Garmin | G950 | Garmin G950 G950 Vulcanair P68 Pilot's Guide

Garmin G950 G950 Vulcanair P68 Pilot's Guide
G950
®
Integrated Flight Deck
Pilot’s Guide
®
G950 Pilot’s Guide
Garmin International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street
Olathe, KS 66062, U.S.A.
p:913.397.8200
f:913.397.8282
Garmin AT, Inc.
2345 Turner Road SE
Salem, OR 97302, U.S.A.
p:503.391.3411
f:503.364.2138
Garmin Corporation
No. 68, Jangshu 2nd Road
Shijr, Taipei County, Taiwan
p:886/02.2642.9199
f:886/02.2642.9099
www.garmin.com
Vulcanair P68
Garmin (Europe) Ltd.
Liberty House, Bulls Copse Road
Houndsdown Business Park
Southampton, SO40 9RB, U.K.
p:44/0870.8501241
f:44/0870.8501251
190-01325-00
Revision A
Vulcanair P68
Untitled-1 1
11/13/2007 9:15:37 AM
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
AUDIO PANEL & CNS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Copyright © 2011 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 0935.32 or later. Some differences in operation may be observed when
comparing the information in this manual to earlier or later software versions.
Garmin International, Inc., 1200 East 151st Street, Olathe, Kansas 66062, U.S.A.
Tel: 913/397.8200Fax: 913/397.8282
Garmin AT, Inc., 2345 Turner Road SE, Salem, OR 97302, U.S.A.
Tel: 503/391.3411Fax: 503/364.2138
Garmin (Europe) Ltd., Liberty House, Bulls Copse Road, Hounsdown Business Park, Southampton, SO40 9RB, U.K
Tel: 44/0870.8501241Fax: 44/0870.8501251
Garmin Corporation, No. 68, Jangshu 2nd Road, Shijr, Taipei County, Taiwan
Tel: 886/02.2642.9199Fax: 886/02.2642.9099
For after-hours emergency, aircraft on ground (AOG) technical support for Garmin panel mount and integrated avionics systems, please
contact Garmin’s AOG Hotline at 913.397.0836.
Website Address: www.garmin.com
Except as expressly provided herein, no part of this manual may be reproduced, copied, transmitted, disseminated, downloaded or stored
in any storage medium, for any purpose without the express written permission of Garmin. Garmin hereby grants permission to download
a single copy of this manual and of any revision to this manual onto a hard drive or other electronic storage medium to be viewed for
personal use, provided that such electronic or printed copy of this manual or revision must contain the complete text of this copyright notice
and provided further that any unauthorized commercial distribution of this manual or any revision hereto is strictly prohibited.
Garmin® is a registered trademark of Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries, and G950® and SafeTaxi® are trademarks of Garmin Ltd. or its
subsidiaries. These trademarks may not be used without the express permission of Garmin.
NavData® is a registered trademark of Jeppesen, Inc.; .S-TEC® is a registered trademark of S-TEC.
AOPA Membership Publications, Inc. and its related organizations (hereinafter collectively “AOPA”) expressly disclaim all warranties,
with respect to the AOPA information included in this data, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties
of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The information is provided “as is” and AOPA does not warrant or make any
representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Under no circumstances including negligence, shall AOPA be liable for any
incidental, special or consequential damages that result from the use or inability to use the software or related documentation, even if
AOPA or an AOPA authorized representative has been advised of the possibility of such damages. User agrees not to sue AOPA and, to
the maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AOPA from any causes of action, claims or losses related to any actual
or alleged inaccuracies in the information. Some jurisdictions do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for
incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you.
December 2011
Printed in the U.S.A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
LIMITED WARRANTY
LIMITED WARRANTY
Within the warranty period, Garmin will, at its sole discretion, repair or replace any components that fail in normal use. Such repairs or
replacement will be made at no charge to the customer for parts and/or labor incidental to the direct repair of said product. Garmin may,
at its discretion with prior approval, reimburse an authorized Garmin Service Center for associated labor costs incurred for removal and
replacement of the panel mount product installed in an aircraft. The customer shall be responsible for any transportation or other cost. This
warranty does not apply to: (i) cosmetic damage, such as scratches, nicks and dents; (ii) consumable parts, such as batteries, unless product
damage has occurred due to a defect in materials or workmanship; (iii) damage caused by accident, abuse, misuse, water, flood, fire, or
other acts of nature or external causes; (iv) damage caused by service performed by anyone who is not an authorized service provider
of Garmin; or (v) damage to a product that has been modified or altered without the written permission of Garmin. In addition, Garmin
reserves the right to refuse warranty claims against products or services that are obtained and/or used in contravention of the laws of any
country.
THE WARRANTIES AND REMEDIES CONTAINED HEREIN ARE EXCLUSIVE AND IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS,
IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING ANY LIABILITY ARISING UNDER ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE. THIS WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS, WHICH MAY VARY FROM
STATE TO STATE.
IN NO EVENT SHALL GARMIN BE LIABLE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER
RESULTING FROM THE USE, MISUSE, OR INABILITY TO USE THIS PRODUCT OR FROM DEFECTS IN THE PRODUCT. Some states do not
allow the exclusion of incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitations may not apply in every case.
Garmin retains the exclusive right to repair or replace (with a new or newly-overhauled replacement product) the product or offer a full
refund of the purchase price at its sole discretion. SUCH REMEDY SHALL BE YOUR SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDY FOR ANY BREACH OF
WARRANTY.
To obtain warranty service, contact your local Garmin Authorized Service Center. For assistance in locating the nearest Service Center, call
Garmin Customer Service at one of the numbers listed below.
Products sold through online auctions are not eligible for warranty coverage or rebates or other special offers from Garmin. Online auction
confirmations are not accepted for warranty verification. To obtain warranty service, an original or copy of the sales receipt from the original
retailer is required. Garmin will not replace missing components from any package purchased through an online auction.
Refer to the G950 Installation Manual for warranty registration instructions.
Garmin International Inc.
1200 East 151st Street, Olathe, Kansas 66062
Telephone:
(913)397-8200
Telephone Toll Free:
(888)606-5482
Facsimile:
(913)397-8282
Facsimile Toll Free:
(800)801-4670
E-mail: orders@garmin.com
avionics@garmin.com
warranty@garmin.com
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin (Europe) Ltd.
Liberty House, Bulls Copse Road, Southampton, SO40
9RB, UK
Telephone:
++44 (0) 870-8501243
Telephone Toll Free:
++44 (0) 0808 238 0000
(option 5)
Facsimile:
++44 (0) 238052004
E-mail: avionics.europe@garmin.com
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
i
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Navigation and terrain separation must NOT be predicated upon the use of the terrain avoidance
feature. The terrain avoidance feature is NOT intended to be used as a primary reference for terrain avoidance
and does not relieve the pilot from the responsibility of being aware of surroundings during flight. The
terrain avoidance feature is only to be used as an aid for terrain avoidance. Terrain data is obtained from
third party sources. Garmin is not able to independently verify the accuracy of the terrain data.
WARNING: The displayed minimum safe altitudes (MSAs) are only advisory in nature and should not be
relied upon as the sole source of obstacle and terrain avoidance information. Always refer to current
aeronautical charts for appropriate minimum clearance altitudes.
WARNING: The altitude calculated by G950 GPS receivers is geometric height above Mean Sea Level and
could vary significantly from the altitude displayed by pressure altimeters, such as the GDC 74A Air Data
Computer, or other altimeters in aircraft. GPS altitude should never be used for vertical navigation. Always
use pressure altitude displayed by the G950 PFD or other pressure altimeters in aircraft.
