page Menu
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
- Cancel Direct-To Navigation
Figure 5-55 Direct-to Window - Cancelling Direct-to Navigation
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When navigating a direct-to, the G950 sets a direct great circle course to the selected destination. The course to
a destination can also be manually selected using the course field (‘COURSE’) on the Direct-to Window.
Selecting a manual direct-to course:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the destination field highlighted.
2) Highlight the course field.
AFCS
3) Enter the desired course.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Reselecting the direct course from the current position:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the destination field highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
APPENDICES
3) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
INDEX
A direct-to with altitude constraints creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the aircraft’s current altitude to the altitude of the direct-to waypoint. The altitude is reached at the waypoint,
or at the specified distance along the flight path if an offset distance has been entered. All VNV altitudes prior
to the direct-to destination are removed from the active flight plan upon successful activation of the direct-to.
All VNV altitudes following the direct-to waypoint are retained. See the section on Vertical Navigation for more
information regarding the use and purpose of VNV altitudes and offset distances.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Entering a VNV altitude and along-track offset for the waypoint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor over the ‘VNV’ altitude field.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Enter the desired altitude.
4) Press the ENT Key. The option to select MSL or AGL is now displayed.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now flashing in the VNV offset distance field.
EIS
7) Enter the desired along-track distance before the waypoint.
8) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
9) Press the ENT Key to activate.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Removing a VNV altitude constraint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) With ‘Clear Vertical Constraints’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Page Menu
- Clear Vertical Navigation
Constraints
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-56 Direct-to Window - Clearing Vertical Constraints
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.6 FLIGHT PLANNING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Flight planning on the G950 consists of building a flight plan by entering waypoints one at a time, adding
waypoints along airways, and inserting departures, airways, arrivals, or approaches as needed. The G950 allows
flight planning information to be entered from either the MFD or PFD. The flight plan is displayed on maps using
different line widths, colors, and types, based on the type of leg and the segment of the flight plan currently being
flown (departure, enroute, arrival, approach, or missed approach).
Flight Plan Leg Type
Symbol
EIS
Active non-heading Leg (TOPO On)
Active non-heading Leg (TOPO Off)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Active heading Leg (TOPO On)
Active heading Leg (TOPO Off)
Non-heading Leg in the current flight segment (TOPO On)
Non-heading Leg in the current flight segment (TOPO Off)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO On)
Heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO Off)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Non-heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO On)
Non-heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO Off)
Turn Anticipation Arc (TOPO On/TOPO Off)
AFCS
Table 5-7 Flight Plan Leg Symbols
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Up to 99 flight plans with up to 99 waypoints each can be created and stored in memory. One flight plan can be
activated at a time and becomes the active flight plan. The active flight plan is erased when the system is turned
off and overwritten when another flight plan is activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, departure,
or arrival, the G950 uses the waypoint information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the
database is changed or updated, the G950 automatically updates the information if the procedure has not been
modified. If an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is no longer available, the procedure is deleted from the
affected stored flight plan(s), and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A) advising that
one or more stored flight plans need to be edited.
INDEX
Whenever an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach,
departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan along with a header line describing the instrument
procedure the pilot selected. The original enroute portion of the flight plan remains active (unless an instrument
procedure is activated) when the procedure is loaded.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When the database is updated, the airways need to be reloaded also. Each airway segment is reloaded from
the database given the entry waypoint, the airway identifier and the exit waypoint. This reloads the sequence of
waypoints between the entry and exit waypoints (the sequence may change when the database is updated). The
update of an airway can fail during this process. If that happens, the airway waypoints are changed to regular
(non-airway) flight plan waypoints, and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A).
The following could cause the airway update to fail:
• Airway identifier, entry waypoint or exit waypoint not found in the new database.
• Airway entry/exit waypoint is not an acceptable waypoint for the airway – either the waypoint is no longer on
the airway, or there is a new directional restriction that prevents it being used.
EIS
• Loading the new airway sequence would exceed the capacity of the flight plan.
FLIGHT PLAN CREATION
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
There are three methods to create or modify a flight plan:
• Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• Active Flight Plan Window on the PFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
Non-Active, Flight Plan Leg
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Flight Plan Catalog Page on the MFD (create/modify a stored flight plan)
Active Flight Plan Leg
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Active FPL Waypoint List
- Comment
- Procedure Header
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Turn Anticipation Arc
Vertical Navigation Profile
APPENDICES
- Active Vertical WPT Alt/ID
- Vertical Speed Target
- Flight Path Angle
- Vertical Speed Target
- Time to Top of Descent
- Vertical Deviation
Figure 5-57 Active Flight Plan Page
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Active Flight Plan Comment
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Waypoint List
EIS
- Waypoint ID
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Airway Identifier
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-58 Active Flight Plan Window on PFD
Catalog Contents
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- # Used
- # Empty
Flight Plan List
- Comment
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selected Flight Plan Map
Selected FPL Info
AFCS
- Departure Waypoint
- Destination Waypoint
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Softkeys
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-59 Flight Plan Catalog Page
APPENDICES
The active flight plan is listed on the active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, and in the Active Flight Plan
Window on the PFD. It is the flight plan to which the G950 is currently providing guidance, and is shown
on the navigation maps. Stored flight plans are listed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page, and are available for
activation (becomes the active flight plan).
NOTE: The system supports AFCS lateral guidance for all leg types (using NAV or FMS APPR mode). The
INDEX
system does not support course deviation for any heading leg types (VA, VD, VI, VM, or VR).
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Creating an active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (only on MFD).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window with a
waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
4) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
EIS
5) Repeat step numbers 3 and 4 to enter each additional flight plan waypoint.
6) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Creating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the NEW Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create New Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key to
display a blank flight plan for the first empty storage location.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key.
6) Repeat step numbers 4 and 5 to enter each additional flight plan waypoint.
AFCS
7) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to return to the Flight Plan Catalog Page. The new
flight plan is now in the list.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Flight plans can be imported from an SD Card or exported to an SD Card from the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Importing a Flight Plan from an SD Card
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Insert the SD card containing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight an empty or existing flight plan.
EIS
6) Press the IMPORT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Import Flight Plan”, and press the ENT Key.
If an empty slot is selected, a list of the available flight plans on the SD card will be displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If an existing flight plan is selected, an “Overwrite existing flight plan? OK or CANCEL” prompt is displayed.
Press the ENT Key to choose to overwrite the selected flight plan and see the list of available flight plans on the
SD card. If overwriting the existing flight plan is not desired, select “CANCEL” using the FMS Knob, press the
ENT Key, select another flight plan slot, and press the IMPORT Softkey again.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan for importing.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the import.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
9) Press the ENT Key again to confirm the import.
INDEX
Import/Export Softkeys
List of Flight Plans to Import &
Details for the Selected File
Import Successful
Figure 5-60 Flight Plan Import
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NOTE: If the imported flight plan contains a waypoint with a name that duplicates the name of a waypoint
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
already stored on the system, the system compares the coordinates of the imported waypoint with those of
the existing waypoint. If the coordinates are different, the imported waypoint is automatically renamed by
adding characters to the end of the name.
Exporting a Flight Plan to an SD Card
1) Insert the SD card into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
EIS
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be exported.
6) Press the EXPORT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Export Flight Plan”.
7) If desired, change the name for the exported file by turning the large FMS Knob to the left to highlight the
name, then use the small and large FMS knobs to enter the new name, and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the export.
9) Press the ENT Key to confirm the export.
NOTE: The exported flight plan will not contain any procedures or airways.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Stored Flight Plan to be Exported &
Exported Flight Plan Name
Export Successful
INDEX
Import/Export Softkeys
Figure 5-61 Flight Plan Export
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Flight plans can be transferred to the system from a mobile device via the Flight Stream 210 Bluetooth
wireless connection.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Previewing a flight plan transfer from a wireless connection:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a Pending Flight Plan pop-up alert appears
in the lower right corner of the MFD, and an Connext annunciation appears to the right of the MFD page name.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Preview Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
Or:
EIS
Select the PREVIEW Softkey to display the Preview Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Press the MENU Key, select ‘Preview Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Preview Flight Plan Page is
displayed.
Ignoring a flight plan transfer from a wireless connection:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a Pending Flight Plan pop-up alert appears
in the lower right corner of the MFD, and an Connext annunciation appears to the right of the MFD page name.
2) Press the CLR Key to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan will
still be available on the Flight Plan Catalog page.
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Select the IGNORE Softkey to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The pending flight
plan will still be available on the Flight Plan Catalog page.
AFCS
Pending Connext Action
Annunciator
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Pending Flight Plan
Pending Flight Plan
Pop-Up Alert
INDEX
IGNORE Softkey
PREVIEW Softkey
Figure 5-62 Pending Flight Plan Transfer
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pending Connext Action
Annunciator
Pending Flight Plan
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
STORE? or ACTIVATE
Selection
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
DELETE Softkey
PREVIEW Softkey
STORE Softkey
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-62 Preview Flight Plan Page
Storing a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the Preview Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
4) Select the STORE Softkey to store the flight plan.
Or:
AFCS
Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘STORE?’. Press the ENT Key
to store the flight plan.
Or:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press the MENU Key, select ‘Store Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key to store the flight plan.
5) The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation is removed.
Activating a pending flight plan:
APPENDICES
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the Preview Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
4) Select the ACTIVATE Softkey to activate the flight plan.
190-01602-00 Rev. B
INDEX
Or:
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
209
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘ACTIVATE?’. Press the ENT Key
to activate the flight plan.
Or:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Press the MENU Key, select ‘Activate Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan.
5) The pending flight plan becomes the active flight plan and is removed from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
Deleting a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
EIS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired pending flight plan.
3) Select the DELETE Softkey; press the CLR Key; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the pending flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting all pending flight plans:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Delete All Pending’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all pending flight plans?’ confirmation window
is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4)
With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all pending flight plans. To cancel the request, press the
CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
ADDING WAYPOINTS TO AN EXISTING FLIGHT PLAN
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose the flight plan, select the
desired point of insertion, enter the waypoint, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. Flight plans
are limited to 99 waypoints (including waypoints within airways and procedures). If the number of waypoints
in the flight plan exceeds 99, the message “Flight plan is full. Remove unnecessary waypoints.” appears and the
new waypoint(s) are not added to the flight plan.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Stored Flight Plan Selected
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
- Memory Slot
- Comment
- Procedure Identifier
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Softkeys
Figure 5-62 Stored Flight Plan Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Flight Plan Full Message
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-63 Active Flight Plan Page - FPL Full
APPENDICES
Adding a waypoint to a stored flight plan:
1) On the Flight Plan Catalog Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
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INDEX
3) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select “EDIT” and press the
ENT Key. The Stored Flight Plan Page is displayed.
211
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
4) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly in front of the
highlighted waypoint.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
6) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The new waypoint now exists in the flight plan.
EIS
NOTE: If the identifier entered in the Waypoint Information Window has duplicates, a Duplicate Waypoint
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Window is displayed. Use the FMS Knob to select the correct waypoint.
Figure 5-64 Duplicate Waypoints Window
Adding a waypoint to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
AFCS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Select the point in the flight plan before which to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly
in front of the highlighted waypoint.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
APPENDICES
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
Creating and adding user waypoints to the active flight plan:
INDEX
1) Press the Joystick to activate the panning function on the Active Flight Plan Page and pan to the map location
of the desired user waypoint.
2) Press the LD WPT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The user
waypoint is created with a name of USRxxx (using the next available in sequence) and is added to the end of
the active flight plan.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDING AIRWAYS TO A FLIGHT PLAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Airways can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose a flight plan (add the desired
airway entry point if not already in the flight plan), select the waypoint after the desired airway entry point,
select the airway, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. An airway can only be loaded if there is a
waypoint in the flight plan that is part of the desired airway and is not part of an arrival or approach procedure.
The G950 also anticipates the desired airway and exit point based on loaded flight plan waypoints.
Airway Entry Waypoint
EIS
Selected Airway
Airways Available at TOP
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airway Waypoint Sequence
Preview of Selected Airway
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-65 Select Airway Page - Selecting Airway
AFCS
Adding an airway to a flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint after the desired airway entry point. If this waypoint is not
a valid airway entry point, a valid entry point should be entered at this time.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and press the LD AIRWY Softkey, or press the MENU Key and
select “Load Airway”. The Select Airway Page is displayed. The LD AIRWY Softkey or the “Load Airway” menu
item is available only when a valid airway entry waypoint has been chosen (the waypoint ahead of the cursor
position).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways are
shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is
highlighted.
EIS
7) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Exit Point
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Airway Exit Points
Available
AFCS
Preview of
Selected Airway
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-66 Select Airway Page - Selecting Exit Point
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Inserted Airway Header
EIS
- Airway Identifier: [airway
identifier].[exit waypoint identifier]
(e.g., V4.SLN)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-67 Active Flight Plan Page - Airway Inserted
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
RESTRICTIONS ON ADDING AIRWAYS
Some airways have directional restrictions on all or part of the route. Airway “A2” in Europe has a directional
restriction over the whole route such that it can be flown only in the direction MTD-ABB-BNE-DEVAL.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Airway “UR975” in North Africa has more complicated directional restrictions within the list of airway
waypoints AMANO, VAKOR, LIBRO, NELDA, DIRKA, GZO, KOSET, and SARKI:
• Starting from AMANO, the airway can be flown only to LIBRO.
• Starting from SARKI, the airway can be flown only to LIBRO.
AFCS
• Between NELDA and GZO, the airway can be flown in either direction.
In the US, airways that are “one-way” for specified hours of operation are not uncommon. These airways
are always bidirectional in the G950 database.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The system only allows correct airway sequences to be inserted. If the pilot subsequently inverts the flight
plan, the system inverts the airway waypoint sequence and removes the airway header.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
ADDING PROCEDURES TO A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 allows the pilot to insert pre-defined instrument procedures from the navigation database into a
flight plan. The procedures are designed to facilitate routing of traffic leaving an airport (departure), arriving at
an airport (arrival), and landing at an airport (approach). See the procedures section for more details.
EIS
Flight Plan Name
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Flight Plan Waypoint
List
Softkeys
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- New Waypoint
- Load Departure
- Load Arrival
- Load Approach
- Activate Flight Plan
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 5-68 Stored Flight Plan Page
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DEPARTURE (DP)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can
be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
Departure Airport
EIS
Selected Departure
Departures Available at
KMKC
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Departure Waypoint
Sequence
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Preview of Selected
Departure
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-69 Departure Loading Page - Selecting the Departure
Loading a departure procedure into a stored flight plan:
AFCS
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the LD DP Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Departure”, and press the ENT Key. The
Departure Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select a departure. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a runway served by the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
6) Select a transition for the selected departure. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected departure procedure.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Departure Airport
Selected Departure
Selected Runway
Selected Transition
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Departure Transition Points
Available
Preview of
Selected Departure
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Departure End
Point
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-70 Departure Loading Page - Selecting Transition
Inserted Departure Header
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
- Departure Identifier: [departure
airport]-[departure runway].
[departure transition].
[departure end point]
(e.g., KMKC-ALL.WLDCT2.SLN)
INDEX
Figure 5-71 Stored Flight Plan Page - Departure Inserted
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ARRIVAL (STAR)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) is loaded at the destination airport in the flight plan. Only one arrival
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
Destination Airport
EIS
Selected Arrival
Arrivals Available at KCOS
Selected Runway
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Preview of
Selected Arrival
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-72 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Arrival
Loading an arrival procedure into a stored flight plan:
AFCS
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the LD STAR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Arrival”, and press the ENT Key. The Arrival
Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select an arrival. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a transition for the selected arrival. Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
6) Select a runway served by the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected arrival procedure.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Destination Airport
Selected Arrival
Selected Transition
Transitions Available with
DBRY1
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Preview of
Selected Arrival
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-73 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
AFCS
Inserted Arrival Header
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Arrival Identifier:
[arrival airport]-[arrival transition].
[arrival].[arrival runway]
(e.g., KCOS-TBE.DBRY1.ALL)
INDEX
Figure 5-74 Stored Flight Plan Page - Arrival Inserted
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPROACH (APPR)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has an approach available. Only one
approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route for a selected approach is defined by designating
transition waypoints.
Destination Airport
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selected Approach
Approaches Available at
KCOS
Barometric Minimum
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Preview of
Selected
Approach
Figure 5-75 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Approach
Loading an approach procedure into a stored flight plan:
AFCS
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Approach”, and press the ENT Key. The
Approach Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the APPROACH CHANNEL field.
INDEX
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
5) Select a transition for the selected approach. Press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
6) Press the ENT Key to load the selected approach procedure.
Destination Airport
Selected Approach
Selected Transition
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
EIS
Transitions Available with
Selected Approach
Load Approach?
Preview of Selected
Approach
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-76 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
Inserted Approach Header
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
- Approach Identifier: [approach
airport].[runway and approach type]
(e.g., KCOS-RNAVGPS 35R LPV)
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 5-77 Stored Flight Plan Page - Approach Inserted
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT PLAN STORAGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 can store up to 99 flight plans, numbered 1 through 99. The active flight plan is erased when
the G950 is powered off or when another flight plan is activated. Details about each stored flight plan can be
viewed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page and on the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Viewing information about a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
EIS
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
4) The Flight Plan Information is displayed showing departure, destination, total distance, and enroute safe altitude
information for the selected Flight Plan.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Press the EDIT Softkey to open the Stored Flight Plan Page and view the waypoints in the flight plan.
6) Press the FMS Knob to exit the Stored Flight Plan Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Flight Plan Name
(Comment)
Selected Flight Plan
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan
AFCS
Stored Flight Plan Info
Figure 5-78 Stored Flight Plan Information
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Departure Airport
- Destination Airport
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Stored FPL Editing
Softkeys
APPENDICES
Storing an active flight plan from the Active Flight Plan Page or the Active Flight Plan Window:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
INDEX
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. The flight plan is stored in the next available position in the flight
plan list on the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
ACTIVATE A FLIGHT PLAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Activating a stored flight plan erases the active flight plan and replaces it with the flight plan being activated.
Inverting a stored flight plan reverses the waypoint order, erases the active flight plan, and replaces it with the
flight plan being activated (the stored flight plan is not changed).
Activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
EIS
3) Press the ACTIVE Softkey; or press the ENT Key twice; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’,
and press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Stored Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the INVERT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key.
The ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
COPY A FLIGHT PLAN
AFCS
The G950 allows copying a flight plan into a new flight plan memory slot, allowing editing, etc., without
affecting the original flight plan. This can be used to duplicate an existing stored flight plan for use in creating
a modified version of the original stored flight plan.
Copying a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the COPY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Copy Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Copy
to Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
INDEX
APPENDICES
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to copy the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DELETE A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
Individual or all stored flight plans can be deleted from the G950 memory.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Deleting a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the DELETE Softkey; press the CLR Key; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
EIS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: The option to delete all stored flight plans is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all stored flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Delete All’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all flight plans. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT PLAN EDITING
The active flight plan or any stored flight plan can be edited. The edits made to the active flight plan affect
navigation as soon as they are entered.
DELETING THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
AFCS
The G950 allows deletion of an active flight plan. Deleting the active flight plan suspends navigation by
the G950.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Deleting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete all waypoints in flight
plan?’ window is displayed.
APPENDICES
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the active flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
DELETING FLIGHT PLAN ITEMS
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INDEX
Individual waypoints, entire airways, and entire procedures can be deleted from a flight plan. Some waypoints
in the final approach segment (such as the FAF or MAP) can not be deleted individually. Attempting to delete
a waypoint that is not allowed results in a window displaying ‘Invalid flight plan modification.’
225
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Deleting an individual waypoint from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
EIS
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire airway from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the white header of the airway to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name>?’ window is displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from the active flight plan:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the white header of the procedure to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
AFCS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove <procedure>’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
INDEX
APPENDICES
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Deleting an individual waypoint from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be deleted.
EIS
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire airway from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the airway to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name>?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AFCS
Deleting an entire procedure from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
APPENDICES
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the procedure to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
INDEX
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove <procedure>’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
EIS
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
CHANGING FLIGHT PLAN COMMENTS (NAMES)
The comment field (or name) of each flight plan can be changed to something that is useful for identification.
Changing the active flight plan comment:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
3) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing a stored flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
AFCS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
INDEX
APPENDICES
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ALONG TRACK OFFSETS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A waypoint having an “along track offset” distance from an existing waypoint can be entered into a flight plan.
Along track offset waypoints lie along the path of the existing flight plan, and can be used to make the system
reach a specified altitude before or after reaching the specified flight plan waypoint. Offset distances can be
entered from 1 to 999 nm in increments of 1 nm. Entering a negative offset distance results in an along track
offset waypoint inserted before the selected waypoint, whereas entering a positive offset distance results in an
along track offset waypoint inserted after the selected waypoint. Multiple offset waypoints are allowed.
EIS
A waypoint must be adjacent to its parent waypoint in the flight plan, so the system limits the along-track
distance to less than the length of the leg before or after the selected waypoint. If the selected waypoint is the
active waypoint, the distance is limited to less than the distance to go to the active waypoint. Assigning an along
track offset to a leg with indeterminate length is not permitted. An along track offset is not allowed at or after
the final approach fix of an approach.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
An along track offset distance cannot be modified once entered. If the along track offset distance must be
changed, the existing along track offset waypoint must be deleted and a new one created with the new offset
distance.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Along Track Offset
Waypoint and Distance
from Flight Plan Waypoint
AFCS
Along Track
Offset Waypoint
and Distance
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-79 Along Track Offset
APPENDICES
Entering an along track offset distance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
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INDEX
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the along track offset.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
3) Press the ATK OFST Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create ATK Offset Waypoint’, and
press the ENT Key.
4) Enter a positive or negative offset distance in the range of +/- 1 to 999 nm (limited by leg distances).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5) Press the ENT Key to create the offset waypoint.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
PARALLEL TRACK
EIS
The Parallel Track (PTK) feature allows creation of a parallel course offset of 1 to 50 nm left or right of the
current flight plan. When Parallel Track is activated, the course line drawn on the map pages shows the parallel
course, and waypoint names have a lower case “p” placed after the identifier.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Using direct-to, loading an approach, a holding pattern, or editing and activating the flight plan automatically
cancels Parallel Track. Parallel Track is also cancelled if a course change occurs greater than 120° or the parallel
tracks overlap as a result of the course change.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: Vertical navigation is unavailable while the Parallel Track feature is active.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Active Flight Plan prior to Parallel Track
AFCS
Selecting Parallel Track
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-80 Active Flight Plan Window - Selecting Parallel Track
Activating parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
APPENDICES
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The Parallel Track Window is displayed
with the direction field highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Left’ or ‘Right’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘DISTANCE’ field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a distance from 1-99 nm and press the ENT Key. ‘ACTIVATE PARALLEL
TRACK’ is highlighted.
INDEX
5) Press the ENT Key to activate parallel track. Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to cancel the parallel track
activation.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Offset Direction
Offset Distance
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Activation Prompt
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-81 Parallel Track Window
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Original Track
Parallel Track
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Parallel Track Waypoints
AFCS
- TIFTO-p
- TOP-p
- ...
- LAA-p
Activating Parallel Track
affects the active flight plan
from the current position on
(will not affect an approach)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-82 Parallel Track Active
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INDEX
If the parallel track proposed by the offset direction and distance is not allowed by the system, the activation
prompt is displayed, but disabled. Parallel Track cannot be activated if a course is set using direct-to or if the
active leg is the first leg of the departure procedure. Attempting to activate parallel track with these conditions
results in the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable Invalid Route Geometry’. If an approach leg is active the status
231
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track with the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable
Approach Leg Active’. If the offset direction and distance results in an unreasonable route geometry the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because of invalid geometry.
Subdued Prompt
EIS
(Unavailable)
Unavailable Status
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Invalid
Geometry
Approach
Active
Figure 5-83 Parallel Track Unavailable
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If the active leg is not a track between two fixes (TF) or a course to a fix (DF) leg, the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because parallel track is not available for the
active leg type.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Offset Direction &
Distance Subdued
(Unavailable)
Cancel Prompt
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Active Status
Figure 5-84 Cancelling Parallel Track
Cancelling parallel track:
APPENDICES
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The Parallel Track Window is displayed
with ‘CANCEL PARALLEL TRACK?’ highlighted.
INDEX
3) Press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ACTIVATING A FLIGHT PLAN LEG
The G950 allows selection of a highlighted leg as the “active leg” (the flight plan leg which is currently used
for navigation guidance).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Activating a flight plan leg:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the destination waypoint for the desired leg.
EIS
3) Press the ACT LEG Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Leg’, and press the ENT Key.
A confirmation window is displayed with ‘ACTIVATE’ highlighted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan leg. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press
the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Current
Active Leg
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selected Destination
Waypoint
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Activate Leg Softkey
Figure 5-85 Active Flight Plan Page - Selecting the Leg Destination Waypoint
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
EIS
New Active
Flight Plan Leg
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Confirmation Window
Figure 5-86 Active Flight Plan Page - New Active Leg
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
INVERTING A FLIGHT PLAN
Any flight plan may be inverted (reversed) for navigation back to the original departure point.
Inverting the active flight plan:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. An ‘Invert Active Flight Plan?’
confirmation window is displayed.
3) Select ‘OK’.
AFCS
4) Press the ENT Key to invert and activate the active flight plan. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the INVERT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key.
The ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
INDEX
APPENDICES
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Information about flight plans can be viewed in more than one way. The active flight plan can be configured
to show cumulative distance over the length of the flight plan or the distance for each leg of the flight plan;
and the active flight plan can be viewed in a narrow or wide view. In the wide view, additional information is
displayed: Fuel Remaining (FUEL REM), Estimated Time Enroute (ETE), Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA), and
Bearing to the waypoint (BRG).
Switching between leg-to-leg waypoint distance and cumulative waypoint distance:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
EIS
2) Press the VIEW Softkey to display the CUM and LEG-LEG Softkeys.
3) Press the CUM Softkey to view cumulative waypoint distance, or press the LEG-LEG Softkey to view leg-to-leg
waypoint distance.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
Active Flight Plan Leg to Leg Distance
Active Flight Plan Cumulative Distance
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
WIDE Softkey, NARROW Softkey, LEG-LEG Softkey, CUM Softkey
Figure 5-87 Active Flight Plan - Leg to Leg vs. Cumulative Distance
Switching between wide and narrow view:
APPENDICES
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Press the VIEW Softkey to display the WIDE and NARROW Softkeys.
3) Press the WIDE Softkey to display the wide view, or press the NARROW Softkey to display the narrow view.
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Active Flight Plan Wide View
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Active Flight Plan Narrow View
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
WIDE Softkey, NARROW Softkey, LEG-LEG Softkey, CUM Softkey
Figure 5-88 Active Flight Plan - Wide vs. Narrow View
COLLAPSING AIRWAYS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The G950 allows airways on the active flight plan to be collapsed or expanded from the Active Flight Plan
Page/Window. When airways have been collapsed, it is indicated on the airway heading.
When airways are collapsed, leg-to-leg computed values such as DIS or ETE shown for the exit waypoint
reflect the total of all the legs on the airway that have been hidden in the collapsed display. The DTK value is
inhibited because it is not usable in this context.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The Active Flight Plan Page always keeps the following three waypoints visible: “From” waypoint, “To”
waypoint, and “Next” waypoint. To prevent one or more of these waypoints from being hidden in a collapsed
airway segment, the airway segment that contains either the “To” or the “Next” waypoint is automatically
expanded. When an airway is loaded, airways are automatically expanded to facilitate flight plan review.
Q3.FEPOT Airway
INDEX
APPENDICES
Collapsed View
Expanded View
Figure 5-89 Expanded/Collapsed Airways
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Collapsing/expanding the airways in the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Collapse Airways’ or ‘Expand Airways’, and press the ENT Key. The airways are
collapsed/expanded.
CLOSEST POINT OF FPL
‘Closest Point of FPL’ calculates the bearing and closest distance at which a flight plan passes a reference
waypoint, and creates a new user waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to a chosen reference
waypoint.
EIS
Determining the closest point along the active flight plan to a selected waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Closest Point Of FPL’’, and press the ENT Key. A window appears with the
reference waypoint field highlighted.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Enter the identifier of the reference waypoint and press the ENT Key. The G950 displays the bearing (BRG) and
distance (DIS) to the closest point along the flight plan to the selected reference waypoint and creates a user
waypoint at this location. The name for the new user waypoint is derived from the identifier of the reference
waypoint.
USER-DEFINED HOLDING PATTERNS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
A holding pattern can be defined at any active flight plan waypoint, at the aircraft present position, or at a
direct-to waypoint.
Creating a user-defined hold at an active flight plan waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
AFCS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the hold.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The HOLD AT window appears with
the course field highlighted.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘INBOUND’ or ‘OUTBOUND’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘TIME’ or ‘DIST’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘RIGHT’ or ‘LEFT’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC TIME), and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted to insert the hold into the flight plan.
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Waypoint
Selected
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Hold At
Wpt Menu
Selection
Location of Hold
Hold Entry Course
Course Direction
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
(INBOUND or OUTBOUND)
Leg Length Mode Button
(TIME or DIST))
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
(RIGHT or LEFT)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Map of Hold Location
APPENDICES
Expect Further Clearance Time
Load Hold in Active Flight Plan
Figure 5-90 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at an Active Flight Plan Waypoint
INDEX
Creating a user-defined hold at the aircraft present position:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Present Position’, and press the ENT Key. The HOLD AT window appears
with the course field highlighted.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3) If desired, use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘INBOUND’ or ‘OUTBOUND’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘TIME’ or ‘DIST’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘RIGHT’ or ‘LEFT’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC TIME), and press the ENT Key.
9) Press the ENT Key while ‘ACTIVATE?’ is highlighted to create an Offroute Direct-to hold waypoint at the aircraft
present position and activate the hold.
EIS
Creating a user-defined hold at a direct-to waypoint:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press a Direct-to Key and set up the direct-to waypoint as desired, but select ‘HOLD?’ instead of ‘ACTIVATE?’
when finished (MFD or PFD).
2) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘INBOUND’ or ‘OUTBOUND’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘TIME’ or ‘DIST’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘RIGHT’ or ‘LEFT’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC TIME), and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) Press the ENT Key while ‘ACTIVATE?’ is highlighted to activate the direct-to with the user-defined hold defined
at the direct-to waypoint. (If the direct-to wayoint is part of the active flight plan, the HOLD is inserted into
the active flight plan. If the direct-to waypoint is not part of the active flight plan, an off-route direct-to hold is
created.)
Exiting a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
AFCS
Press the SUSP Softkey. The system will provide guidance to follow the holding pattern to the inbound course
and resume automatic waypoint sequencing.
Removing a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the HOLD waypoint.
APPENDICES
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove Holding Pattern?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed from the active flight plan. Select ‘CANCEL’
and press the ENT Key to cancel the removal of the holding pattern.
Removing a user-defined hold at an off-route direct-to:
INDEX
1) Press a Direct To Key to display the DIRECT TO Window (PFD or MFD).
2) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU with the cursor on the ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ selection.
3) Press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed.
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Hold At
Present
Position
Menu
Selection
Location of Hold
Hold Entry Course
Course Direction
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
(INBOUND or OUTBOUND)
Leg Length Mode Button
(TIME or DIST))
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
(RIGHT or LEFT)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Map of Hold Location
APPENDICES
Expect Further Clearance Time
Activate Hold
INDEX
Figure 5-91 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at the Aircraft Present Position
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Waypoint
Selected
EIS
Hold Entry Course
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Location of Hold
Course Direction
(INBOUND or OUTBOUND)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Leg Length
(Time in nm or
Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(RIGHT or LEFT)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Leg Length Mode Button
(TIME or DIST))
Map of Hold Location
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Expect Further
Clearance Time
APPENDICES
Hold At Direct To
Waypoint selection
Load Hold and
Activate Direct To
Figure 5-92 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at a Direct To Waypoint
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.7 VERTICAL NAVIGATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The system supports vertical path guidance and altitude constraints for the following leg types: AF,
CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FC, FD, PI, RF, and TF. Altitude constraints are not retained in stored flight plans.
EIS
The G950 system Vertical Navigation (VNV) feature provides vertical profile guidance during the enroute and
teminal phases of flight. Guidance based on specified altitudes at waypoints in the active flight plan or to a
direct-to waypoint is provided. It includes vertical path guidance to a descending path, which is provided as a
linear deviation from the desired path. The desired path is defined by a line joining two waypoints with specified
altitudes or as a vertical angle from a specified waypoint/altitude. The vertical waypoints are integrated into the
active flight plan.
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Enabled (valid data)
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Disabled (fields dashed)
ENBL VNV Softkey
CNCL VNV Softkey
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-93 Enabling/Disabling Vertical Navigation
Enabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
APPENDICES
2) Press the ENBL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Enable VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is enabled, and vertical guidance begins with the waypoint shown in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box
(defaults first waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude enabled for vertical navigation (e.g., HABUK)).
Disabling VNV guidance:
INDEX
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the CNCL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Cancel VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is disabled.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ), and time
to top of descent/bottom of descent (TIME TO TOD/BOD) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI)
and Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) on the PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ, and TIME TO
TOD items displayed in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box are dashed. VNV remains disabled until manually
enabled. Vertical guidance in reversionary mode can only be enabled for a direct-to waypoint.
Prior to VNV Direct-to
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
EIS
The G950 allows a vertical navigation direct-to to any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV Direct-to Softkey on the Active Flight Plan Page
allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV direct-to
waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan from current
position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with
altitude constraint activated by pressing the Direct-to Key also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass
flight plan waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent
(TOD) point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached.
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
After VNV Direct-to
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
VNV Direct-To Softkey
VNV PROF Softkey
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-94 Vertical Navigation Direct-To
Activating a vertical navigation direct-to:
APPENDICES
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint.
NOTE: The selected waypoint must have a designated altitude constraint (cyan number) to be used. If not,
the first waypoint in the flight plan with a designated altitude constraint is selected.
INDEX
3) Press the VNV Direct-To Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘VNV Direct-To’, and press the ENT Key.
An ‘Activate vertical Direct-to to: NNNNNFT at XXXXXX?’ confirmation window is displayed.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
4) Press the ENT Key. Vertical guidance begins to the altitude constraint for the selected waypoint.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The vertical navigation profile can be modified by directly entering a vertical speed target (VS TGT) and/or flight
path angle (FPA) in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box.
Modifying the VS TGT and FPA:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
EIS
2) Press the VNV PROF Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select VNV Profile Window’, and press the ENT
Key. The cursor is now located in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs as needed to edit the values.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ALTITUDE CONSTRAINTS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The G950 system can use altitude constraints associated with lateral waypoints to give guidance for vertical
navigation. These altitudes are, depending on the specific instance, manually entered or retrieved from the
published altitudes in the navigation database. The navigation database only contains altitudes for procedures
that call for “Cross at” altitudes. If the procedure states “Expect to cross at,” then the altitude is not in the
database. In this case the altitude may be entered manually.
Displayed Text
Examples
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Cross AT
or ABOVE
5,000 ft
Large White Text
Large Cyan Text
Cross AT
2,300 ft
AFCS
Small Cyan Text
Cross AT
or BELOW
3,000 ft
Small Cyan Subdued
Text
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Altitude Constraint
Examples
Small White Text with
Altitude Restriction Bar
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 5-95 Waypoint Altitude Constraints
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Small
Text
Altitude is designated for use in giving
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude has been retrieved from the
navigation database or has been entered
manually and matches a published
altitude in the navigation database.
The system cannot use this
altitude in determining vertical
speed and deviation guidance
because of an invalid constraint
condition.
Altitude is not designated to be used in
determining vertical speed and deviation
guidance. Altitude has been retrieved
from the navigation database and is
provided as a reference.
EIS
Cyan Subdued Text
The system cannot use this
altitude in determining vertical
speed and deviation guidance
because of an invalid constraint
condition.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Cyan Text
Altitude has been entered manually.
Altitude is designated for use in giving
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude does not match the published
altitude in navigation database or no
published altitude exists.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
White Text
Large Altitude calculated by the system
Text estimating the altitude of the aircraft as
it passes over the navigation point. This
altitude is provided as a reference and is
not designated to be used in determining
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Table 5-8 Altitude Constraint Size and Color Coding
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Altitudes associated with approach procedures are “auto-designated”. This means the system automatically
uses the altitudes loaded with the arrival or approach for giving vertical speed and deviation guidance. Note
that these altitudes are displayed as cyan text up to, but not including, the FAF. The FAF is always a “reference
only” altitude and cannot be designated, unless the selected approach does not provide vertical guidance. In
this case, the FAF altitude can be designated.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Altitudes that are not designated for use in vertical guidance can be “designated” using the ENT Key. The
altitude is now displayed as cyan text and is used to give vertical guidance. Other displayed altitudes may
change due to re-calculations or be rendered invalid as a result of manually changing an altitude to a designated
altitude.
Altitudes that have been designated for use in vertical guidance can be “un-designated” using the CLR Key.
The altitude is now displayed only as a reference. It is not used to give vertical guidance. Other displayed
altitudes may change due to re-calculations or be rendered invalid as a result of manually changing an altitude
to a non-designated altitude.
AFCS
Designating an altitude from the navigation database to be used for vertical guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude.
3) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical guidance.
Designating an altitude not from the navigation database value to be used for vertical guidance:
APPENDICES
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter editing mode.
4) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical guidance.
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Altitude constraints are displayed and entered in feet mean sea level (MSL) values to the nearest hundred. An
altitude constraint in feet above ground level (AGL) format is supported for airports. When a database altitude
restriction is displayed, the G950 allows entry of a different altitude when creating a waypoint, effectively
overriding the database restriction (only before the FAF). When a database altitude restriction of type “AT or
ABOVE” or “AT or BELOW” is activated, the system uses the “AT” portion of the restriction to define the vertical
profile.
An altitude constraint is invalid if:
• Meeting the constraint requires the aircraft to climb
EIS
• Meeting the constraint requires the maximum flight path angle or maximum vertical speed to be exceeded
• The altitude constraint results in a TOD behind the aircraft present position
• The constraint is within a leg type for which altitude constraints are not supported
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• The altitude constraint is added to the FAF of an approach that provides vertical guidance (i.e., ILS or GPS
SBAS approach)
• The altitude constraint is added to a waypoint past the FAF.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Entering/modifiying an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Enter an altitude constraint value using the FMS Knobs. To enter altitudes as a flight level, turn the small
FMS Knob counter-clockwise past zero or clockwise past 9 on the first character, and the system automatically
changes to show units of Flight Level. Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight the first zero and enter
the three digit flight level.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport, an additional choice
is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Altitude constraints can be modified or deleted after having been added to the flight plan. In the event
an altitude constraint is deleted and the navigation database contains an altitude restriction for the lateral
waypoint, the G950 displays the altitude restriction from the database provided no predicted altitude can
be provided. The G950 also provides a way to reinstate a published altitude constraint that has been edited.
Deleting an altitude constraint provided by the navigation database:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
APPENDICES
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove VNV altitude constraint?’ confirmation window is displayed.
INDEX
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Deleting an altitude constraint that has been manually entered:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘REMOVE’ and press the ENT Key. The manually entered altitude is deleted (it is replaced by a system
calculated altitude, if available).
Reverting a manually entered altitude constraint back to the navigation database value:
EIS
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘REVERT’ and press the ENT Key. The altitude is changed to the navigation database value.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Modifying a system calculated altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the CLR Key. An ‘Edit or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘EDIT’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Edit the value using the FMS Knobs, and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.8 PROCEDURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 can access the whole range of instrument procedures available. Departures (DPs), arrivals (STARs),
and non-precision and precision approaches (APPRs) are stored within the database and can be loaded using the
Procedures (PROC) Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The selected procedure for the departure or arrival airport is added to the active flight plan. No waypoints are
required to be in the active flight plan to load procedures; however, if the departure and arrival airport are already
loaded, the procedure loading window defaults to the appropriate airport, saving some time selecting the correct
airport on the Procedure Loading Page. Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “load” or “activate”
is given. “Loading” adds the approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation
guidance. This allows continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps
the procedure available on the Active Flight Plan Page for quick activation when needed. “Activating” also adds
the procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in
the approach.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The system adds terminal procedures to the flight plan based on leg types coded within that procedure in the
navigation database. If the terminal procedure in the flight plan contains an identifier like ‘6368ft’, that indicates
a leg that terminates when the specified altitude (6368 feet) has been exceeded. A heading leg in the flight plan
displays ‘hdg’ preceding the DTK (e.g. ‘hdg 008°’). A flight plan leg requiring the pilot to manually intitiate
sequencing to the next leg displays ‘MANSEQ’ as the identifier.
Heading Leg Terminating at the
Specified Altitude
AFCS
Manually Sequenced Heading Leg
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-96 Procedure Leg Identifiers
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DEPARTURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can be
loaded at a time in a flight plan. If a departure is loaded when another departure is already in the active flight
plan, the new departure replaces the previous departure. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
LOADING A DEPARTURE INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading a departure into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
EIS
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT DEPARTURE’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Departure Loading Page is displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select a departure from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure.
Departure Airport
Available Procedure Actions
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Loaded Procedures
Departure Preview
Departure Choices
APPENDICES
Figure 5-97 Departure Selection
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Loaded Departure
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected Departure
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-98 Departure Loading
Viewing available departures at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the DP Softkey. The Departure Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on the map.
AFCS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The cursor
moves to the Runway box. The departure is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The departure is previewed on the map.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The departure is previewed on the map.
INDEX
APPENDICES
7) Select the INFO-1 Softkey or the INFO-2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Loading a departure into the active flight plan from the Departure Information Page:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), select the DP Softkey. The Departure Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Select a different departure, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on the map.
EIS
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The
cursor moves to the Runway box. The departure is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The departure is previewed on the map.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the Sequence box. The departure is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the Departure Information Page Menu.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Departure’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure into the active flight plan.
REMOVING A DEPARTURE FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, departures can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Removing a departure procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Departure’.
AFCS
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the departure header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
APPENDICES
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
ARRIVALS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available. Only one arrival
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an arrival is loaded when another arrival is already in the active
flight plan, the new arrival replaces the previous arrival. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
LOADING AN ARRIVAL INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
EIS
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT ARRIVAL’.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the ENT Key. The Arrival Loading Page is displayed.
7) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted.
5) Select an arrival from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure.
Destination Airport
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Available Procedure Actions
APPENDICES
Loaded Procedures
Arrival Preview
Arrival Choices
INDEX
Figure 5-99 Arrival Selection
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selected Arrival
Loaded Arrival
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-100 Arrival Loading
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Viewing available arrivals at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the STAR Softkey. The Arrival Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport Information Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Arrival. The arrival is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor moves
to the Transition box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
AFCS
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Runway box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
7) Select the INFO-1 Softkey or the INFO-2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan from the Arrival Information Page:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), select the STAR Softkey. The Arrival Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
3) Select a different arrival, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the arrival. The arrival is previewed on the map.
EIS
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor
moves to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The arrival is previewed on the map.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the Runway box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the Arrival Information Page Menu.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Arrival’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure into the active flight plan.
REMOVING AN ARRIVAL FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When plans change while flying IFR, arrivals can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing an arrival from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Arrival’.
AFCS
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the arrival header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
APPENDICES
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
INDEX
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPROACHES
NOTE: If certain GPS parameters (SBAS, RAIM, etc.) are not available, some published approach procedures
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
for the desired airport may not be displayed in the list of available approaches.
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available, and provides guidance
for non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach procedures.