WARNING: Do not use outdated database information. Databases used in the G950 system must be updated
regularly in order to ensure that the information remains current. Pilots using any outdated database do so
entirely at their own risk.
WARNING: Do not use basemap (land and water data) information for primary navigation. Basemap data is
intended only to supplement other approved navigation data sources and should be considered as an aid to
enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Traffic information shown on system displays is provided as an aid in visually acquiring traffic.
Pilots must maneuver the aircraft based only upon ATC guidance or positive visual acquisition of conflicting
traffic.
WARNING: Use of the Stormscope is not intended for hazardous weather penetration (thunderstorm
penetration). Stormscope information, as displayed on the G950 MFD, is to be used only for weather
avoidance, not penetration.
WARNING: Do not use datalink weather products (e.g., XM WX Satellite Weather, GFDS World Wide Weather,
or FIS-B) for hazardous weather penetration. Weather information provided by these products is aged by up
to several minutes and may not depict actual weather conditions as they currently appear.
WARNING: NEXRAD weather data is to be used for long-range planning purposes only. Due to inherent
delays in data transmission and the relative age of the data, NEXRAD weather data should not be used for
short-range weather avoidance.
WARNING: For safety reasons, G950 operational procedures must be learned on the ground.
ii
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: The Garmin G950, as installed in this aircraft, has a very high degree of functional integrity.
However, the pilot must recognize that providing monitoring and/or self-test capability for all conceivable
system failures is not practical. Although unlikely, it may be possible for erroneous operation to occur
without a fault indication shown by the G950. It is thus the responsibility of the pilot to detect such an
occurrence by means of cross-checking with all redundant or correlated information available in the cockpit.
WARNING: The United States government operates the Global Positioning System and is solely responsible
for its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy
and performance of all GPS equipment. Portions of the Garmin G950 utilize GPS as a precision electronic
NAVigation AID (NAVAID). Therefore, as with all NAVAIDs, information presented by the G950 can be
misused or misinterpreted and, therefore, become unsafe.
WARNING: To reduce the risk of unsafe operation, carefully review and understand all aspects of the G950
Pilot’s Guide documentation and the G950 Integrated Avionics System in the Airplane Flight Manual.
Thoroughly practice basic operation prior to actual use. During flight operations, carefully compare indications
from the G950 to all available navigation sources, including the information from other NAVAIDs, visual
sightings, charts, etc. For safety purposes, always resolve any discrepancies before continuing navigation.
WARNING: The illustrations in this guide are only examples. Never use the G950 to attempt to penetrate
a thunderstorm. Both the FAA Advisory Circular, Subject: Thunderstorms, and the Aeronautical Information
Manual (AIM) recommend avoiding “by at least 20 miles any thunderstorm identified as severe or giving an
intense radar echo.”
WARNING: Lamp(s) inside this product may contain mercury (HG) and must be recycled or disposed of
according to local, state, or federal laws. For more information, refer to our website at www.garmin.com/
aboutGarmin/environment/disposal.jsp.
WARNING: Because of variation in the earth’s magnetic field, operating the G950 within the following areas
could result in loss of reliable attitude and heading indications. North of 72° North latitude at all longitudes;
South of 70° South latitude at all longitudes; North of 65° North latitude between longitude 75° W and
120° W. (Northern Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 70° W and 128° W. (Northern
Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 85° E and 114° E. (Northern Russia); South of 55°
South latitude between longitude 120° E and 165° E. (Region south of Australia and New Zealand)
WARNING: Do not use GPS to navigate to any active waypoint identified as a ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ by a
system message. ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ waypoints are derived from an unknown map reference datum that
may be incompatible with the map reference datum used by GPS (known as WGS84) and may be positioned
in error as displayed.
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
iii
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
CAUTION: The PFD and MFD displays use a lens coated with a special anti-reflective coating that is very
sensitive to skin oils, waxes, and abrasive cleaners. CLEANERS CONTAINING AMMONIA WILL HARM THE
ANTI-REFLECTIVE COATING. It is very important to clean the lens using a clean, lint-free cloth and an
eyeglass lens cleaner that is specified as safe for anti-reflective coatings.
CAUTION: The Garmin G950 does not contain any user-serviceable parts. Repairs should only be made by
an authorized Garmin service center. Unauthorized repairs or modifications could void both the warranty
and the pilot’s authority to operate this device under FAA/FCC regulations.
NOTE: When using Stormscope, there are several atmospheric phenomena in addition to nearby
thunderstorms that can cause isolated discharge points in the strike display mode. However, clusters of
two or more discharge points in the strike display mode do indicate thunderstorm activity if these points
reappear after the screen has been cleared.
NOTE: All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen images of the G950 panel and
displays, are subject to change and may not reflect the most current G950 system and aviation databases.
Depictions of equipment may differ slightly from the actual equipment.
NOTE: This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any
interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
NOTE: Interference from GPS repeaters operating inside nearby hangars can cause an intermittent loss of
attitude and heading displays while the aircraft is on the ground. Moving the aircraft more than 100 yards
away from the source of the interference should alleviate the condition.
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the flight displays to appear dim or blank.
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals known to the State of California
to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This notice is being provided in accordance with
California’s Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would like additional information, please refer to
our web site at www.garmin.com/prop65.
iv
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
REVISION INFORMATION
Record of Revisions
Part Number
190-01325-00
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Revision
A
Date
12/20/11
Page Range
Description
i – I-6
Initial release for 12.01 software.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Line Replaceable Units............................................ 2
Secure Digital (SD) Cards........................................ 8
System Power-up...................................................... 9
System Operation................................................... 10
Display Operation........................................................ 10
G950 System Annunciations......................................... 11
System Status.............................................................. 12
AHRS Operation.......................................................... 14
GPS Receiver Operation............................................... 15
G950 Controls......................................................... 20
PFD/MFD Controls....................................................... 20
Softkey Function.......................................................... 22
Accessing G950 Functionality............................... 29
Menus........................................................................ 29
Data Entry.................................................................. 29
Page Groups............................................................... 31
System Settings........................................................... 35
System Utilities............................................................ 43
Display Backlighting.............................................. 47
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 Flight Instruments.................................................. 52
Airspeed Indicator....................................................... 52
Attitude Indicator........................................................ 53
Altimeter.................................................................... 54
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)........................................ 57
Vertical Deviation........................................................ 57
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............................... 59
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)................................... 64
2.2 Supplemental Flight Data..................................... 71
Temperature Displays................................................... 71
Wind Data.................................................................. 72
Vertical Navigation (VNV) Indications............................ 73
2.3 PFD Annunciations and Alerting Functions......... 74
System Alerting........................................................... 74
Marker Beacon Annunciations...................................... 75
Traffic Annunciation..................................................... 76
TAWS Annunciations.................................................... 77
Altitude Alerting.......................................................... 78
vi
Low Altitude Annunciation........................................... 78
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height Alerting....... 79
2.4 Abnormal Operations............................................ 80
Abnormal GPS Conditions............................................ 80
Unusual Attitudes........................................................ 81
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM (EIS)
3.1 Engine Display........................................................ 86
Manifold Pressure Gauges............................................ 87
Tachometers................................................................ 87
Fuel Flow Indicators..............................................................