Only one approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an approach is loaded when another approach
is already in the active flight plan, the new approach replaces the previous approach. The route is defined by
selection of an approach and the transition waypoints.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “load” or “activate” is given. “Loading” adds the
approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This allows
continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps the procedure
available on the Active Flight Plan Page for quick activation when needed. “Activating” also adds the procedure
to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in the approach.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When selecting an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure name indicates the procedure
can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures do not have this designation, meaning the GPS
receiver can be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. If the GPS receiver cannot be used for
primary guidance, the appropriate navigation receiver must be used for the selected approach (e.g., VOR or
ILS). The final course segment of ILS approaches, for example, must be flown by tuning the NAV receiver to
the proper frequency and selecting that NAV receiver on the CDI.
Example on HSI
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Approach Service Level
- LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV
INDEX
HSI Annunciation
Description
LNAV
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV
minima
LNAV+V
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV
minima. Advisory vertical guidance is provided
L/VNAV
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV/
(available only if VNAV minima (downgrades to LNAV if SBAS
SBAS available) unavailable)
LP
RNAV GPS approach using published LP minima
(available only if (downgrades to LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
SBAS available)
LP+V
RNAV GPS approach using published LP minima
(available only if Advisory vertical guidance is provided
SBAS available) (downgrades to LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
LPV
RNAV GPS approach using published LPV
(available only if minima
SBAS available)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The G1000 SBAS GPS allows for flying LNAV, LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LP+V and LPV approach service
levels according to the published chart. The ‘+V’ designation adds advisory vertical guidance for assistance in
maintaining a constant vertical glidepath similar to an ILS glideslope on approach. This guidance is displayed
on the system PFD in the same location as the ILS glideslope using a magenta diamond. The active approach
service level is annunciated on the HSI as shown in the following table:
Table 5-9 Approach Types
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
LOADING AN APPROACH INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading an approach into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT APPROACH’, and press the ENT Key. The Approach Loading Page is displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
EIS
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the APPROACH CHANNEL field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
4) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Minimums
a) To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’, and press the ENT Key.
Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
AFCS
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘LOAD?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
NOTE: When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV
receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Available Procedure Actions
Destination Airport
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Approach Preview
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Loaded Procedures
Approach Choices
Figure 5-101 Approach Selection
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Approach
Loaded Approach
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
LOAD or ACTIVATE? Annunciation
Figure 5-102 Approach Loading
APPENDICES
Viewing available approaches at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the APR Softkey. The Approach
Information Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
INDEX
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Approach. The approach is previewed on
the map.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available approaches. Press the ENT Key to select the approach. The
cursor moves to the Transition box. The approach is previewed on the map.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Minimums box. The approach is previewed on the map.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select minimums on or off. Press the ENT Key.
a) When minimums are selected on, the cursor moves to the minimum altitude field . Use the small FMS Knob
to select the altitude. Press the ENT Key.
EIS
b) If temperature compensated minimums was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Use the
small FMS Knob to select the temperature. Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the Sequence box. The
approach is previewed on the map.
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
a) When minimums are selected off, the cursor moves to the Sequence box. The approach is previewed on the
map.
7) Press the INFO-1 or the INFO-2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Loading an approach into the active flight plan from the Nearest Airport Page:
1) Select the Nearest Airports Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired nearest airport. The airport is
previewed on the map.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Approach Window’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired approach.
5) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Load Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The
Approach Loading Page is displayed with the transitions field highlighted.
AFCS
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired transition, and press the ENT Key.
7) Minimums
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
a) To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’, and press the ENT Key.
Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
APPENDICES
a) To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key. The ‘LOAD?’ field is highlighted.
INDEX
8) Press the ENT Key with ‘LOAD?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure. The system continues
navigating the current flight plan until the approach is activated. When GPS is not approved for the selected
final approach course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the
approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ACTIVATING AN APPROACH
A previously loaded approach can be activated from the Procedures Window.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Activating a previously loaded approach:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed with ‘Activate Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
EIS
In many cases, it may be easiest to “load” the full approach while still some distance away, enroute to the
destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, use the steps above to select ‘Activate Vector-To-Final’ — which
makes the inbound course to the FAF waypoint active.
Activating a previously loaded approach with vectors to final:
1) Press the PROC Key to display the Procedures Window.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Highlight ‘ACTIVATE VECTOR-TO-FINAL’ and press the ENT Key.
Loading and activating an approach using the MENU Key:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) From the Approach Loading Page, press the MENU Key. The page menu is displayed with ‘Load & Activate
Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT
APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to
a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
REMOVING AN APPROACH FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, approaches can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing an approach from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
AFCS
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the approach header in the active flight plan.
APPENDICES
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
MISSED APPROACH
Activating a missed approach in the active flight plan:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘ACTIVATE MISSED APPROACH’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The aircraft automatically sequences to the MAHP.
Or:
EIS
Press the Go-Around Button.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6368ft’) is
not part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along
the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded.
This altitude is provided by the navigation database, and may be below, equal to, or above the published
minimums for this approach. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,368 feet)
after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of
6,368 feet is reached. After reaching 6,368 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case
MOGAL). If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established
to the published fix (MOGAL) to begin the missed approach procedure..
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Course to Altitude Leg
Figure 5-103 Course to Altitude
INDEX
APPENDICES
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed Approach
Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if the
aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to Altitude leg
when the missed approach procedure is activated.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED ALTITUDE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If desired, the system can compensate the loaded approach altitudes based on a pilot-supplied temperature
at the destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C, the system increases
the approach altitudes accordingly. A temperature compensated altitude is displayed in slanted text.
Activating temperature compensated altitude:
1) From the Active Flight Plan Page, press the MENU Key. The Page Menu is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key. The TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION Window is displayed.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select the temperature at the <airport>. The compensated altitude is computed as
the temperature is selected.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered in the TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION Window
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
on the MFD, or in the REFERENCES Window on the PFD. There is only one compensation temperature for
the system, therefore, changing the temperature will affect both the loaded approach altitudes and the
minimums. Refer to the Flight Instruments section for information about applying temperature compensation
to the MDA/DH.
5) Press the ENT Key. ‘ACTIVATE COMPENSATION?’ is highlighted.
6) Press the ENT Key. The compensated altitudes for the approach are shown in the flight plan.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Selected
Temperature
FAF Altitude
Compensated
Altitude
Temperature
Compensation
Selected
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-104 Temperature Compensation
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
ACTIVATE
COMPENSATION?
Highlighted
CANCEL
COMPENSATION?
Highlighted
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Figure 5-105 Activating/Cancelling Temperature Compensation
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Compensated
Altitudes
Uncompensated
Altitudes
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-106 Temperature Compensation in the Active Flight Plan
Disabling temperature compensated altitude:
1) From the Active Flight Plan Page, press the MENU Key. The Page Menu is displayed.
AFCS
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION Window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘CANCEL COMPENSATION?’ is highlighted.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Press the ENT Key. The temperature compensated altitude at the FAF is cancelled.
NOTE: Activating/cancelling temperature compensation for the loaded approach altitudes does not select/
INDEX
APPENDICES
deselect temperature compensated minimums (MDA/DH), nor does selecting/deselecting temperature
compensated minimums activate/cancel temperature compensated approach altitudes.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5.9 TRIP PLANNING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 allows the pilot to view trip planning information, fuel information, and other information for a
specified flight plan or flight plan leg based on automatic data, or based on manually entered data. Weight
planning is also available, based on fuel data and the active flight plan (to estimate remaining fuel).
TRIP PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the statistics is done on the Trip Planning Page
located in the AUX Page Group.
EIS
Selected Flight Plan Segment
- FPL Number/Cumulative Legs (CUM or REM) or Leg Number (NN)
- Waypoints Defining Selected Flight Plan/Flight Plan Leg
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Trip Planning Page Mode
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan/
Flight Plan Leg
- Automatic/Manual
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Trip Input Data (sensor/pilot)
Trip Statistics
Desired Track Distance Est. Time Enroute Est. Time of Arrival Enroute Safe Altitude Sunrise Time (local) Sunset Time (local) -
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Departure Time (local)
- Ground Speed
- Fuel Flow
- Fuel On Board Aircraft
- Calibrated Airspeed
- Indicated Altitude
- Barometric Pressure
- Total Air Temperature
Other Statistics
- Density Altitude
- True Airspeed (TAS)
Fuel Statistics
AFCS
Efficiency Total Endurance Remaining Fuel Remaining Endurance Fuel Required Total Range -
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Softkeys
- Automatic/Manual Page Mode
- Flight Plan/Waypoint Mode
Figure 5-107 Trip Planning Page
APPENDICES
The trip planning inputs are based on sensor inputs (automatic page mode) or on pilot inputs (manual page
mode). Some additional explanation of the sources for some of the inputs is as follows:
• Departure time (DEP TIME) - This defaults to the current time in automatic page mode. The computations
are from the aircraft present position, so the aircraft is always just departing.
INDEX
• Calibrated airspeed (CALIBRATED AS) - The primary source is from the air data system, and the secondary
source of information is GPS ground speed.
• Indicated altitude (IND ALTITUDE) - The primary source is the barometric altitude, and the secondary source
of information is GPS altitude.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRIP STATISTICS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and the entire flight plan (CUM) selected,
the waypoints are the starting and ending waypoints of the selected flight plan.
The trip statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
waypoints are the endpoints of the selected leg.
EIS
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and the remaining flight plan (REM)
selected, the ‘from’ waypoint is the present position of the aircraft and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the
active flight plan.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
‘from’ waypoint is the current aircraft position and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the selected leg.
In waypoint (WPTS) mode these are manually selected waypoints (if there is an active flight plan, these
default to the endpoints of the active leg).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has already
been flown.
• Desired Track (DTK) - DTK is shown as nnn° and is the desired track between the selected waypoints.
It is dashed unless only a single leg is selected.
• Distance (DIS) - The distance is shown in tenths of units up to 99.9, and in whole units up to 9999.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Estimated time enroute (ETE) - ETE is shown as hours:minutes until less than an hour, then it is shown
as minutes:seconds.
• Estimated time of arrival (ETA) - ETA is shown as hours:minutes and is the local time at the
destination.
AFCS
- If a flight plan other than the active flight plan is selected it shows the ETA by adding to the departure
time all of the ETEs of the legs up to the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA
is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- If in waypoint mode then the ETA is the ETE added to the departure time.
- If the active flight plan is selected the ETA reflects the current position of the aircraft and the current leg
being flown. The ETA is calculated by adding to the current time the ETEs of the current leg up to the
selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg of the flight
plan was selected.
APPENDICES
• Enroute safe altitude (ESA) - The ESA is shown as nnnnnFT
INDEX
• Destination sunrise and sunset times (SUNRISE, SUNSET) - These times are shown as hours:minutes
and are the local time at the destination.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FUEL STATISTICS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The fuel statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs. Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has
already been flown.
• Fuel efficiency (EFFICIENCY) - This value is calculated by dividing the current ground speed by the
current fuel flow.
• Time of fuel endurance (TOTAL ENDUR) - This time is shown as hours:minutes. This value is obtained
by dividing the amount of fuel on board by the current fuel flow.
EIS
• Fuel on board upon reaching end of selected leg (REM FUEL) - This value is calculated by taking the
amount of fuel onboard and subtracting the fuel required to reach the end of the selected leg.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Fuel endurance remaining at end of selected leg (REM ENDUR) - This value is calculated by taking the time
of fuel endurance and subtracting the estimated time enroute to the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel required for trip (FUEL REQ) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time to go by the fuel
flow.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Total range at entered fuel flow (TOTAL RANGE) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time of fuel
endurance by the ground speed.
OTHER STATISTICS
These statistics are calculated based on the system sensor inputs or the manual trip planning inputs.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Density altitude (DENSITY ALT)
• True airspeed (TRUE AIRSPEED)
The pilot may select automatic (AUTO) or manual (MANUAL) page mode, and flight plan (FPL) or waypoint
(WPTS) mode. In automatic page mode, only the FPL, LEG, or waypoint IDs are editable (based on FPL/WPTS
selection).
AFCS
Selected Flight Plan NN -
Selected Leg(s)
00 is Active FPL
01-99 are Stored FPLs
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Starting and Ending Waypoint of
Selected Flight Plan Segment
Stored Flight Plan
- CUM: Beginning to End of FPL
- NN: Beginning to End of Selected Leg
Active Flight Plan
- REM: Pres. Pos. to End of FPL
- NN: Pres. Pos. to End of Selected Leg
Figure 5-108 Trip Planning Page - Flight Plan Mode
APPENDICES
Selected Flight Plan
Selected Leg(s)
Not Available
Not Available
Selected Starting and Ending Waypoints
INDEX
Figure 5-109 Trip Planning Page - Waypoint Mode
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting automatic or manual page mode:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Selecting flight plan or waypoint mode:
Press the AUTO Softkey or the MANUAL Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Auto Mode’ or ‘Manual
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Press the FPL Softkey or the WPTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Flight Plan Mode’ or ‘Waypoints
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting a flight plan and leg for trip statistics:
EIS
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the flight plan number field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired flight plan number.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CUM’ or ‘REM’. The statistics for each leg can be viewed by turning the
small FMS Knob to select the desired leg. The Inset Map also displays the selected data.
Selecting waypoints for waypoint mode:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the WPTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the ENT Key. The
cursor is positioned in the waypoint field directly below the FPL field.
2) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint (or select from the Page Menu ‘Set WPT to Present Position’
if that is what is desired), and press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the second waypoint field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint, and press the ENT Key. The statistics for the selected leg
are displayed.
In manual page mode, the other eight trip input data fields must be entered by the pilot, in addition to flight
plan and leg selection.
Entering manual data for trip statistics calculations:
AFCS
1) Press the MANUAL Softkey or select ‘Manual Mode’ from the Page Menu, and press the ENT Key. The cursor
may now be positioned in any field in the top right two boxes.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to move the cursor onto the DEP TIME field and enter the desired value. Press the ENT Key.
The statistics are calculated using the new value and the cursor moves to the next entry field. Repeat until all
desired values have been entered.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
WEIGHT PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the data is done on the Weight and Fuel
Planning Page located in the AUX Page Group.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: All weight and fuel planning page data fields display data rounded to the nearest 10 pounds or 5
kilograms.
Fuel Calculations
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Fuel Remaining Fuel Used from Sync or FOB Entry Range Total Fuel Used since Reset Time to Destination Fuel Remaining over Destination Endurance Time -
FOB SYNC Softkey
Empty Weight Softkey
Reset Fuel Used Softkey
(resets total fuel used to zero)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
(resets fuel on board to measured
value)
(selects Basic Empty Weight)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Zero Fuel Weight Calculation
- Fuel on Board Entry (or sync)
- Aircraft Weight Calculation
- Estimated Landing Weight Calculation
- Estimated Landing Fuel Calculation
- Fuel Reserve Entry
- Excess Fuel Calculation
Basic Empty Weight Entry Pilot and Stores Weight Entry Basic Operating Weight Calculation Passenger(s) Weight Entry Cargo Weight Entry Zero Fuel Weight Calculation -
EIS
Fuel Weight Calculator
A/C Payload Calculator
Figure 5-110 Weight and Fuel Planning Page
AFCS
Entering basic empty weight:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Press the EMPTY WT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Basic Empty Weight’, and press the ENT
Key to select the ‘BASIC EMPTY WEIGHT’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the basic empty weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
APPENDICES
Entering a pilot and stores weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘PILOT AND STORES’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the pilot and stores weight.
INDEX
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
The basic operating weight is calculated by adding the basic empty weight and the pilot and stores weight.
Entering the number of passengers:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘PASSENGERS #’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the number of passengers.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
EIS
Entering the average passenger weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the passenger weight field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the average passenger weight.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The total weight of passengers is calculated by multiplying the number of passengers by the average passenger
weight.
Entering the cargo weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘CARGO’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the cargo weight.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The ‘ZERO FUEL WEIGHT’ is calculated by adding the basic empty, pilot and stores, passenger, and cargo
weights.
AFCS
Entering a fuel on board weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘FUEL ON BOARD’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel on board.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering fuel reserve:
APPENDICES
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘FUEL RESERVES’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel reserves amount.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
INDEX
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Synchronizing the fuel on board with the actual measured fuel on board:
Press the FOB SYNC Softkey; or press the MENU Softkey, highlight ‘Synchronize Fuel on Board’, and press the
ENT Key. The actual measured fuel on board is displayed in the ‘FUEL ON BOARD’ field.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When the aircraft is in the air and a destination waypoint has been entered, the fuel calculations can be
completed.
• Estimated landing weight = zero fuel weight + estimated landing fuel weight.
• Estimated landing fuel weight = fuel on board weight - (fuel flow x ETE)
• Excess fuel weight = estimated landing fuel weight - fuel reserves weight
EIS
If the aircraft is on the ground or a destination waypoint has not been entered, the following fields display
invalid values consisting of six dashes:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Estimated landing weight
• Estimated landing fuel weight
• Excess fuel weight
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
WEIGHT CAUTION AND WARNING CONDITIONS
If the zero fuel weight is greater than the maximum allowable zero fuel weight, then the zero fuel weight is
displayed in amber.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If the aircraft weight is greater than the maximum allowable takeoff weight, then the aircraft weight is displayed
in amber.
If the estimated landing weight is greater than the maximum allowable landing weight, then the estimated
landing weight is displayed in amber.
If the estimated landing fuel weight is positive, but less than or equal to the fuel reserves weight, the following
values are displayed in amber:
AFCS
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
If the estimated landing fuel weight is zero or negative, then the following values are displayed in red:
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.10 RAIM PREDICTION
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to calculate
a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nm for oceanic, 2.0 nm for enroute, 1.0 nm for terminal,
and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of flight, RAIM is
available nearly 100% of the time. The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a
specified date and time. RAIM computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival
date and time. Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not
available. RAIM prediction must be initiated manually if there is concern over SBAS coverage at the destination
or some other reason that compromises navigation precision. If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the
final approach course, the approach does not become active. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the
missed approach procedure must be flown.
RAIM PREDICTION Box
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Prediction Waypoint
- Arrival Time
- Arrival Date
- RAIM Status
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
RAIM Softkey
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
APPENDICES
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
Figure 5-111 RAIM Prediction
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
INDEX
2) Press the FMS Knob. The RAIM Prediction ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window with a
waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
4) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint; or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key with ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ highlighted to begin the computation.
EIS
Predicting RAIM availability at the aircraft present position:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob. The RAIM Prediction ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set WPT to Present Position’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
6) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key with ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ highlighted to begin the computation.
Status of the RAIM computation for the selected waypoint, time, and date is displayed at the bottom of the
RAIM PREDICTION Box as follows:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ - RAIM has not been computed.
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’ - RAIM calculation is in progress.
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’ - RAIM is predicted to be available.
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’ - RAIM is predicted to be unavailable.
AFCS
The Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) provides increased navigation accuracy when available. SBAS
can be enabled or disabled manually on the GPS Status Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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271
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SBAS Status
SBAS SELECTION Box
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
- EGNOS Enable/Disable
- MSAS Enable/Disable
- WAAS Enable/Disable
RAIM Softkey
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
Figure 5-112 SBAS Display - Active
Enabling/Disabling SBAS:
AFCS
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
2) Press the SBAS softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘EGNOS’, ‘MSAS’ or ‘WAAS’.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the ENT Key to disable SBAS. Press the ENT Key again to enable SBAS.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SBAS Status
SBAS SELECTION Box
- EGNOS Enable/Disable
- MSAS Enable/Disable
- WAAS Enable/Disable
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
RAIM Softkey
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-113 SBAS Display - Inactive
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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273
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.11 NAVIGATING A FLIGHT PLAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The following discussion is an example of navigating a flight plan with the SBAS capable GPS system while the
G950 provides vertical guidance through descents. A lateral flight plan (LNAV) would be navigated in much the
same way, but would not include vertical guidance when the final approach course is active.
NOTE: The following example flight plan is for instructional purposes only. All database information depicted
should be considered not current.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Prior to departure, the TIFTO2 departure, the airways, and the DBRY1 arrival at KCOS are loaded. See the
Procedures section for loading departures and arrivals. Note the magenta arrow in Figure 5-114 indicating the
active departure leg.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
EIS
The example is a flight plan from KMKC to KCOS filed using the TIFTO2 departure, various Victor Airways,
and the DBRY1 arrival with the transition at TBE. The flight plan includes an enroute altitude of 12,000 feet, an
LPV (WAAS) approach selected for runway 35R, and a missed approach executed at the Missed Approach Point
(MAP). A few enroute changes are demonstrated.
2) Figure 5-114 shows the aircraft on the assigned heading of 240º. ‘TERM’ (Terminal) is the current CDI flight
phase displayed on the HSI indicating 1.0 nm CDI scaling.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
After takeoff, ATC assigns a heading of 240º.
INDEX
Figure 5-114 Assigned Heading of 240º
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3) ATC now assigns routing to join V4. A heading of 290º is assigned to intercept V4. The aircraft turns to heading
290° as seen in Figure 5-115.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-115 Assigned Heading of 290º
4) Enter V4 into the flight plan.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
b) The desired entry point for V4 (TOP) must be entered. Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired
flight plan insertion point (SLN) as shown in Figure 5-116. When the V4 entry point (TOP) is inserted, it is
placed immediately above the highlighted waypoint (SLN).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-116 Begin Adding V4 to the Flight Plan
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. Enter the desired entry point for
V4, Topeka VOR (TOP), as shown in Figure 5-117.
INDEX
Figure 5-117 Entering V4 Entry Point
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
d) Press the ENT Key. TOP is inserted into the flight plan as in Figure 5-118.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-118 TOP Inserted into the Flight Plan
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
e) With SLN still highlighted as in Figure 5-118, turn the small FMS Knob clockwise. The Waypoint Information
Page is displayed and the LD AIRWY Softkey is now available.
f) Press the LD AIRWY Softkey to display the list of available airways for TOP as seen in Figure 5-119.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-119 List of Available Airways for TOP
g) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight V4 in the list as seen in Figure 5-119.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
h) Press the ENT Key. The list of available exits for V4 is now displayed as in Figure 5-120.
i)
If necessary, turn either FMS Knob to select the desired exit. In this case Salina VOR (SLN) is selected as in
Figure 5-120.
j)
Press the ENT Key. The selected airway and exit are displayed, and the prompt “LOAD?” highlighted as in
Figure 5-121.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-120 List of Available Exits for V4
INDEX
Figure 5-121 Ready to Load V4
k) Press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
l)
V4 is now loaded into the flight plan as shown in Figure 5-122.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-122 V4 is Loaded in the Flight Plan
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Making V4 the active leg of the flight plan.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ULNAZ. The TO waypoint of the leg is selected in order to activate
the leg.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
c) Press the ACT LEG Softkey. The confirmation window is now displayed as in Figure 5-123. Note the TOP
to ULNAZ leg is actually part of V4.
AFCS
Figure 5-123 Comfirm Active Leg
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
d) Verify the displayed leg is the desired leg and press the ENT Key. Note in Figure 5-124, the magenta arrow
in the flight plan window and magenta line on the map indicating V4 is now the active flight plan leg. Note
the phase of flight remained in Terminal (TERM) mode up to this point because a departure leg was active.
Since a leg after the departure is now active, the current CDI flight phase is ENR (Enroute) and CDI scaling
has changed to 2.0 nm.
Figure 5-124 V4 Now Active Leg
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
6) The aircraft continues on heading 290º. When crosstrack distance is less than 2.0 nm, the XTK disappears from
the HSI and the CDI is positioned on the last dot indicating a 2.0 nm distance from the centerline of the next
course.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
7) As the CDI approaches center, the aircraft turns onto the active leg as seen in Figure 5-125.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-125 Turn on to Active Leg
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) At SLN, Victor Airway 244 (V244) is intercepted. Turn prompts are displayed in the PFD Navigation Status Box
as seen in Figure 5-126.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-126 Turn to Intercept V244
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
9) As seen in Figure 5-127, V244 is now the active flight plan leg.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-127 V244 Now Active Leg
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OVERVIEW
10) At Lamar VOR (LAA) V263 is intercepted. See Figure 5-128.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-128 HYS to LAA Leg Active
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
11) ATC grants clearance to proceed direct to the OPSHN intersection to begin the arrival procedure. ATC advises
to expect an altitude of 10,000 feet at OPSHN.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to select OPSHN in the flight plan list.
c) Press the Direct-to (
) Key. The Direct-to Window is now displayed as shown in Figure 5-129.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 5-129 Direct To OPSHN
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AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
d) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the VNV altitude field as shown in Figure 5-130.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-130 Enter VNV Altitude
e) An altitude of 10,000 feet is entered as requested by ATC.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
f) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the VNV offset field as shown in Figure 5-131.
APPENDICES
Figure 5-131 Enter VNV Offset Distance
INDEX
g) Enter the offset, or distance from the waypoint at which to reach the selected altitude. In this case, three
miles prior to OPSHN is entered. In other words, the G950 gives vertical guidance so the aircraft arrives at
an altitude of 10,000 feet three miles prior to OPSHN.
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INSTRUMENTS
h) Press the ENT Key twice to activate the direct-to. Note, in Figure 5-132, the magenta arrow indicating
the direct-to OPSHN after the offset waypoint for OPSHN. The preceding offset waypoint indicates the
offset distance and altitude that were previously entered. The remaining waypoints in the loaded arrival
procedure have no database specified altitudes, therefore, dashes are displayed. Keep the CDI centered
and maintain a track along the magenta line to OPSHN.
Note the Direct-to waypoint is within the loaded arrival procedure, therefore, phase of flight scaling for the
CDI changes to Terminal Mode and is annunciated by displaying ‘TERM’ on the HSI.
NOTE: If the loaded arrival procedure has waypoints with altitude constraints retrieved from the database
EIS
that will be used as is, the altitude must be manually accepted by placing the cursor over the desired
altitude, then pressing the ENT Key. The altitude is now displayed as cyan meaning it will be used by the
system to determine vertical speed and deviation guidance.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-132 Direct-to Active
APPENDICES
12) The aircraft is proceeding to OPSHN. The expected approach is the RNAV LPV approach to runway 35R, so it is
selected.
a) Press the PROC Key to display the Procedures Window.
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AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
b) ‘SELECT APPROACH’ should be highlighted as shown in Figure 5-133.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-133 Procedures Window
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
c) Press the ENT Key. A list of available approaches for the destination airport is displayed as in Figure 5-134.
Figure 5-134 List of Available Approaches
INDEX
d) Turn either FMS Knob to select the LPV approach for 35R as shown in Figure 5-134.
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e) Press the ENT Key. A list of available transitions for the selected approach is displayed as in Figure 5-135.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-135 List of Available Transitions
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
f) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired transition. In this case, the Initial Approach Fix (IAF) at HABUK
is used.
g) Press the ENT Key.
h) Barometric Minimums (Figure 5-136)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, and press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS
Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-136 Barometric Minimums Set
With ‘LOAD?’ highlighted, again press the ENT Key. The selected approach is added to the flight plan as
seen in Figure 5-137.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
i)
INDEX
Figure 5-137 Loaded Approach
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
13) Note the altitude constraints associated with each of the approach waypoints as seen in Figure 5-138. These
altitudes are loaded from the database and are displayed as cyan text, indicating these values are “designated”
for use in computing vertical deviation guidance.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired altitude.
c) Press the CLR Key.
d) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Note: To no longer use the displayed altitude for calculating vertical deviation guidance, perform the
following:
After making the altitude “non-designated”, it is displayed as white text.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Altitude constraint values associated with the Final Approach Fix (FAF) and waypoints beyond the FAF
cannot be designated for vertical guidance. These altitude values are always displayed as white text, as in
Figure 5-135. Vertical guidance from the FAF and on to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) is given using
the WAAS GPS altitude source, therefore, the displayed altitude values are for reference only.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-138 Vertical Guidance is Active to the FAF
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
14) As the aircraft approaches OPSHN, it may be desirable to adjust the speed, or steepness of the upcoming
descent. The default Flight Path Angle (FPA) is -3.0 degrees and a required vertical speed is computed to
maintain the -3.0 FPA. To change the vertical flight path, perform the following steps.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
a) Press the VNV PROF Softkey to place the cursor in the target vertical speed field (VS TGT) as shown in
Figure 5-139.
b) At this point, the descent vertical speed can be selected, or the FPA can be selected. Turn the large FMS
Knob to select the desired selection field, then turn the small FMS Knob to enter the desired value.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Note the information now displayed in the ‘CURRENT VNV PROFILE’ box. Also, note the offset waypoint
(orange box) and gray circle are now displayed on the map. The gray circle marks the Top of Descent (TOD).
In this example, vertical guidance is provided at the TOD that results in a -3.0 degree FPA descent to an
altitude of 10,000 feet upon reaching the offset waypoint.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-139 Adjusting the Descent
INDEX
APPENDICES
c) Press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
15) As seen in Figure 5-140, the aircraft is approaching TOD. Note the target vertical speed required to reach the
selected altitude. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) and the Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) are
now displayed on the PFD as shown in Figure 5-140. When the aircraft is within one minute of the TOD, it is
annunciated as shown in Figure 5-141, and an aural alert ‘Vertical track’ will be heard.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-140 Approaching Top of Descent (TOD)
AFCS
Target Altitude
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
APPENDICES
Required Vertical
Speed Indicator
(RVSI)
Figure 5-141 VDI & RVSI Upon Reaching Top of Descent (TOD)
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
16) Upon reaching TOD, a descent vertical speed is established by placing the VSI pointer in line with the RVSI as
shown in Figure 5-142.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Keep Vertical Deviation
Pointer Centered
Align Actual Vertical Speed
with
Required Vertical Speed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-142 VDI & RVSI Showing Correctly Established Descent
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
17) When the aircraft is one minute from the bottom of descent (BOD) it is annunciated as shown in Figure 5-143.
Upon reaching the offset waypoint for OPSHN, the aircraft is at 10,000 feet.
INDEX
Figure 5-143 Approaching Bottom of Descent (BOD) at OPSHN Offset Waypoint
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
18) The aircraft is approaching OPSHN. The upcoming turn and next heading are annunciated at the top left of the
PFD as seen in Figure 5-144. Initiate the turn and maneuver the aircraft on a track through the turn radius to
intercept the magenta line for the OPSHN to FSHER leg and center the CDI.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-144 Turn to intercept OPSHN to FSHER Leg
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
19) After passing OPSHN, the next leg of the arrival turns magenta as shown in Figure 5-145. The magenta arrow
in the flight plan list now indicates the OPSHN to FSHER leg of the arrival procedure is now active.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-145 Tracking the OPSHN to FSHER Leg
20) The flight continues through the arrival procedure to PYNON (see Figure 5-146). At a point 31 nm from the
destination airport, the phase of flight scaling for the CDI changes to Terminal Mode and is annunciated by
displaying ‘TERM’ on the HSI.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
A descent to HABUK is in the next leg. Note the TOD point on the map. Annunciations for the upcoming turn
and descent, as well as the VDI and RVSI, appear on the PFD as the flight progresses.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
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INDEX
Figure 5-146 Approaching PYNON
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
21) Upon passing PYNON the approach procedure automatically becomes active. The approach may be activated
at any point to proceed directly to the IAF. In this example, the aircraft has progressed through the final
waypoint of the arrival and the flight plan has automatically sequenced to the IAF as the active leg, activating
the approach procedure (see Figure 5-147).
Figure 5-147 Approach is Now Active
Note: To manually activate the approach procedure, perform the following steps:
a) Press the PROC Key.
AFCS
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘ACTIVATE APPROACH’ as shown in Figure 5-148
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
c) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
INDEX
Figure 5-148 Manually Activate Approach
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
22) The IAF is the next waypoint. At the TOD, establish a descent vertical speed as previously discussed in Step 16.
The aircraft altitude is 9,000 feet upon reaching HABUK.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-149 Descending Turn to the Initial Approach Fix (IAF)
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
23) After crossing FALUR the next waypoint is the FAF. The flight phase changes to LPV on the HSI indicating the
current phase of flight is in Approach Mode and the approach type is LPV. CDI scaling changes accordingly and is
used much like a localizer when flying an ILS approach. The RVSI is no longer displayed and the VDI changes to
the Glidepath Indicator (as shown in Figure 5-150) when the final approach course becomes active.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-150 Descending to the FAF
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The descent continues through the FAF (CEGIX) using the Glidepath Indicator, as one would use a glideslope
indicator, to obtain an altitude “AT” 7,800 feet at the FAF. Note the altitude restriction lines over and under (At)
the altitude in the ‘ALT’ field in Figure 5-150.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
24) After crossing CEGIX, the aircraft continues following the glidepath to maintain the descent to “AT or ABOVE”
6,370 feet at the Missed Approach Point (MAP) (RW35R) as seen in Figure 5-151.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-151 Descending to the Missed Approach Point
AFCS
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6368ft’) is not
part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along
the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded.
This altitude is provided by Jeppesen, and may be below, equal to, or above the published minimums for
this approach. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,368 feet) after crossing
the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of 6,368 feet is
reached. After reaching 6,368 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case MOGAL).
If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to the
published fix (MOGAL) to begin the missed approach procedure.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed
Approach Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’.
Again, if the aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to
Altitude leg when the missed approach procedure is activated.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
A direct-to is initiated to MOGAL, which is the Missed Approach Hold Point (MAHP) as seen in Figure
5-152. The aircraft is climbing to 10,000 feet. The CDI flight phase now changes from LPV to MAPR as
seen on the HSI.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
25) Upon reaching the MAP, it is decided to execute a missed approach. Automatic waypoint sequencing is
suspended past the MAP. Press the SUSP Softkey on the PFD to resume automatic waypoint sequencing
through the missed approach procedure.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-152 Missed Approach Active
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
26) The aircraft continues climbing to “AT or ABOVE” 10,000 feet at MOGAL. A holding pattern is established at
the MAHP (MOGAL) as shown in Figure 5-153.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-153 Establishing the Holding Pattern
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
27) The aircraft maintains 10,000 feet while following the magenta line through the hold as in Figure 5-154.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 5-154 Hold Established
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.12 ABNORMAL OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The Inset Map is removed from the PFD any time aircraft pitch is greater than +30° or less than –20°,
or when a 65° bank angle is reached.
This section discusses the Dead Reckoning mode of operation and the subsequent indications.
NOTE: Dead Reckoning Mode only functions in Enroute (ENR) or Oceanic (OCN) phase of flight. In all other
EIS
phases, an invalid GPS solution produces a “NO GPS POSITION” annunciation on the map and the G950
stops using GPS.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the G950 in DR Mode may become increasingly
unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. If while in DR Mode airspeed and/or heading data
is also lost or not available, the DR function may not be capable of accurately tracking estimated position and,
consequently, the system may display a path that is different than the actual movement of the aircraft. Estimated
position information displayed by the G950 through DR while there is no heading and/or airspeed data available
should not be used for navigation.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
DR Mode is inherently less accurate than the standard GPS/SBAS Mode due to the lack of satellite measurements
needed to determine a position. Changes in wind speed and/or wind direction compound the relative inaccuracy
of DR Mode. Because of this degraded accuracy, other navigation equipment must be relied upon for position
awareness until GPS-derived position data is restored.
AFCS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
While in Enroute or Oceanic phase of flight, if the G950 detects an invalid GPS solution or is unable to calculate
a GPS position, the system automatically reverts to Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode. In DR Mode, the G950 uses
its last-known position combined with continuously updated airspeed and heading data (when available) to
calculate and display the aircraft’s current estimated position.
DR Mode is indicated on the G950 by the appearance of the letters ‘DR’ superimposed in amber over the
‘own aircraft’ symbol as shown in Figure 5-155. In addition, ‘DR’ is prominently displayed in amber on the HSI
slightly above and to the right of the aircraft symbol on the CDI as shown in Figure 5-155. The CDI deviation bar
is removed from the display. Lastly, but at the same time, a ‘GPS NAV LOST’ alert message appears on the PFD.
Normal navigation using GPS/SBAS source data resumes automatically once a valid GPS solution is restored.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
As a result of operating in DR Mode, all GPS-derived data is computed based upon an estimated position and
is displayed as amber text on the display to denote degraded navigation source information as shown in Figure
5-155.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Also, while the G950 is in DR Mode, both TAWS and Terrain Proximity are disabled. Additionally, the accuracy
of all nearest information (airports, airspaces, and waypoints) is questionable. Finally, airspace alerts continue to
function, but with degraded accuracy.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Distance &
Bearing
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Current
Track
Indicator
Ground
Speed
EIS
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Wind Data
GPS Navigation
Lost Message
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Bearing
Pointer/
Distance
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Nav Data Bar
All data except
Active Leg,
TAS, and DTK
are in amber
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Subdued Aircraft
Symbol
APPENDICES
Figure 5-155 Dead Reckoning Mode - GPS Derived Data Shown in Amber
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303
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Hazard avoidance features available for the Twin Commander provide situational awareness and advisory
information with regard to potential hazards to flight safety associated with weather, terrain, and air traffic.
Weather
• Garmin GDL 69/69A/GDL 69 SXM/ GDL 69A SXM SiriusXM Weather (Subscription Optional)
• GSR 56 Garmin Connext Weather (Optional)
• GDL 88 ADS-B Flight Information Service-Broadcast Weather (Optional)
EIS
• GWX 70 Airborne Color Weather Radar (Optional)
®
• L-3 Stormscope WX-500 Series II Lightning Detection System (Optional)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Terrain Avoidance
• Terrain Proximity
• Terrain-SVS (Standard with SVS Option)
• Terrain Awareness and Warning System Class-B (TAWS-B) (Optional)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Traffic
• Traffic Information Service (TIS)
• Garmin GTS 825 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) (Optional)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Garmin GTS 855 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System I (TCAS I) (Optional)
• Garmin GDL 88 Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Traffic (Optional)
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 SIRIUSXM WEATHER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
EIS
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The optional Garmin GDL 69A/GDL 69A SXM is a remote-mounted data link satellite receiver. Differences
between the GDL 69A and GDL 69A SXM receiver models are also discussed throughout this section.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The receiver provides SiriusXM Weather information to the system, which appears on the Multi Function
Display (MFD) and the Primary Flight Display (PFD) Inset Map. The receiver also provides SiriusXM Satellite
Radio entertainment services to the system. Both weather data and audio entertainment programming operate
in the S-band frequency range to provide continuous reception capabilities at any altitude throughout North
America.
Services from SiriusXM are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit www.
siriusxm.com.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ACTIVATING SERVICES
Before SiriusXM Weather can be used, the service must be activated by providing SiriusXM’s customer service
the coded IDs unique to the installed GDL 69/69A. The SiriusXM Weather service has a coded Data Radio ID.
The Data Radio ID must be provided to activate the weather service. This ID is in the following locations:
AFCS
• The AUX - XM Information Page on the MFD (Figure 6-1)
• The SiriusXM Activation Instructions included with the Data Link Receiver
• The label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Contact the installer if the Audio and Data Radio IDs cannot be located.
SiriusXM uses the coded IDs to send an activation signal that allows the system to display weather data and/
or provide audio entertainment programming through the GDL 69/69A.
APPENDICES
Establishing an account for SiriusXM services:
1) Select the XM Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Press the INFO Softkey to display the AUX - XM Information Page.
3) Note the Data Radio ID (for SiriusXM Weather) and/or the Audio Radio ID (for SiriusXM Satellite Radio).
INDEX
4) Contact SiriusXM customer service through the phone number listed on its website.
5) Provide SiriusXM customer service the Data Radio ID and/or Audio Radio ID, in addition to payment information,
and desired weather product subscription package.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Activating the SiriusXM Weather service:
1) Once a SiriusXM Weather account has been established, select the XM Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Press the INFO Softkey to display the XM Information Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Observe the list of Weather Products. A white empty box appears next to an unavailable weather product; a
green filled box appears next to an available weather product. During activation, it may take several minutes
for weather products in the chosen subscription package to become available.
4) When the available weather products displayed match the weather products offered in the chosen SiriusXM
Weather product subscription package, press the LOCK Softkey.
EIS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘YES’.
6) To complete activation, press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Audio Radio ID
(for SiriusXM Satellite
Radio)
Data Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Weather
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Weather Products
(Available Products for
Service Class Indicated
in Green)
AFCS
Figure 6-1 XM Information Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Select to Display XM
Information page
Select to Lock
Subscription
Information when all
subscribed weather
products become
available
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: The displayed subscription Service Class, from most to least comprehensive, is ‘Aviator Pro’, ‘Aviator’
or ‘Aviator Lite’. The name of the subscription service purchased from SiriusXM may be different, however
it will correspond to the displayed Service Class name based on the level of comprehensiveness.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
USING SIRIUSXM WEATHER PRODUCTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The principal map page for viewing SiriusXM Weather data is the Weather Data Link (XM) Page in the Map
Page Group. This is the only map display capable of showing information for all available SiriusXM Weather
products.
Viewing the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT) Page.
EIS
3) If the page title contains ‘CNXT’, it will be necessary to change the data link weather source from Garmin
Connext to SiriusXM Weather. Refer to the next procedure to change the source.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NEXRAD Weather
Product Display
Enabled Icon
NEXRAD Weather
Product Ages (US
& Canada)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NEXRAD
Weather Product
Selected for
Display
Figure 6-2 Weather Data Link (XM) Page
INDEX
APPENDICES
If the optional GSR 56 Garmin Connext and/or GDL 88 FIS-B data link weather service has also been installed,
the Weather Data Link Page enables the pilot to change the source of the displayed data link weather for the
system. The displayed weather product softkeys correspond to selected data link weather source, including
weather product softkeys on the navigation maps.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Changing the weather data link weather source:
1) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) If necessary, turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT) Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the MENU Key (Figure 6-3).
4) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display XM Weather’ or ‘Display Connext Weather’ or
‘Display FIS-B Weather’ and press the ENT Key.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-3 Changing the Data Link Weather Source
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
For each enabled SiriusXM Weather product, the system displays a weather product icon and product age.
The product age is the elapsed time (in minutes) since the weather data provider compiled the weather product.
The product age display does not indicate the age of the information contained within the weather product,
which can be significantly older than the displayed weather product age.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
The SiriusXM Weather service broadcasts weather products at specific intervals (defined in the Broadcast
Rate column in Table 6-1). If for any reason, a product is not refreshed within the Broadcast Rate intervals
(see Table 6-1), the system removes the expired data from the display, and shows dashes instead of the product
age. This ensures the displayed information is consistent with what is currently being transmitted by the
SiriusXM Weather service. If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age
changes to yellow. If data for a weather product is not available, the system displays ‘N/A’ next to the weather
product symbol instead of the product age.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 6-1 shows the weather product symbols, the expiration times and the broadcast rates. The broadcast
rate represents the interval at which the SiriusXM Weather service transmits new signals that may or may not
contain updated weather products. It does not represent the rate at which the weather information is updated
or when the Data Link Receiver receives new data. SiriusXM and its weather data suppliers define and control
the data update intervals, which are subject to change.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SiriusXM Weather Product
Symbol
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
5 (U.S.)
10 (Canada)
15 (GDL 69/69A)
30 (GDL 69/69A SXM)
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD)
30
Cloud Top
(CLD TOP)
60
Echo Top
(ECHO TOP)
30
7.5
30
5
30
12
60
12
90
12
90
12
60
12
120
12
90
12
60
5
60
12
90
22
90
12
90
12
180
12
30
5
60
12
60
12
SiriusXM Lightning
(XM LTNG)
Cell Movement
(CELL MOV)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
City Forecast
(CITY)
Surface Analysis
(SFC)
Freezing Levels
(FRZ LVL)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
County Warnings
(COUNTY)
Cyclone Warnings
(CYCLONE)
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD)
(ICNG)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Air Report
(AIREPs)
Turbulence
(TURB)
No Radar Coverage
(Displayed with NEXRAD and no product image
Echo Tops)
Temporary Flight Restrictions
no product image
(TFRs)
Terminal Aerodrome Reports
no product image
(TAFs)
INDEX
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Table 6-1 Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
+
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
+
Flight Plan Pages
+
+
+
SiriusXM Lightning (XM LTNG)
+
+
+
+
+
+
Cell Movement (CELL MOV)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
+
+
+
+
City Forecast (CITY)
+
Surface Analysis (SFC)
+
Freezing Levels (FRZ LVL)
+
+*
+
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Winds Aloft (WIND)
+
+
Cyclone Warnings (CYCLONE)
+
Icing Potential (ICNG)
+
PIREPs
+
+
AIREPs
+
+
Turbulence (TURB)
+
TAFs
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
TFRs
+
AFCS
County Warnings (COUNTY)
No Radar Coverage
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
METARs
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
Nearest Page Group
+
AUX - Trip Planning
Page
Weather Data Link
(XM) Page
+
Weather Information
Page
Navigation Map Page
+
EIS
NEXRAD
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SiriusXM Weather Product
PFD Inset Map
Table 6-2 shows which SiriusXM Weather products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on specific
maps.
APPENDICES
* Winds Aloft Data displayed inside Profile View on the Navigation Map Page.
Table 6-2 SiriusXM Weather Product Display Maps
Softkeys control the display of weather information on most MFD pages and the PFD Inset Map. Figure 6-4
shows the weather product softkeys for the Weather Data Link (XM) Page. When a weather product is selected
for display, the corresponding softkey label changes to gray to indicate the product is enabled.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
NEXRAD-C
or
NEXRAD-B ECHO TOP CLD TOP
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ENGINE
CYCLONE SFC OFF
FRZ LVL
SIG/AIR
METAR
LEGEND MORE WX
WIND OFF ICNG OFF TURB OFF AIREPS
PIREPS
COUNTY
XM LTNG CELL MOV
BACK
SFC Softkey label changes
to reflect current selection.
WIND/ICNG/TURB Softkey labels
change to reflect current selection.
EIS
OFF
CURRENT
12 HR
24 HR
36 HR
48 HR
Select the BACK Softkey
to move up one level.
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
SFC
3000
6000
9000
12000
15000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
36000
39000
42000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
1000
3000
6000
9000
12000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
39000
42000
45000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
15000
36000
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
PREV and NEXT Softkeys cycle through Winds Aloft,
Icing, and Turbulence altitude selection softkeys.
Figure 6-4 Weather Data Link (XM) Page Softkeys
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link (XM) Page control the map range
settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the
weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The menus
also provide the ability to enable/disable the display of weather products, equivalent to using the softkeys to
enable/disable the display of weather products.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-5).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘PRODUCT GROUP 1’ or ‘PRODUCT GROUP 2’, and press the ENT Key (Figure
6-6).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
EIS
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the changed settings.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-5 Weather Data Link (XM) Page Menu
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-6 Weather Data Link (XM) Page Setup Menu
Restoring default Weather Data Link (XM) Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Highlight the desired option to restore defaults (for all or for selection), and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Weather products displayed on maps other than the Weather Data Link (XM) Page use settings based on those
selected for the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Setting up and customizing weather data for the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-7).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-8).
EIS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-9).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-7 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-8 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-9 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
INDEX
APPENDICES
If multiple data link weather services are installed, customizing the display settings for the corresponding
weather products shown in Table 6-3 will result in identical settings for all services.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD) and No Radar
Coverage
Cloud Top
(CLD TOP)
Precipitation
(PRECIP) and No Radar Coverage
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD) and No Radar Coverage
Not Available
Not Available
EIS
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Infrared Satellite
(IR SAT)
Garmin Connext Data Link
SiriusXM Lightning
Lightning
(XM LTNG)
(DL LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
(PIREPs)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FIS-B Weather Product
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
SiriusXM Weather Product
Table 6-3 Weather Data Link Map Settings Shared for Multiple Weather Data Link Sources
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Each displayed weather product has an associated legend which can be shown on the Weather Data Link
(XM) Page. A legend is also available for weather products enabled on the Navigation Map Page.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products (on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page):
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the LEGEND Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
AFCS
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends.
4) To remove the Legend Window, press the LEGEND Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products (on the Navigation Map Page):
APPENDICES
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the LEGEND Softkey (available if one or more SiriusXM Weather products are enabled for display).
4) To remove the Legend Window, press the LEGEND Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
INDEX
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315
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Additional information about the following SiriusXM Weather products can be displayed by panning the map
pointer over the displayed products on the map:
• Echo Tops
• AIRMETs
• Cloud Tops
• METARs
• Cell Movement
• County Warnings
• SIGMETs
• TFRs
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Additional
Information on
Storm Cell selected
with Map Pointer
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Storm Cell
Selected with
Map Pointer
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-10 Panning on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NEXRAD
NOTE: NEXRAD data cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain, echo tops, turbulence, or icing data
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
is displayed on the same map.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
EIS
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider compiles the available
individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time to indicate when
it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual images--gathered from
each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The
data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the SiriusXM Weather service, whose satellites transmit this
information during the next designated refresh time for the NEXRAD weather product.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current radar synopsis
and may not depict the current weather conditions. NEXRAD information should never be used as a basis for
maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
The system displays either base or composite NEXRAD imagery, depending on the model of the installed
data link receiver.
NEXRAD Reflectivity Type
GDL 69/69A
Composite Reflectivity
GDL 69/69A SXM
Base Reflectivity
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Data Link Receiver Model
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The base reflectivity NEXRAD weather product shows the radar returns from the perspective of a single
antenna tilt angle. The composite reflectivity NEXRAD weather product shows the highest radar energy
received from multiple antenna tilt angles. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate the
intensity of the echoes and the type of precipitation.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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317
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
No Radar
Coverage
Figure 6-11 NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying NEXRAD weather information:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the NEXRAD-B or NEXRAD-C Softkey.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The weather product displays composite information from all the NEXRAD radar sites in the United States.
This information is composed of the maximum reflectivity from the individual radar sweeps. The display
of the information is color-coded to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can be
viewed on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page. For the NEXRAD legend (Figure 6-12), press the LEGEND
Softkey when NEXRAD is enabled for display.
No Radar
Coverage
INDEX
Figure 6-12 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
The display of No Radar Coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is selected. Areas
where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is not being collected
are indicated in a gray shade of purple (Figure 6-12).
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Reflectivity
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
EIS
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• When zoomed in to a range of 30 nm, each square block on the display represents an area of four square
kilometers. The intensity level reflected by each square represents the highest level of NEXRAD data
sampled within the area (Figure 6-13).
• If the precipitation type is unknown, the system displays the precipitation as rain, regardless of actual
precipitation type.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Block Area is 4 km2
at 30 NM map
range
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 6-13 NEXRAD Weather Product with 30 NM Map Range
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
NEXRAD Limitations (Canada)
EIS
• Radar coverage extends to 55ºN.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Any precipitation displayed between 52ºN and 55ºN is displayed as mixed precipitation, regardless of
actual precipitation type.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
No Coverage
Above 55°N
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Precipitation
Above 52°N
Always Displays
as Mixed
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-14 NEXRAD Weather Product - Canada
ECHO TOPS
APPENDICES
NOTE: The Echo Tops weather product cannot be displayed simultaneously with the Cloud Tops or NEXRAD
weather products on the same map.
INDEX
The Echo Tops weather product (Figure 6-15) shows the location, elevation, and direction of the highest
radar echo. The highest radar echo does not indicate the actual top of a storm or clouds. It indicates the
highest altitude at a which NEXRAD radar was able to detect precipitation. Note this Echo Tops altitude
may be significantly higher than the highest altitude airborne weather radar was able to detect precipitation,
particularly at longer ranges from the airborne weather radar antenna. See section 6.3 for more information
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
on airborne weather radar. The Echo Tops weather product, like all data link weather products, does not
provide real-time information.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Altitude for
Selected Echo
Top
No Radar
Coverage
EIS
Echo Top
Selected with
Map Pointer
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-15 Echo Tops Weather Product
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Displaying Echo Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the ECHO TOP Softkey.
AFCS
To display the Echo Tops legend (Figure 6-16), press the LEGEND Softkey when Echo Tops is selected for
display. Since Echo Tops and Cloud Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Echo Tops is activated, NEXRAD and Cloud Tops data are
removed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
No Radar Coverage
APPENDICES
Figure 6-16 Echo Tops Legend
The display of No Radar Coverage is always active when either the NEXRAD or Echo Tops weather products
are enabled. Areas where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is
not being collected are indicated in gray shade of purple (Figure 6-16).
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
CLOUD TOPS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Cloud Tops and Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time.
Cloud Tops data (Figure 6-17) depicts cloud top altitudes as determined from satellite imagery.
NOTE: If a GDL 69A SXM receiver is installed, the broadcast rate for Cloud Tops is 30 minutes. As with all
EIS
SiriusXM Weather products, the product age becomes amber when it reaches half of the expiration time,
which is 60 minutes for Cloud Tops. Therefore, this weather product age may be amber during routine
operation.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selected Cloud Top
Altitude
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Cloud Top Selected
with Map Pointer
Figure 6-17 Cloud Tops Weather Product
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the CLD TOP Softkey.
INDEX
APPENDICES
To display the Cloud Tops legend (Figure 6-18), press the LEGEND Softkey when Cloud Tops is selected
for display. Since Cloud Tops and Echo Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Cloud Tops is activated, Echo Tops data is removed.
Figure 6-18 Cloud Tops Legend
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SIRIUSXM LIGHTNING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The SiriusXM Lightning weather product (Figure 6-19) shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground
lightning strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region of the icon,
and should not be considered a precise location of the actual strike.
EIS
Lightning
Strikes
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-19 SiriusXM Lightning Weather Product
Displaying SiriusXM Lightning information:
AFCS
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the XM LTNG Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To display the SiriusXM Lightning legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page (Figure 6-20), press the
LEGEND Softkey when SiriusXM Lightning is selected for display.
Figure 6-20 SiriusXM Lightning Legend
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
CELL MOVEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Cell Movement weather product (Figure 6-21) shows the location and movement of storm cells
as identified by ground-based weather radar. Cells are represented by yellow squares, with direction of
movement indicated with short, orange arrows.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Additional
Information on
Storm Cell Selected
with Map Pointer
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Storm Cell
Selected with
Map Pointer
Figure 6-21 Storm Cell Movement on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
AFCS
On most applicable maps, Cell Movement information appears with the NEXRAD weather product. On the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page, Cell Movement data can be selected independently.
NOTE: The Storm Cell base height is not available if a GDL 69A SXM data link receiver is installed. In this
case, the Storm Cell base height is displayed as 0 feet when the map pointer selects a storm cell.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Displaying Cell Movement information:
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the NEXRAD-B or NEXRAD-C Softkey (CEL MOV Softkey on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page). For
Cell Movement to be displayed on maps other than the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, Cell Movement must be
enabled in the Navigation Map Setup Menu (see “Setting up and customizing weather data for the Navigation
Map Page” procedure).
INDEX
To display the Cell Movement legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, (Figure 6-22), press the
LEGEND Softkey when Cell Movement is selected for display.
Figure 6-22 Cell Movement Legend
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The National Weather Service (NWS) issues SIGMETs (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and
AIRMETs (AIRmen’s METeorological Information) for potentially hazardous weather. The NWS issues a
Convective SIGMET for hazardous convective weather. A localized SIGMET is a significant weather condition
occurring at a localized geographical position.
Instructions
for viewing
Convective
SIGMET text
EIS
AIRMET
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Convective
SIGMET
selected with
Map Pointer
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-23 SIGMET/AIRMET data on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
NOTE: If a GDL 69A SXM receiver is installed, the SIGMET and AIRMET weather products are not available
AFCS
unless at least one SIGMET or AIRMET has been received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when
no SIGMET or AIRMET is available.
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map Pointer over the icon.
APPENDICES
4) Press the ENT key. Figure 6-24 shows sample SIGMET text.
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
To display the SIGMET and AIRMET legend (Figure 6-25), press the LEGEND Softkey when SIGMETs and
AIRMETs are selected for display.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-24 Convective SIGMET Text
Figure 6-25 SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure as reported for METARs is given in hectopascals (hPa), except for in the United
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
States, where it is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are reported in Celsius.
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service area.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or
observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical
data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the report. A
colored flag indicates an airport with an available METAR.
AFCS
Instructions for
Viewing METAR
and TAF Text
Airport selected
with Map
Pointer
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Colored flags
indicate METAR
availability and
category
Figure 6-26 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR data is displayed first in a
decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information not
found in the decoded version. TAF information appears only in its original form, when TAFs are available.
Displaying METAR and TAF text:
1) On the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, press the METAR Softkey.
EIS
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Press the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note the METAR text must be
completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
AFCS
METAR Text for the
Selected Airport
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
METAR Flag
APPENDICES
TAF Text for the
Selected Airport
INDEX
Figure 6-27 METAR and TAF Text on the Weather Information Page
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The original METAR text is also accessible while panning the map cursor over a METAR flag on any map
page. The METAR text is shown in a box near the METAR flag.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In addition, METAR flags and their associated text are displayed on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
A solid METAR flag next to a waypoint indicates METAR observations are available for that waypoint.
Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
EIS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight a waypoint with an associated METAR. The METAR text will appears in
the Selected Waypoint Weather Window below.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the Active Flight Plan
Page.
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, press the LEGEND Softkey when
METARs are selected for display.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The content of the METAR determines the METAR flag color. The METAR flag is gray when the METAR
text does not contain adequate information to determine the METAR category.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-28 METAR Legend
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CITY FORECAST
NOTE: Surface Analysis and City Forecast data are displayed only within the installed Aviation Database
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
service area.
Surface Analysis and City Forecast information is available for current and forecast weather conditions.
Forecasts are available for intervals of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-29 Current Surface Analysis Data
Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast information:
AFCS
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the SFC Softkey.
4) Select the desired forecast time softkey: CURRENT (for Surface Analysis) or 12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, or 48 HR.
The SFC Softkey label changes to reflect the forecast time selected.
APPENDICES
To display the Surface Analysis and City Forecast legend (Figure 6-30), press the LEGEND Softkey when
the Surface Analysis and City Forecast are enabled for display.
INDEX
Figure 6-30 Surface Analysis Legend
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FREEZING LEVELS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Freezing Level data shows the color-coded contour lines for the altitude and location at which the first
isotherm is found (Figure 6-31). If the system has not received data for a given altitude, or the information is
out-of-date, the system does not display information for that altitude until it becomes available.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-31 Freezing Level Data
Displaying Freezing Level information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
AFCS
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the FRZ LVL Softkey.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To display the Freezing Level legend (Figure 6-32), press the LEGEND Softkey when Freezing Level data
is selected to be displayed.
INDEX
Figure 6-32 Freezing Level Legend
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
WINDS ALOFT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Winds Aloft weather product (Figure 6-33) shows the forecasted wind speed and direction at the
surface and at selected altitudes. Altitude can be chosen in 3,000-foot increments from the surface up to
42,000 feet MSL.
Displaying Winds Aloft data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
EIS
3) Press the WIND Softkey.
4) Select the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Press the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The WIND Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 6-33 Winds Aloft Data at 12,000 Feet
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To display the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-34), press the LEGEND Softkey when Winds Aloft is
selected for display.
APPENDICES
Figure 6-34 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
INDEX
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Profile View on the Navigation Map Page
(Figure 6-35). The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track, but not to aircraft
speed.
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EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Winds Aloft Data Age
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Altitude Scale
Wind Component
Velocity and Direction
Arrows
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-35 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data on Profile View
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in Table 6-4.
Headwind
Symbol
Tailwind
Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind
Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
AFCS
5 knots
10 knots
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
50 knots
Table 6-4 Profile View Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
APPENDICES
Enabling/disabling profile view (containing winds aloft data)
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the PROFILE Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current
state) and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Winds Aloft data inside the Profile View is enabled by default when the Profile View is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display in Profile View:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-36).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Profile Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-37).
EIS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Profile Winds’ (Figure 6-38).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-36 Navigation Map Page Menu
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-37 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-38 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
COUNTY WARNINGS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The County Warning weather product (Figure 6-39) provides specific public awareness and protection
weather warnings from the National Weather Service (NWS). This can include information on severe
thunderstorms, tornadoes, and flood conditions.
EIS
Additional
Information
on Warning
Selected
with Map
Pointer
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Severe
Thunderstorm
Warning
selected with
Map Pointer
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Flood
Warning
Figure 6-39 County Warnings on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Displaying County Warning information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
APPENDICES
3) Press the COUNTY Softkey.
INDEX
To display the County Warnings legend (Figure 6-40), press the LEGEND Softkey when County Warnings
are selected to be displayed.
Figure 6-40 County Warnings Legend
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CYCLONE
The Cyclone weather product shows the current location of cyclones (hurricanes), tropical storms, and
their projected tracks. The system displays the projected track information in the form of DD/HH:MM.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Cyclone
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-41 Cyclone Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying cyclone (hurricane) track information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
AFCS
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the CYCLONE Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To display the Cyclone legend (Figure 6-42), press the LEGEND Softkey when Cyclones are selected to be
displayed.
APPENDICES
Figure 6-42 Cyclone Legend
NOTE: If a GDL 69A SXM receiver is installed, the Cyclone weather products are not available unless at least
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INDEX
one cyclone or tropical storm has been received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no cyclone
or tropical storm has been received.
335
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ICING (CIP & SLD)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Current Icing Product (CIP) data (Figure 6-43) shows a graphical view of the icing environment at the
time of analysis. Icing severity appears in four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extreme (not specific
to aircraft type). The CIP product is not a forecast, but a presentation of the conditions at the time of the
analysis.
NOTE: Icing data cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map as the NEXRAD weather product.
EIS
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing conditions are characterized by the presence of relatively large,
super cooled water droplets indicative of freezing drizzle and freezing rain aloft. SLD threat areas are depicted
as magenta dots over the CIP colors.
Displaying the Icing weather product:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the ICNG Softkey.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Select the desired altitude level: 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet. Press the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle through
the altitude softkeys. The ICNG Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
INDEX
Figure 6-43 Icing Data at 12,000 Feet
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
To display the Icing Potential legend (Figure 6-44), press the LEGEND Softkey when Icing is selected for
display.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 6-44 Icing Potential Legend
EIS
TURBULENCE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: The Turbulence weather product cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map as the
NEXRAD weather product.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Turbulence weather product (Figure 6-45) identifies the potential for erratic movement of high-altitude
air mass associated winds. Turbulence is classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme (not specific to
aircraft type), at altitudes between 21,000 and 45,000 feet. The Turbulence weather product is intended to
supplement information from other weather products such as AIRMETs, SIGMETs, and PIREPS.
Displaying Turbulence data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the TURB Softkey.
4) Select the desired altitude level: 21,000 feet up to 45,000 feet. Press the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The TURB Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 6-45 Turbulence Data at 21,000 Feet
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
To display the Turbulence legend (Figure 6-46), press the LEGEND Softkey when Turbulence is selected for
display.
Figure 6-46 Turbulence Legend
EIS
PIREPS AND AIREPS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) (Figure 6-47) are in-flight weather observations collected from pilots.
When significant weather conditions are reported or forecast, Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities are required
to solicit PIREPs. A PIREP may contain adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing
conditions, wind shear, and turbulence. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
A similar type of PIREP is an Air Report (AIREP). Commercial airlines typically generate AIREPs.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Instructions for
viewing selected
PIREP text
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Routine
PIREP
AIREP
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Urgent PIREP
selected with
Map Pointer
Figure 6-47 AIREPs and PIREPs on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying PIREP and AIREP text:
INDEX
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the AIREPS or PIREPS Softkey.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather report
when it is selected.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with PIREP or AIREP text. The data is first displayed
in a decoded fashion, then as original text. Note the original text may contain additional information not shown
in the decoded PIREP or AIREP.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP or AIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Decoded PIREP
Text
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Original PIREP Text
AFCS
Figure 6-48 Text of Selected Urgent PIREP
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To display the PIREP or AIREP legend (Figure 6-49), press the LEGEND Softkey when PIREPs or AIREPs are
enabled for display.
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
APPENDICES
Figure 6-49 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS (TFRS)
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
EIS
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issues Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) to designate areas
where flight is restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including national security,
law enforcement, natural disasters, airshows, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued at any time, and
TFR data displayed on the system is only intended to supplement TFR information obtained from official
sources including Flight Service Stations (FSS), and Air Traffic Control facilities.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system displays
‘TFR N/A’ in the upper-left corner of maps on which TFRs can be displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TFR Summary
Information
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TFR Selected
with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-50 TFR Data on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying TFR Data:
APPENDICES
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page or Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Joystick and pan the map pointer over a TFR to highlight it. The system displays TFR summary
information above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
INDEX
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Review Airspaces’ and press the ENT Key. The system displays the
INFORMATION window.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the INFORMATION window.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 6-51 Full Text for Selected TFR
EIS
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page control the map range settings above which TFR data is
decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is selected, the TFR
product data is removed from the map.
Maps other than the Navigation Map Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be displayed:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-52).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-53).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product range setting (Figure 6-54).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (Off, maximum map range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-52 Navigation Map Page Menu
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 6-53 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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341
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SIRIUSXM WEATHER ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
Some quick troubleshooting steps listed below can be performed to find the possible cause of a failure.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Ensure the owner/operator of the aircraft in which the Data Link Receiver is installed has subscribed to
SiriusXM services
• Ensure the SiriusXM subscription has been activated
• Inspect the circuit breakers to ensure that power is applied to the Data Link Receiver
EIS
For troubleshooting purposes, check the LRU Information Box on the AUX - System Status Page for Data Link
Receiver (GDL 69/69A) status, serial number, and software version number. If a failure has been detected in the
GDL 69/69A the status is marked with a red ‘X’.
Selecting the System Status Page:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page (the last page in the AUX Page Group).
INDEX
Figure 6-55 LRU Information Window on System Status Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
If a failure still exists, the following messages may provide insight as to the possible problem:
Message
CHECK ANTENNA
XM Information Page - Data Signal
Strength field
NONE
Weather Data Link (XM) Page - center
of page
Weather Data Link (XM) Page - center
of page
Weather Data Link (XM) Page - center
of page
Weather Data Link (XM) Page - center
of page
No communication from Data Link Receiver
within last 5 minutes
SiriusXM subscription is not activated
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
WAITING FOR DATA...
Loss of signal; signal strength too low for receiver
EIS
WEATHER DATA LINK FAILED
DETECTING ACTIVATION
Data Link Receiver antenna error; service required
Weather Data Link (XM) Page - center
Loss of signal; signal strength too low for receiver
of page
NO SIGNAL
ACTIVATION REQUIRED
Description
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message Location
XM Information Page - Data Signal
Strength field
System is activating SiriusXM subscription(s).
SiriusXM Weather subscription confirmed.
Downloading weather data.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Table 6-5 GDL 69/69A Data Link Receiver Error Messages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.2 GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
availability of specific Garmin Connext Weather products varies by region
and by subscription type.
For Connext Weather product coverage information, refer to
http://fly.garmin.com/fly-garmin/connext/worldwide-weather/.
EIS
NOTE: The
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The optional GSR 56 Iridium satellite transceiver provides Garmin Connext Weather reception capabilities to
the system. Graphical weather information and its associated text are displayed on the Multi Function Display
(MFD) and the Primary Flight Display (PFD) Inset Map.
The system provides weather information after the pilot initiates either a manual or automatic Connext Data
Request on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page on the MFD.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Garmin Connext weather requires an active Iridium satellite network account and a subscription to the Garmin
Connext Weather service.
REGISTERING THE IRIDIUM SATELLITE SYSTEM
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
A subscriber account must be established for the Iridium transceiver prior to using the Iridium Satellite System
for telephone services. Before setting up an Iridium account, obtain the serial number of the Iridium Transceiver
(GSR1) and the System ID by selecting the AUX- SYSTEM STATUS Page as shown in Figure 6-56. Contact Garmin
at 1-866-739-5687 in the United States or 913-397-8200, ext. 1135 to complete the registration and establish
payment information.
Iridium Transceiver Serial Number
System ID Number
Figure 6-56 Identification Needed for Iridium Registration
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
REGISTERING GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
When an account is established, Garmin provides an Access Code which must be entered on the system in
order to complete the registration process.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Registering the system to receive Garmin Connext Weather:
1) With the aircraft outside and having a clear view of the sky, turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the
MAP page group.
EIS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the MAP - WEATHER DATA LINK (CNXT or XM) Page. If ‘XM’ is displayed in
the page title, it will be necessary to change the data link source to CNXT before continuing. Refer to ‘Viewing
the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page’ procedure to change the data link source to prior to registration.
3) If the system displays the ‘CONNEXT REGISTRATION’ window, proceed to step 6. Otherwise, press the MENU
Key. The Page Menu window is now displayed as seen in Figure 6-57.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-57 Select Register With Connext
AFCS
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Register With Connext’ in the menu list.
5) Press the ENT Key. The Connext Registration Window appears as shown in Figure 6-58.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-58 Enter Access Code
6) Enter the access code provided by Garmin Flight Data Services in the ‘ACCESS CODE’ field.
AFCS
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘REGISTER’ is highlighted as in Figure 6-58.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
8) Press the ENT Key. The system contacts Garmin through the Iridium network. System registration is complete
when ‘REGISTERED’ appears in the STATUS field.
ACCESSING GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER PRODUCTS
INDEX
APPENDICES
The principal map for viewing Garmin Connext weather information is the Weather Data Link (CNXT)
Page in the Map Page Group (Figure 6-59). This is the only map display capable of showing information for
all available Garmin Connext weather products. This page is also used to select a weather data link source, if
more than one source (such as SiriusXM Weather) has also been installed. The displayed weather products and
softkeys correspond to the selected weather data link source. No weather information is displayed until the
first Connext Data Request is made.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Viewing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (CNXT or XM) Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) If the page title displays ‘MAP - WEATHER DATA LINK (XM)’ and Garmin Connext (CNXT) data is desired,
proceed to the next step to change the weather data link source to Garmin Connext
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display Connext Weather’ and press the ENT Key. Page title displays ‘MAP WEATHER DATA LINK (CNXT)’ to indicate Garmin Connext is the selected weather data link source.
EIS
Only one weather data link source may be selected for display at a time. If Garmin Connext is selected,
optional SiriusXM Weather data (and corresponding softkeys) are removed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Precipitation
Weather
Product Symbol
and Product
Age in Minutes
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Precipitation
Weather Product
Selected for
Display
Figure 6-59 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
APPENDICES
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
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INDEX
For each enabled Garmin Connext weather product, the system displays a weather product icon and product
age. The product age is the elapsed time (in minutes) since the weather data provider compiled the weather
product. The product age display does not indicate the age of the information contained within the weather
product, which can be significantly older than the displayed weather product age.
347
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Weather products are updated continuously or refreshed at specific intervals (defined in the Refresh Rate
column in Table 6-6). If for any reason, a product is not refreshed within the Expiration Time intervals (see
Table 6-6), the system removes the expired data from the display, and shows dashes instead of the product age.
If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age changes to yellow. If data for
a weather product is not available, the system displays ‘N/A’ next to the weather product symbol instead of the
product age.
EIS
Table 6-6 shows the Garmin Connext weather product symbols, the expiration times, and the refresh rates.
The refresh rate represents the interval at which the Garmin Connext ground-based servers make available the
most current known weather data. It does not necessarily represent the rate at which new content is received
from various weather sources.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
Symbol
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Radar Precipitation
(PRECIP)
30
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Infrared Satellite
(IR SAT)
Data Link Lightning
(DL LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Temporary Flight Restrictions
no product image
(TFRs)
Terminal Aerodrome Reports
no product image
(TAFs)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Refresh Rate
(Minutes)
U.S.: 3*
Canada: 3*†
Europe: 15
Australia: 15ˆ
60
30
30
Continuous
60
Continuous
90
Continuous
60
Continuous
90
Continuous
60
Continuous
60
Continuous
APPENDICES
* The composite precipitation image is updated every 3 minutes, but individual radar sites may take
between 3 and 10 minutes to provide new data.
†
Canadian radar precipitation data provided by Environment Canada.
ˆ Australian radar precipitation data provided by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology.
Table 6-6 Garmin Connext Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
INDEX
Table 6-7 shows which Garmin Connext weather products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on
specific maps.
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Flight Plan Pages
Infrared Satellite (IR SAT)
Nearest Page Group
+
AUX - Trip Planning
Page
Weather Data Link
(CNXT) Page
+
Weather Information
Page
Navigation Map Page
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Precipitation (PRECIP)
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Garmin Connext Weather Product
PFD Inset Map
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
+
+
+
+
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
EIS
Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning (DL LTNG)
+
METARs
+
+
+*
+
PIREPs
+
+
+
+
+
+
TFRs
+
+
+
+
+
+
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Radar Coverage
TAFs
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Winds Aloft (WIND)
+
* Winds Aloft Data displayed inside Profile View on the Navigation Map Page.
Table 6-7 Garmin Connext Weather Product Display Maps
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Softkeys control the display of weather information on most MFD pages and the PFD Inset Map (Figure
6-60 shows the weather product softkeys for the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page). When a weather product
is selected for display, the corresponding softkey label changes to gray to indicate the product display is
enabled.
IR SAT
DL LTNG
SIG/AIR
WIND OFF
METAR
LEGEND MORE WX
BACK
PIREPS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
WIND Softkey label changes
to reflect current selection.
AFCS
PRECIP
ENGINE
Press the BACK Softkey
to move up one level.
PREV and NEXT Softkeys cycle through Winds Aloft
altitude selection softkeys.
SFC
3000
6000
9000
12000
15000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
36000
39000
42000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
INDEX
OFF
APPENDICES
PREV
Figure 6-60 Garmin Connext Weather Product Softkeys (MFD)
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page control the map
range settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The
menus also provide a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling the display of weather products.
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-61).
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘PRODUCT GROUP 1’ or ‘PRODUCT GROUP 2’, and press the ENT Key (Figure
6-62).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page with the changed settings.
APPENDICES
Figure 6-61 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Menu
INDEX
Figure 6-62 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Setup Menu
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
If multiple data link weather services are installed, customizing the display settings for the corresponding
weather products shown in Table 6-8 will result in identical settings all services.
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD) and No Radar
Coverage
Cloud Top
(CLD TOP)
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
FIS-B Weather Product
Precipitation
(PRECIP) and No Radar Coverage
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD) and No Radar Coverage
Not Available
EIS
Not Available
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Infrared Satellite
(IR SAT)
Garmin Connext Data Link
SiriusXM Lightning
Lightning
(XM LTNG)
(DL LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
(PIREPs)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SiriusXM Weather Product
Table 6-8 Weather Data Link Map Settings Shared for Multiple Weather Data Link Sources
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Restoring default Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
AFCS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Press the MENU Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Highlight the desired default(s) to restore (all or for selection) and press ENT Key.
Maps besides the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation
Map Page.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Setting up and customizing weather data for the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-63).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-64).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-65).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
EIS
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-63 Navigation Map Page Menu
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-64 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-65 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
Each active weather product has an associated legend which can be displayed on the Weather Data Link
(CNXT) Page. If no weather product softkeys are selected, the LEGEND Softkey will be unavailable.
APPENDICES
Viewing legends for displayed weather products (Weather Data Link (CNXT)) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the LEGEND Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
INDEX
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the window.
4) To remove the Connext Weather Legends Window, select the LEGEND Softkey, or press the ENT or the CLR
Key, or press the FMS Knob.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Viewing legends for displayed weather products (Navigation Map Page):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the LEGEND Softkey.
EIS
4) To remove the Connext Weather Legends Window, press the LEGEND Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press
the FMS Knob.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When a Garmin Connext weather product is enabled for display on the PFD Inset Map, the system can
display the weather product information box (with the weather product icon and age) on the PFD Inset Map.
Viewing the weather product information box on the PFD Inset Map:
1) On the PFD, press the INSET Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the WX LGND Softkey. The system displays the weather product information box when Garmin Connext
weather products are displayed on the PFD Inset Map.
3) To remove the weather product information box, press the WX LGND Softkey again.
Additional information about the following can be displayed by panning over the display on the map:
• METARs
• SIGMETs
• TFRs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPs
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Infrared Satellite (IR SAT)
AFCS
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Additional
information for
selected PIREP
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
PIREP selected
with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-66 Panning on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
CONNEXT DATA REQUESTS
The Connext Data Request Window provides the flight crew with the options to enable or disable the
requested weather coverage area(s), choose automatic weather update intervals (if desired), and the ability to
send or cancel Connext Data Requests. The status of the Connext Data Request process is also displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Before a Connext Data Request can occur, a valid request coverage area must be defined from which all
currently available Garmin Connext weather products will be retrieved. At a minimum, either the aircraft’s
present position or a waypoint (as part of a flight plan or entered directly in the ‘WAYPOINT’ coverage field) must
be part of the request coverage area, otherwise the request status window will indicate ‘INVALID COVERAGE
AREA’ and the system will not allow a request to occur.
It is not necessary for a destination (based on an active flight plan), a flight plan, or waypoint to be specified
prior to enabling these coverage areas; however no weather data will be retrieved for these option(s) until a
flight plan or waypoint is provided, respectively.
APPENDICES
Requesting Garmin Connext weather manually:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-67).
INDEX
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired coverage option(s) and press the ENT Key to check or uncheck
one of more of the following coverage selections (Figures 6-68, 6-69):
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• PRESENT POSITION – Requests data based on current location.
• DESTINATION – Requests data based on the active flight plan destination (Direct-To destinations excluded).
See the Flight Management section for more information about entering and activating flight plans.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• FPL – Requests data along an active flight plan, if one exists. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired
flight plan look-ahead distance option (or choose ‘REMAINING FPL’ to request the remainder of the flight
plan), then press the ENT Key.
• WAYPOINT – Requests data based on a waypoint (which may be off-route). Turn the large and small FMS
Knobs to enter a waypoint, then press the ENT Key.
EIS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob highlight to the ‘DIAMETER / RTE WIDTH’ (diameter/route width) distance field and
turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired diameter and route width of the request, then press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Turn the large FMS Knob until the ‘SEND REQ’ button is highlighted. Press the ENT Key to initiate the request
immediately or press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page without requesting
weather data.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 6-67 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Menu
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-68 Connext Data Request Window
APPENDICES
INDEX
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355
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Destination Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Present Position Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Off-Route Waypoint
Selected, 200 nm Diameter
Requested
AFCS
Next 80 nm of Flight Plan
Selected, 200 nm Route
Width Requested
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-69 Connext Weather Data Request Results with Precipitation Displayed
APPENDICES
During a Connext Data Request, the Request Status Window initially displays “Contacting Connext...”. Once
a connection is established, the window displays “Receiving Wx Data... Time Remaining:” with an estimated
data transfer time (either in minutes or seconds). If desired, the Connext Data Request window may be removed
while the data request is processing by pressing the FMS Knob; the data request will continue to process in the
background. Connext Data Requests typically take between 1 to 4 minutes to complete depending on the size
of the selected weather coverage area(s), the amount of weather activity presen (such as precipitation), and the
Iridium signal strength.
INDEX
The system retrieves all available Garmin Connext weather products within the selected coverage area(s)
during an initial Connext Data Request. Enabling or disabling the display of the weather product does not affect
which weather products are retrieved during a Connext Data Request.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
To reduce data usage during subsequent requests, the system retains previously retrieved textual weather
products such as METARs and TAFs, so long as they have not expired. The system also retrieves any new
textual weather products matching the current coverage area, and all graphical weather products during each
data request.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If the Connext Data Request is unsuccessful, refer to the Abnormal Operations discussion later in this section
for more information on the messages received, with possible causes.
Cancelling Connext Data Request in Progress:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
EIS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘CANCEL REQ’ and press the ENT Key. The REQUEST STATUS window
indicates ‘Request Cancelled’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The pilot can schedule Connext Data Requests to recur automatically. Auto requests remain enabled until the
pilot disables them, or the system power is cycled. When an automatic data request is enabled, the REQUEST
STATUS window will display a countdown timer until the next automatic data request occurs.
NOTE: If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to the system entering Reversionary Mode,
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
the automatic weather data requests will continue in Reversionary Mode, however the Connext Data
Request window and its associated options will not be available.
Enabling/disabling automatic Connext Data Requests:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
AFCS
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Choose the desired weather coverage options.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘UPDATE RATE’ setting. Then turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the
desired automatic update frequency (OFF, or number of minutes), then press the ENT Key.
6) The ‘SEND REQ” button is highlighted and a countdown timer is displayed in the ‘REQUEST STATUS’ based
on the currently selected update rate. Press the ENT Key to immediately send an immediate Connext Data
Request.
APPENDICES
Or:
Press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER PRODUCTS
PRECIPITATION
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Precipitation weather product provides radar precipitation information in selected radar coverage areas.
This information comes from individual weather radar sites and weather data sources such as government
agencies. Each radar site or source may provide weather data at differing rates and times. Periodically,
the Garmin Connext service compiles the available information to form a composite image, and assigns a
single time to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the Precipitation weather product.
Individual images--gathered from each radar site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed
Precipitation weather product age.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the Precipitation weather product, the
displayed weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current
radar synopsis and may not depict the current weather conditions. The Precipitation weather product should
never be used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the
information it contains.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Boundary of
Connext Data
Request area
(shown for
Precipitation
weather product)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
No Radar Coverage
within requested
within request area
APPENDICES
Figure 6-70 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page with Precipitation
INDEX
Precipitation data can be displayed on the following maps:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
• Flight Plan Pages
• Airport Information Page
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Displaying Precipitation weather information:
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the PRECIP Softkey.
Precipitation information shown represents highest level, composite reflectivity, of radar returns. The
display of the information is color-coded to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends
can be viewed on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page. For the Precipitation legend (Figure 6-71), press the
LEGEND Softkey when Precipitation is selected for display.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
No Radar Coverage
Boundary of weather
data request
Figure 6-71 Precipitation Weather Product Legend
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The display of no radar coverage is enabled when Precipitation is selected for display. Areas where radar
coverage is not currently available or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of purple. A white
tick-marked boundary line depicts the selected coverage area of the Connext Data Request. This boundary
encloses the precipitation data when this weather product is displayed.
AFCS
Reflectivity
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the Precipitation
display directly correlate to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous weather
can be very complex.
APPENDICES
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different radar echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). Weather
radars measure the reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Precipitation Limitations
Radar images may have certain limitations:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Radar composite reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet snow, wet
hail, and rain.
• The radar beam may overshoot precipitation occurring below the lowest antenna beam tilt angle (0.5°),
causing no precipitation to be displayed. An individual radar site cannot depict high altitude storms at
close ranges. It has no information about storms directly over the radar site.
EIS
• When zoomed in to a range of 30 nm, each square block on the display represents an area of four square
kilometers.
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed radar images:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
INFRARED SATELLITE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Infrared Satellite (IR SAT) weather product (Figure 6-72) depicts cloud top temperatures from satellite
imagery. Brighter cloud top colors indicate cooler temperatures occurring at higher altitudes.
AFCS
Temperature
range of
selected data
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Map Pointer
on selected
Infrared Satellite
Information
Figure 6-72 Infrared Satellite Data on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Displaying Infrared Satellite information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the IR SAT Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
To display the Infrared Satellite legend (Figure 6-73), press the LEGEND Softkey when Infrared Satellite data
is selected for display.
EIS
Figure 6-73 Infrared Satellite Legend
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
GARMIN CONNEXT DATA LINK LIGHTNING
The Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning (DL LTNG) weather product (Figure 6-74) shows the approximate
location of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a twokilometer region. Neither cloud-to-cloud nor the exact location of the lightning strike is displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Lightning
Strikes
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 6-74 Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning
Displaying Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning information:
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
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INDEX
2) Press the DL LTNG Softkey.
361
SYSTEM
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
To display the Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning legend on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page (Figure
6-75), select the LEGEND Softkey when the product is selected for display.
Figure 6-75 Data Link Lightning Legend
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
EIS
SIGMETs (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMETs (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET can be displayed when significant
weather conditions are not widespread.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The entire SIGMET or AIRMET is shown as long as any portion of it is issued within the selected coverage
area of the Connext Data Request.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Additional information
for selected SIGMET/
AIRMET
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
AIRMET selected
with Map Pointer
Figure 6-76 SIGMET/AIRMET Data
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
APPENDICES
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map Pointer over the icon.
INDEX
4) Press the ENT key. Figure 6-77 shows sample SIGMET text.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
To display the SIGMET and AIRMET legend (Figure 6-78), press the LEGEND Softkey when SIGMETs and
AIRMETs are selected for display.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 6-78 SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
EIS
Figure 6-77 Sample SIGMET Text
METARS AND TAFS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service area.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud base heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an
airport or observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and
other critical data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the
report. METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Instructions for
Viewing METAR
and TAF Text
AFCS
Selected
Airport
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 6-79 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The system displays METAR and TAF text on the Weather Information Page. METAR information appears
first in a decoded fashion, followed by the original METAR text. Note the original text may contain additional
information not found in the decoded version. TAF information is displayed only in its original form at
airports with an available TAF.
Displaying METAR and TAF text:
EIS
1) On the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page, press the METAR Softkey.
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Press the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note the METAR text must be
completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Decoded METAR
Text
Original METAR
Text
APPENDICES
METAR
Symbol
INDEX
TAF
Available
Figure 6-80 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Original METAR text is also accessible while panning the map cursor over a METAR flag on any map page
on which a METAR flag is displayed. The METAR text is shown in a box near the METAR flag.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In addition, METAR flags and their associated text are displayed on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
A solid METAR flag next to a waypoint indicates METAR observations are available for that waypoint.
Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
EIS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight a waypoint with an associated METAR. The METAR text will appear in the
SELECTED WAYPOINT WEATHER window below.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the Active Flight Plan
Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page, press the LEGEND Softkey when
METARs are selected for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. The METAR flag is gray when
the METAR text does not contain adequate information to determine the METAR category.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-81 METAR Legend
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
WINDS ALOFT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Winds Aloft weather product (Figure 6-82) shows the predicted wind speed and direction at the
surface and at selected altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3,000-foot increments from the surface up to
42,000 feet MSL.
Displaying Winds Aloft information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
EIS
3) Press the WIND Softkey.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Select the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Press the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The WIND Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-82 Winds Aloft Data at 33,000 Feet
APPENDICES
To display the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-83), press the LEGEND Softkey when Winds Aloft is selected
for display.
INDEX
Figure 6-83 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Profile View on the Navigation Map Page
(Figure 6-84). The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track, but not to aircraft
speed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Winds Aloft Data Age
Altitude Scale
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Wind Component
Velocity and Direction
Arrows
Figure 6-84 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data on Profile View
Headwind
Symbol
Tailwind
Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind
Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in Table 6-9.
AFCS
5 knots
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
10 knots
50 knots
Table 6-9 Profile View Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
APPENDICES
Enabling/disabling profile view (containing winds aloft data)
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the PROFILE Softkey.
INDEX
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current
state) and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Winds Aloft data inside the Profile View is enabled by default when the Profile View is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display in Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-85).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Profile Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-86).
EIS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Profile Winds’ (Figure 6-87).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-85 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-87 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-86 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PIREPS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) describe in-flight weather encountered by pilots. A PIREP may contain
adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions, wind shear, turbulence, and type
of aircraft flown. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Instructions for
Viewing PIREP
Text
EIS
Urgent
PIREP
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Routine
PIREP
Selected
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-88 PIREPs on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Displaying PIREP text:
AFCS
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the PIREPS Softkey.
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather report
when it is selected.
APPENDICES
5) Press the ENT Key. The PIREP text is first displayed in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note
the original text may contain additional information not shown in the decoded version.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to close the PIREP text window and return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT)
Page.
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
EIS
Decoded PIREP Text
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Original PIREP Text
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-89 PIREP Text on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
To display the PIREP legend (Figure 6-90), press the LEGEND Softkey when PIREPs are selected for
display. The PIREP color is determined by the report type (routine or urgent).