88
Cylinder Head Temperatures......................................... 88
Oil Pressure and Temperature Gauges............................ 88
Electrical Information................................................... 89
Fuel Quantity Gauge.................................................... 89
3.2 Lean Display............................................................ 90
3.3 System Display....................................................... 92
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Overview................................................................. 95
PFD Controls and Frequency Display.............................. 96
GMA 1347 Audio Panel Controls................................... 98
COM Operation..................................................... 100
COM Transceiver Selection and Activation.................... 100
COM Transceiver Manual Tuning................................. 101
Quick-tuning and Activating 121.500 MHz................... 102
Auto-tuning the COM Frequency................................. 103
Auto-tuning from the MFD......................................... 104
Frequency Spacing..................................................... 107
Automatic Squelch..................................................... 108
Volume..................................................................... 108
NAV Operation...................................................... 109
NAV Radio Selection and Activation............................ 109
NAV Receiver Manual Tuning...................................... 110
Auto-tuning a NAV Frequency from the MFD................ 112
Auto-tuning NAV Frequencies on Approach Activation.. 116
Marker Beacon Receiver............................................. 117
GTX 33 Mode S Transponder............................... 118
Transponder Controls................................................. 118
Transponder Mode Selection....................................... 119
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Entering a Transponder Code...................................... 121
IDENT Function......................................................... 122
Flight ID Reporting.................................................... 123
4.5 Additional Audio Panel Functions...................... 124
Power-Up.................................................................. 124
Mono/Stereo Headsets............................................... 124
Speaker.................................................................... 124
Intercom................................................................... 125
Passenger Address (PA) System................................... 127
Clearance Recorder and Player.................................... 127
Split COM Operation.................................................. 128
Entertainment Inputs................................................. 129
4.6 Audio Panel Preflight Procedure........................ 130
4.7 Abnormal Operation............................................ 131
Stuck Microphone...................................................... 131
COM Tuning Failure.................................................... 131
Audio Panel Fail-safe Operation.................................. 131
PFD Failure (Reversionary Mode)................................ 131
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 Introduction.......................................................... 133
Navigation Status Box................................................ 134
5.2 Using Map Displays.............................................. 136
Map Orientation........................................................ 136
Map Range............................................................... 138
Map Panning............................................................. 140
Measuring Bearing and Distance................................. 145
Topography............................................................... 146
Map Symbols............................................................ 149
Airways.................................................................... 155
Track Vector.............................................................. 157
Wind Vector.............................................................. 158
Nav Range Ring........................................................ 159
Fuel Range Ring........................................................ 160
Field of View (SVS)..................................................... 161
Selected Altitude Intercept Arc.................................... 162
5.3 Waypoints.............................................................. 163
Airports.................................................................... 164
Intersections............................................................. 171
NDBs........................................................................ 173
VORs........................................................................ 175
User Waypoints......................................................... 177
190-01325-00 Rev. A
5.4 Airspaces............................................................... 183
5.5 Direct-to-Navigation ........................................... 187
5.6 Flight Planning...................................................... 193
Flight Plan Creation................................................... 194
Adding Waypoints to an Existing Flight Plan................. 199
Adding Airways to a Flight Plan.................................. 201
Adding Procedures to a Stored Flight Plan................... 204
Flight Plan Storage.................................................... 211
Flight Plan Editing..................................................... 213
Along Track Offsets.................................................... 216
Parallel Track............................................................. 217
Activating a Flight Plan Leg........................................ 220
Inverting a Flight Plan................................................ 222
Flight Plan Views....................................................... 223
Closest Point of FPL................................................... 225
5.7 Vertical Navigation.............................................. 226
Altitude Constraints................................................... 228
5.8 Procedures............................................................ 232
Departures................................................................ 232
Arrivals .................................................................... 235
Approaches .............................................................. 237
5.9 Trip Planning......................................................... 243
Trip Planning............................................................. 243
5.10 RAIM Prediction................................................... 247
5.11 Navigating a Flight Plan...................................... 251
5.12 Abnormal Operation............................................ 279
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 XM WX Satellite Weather.................................... 282
Activating Services..................................................... 282
Using XM Satellite Weather Products........................... 283
6.2 Airborne Color Weather Radar........................... 315
System Description.................................................... 315
Principles of Pulsed Airborne Weather Radar................ 315
Safe Operating Distance............................................. 320
Basic Antenna Tilt Setup............................................. 320
Weather Mapping and Interpretation.......................... 322
Ground Mapping and Interpretation............................ 335
System Status............................................................ 336
6.3 WX-500 Stormscope............................................ 337
Setting Up Stormscope on the Navigation Map............ 337
Selecting the Stormscope Page................................... 341
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
6.4 Terrain Proximity.................................................. 342
Displaying Terrain Proximity Data................................ 342
6.5 Profile View Terrain.............................................. 347
Profile View Display................................................... 348
6.6 Terrain-SVS............................................................ 351
Displaying Terrain-SVS Data........................................ 352
Terrain-SVS Page....................................................... 354
Terrain-SVS Alerts...................................................... 356
6.7 TAWS-B.................................................................. 360
Displaying TAWS-B Data............................................. 361
TAWS-B Page............................................................ 364
TAWS-B Alerts........................................................... 366
System Status............................................................ 372
6.8 Traffic Information Service (TIS)......................... 374
Displaying TRAFFIC Data............................................ 375
Traffic Map Page........................................................ 377
TIS Alerts.................................................................. 378
System Status............................................................ 379
6.9 GTS 800/820 Traffic.............................................. 382
Theory of operation................................................... 382
TAS Alerts................................................................. 385
System Test............................................................... 386
Operation................................................................. 387
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 S-TEC Fifty Five X Autopilot (Optional)............. 395
Flight Director Mode Annunciation.............................. 395
Altitude Preselect...................................................... 395
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.1 Synthetic Vision System (SVS)............................ 398
SVS Operation........................................................... 399
SVS Features............................................................. 401
Field of View............................................................. 410
8.2 SafeTaxi................................................................. 412
SafeTaxi Cycle Number and Revision........................... 415
8.3 ChartView.............................................................. 418
ChartView Softkeys.................................................... 418
Terminal Procedures Charts........................................ 419
Chart Options............................................................ 427
Day/Night View......................................................... 433
ChartView Cycle Number and Expiration Date.............. 435
viii
8.4 FliteCharts............................................................. 438
FliteCharts Softkeys................................................... 438
Terminal Procedures Charts........................................ 439
Chart Options............................................................ 446
Day/Night View......................................................... 450
FliteCharts Cycle Number and Expiration Date.............. 452
8.5 AOPA Airport Directory........................................ 455
AOPA Database Cycle Number and Revision................ 456
8.6 SiriusXM Radio Entertainment........................... 458
Activating SiriusXM Satellite Radio Services................. 458
Using SiriusXM Radio................................................. 460
8.7 Scheduler............................................................... 464
8.8 Flight Data Logging............................................. 466
8.9 Abnormal Operation............................................ 468
SVS Troubleshooting.................................................. 468
Reversionary Mode.................................................... 468
Unusual Attitudes...................................................... 469
APPENDICES
Annunciations and Alerts.............................................. 473
G950 System Message Advisories............................... 479
Flight Plan Import/Export Messages............................ 488
TAWS-B ALERTS......................................................... 489
TAWS-B System Status Annunciations.......................... 490
Database Management................................................. 493
Jeppesen Databases................................................... 493
Garmin Databases..................................................... 497
Glossary........................................................................... 503
Frequently Asked Questions......................................... 511
General TIS Information................................................ 515
Map Symbols.................................................................. 517
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: This document provides a complete description of all existing features of the Garmin G950 system.
Not all of those are available on P68 series aircraft. The Aircraft Owner/Operator shall refer only to the
sections of this document relevant to the current aircraft configuration.