Figure 6-90 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
AFCS
TFRS
NOTE: Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) data from Garmin Connext is only available in the United
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
States (not including any U.S. territories.) For Garmin Connext product coverage information, refer to
http://fly.garmin.com/fly-garmin/connext/worldwide-weather/.
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
APPENDICES
In the United States, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issues Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs)
to designate areas where flight is restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including
national security, law enforcement, natural disasters, airshows, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued
at any time, and TFR data displayed is only intended to supplement official TFR information obtained from
Flight Service Stations (FSS), and air traffic control.
INDEX
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system displays
‘TFR N/A’ in the upper-left corner of maps on which TFRs can be displayed.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TFR Summary
Information
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TFR Selected
with Map
Pointer
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-91 TFR Data on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Displaying TFR Data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page or Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Joystick and pan the map pointer over a TFR to highlight it. The system displays TFR summary
information above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
AFCS
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Review Airspaces’ and press the ENT Key. The system displays the
INFORMATION window.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the INFORMATION window.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 6-92 Full Text for Selected TFR
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page control the map range settings above which TFR data is
decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is selected, the TFR
product data is removed from the map.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Maps other than the Navigation Map Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be displayed:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
EIS
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-93).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-94).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product range setting (Figure 6-95).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-93 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-95 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
INDEX
Figure 6-94 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
If the system cannot complete a Connext Data Request, one or more messages will appear in the request status
window.
Auto requests inhibited
Send manual request to reset.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Weather Request Status
Message
Description
The system has disabled automatic weather data requests due to excessive errors.
Automatic weather data requests have stopped. Send a manual weather data request to
resume automatic updates.
EIS
Connext Server Temporarily
Inop
Connext Server Inop
Invalid Coverage Area
No Connext Subscription
Reduce Request Area
Transfer Preempted
APPENDICES
Request Cancelled
Request Failed - Try Again
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
INDEX
A ground-based server error has occurred or invalid data received.
There is a problem with the Garmin Connext registration. In the United States, contact
Garmin at 1-866-739-5687. Outside the United States, call 913-397-8200, wait for the
operator, and request extension 1135.
The Garmin Connext weather data server is temporarily out of service, but is expected to
return to service in less than 30 minutes.
The Garmin Connext weather data server will be out of service for at least 30 minutes.
The Connext Data Request does not sufficiently define a coverage area on which to
retrieve weather data. Verify the selections in the Connext Weather Coverage Window,
then issue another Connext Data Request.
The system is not currently subscribed to the Garmin Connext Weather service, or the
access code is incorrect. Verify the access code. In the United States, contact Garmin at
1-866-739-5687. Outside the United States, call 913-397-8200, wait for the operator,
and request extension 1135.
The weather data request area exceeds size limits. Reduce weather coverage area and
re-send data request.
The user has cancelled a weather data request.
The ground-based server halted the weather data request due to excessive delays. Re-send
data request.
The Iridium voice telephone has interrupted the weather data request. Retry request when
Iridium voice telephone is not in use.
AFCS
Connext Comm Error [8]
Connext Login Invalid
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The system halted the weather data request due to excessive delays while receiving
weather data. Verify Iridium signal strength and re-try data request.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Connext Comm Error [7]
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Auto update retry: ## Seconds The system will attempt another automatic weather data request after an error occurred
during the previous request. Displays estimated time until next automatic request occurs.
Connext Comm Error [2]
A communications error has occurred with the GIA. The system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [4]
This occurs if multiple automatic weather data requests have recently failed, or the GIA is
off-line.
Connext Comm Error [5]
The Iridium or Garmin Connext services are not accessible. Check Iridium signal strength.
If this error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [6]
A communications error has occurred. If this error persists, the system should be serviced.
Table 6-10 Abnormal Weather Data Request Status Messages
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER IN REVERSIONARY MODE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When the system is operating in Reversionary Mode, only those weather products which can be displayed
on the PFD Inset map will be available for display (see Table 6-7 for a list of weather products and their
associated map availability).
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
If manual weather data requests were enabled prior to entering Reversionary Mode, no new Connext
Data Requests can be retrieved while operating in Reversionary Mode. If automatic weather data requests
were enabled prior to Reversionary Mode operation, the system will continue the automatic data requests in
Reversionary Mode (provided automatic requests have not been inhibited due to a system error).
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6.3 FIS-B WEATHER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
EIS
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The optional GDL 88 is a Universal Access Transceiver (UAT). It receives Flight Information Services - Broadcast
(FIS-B) weather data from a network of UAT ground-based transceivers (GBTs). The system displays FIS-B
graphical weather information and associated text on the Multi Function Display (MFD) and the Primary Flight
Display (PFD) Inset Map.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
FIS-B weather data reception requires the aircraft being within range and line-of-sight of an operating GBT
broadcasting FIS-B weather data. Reception may be affected by factors including altitude or terrain.
Reception of FIS-B weather data occurs automatically without any pilot action. FIS-B broadcasts provide
weather data in a repeating cycle which may take approximately ten minutes to transmit all available weather
data. Therefore, not all available weather data may be available immediately upon initial FIS-B signal acquisition.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
USING FIS-B WEATHER PRODUCTS
The primary map for viewing FIS-B Weather data is the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page in the Map Page
Group.
Viewing the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page:
AFCS
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B, XM, or CNXT) Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) If the page title displays a weather data link weather source other than ‘FIS-B’, such as ‘XM’ or ‘CNXT’, proceed
to the following steps to change the data link weather source.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Display FIS-B Weather’ and press the ENT Key. The page title will display
‘MAP - WEATHER DATA LINK (FIS-B)’ to indicate FIS-B is now the selected data link weather source.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
On the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) page, the pilot can enable/disable the FIS-B weather feature, which includes
all FIS-B weather products and related softkeys on various maps.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Enabling/disabling the FIS-B weather feature:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Enable FIS-B Weather’ or ‘Disable FIS-B Weather’, and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Precipitation
Weather
Product Symbol
and Product
Age in Minutes
Figure 6-96 Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
AFCS
NEXRAD
Composite
Weather Product
Selected for
Display
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When a FIS-B weather product is active on a map, the age of the data is displayed on the screen to the right
of the product symbol (Figure 6-96). The age of the product is based on the time difference between when
the data was assembled on the ground and the current GPS time. Weather products are transmitted at specific
intervals (defined in the Broadcast Rate column in Table 6-11).
APPENDICES
If for any reason, a weather product is not refreshed within the Expiration Time intervals (see Table 6-11),
the data is considered expired and is removed from the display. This ensures that the displayed data is consistent
with FIS-B broadcast data. If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age
displayed changes to yellow. The system displays dashes instead of a product age when a product has expired.
If a weather product is not available or has not been received, the system displays ‘N/A’ instead of a product age.
INDEX
Table 6-11 shows the FIS-B weather product symbols, the expiration times, and broadcast rates. The broadcast
rate represents the interval at which FIS-B GBTs broadcast new signals that may or may not contain new weather
data. It does not represent the rate at which weather data is updated or new content is received by the UAT.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Symbol
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FIS-B Weather Product
Expiration Time Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
(Minutes)
30
15
NEXRAD Composite (Regional)
30
2.5
90
5
90
10
90
10
60
5
EIS
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NEXRAD Composite (US)
30
2.5
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
no product image
60
10
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
no product image
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
no product image
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
No Radar Coverage
10
Table 6-11 Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
+
+
+
+
PIREPs
+
+
+
+
TAFs
+
+
+
+
+
+*
+
TFRs
Winds Aloft* (WIND)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
INDEX
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
+
APPENDICES
Radar Coverage
Flight Plan Pages
+
Nearest Page Group
+
AUX - Video Page
Weather Data Link
(XM) Page
METARs
AUX - Trip Planning
Page
Navigation Map Page
+
Weather Information
Page
PFD Inset Map
+
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
+
AFCS
NEXRAD
FIS-B Weather Product
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Table 6-12 shows which FIS-B weather products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on specific
maps.
* Winds Aloft information appears inside Profile View window on the Navigation Map Page.
Table 6-12 FIS-B Weather Product Display Maps
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Softkeys control the display of weather information on most MFD pages and the PFD Inset Map (Figure
6-97) shows the weather product softkeys for the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page). When a weather product
is enabled for display, the corresponding softkey label changes to gray.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ENGINE
SIG/AIR
NEXRAD-C
METAR
LEGEND MORE WX CHKLIST
PIREPS
BACK
US
EIS
RGNL
WIND OFF
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
WIND Softkey label changes
to reflect current selection.
Press the BACK Softkey
to move up one level.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
PREV and NEXT Softkeys cycle through Winds Aloft
altitude selection softkeys.
PREV
OFF
1000
1500
2000
3000
6000
9000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
12000
15000
18000
24000
30000
34000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
39000
45000
53000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
Figure 6-97 Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Weather Product Softkeys
AFCS
Maps besides the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map
Page.
Setting up and customizing FIS-B weather data for the Navigation Map Page:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-98).
APPENDICES
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-99).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-100).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
INDEX
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Figure 6-98 Navigation Map Page Menu
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-99 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-100 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu,
Weather Group
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page control the map range
settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the
weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The menus
also provide a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling display of weather products.
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page:
AFCS
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-101).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Product Group 1’, and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-102).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
APPENDICES
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page with the changed settings.
INDEX
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EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-101 Weather Data Link
(FIS-B) Page Menu
Figure 6-102 Weather Data Link (FIS-B)
Page Setup Menu
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Restoring default Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
AFCS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘PRODUCT GROUP 1’, and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-102).
5) If restoring an individual weather product setting to its default value, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the
desired field to restore.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
7) Turn the large FMS Knob if needed to highlight ‘Restore Selection Default’ (to restore only the highlighted field)
or ‘Restore All Defaults’ (to restore all products within the selected product group to their default settings), and
press the ENT Key.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
If multiple data link weather services are installed, customizing the display settings for the corresponding
weather products shown in Table 6-13 will result in identical settings for all services.
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD) and No Radar
Coverage
Cloud Top
(CLD TOP)
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
FIS-B Weather Product
Precipitation
(PRECIP) and No Radar Coverage
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD) and No Radar Coverage
Not Available
EIS
Not Available
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Infrared Satellite
(IR SAT)
Garmin Connext Data Link
SiriusXM Lightning
Lightning
(XM LTNG)
(DL LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
(PIREPs)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SiriusXM Weather Product
Table 6-13 Weather Data Link Map Settings Shared for Multiple Weather Data Link Sources
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When a FIS-B weather product is enabled for display on the PFD Inset Map, the weather product information
box (with the product icon and age) can be displayed inside the PFD Inset Map.
Displaying/removing the weather product information box on the PFD Inset Map:
AFCS
1) On the PFD, press the INSET Softkey.
2) Press the WX LGND Softkey.
3) To remove the weather product information box, press the WX LGND Softkey again.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Each active weather product has an associated legend which can be displayed on the Weather Data Link
(FIS-B) Page. A weather product legend can also be displayed on the Navigation Map Page for active FIS-B
weather products displayed on that page.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page:
APPENDICES
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Press the LEGEND Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) To remove the Legend Window, press the LEGEND Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Viewing legends for displayed weather products (on the Navigation Map Page):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the LEGEND Softkey (available if one or more FIS-B weather products are enabled for display).
4) To remove the Legend Window, press the LEGEND Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
Additional information about METARs can be displayed by panning over a METAR flag on the map:
EIS
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Instructions for
Viewing METAR
and TAF Text
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Airport Selected
with Map
Pointer
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-103 Panning on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page)
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NEXRAD
NOTE: The NEXRAD weather product cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
EIS
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider to FIS-B compiles
the available individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time
to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual
images gathered from each NEXRAD site differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD
weather product age. The data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the FIS-B GBTs, which transmit this
information during the next designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current radar synopsis
and may not depict the current weather conditions. NEXRAD information should never be used as a basis for
maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 6-104 NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data
Link (FIS-B) Page)
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
The FIS-B NEXRAD weather product may be displayed for a region around the GBT (higher resolution,
updated more frequently) or for across the continental United States (lower resolution, updated less
frequently). The pilot can choose which type of NEXRAD weather product is displayed.
383
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product::
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
2) Press the NEXRAD-C Softkey. This softkey becomes the US Softkey. A mosaic of NEXRAD data for the
continental United States (CONUS) is displayed.
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
3) To display the regional version of the NEXRAD weather product, press the US Softkey. Softkey becomes the
RGNL Softkey.
4) To remove the NEXRAD weather product, press the RGNL Softkey. Softkey becomes the NEXRAD-C Softkey.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The regional NEXRAD weather product coverage area varies, as it is determined by the data received from
ground-based sources. When the regional NEXRAD weather product is enabled, a white hashed boundary
rectangle encloses this area to indicate the geographic limits of the regional NEXRAD coverage being displayed.
The system shows composite radar data from all available NEXRAD sites inside of this boundary area.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If the continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product is shown (US Softkey enabled),
the coverage boundary is not shown on the map.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
No Radar
Coverage
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Boundary of
FIS-B Regional
NEXRAD
Product
Figure 6-105 Regional NEXRAD on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page)
INDEX
APPENDICES
This data is composed of the maximum reflectivity from the individual radar sweeps. The display of the
information is color-coded to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can be viewed
on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page. For the NEXRAD legend (Figure 6-106), press the LEGEND Softkey
when the NEXRAD weather product is enabled.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
No Radar Coverage
(Inside Coverage
Boundary)
EIS
Boundary of Regional
Radar Coverage Area
Figure 6-106 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The display of no radar coverage is enabled when NEXRAD is selected for display. Areas where radar data
is not currently available, has not yet been received, or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of
purple.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: If the system has not received all available NEXRAD weather data (such as during initial FIS-B signal
acquisition or in areas of marginal or poor signal reception), the system may display areas of no radar
coverage which are subsequently removed as radar data is received. It may take up to approximately ten
minutes to receive all FIS-B data, when adequate reception is available.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
AFCS
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
APPENDICES
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
INDEX
• At a map range of 30 nm or less, individual blocks of NEXRAD weather data are viewable. For the
regional version of the NEXRAD weather product, each block is 1.5 nm wide by 1 nm tall. For the
continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product, each block is 7.5 nm wide by 5 nm
wide.
• The continental US version of the NEXRAD weather product is not available above 60º of latitude.
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
EIS
SIGMETs (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMETs (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET can be displayed when significant
weather conditions are not widespread.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The entire SIGMET or AIRMET is shown as long as any portion of it is issued within the selected coverage
area of the Connext Data Request.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Additional information
for selected SIGMET/
AIRMET
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
AIRMET selected
with Map Pointer
Figure 6-107 SIGMET/AIRMET Data
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
APPENDICES
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map Pointer over the icon.
INDEX
4) Press the ENT key. Figure 6-108 shows sample SIGMET text.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
To display the SIGMET and AIRMET legend (Figure 6-109), press the LEGEND Softkey when SIGMETs and
AIRMETs are selected for display.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 6-108 Sample SIGMET Text
Figure 6-109 SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
EIS
METARS AND TAFS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are reported in Celsius.
NOTE: The system will begin to display METAR flags as it receives reports; however it may take approximately
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
ten minutes for all available METAR and TAF data to be received over a FIS-B broadcast.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Aviation Routine Weather Reports or METARs typically contain current information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or
observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical
data. METARs reflect routine hourly observations. An Aviation Selected Special Report or SPECI includes
the code “SPECI” in the report, and may be issued if critical information has changed after the issuance of a
METAR. The system displays colored flags at airports with report(s) available.
Instructions for
Viewing METAR
and TAF Text
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selected Airport
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 6-110 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are predications of expected weather conditions for an area within
five statute miles of the center of an airport’s runway complex. The National Weather Service issues scheduled
TAFs four times each day, and additional amended TAFs if conditions warrant. TAFs typically span a forecast
period of 24 hours, but may be scheduled for a longer period. TAFs may include forecast wind, visibility,
significant weather phenomena, and sky conditions using METAR codes.
METAR and TAF text are available on the Weather Information Page. METAR data is displayed first in a
decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information not
found in the decoded version. TAF information, when available, appears only in its original text.
EIS
Displaying METAR and TAF text:
1) On the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page, press the METAR Softkey.
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
b) Press the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that the METAR text must
be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
APPENDICES
METAR Text for the
Selected Airport
METAR Symbol
INDEX
TAF Text for the
Selected Airport
Figure 6-111 METAR and TAF Text on the Weather Information Page
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Original METAR text is also accessible while panning the map cursor over a METAR flag on any map page
on which a METAR is displayed. The METAR text is shown in a box near the METAR flag.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In addition, METAR flags and their associated text are displayed on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
METAR flags appears next to waypoints in the flight plan with an associated METAR. A solid METAR flag
indicates the METAR observations are available for specific waypoint; a hollow METAR flag indicates an offroute METAR is available near the waypoint.
Displaying raw METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
EIS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint. The METAR text will appear in the ‘SELECTED
WAYPOINT WEATHER’ window below.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the Active Flight Plan
Page.
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page (Figure 6-112), press the LEGEND
Softkey when METARs are selected for display.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. The system displays a gray
METAR flag when the METAR text does not contain adequate classification information.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-112 METAR Legend
AFCS
WINDS ALOFT
The Winds Aloft weather product (Figure 6-113) shows the predicted wind speed and direction at selected
altitudes. Winds aloft are available in various altitudes between 1,000 feet and 53,000 feet MSL.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Displaying Winds Aloft information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
APPENDICES
3) Press the WIND OFF Softkey.
4) Press the softkey for the desired altitude. Press the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle through the altitude softkeys.
The WIND Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
INDEX
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AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-113 Winds Aloft Data at 34,000 Feet
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
To display the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-114), press the LEGEND Softkey when Winds Aloft is selected
for display.
AFCS
Figure 6-114 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
If desired, the system can also show the predicted temperatures with the winds aloft arrows.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Enabling/disabling predicted temperatures with winds aloft data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘PRODUCT GROUP 1’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the Temp (•) ‘ON’ or ‘OFF’ field, then press the ENT Key.
INDEX
6) When finished, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Profile View on the Navigation Map
Page (Figure 6-115). The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track, but not to
aircraft speed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Winds Aloft Data Age
Altitude Scale
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Wind Component
Velocity and Direction
Arrows
Figure 6-115 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data on Profile View
Headwind
Symbol
Tailwind
Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in Table 6-14.
AFCS
5 knots
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
10 knots
50 knots
Table 6-14 Profile View Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
APPENDICES
Enabling/disabling profile view (containing winds aloft data)
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the PROFILE Softkey.
INDEX
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current
state) and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Winds Aloft data inside the Profile View is enabled by default when the Profile View is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display in Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-116).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Profile Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-117).
EIS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Profile Winds’ (Figure 6-118).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-116 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-118 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-117 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PIREPS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) describe in-flight weather encountered by pilots. A PIREP may contain
adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions, wind shear, turbulence, and type
of aircraft flown. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Instructions for
Viewing PIREP
Text
EIS
Urgent
PIREP
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Routine
PIREP
Selected
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-119 PIREPs on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Displaying PIREP text:
AFCS
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the PIREPS Softkey.
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather report
when it is selected.
APPENDICES
5) Press the ENT Key. The PIREP text is first displayed in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note
the original text may contain additional information not shown in the decoded version.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to close the PIREP text window and return to the Weather Data Link (FIS-B)
Page.
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
EIS
Decoded PIREP Text
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Original PIREP Text
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-120 PIREP Text on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
To display the PIREP legend (Figure 6-121), press the LEGEND Softkey when PIREPs are selected for
display. The PIREP color is determined by the report type (routine or urgent).
Figure 6-121 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
AFCS
TFRS
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
In the United States, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issues Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs)
to designate areas where flight is restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including
national security, law enforcement, natural disasters, airshows, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued
at any time, and TFR data displayed is only intended to supplement official TFR information obtained from
Flight Service Stations (FSS), and air traffic control.
INDEX
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system displays
‘TFR N/A’ in the upper-left corner of maps on which TFRs can be displayed.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TFR Summary
Information
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TFR Selected
with Map
Pointer
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-122 TFR Data on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Displaying TFR Data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page or Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Joystick and pan the map pointer over a TFR to highlight it. The system displays TFR summary
information above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
AFCS
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Review Airspaces’ and press the ENT Key. The system displays the
INFORMATION window.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the INFORMATION window.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 6-123 Full Text for Selected TFR
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page control the map range settings above which TFR data is
decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is selected, the TFR
product data is removed from the map.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Maps other than the Navigation Map Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be displayed:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
EIS
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-124).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-125).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product range setting (Figure 6-126).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-124 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-126 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
INDEX
Figure 6-125 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FIS-B WEATHER STATUS
Additional information about the status of FIS-B weather products is available on the AUX - ADS-B Status
Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Viewing FIS-B status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AUX - ADS-B Status Page.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 6-127 Viewing FIS-B Weather Status on ADS-B Status Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
ADS-B Status Page Item
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FIS-B Weather Status:
FIS-B Processing
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Weather Products:
AIRMET
CONUS NEXRAD
METAR
METAR GRAPHICAL
NOTAM/TFR
PIREP
REGIONAL NEXRAD
SIGMET
TAF
WINDS/TEMPS ALOFT
Status
Message
ENABLED
DISABLED
---------------AVAILABLE
Description
The FIS-B weather feature is enabled to process and display FIS-B weather
products.
The FIS-B weather feature is disabled.
No data received from the GDL 88 UAT.
FIS-B weather data is available for display for the weather product.
NOT AVAILABLE FIS-B weather data is not available for the weather product, and/or the system is
not receiving the FIS-B weather service.
AWAITING DATA The system is receiving the FIS-B weather service, and is waiting to receive the
weather product from the FIS-B data broadcast.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Table 6-15 AUX-ADS-B Status Page Messages for FIS-B Weather
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OVERVIEW
6.4 AIRBORNE COLOR WEATHER RADAR
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Garmin GWX 70 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a solid-state pulsed radar with forty watts of output
power. The radar combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with a high-definition target
display. The GWX 70 has an effective pulse length of 27.31 microseconds (µs), and the system optimizes the
pulse length to maximize resolution at each range setting.
EIS
The Twin Commander uses a 12-inch phased array antenna that is fully stabilized to accommodate 30º of
pitch and roll.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
To focus radar scanning on specific areas, Sector Scanning offers pilot-adjustable horizontal scan angles of
20º, 40º, 60º, or 90º. A vertical scanning function helps to analyze storm tops, gradients, and cell buildup
activity at various altitudes.
Radar features include:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Extended Sensitivity Time Constant (STC) logic that automatically correlates distance of the return echo with
intensity, so cells do not suddenly appear to get larger as they get closer.
• WATCH® (Weather ATtenuated Color Highlight) helps identify possible shadowing effects of short-range cell
activity, identifying areas where radar return signals are weakened or attenuated by intense precipitation (or
large areas of lesser precipitation) and may not fully reflect the weather behind a storm.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Weather Alert that looks ahead for intense cell activity in the 80-320 nm range, even if these ranges are not
being displayed.
PRINCIPLES OF PULSED AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
AFCS
The term RADAR is an acronym for RAdio Detecting And Ranging. Pulsed radar locates targets by transmitting
a microwave pulse beam that, upon encountering a target, is reflected back to the radar receiver as a return
echo. The microwave pulses are focused and radiated by the antenna, with the most intense energy in the
center of the beam and decreasing intensity near the edge. The same antenna is used for both transmitting and
receiving. The returned signal is then processed and displayed on the MFD.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Radar detection is a two-way process that requires 12.36 µs for the transmitted microwave pulses to travel out
and back for each nautical mile of target range. It takes 123.6 µs for a transmitted pulse to make the round trip
if a target is ten nautical miles away.
APPENDICES
Airborne weather radar should be used to avoid severe weather, not for penetrating severe weather. The
decision to fly into an area of radar targets depends on target intensity, spacing between the targets, aircraft
capabilities, and pilot experience. Pulse type weather radar detects only precipitation, not clouds or turbulence.
The display may indicate clear areas between intense returns, but this does not necessarily mean it is safe to fly
between them. Only Doppler radar can detect turbulence.
Airborne weather radar has other capabilities beyond weather detection. It also has the ability to detect and
provide distance to cities, mountains, coastlines, rivers, lakes, and oceans.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
NEXRAD AND AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Both Airborne Weather Radar and NEXRAD measure weather reflectivity in decibels (dB). A decibel is a
logarithmic expression of the ratio of two quantities. Airborne Weather Radar measures the ratio of power
against the gain of the antenna, while NEXRAD measures the energy reflected back to the radar, or the radar
reflectivity ratio.
Both systems use colors to identify the different echo intensities, but the colors are not interchangeable.
Airborne color radar values used by Garmin Airborne Color Weather Radar should not be confused with
NEXRAD radar values.
EIS
ANTENNA BEAM ILLUMINATION
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The radar beam is much like the beam of a spotlight. The further the beam travels, the wider it becomes.
The radar is only capable of seeing what is inside the boundaries of the beam. The figure below depicts a radar
beam’s characteristics. The figure illustrates vertical dimensions of the radar beam, although the same holds
true for the horizontal dimensions. In other words, the beam is as wide as it is tall. Note that it is possible to
miss areas of precipitation on the radar display because of the antenna tilt setting. With the antenna tilt set
to zero in this illustration, the beam overshoots the precipitation at 15 nautical miles.
Altitude (x1000 ft.)
80
Antenna at Zero Tilt
18,000 ft.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8°
0
0
15
Half Power at
es
Beam Sidelob
Max Power at Beam Center
18,000 ft.
30
45
60
75
90
AFCS
Range (nautical miles)
Figure 6-128 Radar Beam from a 12 inch Antenna
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The curvature of the earth can also be a factor in missing areas of precipitation, especially at range settings
of 150 nautical miles or more. Here the beam overshoots the precipitation at less than 320 nautical miles.
INDEX
320 nm
Figure 6-129 Radar Beam in Relation to the Curvature of the Earth
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RADAR SIGNAL ATTENUATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The phenomenon of radar signal attenuation affects the operation of weather radar. When the radar
transmits the signal, the signal is progressively absorbed and scattered, making the signal weaker. This
weakening, or attenuation, is caused by two primary sources, distance and precipitation.
Radar energy leaving the antenna is inversely proportional to the square of the distance. The reflected
radar energy from a target 40 miles away that fills the radar beam is one fourth the energy reflected from
an equivalent target 20 miles away. This would appear to the operator that the storm is gaining intensity as
the aircraft gets closer. Internal signal processing within the GWX 70 system compensates for much of this
distance attenuation.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Attenuation due to precipitation is not as predictable as distance attenuation. It is also more intense. As the
radar signal passes through moisture, a portion of the radar energy is reflected back to the antenna. However,
much of the energy is absorbed. If precipitation is very heavy, or covers a large area, the signal may not
reach completely through the area of precipitation. The weather radar system cannot distinguish between an
attenuated signal and an area of no precipitation. If the signal has been fully attenuated, the radar displays
a radar shadow. This appears as an end to the precipitation when, in fact, the heavy rain may extend much
further. A cell containing heavy precipitation may block another cell located behind the first, preventing it
from being displayed on the radar. Never fly into these shadowed areas and never assume that all of the heavy
precipitation is being displayed unless another cell or a ground target can be seen beyond the heavy cell. The
WATCH® feature of the GWX 70 Weather Radar system can help in identifying these shadowed areas. Areas
in question appear as shadowed or gray on the radar display. Proper use of the antenna tilt control can also
help detect radar shadows.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Attenuation can also be due to poor maintenance or degradation of the radome. Even the smallest amount of
wear and scratching, pitting, and pinholes on the radome surface can cause damage and system inefficiency.
RADAR SIGNAL REFLECTIVITY
Precipitation
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Weather radar detects precipitation or objects more dense than water, such as the surface of the earth
or solid structures. The weather radar does not detect clouds, thunderstorms, or turbulence directly.
It detects precipitation associated with clouds, thunderstorms, and turbulence. The best radar signal
reflectors are raindrops, wet snow, or wet hail. The larger the raindrop, the better the reflectivity. The
size of the precipitation droplet is the most important factor in radar reflectivity. Because large drops in a
small concentrated area are characteristic of a severe thunderstorm, the radar displays the storm as a strong
return. Ice crystals, dry snow, and dry hail have low levels of reflectivity as shown in the illustration, and
are often not displayed by the radar. Additionally, a cloud that contains only small raindrops, such as fog
or drizzle, does not reflect enough radar energy to produce a measurable target return.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-130 Precipitation Type and Reflectivity
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Ground Returns
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Cities normally provide a strong return signal. While large buildings and structures provide good returns,
small buildings can be shadowed from the radar beam by the taller buildings. As the aircraft approaches
and shorter ranges are selected, details become more noticeable as the highly reflective regular lines and
edges of the city become more defined.
AFCS
The intensity of ground target returns depends upon the angle at which the radar beam strikes the ground
target (Angle of Incidence) and the reflective properties of that target. By adjusting the gain, shorelines,
rivers, lakes, and cities appear well-defined. Increasing the gain too much causes the display to fill in
between targets, thus obscuring some landmarks.
Bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, and oceans are not good reflectors and normally do not provide good
returns. The energy is reflected in a forward scatter angle with inadequate energy being returned. They
can appear as dark areas on the display. However, rough or choppy water is a better reflector and provides
stronger returns from the downwind sides of the waves.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Mountains also provide strong return signals to the antenna, but also block the areas behind. However,
over mountainous terrain, the radar beam can be reflected back and forth in the mountain passes or off
canyon walls, using up all or most of the radar energy. In this case, no return signal is received from this
area, causing the display to show a dark spot which could indicate a pass where no pass exists.
APPENDICES
Angle of Incidence
INDEX
The angle at which the radar beam strikes the target is called the Angle of Incidence. The figure illustrates
the incident angle (‘A’). This directly affects the detectable range, the area of illumination, and the intensity
of the displayed target returns. A large incident angle gives the radar system a smaller detectable range and
lower display intensity due to minimized reflection of the radar energy.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-131 Angle of Incidence
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
A smaller incident angle gives the radar a larger detectable range of operation and the target display shows
a higher intensity. Since more radar energy is reflected back to the antenna with a low incident angle, the
resulting detectable range is increased for mountainous terrain.
SAFE OPERATING DISTANCE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The following information establishes a minimum safe distance from the antenna for personnel near
operating weather radar. The minimum safe distance is based on the FCC’s exposure limit at 9.3 to 9.5 GHz for
general population/uncontrolled environments, which is 1 mW/cm2. See Advisory Circular 20-68B for more
information on safe distance determination.
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVEL (MPEL)
AFCS
The zone in which the radiation level exceeds the US Government standard of 1 mW/cm2 is the semicircular
area of at least 9.16 feet from the 10-inch antenna. All personnel must remain outside of this zone. With a
scanning or rotating beam, the averaged power density at the MPEL boundary is significantly reduced.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
MPEL
Boundary
APPENDICES
9.16’ for 10” antenna
INDEX
Figure 6-132 MPEL Boundary
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
BASIC ANTENNA TILT SETUP
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The following discussion is a simple method for setting up the weather radar antenna tilt for most situations.
It is not to be considered an all encompassing setup that works in all situations, but this method does provide
good overall parameters for the monitoring of threats. Ultimately, it is desired to have the antenna tilted so that
the bottom of the radar beam is four degrees below parallel with the ground. The following example explains
one way of achieving this.
EIS
With the aircraft flying level, adjust the antenna tilt so ground returns are displayed at a distance that equals
the aircraft’s current altitude (AGL) divided by 1,000. For example, if the aircraft is at 14,000 feet, adjust the
tilt so the front edge of ground returns are displayed at 14 nautical miles. Note this antenna tilt angle setting.
Now, raise the antenna tilt 6 degrees above this setting. The bottom of the radar beam is now angled down 4º
from parallel with the ground.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
PRACTICAL APPLICATION USING THE BASIC TILT SETUP
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
With the antenna tilt set as previously described, any displayed target return should be scrutinized when
flying at altitudes between 2,000 and 30,000 feet AGL. If the displayed target advances on the screen to
within 5 nautical miles of the aircraft, avoid it. This may be either weather or ground returns that are 2,000
feet or less below the aircraft. Raising the antenna tilt 4 degrees can help separate ground returns from
weather returns in relatively flat terrain. This places the bottom of the radar beam parallel with the ground.
Return the antenna tilt to the previous setting after a few sweeps.
If the aircraft is above 29,000 feet, be cautious of any target return that gets to within 30 nautical miles.
This is likely a thunderstorm that has a top high enough that the aircraft cannot fly over it safely.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If the aircraft altitude is 15,000 feet or lower, setting the displayed range to 60 miles may be more helpful.
Closely monitor anything that enters the display.
4000
Change in Antenna Tilt
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
+4°
+3°
+2°
+1°
0°
-1°
-2°
-3°
-4°
3000
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
APPENDICES
3000
10 nm
4000
Vertical Change of Radar Beam (feet)
AFCS
Also, after setting up the antenna tilt angle as described previously, ground returns can be monitored for
possible threats. The relationship between antenna tilt angle, altitude, and distance is one degree of tilt equals
100 feet of altitude for every one nautical mile.
INDEX
Figure 6-133 Vertical Change in Radar Beam per Nautical Mile
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Therefore, with the antenna tilt set so that the bottom of the beam is four degrees below parallel with
the ground, a target return at 10 nm is approximately 4,000 feet below the aircraft; at 20 nm, 8,000 feet;
at 50 nm, 20,000 feet. In other words, at this tilt setting, a ground return (such as a mountain peak) being
displayed at 10 nm would have a maximum distance below the aircraft of 4,000 feet. If that ground target
return moves to 5 nm, maximum distance below the aircraft is 2,000 feet.
This setup provides a good starting point for practical use of the GWX 70. There are many other factors to
consider in order to become proficient at using weather radar in all situations.
WEATHER MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
EIS
WEATHER DISPLAY INTERPRETATION
Black
Green
Yellow
Red
Magenta
< 23 dBZ
23 dBZ to < 32 dBZ
32 dBZ to < 41 dBZ
41 dBZ to < 50 dBZ
50 dBZ and greater
Approximate
Precipitation Rate
(in/hr.)
< .01.
.01 - 0.1.
0.1 - 0.5
0.5 - 2
>2
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Intensity
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Weather Mode Color
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When evaluating various target returns on the weather radar display, the colors denote precipitation
intensity and rates shown in the table.
Table 6-16 Precipitation Intensity Levels
Thunderstorms
AFCS
Updrafts and downdrafts in thunderstorms carry water through the cloud. The more severe the drafts, the
greater the number and size of the precipitation droplets. With this in mind, the following interpretations
can be made from what is displayed on the weather radar. Avoid these areas by an extra wide margin.
• In areas where the displayed target intensity is red or magenta (indicating large amounts of precipitation),
the turbulence is considered severe.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Areas that show steep color gradients (intense color changes) over thin bands or short distances suggest
irregular rainfall rate and strong turbulence.
APPENDICES
• Areas that show red or magenta are associated with hail or turbulence, as well as heavy precipitation.
Vertical scanning and antenna tilt management may be necessary to identify areas of maximum intensity.
Along squall lines (multiple cells or clusters of cells in a line) individual cells may be in different stages
of development. Areas between closely spaced, intense targets may contain developing clouds not having
enough moisture to produce a return. However, these areas could have strong updrafts or downdrafts.
Targets showing wide areas of green are generally precipitation without severe turbulence.
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INDEX
Irregularities in the target return may also indicate turbulence, appearing as hooks, fingers, or scalloped
edges. These irregularities may be present in green areas with no yellow, red, or magenta areas and should
be treated as highly dangerous areas. Avoid these areas as if they are red or magenta.
405
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Squall Line
EIS
Steep Gradient
Hook or Finger
Scalloped Edge
Figure 6-134 Cell Irregularities
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Thunderstorm development is rapid. A course may become blocked within a short time. When displaying
shorter ranges, periodically select a longer range to see if problems are developing further out. That can
help prevent getting trapped in a blind alley or an area that is closed at one end by convective weather.
Figure 6-135 The Blind Alley - Horizontal Scan
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
In areas of multiple heavy cells, use the Vertical Scan feature along with antenna tilt management to
examine the areas. Remember to avoid shadowed areas behind targets.
INDEX
The Blind Alley at Close Range
The Large Storm Behind
Figure 6-136 The Blind Alley
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Tornadoes
There are no conclusive radar target return characteristics which identify a tornado. However, tornadoes
may be present if the following characteristics are observed:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• A narrow, finger-like portion extends and in a short time curls into a hook and closes on itself.
• A hook, which may be in the general shape of the numeral 6 (numeral 9 i the southern hemisphere),
especially if bright and projecting from the southwest quadrant (northeast quadrant in the southern
hemisphere) of a major thunderstorm.
• V-shaped notches.
EIS
• Doughnut shapes.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
These shapes do not always indicate tornadoes, and tornado returns are not limited to these characteristics.
Confirmed radar observations of tornadoes most often have not shown shapes different from those of a
normal thunderstorm display.
Hail
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Hail results from updrafts carrying water high enough to freeze. Therefore, the higher the top of a
thunderstorm, the greater the probability that it contains hail. Vertically scanning the target return can
give the radar top of a thunderstorm that contains hail. Radar top is the top of a storm cell as detected by
radar. It is not the actual top, or true top of the storm. The actual top of a storm cell is seen with the eyes
in clear air and may be much higher than the radar top. The actual top does not indicate the top of the
hazardous area.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Hail can fall below the minimum reflectivity threshold for radar detection. It can have a film of water on
its surface, making its reflective characteristics similar to a very large water droplet. Because of this film of
water, and because hail stones usually are larger than water droplets, thunderstorms with large amounts
of wet hail return stronger signals than those with rain. Some hail shafts are extremely narrow (100 yards
or less) and make poor radar targets. In the upper regions of a cell where ice particles are dry (no liquid
coating), target returns are less intense.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Hail shafts are associated with the same radar target return characteristics as tornados. U-shaped cloud
edges three to seven miles across can also indicate hail. These target returns appear quite suddenly along
any edge of the cell outline. They also change in intensity and shape in a matter of seconds, making vigilant
monitoring essential.
OPERATION IN WEATHER MODE
APPENDICES
WARNING: Begin transmitting only when it is safe to do so. When transmitting while the aircraft is on the
ground, no personnel or objects should be within 9.16 feet of the antenna.
CAUTION: In Standby mode, the antenna is parked at the center line. It is always a good idea to put the
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INDEX
radar in Standby mode before taxiing the aircraft to prevent the antenna from bouncing on the bottom stop
and possibly causing damage to the radar assembly.
407
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
When the weather radar system is in the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically switches
to Standby mode on landing.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system automatically switches to Standby mode. The system
remains in Standby mode until both displays are restored. In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system
cannot be controlled.
Scan Line
Antenna Stabilization Status
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Radar Mode
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-137 Horizontal Scan Display
Displaying weather on the Weather Radar Page:
1) Select the Weather Radar Page in the Map Page Group with the FMS Knob.
2) Press the MODE Softkey.
AFCS
3) While on the ground, press the STANDBY Softkey. The radar enters the Standby Mode.
Press the WEATHER Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
a)
Figure 6-138 Confirming Activating Radar on Ground
INDEX
b)
Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight YES and press the ENT Key to continue radar activation.
Or:
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
If the aircraft is airborne, press the WEATHER Softkey. A one-minute warm-up period is initiated (countdown
is displayed on the screen). After the warm-up is complete, the radar begins transmitting.
4) Turn the Joystick to select the desired map range.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5) The horizontal scan is initially displayed (Figure 6-137). If desired, press the VERTICAL Softkey to change to
vertical scanning.
Vertically scanning a storm cell:
NOTE: Vertical scanning of a storm cell should be done with the aircraft wings level to avoid constant
EIS
adjustment of the Bearing Line.
1) While in the Horizontal Scan view, press the BRG Softkey. This places the cursor in the BEARING field and
displays the Bearing Line.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Bearing
Line. Press the ENT Key.
2) Press the ENT Key.
Scan Line
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line on the desired storm cell or other area to be vertically
scanned.
Bearing Line
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-139 Bearing Line on Horizontal Scan
APPENDICES
4) Press the VERTICAL Softkey. A vertical slice of the selected area is displayed (Figure 6-140).
5) The small FMS Knob may be used to move the scanned slice a few degrees right or left.
6) Turn the Joystick to adjust the range.
INDEX
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
8) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, press the HORIZON Softkey to return to the Horizontal Scan view
and repeat the previous steps.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust bearing from left to right.
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In order to make an accurate interpretation of a storm cell, the radar beam should be pointed at the wet
part of the weather cell to record the proper rainfall intensity (color level). The ideal aiming point is just
below the freezing level of the storm. The best way to find this point is to use the Vertical Scan feature. The
antenna tilt angle can be centered on the strongest return area in the vertical scan to get a more accurate
view of the coverage and intensity of the target in the horizontal scan.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-140 Vertical Scan Display
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Horizontal Scan display:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the TILT field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired antenna tilt angle.
AFCS
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt up and down.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Vertical Scan display:
1) Press the TILT Softkey to activate the cursor in the TILT field and display the Tilt Line.
If the Tilt Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Tilt Line. Press
the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the antenna tilt angle. The selected tilt angle is implemented when Horizontal
Scan is again selected.
INDEX
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Tilt Line
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Scan Line
Figure 6-141 Adjusting Tilt on Vertical Scan Display
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Adjusting Gain:
WARNING: Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
not representative of the true intensity. Remember to return the gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the
actual intensity of precipitation.
1) Press the GAIN Softkey to activate the cursor in the GAIN field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the gain for the desirable level. The gain setting is visible in the GAIN field
as a movable horizontal bar in a flashing box. The line pointer is a reference depicting the calibrated position.
AFCS
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
4) Press the GAIN Softkey again to recalibrate the gain. CALIBRATED is displayed in the GAIN field.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Manual Gain Set Below Calibrated
Calibrated Gain
Figure 6-142 Gain Calibration
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Sector Scan:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) While in horizontal scan mode, press the BRG Softkey to display the Bearing Line and place the cursor in the
BEARING field. If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select
Show Bearing Line.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
2) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-143 Selecting Sector Scan Position
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line in the desired position. The location of the Bearing Line
becomes the center point of the Sector Scan.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the SECTOR SCAN field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select FULL, 60˚, 40˚, or 20˚ scan.
AFCS
6) If desired, readjust the Bearing Line as discussed previously to change the center of the Sector Scan.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7) Press the BRG Softkey again to remove the Bearing Line and cursor. The bearing reference resets to 0º.
Figure 6-144 40˚ Sector Scan
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Antenna Stabilization
1) To activate or deactivate the antenna stabilization, press the MODE Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the STAB ON Softkey to activate antenna stabilization or press the STAB OFF Softkey to deactivate. The
current stabilization condition is shown in the upper right of the weather radar display.
WATCH® (Weather Attenuated Color Highlight)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Displayed intensity is questionable.
Potentially stronger than displayed.
EIS
WATCH® identifies deceptively strong or unknown intensity parts of a storm. While in horizontal
scan mode, this feature can be used as a tool to determine areas of possible inaccuracies in displayed
intensity due to weakening of the radar energy. This weakening is known as attenuation. The radar energy
weakens as it passes through areas of intense precipitation, large areas of lesser precipitation, and distance.
Issues with the radome also attenuates the radar energy. All these factors have an effect on the return
intensity. The more energy that dissipates, the lesser the displayed intensity of the return. Accuracy of the
displayed intensity of returns located in the shaded areas are suspect. Make maneuvering decisions with
this information in mind. Proper antenna tilt management should still be employed to determine the extent
of attenuation in a shaded area.
To activate or deactivate the WATCH® feature, press the WATCH Softkey.
Areas of
Attenuated Signal
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Horizontal Scan Without WATCH®
Horizontal Scan With WATCH®
APPENDICES
Figure 6-145 Horizontal Scan Without and With WATCH®
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Weather Alert and WX Alert Message Advisory
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Weather Alert feature indicates the presence of heavy precipitation between the ranges of 80 and 320
nm regardless of the currently displayed range. Weather Alert targets appear as red bands along the outer
range ring at the approximate azimuth of the detected returns.
In addition, if the system detects a Weather Alert within ±10° of the aircraft heading, and the WX ALERT
Softkey is enabled, a WX ALERT Message Advisory appears on the PFD in the Alerts Window.
If the antenna tilt is adjusted too low, a weather alert can be generated by ground returns. To avoid
unwanted weather alerts, deselect the WX ALRT Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Weather Alerts
Figure 6-146 Weather Alert Indications
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
To activate or deactivate WX ALERT Message Advisory, press the WX ALRT Softkey on the Weather
Radar Page. The system continues to display the detected Weather Alert targets on the Weather Radar Page
regardless of WX ALRT Softkey selection.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-147 Weather Alert Message Advisory on the PFD
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
GROUND MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A secondary use of the weather radar system is for the presentation of terrain. This can be a useful tool for
verifying aircraft position. A picture of the ground is represented much like a topographical map that can be
used as a supplement to the navigation map on the MFD.
Ground Map mode uses a different gain range than Weather mode. Different colors are also used to represent
the intensity levels. The displayed intensity of ground target returns are defined in the table below. Use of the
GAIN and TILT controls help improve contrast so that specific ground targets can be recognized more easily.
As previously discussed, the type and orientation of the target in relation to the aircraft affects the intensity
displayed.
EIS
When the weather radar system is in either the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby mode upon landing.
Black
Light blue
Magenta
Blue
Intensity
0 dB
> 0 dB to < 9 dB
9 dB to < 18 dB
18 dB to < 27 dB
27 dB and greater
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Yellow
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Ground Map
Mode Color
Table 6-17 Ground Target Return Intensity Levels
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Operation in Ground Map Mode
1) Press the MODE Softkey.
2) Press the GROUND Softkey to place the radar in Ground Map mode.
3) Press the BACK Softkey.
AFCS
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the TILT field.
6) Adjust the antenna tilt angle by turning the small FMS Knob to display ground returns at the desired distance.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
WEATHER RADAR OVERLAY ON THE NAVIGATION MAP PAGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Map - Weather Radar Page is the principal map page for viewing airborne weather radar information.
Weather radar information may also be shown as an overlay on the Navigation Map Page on the MFD as an
additional reference.
EIS
When the airborne weather radar overlay is enabled, a weather radar information box appears in the upperright corner of the Navigation Map Page. It indicates the selected weather mode, radar bearing, and antenna
tilt angle. The overlay is capable of showing radar information while the radar is in horizontal scan mode.
If the radar is operating in vertical scan mode while the overlay is enabled, the system indicates ‘N/A’ in the
information box to indicate the airborne weather radar overlay is not available until the horizontal scan mode
is selected on the Weather Radar Page.
Enabling/Disabling Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the WX RADAR Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Or:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group, then press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the product selections and highlight the WX RADAR overlay selection
(‘On’ or ‘Off’). Turn the small FMS knob to highlight the desired selection.
5) To remove the menu, press the FMS Knob or CLR Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Weather radar controls on the Navigation Map Page are limited to adjustment of the radar range, bearing,
and antenna tilt angle. The airborne weather radar overlay is viewable at Navigation Map Ranges between five
and 800 nautical miles (ten to 1,500 kilometers). At map ranges beyond these limits, the system removes the
weather radar information from the map. Adjusting the range on the Navigation Map Page simultaneously
adjusts the range of the weather radar proportionally. This radar range is annunciated on the range arc that
appears when the overlay is enabled and a radar scan is active. When the radar range is adjusted on the
Navigation Map Page, system synchronizes the same range to the Weather Radar Page.
APPENDICES
The radar bearing is adjustable in one degree increments on the Navigation Map Page by pushing the Joystick
left or right when the overlay is enabled. A left or right arrow next to the bearing readout indicates the direction
of the selected bearing. The cyan radar bearing line is only viewable on the Weather Radar Page. While the
bearing line is not shown on the Navigation Map Page, adjusting the bearing on the Navigation Map Page while
Sector Scan is enabled centers the radar scan on the selected bearing, and the radar scan boundaries adjust
accordingly on the Navigation Map Page.
INDEX
Radar antenna tilt angle is adjustable in 0.25 degree increments on the Navigation Map Page. Push the
Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward. Push the Joystick down to adjust the antenna tilt angle
upward. An up or down arrow next to the antenna tilt angle setting indicates the direction of the antenna tilt
angle.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The weather radar overlay uses the same colors as those shown on the Weather Radar Page to indicate the
intensity of radar returns. However, the display of gray WATCH radar attenuation and red weather alert
target bands is exclusive to the Weather Radar Page. Because data link radar precipitation and terrain present
information using similar colors, enabling the airborne weather radar overlay on the Navigation Map Page
disables the display of the data link radar and terrain information for this page.
SYSTEM STATUS
The radar mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Weather Radar Page. Additional information
may be displayed in the center of the Weather Radar Page as a banner annunciation.
EIS
Center Banner Annunciation
Standby
STANDBY
STANDBY
Weather
WEATHER
None
Ground Mapping
Off
Radar Failed*
GROUND MAPPING
OFF
FAIL
None
OFF
RADAR FAIL
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Radar Mode Annunciation Box
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Radar Mode
* See Table 6-19 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-18 Radar Modes on the Weather Radar Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The system displays the status of the radar antenna stabilization feature in the upper right corner of the
Weather Radar Page.
AFCS
Radar Antenna
Description
Stabilization Status
STAB ON
Antenna stabilization is selected on.
STAB OFF
Antenna stabilization is selected off.
The radar is not receiving pitch and roll information.
STAB INOP
The antenna stabilization feature is inoperative.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 6-19 Antenna Stabilization Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
If the unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown as a banner in the center of the Weather
Radar Page.
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Weather Radar
Page Center Banner
Description
Annunciation
BAD CONFIG
The radar configuration is invalid. The radar should be serviced.
RDR FAULT
The radar unit is reporting a fault. The radar should be serviced.
The system is not receiving valid data from the radar unit. The system
RADAR FAIL
should be serviced.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Table 6-20 Abnormal Radar Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6.5 STORMSCOPE LIGHTNING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not rely on information from the lightning detection system display as the sole basis for
hazardous weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate
or incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
NOTE: Stormscope lightning information cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same navigation map
EIS
with lightning products from data link weather sources.
The following pages can display Stormscope data:
• AUX - Video Page
• Nearest Pages
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Stormscope Page
• Navigation Map
• AUX - Trip Planning Page
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
To display Stormscope data on the Navigation Map, AUX - Trip Planning Page, or any of the Nearest Pages,
press the MAP Softkey, then press the STRMSCP Softkey. These pages can also display cell or strike data using the
yellow lightning strike symbology shown in Table 6-21.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Table 6-21 Lightning Age and Symbols
SETTING UP STORMSCOPE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Setting up Stormscope options on the Navigation Map:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Setup’ selected (Figure 6-148), press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the group selection window. Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Weather’,
and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight and move between the product selections (Figure 6-149).
5) When an item is highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the option.
INDEX
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page (Figure 6-150).
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The following options are available (Figure 6-149):
• STRMSCP LTNG – Turns the display of Stormscope data on or off.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• STRMSCP MODE – Selects the CELL or STRIKE mode of lightning activity. Cell mode identifies clusters or
cells of electrical activity. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
• STRMSCP SMBL – Selects the range at which Stormscope data displays. Stormscope data is removed when
a map range greater than the STRMSCP SMBL value is selected.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-148 Page Menu
INDEX
Figure 6-149 Map Setup Menu
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CELL AND STRIKE MODE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
On the Navigation Map, cell mode identifies cells of lightning activity (Figure 6-150). Stormscope identifies
clusters of electrical activity that indicate cells. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning
strikes.
Selecting the ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Setup’ selected, press the ENT Key.
EIS
3) Select the ‘Weather’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on ‘STRMSCP LTNG’.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘STRMSCP MODE’.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to change between ‘CELL’ and ‘STRIKE’ options. When an item is selected, press the
ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Lightning Strikes
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Stormscope
Enabled Icon
APPENDICES
Figure 6-150 Stormscope Lightning on the Navigation Map Page
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INDEX
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn
(Figure 6-151). This is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the
nose of the aircraft.
421
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Manually clearing Stormscope data on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Select ‘Clear Stormscope® Lightning’.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-151 Navigation Map Page Options Menu
ZOOM RANGE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Stormscope lightning data can be displayed up to 800 nm zoom range (in North up mode) on the Navigation
Map Page. However, in the track up mode at the 500 nm range, a portion of Stormscope lightning data
can be behind the aircraft and therefore not visible on the Navigation Map. Since the range for Stormscope
data is 400 nm diameter total (200 nm in front and 200 nm behind), the 500 nm range in North up mode
shows all the data.
At a map range of less than 25 nm, Stormscope lightning data is not displayed, but can still be present.
AFCS
The maximum zoom range can also be set on the Navigation Map. Note that Stormscope data above the
selected maximum zoom range is decluttered.
Selecting a Stormscope range on the Navigation Map:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘MAP SETUP’.
3) Select the ‘Weather’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘STRMSCP SMBL’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the maximum display range.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
INDEX
To change the display range on the Navigation Map Page, turn the Joystick clockwise to zoom out or
counter-clockwise to zoom in.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SELECTING THE STORMSCOPE PAGE
Stormscope lightning data can be displayed at the ranges of 25 nm, 50 nm, 100 nm, and 200 nm.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Adjusting the Stormscope Map Range:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Stormscope Page.
3) To change the map range, turn the Joystick clockwise to zoom out or counter-clockwise to zoom in.
Stormscope
Mode
EIS
Lightning Strike Rate
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 6-152 Stormscope Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Changing between ‘cell’ and ‘strike’ mode on the Stormscope Page:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the MODE Softkey. The CELL and STRIKE softkeys are displayed.
APPENDICES
3) Press the CELL Softkey to display ‘CELL’ data or press the STRIKE Softkey to display ‘STRIKE’ data. ‘CELL’ or
‘STRIKE’ is displayed in the mode box in the upper left corner of the Stormscope Page.
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the main Stormscope page.
Changing the viewing mode between 360˚ and 120˚ on the Stormscope Page:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
INDEX
2) Press the VIEW Softkey. The 360 and ARC softkeys are displayed. Press the 360 Softkey to display a 360˚
viewing area or press the ARC Softkey to display a 120˚ viewing area.
3) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the main Stormscope page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.6 TERRAIN PROXIMITY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not use Terrain Proximity information for primary terrain avoidance. Terrain Proximity is
intended only to enhance situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain database coverage
area.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
G950 Terrain Proximity is a terrain awareness system that does not comply with TSO-C151b certification
standards. It increases situational awareness and aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). Do not
confuse Terrain Proximity with the optional Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B (TAWS-B). TAWS-B
is more sophisticated and robust, and it is TSO-C151b certified. Terrain Proximity does not provide warning
annunciations or voice alerts. It only provides color indications on map displays when terrain and obstacles are
within a certain altitude threshold from the aircraft. Although the terrain and obstacle color map displays are the
same, TAWS-B uses more sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Terrain Proximity requires the following components to operate properly:
• Valid 3-D GPS position
• Valid terrain/obstacle database
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Terrain Proximity displays altitudes of terrain and obstructions relative to the aircraft position and altitude with
reference to a database that may contain inaccuracies. Terrain and obstructions are shown only if they are in the
database. Terrain and obstacle information should be used as an aid to situational awareness. They should never
be used to navigate or maneuver around terrain.
Note that all obstructions may not be available in the terrain and obstacle database. No terrain and obstacle
information is shown without a valid 3-D GPS position.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The GPS receiver provides the horizontal position and altitude. GPS altitude is derived from satellite position.
GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above mean sea
level calculated geometrically. GSL altitude is used to determine terrain and obstacle proximity. GSL altitude
accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that normally
affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude.
It is a widely-used MSL altitude source.
APPENDICES
Terrain and obstacle databases are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position and altitude, the Terrain Proximity
feature portrays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and altitude of the
aircraft. GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and predict the aircraft’s flight path in relation to
the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this way, the pilot can view predicted dangerous terrain and obstacle
conditions.
DISPLAYING TERRAIN PROXIMITY DATA
INDEX
The symbols and colors in Figure 6-153 and Table 6-22 are used to represent obstacles and aircraft altitude
when the Terrain Proximity Page is selected for display. Terrain Proximity uses black, yellow, and red to
represent terrain information relative to aircraft altitude. The color of each obstacle is associated with the
altitude of the aircraft.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Terrain Above Aircraft Altitude
Red terrain is above
or within 100 ft below
the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude
100 ft Threshold
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1000 ft
Yellow terrain is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Black terrain is more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
EIS
Figure 6-153 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain Proximity
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Table 6-22 Terrain Proximity Terrain/Obstacle Colors and Symbology
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Map - Terrain Proximity Page is the principal map page for viewing Terrain Proximity information.
Terrain and obstacle information can be displayed on the following maps and pages:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Page
AFCS
• Terrain Proximity Page
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps other than the Terrain Proximity Page):
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey).
2) Press the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
When Terrain Proximity is selected on maps other than the Terrain Proximity Page, an icon to indicate the
feature is enabled for display and a legend for Terrain Proximity colors are shown (Figure 6-157).
APPENDICES
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map.
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INDEX
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles recognized by
Terrain Proximity as yellow or red are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within
the setting limit.
425
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Maps besides the Terrain Proximity Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
The maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the
Navigation Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20
nm, the highest obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-154).
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-155).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-156).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• TERRAIN DATA – Turns the display of terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
• OBSTACLE DATA – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-154 Navigation Map Page Menu
INDEX
Figure 6-155 Navigation Map Page
Setup Menu
Figure 6-156 Navigation Map Page Setup
Menu, Map Group
Additional information about obstacles can be displayed by panning over the display on the map. The map
panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the Joystick. If the
map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Additional
Information on
Obstacle Selected
with Map Pointer
Red Terrain Area
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Yellow Terrain Area
(Between 100’ and
1000’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
EIS
Lighted Obstacle
selected with Map
Pointer
Red Lighted
Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Terrain Display
Enabled Icon
Terrain Legend
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-157 Terrain Information on the Navigation Map Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TERRAIN PROXIMITY PAGE
The Terrain Proximity Page is specialized to show terrain and obstacle data in relation to the aircraft’s
current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs) can
be displayed for reference.
AFCS
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are
available relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display.
Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
Displaying the Terrain Proximity Page:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain Proximity Page.
3) To change the view,
APPENDICES
a) Press the VIEW Softkey.
b) Press the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
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INDEX
b) Select ‘View Arc’ or ‘View 360º’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key to change the view.
427
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Showing/hiding aviation information on the Terrain Proximity Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
EIS
Map Range Rings
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Yellow Lighted
Obstacles (Between
100’ and 1000’ Below
Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-158 Terrain Proximity Page (360 View Selected)
Black Terrain
(Terrain More
than 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
AFCS
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Map Range Arc
APPENDICES
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
INDEX
Figure 6-159 Terrain Proximity Page (Arc View Selected)
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6.7 PROFILE VIEW TERRAIN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The system offers a Profile View of terrain and obstacles relative to the aircraft’s current flight path and altitude
on the Navigation Map Page of the MFD. Profile View does not provide TAWS-B terrain or obstacle caution or
warning annunciations or voice alerts systems, nor does it display potential impact points inside the Profile View.
The colors and symbols in Figure 6-160 and Table 6-23 are used to represent terrain and obstacles.
Terrain Above Aircraft Altitude
100 ft Threshold
EIS
Red terrain is above
or within 100 ft below
the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude
1000 ft
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Yellow terrain is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Black terrain is more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-160 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Profile View Terrain
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
AFCS
Table 6-23 Profile View Obstacle Colors and Symbology
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Accessing Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the PROFILE Softkey to enable or disable Profile View.
APPENDICES
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Enabling/Disabling Profile View Terrain on the Navigation Map (when Profile View is enabled):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the TERRAIN Softkey.
PROFILE VIEW DISPLAY
EIS
When the Profile View is enabled, it is displayed in a window below the Navigation Map. Altitude is shown
along a vertical scale, with an aircraft icon positioned at the current altitude. Distance is represented horizontally
along the bottom of the Profile View, and increases from left (present position) to right.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When the Navigation Map range is adjusted with the Joystick, the horizontal distance of the Profile View
is adjusted proportionately to be 1/2 of the Navigation Map range distance down to 1 nm, at which point
Profile View is no longer available (‘PROFILE NOT AVAILABLE’ is displayed). When Navigation Map range
is adjusted to remove altitude-correlated colored terrain data (as shown in the Terrain Legend) or obstacles
from the Navigation Map, these items are also removed from the Profile View; only an outline of the terrain
will be displayed in black in the Profile View window. Refer to the Terrain Proximity, Terrain-SVS, or TAWS-B
discussions for more information about displaying terrain or obstacles on the Navigation Map Page.
Profile
View Path
Enabled
Navigation Map Range
AFCS
Terrain Legend
Terrain Enabled Icons
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Altitude Scale
Profile View Total
Distance
Distance Scale
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-161 Navigation Map Page with Profile View Terrain and Topographic Data Enabled
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The Profile View is based on the current aircraft track (or heading if track is unavailable) and shows the highest
known terrain or obstacles within a predetermined width from the present aircraft position to the end of the
profile range. The width of the Profile View is determined by the phase of flight, as annunciated on the HSI,
and is widest during enroute or oceanic phases (Table 6-24).
0.6 nm
Departure
0.6 nm
Terminal
2.0 nm
Enroute
4.0 nm
Oceanic
4.0 nm
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Approach
EIS
Total Profile View Width
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Flight Phase
Table 6-24 Profile View Width Scale
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
PROFILE PATH
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Profile Path displays the horizontal and lateral boundaries of the Profile View. The path is shown as a
white rectangle on the Navigation Map Page and is only available when Profile View is enabled. White range
markers on both edges of the Profile Path rectangle correspond to the range markers along the distance scale
inside the Profile View display window whenever the profile range is at least 4 nm (or 7.5 km if configured
for metric units).
The Profile Path rectangle may be configured on or off, and the Navigation Map range at which the Profile
Path is removed from map display can be changed.
Customizing the Profile Path display on the Navigation Map Page:
AFCS
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-162).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Profile’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-163).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-164).
APPENDICES
• PROFILE PATH – Turns the display of the Profile Path on or off and sets maximum range at which Profile Path
is shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Figure 6-162 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-164 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu,
Profile Group
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-163 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6.8 TERRAIN-SVS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not use Terrain-SVS information for primary terrain avoidance. Terrain-SVS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain database coverage
area.
EIS
NOTE: Terrain-SVS is included with the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option. The TAWS-B option will
take precedence over Terrain-SVS.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Terrain-SVS is a terrain awareness system included with the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option.. The
optional Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B (TAWS-B) or standard Terrain-SVS is integrated within
SVT to provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the presence of threatening terrain relevant to the projected
flight path. For detailed information regarding SVT, refer to the Flight Instruments section of this Pilot’s Guide.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Terrain-SVS does not comply with TSO-C151b certification standards. It increases situational awareness and
aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). Do not confuse Terrain-SVS with TAWS-B. TAWS-B is more
sophisticated and robust, and it is TSO-C151b certified. Although the terrain and obstacle color map displays
are the same, TAWS-B uses more sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles.
Terrain-SVS does not provide the following:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Premature Descent Alerting (PDA)
• Excessive Descent Rate (EDR)
• Negative Climb Rate (NCR)
• Descent to 500 Feet Callout (DFC)
AFCS
Terrain-SVS requires the following components to operate properly:
• Valid 3-D GPS position
• Valid terrain/obstacle database
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Terrain-SVS displays altitudes of terrain and obstructions relative to the aircraft position and altitude with
reference to a database that may contain inaccuracies. Terrain and obstructions are shown only if they are in the
database. Terrain and obstacle information should be used as an aid to situational awareness. They should never
be used to navigate or maneuver around terrain.
APPENDICES
Note that all obstructions may not be available in the terrain and obstacle database. No terrain and obstacle
information is shown without a valid 3-D GPS position.
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INDEX
The system’s GPS receiver provides the horizontal position and altitude. GPS altitude is derived from satellite
position. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above
mean sea level calculated geometrically. GSL altitude is used to determine terrain and obstacle proximity. GSL
altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that
433
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL
altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Terrain and obstacle databases are referenced to GSL. Using the GPS position and altitude, the Terrain-SVS
feature portrays a 3-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and altitude of the
aircraft. GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and predict the aircraft’s flight path in relation to
the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this way, the pilot can view predicted dangerous terrain and obstacle
conditions.
DISPLAYING TERRAIN-SVS DATA
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Terrain-SVS uses yellow (caution) and red (warning) to depict terrain and obstacles (with heights greater
than 200 feet above ground level, AGL) alerts relative to aircraft altitude. Colors are adjusted automatically as
the aircraft altitude changes. The colors and symbols in Figure 6-165 and Tables 6-25 and 6-26 are used to
represent terrain, obstacles, and potential impact points.
Figure 6-165 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain-SVS
AFCS
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
APPENDICES
Table 6-25 Terrain-SVS Obstacle Colors and Symbology
Potential Impact
Point Symbol
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
INDEX
Warning
Caution
Table 6-26 Terrain-SVS Potential Impact Point Symbols with Alert Types
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The Map - Terrain-SVS Page (Figures 6-169 and 6-170) is the principal map page for viewing Terrain-SVS
information. Terrain-SVS information can be displayed on the following maps:
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Pages
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• PFD Inset Map
• Terrain-SVS Page
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps other than the Terrain-SVS Page):
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey).
EIS
2) Press the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When Terrain-SVS is selected on maps other than the Terrain-SVS Page, an icon is shown to indicate that the
feature is enabled for display. A legend for Terrain-SVS terrain colors will accompany the icon on the Navigation
Map Page (Figure 6-172) and the Flight Plan Pages. The icon is always shown on the Terrain-SVS Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling the
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD, while the
range setting also affects the PFD Inset Map.
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles for which warnings
and cautions are issued are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting
limit.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The map settings chosen on the Navigation Map Page affect the map settings used on other maps and pages
(except the Terrain-SVS Page). The maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the
range setting made for the Navigation Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map
is adjusted to below 20 nm, the highest obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also
adjusted proportionally.
AFCS
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-166).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-167).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-168).
APPENDICES
• TERRAIN DATA – Turns the display of terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
• OBSTACLE DATA – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
435
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Figure 6-166 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-167 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-168 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Map Group
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TERRAIN-SVS PAGE
AFCS
The Terrain-SVS Page (Figures 6-169 and 6-170) is specialized to show terrain, obstacle, and potential impact
point data in relation to the aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports,
VORs, and other NAVAIDs) can be displayed for reference. If an obstacle and the projected flight path of
the aircraft intersect, the system automatically reduces the map range, if necessary, to emphasize the closest
potential impact point on the Terrain-SVS Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading-up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the Joystick from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
Displaying the Terrain-SVS Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
APPENDICES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain-SVS Page.
Showing/hiding aviation information on the Terrain-SVS Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Map Range Rings
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Yellow Lighted
Obstacles (Between
100’ and 1000’
Below Aircraft
Altitude)
EIS
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Annunciation
Window
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-169 Terrain-SVS Page (360 View)
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
Map Range Arc
AFCS
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Black Terrain
(Terrain More
than 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
APPENDICES
Annunciation
Window
Figure 6-170 TAWS-B Page (ARC View)
INDEX
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437
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TERRAIN-SVS ALERTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within Terrain-SVS software algorithms.
Terrain-SVS alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an
alert is issued, visual annunciations appear with voice alerts. Table 6-27 shows Terrain-SVS alert types with
corresponding annunciations and voice alerts.
EIS
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The Terrain-SVS Alert Annunciation
appears to the left of the Selected Altitude box on the PFD, and below the Terrain Legend on the MFD. If the
Terrain-SVS Page is not displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up
alert:
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the Terrain-SVS Page)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
PFD Alert Annunciation
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
MFD Pop-up
Alert
Figure 6-171 TAWS-B Alert Annunciations
Potential Impact
Points
APPENDICES
Potential
Impact Points
Terrain Display Enabled
Terrain Legend
INDEX
Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-172 Navigation Map Page
(After TAWS-B Pop-up Alert Acknowledgment)
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
MFD
Pop-Up Alert (except
Terrain-SVS Page)
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
Voice Alert
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning (IOI)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution (IOI)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
EIS
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-27 Terrain-SVS Alerts Summary
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of Terrain-SVS compares the projected flight path
as derived from GPS data with terrain features and obstacles from the terrain and obstacle databases. The
system issues FLTA alerts when the projected flight path conflicts with terrain or obstacles.
AFCS
The projected flight path is a calculated area ahead of, to the sides, and below the aircraft. The size of
the projected flight path varies based on factors including ground speed (the path ahead is larger when the
ground speed is higher), whether the aircraft is level, turning, or descending, and the proximity to the nearest
runway along the current track. As the aircraft approaches the runway, the projected flight path becomes
narrower until the system automatically disables FLTA alerts or the pilot manually inhibits them.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
There are two types of FLTA alerts, Reduced Required Terrain/Obstacle Clearance (RTC or ROC respectively)
and Imminent Terrain/Obstacle Impact (ITI or IOI respectively).
APPENDICES
INDEX
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439
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Level (FT)
Descending (FT)
800
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Required
Clearance
(FT)
Required Terrain
Clearance (FT)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
0
0
5
10
15
20
Distance From Runway (NM)
25
30
Figure 6-173 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The system automatically disables FLTA alerts when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination
runway elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends. When
Terrain-SVS alerts are inhibited, the annunciation ‘TER INH’ is shown on the PFD and in the MFD terrain
annunciation window.
Figure 6-174 Terrain-SVS Alerting Disabled
(Terrain-SVS Inhibited) Annunciation
AFCS
Inhibiting/enabling Terrain-SVS alerting:
1) Select the Terrain-SVS Page.
2) Press the INHIBIT Softkey to inhibit or enable Terrain-SVS (choice dependent on current state).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Inhibit Terrain-SVS’ or ‘Enable Terrain-SVS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
While Terrain-SVS alerting is manually inhibited (or the system is unavailable or has failed), the system may
display a ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation if the following conditions are met:
• The aircraft is on a GBAS SBAS approach.
• The Final Approach Fix is the active waypoint.
• The aircraft is at least 164 feet below the prescribed altitude at the Final Approach Fix..
INDEX
See the Flight Instruments Section for more details about the ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM STATUS
During power-up, Terrain-SVS conducts a system test of its alerting capabilities. A voice alert occurs when
the test has completed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Terrain-SVS continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status,
and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the system issues the voice alert “Terrain
System Failure” along with the ‘TER FAIL’ alert annunciation.
System Test in Progress
System Test Pass
None
No GPS position
None
“Terrain System Test OK”
None
None
NO GPS POSITION
“Terrain System Not Available”*
None
“Terrain System Not Available”*
TERRAIN FAIL
“Terrain System Failure”
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
AFCS
None
None
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Excessively degraded GPS signal;
or Out of database coverage area
Terrain System Test Fail; Terrain
or Obstacle database unavailable
or invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid, and
Terrain-SVS operating with PFD
Terrain or Obstacle databases
Aural Message
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Terrain Alerting Inhibited
Terrain-SVS Page Center
Banner Annunciation
TERRAIN TEST
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
PFD/MFD† Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
EIS
Terrain-SVS requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums.
Should the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the
annunciation ‘TER N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the Terrain-SVS Page. The voice
alert “Terrain System Not Available” is generated. When sufficient GPS signal is returns and the aircraft is
within the database coverage area, the system issues the “Terrain System Available” voice alert.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
† Annunciation is shown on Terrain-SVS Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
* “Terrain System Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database coverage area reentered.
Table 6-28 Terrain-SVS System Status Annunciations
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.9 TAWS-B
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The data contained in the TAWS databases comes from government agencies. Garmin accurately
EIS
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain avoidance. TAWS is intended only to enhance
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain database coverage
situational awareness.
processes and cross-validates the data, but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
area.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B (TAWS-B) is an optional software feature that provides audio
and visual warning messages to alert the flight crew of potential conflicts between the current flight path and
surrounding terrain and obstacles. The TAWS-B messages are advisory in nature only.
TAWS-B satisfies TSO-C151b Class B requirements for certification.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TAWS-B requires the following to operate properly:
• A valid terrain/obstacle/airport terrain database
• A valid 3-D GPS position solution
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TAWS-B uses terrain and obstacle information from by government sources. Terrain information is based on
terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may be shown
if available in the database. Garmin verifies the data, per TSO-C151b. However, the displayed information
should never be understood as being all-inclusive and data may be inaccurate.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
TAWS-B uses information provided from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude. GPS
altitude is derived from satellite measurements. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic sea
level (GSL), which is the height above mean sea level (MSL) calculated geometrically. GSL altitude is used to
determine TAWS-B alerts. GSL altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations
in pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local
altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source. Therefore, GSL altitude
provides a highly accurate and reliable MSL altitude source to calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
APPENDICES
The terrain and obstacle databases used by TAWS-B are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position and GSL
altitude, TAWS-B displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and
altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and “predict” the
aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this manner, TAWS-B can provide
advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain conditions.
INDEX
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
from the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude. This variation results in the aircraft’s GSL altitude differing
from the baro-corrected altitude.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DISPLAYING TAWS-B DATA
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TAWS-B uses yellow (caution) and red (warning) to depict terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than
200 feet above ground level, AGL) alerts relative to aircraft altitude. Colors are adjusted automatically as
the aircraft altitude changes. The colors and symbols in Figure 6-175 and Tables 6-29 and 6-30 are used to
represent terrain, obstacles, and potential impact points.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-175 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for TAWS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Table 6-29 Terrain-SVS Obstacle Colors and Symbology
AFCS
Potential Impact
Point Symbol
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Warning
Caution
Table 6-30 Terrain-SVS Potential Impact Point Symbols with Alert Types
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Map - TAWS-B Page (Figures 6-180 and 6-181) on the MFD is the principal map page for viewing
TAWS-B information. TAWS-B information can be displayed on the following maps and pages:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Pages
• TAWS-B Page
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps other than the TAWS-B Page):
EIS
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey).
2) Press the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When TAWS-B is selected on maps other than the TAWS-B Page, an icon is shown to indicate that the feature
is enabled for display. A legend for TAWS-B terrain colors will accompany the icon on the Navigation Map Page
(Figure 6-176) and the Flight Plan Pages. The icon is always shown on the TAWS-B Page.
Figure 6-176 Terrain Icon and Legend
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling the
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD, while the
range setting also affects the PFD Inset Map.
AFCS
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles for which warnings
and cautions are issued are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting
limit.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The map settings chosen on the Navigation Map Page affect the map settings used on other maps and pages
(except the TAWS-B Page). The maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the
range setting made for the Navigation Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map
is adjusted to below 20 nm, the highest obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also
adjusted proportionally.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-177).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-178).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-179).
• TERRAIN DATA – Turns the display of terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
EIS
• OBSTACLE DATA – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-177 Navigation Map Page
Menu
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-178 Navigation Map Page
Setup Menu
Figure 6-179 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Map Group
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TAWS-B PAGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The TAWS-B Page is specialized to show terrain, obstacle, and potential impact point data in relation to the
aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs)
can be displayed for reference. If an obstacle and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the system
automatically reduces the map range, if necessary, to emphasize the closest potential impact point on the
TAWS-B Page.
EIS
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the Joystick from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
Displaying the TAWS-B Page:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the TAWS-B Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Press the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
Changing the TAWS-B Page view:
1) Press the VIEW Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Select ‘View Arc’ or ‘View 360º’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key to change the view
Showing/hiding aviation information on the TAWS-B Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Map Range Rings
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
EIS
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Yellow Lighted
Obstacles (Between
100’ and 1000’
Below Aircraft
Altitude)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Annunciation
Window
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-180 TAWS-B Page (360º View)
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
Map Range Arc
AFCS
Black Terrain
(Terrain More
than 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Annunciation
Window
APPENDICES
Figure 6-181 TAWS-B Page (ARC View)
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TAWS-B ALERTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within TAWS-B software algorithms.
TAWS-B alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an alert is
issued, visual annunciations are displayed and the system issues a voice alert. Table 6-31 shows TAWS-B alert
types with corresponding annunciations and voice alerts.
EIS
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The TAWS-B Alert Annunciation
appears to the left of the Selected Altitude box on the PFD, and below the Terrain Legend on the MFD. If the
TAWS-B Page is not displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up
alert:
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the TAWS-B Page)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
PFD Alert Annunciation
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
MFD Pop-up
Alert
Figure 6-182 TAWS-B Alert Annunciations
Potential Impact
Points
APPENDICES
Potential
Impact Points
Terrain Display Enabled
Terrain Legend
INDEX
Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-183 Navigation Map Page
(After TAWS-B Pop-up Alert Acknowledgment)
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
PFD/MFD**
Alert
Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert
(except TAWS-B Page)
Voice Alert
Excessive Descent Rate
Warning (EDR)
*
or
*
or
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
or
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Caution (RTC)
or
Imminent Terrain Impact
Caution (ITI)
or
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Caution (ROC)
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Caution (IOI)
or
AFCS
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
*
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Warning (IOI)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
“Sink Rate”
*
or
APPENDICES
Negative Climb Rate
Caution (NCR)
*
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Warning (ROC)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up’
EIS
Imminent Terrain Impact
Warning (ITI)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
“Pull Up”
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Warning (RTC)
Premature Descent Alert
Caution (PDA)
Altitude Callout “500”
Excessive Descent Rate
Caution (EDR)
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Alert Type
“Don’t Sink”*
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
INDEX
* Alerts with multiple messages are configurable at installation and are installation-dependent. Alerts for the default
configuration when more than one option is available are indicated with asterisks.
** Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-31 TAWS-B Alerts Summary
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449
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide notification when the aircraft is
determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain a rate that is calculated to be excessive relative to height
above terrain. Figure 6-184 shows the parameters for the alert as defined by TSO-C151b.
6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
EIS
4000
NK
: “SI
ion
Caut
3500
”
RATE
3000
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
Descent Rate (FPM)
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
500
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-184 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
AFCS
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of TAWS-B compares the projected flight path as
derived from GPS data with terrain features and obstacles from the terrain and obstacle databases. The system
issues alerts when the projected flight path conflicts with terrain or obstacles.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The projected flight path is a calculated area ahead of, to the sides, and below the aircraft. The size of
the projected flight path varies based on factors including ground speed (the path ahead is larger when the
ground speed is higher), whether the aircraft is level, turning, or descending, and the proximity to the nearest
runway along the current track. As the aircraft approaches the runway, the projected flight path becomes
narrower until the system automatically disables FLTA alerts or the pilot manually inhibits them.
APPENDICES
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values in Figure 6-185. When an RTC alert is issued, a potential impact point is displayed on the
TAWS-B Page.
INDEX
There are two types of FLTA alerts, Reduced Required Terrain/Obstacle Clearance (RTC or ROC respectively)
and Imminent Terrain/Obstacle Impact (ITI or IOI respectively).
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is below the elevation of a terrain or obstacle in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts are
accompanied by a potential impact point displayed on the TAWS-B Page. The alert is annunciated when the
projected vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes in Figure 6-185.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Level (FT)
Descending (FT)
800
600
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
500
400
300
200
EIS
Required
Clearance
(FT)
Required Terrain
Clearance (FT)
700
100
0
5
10
15
20
25
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
0
30
Distance From Runway (NM)
Figure 6-185 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The system automatically disables FLTA alerts when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination
runway elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends.
PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway (Figure 6-186).
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
800
600
500
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
400
300
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
100
APPENDICES
Height Above Destination (Feet)
AFCS
700
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-186 PDA Alerting Threshold
INDEX
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451
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The pilot can inhibit PDA and FLTA visual annunciations and voice alerts. Discretion should be used when
inhibiting these alerts, as they should be enabled when appropriate. When PDA and FLTA alerts are manually
inhibited, the system displays the a ‘TAWS INH’ annunciation on the PFD and in the TAWS-B annunciation
window of the MFD (Figure 6-187).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
PFD
MFD
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-187 TAWS-B Alerting Inhibited Annunciation
Inhibiting/enabling TAWS-B alerting:
1) Select the TAWS-B Page.
2) Press the INHIBIT Softkey to inhibit or enable TAWS (choice dependent on current state).
AFCS
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Inhibit TAWS’ or ‘Enable TAWS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
While TAWS-B alerting is manually inhibited (or the system is unavailable or has failed), the system may
display a ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation if the following conditions are met:
• The aircraft is on a GBAS SBAS approach.
APPENDICES
• The Final Approach Fix is the active waypoint.
• The aircraft is at least 164 feet below the prescribed altitude at the Final Approach Fix..
See the Flight Instruments Section for more details about the ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation.
FIVE-HUNDRED VOICE ALERT
INDEX
The purpose of the voice alert “Five-hundred” is to provide an advisory alert of when the aircraft descends
to within 500 feet above the terrain or runway threshold. When the aircraft is within 5 nm of an airport, the
“Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the nearest runway threshold elevation. When the aircraft is more
than 5 nm of the nearest airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the height above terrain. There
are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany this voice alert.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT (NCR)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff.
The voice alert “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by an annunciation and a pop-up terrain
alert on the display. NCR alerting is only active when departing from an airport and when the following
conditions are met:
• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
• Distance from the departure airport is 2 nm or less
EIS
• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
Figures 6-188 and 6-189 shows the NCR alerting parameters as defined by TSO-C151b for altitude loss
and climb rate respectively.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1000
800
700
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
AFCS
Figure 6-188 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
1000
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
APPENDICES
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
900
200
100
INDEX
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-189 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM STATUS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
During power-up, TAWS-B conducts a test of its alerting capabilities. The system test can also be manually
initiated. A voice alert occurs at test completion. TAWS-B System Testing is disabled when ground speed
exceeds 30 knots.
Manually testing the TAWS-B System:
1) Select the TAWS-B Page.
2) Press the MENU Key (Figure 6-190).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
3) Select ‘Test TAWS System’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the selection.
Figure 6-190 TAWS-B Page Menu
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TAWS-B continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status, and
GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert “TAWS System Failure” is generated
along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ annunciation.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
TAWS-B requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should the
navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the system displays
the ‘TAWS N/A’ annunciation, and issues the “TAWS Not Available” voice alert. When the GPS signal integrity
returns and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the system issues the “TAWS Available” voice
alert.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
System Test pass
None
TAWS-B FLTA Alerting Inhibited
None
“TAWS System Test Test OK”
None
None
NO GPS POSITION
“TAWS Not Available”
None
“TAWS Not Available”
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
None
None
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Excessively degraded GPS signal;
or Out of database coverage
area
TAWS-B System Test Fail; Terrain
or Obstacle database unavailable
or invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or invalid.
TAWS operating with PFD Terrain
or Obstacle databases
TAWS TEST
EIS
No GPS position
Aural Message
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
System Test in progress
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PFD/MFD* Alert TAWS-B Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Annunciation
Alert Type
† Annunciation is shown on TAWS-B Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
* “TAWS Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database coverage area reentered.
Table 6-32 TAWS-B System Status Annunciations
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.10 TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE (TIS)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
NOTE: TIS is available only when the aircraft is within the service volume of a TIS-capable terminal radar
EIS
site. Aircraft without an operating transponder are invisible to Traffic Advisory Systems (TAS), Traffic Alert
and Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS) and TIS. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown
without altitude separation data or climb descent indication.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: TIS is disabled if another traffic system is installed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Traffic Information Service (TIS) is designed to help in detection and avoidance of other aircraft. TIS uses the
Mode S transponder for the traffic data link. TIS receives traffic information from ground stations, and is updated
every 5 seconds. The system displays up to eight traffic targets within a 7.5-nm radius, from 3000 feet below to
3500 feet above the requesting aircraft. The system displays TIS traffic with the symbology shown in Table 6-33.
TIS Symbol
Description
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Non-Threat Traffic
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
AFCS
Table 6-33 TIS Traffic Symbols
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Traffic Advisories (TA) alert the crew to intruding aircraft. When traffic meets the advisory criteria for the TA,
a solid yellow circle symbol appears. A TA which is detected but is outside the range of the map on which traffic
is displayed are indicated with a message in the lower left corner of the map.
APPENDICES
TIS also provides a vector line showing the direction in which the traffic is moving, to the nearest 45°. Traffic
information for which TIS is unable to determine the bearing (non-bearing traffic) is displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map Page (Figure 6-195) or in a banner at the lower left corner of maps other than the Traffic Map Page on
which traffic can be displayed (Figure 6-191).
INDEX
The altitude difference between the requesting aircraft and other intruder aircraft is displayed above/below the
traffic symbol in hundreds of feet. If the other aircraft is above the requesting aircraft, the altitude separation
appears above the traffic symbol; if below, the altitude separation appears below. Altitude trend is displayed as
an up/down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in either direction) to the right of the target symbol. Traffic
symbols for aircraft without altitude reporting capability appear without altitude separation or climb/descent
information.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DISPLAYING TRAFFIC DATA
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Map - Traffic Map Page is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Traffic information
can also be displayed on the following other maps for additional reference on the MFD when the traffic TIS
is operating:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
EIS
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option is
installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Displaying traffic information (maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press the MAP Softkey.
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, an icon is shown to indicate the feature is
enabled for display.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
AFCS
Traffic Advisory,
500’ Below,
Climbing
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Non-Threat
Traffic, Not
Reporting
Altitude
TA Off Scale
Banner
Annunciation
APPENDICES
Traffic System
Status Banner
Annunciations
Non-Bearing
Traffic Advisory
Figure 6-191 TIS Traffic on the Navigation Map Page
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of traffic. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which traffic data (symbols
and labels) are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use settings based on those selected for the
Navigation Map Page.
Displaying traffic information (PFD Inset Map):
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data on the inset map (TRFC-1).
EIS
3) Press the softkey again to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
4) Press the softkey again to remove traffic data.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Customizing traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-192).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Traffic’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-193).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-194).
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA ONLY - Displays Traffic Alerts only
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
AFCS
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown (with the option to turn off)
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Figure 6-192 Navigation Map Page Menu
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-193 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-194 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Traffic Map Page is specialized to show surrounding TIS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current
position and altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up
unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 2 to 12 nm, as indicated by
the map range rings.
AFCS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is on the
ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. Once the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches from Standby to
Operating Mode and the system begins to display traffic information. Refer to the System Status discussion for
more information.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
APPENDICES
3) Confirm TIS is in Operating Mode:
Press the OPERATE Softkey to begin displaying traffic.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
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INDEX
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ (shown if TIS is in Standby Mode) and press the ENT Key.
459
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Traffic Mode Annunciation
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
‘TIS Not Available’
Voice Alert Status
Traffic Advisory, 500’
Below, Climbing
“Non-Bearing” Traffic
(System Unable to
Determine Bearing)
Distance is 4.0 nm,
500’ Above,
Descending
Non-Threat
Traffic, Altitude
Not Reported
Off-Scale Traffic
Advisory, 400’
Below, Level
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Range Marking
Rings
Traffic Status
Banner
Annunciations
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-195 TIS Traffic on the Traffic Map Page
Select to mute
‘TIS Not Available’
Voice Alert
TIS ALERTS
When the number of TAs on the Traffic Map Page increases from one scan to the next, the following occur:
AFCS
• A single “Traffic” voice alert is generated.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears to the top left of the Attitude Indicator on the PFD, flashing for 5 seconds
and remaining displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with traffic.