The G950 Integrated Flight Deck System presents flight instrumentation, position, navigation, communication,
and identification information to the pilot using flat-panel color displays. The system is distributed across the
following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• GRS 77 Attitude and Heading Reference System
(AHRS)
• GEA 71 Engine/Airframe Unit
• GMU 44 Magnetometer
• GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Units (IAU)
• GTP 59 Outside Air Temperature (OAT) Probe
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• GMA 1347 Audio Panel with Integrated Marker
Beacon Receiver
EIS
• GDU 1040A Multi Function Display (MFD)
• GTX 33 Mode S Transponder with Extended
Squitter
• GDU 1040A Primary Flight Display (PFD)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• GDC 74A Air Data Computer (ADC)
Figure 1-1 shows interactions between the LRUs. Additional/optional equipment are shown in Figure 1-2. The
G950 is capable of interfacing with the following optional equipment:
• S-TEC 55X Autopilot
• GWX 68 Weather Radar
• KN 63 DME
• GTS 800/820 Traffic Advisory System
• KR 87 ADF
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• GDL 69A Satellite Data Link Receiver
• WX 500 Lightning Detection System
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
1
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 LINE REPLACEABLE UNITS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• GDU 1040 (2) – The left-hand GDU is configured as a Primary Flight Display (PFD) and the right-hand GDU
as a Multi Function Display (MFD). Both feature 10.4-inch LCD screens with 1024 x 768 resolution. The
displays communicate with each other through a High-Speed Data Bus (HSDB) Ethernet connection. Each
display is also paired with an Ethernet connection to an IAU.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• GMA 1347 (1) – The Audio Panel integrates navigation/communication radio (NAV/COM) digital audio,
intercom, and marker beacon controls, and is installed between the displays. This unit also provides manual
control of display reversionary mode (red DISPLAY BACKUP Button; see Section 1.5, System Operation) and
communicates with both IAUs using an RS-232 digital interface.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• GIA 63W (2) – The Integrated Avionics Units (IAU) function as the main communication hubs, linking all
LRUs with the on-side display. Each IAU contains a GPS SBAS receiver, VHF COM/NAV/GS receivers, and
system integration microprocessors, and is paired with the on-side display via HSDB connection. The IAUs are
not paired together and do not communicate with each other directly.
2
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• GDC 74A (1) – The Air Data Computer (ADC) processes data from the pitot/static system and outside air
temperature (OAT) sensor. The ADC provides pressure altitude, airspeed, vertical speed, and OAT information
to the G950 System, and it communicates with the primary IAU, displays, and AHRS using an ARINC 429
digital interface.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• GEA 71 (2) – The Engine Airframe Unit receives and processes signals from the engine and airframe sensors.
This unit communicates with both IAUs using an RS-485 digital interface.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• GTX 33 with Extended Squitter (1) – Solid-state transponder that provides Modes A, C and S capability. The
transponder can be controlled from the PFD. The transponder communicates with the GIA 63Ws through an
RS-232 digital interface.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
• GRS 77 (1) – The Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) provides aircraft attitude and heading
information via ARINC 429 to both PFDs and the primary IAU. The AHRS contains advanced sensors (including
accelerometers and rate sensors) and interfaces with the Magnetometer to obtain magnetic field information,
with the ADC to obtain air data, and with both IAUs to obtain GPS information. AHRS operation is discussed
in Section 1.4, System Operation.
INDEX
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3
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• GMU 44 (1) – The Magnetometer measures local magnetic field and sends data to the AHRS for processing to
determine aircraft magnetic heading. This unit receives power directly from the AHRS and communicates with
it via an RS-485 digital interface.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
• GTP 59 (1) – Provides Outside Air Temperature (OAT) data to the GDC 74A.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• GDL 69A (1) – (optional) A satellite radio receiver that provides real-time weather information to the MFD (and,
indirectly, to the inset map of the PFD) as well as digital audio entertainment. The GDL 69A communicates
with the MFD via HSDB connection. A subscription to the XM Satellite Radio service is required to enable the
GDL 69A capability.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
• GWX 68 (1) – (optional) Provides airborne weather and ground mapped radar data to the MFD via HSDB
connection.
INDEX
APPENDICES
• GTS 800/820 – The GTS 800/820 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) uses active interrogations of Mode S, Mode A,
and Mode C transponders to provide Traffic Advisories to the pilot independent of the air traffic control system.
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• GA 58 (1) (optional) – The GA 58 is directional antenna for the Traffic Avoidance System. One top-mounted
directional antenna is required when the optional GTRS 800/820 is installed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• GA 36 (2) (1 optional with GDL 69A installation) and GA 37 (1 optional with GDL 69A installation) – The GA 36
is a through-mount GPS/SBAS antenna. The GA 37 is a through-mount GPS/SBAS antenna with XM/Data Link.
GA 37
EIS
GA 36
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
5
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GDU 1040
GMA 1347
GDU 1040
Audio Panel
Multi-Function Display
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Primary Flight Display
Reversionary
Control
EIS
Reversionary
Control
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
G
GDC
74A
A
Air Data
Computer
C
r
No. 1 GIA 63W
Integrated Avionics Unit
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
System Inegration Processors
I/O Processors
VHF COM
VHF NAV/LOC
GPS
Glideslope
GPS Output
OAT
Airspeed
Altitude
Vertical Speed
Ve
ed
GRS 77
AHRS
Attitude
Rate of Turn
Slip/Skid
No. 2 GIA 63W
Integrated Avionics Unit
System Integration Processors
I/O Processors
VHF COM
VHF NAV/LOC
GPS
Glideslope
GPS Output
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
GMU 44
Magnetometer
Heading
AFCS
GTX 33
Transponder
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
GEA 71 #1
Engine/Airframe
Unit
GEA 71 #2
Engine/Airframe
Unit
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 1-1 Basic G950 Block Diagram
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
No. 2 GIA 63W
Integrated Avionics Unit
XM Weather/Audio
(optional)
KR 87
ADF
(optional)
(optional)
GTS 800/820
Traffic Avoidance System
(optional)
GWX 68
AFCS
KN 63
DME
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
GDL 69A
Datalink
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
System Integration Processors
I/O Processors
VHF COM
VHF NAV/LOC
GPS
Glideslope
Weather Radar
(optional)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
WX 500
Stormscope
(optional)
APPENDICES
Figure 1-2 G950 With Optional/Additional Equipment
NOTE: For information on non-Garmin optional/additional equipment shown in Figure 1-2, consult the
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
INDEX
applicable optional interface user’s guide. This document assumes that the reader is already familiar with
the operation of this additional equipment.
7
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.2 SECURE DIGITAL (SD) CARDS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Ensure the G950 System is powered off before inserting an SD card.
NOTE: Refer to Appendix B for instructions on updating the aviation database.
EIS
The PFD and MFD data card slots use Secure Digital (SD) cards and are located on the upper right side of the
display bezels. Each display bezel is equipped with two SD card slots. SD cards are used for aviation database
and system software updates as well as terrain database storage.
Installing an SD card:
1) Insert the SD card in the SD card slot (the front of the card should be flush with the face of the display bezel).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) To eject the card, gently press on the SD card to release the spring latch.
AFCS
SD Card Slots
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 1-3 Display Bezel SD Card Slots
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1.3 SYSTEM POWER-UP
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Refer to Appendix A for system-specific annunciations and alerts.
The G950 System is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical
busses. The PFD, MFD, and supporting sub-systems include both power-on and continuous built-in test features
that exercise the processor, RAM, ROM, external inputs, and outputs to provide safe operation.
EIS
During system initialization, test annunciations are displayed, as shown in Figure 1-4. All system annunciations
should disappear typically within the first minute of power-up. Upon power-up, key annunciator lights also
become momentarily illuminated on the Audio Panel, the MFD Control Unit, and the display bezels.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
On the PFD, the AHRS begins to initialize and displays “AHRS ALIGN: Keep Wings Level”. The AHRS should
display valid attitude and heading fields typically within the first minute of power-up. The AHRS can align itself
both while taxiing and during level flight.
When the MFD powers up, the Power-up screen (Figure 1-5) displays the following information:
• System version
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Copyright
• Land database name and version
• SafeTaxi database information (see Additional Features)
• Terrain, Airport Terrain, Obstacle, and Aviation database name, version, and effective dates
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Current database information includes valid operating dates, cycle number, and database type. When this
information has been reviewed for currency (to ensure that no databases have expired), the pilot is prompted to
continue.
AFCS
Pressing the ENT Key (or right-most softkey) acknowledges this information, and the Navigation Map Page is
displayed upon pressing the key a second time. When the system has acquired a sufficient number of satellites to
determine a position, the aircraft’s current position is shown on the Navigation Map Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
190-01325-00 Rev. A
INDEX
Figure 1-4 PFD Initialization
Figure 1-5 Example MFD Power-up Screen
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
9
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.4 SYSTEM OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The G950 system alerts the pilot when backup paths are utilized by the LRUs. Refer to the Appendices
for further information regarding system-specific alerts.
The displays are connected together via a single Ethernet bus for high-speed communication. As shown in
Figure 1-1, each IAU is connected to the on-side display. This section discusses normal and reversionary G950
display operation, AHRS modes, GPS receiver operation, and G950 System Annunciations.
EIS
DISPLAY OPERATION
NOTE: In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be adjusted from the PFD (see Section 1.7). In
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
reversionary mode, it can be adjusted from the remaining display(s).
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
In normal operating mode, the PFD presents graphical flight instrumentation (attitude, heading, airspeed,
altitude, vertical speed), replacing the traditional flight instrument cluster (see the Flight Instruments Section
for more information). The MFD normally displays a full-color moving map with navigation information (see
the Flight Management Section), while the left portion of the MFD is dedicated to the Engine Indication System
(see the EIS Section). Both displays offer control for COM and NAV frequency selection.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 1-6 G950 System Normal Operation
In the event of a display failure, the G950 System automatically switches to reversionary (backup) mode. In
reversionary mode, all important flight information is presented on the remaining display(s) in the same format
as in normal operating mode.
APPENDICES
• PFD failure – MFD enters reversionary mode.
• MFD failure – PFD enters reversionary mode.
INDEX
If a display fails, the appropriate IAU-display Ethernet interface is cut off. Thus, the IAU can no longer
communicate with the remaining display (refer to Figure 1-1), and the NAV and COM functions provided to
the failed display by the IAU are flagged as invalid on the remaining display. The system reverts to backup
paths for the AHRS, ADC, Engine/Airframe Unit, and Transponder, as required. The change to backup paths is
completely automated for all LRUs and no pilot action is required.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
If the system fails to detect a display problem, reversionary mode may be manually activated by pressing the
display backup button installed in the cockpit. Pressing this button again deactivates reversionary mode.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NAV1 and COM1 (provided by the
failed PFD) Flagged Invalid
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 1-7 G950 Reversionary Mode (Failed PFD)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
G950 SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
11
INDEX
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
GTX 33 Transponder
Or
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
APPENDICES
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Figure 1-8 G950 System Failure Annunciations
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
GRS 77 AHRS
Or
GMU 44
Magnetometer
GEA 71 Engine
Airframe Unit
Or
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Unit
GDC 74A Air
Data Computer
AFCS
GDC 74A Air
Data Computer
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red ‘X’ is typically displayed over the instrument experiencing
failed data (Figure 1-8 displays all possible flags and responsible LRUs). Upon G950 power-up, certain
instruments remain invalid as equipment begins to initialize. All instruments should be operational within one
minute of power-up. If any instrument remains flagged, the G950 should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized
repair facility.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM STATUS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The System Status Page displays the statuses, serial numbers, and software version numbers for all detected
system LRUs. Active LRUs are indicated by green check marks; failed, by red ‘X’s. Failed LRUs should be noted
and a service center or Garmin-authorized dealer informed.
Viewing LRU information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
2) To place the cursor in the ‘LRU Info’ Box,
EIS
a) Press the LRU Softkey.
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) With ‘Select LRU Window’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Use the FMS Knob to scroll through the box to view LRU status information.
INDEX
Figure 1-9 Example System Status Page
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pertinent information on all system databases is also displayed on this page. Refer to the Appendices and
Additional Features sections for more information about databases.
Viewing database information:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
2) To place the cursor in the ‘Database’ Box,
a) Press the DBASE Softkey.
Or:
EIS
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Highlight ‘Select Dbase Window’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to scroll through the box to view database status information.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The G950 uses aural tones to convey the priority of airframe-specific alerts. The alerting system’s annunciation
tone may be tested from the System Status Page. Refer to the Appendices for airframe-specific alerts.
Testing the system annunciation tone:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
2) Press the ANN TEST Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
b) Highlight ‘Enable Annunciator Test Mode’ and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
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13
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AHRS OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for specific AHRS alert information.
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering while AHRS is not operating normally may degrade AHRS accuracy.
EIS
In addition to using internal sensors, the GRS 77 AHRS uses GPS information, magnetic field data and air
data to assist in attitude/heading calculations. In normal mode, the AHRS relies upon GPS and magnetic
field measurements. If either of these external measurements is unavailable or invalid, the AHRS uses air
data information for attitude determination. Four AHRS modes of operation are available (see Figure 1-10)
and depend upon the combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of air data, GPS, or magnetometer sensor
inputs is communicated to the pilot by message advisory alerts.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
available
unavailable
GPS Data
Magnetometer Data
available
AFCS
available
unavailable
Magnetometer Data
available
unavailable
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
AHRS
no-GPS
Mode
le
ab
AHRS no- AHRS no-Mag/
Mag Mode
no-Air Mode
Heading Invalid
Air Data
ail
av
un
available
Air Data
AHRS Normal
Operation
unavailable
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The AHRS (GRS 77) corrects for shifts and variations in the Earth’s magnetic field by applying the Magnetic
Field Variation Database. The Magnetic Field Variation Database is derived from the International Geomagnetic
Reference Field (IGRF). The IGRF is a mathematical model that describes the Earth’s main magnetic field
and its annual rate of change. The database is updated approximately every 5 years. See the Appendices for
information on updating the Magnetic Field Variation Database. The system will prompt you on startup when
an update is available. Failure to update this database could lead to erroneous heading information being
displayed to the pilot.
Attitude/Heading Invalid
Figure 1-10 AHRS Operation
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
GPS INPUT FAILURE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G1000 system provides two sources of GPS information. If a single GPS receiver fails, or if the
information provided from one of the GPS receivers is unreliable, the AHRS seamlessly transitions to using
the other GPS receiver. An alert message informs the pilot of the use of the backup GPS path. If both
GPS inputs fail, the AHRS continues to operate in reversionary No-GPS mode so long as the air data and
magnetometer inputs are available and valid.