INDEX
APPENDICES
To reduce the number of nuisance alerts due to proximate aircraft, the “Traffic” voice alert is generated only
when the number of TAs increases. For example, when the first TA is displayed, a voice and visual annunciation
are generated. As long as a single TA remains on the display, no additional voice alerts are generated. If a second
TA appears on the display or if the number of TAs initially decreases and then subsequently increases, another
voice alert is generated.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-196 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
A “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert is generated when the TIS service becomes unavailable or is out of
range. TIS may be unavailable in the radar coverage area due to the following:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Radar site TIS Mode S sensor is not operational or is out of service
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is beyond the maximum range of the TIS-capable Mode S radar site.
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is above the radar site in the cone of silence and out of range of an adjacent site.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is below radar coverage. In flat terrain, the coverage extends from about 3000
feet upward at 55 miles. Terrain and obstacles around the radar site can further decrease radar coverage in all
directions.
• Traffic does not have an operating transponder.
The “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert can be manually muted to reduce nuisance alerting. TNA muting
status is shown in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
AFCS
Muting the “TIS Not Available” voice alert:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the TNA MUTE Softkey. The status is displayed in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
APPENDICES
b) Select ‘‘’Not Available” Mute On’ (shown if TNA muting is currently off) and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM STATUS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The system performs an automatic test of TIS during power-up. If TIS passes the test, TIS enters Standby
Mode (on the ground) or Operating Mode (in the air). If TIS fails the power up test, an annunciation is shown
in the center of the Traffic Map Page.
EIS
Traffic Map Page Center
Description
Banner Annunciation
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the transponder*
Data is being received from the transponder, but
DATA FAILED
a failure is detected in the data stream*
FAILED
The transponder has failed*
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
UNAVAILABLE
TIS is unavailable or out of range
* Contact a service center or Garmin dealer for corrective action
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Table 6-34 TIS Failure Annunciations
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TIS Failure Mode
Annunciation
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Data not
received from
Transponder
Figure 6-197 TIS Failure Example
INDEX
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is on the
ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. If traffic is selected for display on another map while Standby
Mode is selected, the traffic display enabled icon is crossed out (also the case whenever TIS has failed). Once
the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches to Operating Mode and traffic information is displayed. The mode can be
changed manually using softkeys or the page menu.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
TIS Operating
OPERATING
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TIS Failed*
FAIL
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TIS Standby
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Mode
* See Table 6-36 for additional failure annunciations
EIS
Table 6-35 TIS Modes
Switching between TIS modes:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the STANDBY or OPERATE Softkey to switch between modes. The mode is displayed in the upper left
corner of the Traffic Map Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ or ‘Standby Mode’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TRFC COAST
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
TRFC UNAVAIL
Traffic is removed because it is too old for coasting (12 to 60 seconds since last message)
Traffic may exist within the selected display range, but it is not displayed
APPENDICES
TRFC RMVD
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending)
Appears if traffic data is not refreshed within 6 seconds
If after another 6 seconds data is not received, traffic is removed from the display
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced as the age increases
The displayed data is not current (6 to 12 seconds since last message)
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced when this message is displayed
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AGE MM:SS
Description
AFCS
TA X.X ± XX ↕
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed (Table 6-31).
Traffic data has failed
Traffic has not been detected
The traffic service is unavailable or out of range
INDEX
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-36 TIS Traffic Status Annunciations
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.11 GARMIN TAS/TCAS I TRAFFIC
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
EIS
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
NOTE: Pilots should be aware of TAS/TCAS I system limitations. TAS/TCAS I systems require transponders
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
of other aircraft to respond to system interrogations. If the transponders do not respond to interrogations
due to phenomena such as antenna shading or marginal transponder performance, traffic may be displayed
intermittently, or not at all. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude
separation data or climb descent indication. Pilots should remain vigilant for traffic at all times.
NOTE: TIS is disabled when TAS or TCAS I is installed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The optional Garmin GTS 825 is a Traffic Advisory System (TAS). The optional Garmin GTS 855 is a Traffic
Alert and Collision Avoidance System I (TCAS I). Differences between the two traffic systems will be noted where
applicable throughout this section. The Garmin traffic system enhances flight crew situational awareness by
displaying traffic information for transponder-equipped aircraft. The system also provides visual annunciations
and voice traffic alerts to assist the pilot in visually acquiring traffic.
AFCS
The traffic system is capable of tracking up to 45 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode A or C transponders,
and up to 30 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode S transponders. A maximum of 30 aircraft with the highest
threat potential can be displayed simultaneously. No TAS/TCAS I surveillance is provided for aircraft without
operating transponders.
THEORY OF OPERATION
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When the traffic system is in Operating Mode, the system interrogates the transponders of aircraft in the
vicinity while monitoring transponder replies. The system uses this information to derive the distance, relative
bearing, and if reported, the altitude and vertical trend for each aircraft within its surveillance range. The traffic
system then calculates a closure rate to each intruder based on the projected Closest Point of Approach (CPA).
If the closure rate meets the threat criteria for a Traffic Advisory (TA), the system displays visual annunciations
and provides voice alerts.
TAS/TCAS I SURVEILLANCE VOLUME AND SYMBOLOGY
INDEX
The traffic surveillance system monitors the airspace within ±10,000 feet of own altitude. Under ideal
conditions, the system scans transponder traffic up to 40 nm in the forward direction. The range is somewhat
reduced to the sides and aft of own aircraft due to the directional interrogation signal patterns. In areas
of greater transponder traffic density or when TCAS II systems are detected, the on-board traffic system
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
automatically reduces its interrogation transmitter power (and therefore range) in order to limit potential
interference from other signals.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In addition, if a 1090 MHz extended squitter transponder is installed, and the traffic system detects airborne
traffic providing 1090 MHz Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) information, the system
will display the TAS/TCAS I traffic using the ADS-B symbology shown in Table 6-38.
NOTE: Do not confuse this functionality with full ADS-B capability, which can provide traffic information
Traffic Symbol
EIS
from ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and ADS-B traffic outside of the TAS/TCAS I surveillance
volume. This TAS/TCAS I system is limited to displaying ADS-B information from suitably equipped airborne
aircraft within the TAS/TCAS I surveillance volume.
Description
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Non-Threat Traffic
Proximity Advisory (PA)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Traffic Symbol
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Table 6-37 TAS/TCAS I Symbol Description
Description
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Points in the
direction of the intruder aircraft track.
AFCS
Proximity Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Points in
the direction of the aircraft track.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Non-threat traffic with ADS-B directional information. Points in the
direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic with ADS-B directional information, but positional accuracy
is degraded. Points in the direction of the aircraft track.
Table 6-38 TAS/TCAS I Traffic with ADS-B Symbology
APPENDICES
A Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as a yellow circle or triangle, alerts the crew to a potentially hazardous
intruding aircraft, if the closing rate, distance, and vertical separation meet TA criteria. A Traffic Advisory
that is beyond the selected display range (off scale) is indicated by a half TA symbol at the edge of the screen
at the relative bearing of the intruder.
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INDEX
A Proximity Advisory (PA), displayed as a solid white diamond or triangle, indicates the intruding aircraft
is within ±1200 feet and is within a six nm range, but is still not considered a TA threat.
465
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
A Non-threat Advisory, shown as an open white diamond or triangle, is displayed for traffic beyond 6 nm
that is neither a TA or PA.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A solid white rounded arrow indicates either a PA or Non-Threat traffic with ADS-B directional information,
but the position of the traffic is shown with degraded accuracy.
Relative altitude, when available, is displayed above or below the corresponding intruder symbol in
hundreds of feet (Figure 6-198). When this altitude is above own aircraft, it is preceded by a ‘+’ symbol; a
minus sign ‘-’ indicates traffic is below own aircraft.
EIS
A vertical trend arrow to the right of the intruder symbol (Figure 6-198) indicates climbing or descending
traffic (at least 500 feet per minute) with an upward or downward-pointing arrow respectively.
Relative Altitude
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Vertical trend arrow
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-198 Intruder Altitude and Vertical Trend Arrow
If the intruding aircraft is providing ADS-B track information, this is displayed as a vector line extending
beyond the traffic symbol in the direction of the track (Figure 6-199).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Vector Line indicates
intruder aircraft track
AFCS
Figure 6-199 Intruder Traffic with ADS-B Directional
Information and Track
Flight IDs may also be displayed with traffic symbols; see the Flight IDs discussion in this section for more
information.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
On-ground aircraft with Mode S transponders are not displayed.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TA ALERTING CONDITIONS
Sensitivity Intruder Altitude
Level
Available
B
Yes
B
No
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
No
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
A
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of vertical and
horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of horizontal
separation and vertical separation is within 600 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 nm and vertical separation is within
600 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of separation.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of vertical and
horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of horizontal
separation and vertical separation is within 800 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 nm and vertical separation is within
800 feet.
Intruder range is less than 20 seconds.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Yes
TA Alerting Conditions
EIS
A
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The traffic system automatically adjusts its TA sensitivity level to reduce the likelihood of nuisance TA
alerting during flight phases likely to be near airports. The system applies Level A TA sensitivity when the
landing gear is extended and/or the groundspeed is less than 120 knots; Level B TA sensitivity applies in all
other conditions.
AFCS
Table 6-39 TA Sensitivity Level and TA Alerting Criteria
TRAFFIC ALERTS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: Traffic voice alerts do not occur when the landing gear is extended. Only visual traffic annunciations
appear when the landing gear is extended.
When the traffic system detects a new TA, the following occur:
APPENDICES
• The system issues a single “Traffic!” voice alert, followed by additional voice information about the bearing,
relative altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table 6-40). For example,
the announcement “Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the traffic is in front of own
aircraft, above own altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
INDEX
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears at the top right of the airspeed on the PFD, flashes for five seconds, and
remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area (Figure 6-200).
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with TA traffic.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, a yellow text banner will be displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map Page and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA symbol. The text will indicate ‘TA’
followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA traffic, if known.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that initially triggered the TA are no
longer a factor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-200 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Approximate Distance (nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
AFCS
Table 6-40 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
SYSTEM TEST
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: Traffic surveillance is not available during the system test. Use caution when performing a system
test during flight.
APPENDICES
The traffic system provides a system test mode to verify the system is operating normally. The test takes ten
seconds to complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols appears on the Traffic
Map Page (Figure 6-201). The traffic system then issues a voice alert at the conclusion of the test.
INDEX
Traffic System
GTS 825 (TAS)
GTS 855 (TCAS I)
Test Passed
“TAS System Test Passed.”
“TCAS One System Test Passed.”
Test Failed
“TAS System Test Failed.”
“TCAS One System Test Failed.”
Table 6-41 System Test Voice Alerts
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When the system test is complete, the traffic system enters Standby Mode.
Testing the traffic system:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Turn the Joystick to set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full test pattern to be displayed during test.
4) Press the TEST Softkey.
Or:
EIS
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Test Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key.
Operating
Mode
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Test Mode Annunciation
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Proximity
Traffic at
1 o’clock,
Distance
3.6 nm,
1000’ Below,
Descending
Non-Threat
Traffic at
11 o’clock,
Distance 3.6
nm, 1000’
Above, Level
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TA at 9 o’clock,
Distance 2.0
nm, 200’ Below,
Climbing
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-201 System Test in Progress with Test Pattern
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
OPERATION
NOTE: The traffic system automatically changes from STANDBY to OPERATE mode eight seconds after
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
takeoff. The unit also automatically changes from OPERATE to STANDBY mode 24 seconds after landing.
NOTE: If the optional ADS-B traffic system is also installed with the TAS/TCAS I, refer to the ADS-B traffic
section for more information on the operation of the traffic systems.
EIS
After power-up, the traffic system is in Standby Mode. The system must be in Operating Mode for traffic to
be displayed and for TAs to be issued.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Switching from operating mode to standby mode:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selecting the OPERATE Softkey allows the traffic unit to switch from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as
necessary. Selecting the STANDBY Softkey forces the unit into Standby Mode.
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Standby Mode’.
On the Traffic Page, select the STANDBY Softkey.
Or:
2) Press the ENT Key.
Switching from standby mode to operating mode:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
On the Traffic Page, select the OPERATE Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Operate Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key. The traffic unit switches from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as necessary.
AFCS
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Traffic Map Page shows surrounding TAS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and
altitude, without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading.
Map range is adjustable with the Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
INDEX
APPENDICES
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner of the page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Operating
Mode
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B Directional
Information, 500’ Below, Climbing
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Altitude
Mode
Traffic Display
Range Rings
Non-Threat Traffic,
2500’ Above,
Descending
EIS
“No Bearing”
Traffic (Bearing
Undetermined),
Distance 4.0
nm, 500’ Above,
Climbing
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Traffic
Advisory OffScale, 400’
Below, Level
Proximity Traffic,
900’ Above,
Level, Flight ID
Displayed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Non-Threat
Traffic,
Altitude Not
Reported
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-202 Traffic Map Page
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
AFCS
3) Press the OPERATE Softkey to begin displaying traffic. OPERATING is displayed in the Traffic mode field.
4) Press the STANDBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. STANDBY is displayed in the Traffic mode
field.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Turn the Joystick clockwise to display a larger area or counter-clockwise to display a smaller area.
Altitude Display
APPENDICES
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which non-threat and proximity traffic is displayed. TAs
occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, select the ALT MODE Softkey.
2) Press one of the following Softkeys:
INDEX
• ABOVE: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 9000 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
• NORMAL: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below
the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• BELOW: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9000 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the Traffic Page, press the BACK Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following (see softkey description in step 2 above):
•
ABOVE
•
NORMAL
•
BELOW
•
UNRESTRICTED
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the ENT Key.
Flight ID Display
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Flight IDs of other aircraft (when available) can be enabled for display on the Traffic Map Page
(Figure 6-203). When a flight ID is received, it will appear above or below the corresponding traffic symbol
on the Traffic Map Page when this option is enabled.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Flight ID
Softkey Enables/Disables display of Flight ID
Figure 6-203 Traffic Map Page with Flight ID Enabled
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Enabling/Disabling Flight ID Display:
On the Traffic Map Page, press the FLT ID Softkey.
Or:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘Show Flight IDs’ or ‘Hide Flight IDs’ (choice dependent on current state)
(Figure 6-204).
3) Press the ENT Key.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-204 Traffic Map Page Menu
Traffic Map Page Display Range
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable with the
Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
Changing the display range on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the Joystick.
AFCS
2) The following range options are available:
2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm
•
24 and 40 nm
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
•
APPENDICES
INDEX
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473
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Map - Traffic Map Page is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Traffic information
can also be displayed on the following other maps for additional reference on the MFD when the traffic unit
is operating:
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Trip Planning Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
EIS
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option
is installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Displaying traffic information (MFD maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Select the MAP Softkey.
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, a traffic icon is shown to indicate traffic
is enabled for display (Figure 6-205).
Displaying traffic on the Navigation Map
1) Ensure the traffic system is operating. With the Navigation Map displayed, press the MAP Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map as shown in Figure 6-205.
AFCS
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Traffic Advisory
with ADS-B
Directional
Information,
500’ Below,
Climbing
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2200’
Above,
Descending
APPENDICES
Non-Threat
Traffic, Not
Reporting
Altitude
INDEX
TA Beyond
Map Range
Non-Bearing
Traffic Advisory
Figure 6-205 TAS/TCAS I Traffic on the Navigation Map Page
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-206).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-207).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections (Figure 6-208).
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
EIS
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- TA ONLY - Displays Traffic Advisories only
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the option to turn off
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-206 Navigation Map Page Menu
APPENDICES
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Figure 6-208 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
Figure 6-207 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
475
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD Inset Map by pressing the INSET Softkey. A traffic map
will appear in heading up orientation. Traffic information can also be overlaid with navigation, topographic
and optional data link weather information.
Displaying traffic information (PFD Inset Map):
EIS
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data on the inset map (TRFC-1).
3) Select the softkey again to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Select the softkey again to remove traffic data.
SYSTEM STATUS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Mode
TAS/TCAS I System
Test Initiated
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TAS/TCAS I Operating
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
TEST
(also shown in white in center of page)
OPERATING
TAS/TCAS I Standby
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TAS/TCAS I Failed*
FAIL
* See Table 6-43 for additional failure annunciations
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 6-42 Traffic Modes
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
APPENDICES
Traffic Map Page Center
Description
Annunciation
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but the
DATA FAILED
unit is self-reporting a failure
FAILED
Incorrect data format received from the traffic unit
INDEX
Table 6-43 Traffic Failure Annunciations
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA X.X ± XX ↕
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NO TRFC DATA
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the
selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation
in hundreds of feet, and altitude trend arrow (climbing/
descending).
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or
sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
EIS
TRFC FAIL
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TA OFF SCALE
Description
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Table 6-44 Traffic Status Annunciations
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.12 ADS-B TRAFFIC
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
EIS
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The optional Garmin GDL 88 is a dual-link Universal Access Transceiver (UAT). It sends and receives Automatic
Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) traffic information on the 978 MHz UAT frequency. It also receives data
link weather information on the UAT frequency. As a dual-link transceiver, the GDL 88 also receives ADS-B traffic
information with its 1090 MHz Extended Squitter (1090 ES) receiver. The system provides visual annunciations
and voice traffic alerts to help the pilot visually acquire potentially conflicting traffic. This discussion covers the
traffic features of the GDL 88; refer to the Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B) Weather section for more
information about the UAT data link weather features of the GDL 88.
ADS-B SYSTEM OVERVIEW
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ADS-B is a core technology in the FAA NextGen air traffic control system and is comprised of three segments:
ADS-B (Broadcast), ADS-R (Rebroadcast), and Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B).
ADS-B is the automatic broadcast of position reports by aircraft, surface vehicles, and transmitters on fixed
objects. These broadcasts contain information such as GPS position, identity (Flight ID, Call Sign, Tail Number,
ICAO registration number, etc), ground track, ground speed, pressure altitude, and emergency status.
1090 ES
UAT
RADAR
Composite
AFCS
GPS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1090 ES
18,000 FT
10,000 FT
APPENDICES
Mode A/C
RADAR
ATC
UAT
UAT
UAT
1090 ES
ADS-B
Ground
Station
INDEX
Figure 6-209 ADS-B System
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
For the purpose of distinguishing between levels of ADS-B service, there are three classifications of aircraft or
system capability: ADS-B In, ADS-B Out, and ADS-B participating. ADS-B In refers to the capability to receive
ADS-B information. ADS-B Out refers to the capability to transmit ADS-B information. ADS-B participating
refers to the capability to both send and receive ADS-B information. Aircraft lacking either ADS-In, ADS-B Out,
or both ADS-B capabilities may also be referred to as ADS-B nonparticipating aircraft.
AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE-REBROADCAST (ADS-R)
EIS
Because it is not required that ADS-B In capable aircraft be able to receive ADS-B data on both the 1090
MHz and 978 MHz data links, a method exists to get data from one data link to the other. ADS-R is the
rebroadcast of ADS-B data by FAA ground stations, which provide this service by taking data from one link
and rebroadcasting it on the other. For example, two aircraft are in the service volume for a ground station,
and one is transmitting on 1090 MHz and the other on 978 MHz, the ground station retransmits the data
from each aircraft on the other link to ensure the two aircraft can “see” each other.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 2-210 ADS-R Operation - FAA Illustration
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The GDL 88 is capable of receiving ADS-B traffic reports directly on the 1090 MHz ES data link in addition
to the 978 MHz UAT data link. This allows the GDL 88 to receive ADS-B position reports on both frequencies
from aircraft in the vicinity, without relying on ADS-R ground station coverage.
TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE-BROADCAST (TIS-B)
APPENDICES
TIS-B provides the bridge between the radar-based ATC system and the ADS-B-based system. When an
ADS-B In or Out capable aircraft is within the service volume of an FAA ADS-B ground station, the ground
station broadcasts a portion of the ATC radar data to the aircraft. This aircraft is then included in the list of
aircraft being provided TIS-B service and is then considered a “TIS-B participant.”
TIS-B coverage is available when the aircraft is within ground station coverage, in Secondary Surveillance
Radar coverage, and the other aircraft is also in Secondary Surveillance Radar coverage, and is transmitting
its altitude.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The ground station provides ATC radar information for other aircraft within ±3,500 feet and 15 NM of the
participant, to include altitude, position, ground speed, and ground track. TIS-B broadcasts occur once every
three to thirteen seconds, depending on the characteristics of the ground station providing the TIS-B service.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The following table describes the aircraft that are observed by a GDL 88-equipped aircraft according to the
level of equipment installed in the other aircraft.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Other Aircraft Equipment
Viewable by GDL 88 UAT Equipped Aircraft
1090ES Out Equipped
Yes
UAT Receive Only Capable
No
UAT Transmit Equipped
Yes
No Transponder, No ADS-B
No
Non ADS-B Equipped, but with Mode C or S Transponder
Yes*
* Only when in ADS-B ground station coverage and when the other aircraft is in ATC radar coverage.
Table 3-45 Aircraft Available for Viewing by an ADS-B Equipped Own Aircraft
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
ADS-B WITH TAS/TCAS I
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When an optional active traffic system, such as a Traffic Advisory System (TAS) or Traffic Alert and Collision
Avoidance System (TCAS) is also installed and operating with the UAT, the UAT receives traffic from the active
traffic system and attempts to match (or “correlate”) this traffic with ADS-B traffic the UAT is tracking. When a
correlation is made, the only the traffic with the most accurate information is displayed to the flight crew. Any
traffic that is not correlated (i.e., only detected by one system but not the other) is also displayed for the flight
crew. This correlation of traffic by the UAT improves the accuracy of the traffic displayed, while reducing the
occurrence of the same aircraft being displayed twice.
NOTE: When operating on the edges of ATC radar coverage or when using an optional active traffic system
AFCS
providing intromittent traffic data, a single aircraft may be briefly or periodically depicted as two aircraft on
the display.
CONFLICT SITUATIONAL AWARENESS & ALERTING
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA) is an alerting algorithm which provides ADS-B traffic alerting similar to
the TAS/TCAS systems discussed previously.
The UAT issues a voice alert when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is displayed, for example “Traffic! Two O’clock,
Low, Two Miles.”
INDEX
APPENDICES
The own aircraft altitude above terrain determines the sensitivity of the CSA algorithm to minimize nuisance
alerts. Radar Altitude (if available), Height Above Terrain, and Geodetic Sea Level (GSL) altitude are used to
adjust the sensitivity of the CSA algorithm in accordance with the following table:
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
GPS Phase
of Flight
Own Altitude
(Feet)
4
Up to 1000
(RA or HAT)
Any
Any
4
4
Unavailable
Unavailable
Any
Unavailable
5
>1000
<=2350
Unavailable
5
Vertical
Threshold
for Alert
(feet)
850
Protected
Volume
(NM)
Any
Lookahead
time
(sec)
20
Any
Approach
Any
Any
20
20
850
850
0.20
0.20
Any
Any
Any
25
850
0.20
Any
Any
25
850
0.20
Terminal
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
Any
<=5000
25
30
850
850
0.20
0.35
>5000
<=10,000
40
850
0.55
>10,000
<=20,000
45
850
0.80
>20,000
<=42,000
48
850
1.10
> 42,000
48
1200
1.10
0.20
EIS
Height Above
Terrain (HAT)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Radar
Altitude
(Feet)
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Sensitivity
Level
8
Unavailable or
>2350
Unavailable or
>2350
9
Unavailable or
>2350
Unavailable or
>2350
10
Unavailable or
>2350
Unavailable or
>2350
APPENDICES
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Unavailable or
>2350
AFCS
Unavailable or
>2350
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
7
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Unavailable
Unavailable or
>2350
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5
6
>1000
<=2350
Unavailable
Unavailable or
>2350
Table 6-46 CSA Alerting Thresholds for ADS-B Traffic
INDEX
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481
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
When the system detects a new Traffic Advisory (TA), the following occur:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• The system issues a single “Traffic!” voice alert, followed by additional voice information about the bearing,
relative altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table 6-47). For example,
the announcement “Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the traffic is in front of own
aircraft, above own altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears at the top right of the airspeed on the PFD, flashes for five seconds, and
remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area (Figure 6-211).
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with TA traffic.
EIS
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, a yellow text banner will be displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map Page and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA symbol. The text will indicate ‘TA’
followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA traffic, if known.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that initially triggered the TA are no
longer a factor.
AFCS
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-211 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Approximate Distance (nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Zero miles”, “Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
APPENDICES
Table 6-47 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
INDEX
NOTE: ADS-B traffic voice alerts are suppressed when below 500 feet.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AIRBORNE AND SURFACE APPLICATIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The UAT can help the pilot visually acquire traffic both in the air and on-the-ground. There are two ADS-B
applications or modes: Airborne Situational Awareness (AIRB) and Surface Situational Awareness (SURF). The
system automatically selects the appropriate application based on conditions.
The AIRB application is on when the aircraft is more than five NM and 1,500 feed above the nearest airport.
When the AIRB application is active, the system only displays traffic which is airborne.
EIS
The SURF application is on when the aircraft is within five NM and less than 1,500 feet above field elevation.
When the SURF applications is on, the system displays airborne and on the ground traffic. At a Traffic Map
Page range of two nm or less, the airport environment (including taxiways and runways) appears in addition to
traffic. The airport displays are derived from the SafeTaxi database. Refer to the Additional Features section for
more information about SafeTaxi displays.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: Do not rely solely on the traffic display to determine the runway alignment of traffic, especially when
runways are in close proximity to each other.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Due to the varying precision of the data received via ADS-B, ADS-R, and TIS-B, all traffic targets may not be
depicted on the traffic display. Because higher data precision is required for display in the SURF environment,
some traffic eligible for AIRB will not be displayed while SURF is on. Individual eligibility for AIRB and SURF
is depicted on the AUX-ADS-B Status Page, discussed later in this section.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SURF
Application On
Aircraft Traffic
on the ground
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Own aircraft
symbol
APPENDICES
Ground
vehicles
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
Figure 6-212 Traffic Map Page with SURF Mode On
483
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TRAFFIC DESCRIPTION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The symbols used to display ADS-B traffic are shown in Table 6-48. Above or below the traffic symbol is the
traffic identifier, and altitude. A small up or down arrow next to the traffic symbol indicates that the traffic is
climbing or descending at a rate of at least 500 feet per minute.
Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
EIS
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Proximity Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
Non-threat traffic with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Non-threat traffic without directional information.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Traffic located on the ground with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Ground traffic without directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own
aircraft is on the ground.
AFCS
Non-aircraft ground traffic. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the
ground.
Table 6-48 ADS-B Traffic Symbology
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
OPERATION
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
APPENDICES
The Traffic Map Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and altitude,
without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map
range is adjustable with the Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
INDEX
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner of the page.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Altitude Mode
Traffic Map
Range Rings
‘No Bearing’ Traffic
Advisory, 10.2 NM, 1100’
Below, Descending
EIS
Traffic Advisory
with Directional
Information,
400’ Above,
Descending
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Non-Threat Traffic,
10,000’ Below,
Climbing
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADS-B Status
Motion Vector
Mode
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Off-Scale Traffic
Advisory, 500’ Above,
Climbing
Figure 6-213 Traffic Map Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Enabling/disabling the display of ADS-B traffic.
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the ADS-B Softkey.
Or:
AFCS
a) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘ADS-B On’ or ‘ADS-B Off’.
b) Press the ENT Key.
Testing the display of ADS-B traffic:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) If necessary, turn the Joystick to select a map range of 2 and 6 nm to ensure full test pattern display.
2) Ensure the the ADS-B Softkey is disabled.
APPENDICES
3) If the optional TAS/TCAS I is installed, ensure the TAS STBY Softkey is enabled.
4) Press the Test Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Test Mode’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
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485
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
A test pattern of traffic symbols appears during the test, and a ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears on the PFDs.
At the conclusion of the test, the system issues the voice alert “Traffic System Test”. If the test pattern is
displayed and the voice alert is heard, the system has passed the test.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Test Mode
Enabled
Figure 6-214 Traffic Map Page with Test Mode Traffic Displayed
AFCS
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which non-threat and proximity traffic is displayed. TAs
occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, select the ALT MODE Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press one of the following Softkeys:
• ABOVE: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 9000 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
APPENDICES
• NORMAL: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below
the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• BELOW: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9000 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
INDEX
3) To return to the Traffic Map Page, press the BACK Softkey.
Or:
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following (see softkey description in step 2 above):
ABOVE
•
NORMAL
•
BELOW
•
UNRESTRICTED
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
•
3) Press the ENT Key.
EIS
DISPLAYING MOTION VECTORS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When Absolute Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors extending from the traffic symbols depict the
traffic’s reported track and speed over the ground. When Relative Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors
extending from the traffic symbols display how the traffic is moving relative to own aircraft. These vectors
are calculated using the traffic’s track and ground speed and own aircraft’s track and ground speed. These two
values are combined to depict where the traffic is moving purely with respect to own aircraft, and provide a
forecast of where the traffic will be, relative to own aircraft, in the near future.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected
Absolute Motion
Vector Duration
(1 Minute)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Absolute Motion
Vectors
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 6-215 Traffic Map Page with Absolute Motion Vectors Enabled
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected Relative
Motion Vector
Duration (1
Minute)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Relative Motion
Vectors
Figure 6-216 Traffic Map Page with Relative Motion Vectors Enabled
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Enabling/disabling the Motion Vector display:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the MOTION Softkey.
AFCS
3) Press one of the following softkeys:
•
ABS:
Displays the motion vector pointing in the absolute direction.
•
REL:
Displays the motion vector relative to own aircraft
•
OFF:
Disables the display of the motion vector.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
APPENDICES
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Relative Motion’, ‘Absolute Motion’ or ‘Motion Vector Off’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
Adjusting the duration for the Motion Vector projected time:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
INDEX
2) Press the MOTION Softkey.
3) Press the DURATION Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired duration (30 SEC, 1 MIN, 2 MIN, 5 MIN).
5) When finished, press the BACK Softkey to return to the Traffic Map Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Flight ID Display
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Flight IDs of other aircraft (when available) can be enabled for display on the Traffic Map Page
(Figure 6-217). When a flight ID is received, it will appear above or below the corresponding traffic symbol
on the Traffic Map Page when this option is enabled.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Flight ID
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Softkey Enables/Disables display of Flight ID
Figure 6-217 Traffic Map Page with Flight ID Enabled
AFCS
Enabling/Disabling Flight ID Display:
On the Traffic Map Page, press the FLT ID Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Displaying Additional Traffic Information
The Traffic Map Page can display additional information for a selected aircraft symbol. This may include
the aircraft tail number/Flight ID, type of aircraft (e.g., glider, small/medium/large aircraft, service vehicle,
unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV)), course, track, groundspeed), and other information.
APPENDICES
Showing additional traffic information:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. A cyan bracket highlights the first selected traffic symbol. Additional information appears
in a window in the upper-right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
INDEX
3) To select a different aircraft symbol, turn the FMS Knob to move the cyan bracket until the selected aircraft
traffic symbol is highlighted.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob again to remove the cyan selection bracket.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Traffic Map Page Display Range
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable with the
Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
Changing the display range on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the Joystick.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
2) The following range options are available:
•
500 feet
•
500 feet and 1000 feet
•
1000 feet and 2000 feet
•
2000 feet and 1 nm
•
1 and 2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm
•
24 and 40 nm
ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Map - Traffic Map Page is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Traffic information
can also be displayed on the following other maps for additional reference on the MFD when the traffic unit
is operating:
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
AFCS
• Trip Planning Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option
is installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Displaying traffic information (MFD maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Press the MAP Softkey.
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
APPENDICES
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, a traffic icon is shown to indicate traffic
is enabled for display (Figure 6-218).
Displaying traffic on the Navigation Map
1) Ensure the traffic system is operating. With the Navigation Map displayed, press the MAP Softkey.
INDEX
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map as shown in Figure 6-218.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Proximity Advisory
without Directional
Information
Traffic Advisory
with Directional
Information
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Non-Threat Traffic with
Directional Information
Traffic
Enabled Icon
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Non-Bearing Traffic
Advistory
Off-Scale Traffic
Advisory
Figure 6-218 ADS-B Traffic on the Navigation Map Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
AFCS
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-218).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-219).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections (Figure 6-220).
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
APPENDICES
- TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
- TA ONLY - Displays Traffic Advisories only
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the option to turn off
INDEX
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-218 Navigation Map Page Menu
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-219 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-220 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
AFCS
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD Inset Map by pressing the INSET Softkey. A traffic map
will appear in heading up orientation. Traffic information can also be overlaid with navigation, topographic
and optional data link weather information.
Displaying traffic information (PFD Inset Map):
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data on the inset map (TRFC-1).
APPENDICES
3) Select the softkey again to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
INDEX
4) Select the softkey again to remove traffic data.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
ADS-B: TEST
TEST MODE
ADS-B Operating in
Airborne Mode
ADS-B: AIRB
ADS-B: AIRB
ADS-B Operating in
Surface Mode
ADS-B: SURF
ADS-B: SURF
ABD-B Traffic Off
ADS-B: OFF
ADS-B TRFC OFF
ADS-B Traffic Not
Available
ADS-B: N/A
ADS-B TRFC N/A
ADS-B Failed*
ADS-B: FAIL
ADS-B TRFC FAIL
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ADS-B System Test
Initiated
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
EIS
Traffic Map Page Center
Banner Annunciation
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Mode
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
* See Table 6-50 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-49 Traffic Modes
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
AFCS
Traffic Map Page Center
Description
Annunciation
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but the
DATA FAILED
unit is self-reporting a failure
ADS-B TRFC FAIL
Incorrect data format received from the traffic unit
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 6-50 Traffic Failure Annunciations
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
EIS
TA X.X ± XX ↕
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the
selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation
in hundreds of feet, and altitude trend arrow (climbing/
descending).
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or
sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Table 6-51 Traffic Status Annunciations
Additional information about the status of ADS-B traffic products is available on the AUX - ADS-B Status Page.
Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AUX - ADS-B Status Page.
Figure 6-221 Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status on ADS-B Status Page
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Ground Uplink Status:
Last uplink
Traffic application is currently on. Required input data is available, and it meets
performance requirements.
AVAILABLE TO Traffic application is not currently active, but application is ready to run when
RUN
condition(s) determine the application should be active. Required input data is
available, and it meets performance requirements.
NOT AVAILABLE Traffic application is not available. Required input data is available, but it does not
meet performance requirements.
FAULT
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is not available or the application has failed.
NOT CONFIG- Traffic application is not available, because it has not been configured. If this anURED
nunciation persists, the system should be serviced.
---------------- Traffic application status is invalid or unknown.
AVAILABLE
The system is receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA ground station.
NOT AVAILABLE The system is not receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA ground station.
--------------ADS-R coverage is invalid or unknown.
External #1
The GDL 88 is using the #1 GPS receiver for the GPS position source.
External #2
The GDL 88 is using the #2 GPS receiver for the GPS position source.
--------The GPS source is invalid or unknown.
Number of min- Displays the number of minutes since the last uplink from a ground station ocutes, or ‘------’ curred. If no uplink has been received, or the status is invalid, dashes appear
instead of a number of minutes.
EIS
GPS Status: GPS
Source
Description
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TIS-B/ADS-R Coverage
Status
Message
ON
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADS-B Status Page
Item
Traffic Application
Status: AIRBORNE
(AIRB), SURFACE
(SURF), AIRBORNE
ALERTS (CSA)
Table 6-52 AUX-ADS-B Status Page Messages for ADS-B Traffic
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Refer to the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) for the installed autopilot.
S-TEC INTELLIFLIGHT 2100
NOTE: This section covers only the additional ‘FD’ status annunciations that may appear in the G950 AFCS
EIS
Status Box. These status annunciations are not analogous to both the G950 and the S-TEC IntelliFlight
2100. Refer to the approved S-TEC IntelliFlight 2100 Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for comprehensive
list of annunciations and operating instructions.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In addition to the redundant status/mode annunciations and/or visual representations that are simultaneously
displayed on both the G950 (AFCS Status Box and/or PFD) and the S-TEC IntelliFlight 2100 (Autopilot Display
and/or Remote Annunciator Display), the G950 displays the additional status/mode annunciation of ‘FD’ when
the Flight Director Mode is engaged.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
ALTITUDE PRESELECT
The ALT Knob on the PFD is used to enter the selected altitude, which is provided to the S-TEC Fifty Five X.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
NOTE: With the availability of SafeTaxi®, ChartView, or FliteCharts®, it may be necessary to carry another
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
source of charts on-board the aircraft.
Additional features of the system include the following:
• SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment (Optional)
• SafeTaxi® diagrams
• ChartView and FliteCharts® electronic charts
• Bluetooth® Management using a Flight Stream 210
(Optional)
• AOPA or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory
• Scheduler
• Satellite telephone and SMS messaging services
(Optional)
• Flight Data Logging
EIS
• Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) (Optional)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Auxiliary Video (Optional)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The optional Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) provides a three-dimensional forward view of terrain features
on the PFD. SVT imagery shows the pilot’s view of relevant features in relation to the aircraft attitude, as well as
the flight path pertaining to the active flight plan.
SafeTaxi diagrams provide detailed taxiway, runway, and ramp information at more than 700 airports in the
United States. By decreasing range on an airport that has a SafeTaxi diagram available, a close up view of the
airport layout can be seen.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The FliteCharts and optional ChartView provide on-board electronic terminal procedures charts. Electronic
charts offer the convenience of rapid access to essential information. Either ChartView or FliteCharts may be
configured in the system, but not both.
The AOPA and AC-U-KWIK Airport Directories offer detailed information for a selected airport, such as available
services, hours of operation, and lodging options.
AFCS
Iridium Telephone Services and SMS messaging is an optional subscription service offered through Garmin
Connext and Iridium Satellite LLC.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment audio feature of the GDL 69A/69A SXM Data Link Receiver
handles more than 170 channels of music, news, and sports. SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers more entertainment
choices and longer range coverage than commercial broadcast stations.
The optional Flight Stream 210 device provides a Bluetooth® connection between the G950 and a mobile device
running the Garmin Pilot™ application. GPS, AHRS, ADS-B, and FIS-B weather data can then be shared with the
mobile device. Also, flight plans can be transferred from the mobile device to the G950.
APPENDICES
The Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display short term or long term reminder messages such as
Switch fuel tanks, Phase 1 inspection, or Altimeter/Transponder Check in the Alerts Window on the PFD.
The Flight Data Logging feature automatically stores critical flight and engine data on an SD data card.
Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each 1GB of available space on the card.
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INDEX
The G950 provides a control and display interface to an optional auxiliary video system. The system can
display video for up to two inputs.
499
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.1 SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY (SVT)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or reliability
upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The optional Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) is a visual enhancement to the G950. SVT depicts a forwardlooking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The field of view is 30 degrees to
the left and 35 degrees to the right. SVT information is shown on the Primary Flight Display (PFD), or on the
Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode (Figure 8‑121). The depicted imagery is derived from the
aircraft attitude, heading, GPS three-dimensional position, and a nine arc-second database of terrain, obstacles,
and other relevant features. The terrain data resolution of nine arc-seconds, meaning that the terrain elevation
contours are stored in squares measuring nine arc-seconds on each side, is required for the operation of SVT. Loss
of any of the required data, including temporary loss of the GPS signal, will cause SVT to be disabled until the
required data is restored.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The SVT terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical map display),
large water features, towers, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are included in the obstacle database. Cultural
features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad tracks, cities, and state boundaries are not displayed even
if those features are found on the MFD map. The terrain display also includes a north–south east–west grid with
lines oriented with true north and spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation relative to the terrain.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) is integrated within SVT to provide visual and auditory
alerts to indicate the presence of terrain and obstacle threats relevant to the projected flight path. Terrain alerts
are displayed in red and yellow shading on the PFD.
AFCS
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or fidelity on
which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must not be predicated
solely upon the use of the TAWS terrain or obstacle data displayed by the SVT.
• Pathways
• Airport Signs
• Flight Path Marker
• Runway Display
• Horizon Heading Marks
• Terrain Alerting
• Traffic Display
• Obstacle Alerting
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The following SVT enhancements appear on the PFD:
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-1 Synthetic Vision Imagery
SVT OPERATION
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SVT is activated from the PFD using the softkeys located along the bottom edge of the display. Pressing the
softkeys turns the related function on or off. When SVT is enabled, the pitch scale increments are reduced to
10 degrees up and 7.5 degrees down.
AFCS
SVT functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. The PFD Softkey leads into the PFD function
Softkeys, including synthetic vision. Pressing the SYN VIS Softkey displays the SVT feature softkeys. The
softkeys are labeled PATHWAY, SYN TERR, HRZN HDG, and APTSIGNS. The BACK Softkey returns to
the previous level of softkeys. Synthetic Terrain must be active before any other SVT feature may be activated.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS, and PATHWAY Softkeys are only available when the SYN TERR Softkey is
activated (gray with black characters). After activating the SYN TERR Softkey, the HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS,
and PATHWAY softkeys may be activated in any combination to display desired features. When system power
is cycled, the last selected state (on or off) of the SYN TERR, HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS, and PATHWAY
softkeys is remembered by the system.
APPENDICES
• PATHWAY Softkey enables display of rectangular boxes that represent course guidance.
• SYN TERR Softkey enables synthetic terrain depiction.
• HRZN HDG Softkey enables horizon heading marks and digits.
• APTSIGNS Softkey enables airport signposts.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
PFD
SYN VIS
BACK
Pressing the BACK Softkey
returns to the top-level softkeys.
BACK
EIS
PATHWAY SYN TERR HRZN HDG APTSIGNS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Pressing the BACK Softkey returns to the previous level of softkeys.
Figure 8-2 SVT Softkeys
Activating and deactivating SVT:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Press the SYN TERR Softkey. The SVT display will cycle on or off with the SYN TERR Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Activating and deactivating Pathways:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Press the PATHWAY Softkey. The Pathway feature will cycle on or off with the PATHWAY Softkey.
AFCS
Activating and deactivating Horizon Headings:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the HRZN HDG Softkey. The horizon heading display will cycle on or off with the HRZN HDG Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Airport Signs:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
APPENDICES
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
INDEX
3) Press the APTSIGNS Softkey. Display of airport signs will cycle on or off with the APTSIGNS Softkey.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SVT FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected
Altitude
Airport
Runway
Pathways
Color
Matches CDI
Indicating
NAV Source
Flight
Path
Marker
Airplane
Symbol
EIS
Zero
Pitch Line
(ZPL) with
Compass
Heading
Marks
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Synthetic
Terrain
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-3 SVT on the Primary Flight Display
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SVT
Softkeys
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude deviation
information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
NOTE: Pathways are not available when the cross-pointer (X-Pointer) flight director format is selected.
AFCS
PATHWAYS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Pathways provide a three-dimensional perspective view of the selected route of flight shown as colored rectangular
boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active flight plan. The box size represents 700 feet
wide by 200 feet tall during enroute, oceanic, and terminal flight phases. During an approach, the box width is
700 feet or one half full scale deviation on the HSI, whichever is less. The height is 200 feet or one half full scale
deviation on the VDI, whichever is less. The altitude at which the pathway boxes are displayed is determined by
the selected altitude during climb, cruise, and when the active leg is the final approach course prior to intercepting
the glidepath/glideslope. During a descent (except while on the approach glidepath/glideslope), the pathway boxes
are displayed at the selected altitude, or the VNAV altitude programmed for the active leg in the flight plan, or the
published altitude constraint, whichever is higher (Figure 8-4). Just prior to intercepting the glidepath/glideslope,
the pathway boxes are displayed on the glidepath/glideslope, or the selected altitude, whichever is lower.