AIR DATA INPUT FAILURE
EIS
A failure of the air data input has no effect on AHRS output while AHRS is operating in normal mode. A
failure of the air data input while the AHRS is operating in reversionary No-GPS mode results in invalid
attitude and heading information on the PFD (as indicated by red “X” flags).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
MAGNETOMETER FAILURE
If the magnetometer input fails, the AHRS transitions to one of the reversionary No-Magnetometer modes
and continues to output valid attitude information. However, if the aircraft is airborne, the heading output
on the PFD does become invalid (as indicated by a red “X”).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
GPS RECEIVER OPERATION
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Each Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU) contains a GPS receiver. Internal system checking is performed to
ensure both GPS receivers are providing accurate data to the PFD. When both GPS receivers are providing
accurate data, the GPS receiver producing the better solution is used by the system. Information collected by
the specified receiver (GPS1 for the #1 IAU or GPS2 for the #2 IAU) may be viewed on the AUX - GPS Status
Page.
Viewing GPS receiver status information:
AFCS
1) Use the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Auxiliary Page Group (see Section 1.6 for information on
navigating MFD page groups).
2) Use the small FMS Knob to select GPS Status Page (third page in the AUX Page Group).
3) To change the selected GPS receiver:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press the desired GPS Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the receiver which is not selected and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
15
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Satellite Signal
Information
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Satellite Constellation
Diagram
GPS
Receiver
Status
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
RAIM
Availability
Prediction
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Satellite
Signal
Strength
Bars
Figure 1-11 GPS Status Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
GPS sensor annunciations are most often seen after system power-up when one GPS receiver has acquired
satellites before the other or one of the GPS receivers has not yet acquired an SBAS signal. While the aircraft
is on the ground, the SBAS signal may be blocked by obstructions causing one GPS receiver to have difficulty
acquiring a good signal. Also, while airborne, turning the aircraft may result in one of the GPS receivers
temporarily losing the SBAS signal. If no failure message exists, check the GPS Status Page and compare the
information for GPS1 and GPS2. Discrepancies may indicate a problem.
GPS RECEIVER STATUS
APPENDICES
The GPS solution type (ACQUIRING, 2D NAV, 2D DIFF NAV, 3D NAV, 3D DIFF NAV) for the active
GPS receiver (GPS1 or GPS2) is shown in the upper right of the GPS Status Page. When the receiver is
in the process of acquiring enough satellite signals for navigation, the receiver uses satellite orbital data
(collected continuously from the satellites) and last known position to determine the satellites that should be
in view. ACQUIRING is indicated as the solution until a sufficient number of satellites have been acquired
for computing a solution.
INDEX
When the receiver is in the process of acquiring a 3D differential GPS solution, 3D NAV is indicated as the
solution until the 3D differential fix has finished acquisition. Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS)
status should be indicated as INACTIVE at this point. When acquisition is complete, the solution status
changes to 3D DIFF NAV and SBAS becomes active.
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• SBAS Selection (SBAS Softkey is pressed)
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of the SBAS coverage area, it may
be desirable to disable EGNOS, MSAS or WAAS (although it is not recommended). When disabled, the SBAS
field in the GPS Status box indicates DISABLED. There may be a small delay for the GPS Status box to be
updated upon EGNOS, MSAS or WAAS enabling/disabling.
Disabling SBAS
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, press the SBAS Softkey.
EIS
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn either FMS Knob to select ‘EGNOS’ or ‘MSAS’ or ‘WAAS’, as necessary.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Press the ENT Key to uncheck the box.
6) Repeat steps 4 & 5 as necessary, then press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 1-12 Enable/Disable SBAS
RAIM PREDICTION
AFCS
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to
calculate a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nautical miles for oceanic and enroute, 1.0
nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of
flight, RAIM is available nearly 100% of the time.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a specified date and time. RAIM
computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival date and time. In most cases
performing RAIM prediction is not necessary. However, in some cases, the selected approach may be outside
the SBAS coverage area and it may be necessary to perform a RAIM prediction for the intended approach.
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not available. The
G950 automatically monitors RAIM and warns with an alert message when it is not available. If RAIM is not
predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become active, as indicated by
the messages “Approach is not active”. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the missed approach
procedure must be flown.
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
17
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Predicting RAIM availability:
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window.
5) Enter the desired waypoint:
EIS
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired waypoint by identifier, facility, or city name and press the ENT Key. Refer
to Section 1.7 for instructions on entering alphanumeric data into the G950.
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
a) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
b) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the NRST, RECENT, or AIRWAY waypoints, if required.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
c) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint. The G950 automatically fills in the identifier,
facility, and city fields with the information for the selected waypoint.
d) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
6) Enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
7) Enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) With the cursor highlighting ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one
of the following is displayed:
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
Predicting RAIM availability at present position
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
APPENDICES
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) With ‘Set WPT to Present Position’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
INDEX
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
9) With the cursor highlighting ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one
of the following is displayed:
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
SATELLITE INFORMATION
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Satellites currently in view are shown at their respective positions on a satellite constellation diagram.
This sky view is always oriented north-up, with the outer circle representing the horizon, the inner circle
representing 45° above the horizon, and the center point showing the position directly overhead. Each satellite
is represented by an oval containing the Pseudo-random noise (PRN) number (i.e., satellite identification
number). Satellites whose signals are currently being used are represented by solid ovals.
The GPS Status Page can be helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due to poor satellite
coverage or installation problems. As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength bar is displayed
for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite PRN number (01-32 or 120-138 for WAAS) below each
bar. The progress of satellite acquisition is shown in three stages, as indicated by signal bar appearance:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- No bar—Receiver is looking for the indicated satellite
- Hollow bar—Receiver has found the satellite and is collecting data
- Light blue bar—Receiver has collected the necessary data and the satellite signal can be used
- Green bar—Satellite is being used for the GPS solution
- Checkered bar—Receiver has excluded the satellite (Fault Detection and Exclusion)
- “D” indication—Denotes the satellite is being used as part of the differential computations
AFCS
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission that must be collected (signal strength bar is hollow) before
the satellite may be used for navigation (signal strength bar becomes solid).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Using the current satellite signal information, they system calculates the aircraft’s GPS position, time,
altitude, ground speed, and track for the aircraft (displayed below the satellite signal accuracy measurements
for reference). The following quantities denote the accuracy of the aircraft’s GPS fix:
• Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU)—A statistical error indication; the radius of a circle centered on an
estimated horizontal position in which actual position has 95% probability of lying
APPENDICES
• Horizontal Dilution of Precision (HDOP)—Measures satellite geometry quality (i.e., number of satellites
received and where they are relative to each other) on a range from 0.0 to 9.9, with lower numbers denoting
better accuracy
• Horizontal and Vertical Figures of Merit (HFOM and VFOM)—Measures of horizontal and vertical position
uncertainty; the current 95% confidence horizontal and vertical accuracy values reported by the GPS
receiver
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
19
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.5 G950 CONTROLS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 controls have been designed to simplify operation of the system and minimize workload and the time
required to access sophisticated functionality. Controls are located on the PFD and MFD bezels, and the Audio
Panel. PFD and MFD controls and softkeys are discussed in this section. Audio Panel controls are described in
the Audio Panel and CNS section; see the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information about NAV/COM
controls.
EIS
PFD/MFD CONTROLS
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1
10
13
11
14
12
15
AFCS
16
18
17
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 1-13 PFD/MFD Controls
1
INDEX
APPENDICES
NAV VOL/ID Knob Turn to control NAV audio volume (shown in the NAV Frequency Box as a
percentage)
Press to toggle Morse code identifier audio ON/OFF
2 NAV Frequency
Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies
Transfer Key
3 NAV Knob
Turn to tune NAV receiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for kHz)
Press to toggle light blue tuning box between NAV1 and NAV2
4 Heading Knob
Turn to manually select a heading
Press to display a digital heading momentarily to the left of the HSI and synchronize
the Selected Heading to the and current heading
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
6
11
13
MENU Key
14
PROC Key
15
ENT Key
16
FMS Knob
Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus
Press and hold to display the MFD Navigation Map Page (MFD only).