APPENDICES
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INDEX
The color of the rectangular boxes may be magenta, green, or white depending on the route of flight and navigation
source selected. The active GPS or GPS overlay flight plan leg is represented by magenta boxes that correspond to
the Magenta CDI. A localizer course is represented by green boxes that correspond to a green CDI. An inactive
leg of an active flight plan is represented by white boxes corresponding to a white line drawn on the Inset map or
MFD map indicating an inactive leg.
503
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected
Altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Programmed
Altitudes
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-4 Programmed and Selected Altitude
AFCS
Pathways provide supplemental glidepath/glideslope information on an active ILS, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, and
some LNAV approaches. Pathways are intended as an aid to situational awareness and should not be used
independent of the CDI, VDI, glide path indicator, and glide slope indicator. They are removed from the
display when the selected navigation information is not available. Pathways are not displayed beyond the
active leg when leg sequencing is suspended and are not displayed on any portion of the flight plan leg that
would lead to intercepting a leg in the wrong direction. Pathways are also automatically removed from the
display in the event a Resolution Advisory (RA) is issued by the optional TCAS II system. Pathways may then
be re-displayed by pressing the PATHWAY Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Departure and Enroute
APPENDICES
Prior to intercepting an active flight plan leg, pathways are displayed as a series of boxes with pointers at
each corner that point in the direction of the active waypoint. Pathways are not displayed for the first leg
of the flight plan if that segment is a Heading-to-Altitude leg. The first segment displaying pathways is the
first active GPS leg or active leg with a GPS overlay. If this leg of the flight plan route is outside the SVT
field of view, pathways will not be visible until the aircraft has turned toward this leg. While approaching
the center of the active leg and prescribed altitude, the number of pathway boxes decreases to a minimum
of four.
INDEX
Climb profiles cannot be displayed due to the variables associated with aircraft performance. Flight
plan legs requiring a climb are indicated by pathways displayed at a level above the aircraft at the altitude
selected or programmed.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Descent and Approach
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pathways are shown descending only for a programmed descent (Figures 8-5, 8-6). When the flight plan
includes programmed descent segments, pathways are displayed along the descent path provided that the
selected altitude is lower than the programmed altitude.
When an approach providing vertical guidance is activated, Pathways are shown level at the selected
altitude up to the point along the final approach course where the altitude intercepts the extended vertical
descent path, glidepath, or glideslope. From the vertical path descent, glidepath, or glideslope intercept
point, the pathways are shown inbound to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) along the published lateral
and vertical descent path, or at the selected altitude, whichever is lower.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
During an ILS approach, the initial approach segment is displayed in magenta at the segment altitudes
if GPS is selected as the navigation source on the CDI. When switching to localizer inbound with LOC
selected as the navigation source on the CDI, pathways are displayed in green along the localizer and glide
slope.
VOR, LOC BC, and ADF approach segments that are approved to be flown using GPS are displayed in
magenta boxes. Segments that are flown using other than GPS or ILS, such as heading legs or VOR final
approach courses are not displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Altitude
set for Enroute
Selected Altitude
set for Departure
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Climbs NOT
displayed
by pathway
Non-programmed descents NOT displayed by pathway
TOD
AFCS
Selected Altitude
for Step Down
Programmed descent
displayed by pathway
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selected Altitude or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
APPENDICES
Figure 8-5 SVT Pathways, Enroute and Descent
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Missed Approach
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Upon activating the missed approach, pathways lead to the Missed Approach Holding Point (MAHP) and
are displayed as a level path at the published altitude for the MAHP, or the selected altitude, whichever is
the highest. If the initial missed approach leg is a Course-to-Altitude (CA) leg, the pathways boxes will
be displayed level at the altitude published for the MAHP. If the initial missed approach leg is defined by
a course using other than GPS, pathways are not displayed for that segment. In this case, the pathways
displayed for the next leg may be outside the field of view and will be visible when the aircraft has turned
in the direction of that leg.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Pathways are displayed along each segment including the path required to track course reversals that are
part of a procedure, such as holding patterns. Pathways boxes will not indicate a turn to a MAHP unless a
defined geographical waypoint exists between the MAP and MAHP.
FAF
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Descent displayed
by pathway
Selected Altitude
or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
MAP Climbs NOT displayed
by pathway
Turn Segment
NOT displayed
by pathway
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
MAHP
INDEX
Figure 8-6 SVT Pathways, Approach, Missed Approach, and Holding
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT PATH MARKER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at groundspeeds
above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft accounting for wind speed
and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM is always available when the Synthetic Terrain feature is in operation. The FPM represents the
direction of the flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display, while the airplane symbol
represents the aircraft heading.
EIS
The FPM works in conjunction with the Pathways feature to assist the pilot in maintaining desired altitudes
and direction when navigating a flight plan. When on course and altitude the FPM is aligned inside the
pathway boxes as shown (Figure 8-7).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The FPM may also be used to identify a possible conflict with the aircraft flight path and distant terrain or
obstacles. Displayed terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s flight path extending above the FPM could indicate
a potential conflict, even before an alert is issued by TAWS. However, decisions regarding terrain and/or
obstacle avoidance should not be made using only the FPM.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
AFCS
Wind
Vector
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-7 Flight Path Marker and Pathways
ZERO PITCH LINE
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the horizon when the terrain
horizon is difficult to distinguish from other terrain being displayed. It may not align with the terrain
horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or when the aircraft is flown at high altitudes.
507
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
HORIZON HEADING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows approximately 60 degrees of compass
heading in 30‑degree increments on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and digits appearing
on the zero pitch line are not visible behind either the airspeed or altitude display. Horizon Heading is used
for general heading awareness, and is activated and deactivated by pressing the HRZN HDG Softkey.
TRAFFIC
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the SVT display or may appear as a
EIS
partial symbol.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic systems.
Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting closer, and smaller
when they are further away. Traffic within 250 feet laterally of the aircraft will not be displayed on the SVT
display. Traffic symbols and coloring are consistent with that used for traffic displayed in the Inset map or
MFD traffic page. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not be displayed on the SVT display. For
more details refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard Avoidance section.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AIRPORT SIGNS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic terrain
display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately 15 nm from
an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the identifier until
the aircraft is approximately eight nautical miles from the airport. Airport signs are not shown behind the
airspeed or altitude display. Airport signs are activated and deactivated by pressing the APTSIGNS Softkey.
AFCS
Traffic
Airport
Sign
without
Identifier
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Airport
Sign with
Identifier
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
Figure 8-8 Airport Signs
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
RUNWAYS
WARNING: Do not use SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of the aircraft
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these runways are not
displayed.
EIS
Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding terrain. All
runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database. In some situations,
where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be layered. As runways are
displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are displayed in white. Other runways will be gray
in color. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that runway will appear brighter and be outlined
with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft gets closer
to the runway, more detail such as runway numbers and centerlines will be displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Runway
Selected for
Approach
Other
Runway
on Airport
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-9 Airport Runways
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TERRAIN-SVT AND TAWS ALERTING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward-looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA)
alerts, and corresponds to the red and yellow X symbols on the Inset Map and MFD map displays. For more
detailed information regarding Terrain-SVT and TAWS, refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section.
In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on the
synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVT field of view to the left or right of the aircraft.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
TERRAIN
Annunciation
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Terrain
Caution
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Potential
Impact
Point
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-10 Terrain Alert
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower symbols found
on the Inset map and MFD maps and charts. Obstacle symbols appear in the perspective view with relative
height above terrain and distance from the aircraft. Unlike the Inset map and MFD moving map display,
obstacles on the synthetic terrain display do not change colors to warn of potential conflict with the aircraft’s
flight path until the obstacle is associated with an actual FLTA alert. Obstacles greater than 1000 feet below the
aircraft altitude are not shown. Obstacles are shown behind the airspeed and altitude displays.
EIS
Obstacle
Annunciation
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Obstacle
Warning
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Potential
Impact
Point
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-11 Obstacle
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FIELD OF VIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The PFD field of view can be represented on the MFD Navigation Map Page. Two dashed lines forming a
V‑shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map, represent the forward viewing area shown on the PFD.
Configuring field of view:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Map Setup and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Field of
View
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Map Setup Menu, Map Group, Field of View Option
AFCS
Figure 8-12 Option Menus
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Map Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Map Group options to FIELD OF VIEW.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select On or Off.
INDEX
APPENDICES
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The following figure compares the PFD forward looking depiction with the MFD plan view and FIELD OF
VIEW turned on.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Lines
Depict
PFD Field
of View
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SVT View on the PFD
Field of View on the MFD
Figure 8-13 PFD and MFD Field of View Comparison
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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513
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.2 SAFETAXI
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The SafeTaxi feature gives greater map detail when viewing airports at close range. The maximum map ranges
for enhanced detail are pilot configurable. When viewing at ranges close enough to show the airport detail,
the map reveals taxiways with identifying letters/numbers, airport Hot Spots, and airport landmarks including
ramps, buildings, control towers, and other prominent features. Resolution is greater at lower map ranges. When
the MFD display is within the SafeTaxi ranges, the airplane symbol on the airport provides enhanced position
awareness.
EIS
Designated Hot Spots are recognized at airports with many intersecting taxiways and runways, and/or complex
ramp areas. Airport Hot Spots are outlined to caution pilots of areas on an airport surface where positional
awareness confusion or runway incursions happen most often. Hot Spots are defined with a magenta circle or
outline around the region of possible confusion.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Any map page that displays the navigation view can also show the SafeTaxi airport layout within the maximum
configured range. SafeTaxi is also available on the Traffic Page when a GDL 88 is installed, enhancing the display
of ground traffic symbols supplied by ADS-B. The following is a list of pages where the SafeTaxi feature can be
seen:
• Navigation Map Page
• VOR Information Page
• Inset Map (PFD)
• User Waypoint Information Page
• Weather Datalink Page
• Trip Planning Page
• Airport Information Page
• Nearest Pages
• Intersection Information Page
• Active and Stored Flight Plan Pages
• NDB Information Page
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
During ground operations the aircraft’s position is displayed in reference to taxiways, runways, and airport
features. In the example shown, the aircraft is on taxiway Bravo inside the High Alert Intersection boundary
on KSFO airport. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta. When panning over the airport, features such as
runway holding lines and taxiways are shown at the cursor.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Taxiway
Identification
EIS
Aircraft
Position
Airport Hot
Spot Outline
DCLTR Softkey
Removes
Taxiway
Markings
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The DCLTR Softkey (declutter) label advances to DCLTR-1, DCLTR -2, and DCLTR-3 each time the softkey is
selected for easy recognition of decluttering level. Selecting the DCLTR Softkey removes the taxiway markings
and airport feature labels. Selecting the DCLTR-1 Softkey removes VOR station ID, the VOR symbol, and
intersection names if within the airport plan view. Selecting the DCLTR-2 Softkey removes the airport runway
layout, unless the airport in view is part of an active route structure. Selecting the DCLTR-3 Softkey cycles back
to the original map detail. Refer to Map Declutter Levels in the Flight Management Section.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-14 SafeTaxi Depiction on the Navigation Map Page
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airport
Features
AFCS
Configuring SafeTaxi range:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Map Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 8-15 Navigation Map PAGE MENU, Map Setup Option
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Aviation Group options to SAFETAXI.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the range of distances.
6) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired distance for maximum SafeTaxi display range.
7) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
SAFETAXI
Option
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SafeTaxi
Range
Options
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-16 MAP SETUP Menu, Aviation Group, SAFETAXI Range Options
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SAFETAXI DATABASE CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SafeTaxi database is revised every 56 days. SafeTaxi is always available for use after the expiration date.
When turning on the system, the Power-up Page indicates whether the databases are current, out of date, or
not available.
SafeTaxi Database
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Power-up Page Display
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-17 Power-up Page, SafeTaxi Database
Definition
Normal operation. SafeTaxi database is valid and within current cycle.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SafeTaxi database has expired.
Database card contains no SafeTaxi data.
AFCS
Table 8-1 SafeTaxi Annunciation Definitions
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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517
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The SafeTaxi Region, Version, Cycle, Effective date and Expires date of the database cycle can also be found
on the AUX - System Status page, as seen in Figure 8-18.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is
shown.
The SafeTaxi database cycle number shown in Figure 8-18, 15S3, is deciphered as follows:
15 – Indicates the year 2015
S – Indicates the data is for SafeTaxi
EIS
3 – Indicates the third issue of the SafeTaxi database for the year
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The SafeTaxi EFFECTIVE date 07–MAY–15 is the beginning date for the current database cycle. SafeTaxi
EXPIRES date 02–JUL–15 is the revision date for the next database cycle.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
SafeTaxi Data
APPENDICES
SafeTaxi information appears in blue and yellow text. The EFFECTIVE date appears in blue when data is
current and in yellow when the current date is before the effective date. The EXPIRES date appears in blue
when data is current and in yellow when expired (Figures 8‑18 and 8-19). NOT AVAILABLE appears in blue
in the REGION field if SafeTaxi data is not available on the database card (Figure 8‑19). An expired SafeTaxi
database is not disabled and will continue to function indefinitely.
INDEX
Figure 8-18 AUX – System Status Page, SafeTaxi Current Information
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey a second time. The softkey label will change to PFD1 DB. The DATABASE
window will now be displaying database information for PFD1. As before, scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is shown.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Select the PFD1 DB Softkey. The softkey label will change to PFD2 DB. The DATABASE window will now
display database information for PFD2. Again, scroll through the listed information by turning the FMS Knob
or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is shown.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for instructions on revising the SafeTaxi database.
Figure 8-19 illustrates possible SafeTaxi database conditions that may appear on the AUX - System Status
Page. The EFFECTIVE date is the beginning date for this database cycle. If the present date is before the
effective date, the EFFECTIVE date appears in yellow and the EXPIRES date appears in blue. The EXPIRES date
is the revision date for the next database cycle. NOT AVAILABLE indicates that SafeTaxi is not available on the
database card or no database card is inserted.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SafeTaxi Database has Expired
SafeTaxi Database Not Installed
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Current Date is before Effective Date
Figure 8-19 AUX – System Status Page, SafeTaxi Database Status
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
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519
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.3 CHARTVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ChartView resembles the paper version of Jeppesen terminal procedures charts. The charts are displayed in full
color with high-resolution. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft position on the moving map in the planview
of approach charts and on airport diagrams. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Inset boxes (Figure 8-20) are not considered within the chart
boundaries. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol reaches a chart boundary line, or inset box, the aircraft symbol
is removed from the display.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Figure 8-20 shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, the grey shading is for
illustrative purposes only and will not appear on the published chart or MFD display. These off-scale areas
appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted geographical position of this
information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when the aircraft
symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart planview, not to
the off-scale area.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Inset Box
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Off-Scale
Area
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Off-Scale
Areas
Figure 8-20 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
APPENDICES
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
The ChartView database subscription is available from Jeppesen, Inc. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Airport Diagrams
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• NOTAMs
INDEX
• Approaches
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CHARTVIEW SOFTKEYS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ChartView functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey displays the available terminal chart and
advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT OPT, CHRT, INFO, DP, STAR, APR, WX, NOTAM,
and GO BACK. The chart selection softkeys shown below appear on the Airport Information Page.
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey advances to the next level of softkeys: ALL, HEADER, PLAN, PROFILE,
MINIMUMS, FIT WDTH, FULL SCN, and BACK.
EIS
While viewing the CHRT OPT Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
SHW CHRT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
CHRT OPT
CHRT
INFO-1
DP
PLAN
WX
NOTAM
GO BACK
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HEADER
APR
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey returns
to the top-level softkeys and previous page.
INFO-2
ALL
STAR
PROFILE
MINIMUMS FIT WDTH FULL SCN
BACK
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns
to the Chart Selection Softkeys.
Figure 8-21 ChartView SHW CHRT, Chart Selection, and Chart Option Softkeys
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
521
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Nearest Airport Page, or Flight Plan Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the OPTIONS Menu to Show Chart.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page OPTIONS Menu
Figure 8-22 Option Menus
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
When no terminal procedure chart is available for the nearest airport or the selected airport, the banner
CHART NOT AVAILABLE appears on the screen. The CHART NOT AVAILABLE banner does not refer to
the Jeppesen subscription, but rather the availability of a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a
selected airport.
APPENDICES
Figure 8-23 Chart Not Available Banner
INDEX
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the banner
UNABLE TO DISPLAY CHART is then displayed.
Figure 8-24 Unable To Display Chart Banner
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When a chart is not available by selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts
may be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, selecting the
SHW CHRT Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is the one associated with the WPT – Airport Information page. Usually this is the airport
runway diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are
available, that page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport
is shown.
EIS
Selecting a chart:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Flight Plan Page, or Nearest Airports Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the Airport Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the Approach Box. (Select the APR Softkey
if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Approach Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
AFCS
Chart Scale
Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Scroll Through
Entire Chart
With the
Joystick
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 8-25 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
190-01602-00 Rev. B
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523
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
While the APPROACH Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. Once the desired chart
is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart page can be scrolled using the Joystick. Pressing the
Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The aircraft symbol is shown on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft position is within
the boundaries of the chart. The aircraft symbol is not displayed when the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears
(Figure 8‑29). If the Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, the aircraft symbol is not shown. The
Aircraft Not Shown Icon may appear at certain times, even if the chart is displayed to scale.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Selecting the CHRT Softkey switches between the ChartView diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the CHRT Softkey switches between the DeKalb Peachtree (KPDK) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the WPT – Airport Information page.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press CHRT Softkey
to Switch Between
ChartView and WPT Airport Information Page
Figure 8-26 CHRT Softkey, Airport Information Page
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram chart when the view is on a terminal
procedure chart. If the displayed chart is the airport diagram chart, pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey
returns to the Airport Information Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The aircraft position is shown in magenta on the ChartView diagrams when the location of the aircraft is
within the chart boundaries. In the example shown, the aircraft is turning onto Taxiway Bravo on the Charlotte,
NC (KCLT) airport.
EIS
Another source for additional airport information is from the INFO Box above the chart for certain airports.
This information source is not related to the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey. When the INFO Box is selected
using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. The Charlotte, NC airport has five additional charts offering
information; the Airport Diagram, Take-off Minimums, Class B Airspace, Airline Parking Gate Coordinates, and
Airline Parking Gate Location. (The numbers in parentheses after the chart name are Jeppesen designators.)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 8-27 Airport Information Page, INFO View, Full Screen Width
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
525
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In the example shown in Figure 8-27, the Class B Chart is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays the
Charlotte Class B Airspace Chart (Figure 8-28).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-28 Airport Information Page, Class B Chart Selected from INFO View
Selecting the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Chart Not
To Scale
INDEX
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-29 Departure Information Page
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Chart Not
To Scale
EIS
Change Range
and Scroll
Through the
Chart With the
Joystick
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-30 Arrival Information Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selecting the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
Figure 8-31 Approach Information Page
527
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, and includes weather data such
as METAR and TAF from the XM Data Link Receiver, when available. Weather information is available only
when an XM Data Link Receiver is installed and the SiriusXM Weather subscription is current.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
WX Info
When
Available
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
WX Softkey
Selected
Figure 8-32 Weather Information Page
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Recent NOTAMS applicable to the current ChartView cycle are included in the ChartView database. Selecting
the NOTAM Softkey shows the local NOTAM information for selected airports, when available. When NOTAMS
are not available, the NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled. The NOTAM Softkey may appear
on the Airport Information Page and all of the chart page selections.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-33 NOTAM Softkey Enabled
NOTAM Softkey
Appears When
NOTAMS are
Available for
Selected Airport
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Local
NOTAM on
Selected
Airport
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
NOTAM Softkey
Selected
Figure 8-34 Airport Information Page, Local NOTAMs
INDEX
Selecting the NOTAM Softkey again removes the NOTAMS information.
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page, Nearest Pages, or Flight
Plan Page).
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
529
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CHART OPTIONS
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level (Figure 8-21).
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting the ALL Softkey shows the entire approach chart on the screen.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Entire Chart
Shown
Figure 8-35 Approach Information Page, ALL View
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Selecting the HEADER Softkey shows the header view (approach chart briefing strip) on the screen.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Approach
Chart
Briefing Strip
Figure 8-36 Approach Information Page, Header View
530
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting the PLAN Softkey shows the approach chart two dimensional plan view.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Approach
Chart Plan
View
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-37 Approach Information Page, Plan View
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selecting the PROFILE Softkey displays the approach chart descent profile strip.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Approach
Chart Descent
Profile Strip
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 8-38 Approach Information Page, Profile View, Full Screen Width
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
531
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting the MINIMUMS Softkey displays the minimum descent altitude/visibility strip at the bottom of the
approach chart.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Minimum
Descent
Altitude/
Visibility Strip
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-39 Approach Information Page, Minimums View, Full Screen Width
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
If the chart scale has been adjusted to view a small area of the chart, selecting the FIT WIDTH Softkey
changes the chart size to fit the available screen width.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Select FIT WDTH
Softkey to Show
Full Chart Width
Figure 8-40 Airport Information Page, FIT WDTH Softkey Selected
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
533
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the FULL SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
Selecting Additional Information:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, select the FULL SCN Softkey to display the information windows
(AIRPORT, INFO).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the AIRPORT, INFO, RUNWAYS, or FREQUENCIES Box (INFO Box shown).
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the INFO Box choices. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired
choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Available
Information
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Select FULL SCN
Softkey to Switch
Between Full Screen
and Chart with Info
Window
INDEX
Figure 8-41 Airport Information Page, Full Screen and Info Window
Selecting the BACK Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the FULL SCREEN and COLOR SCHEME Options.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the On and Off Full Screen Options.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Chart Setup Option
Full Screen On/Off Selection
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-42 Page Menus
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
535
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ChartView can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a dark
environment. When the CHART SETUP Box is selected the softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-43 Waypoint Information Page, OPTIONS Menu
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the COLOR SCHEME Option (Figure 8‑44).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between Day, Auto, and Night Options.
AFCS
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
INDEX
APPENDICES
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the Chart Setup Menu.
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-44 Arrival Information Page, Day View
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-45 Arrival Information Page, Night View
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
537
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CHARTVIEW CYCLE NUMBER AND EXPIRATION DATE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The ChartView database is revised every 14 days. Charts are still viewable during a period that extends from
the cycle expiration date to the disables date. ChartView is disabled 70 days after the expiration date and is no
longer available for viewing. After the expiration date, the ChartView database is no longer current, however,
data displayed on the actual charts may still be current. When viewing charts after the ChartView database has
expired, ensure the displayed chart is current before using.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
When turning on the system, the Power-up Page displays the current status of the ChartView database. See
the table below for the various ChartView Power-up Page displays and the definition of each.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
ChartView Database
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-46 Power-up Page, ChartView Database
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Blank Line. system is not configured for ChartView. Contact a Garminauthorized service center for configuration.
System is configured for ChartView but no chart database is installed.
Contact Jeppesen for a ChartView database.
Normal operation. ChartView database is valid and within current
cycle.
ChartView database is within 1 week after expiration date. A new cycle
is available for update.
ChartView database is beyond 1 week after expiration date, but still
within the 70 day viewing period.
ChartView database has timed out. Database is beyond 70 days after
expiration date. ChartView database is no longer available for viewing.
System time is not available. GPS satellite data is unknown or the
system has not yet locked onto satellites. Check database cycle number
for effectivity.
System is verifying chart database when new cycle is installed for the
first time.
After verifying, chart database is found to be corrupt. ChartView is not
available.
Table 8-2 ChartView Power-up Page Annunciations and Definitions
538
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The ChartView time critical information can also be found on the AUX - System Status page. The database
CYCLE number, EXPIRES, and DISABLES dates of the ChartView subscription appear in either blue or yellow
text. When the ChartView EXPIRES date is reached, ChartView becomes inoperative 70 days later. This is
shown as the DISABLES date. When the DISABLES date is reached, charts are no longer available for viewing.
The SHW CHRT Softkey label then appears subdued and is disabled until a revised issue of ChartView is
installed.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
EIS
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the ChartView database information is
shown.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The ChartView database cycle number shown in the figure, 1504, is deciphered as follows:
15 – Indicates the year 2015
04 – Indicates the fourth issue of the ChartView database for the year
The EXPIRES date 06–MAR–15 is the date that this database should be replaced with the next issue.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The DISABLES date 15–MAY–15 is the date that this database becomes inoperative.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
ChartView
Data
APPENDICES
Figure 8-47 AUX – System Status Page, ChartView Current and Available
The ChartView database is obtained directly from Jeppesen. Refer to Updating Jeppesen Databases in
Appendix B for instructions on revising the ChartView database.
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
539
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Other possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown in Figure 8-48. The EXPIRES date, in yellow,
is the revision date for the next database cycle. The DISABLES date, in yellow, is the date that this database
cycle is no longer viewable. CYCLE NOT AVAILABLE in blue, indicates no ChartView data is available on the
database card or no database card is inserted.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
ChartView has Expired, but is not Disabled
ChartView Database is Disabled
ChartView Database is Not Available
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-48 AUX – System Status Page, ChartView Database Status
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.4 FLITECHARTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FliteCharts resemble the paper version of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts. The charts are displayed
with high-resolution and in color for applicable charts. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft position on the
moving map in the planview of approach charts.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. An aircraft symbol may be displayed within an off-scale area
depicted on some charts.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Departure Procedures (DP)
EIS
Figure 8-49 shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, these areas are not shaded on
the published chart. These off-scale areas appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the
depicted geographical position of this information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual geographic
position. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is
relative to the chart planview, not to the off-scale area.
The FliteCharts database subscription is available from Garmin. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Approaches
• Airport Diagrams
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Off-Scale
Areas
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Off-Scale
Area
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Off-Scale
Areas
Off-Scale
Area
INDEX
Figure 8-49 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
541
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLITECHARTS SOFTKEYS
FliteCharts functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey displays the available terminal chart
and advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT OPT, CHRT, INFO, DP, STAR, APR, WX, and
GO BACK. The chart selection softkeys appear on the Airport Information Page.
EIS
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the available terminal chart and advances to the next level of
softkeys: ALL, FIT WDTH, FULL SCN, and BACK.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
While viewing the CHRT OPT Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
NOTAMs are not available with FliteCharts. The NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SHW CHRT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
CHRT OPT
CHRT
INFO-1
INFO-2
AFCS
ALL
DP
STAR
WX
APR
GO BACK
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey returns
to the top-level softkeys and previous page.
FIT WDTH
FULL SCN
BACK
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns
to the Chart Selection Softkeys.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-50 FliteCharts SHW CHRT, Chart Selection, and Chart Option Softkeys
542
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Nearest Airport Page, or Flight Plan Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the OPTIONS Menu to Show Chart.
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page OPTIONS Menu
Figure 8-51 Option Menus
AFCS
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner CHART NOT AVAILABLE appears on the screen.
The CHART NOT AVAILABLE banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability
of a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-52 Chart Not Available Banner
APPENDICES
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the banner
UNABLE TO DISPLAY CHART is then displayed.
INDEX
Figure 8-53 Unable To Display Chart Banner
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
543
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
When a chart is not available by selecting the SHW CHRT Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts
may be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, selecting the
SHW CHRT Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is one associated with the WPT – Airport Information page. Usually this is the airport runway
diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are available, that
page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport is shown.
EIS
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Flight Plan Page, or Nearest Airports Page, select the SHW CHRT
Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the Airport Information Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the Approach Box. (Select the APR Softkey
if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Approach Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
AFCS
Chart Not
To Scale
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
APPENDICES
Pan Entire
Chart With
the Joystick
INDEX
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-54 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
544
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
While the APPROACH Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. Once the desired chart is
selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart can be panned using the Joystick. Pressing the Joystick
centers the chart on the screen.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE.
Selecting the CHRT Softkey switches between the FliteCharts diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the CHRT Softkey switches between the Charlotte, NC (KCLT) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the WPT – Airport Information page.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Select CHRT Softkey
to Switch Between
FliteCharts and WPT Airport Information Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-55 CHRT Softkey, Airport Information Page
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
545
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram chart when the view is on a terminal
procedure chart. If the displayed chart is the airport diagram chart, pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey
returns to the Airport Information Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Another source for additional airport information is from the INFO Box above the chart (Figure 8-55) or to
the right of the chart (Figure 8-56) for certain airports. This information source is not related to the INFO-1 or
INFO-2 Softkey. When the INFO Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. The Charlotte,
NC airport has three additional charts offering information; the Airport Diagram, Alternate Minimums, and
Take-off Minimums.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Info Box
Selected
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-56 Airport Information Page, INFO View with Airport Information
546
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
In the example shown in Figure 8-56, TAKE OFF MINIMUMS is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays the
IFR Alternate Minimums Chart (Figure 8-57).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-57 Airport Information Page, ALTERNATE MINIMUMS Selected from INFO View
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selecting the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 8-58 Departure Information Page
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
547
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
Figure 8-59 Arrival Information Page
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pressing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available. The aircraft symbol is shown
on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft position is within the boundaries of the chart. The
aircraft symbol is not displayed when the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears. If the Chart Scale Box displays a
banner NOT TO SCALE, the aircraft symbol is not shown.
Figure 8-60 Approach Information Page
548
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, when available, and includes
weather data such as METAR and TAF from the XM Data Link Receiver. Weather information is available only
when an XM Data Link Receiver is installed and the SiriusXM Weather subscription is current.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting Additional Information:
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, select the WX Softkey to display the information windows (AIRPORT,
INFO).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the INFO Box.
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the INFO Box choices. When the INFO Box is selected the softkeys are blank.
If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to
complete the selection.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Info Available
on This Airport
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
WX Info
When
Available
AFCS
Chart Not
To Scale
Figure 8-61 Weather Information Page, WX Softkey Selected
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Softkeys are
Blank during
Info Box
Selection
WX Softkey
Selected
APPENDICES
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page or Flight Plan Page).
INDEX
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549
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CHART OPTIONS
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level (Figure 8-50).
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting the ALL Softkey shows the entire chart on the screen.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Entire Chart
Shown
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-62 Airport Information Page, ALL View Selected
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting the FIT WIDTH Softkey fits the width of the chart in the display viewing area. In the example
shown, the chart at close range is replaced with the full width chart.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Select FIT WDTH
Softkey to Show
Full Chart Width
Figure 8-63 Approach Information Page, FIT WDTH Softkey Selected
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
551
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting the FULL SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Select FULL SCN
Softkey to Switch
Between Full Screen
Chart and Chart with
Info Window
Figure 8-64 Airport Information Page, Full Screen and Info Window
INDEX
APPENDICES
Selecting the BACK Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the FULL SCREEN and COLOR SCHEME Options.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the On and Off Full Screen Options.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Chart Setup Option
Full Screen On/Off Selection
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-65 Page Menus
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
553
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FliteCharts can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a dark
environment. When the CHART SETUP Box is selected the softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-66 Waypoint Information Page, OPTIONS Menu
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the COLOR SCHEME Option (Figure 8‑67).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between Day, Auto, and Night Options.
AFCS
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
INDEX
APPENDICES
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the Chart Setup Menu.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-67 Approach Information Page, Day View
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-68 Approach Information Page, Night View
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
555
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLITECHARTS CYCLE NUMBER AND EXPIRATION DATE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FliteCharts data is revised every 28 days. Charts are still viewable during a period that extends from the cycle
expiration date to the disables date. FliteCharts is disabled 180 days after the expiration date and are no longer
available for viewing upon reaching the disables date. After the expiration date, the FliteCharts database is no
longer current, however, data displayed on the actual charts may still be current. When viewing charts after the
FliteCharts database has expired, ensure the displayed chart is current before using.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
When turning on the system, the Power-up Page displays the current status of the FliteCharts database. See
the table below for the various FliteCharts Power-up Page displays and the definition of each.
FliteCharts Database
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-69 Power-up Page, FliteCharts Database
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Blank Line. system is not configured for FliteCharts. Contact a Garminauthorized service center for configuration.
System is configured for FliteCharts but no chart database is installed.
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for the FliteCharts
database
Normal operation. FliteCharts database is valid and within current
cycle.
FliteCharts database is beyond the expiration date, but still within the
180 day viewing period.
FliteCharts database has timed out. Database is beyond 180 days
after expiration date. FliteCharts database is no longer available for
viewing.
Table 8-3 FliteCharts Power-up Page Annunciations and Definitions
INDEX
Other possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown in Figure 8-70. ‘FliteCharts Expires’ plus a
date in white, indicates the chart database is current. ‘Chart data is out of date!’ in yellow, indicates charts are
still viewable, but approaching the disable date.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When the 180 day grace period has expired, ‘Chart data is disabled.’ in yellow indicates that the FliteCharts
database has expired and is no longer viewable. ‘Chart Data: N/A’ appears in white if no FliteCharts data is
available on the database card or no database card is inserted.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FliteCharts time critical information can also be found on the AUX - System Status page. The FliteCharts
database REGION, CYCLE number, EFFECTIVE, EXPIRES, and DISABLES dates of the subscription appear in
either blue or yellow text. Dates shown in blue are current data. Dates shown in yellow indicate the data is not
within the current subscription period.
EIS
FliteCharts becomes inoperative 180 days after the FliteCharts EXPIRES date is reached, and is no longer
available for viewing. This date is shown as the DISABLES date. After the disable date the SHW CHRT Softkey
label appears subdued and is unavailable until a revised issue of FliteCharts is installed.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the FliteCharts database information is
shown.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The FliteCharts database cycle number shown in the figure, 1505, is deciphered as follows:
15 – Indicates the year 2015
05 – Indicates the fifth issue of the FliteCharts database for the year
The FliteCharts EFFECTIVE date 07–MAY–15 is the first date that this database is current.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The FliteCharts EXPIRES date 04–JUN–15 is the last date that this database is current.
The DISABLES date 01–DEC–15 is the date that this database becomes inoperative.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
FliteCharts
Data
INDEX
Figure 8-70 AUX – System Status Page, FliteCharts Current and Available
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
557
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The FliteCharts database is provided from Garmin. Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for
instructions on revising the FliteCharts database.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The other four possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown here. The EFFECTIVE date, in
yellow, indicates the current date preceeds the date the FliteCharts database becomes effective. The EXPIRES
date, in yellow, is the revision date for the next database cycle. The DISABLES date, in yellow, is the date that
this database cycle is no longer viewable. NOT AVAILABLE in blue, indicate the FliteCharts database is not
available on the database card or no database card is inserted.
FliteCharts Expired, but is not Disabled
FliteCharts Database is Disabled
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Current Date is Before Effective Date
FliteCharts Database is Not Available
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 8-71 AUX – System Status Page, FliteCharts Datbase Status
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.5 AIRPORT DIRECTORY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) and optional AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory databases
offer detailed information regarding services, hours of operation, lodging options, and more. This information
is viewed on the Airport Information Page by selecting the INFO Softkey until INFO-2 is displayed as shown in
Figure 8-72.
Both Airport Directories are available for downloading at flygarmin.com. However, copy only one of the
databases to the Supplemental Data Card. The system cannot recognize both databases simultaneously.
EIS
Selecting the Airport Directory Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT’ page group.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AIRPORT INFORMATION Page. Initially, information for the airport closest
to the aircraft’s present position is displayed.
3) If necessary, select the INFO softkey until INFO-2 is displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-72 AOPA Information on the Airport Information Page
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
559
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
AIRPORT DIRECTORY DATABASE CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Airport Directory databases are revised every 56 days. Check fly.garmin.com for the current database.
The Airport Directory is always available for use after the expiration date. When turning on the system, the
Power-up Page indicates whether the databases are current, out of date, or not available.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airport Directory Database
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-73 Power-up Page, Airport Directory Database
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Normal operation. Airport Directory database is valid and within
current cycle.
Airport Directory database has expired.
AFCS
Database card contains no Airport Directory data.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 8-4 Airport Directory Annunciation Definitions
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The Airport Directory Region, Version, Cycle, Effective date and Expires date of the database cycle can also be
found on the AUX - System Status page, as seen in Figure 8-74.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the Airport Directory database information
is shown.
The Airport Directory database cycle number shown in the figure, 15D2, is deciphered as follows:
15 – Indicates the year 2015
D – Indicates the data is for Airport Directory
EIS
2 – Indicates the second issue of the Airport Directory database for the year
The Airport Directory EFFECTIVE date 15–APR–15 is the beginning date for the current database cycle. The
Airport Directory EXPIRES date 14–JUL–15 is the revision date for the next database cycle.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Airport Directory
Data
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-74 AUX – System Status Page, Airport Directory Current Information
APPENDICES
Airport Directory information appears in blue and yellow text. The EFFECTIVE date appears in blue when
data is current and in yellow when the current date is before the effective date. The EXPIRES date appears in
blue when data is current and in yellow when expired (Table 8-4). NOT AVAILABLE appears in blue in the
REGION field if Airport Directory data is not available on the database card. An expired Airport Directory
database is not disabled and will continue to function indefinitely.
INDEX
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561
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.6 SATELLITE TELEPHONE AND SMS MESSAGING
NOTE: Separate accounts must be established to access the Iridium satellite network for voice and Garmin
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Connext for data transmission of maintenance reports.
Up to two optional GSR 56 Iridium Transceivers provide Iridium Satellite Telephone service and SMS text
messaging. Iridium telephone and text messaging are available to the flight crew through the Multi-function
Display, audio panel and headset. The system provides a telephone handset interface to be used for voice
communication between the aircraft cabin and the cockpit and for Iridium telephone service in the aircraft cabin.
EIS
Operation of these features in the cockpit is accomplished through the AUX-TELEPHONE and AUX-TEXT
MESSAGING Pages. For operation using the cabin handset, consult the instructions provided with the handset.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
REGISTERING WITH GARMIN CONNEXT
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
A subscriber account must be established prior to using the Iridium Satellite System. Before setting up an
Iridium account, obtain the serial number of the Iridium Transceiver(s) (GSR1 and GSR2 if installed) and the
System ID by selecting the AUX- SYSTEM STATUS Page as shown in Figure 8-75. Contact Garmin Connext at
1-866-739-5687 in the United States or 913-397-8200, ext. 1135.
APPENDICES
Iridium Transceiver Serial Number
System ID Number
INDEX
Figure 8-75 Identification Needed for Iridium Registration
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The pilot or copilot can place and answer calls on the Iridium satellite network as well as to or from the
telephone handset in the cabin. Calls can also be answered or made from the cabin phone, however, only
actions initiated from the cockpit phone will be discussed here. See the cabin handset user guide for more
information. Control and monitoring of telephone functions are accomplished through the AUX-TELEPHONE
Page.
Viewing the Telephone Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
EIS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select SATELLITE PHONE.
3) If necessary, select the TEL Softkey to display the AUX-TELEPHONE Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Satellite
Signal
Strength
External
Phone
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The PHONE STATUS display, as shown in Figure 8-76, gives a graphical representation of the current
disposition of voice and/or data transmissions. Table 8-5 describes symbology used on Phone Status display.
Internal
Phones
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 8-76 Phone Status Display
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
563
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Internal
Phone
External
Phone
Description
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Phone is Idle
Phone is ringing
EIS
Phone has a dial tone (off hook) or connected to another phone
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Phone dialed is busy
Phone is dialing another phone
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Phone has failed
Phone status not known
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Phone is disabled
Phone is reserved for data transmission
AFCS
Calling other phone or incoming call from other phone
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Other phone is on hold
Phones are connected
INDEX
APPENDICES
Table 8-5 Telephone Symbols
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENABLE/DISABLE THE IRIDIUM TELEPHONE SYSTEM
The Iridium Satellite Telephone System may be turned on or off by using the page menu.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 8-77 Enable Iridium Telephone System
To enable the Iridium telephone system:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) With the AUX-TELEPHONE Page displayed, select the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Enable Iridium Transmission’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
To disable the Iridium telephone system:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) With the AUX-TELEPHONE Page displayed, select the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable Iridium Transmission’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
565
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
INCOMING CALLS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When viewing MFD pages other than the AUX-TELEPHONE Page, a pop-up alert similar to Figure 8-78
will be displayed and an aural alert “Incoming Call” will be heard. If the call is from the cabin, CABIN will be
displayed as seen in Figure 8-78. If the incoming call is an Iridium network call, IRIDIUM will be displayed.
The pop-up alert may be inhibited at times, such as during takeoff. In addition to the pop-up alert, a ringing
phone symbol will be displayed to the right of the MFD page title as shown in Figure 8-78. Also, the voice
alert “Incoming Call” will be heard on the selected cockpit audio.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Incoming Call Pop-up
Incoming Call Symbol on MFD Page
Figure 8-78 Incoming Call
Answering an incoming call in the cockpit:
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Select the ANSWER Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
While viewing the AUX-TELEPHONE Page:
NOTE: The Push-to-Talk switch is not utilized for telephone communication. The microphone is active after
AFCS
selecting the ANSWER Softkey, and stays active until the call is terminated.
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
3) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Answer Incoming Call’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
Selecting the IGNORE Softkey will extinguish the pop-up window and leave the current call unanswered.
Selecting the IGNRE ALL Softkey will extinguish the pop-up window for the current and all future incoming
calls and leave the current call unanswered. Selecting the TEL Softkey will display the AUX-TELEPHONE
Page allowing additional call information to be viewed before answering.
Disabling incoming call alerts:
INDEX
1) With the AUX-TELEPHONE Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable Incoming Call Alerts’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The voice and pop-up alert will not be displayed now when an incoming call is received.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
OUTGOING CALLS
Voice calls can be made from the cockpit to the handset in the cabin, or to an external phone through the
Iridium Satellite Network.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Making a call to the cabin:
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Select the DIAL Softkey on the MFD. A display similar to Figure 8-79 will be shown.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-79 Initiating a Cabin Call
AFCS
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor will move from ‘CABIN’ to ‘OK’.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
567
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
4) Press the ENT Key again. The cabin phone will now ring as seen in Figure 8-80.
Figure 8-80 Cabin Phone Ringing
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When the cabin phone is answered, the connection is established as shown in Figure 8-81. To exit the call,
select the HANGUP Softkey.
Figure 8-81 Cabin Phone Answered
568
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Making an external call from the cockpit using the Iridium satellite network:
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Select the DIAL Softkey on the MFD. A display similar to Figure 8-82 will be shown.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-82 Initiating an External Call
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘IRIDIUM’ as seen in Figure 8-83.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 8-83 Selecting the Iridium Satellite System
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
569
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor has now moved to the phone number entry field as shown in Figure 8-84.
Figure 8-84 Enter Phone Number
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Enter the desired telephone number by selecting the number softkeys on the MFD or by pressing the numeric
keys on the MFD Control Unit. The International dialing sequence is necessary to place a call from the cockpit
to an external phone: Country Code + City/Area Code (if any) + Telephone Number.
The following country codes may be used when calling other satellite telephone systems.
Country Code
870
8810 or 8811
8812 or 8813
8816 or 8817
8818 or 8819
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Satellite System
Inmarsat
ICO
Ellipso
Iridium
Globalstar
570
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6) Press the ENT Key. ‘OK’ is highlighted as in Figure 8-85.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-85 Make the Call
7) Press the ENT Key. The system will begin calling the number, as in Figure 8-86.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
Figure 8-86 System is Making the Connection
571
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
When the phone is answered, the connection is established as shown in Figure 8-87. To exit the call, select
the HANGUP Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When numeric entries are required while a call is connected, such as selecting menu items like “dial zero to
get an operator”, select the KEYPAD Softkey to access the numeric softkeys.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-87 Phone is Answered, Connection Complete
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PLACING THE COCKPIT PHONE ON HOLD
Placing a call on hold:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Select the HOLD Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Put Current Call On Hold’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
EIS
The cockpit phone is now isolated from the call as seen in Figure 8-88. This figure illustrates a conference
call between the cockpit, cabin, and an external phone in which the cockpit phone has been put on hold.