Displays a context-sensitive list of options for accessing additional features or making
setting changes
Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs), and
approach procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan or selected airport
Validates/confirms menu selection or data entry
AFCS
CLR Key
(DFLT MAP)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
12
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
10
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
9
EIS
8
Turn to change map range
Press to activate Map Pointer for map panning
Turn large knob for altimeter barometric pressure setting
CRS/BARO Knob
Turn small knob to adjust course (only when HSI is in VOR or OBS Mode)
Press to re-center the CDI and return course pointer directly TO bearing of active
waypoint/station
Turn to tune COM transceiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for
COM Knob
kHz)
Press to toggle light blue tuning box between COM1 and COM2
The selected COM (green) is controlled with the COM MIC Key (Audio Panel).
Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies
COM Frequency
Transfer Key
Press and hold 2 seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically
(EMERG)
into the active frequency field
COM VOL/SQ Knob Turn to control COM audio volume level (shown as a percentage in the COM
Frequency Box)
Press to turn the COM automatic squelch ON/OFF
Direct-to Key ( ) Activates the direct-to function and allows the user to enter a destination waypoint
and establish a direct course to the selected destination (specified by identifier,
chosen from the active route)
Displays flight plan information
FPL Key
Joystick
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
7
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5
INDEX
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
APPENDICES
190-01325-00 Rev. A
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press to turn the selection cursor ON/OFF.
(Flight Management Data Entry: With cursor ON, turn to enter data in the highlighted field (large
knob moves cursor location; small knob selects character for highlighted cursor
System Knob)
location)
Scrolling: When a list of information is too long for the window/box, a scroll bar
appears, indicating more items to view. With cursor ON, turn large knob to scroll
through the list.
Page Selection: Turn knob on MFD to select the page to view (large knob selects a
page group; small knob selects a specific page from the group)
17 Softkey Selection
Press to select softkey shown above the bezel key on the PFD/MFD display
Keys
18 ALT Knob
Sets the Selected Altitude, shown above the Altimeter (the large knob selects the
thousands, the small knob selects the hundreds)
21
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The NAV, CRS/BARO, COM, FMS, and ALT knobs are concentric dual knobs, each having small (inner)
and large (outer) control portion. When a portion of the knob is not specified in the text, either may be used.
Large (Outer) Knob
Small (Inner) Knob
EIS
Figure 1-14 Dual Concentric Knob
SOFTKEY FUNCTION
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The softkeys are located along the bottoms of the displays. The softkeys shown depend on the softkey level
or page being displayed. The bezel keys below the softkeys can be used to select the appropriate softkey. When
a softkey is selected, its color changes to black text on gray background and remains this way until it is turned
off, at which time it reverts to white text on black background. When a softkey function is disabled, the softkey
label is subdued (dimmed).
Softkeys revert to the previous level after 45 seconds of inactivity.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Softkey
On
Softkey Names
(Displayed)
Bezel-Mounted
Softkeys (Press)
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 1-15 Softkeys (Third-Level PFD Configuration)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PFD SOFTKEYS
The CDI, IDENT, TMR/REF, NRST, and ALERTS softkeys undergo a momentary change to black text on
gray background and automatically switch back to white text on black background when selected.
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
INDEX
DFLTS
WIND
OPTN 1
OPTN 2
OPTN 3
OFF
LVL1 LVL2 LVL3
APPENDICES
SYN TERR
HRZN HDG
APTSIGNS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
SYN VIS
PATHWAY
Displays terrain information on Inset Map (not available with TAWS-A)
Displays Stormscope information on Inset Map (optional)
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and coverage on Inset Map (optional))
Displays XM lightning information on Inset Map (optional)
Displays METAR information on Inset Map (optional)
Displays second-level softkeys for additional PFD configurations
Displays the softkeys for enabling or disabling Synthetic Vision features
Displays rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active
flight plan
Enables synthetic terrain depiction
Displays compass heading along the Zero-Pitch line
Displays position markers for airports within approximately 15 nm of the current aircraft
position. Airport identifiers are displayed when the airport is within approximately 9 nm.
Resets PFD to default settings, including changing units to standard
Displays softkeys to select wind data parameters
Headwind/tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed components
Wind direction arrow with numeric speed
Wind direction arrow with numeric headwind/tailwind and crosswind components
Information not displayed
AFCS
PFD
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TERRAIN
STRMSCP
NEXRAD
XM LTNG
METAR
Displays icon and age on the Inset Map for the selected weather products (optional)
Displays traffic information on Inset Map
TRAFFIC: No Traffic displayed on Inset Map
TRFC-1: Traffic displayed on Inset Map
TRFC-2: Traffic Only display shown
Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes) and elevation scale on
Inset Map
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TOPO
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
WX LGND
TRAFFIC
Displays Inset Map in PFD lower left corner.
Removes Inset Map
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through declutter levels:
DCLTR (No Declutter): All map features visible
DCLTR-1: Declutters land data
DCLTR-2: Declutters land and SUA data
DCLTR-3: Removes everything except for the active flight plan
EIS
LVL1 LVL2 LVL3
INSET
OFF
DCLTR (3)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The PFD softkeys provide control over flight management functions, including GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic,
and lightning (optional). Each softkey sublevel has a BACK Softkey which can be selected to return to the
previous level. The ALERTS Softkey is visible at all softkey levels (label changes if messages are issued).
23
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
LVL1
LVL2
DME
BRG1
LVL3
Displays DME Information Window
Cycles the Bearing 1 Information Window through NAV1 or GPS waypoint identifier and
GPS-derived distance information, and ADF/frequency.
HSI FRMT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
360 HSI
ARC HSI
BRG2
ALT UNIT
METERS
IN
Displays HSI as a 360° compass rose
Displays HSI as a 140° viewable arc
Cycles the Bearing 2 Information Window through NAV2 or GPS waypoint identifier and
GPS-derived distance information, and ADF/frequency.