Select the HOLD Softkey again to resume the call.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-88 Cockpit Phone on Hold
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
573
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TRANSFERRING A CALL FROM THE COCKPIT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
From the cockpit phone, an external call can be transferred to the cabin phone, or a call with the cabin
phone can be transferred to an external phone, or (when two Iridium Transceivers are installed) an external
call can be transferred to another external phone.
Transferring a call:
1) Select the TRANS Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
EIS
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Transfer Current Call’.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
c) Press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
A window similar to that shown in Figure 8-89 will be displayed. In this example, an active call to the cabin
is transferred to an external number. Therefore, the window shows the ‘Iridium’ option. If the active call is
with an external phone, ‘CABIN’ would be the option.
APPENDICES
Figure 8-89 Enter Phone Number to Receive Transferred Call
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor now highlights the phone number entry field.
3) Enter the phone number to which the call is being transferred, as discussed earlier for making an external call
on the Iridium satellite network.
INDEX
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘OK’ is now highlighted.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5) Press the ENT Key again to place the call as shown in Figure 8-90.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-90 Call Transfer to an External Phone
When the external phone is answered, the call connection is indicated as in Figure 8-91.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 8-91 Call Transfer Complete
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
MAKING A CONFERENCE CALL FROM THE COCKPIT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The cabin or an external phone (two external phones if two Iridium Transceivers are installed) can be added
to a call already in progress.
Adding another phone to an active call:
1) Select the CONF Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
EIS
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Conference Current Call’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
A window similar to that shown in Figure 8-92 will be displayed. In this example, an external phone will
be added to an active call to the cabin. Therefore, the window shows the ‘IRIDIUM’ option. If the active call
is with an external phone, ‘CABIN’ would be the option.
Figure 8-92 Initiate a Conference Call
APPENDICES
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor now highlights the phone number entry field.
3) Enter the phone number to be added to the call, as discussed earlier for making an external call on the Iridium
satellite network.
INDEX
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘OK’ is now highlighted.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5) Press the ENT Key again to place the call as shown in Figure 8-93.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-93 Conference in External Phone
When the external phone is answered, the call connection is indicated as in Figure 8-94.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 8-94 External Phone Added
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TEXT MESSAGING (SMS)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The pilot or copilot can send and receive text messages on the Iridium satellite network. Messages may be
sent to an email address or text message capable cellular telephone. Message length is limited to 160 characters,
including the email address.
The text messaging user interface is mainly through the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page.
Viewing the Text Messaging Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the SATELLITE PHONE.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
3) If necessary, select the SMS Softkey to display the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page as shown in Figure 8-95.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-95 Text Messaging Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Message Symbol
Description
Received text message that has not been opened
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Received text message that has been opened
Saved text message, draft not sent
EIS
System is sending text message
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Text message has been sent
System failed to send text message
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Predefined text message
Table 8-6 Text Message Symbols
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
VIEWING A TEXT MESSAGE WHEN RECEIVED
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When viewing MFD pages other than the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, a pop-up alert similar to Figure
8-96 will be displayed when a new text message is received.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
New Text Message Pop-up
New Text Message Symbol on MFD Page
Figure 8-96 New Text Message Received
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Select the VIEW Softkey to view the message (Figure 8-97). Selecting the IGNORE Softkey will extinguish
the pop-up window and leave the text message unopened. Selecting the IGNR ALL Softkey will extinguish
the pop-window and ignore all future incoming text messages. Selecting the SMS Softkey will display the
AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page.
Figure 8-97 Text Message Displayed from Pop-Up Alert
INDEX
The pop-up alerts may be enabled or disabled through the Page Menu.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Enabling/disabling incoming text message pop-up alerts:
1) With the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable New Message Popups’ or ‘Enable New Message
Popups’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The pop-up alert will not be displayed when an incoming text message is received.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-98 Disabling New Text Message Pop-Ups
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
REPLY TO A TEXT MESSAGE
After reading a text message, a reply may be sent.
Replying to a text message:
AFCS
While viewing the text message, select the REPLY Softkey.
Or:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Reply To Message’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SENDING A TEXT MESSAGE
Text messages may be sent from the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Sending a new text message:
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the NEW Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Message’.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
c) Press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-99 Composing a New Text Message
APPENDICES
2) The TEXT MESSAGE DRAFT Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘TO’ field. Enter the desired
telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used
to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by selecting the NUMBERS Softkey.
Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters. Special characters can be
accessed by selecting the SYMBOLS Softkey. See Figure 8-99.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘MESSAGE’ field.
4) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 2.
INDEX
5) Press the ENT Key.
6) Select the SEND Softkey to send the message immediately, or select the SAVE Softkey to save the message in
Outbox for sending at a later time. Select the CANCEL Softkey to delete the message.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PREDEFINED TEXT MESSAGES
Time and effort can be saved in typing text messages that are used repeatedly by saving these messages as
a predefined message.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Creating a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-100 Creating/Editing Predefined Messages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select ‘Edit Predefined Messages’ as shown in Figure 8-100.
3) Press the ENT Key. The PREDEFINED MESSAGES view is now displayed.
4) Select the NEW Softkey.
Or:
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Predefined Message’.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
c) Press the ENT Key. The PREDEFINED SMS TEXT MESSAGE Window is now displayed as shown in Figure 8-101.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-101 Composing a Predefined Message
AFCS
5) The cursor is displayed in the ‘TITLE’ field. Enter the desired message title. Entry can be accomplished through
the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys
on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD
by selecting the NUMBERS Softkey. Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha
characters. Special characters can be accessed by selecting the SYMBOLS Softkey.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘MESSAGE’ field.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 5.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Select the SAVE Softkey. The new predefined message is now shown in the displayed list. Selecting the
CANCEL Softkey will delete the message without saving.
APPENDICES
10) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
11) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Stop Editing Predefined Message’.
12) Press the ENT Key.
Sending a predefined text message:
INDEX
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the NEW Softkey.
2) The TEXT MESSAGE DRAFT Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘TO’ field. Enter the desired
telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used
to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by selecting the NUMBERS Softkey.
Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters. Special characters can be
accessed by selecting the SYMBOLS Softkey. See Figure 8-102.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘MESSAGE’ field (Figure 8-102).
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-102 Composing a New Text Message
4) Select the PREDEFD Softkey. The PREDEFINED MESSAGE MENU Window is displayed as seen in Figure 8-103.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
Figure 8-103 Predefined Message List
585
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
5) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired predefined message.
6) Press the ENT Key. The predefined message text is inserted into the message field. If desired, the message can
be edited by using the FMS Knobs.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Select the SEND Softkey to transmit the message.
TEXT MESSAGE BOXES
EIS
Received text messages reside in the Inbox as ‘Read’ or ‘Unread’ messages. The Outbox contains ‘Sent” and
‘Unsent’ text messages. Saved messages that are meant to be sent later are stored as Drafts. Each text message
box may be viewed separately, or together in any combination.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Show Inbox messages:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the INBOX Softkey
(Figure 8-104).
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Inbox Messages’.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
INDEX
Figure 8-104 Text Message Inbox
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Show Outbox messages:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the OUTBOX
Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Outbox Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
EIS
Show Draft messages:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the DRAFTS
Softkey.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Draft Messages’.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
MANAGING TEXT MESSAGES
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The viewed messages may be listed according to the date/time the message was sent or received, the type of
message (read, unread, sent, unsent, etc.), or by message address.
Viewing messages sorted by message date/time:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the TIME Softkey
(Figure 8-104).
AFCS
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Date/Time’.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window (Figure 8-104).
Viewing messages sorted by message type:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the TYPE Softkey.
APPENDICES
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Type’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Viewing messages sorted by address:
While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the ADDRESS
Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Address’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
EIS
Viewing the content of a text message:
1) While viewing the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the desired message box.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
4) Select the VIEW Softkey.
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘View Selected Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Message content is displayed as shown in Figure 8-105.
Figure 8-105 Viewing Message Content
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5) To close the text message, select the CLOSE Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Close Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Marking selected message as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
EIS
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Select the MRK READ Softkey.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark Selected Message As Read’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The message symbol now indicates the message has been opened.
Marking all messages as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark All New Messages As Read’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed.
4) With cursor highlighting ‘YES’, press the ENT Key. The message symbols now indicate all the message have
been opened.
AFCS
Delete a message:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the AUX-TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Select the DELETE Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
APPENDICES
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Delete Selected Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.7 SIRIUSXM SATELLITE RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section for information about SiriusXM Weather products.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment feature of the GDL 69A Data Link Receiver is available for
the pilot’s and passengers’ enjoyment. The GDL 69A/69A SXM can receive SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment
services at any altitude throughout the Continental U.S. Entertainment audio is not available on the GDL 69 Data
Link Receiver.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers a variety of radio programming over long distances without having to constantly
search for new stations. Based on signals from satellites, coverage far exceeds land-based transmissions.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio services are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit
www.siriusxm.com.
ACTIVATING SIRIUSXM SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The service is activated by providing SiriusXM Satellite Radio with either one or two coded IDs, depending on
the equipment. Either the Audio Radio ID or the Data Radio ID, or both, must be provided to SiriusXM Satellite
Radio to activate the entertainment subscription.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
It is not required to activate both the entertainment and weather service subscriptions with the GDL 69A/69A
SXM. Either or both services can be activated. SiriusXM Satellite Radio uses one or both of the coded IDs
to send an activation signal that, when received by the GDL 69A/69A SXM, allows it to play entertainment
programming.
These IDs are located:
• On the label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
• On the XM Information Page on the MFD (Figure 8-106)
AFCS
• On the XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit (available at www.garmin.com, P/N
190-00355-04)
Contact the installer if the Data Radio ID and the Audio Radio ID cannot be located.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: The LOCK Softkey on the XM Information Page (Auxiliary Page Group) is used to save GDL 69A
APPENDICES
activation data when the SiriusXM services are initially set up. It is not used during normal SiriusXM
Satellite Radio operation, but there should be no adverse effects if inadvertently selected during flight.
Refer to the GDL 69/69A XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions (190-00355-04, Rev K or later) for
further information.
Activating the SiriusXM Satellite Radio services:
1) Contact SiriusXM Satellite Radio. Follow the instructions provided by SiriusXM Satellite Radio services.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
INDEX
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select XM RADIO.
4) Select the INFO Softkey to display the XM Information Page.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5) Verify that the desired services are activated.
6) Select the LOCK Softkey.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight YES.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
8) To complete activation, press the ENT Key.
Data
Radio ID
Audio
Radio ID
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Weather
Products
Window
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
RADIO
and INFO
Softkeys
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
LOCK Softkey
is Used to Save
Activation Data
During Initial
Setup
Figure 8-106 XM Information Page
AFCS
If SiriusXM Weather services have not been activated, the weather product boxes will appear empty on the
XM Information Page and a yellow Activation Required message is displayed in the center of the Weather
Data Link Page (Map Page Group). The Service Class refers to the groupings of weather products available for
subscription.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
USING SIRIUSXM SATELLITE RADIO
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The XM Radio Page provides information and control of the audio entertainment features of the SiriusXM
Satellite Radio.
Selecting the XM Radio Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select XM RADIO.
EIS
3) Select the RADIO Softkey to show the XM Radio Page where audio entertainment is controlled.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Active
Channels
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Channel
List
AFCS
Categories
Field
Figure 8-107 XM Radio Page
ACTIVE CHANNEL AND CHANNEL LIST
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Active Channel Box on the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected channel that the SiriusXM
Radio is using.
The Channels List Box of the XM Radio Page shows a list of the available channels for the selected category.
Channels can be stepped through one at a time or may be selected directly by channel number.
APPENDICES
Selecting a channel from the channel list:
1) While on the XM Radio Page, select the CHNL Softkey.
2) Select the CH + Softkey to go up through the list in the Channel Box, or move down the list with the CH – Softkey.
Or:
INDEX
1) Press the FMS Knob to highlight the channel list and turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the channels.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting a channel directly:
1) While on the XM Radio Page, select the CHNL Softkey.
2) Select the DIR CH Softkey. The channel number in the Active Channel Box is highlighted.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Select the numbered softkeys located on the bottom of the display to directly select the desired channel number.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
CATEGORY
EIS
The Category Box of the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected category of audio. Categories of
channels such as jazz, rock, or news can be selected to list the available channels for a type of music or other
contents. One of the optional categories is PRESETS to view channels that have been programmed.
Selecting a category:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Select the CATGRY Softkey on the XM Radio Page.
2) Select the CAT + and CAT - Softkeys to cycle through the categories.
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Categories list. Highlight the desired category with the small FMS Knob
and press the ENT Key. Selecting All Categories places all channels in the list.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-108 Categories List
APPENDICES
PRESETS
Up to 15 channels from any category can be assigned a preset number. The preset channels are selected by
selecting the PRESETS and MORE Softkeys. Then the preset channel can be selected directly and added to
the channel list for the Presets category.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Setting a preset channel number:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
2) Select the MORE Softkey to access the next five channels (PS6 – PS10), and again to access the last five
channels (PS11 – PS15). Selecting the MORE Softkey repeatedly cycles through the preset channels.
1) On the XM Radio Page, while listening to an Active Channel that is wanted for a preset, select the PRESETS
Softkey to access the first five preset channels (PS1 - PS5).
3) Select any one of the (PS1 - PS15) softkeys to assign a number to the active channel.
EIS
4) Select the SET Softkey on the desired channel number to save the channel as a preset.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Press PRESETS to
Access the Preset
Channels Softkeys
Press MORE to Cycle
Through the Preset
Channels
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Press SET to
Save Each
Preset Channel
Figure 8-109 Accessing and Selecting Preset SiriusXM Channels
Selecting the BACK Softkey, or 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, returns the system to the top level softkeys.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
VOLUME
Radio volume is shown as a percentage. Volume level is controlled by selecting the VOL Softkey, which
brings up the MUTE Softkey and the volume increase and decrease softkeys.
Adjusting the volume:
AFCS
1) With the XM Radio Page displayed, press the VOL Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the VOL – Softkey to reduce volume or press the VOL + Softkey to increase volume. (Once the VOL
Softkey is pressed, the volume can also be adjusted using the small FMS Knob.)
APPENDICES
Figure 8-110 Volume Control
Radio volume may also be adjusted at each passenger station.
Mute SiriusXM audio:
INDEX
1) Select the XM Radio Page or XM Information Page.
2) Press the MUTE Softkey to mute the audio. Press the MUTE Softkey again to unmute the audio.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.8 BLUETOOTH® MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Bluetooth Management Page allows for setting up the installed optional Flight Stream device for a Bluetooth
connection between the G950 and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™ application. When connected,
GPS, AHRS, ADS-B, and FIS-B weather data is shared with the mobile device. Also, flight plans can be transferred
from the mobile device to the G950. See the Flight Planning discussion in the Flight Management section of this
manual and the Garmin Pilot User Guide for more details regarding flight plans.
EIS
The mobile device must be ‘paired’ with the G950 in order to use the various functions. Pairing is accomplished
by first placing the G950 in pairing mode by displaying the Bluetooth Management Page as shown in Figure
8-111. Note the ‘PAIRING MODE’ field shows ‘ENABLED’. The G950 is ‘discoverable’ whenever this page is
displayed. The pairing operation is completed from the mobile device and the Garmin Pilot application. See the
device Bluetooth pairing instructions and the connection instructions in the Garmin Pilot application.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The following functions are also available on this page display:
• Changing the Bluetooth name
• Enabling and disabling import of flight plans from a mobile device
• Enabling and disabling automatic reconnection to individual paired devices
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Removal of specific paired devices
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-111 Bluetooth Management Page
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Viewing the Bluetooth Management Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the BLUETOOTH MANAGEMENT page.
Changing the Bluetooth name:
1) While viewing the Bluetooth Management Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘BLUETOOTH NAME’ field.
EIS
3) Enter the desired name by using the large FMS Knob to select the character field, and the small FMS Knob
select the desired alphanumeric character for that field.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is removed and the new name is displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Enabling/Disabling Flight Plan importing from Garmin Pilot:
1) While viewing the Bluetooth Management Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘FLIGHT PLAN IMPORT’ field.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘ENABLED’ or ‘DISABLED’.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Enabling/Disabling automatic reconnection of a specific paired device:
1) While viewing the Bluetooth Management Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired paired device.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘ENABLED’ or ‘DISABLED’. Selecting ‘ENABLED’ allows the G950 to
automatically connect to a previously paired device when detected.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
AFCS
Removing a specific paired device from the list of paired devices:
1) While viewing the Bluetooth Management Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired paired device.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the REMOVE Softkey. A confirmation screen is displayed as seen in Figure 8-112.
INDEX
Figure 8-112 Device Removal Confirmation
4) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘YES’.
5) Press the ENT Key to remove the device from the list of paired devices.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.9 SCHEDULER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., Hot Section Inspection or
Phase 1 Maintenance Check) in the Alerts Window on the PFD. Messages can be set to display based on a specific
date and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero (one-time; default setting), or recurrently whenever
the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set to periodic alerting automatically reset to the
original timer value once the message is displayed. When power is cycled, all messages are retained until deleted,
and message timer countdown is resumed.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-113 Scheduler (Utility Page)
Entering a scheduler message:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty scheduler message naming field.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the message text to be displayed in the Alerts Window and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the field next to Type.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the message type:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
• One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
• Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
APPENDICES
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MM-YY) and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the name field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
5) Press the ENT Key while the message line is cleared to clear the message text.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Scheduler messages appear in the Alerts Window on the PFD. When a scheduler message is waiting, the
ALERTS Softkey label flashes. Selecting the ALERTS Softkey opens the Alerts Window and acknowledges the
scheduler message. Selecting the ALERTS Softkey again removes the Alerts Window from the display, and the
scheduler message is deleted from the message queue.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-114 PFD Alerts Window
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.10 FLIGHT DATA LOGGING
NOTE: Some aircraft installations may not provide all aircraft/engine data capable of being logged by the
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
system.
The Flight Data Logging feature will automatically store critical flight and engine data on an SD data card (up
to 16GB) inserted into the top card slot of the MFD. Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each
1GB of available space on the card.
EIS
Data is written to the SD card once each second while the MFD is powered on. All flight data logged on a
specific date is stored in a file named in a format which includes the date, time, and nearest airport identifier. The
file is created automatically each time the G1000 system is powered on, provided an SD card has been inserted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The status of the Flight Data Logging feature can be viewed on the AUX-UTILITY Page. If no SD card has been
inserted, “NO CARD” is displayed. When data is being written to the SD card, “LOGGING DATA” is displayed.
The .csv file may be viewed with Microsoft Excel® or other spreadsheet applications.
The following is a list of data parameters the G1000 system is capable of logging.
• Time
• GPS altitude (MSL)
• GPS altitude (WGS84 datum)
• Baro Correction (in/Hg)
• Vertical speed (fpm)
• GPS horizontal alert limit
• Magnetic Heading (degrees)
• HSI source
• OAT (degrees C)
• True airspeed (knots)
• Roll Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Lateral and Vertical G Force (g)
• GPS vertical alert limit
• SBAS GPS horizontal protection
level
• Com1/Com2 frequency
• SBAS GPS vertical protection
level
• Nav1/Nav2 frequency
• Fuel Qty (right & left)(gals)
• CDI deflection
• Fuel Flow (gph)
• VDI/GP/GS deflection
• Oil Pressure (psi)
• Wind Direction (degrees)
• Oil Temperature (deg. F)
• Wind Speed (knots)
• Manifold Pressure
• Active Waypoint Identifier
• Propeller RPM
• Distance to next waypoint (nm)
• Turbine Inlet Temperature
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Pitch Attitude Angle (degrees)
• GPS fix
AFCS
• GPS vertical speed (fpm)
APPENDICES
• Ground Track (degrees
magnetic)
• Longitude (degrees; geodetic;
+East)
• Selected course
• Indicated airspeed (kts)
• Ground Speed (kts)
• Magnetic variation (degrees)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Baro-Corrected altitude (feet)
• Latitude (degrees; geodetic;
+North)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Date
• Bearing to next waypoint
(degrees)
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The file containing the recorded data will appear in the format shown in Figure 8-115. This file can be imported
into most computer spreadsheet applications.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Local Date
YYMMDD
Local 24hr Time
HHMMSS
Nearest Airport
(A blank will be
inserted if no
airport is found)
EIS
log_150210_104506_KIXD.csv
Figure 8-115 Log File Format
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Data logging status can be monitored on the AUX-UTILITY Page.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.11 AUXILIARY VIDEO (OPTIONAL)
The G950 provides a control and display interface to an optional auxiliary video system. The system can
display video for up to two inputs.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
There are four modes of operation of the auxiliary video display: Full-Screen, Full-Screen with Digital Zoom,
Split-Screen with Map, and Split-Screen with Map and Digital Zoom.
Displaying auxiliary video:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX page group.
EIS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select VIDEO and display the AUX-VIDEO Page.
The video display softkeys shown below appear on the AUX - VIDEO Page.
INPUT
SETUP
VID ZM+
VID ZM-
MAP ACTV HIDE MAP
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
MAP
ENGINE
VID ACTV
CNTRST +
BRIGHT -
BRIGHT +
SAT -
SAT +
RESET
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
CNTRST -
BACK
Pressing the BACK Softkey returns
to the Previous Level Softkeys.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-116 Video Display Softkeys
Control of the AUX - VIDEO Page can also be accessed through the Page Menu.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-117 AUX - VIDEO Page Menu
Selecting video menu options:
INDEX
1) While viewing the AUX - VIDEO Page press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired video adjustment option and press the ENT Key.
Once the ENT key is pressed on any option, the page menu closes and returns to the AUX - VIDEO Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
VIDEO SETUP
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Video brightness, contrast, and saturation may be adjusted be selecting the setup function. While viewing
the setup function softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the AUX - VIDEO Page
softkeys.
Adjusting the video settings:
1) With the AUX-VIDEO Page displayed, press the SETUP Softkey.
2) Press the BRIGHT - or BRIGHT +, to adjust display brightness in five percent increments from 0 to 100%.
EIS
3) Press the CNTRST- or CNTRST +, to adjust display contrast in five percent increments from 0 to 100%.
4) Press the SAT - or SAT +, to adjust display saturationin five percent increments from 0 to 100%.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) If desired, return the display to the default settings by pressing the RESET Softkey.
6) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the previous softkey level.
DISPLAY SELECTION
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pressing the HIDE MAP Softkey removes the map and displays video on the full screen. The softkey label
changes to grey with black characters. Pressing the HIDE MAP Softkey again restores the map view and the
small video image. The softkey label returns to white characters on a black background.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Video
Display
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Map
View
INDEX
Figure 8-118 AUX - Video Split-Screen
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-119 Full Screen Video Display
INPUT SELECTION
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
While on the AUX - VIDEO Page, press the INPUT Softkey to select Input 1 or Input 2. The selected input
is displayed in the upper left of the video display.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ZOOM/RANGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The RANGE Knob can be used to increase or decrease the range setting on the map display or zoom in and
out on the video display. While in the Split-Screen mode, pressing the MAP ACTV or VID ACTV Softkey
determines which display the RANGE Knob adjusts. Pressing the softkey to display MAP ACTV allows the
RANGE Knob to control the range setting of the map display. Pressing the softkey to display VID ACTV allows
the RANGE Knob to control the zoom setting of the video display.
Pressing the VID ZM + or VID ZM - Softkeys increases or decreases video display magnification between 1x
and 10x.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
When zooming in on the video display, a Zoom Window will appear in the upper right of the display. A box
within this window indicates the portion of the display currently being viewed. The currently displayed portion
of the full display may be adjusted by using Joystick.
Zoom
Window
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Current
View
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-120 Zoom Window
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.12 ABNORMAL OPERATION
SVT TROUBLESHOOTING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SVT is intended to be used with traditional attitude, heading, obstacle, terrain, and traffic inputs. SVT is
disabled when valid attitude or heading data is not available for the display. In case of invalid SVT data, the
PFD display reverts to the standard blue-over-brown attitude display.
SVT becomes disabled without the following data resources:
• Attitude data
EIS
• Heading data
• GPS position data
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• 9 Arc-second Terrain data
• Obstacle data
• TAWS function is not available, in test mode, or failed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• The position of the aircraft exceeds the range of the terrain database.
REVERSIONARY MODE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SVT can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If it is enabled when switching
to Reversionary Mode, SVT will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The standard, non-SVT PFD display will
be shown in the interim.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 8-121 SVT Reversionary Mode
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Unusual attitudes are displayed with red chevrons overlaid on the display indicating the direction to fly to
correct the unusual attitude condition. The display shows either a brown or blue colored bar at the top or
bottom of the screen to represent earth or sky. This is intended to prevent losing sight of the horizon during
extreme pitch attitudes.
Figure 8-122 Unusual Attitude Display
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The blue colored bar is also displayed when terrain gradient is great enough to completely fill the display.
AFCS
Blue Band
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Terrain
Completely
Fills Display
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 8-123 Blue Sky Bar with Full Display Terrain
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
GDL 69/69A/69 SXM/69A SXM DATA LINK RECEIVER TROUBLESHOOTING
Some quick troubleshooting steps listed below can be performed to find the possible cause of a failure.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Ensure the owner/operator of the aircraft in which the Data Link Receiver is installed has subscribed to
SiriusXM Satellite Radio
• Ensure the SiriusXM subscription has been activated
• Perform a quick check of the circuit breakers to ensure that power is applied to the Data Link Receiver
• Ensure that nothing is plugged into the Music jack(s) because this would prevent SiriusXM Satellite Radio
from being heard
EIS
For troubleshooting purposes, check the LRU Information Box on the AUX - System Status Page for Data Link
Receiver (GDL 69/69A/69 SXM/69A SXM) status, serial number, and software version number. If a failure has
been detected in the GDL 69/69A/69 SXM/69A SXM the status is marked with a red X.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selecting the System Status Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page (the last page in the AUX Page Group).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-124 LRU Information Window on System Status Page
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If a failure still exists, the following messages may provide insight as to the possible problem:
Message
Message Location
CHECK ANTENNA
XM Information Page (MFD)
UPDATING
XM Information Page (MFD))
XM Information Page Weather Datalink Page Loss of signal; signal strength too low for
(MFD)
receiver
EIS
NO SIGNAL
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Description
Data Link Receiver antenna error; service
required
Data Link Receiver updating encryption code
LOADING
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Acquiring channel audio or information
OFF AIR
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Channel not in service
--------
XM Radio Page (MFD)
WEATHER DATA LINK FAILED
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
ACTIVATION REQUIRED
XM Information Page (MFD)
Missing channel information
No communication from Data Link Receiver
within last 5 minutes
SiriusXM subscription is not activated
DETECTING ACTIVATION
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SiriusXM subscription is activating.
SiriusXM subscription confirmed downloading
WAITING FOR DATA...
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
weather data.
Table 8-7 GDL 69/69A/69 SXM/69A SXM Data Link Receiver Messages
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APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
NOTE: The Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) supersedes information found in this document.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 Alerting System conveys alerts using the following:
EIS
• Annunciation Window: The Annunciation Window displays abbreviated annunciation text. Text color is
based on alert levels described in the following section. The Annunciation Window is located to the right
of the Altimeter and Vertical Speed Indicator. All aircraft annunciations can be displayed simultaneously
in the Annunciation Window. A white horizontal line separates annunciations that are acknowledged from
annunciations that are not yet acknowledged. Higher priority annunciations are displayed towards the top of
the window.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Alerts Window: The Alerts Window displays text messages for up to 64 prioritized alert messages. Pressing
the ALERTS Softkey displays the Alerts Window. Pressing the ALERTS Softkey a second time removes the
Alerts Window from the display. When the Alerts Window is displayed, the FMS Knob can be used to scroll
through the alert message list.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Softkey Annunciation: During certain alerts, the ALERTS Softkey may appear as a flashing annunciation
to accompany an alert. The ALERTS Softkey assumes a new label consistent with the alert level (WARNING,
CAUTION, or ADVISORY). By pressing the softkey when flashing an annunciation, the alert is acknowledged.
The softkey label then returns to ALERTS. If alerts are still present, the ALERTS label is displayed in white
with black text. Pressing the ALERTS Softkey a second time views the alert text messages.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• System Annunciations: Typically, a large red ‘X’ appears over instruments whose information is supplied by
a failed Line Replaceable Unit (LRU). See the G950 System Annunciations Section for more information.
System
Annunciation
(Red ‘X’)
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Annunciation
Window
APPENDICES
Alerts Window
INDEX
Softkey
Annunciation
Figure A-1 G950 Alerting System
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
• Audio Alerting System: The system issues audio alert tones when specific system conditions are met. See the
Alert Level Definitions Section for more information. Should the #1 GIA 63W fail, audio and voice alerts are
not generated. The annunciation tone may be tested from the AUX - System Status Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Testing the system annunciation tone:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
2) Press the ANN TEST Softkey.
Or:
EIS
a) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
b) Highlight ‘Enable Annunciator Test Mode’ and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure A-2 System Status Page, Annunciation Tone Testing
Select to Test
Annunciation Tone
ALERT LEVEL DEFINITIONS
The G950 Alerting System uses the following types of alerts.
• WARNING: This level of alert requires immediate attention.
AFCS
Warning alert text is shown in red in the Annunciation Window and is accompanied by a triple chime.
Warning voice alerts repeat continuously until acknowledged.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• CAUTION: This level of alert indicates the existence of abnormal conditions on the aircraft that may require
intervention.
Caution alert text is shown in yellow in the Annunciation Window and is accompanied by a double chime.
Caution voice alerts repeat three times or until acknowledged.
• ADVISORY: This level of alert provides general information.
APPENDICES
Advisory alert text is shown in white in the Annunciation Window; no aural tone is generated.
• G950 SYSTEM MESSAGES: This level of alert provides general information.
INDEX
Annunciation alert text is shown in white in the ALERTS Window; no aural tone is generated. An
annunciation alert is accompanied by a flashing ALERTS Softkey annunciation. Pressing the flashing ALERT
Softkey acknowledges the presence of the alert and displays the alert text message in the Alerts Window.
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APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CAS MESSAGES
The following messages are configured specifically for the the Twin Commander. See the Pilot’s Operating
Handbook (POH) for information regarding pilot responses.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING ANNUNCIATION
Audio Alert
Repeating Chime
Repeating Chime
Repeating Chime
Repeating Chime
Repeating Chime
Repeating Chime
Repeating Chime
Repeating Chime
Repeating Chime
Repeating Chime
Repeating Chime
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Annunciation Text
Desription
L FIRE
Left engine fire warning
R FIRE
Right engine fire warning
CABIN ALT
Cabin altitude is high
FUSE TEMP*
Bleed air leak in unpressurized fuselage
L OIL PRESS*
Left engine oil pressure low
R OIL PRESS*
Right engine oil pressure low
L OIL TEMP HI*
L Oil Temp GT 111 for 5 minutes
R OIL TEMP HI*
R Oil Temp GT 111 for 5 minutes
L RPM HI*
Left RPM over 101% for > 30 sec
R RPM HI*
Right RPM over 101% for > 30 sec
SET TRIM*
Elevator trim not in takeoff range
* Annunciation not used on all models
CAUTION ANNUNCIATION
APPENDICES
INDEX
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Left engine in BETA mode
Right engine in BETA mode
Prop Sync
Left engine chip detector
Right engine chip detector
Left generator inoperative
Right generator inoperative
Low fuel quantity
Cabin or baggage door not secure
RADIO BUS 1 - no power
RADIO BUS 2 - no power
Low voltage on MAIN BUS
ECU pressure regulator inoperative
Regulated air pressure high
DISTR BUS 1 - no power
DISTR BUS 2 - no power
Left Hydraulic flow
Right Hydraulic flow
Aural Alert
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
AFCS
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Description
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Annunciation Text
L BETA
R BETA
PROP SYNC
L CHIP
R CHIP
L GEN
R GEN
LOW FUEL
DOOR
RADIO BUS 1
RADIO BUS 2
LOW VOLTS
ECU PRESS*
REG AIR*
DISTR BUS 1*
DISTR BUS 2*
L HYDR FLOW*
R HYDR FLOW*
611
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Annunciation Text
Description
EMER PRESS*
Emergency pressurization system activated
CONTROL BUS*
CONTROL BUS - no power
DISTR BUS*
DISTR BUS - no power
STALL*
Stall warning
A/C VOLTS**
No power on A/C bus
FLAPS FAIL
Flaps - failure
* Annunciation not used on all models
** Optional for all models
Aural Alert
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
Single Chime
ADVISORY ANNUNCIATION
Aural Alert
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Annunciation Text
Description
EXTERNAL POWER
External power source available
L INLET
Left inlet anti-ice on
R INLET
Right inlet anti-ice on
MAX FLOW
Max flow on
L IGN*
Left ignition system on
R IGN*
Right ignition system on
L FUEL VALVE*
Left fuel valve
R FUEL VALVE*
Right fuel valve
L HYD VALVE*
L hydraulic valve
R HYD VALVE*
Right hydraulic valve
SERIES MODE*
Batteries in series mode
FLAPS TRANS*
Flaps in transit
FLAPS 20*
Flaps at 20 degrees
FLAPS 40*
Flaps at 40 degrees
L START OVRD*
Left engine auto start override on
R START OVRD*
Right engine auto start override on
LO ALT*
Stall warning system 22,000’ switch activated
HI ALT*
Stall warning system 30,000’ switch activated
AV 1 FAN FAIL
Cooling Fan 1 for remote avionics has failed.
AV 2 FAN FAIL
Cooling Fan 2 for remote avionics has failed.
PFD1 FAN FAIL
The cooling fan for PFD1 has failed.
PFD2 FAN FAIL
The cooling fan for PFD2 has failed.
MFD FAN FAIL
The cooling fan for MFD has failed.
* Annunciation not used on all models
612
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
COMPARATOR ANNUNCIATIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Comparator monitors critical values generated by redundant sensors. If differences in the sensors exceed
a specified amount, this discrepancy is annunciated in the Comparator Window as a ‘MISCOMP’ (miscompare)
as seen in Figure A-3. If one or both of the sensed values are unavailable, it is annunciated as a ‘NO COMP’ (no
compare). The following is a list of the possible annunciations:
Comparator
Window
EIS
Comparator Window Text
ALT MISCOMP
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
HDG MISCOMP
PIT MISCOMP
ROL MISCOMP
ALT NO COMP
IAS NO COMP
HDG NO COMP
PIT NO COMP
ROL NO COMP
Condition
Difference in altitude sensors is > 200 ft.
If both airspeed sensors detect < 35 knots, this is inhibited.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 35 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 10 knots.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 80 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 7 knots.
Difference in heading sensors is > 6 degrees.
Difference in pitch sensors is > 5 degrees.
Difference in roll sensors is > 6 degrees.
No data from one or both altitude sensors.
No data from one or both airspeed sensors.
No data from one or both heading sensors.
No data from one or both pitch sensors.
No data from one or both roll sensors..
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
IAS MISCOMP
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure A-3 Sensor Comparator Window
REVERSIONARY SENSOR ANNUNCIATIONS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Reversionary sensor selection is annunciated in the Reversionary Sensor Window, as shown in Figure A-4.
These annunciations reflect reversionary sensors selected on one or both PFDs. Pressing the SENSOR Softkey
gives access to ADC1, ADC2, AHRS1, and AHRS2 Softkeys. These softkeys allow manual switching of sensors.
In the case of certain types of sensor failures, the G950 may make some sensor selections automatically. The GPS
sensor cannot be switched manually.
INDEX
Reversionary Sensor
Window
Figure A-4 Reversionary Sensor Windows
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Reversionary Sensor
Window Text
BOTH ON ADC1
BOTH ON ADC2
BOTH ON AHRS1
BOTH ON AHRS2
BOTH ON GPS1
BOTH ON GPS2
USING ADC1
USING ADC2
USING AHRS1
USING AHRS2
USING GPS1
USING GPS2
Condition
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number one Air Data Computer.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number two Air Data Computer.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number one Attitude & Heading Reference System.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number two Attitude & Heading Reference System.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number one GPS receiver.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number two GPS receiver.
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 Air Data Computer.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 Air Data Computer.
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 AHRS.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 AHRS.
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 GPS.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 GPS.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
G950 SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
NOTE: Upon power-up, certain windows remain invalid as G950 equipment begins to initialize. All windows
should be operational within one minute of power-up. If any window continues to remain flagged, the
system should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized repair facility.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red ‘X’ is typically displayed on windows associated with the
failed data (refer to Figure A-5 for all possible flags and the responsible LRUs). Refer to the Pilot’s Operating
Handbook (POH) for additional information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Units
AFCS
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Units
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
GDC 74A Air
Data Computer
APPENDICES
GEA 71 Engine
Airframe Unit
or
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Unit
GRS 77 AHRS
or
GMU 44
Magnetometer
INDEX
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Units
GDC 74A Air Data Computer
GTX 33 Transponder or GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Units
Figure A-5 G950 System Failure Annunciations
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The status of detected LRUs can be checked on the AUX - System Status Page (Figure A-2). Active LRUs
are indicated by green check marks; failed, by red ‘X’s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center or
Garmin-authorized dealer informed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Viewing LRU information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
2) To place the cursor in the ‘LRU Info’ Box,
a) Press the LRU Softkey.
Or:
EIS
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) With ‘Select LRU Window’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Use the FMS Knob to scroll through the box to view LRU status information.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
System Annunciation
Comment
System Annunciation
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Attitude and Heading
Reference System is aligning.
Display system is not receiving
vertical speed input from the
air data computer.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Display system is not receiving
attitude information from the
AHRS.
Display system is not receiving
valid heading input from AHRS.
Display system is not receiving
altitude input from the air data
computer.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AHRS calibration incomplete or
configuration module failure.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
GPS information is either
not present or is invalid for
navigation use. Note that
AHRS utilizes GPS inputs
during normal operation.
AHRS operation may be
degraded if GPS signals are not
present (see POH).
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Display system is not receiving
airspeed input from air data
computer.
Other Various Red X
Indications
INDEX
Comment
CDI is not receiving valid data
from the corresponding GIA.
Does not apply when the CDI is
set to GPS.
Display system is not receiving
valid true airspeed information
from air data computer.
Display system is not receiving
valid OAT information from air
data computer.
Display system is not receiving
valid transponder information.
Different versions of GDU
software are installed in the
PFD and MFD. This can also
indicate different versions
of the navigation database
installed in the PFD and MFD.
A cross-talk error between the
PFD and MFD will also cause
this annunciation.
A red ‘X’ through any other
display field (such as engine
instrumentation fields)
indicates that the field is not
receiving valid data.
Table A-1 G950 System Annunciations
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
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APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
G950 SYSTEM MESSAGE ADVISORIES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
This section describes various G950 system message advisories. Certain messages are issued due to an LRU
or an LRU function failure. Such messages are normally accompanied by a corresponding red ‘X’ annunciation
as shown previously in the G950 System Annunciation section.
NOTE: This Section provides information regarding G950 message advisories that may be displayed by the
system. Knowledge of the aircraft, systems, flight conditions, and other existing operational priorities must
be considered when responding to a message. Always use sound pilot judgment. The Pilot’s Operating
Handbook (POH) takes precedence over any conflicting guidance found in this section.
EIS
MFD & PFD MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Comments
The pilot profile data was lost. System reverts to default pilot profile and settings. The
pilot may reconfigure the MFD & PFDs with preferred settings, if desired.
The MFD and PFDs are not communicating with each other. The system should be
serviced.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The PFD and/or MFD self-test has detected a problem. The system should be serviced.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The PFD and/or MFD has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
AFCS
The PFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The MFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
APPENDICES
Message
DATA LOST – Pilot stored data was
lost. Recheck settings.
XTALK ERROR – A flight display
crosstalk error has occurred.
PFD1 SERVICE – PFD1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
PFD2 SERVICE – PFD2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
MFD1 SERVICE – MFD1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
PFD1 MANIFEST – PFD1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
PFD2 MANIFEST – PFD2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MFD1 MANIFEST – MFD1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
PFD1 CONFIG – PFD1 config error.
Config service req’d.
PFD2 CONFIG – PFD2 config error.
Config service req’d.
MFD1 CONFIG – MFD1 config error.
Config service req’d.
PFD1 SOFTWARE – PFD1 mismatch,
communication halted.
PFD2 SOFTWARE – PFD2 mismatch,
communication halted.
MFD1 SOFTWARE – MFD1 mismatch,
communication halted.
The specified GDU has different software versions installed. The system should be
serviced.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
PFD1 COOLING – PFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
PFD2 COOLING – PFD2 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
MFD1 COOLING – MFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
PFD1 KEYSTK – PFD1 [key name] Key
is stuck.
PFD2 KEYSTK – PFD2 [key name] Key
is stuck.
MFD1 KEYSTK – MFD [key name] Key
is stuck.
CNFG MODULE – PFD1 configuration
module is inoperative.
PFD1 VOLTAGE – PFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage
PFD2 VOLTAGE – PFD2 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage
MFD1 VOLTAGE – MFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage
[PFD1, PFD2, or MFD1] BKLT CAL INV
– calibration lost or mismatch. Return
for repair.
Comments
The PFD and/or MFD is overheating and is reducing power consumption by dimming
the display. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
A key is stuck on the PFD and/or MFD bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing
it several times. The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
The PFD1 configuration module backup memory has failed. The system should be
serviced.
The PFD1 voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
The PFD2 voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
The MFD voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
The PFD1, PFD2 and/or MFD backlight calibration cannot be found or is invalid. The
system should be serviced.
DATABASE MESSAGE ADVISORIES
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Message
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 navigation
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 navigation
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 navigation
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 basemap
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 basemap
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 basemap
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 terrain
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 terrain
database error exists.
618
Comments
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the navigation database. Attempt to reload
the navigation database. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the basemap database.
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Ensure that the terrain
card is properly inserted in display. Replace terrain card. If problem persists, the
system should be serviced.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
190-01602-00 Rev. B
APPENDIX A
The terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the obstacle database. Ensure that the data
card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The obstacle database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the airport terrain database. Ensure that
the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The airport terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified
LRU.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi database. Ensure that the data
card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
APPENDICES
The MFD detected a failure in the ChartView database (optional feature). Ensure that
the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the FliteCharts database. Ensure that the data card is
properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Twin Commander
INDEX
190-01602-00 Rev. B
Comments
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 FliteCharts
database error exists.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Message
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain
database missing.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 terrain
database missing.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 terrain
database missing.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 obstacle
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 obstacle
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
database missing.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 obstacle
database missing.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 obstacle
database missing.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 airport terrain
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 airport terrain
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 airport terrain
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 airport terrain
database missing.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 airport terrain
database missing.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 airport terrain
database missing.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Chartview
database error exists.
619
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
Comments
The MFD detected a failure in the Airport Directory database. Ensure that the data
card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
DB MISMATCH – Navigation
The PFDs and MFD have different navigation database versions or regions installed.
database mismatch. Xtalk is off.
Crossfill is off. Check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or regions.
Also, check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization function
not completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Standby Navigation The PFDs and MFD have different standby navigation database versions or regions
database mismatch.
installed. Check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or regions.
Also, check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization function
not completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Terrain database
The PFDs and MFD have different terrain database versions or regions installed.
mismatch.
Check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or regions. Also,
check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization function not
completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Obstacle database The PFDs and MFD have different obstacle database versions or regions installed.
mismatch.
Check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or regions. Also,
check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization function not
completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Airport Terrain
The PFDs and MFD have different airport terrain database versions or regions
database mismatch.
installed. Check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or regions.
Also, check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization function
not completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
NAV DB UPDATED – Active
System has updated the active navigation database from the standby navigation
navigation database updated.
database.
TERRAIN DSP – [PFD1, PFD2 or
One of the terrain, airport terrain, or obstacle databases required for TAWS in the
MFD1] Terrain awareness display
specified PFD or MFD is missing or invalid.
unavailable.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Airport
Directory datab