Displays softkeys for setting the altimeter and BARO settings to metric units
When enabled, displays altimeter in meters
Press to display the BARO setting as inches of mercury
HPA
Press to display the BARO setting as hectopacals
STD BARO
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
OBS
CDI
DME
XPDR
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
STBY
ON
ALT
GND
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
VFR
CODE
0—7
BKSP
ADS-B TX
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
ALERTS
LVL1 LVL2
Sets barometric pressure to 29.92 in Hg (1013 hPa if metric units are selected)
Selects OBS mode on the CDI when navigating by GPS (only available with active leg)
Cycles through GPS, VOR1, and VOR2 navigation modes on the CDI
Displays the DME Tuning Window, allowing tuning and selection of the DME (optional)
Displays transponder mode selection softkeys
Selects standby mode (transponder does not reply to any interrogations)
Selects Mode A (transponder replies to interrogations)
Selects Mode C – altitude reporting mode (transponder replies to identification and altitude
interrogations)
Manually selects Ground Mode, the transponder does not allow Mode A and Mode C
replies, but it does permit acquisition squitter and replies to discretely addressed Mode S
interrogations
Automatically enters the VFR code (1200 in the U.S.A. only)
Displays transponder code selection softkeys 0-7
Use numbers to enter code
Removes numbers entered, one at a time
Enables/disables automatic transmission of ADS-B position and speed.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds, identifying the
transponder return on the ATC screen
Displays Timer/References Window
Displays Nearest Airports Window
Displays Alerts Window
LVL3
INDEX
APPENDICES
Displays the softkeys for selecting the two HSI formats
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
OBS
CDI
(optional)
DME
XPDR
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PFD
INSET
ALERTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
CDI (NAV1)
CDI (NAV2)
CDI (GPS)
SENSOR
PFD
OBS
CDI
DME
XPDR
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
ALERTS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
INSET
(optional)
EIS
Figure 1-16 Top Level PFD Softkeys
(optional) (optional) (optional) (optional) (optional)
DCLTR
WX LGND TRAFFIC
DCLTR-1
TRFC-1
DCLTR-2
TRFC-2
TOPO
TERRAIN STRMSCP NEXRAD
XM LTNG
METAR
BACK
ALERTS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
OFF
Select the BACK or OFF Softkey
to return to the top-level softkeys.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
DCLTR-3
Figure 1-17 INSET Softkeys
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
25
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
PFD
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
INSET
DFLTS
WIND
(optional)
DME
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
SYN VIS
OBS
CDI
BRG1
HSI FRMT
DME
XPDR
BRG2
NAV1
NAV2
GPS
GPS
ADF
ADF
OFF
OFF
360 HSI
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
(optional)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
OPTN2
OPTN3
TMR/REF
NRST
ALERTS
ALT UNIT STD BARO
BACK
ALERTS
Select the BACK Softkey
to return to the top-level softkeys
ARC HSI
METERS
OPTN1
IDENT
IN
HPA
OFF
PATHWAY SYN TERR HRZN HDG APTSIGNS
BACK
ALERTS
BACK
ALERTS
BACK
ALERTS
BACK
ALERTS
AFCS
Figure 1-18 PFD Configuration Softkeys
PFD
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
INSET
OBS
CDI
(optional)
DME
XPDR
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
ALERTS
APPENDICES
Press the BACK Softkey to return
to the top-level softkeys.
STBY
ON
ALT
GND
VFR
2
3
4
5
6
CODE
IDENT
ADS-B TX
BACK
ALERTS
Selecting BACK returns to the previous softkey level.
0
1
7
IDENT
BKSP
BACK
ALERTS
INDEX
Figure 1-19 XPDR Softkeys
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MFD SOFTKEYS
MFD softkeys vary depending on the page selected. EIS and Navigation Map Page (default MFD page)
softkeys are described here.
ASSIST
BACK
MAP
TRAFFIC
TERRAIN
AIRWAYS
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
APPENDICES
LVL2
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
LVL1
AFCS
STRMSCP
NEXRAD
XM LTNG
NEXRAD
LEGEND
BACK
DCLTR (3)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PROFILE
TOPO
Non-Functional - Decreases displayed fuel remaining in 1-gal increments
Non-Functional - Increases displayed fuel remaining in 1-gal increments
Non-Functional - Resets displayed fuel remaining to maximum fuel capacity for aircraft
and fuel used to zero
Returns to top-level softkeys
Enables second-level Navigation Map Page softkeys
Displays/removes traffic information on Navigation Map Page
Displays profile view on Navigation Map Page
Displays/removes topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes) on Navigation
Map Page
Displays/removes terrain information on Navigation Map Page
Selects the desired display of Airways; cycles through:
AIRWY ON: All Airways displayed
AIRWY LO: Low Altitude (Victor) Airways displayed
AIRWY HI: High Altitude Airways (Jetways) displayed
AIRWAYS: Airways are not displayed
Displays Stormscope information on Navigation Map (optional)
Displays NEXRAD weather and coverage information on Navigation Map Page (optional)
Displays XM lightning information on Navigation Map Page (optional)
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and coverage on Navigation Map Page (optional)
Displays legends for the displayed XM Weather products (optional)
Returns to top-level softkeys
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through declutter levels:
DCLTR (No Declutter): All map features visible
DCLTR-1: Removes land data
DCLTR-2: Removes land and SUA data
DCLTR-3: Removes everything except the active flight plan
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
DEC FUEL
INC FUEL
RST FUEL
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SYSTEM
Displays second-level engine softkeys
Displays engine data in EIS Strip (see the Engine Instruments section)
Displays cylinder data in EIS Strip and makes the CYL SLCT Softkey and the ASSIST
Softkey available to facilitate engine leaning (see the Engine Instruments section)
The Cylinder Select Softkey cycles through selection of each cylinder indicated by
changing the cylinder display to light blue
Pressing the ASSIST Softkey causes the first cylinder that peaks to become highlighted
and information for that cylinder to be displayed
Displays system data in EIS Strip (see the Engine Instruments section)
EIS
CYL SLCT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
LVL1 LVL2
LVL3
ENGINE
ENGINE
LEAN
LVL3
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
27
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MAP
ENGINE
DCLTR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
DCLTR-1
DCLTR-2
DCLTR-3
BACK
LEAN
SYSTEM
ENGINE
LEAN
SYSTEM
DEC FUEL INC FUEL RST FUEL
BACK
ENGINE
LEAN
SYSTEM
CYL SLCT
BACK
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
ENGINE
ASSIST
(optional) (optional) (optional) (optional) (optional)
TRAFFIC PROFILE
TOPO
TERRAIN AIRWAYS STRMSCP NEXRAD
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AIRWY ON
XM LTNG
METAR
LEGEND
BACK
Select the BACK softkey to
return to the top-level softkeys.
AIRWY LO
AIRWY HI
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 1-20 MFD Softkeys (EIS and Navigation Map Page
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1.6 ACCESSING G950 FUNCTIONALITY
MENUS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
The G950 has a dedicated MENU Key that when pressed displays a context-sensitive list of options. This
options list allows the user to access additional features or make settings changes which specifically relate to
the currently displayed window/page. There is no all-encompassing menu. Some menus provide access to
additional submenus that are used to view, edit, select, and review options. Menus display ‘NO OPTIONS’
when there are no options for the window/page selected. The main controls used in association with all
window/page group operations are described in Section 1.5, G950 Controls.
Navigating a menu:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the menu.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through a list of available options (a scroll bar always appears to the right of the
window/box when the option list is longer than the window/box).
3) Press the ENT Key to select the desired option.
No Options for
NRST Window
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Press the CLR Key or the FMS Knob to remove the menu and cancel the operation.
Options for FPL Window
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 1-21 Page Menu Examples
AFCS
DATA ENTRY
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The method for directly entering alphanumeric data (e.g., Flight ID, waypoint identifiers, barometric
minimum descent altitude) into the G950 is by using the FMS Knob corresponding to the display (PFD, MFD).
APPENDICES
In some instances, such as when entering an identifier, the G950 tries to predict the desired identifier based
on the characters being entered. In this case, if the desired identifier appears, use the ENT Key to confirm the
entry without entering the rest of the identifier manually. This can save the pilot from entering all the characters
of the identifier.
INDEX
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
29
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Besides character-by-character data entry, the system also provides a shortcut for entering waypoint identifiers.
When the cursor is on a field awaiting entry of a waypoint identifier, turning the small FMS Knob counterclockwise accesses five different lists of waypoint identifiers for quick selection: flight plan (FPL), nearest
(NRST), recently-entered (RECENT), user-defined (USER), and airway (AIRWAY)(AIRWAY available when
active leg is part of an airway). The G950 automatically fills in the identifier, facility, and city fields with the
information for the selected waypoint.
Using the FMS Knob to enter data:
1) If needed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
EIS
2) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field.
3) Begin entering data.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
a) To quickly enter a waypoint identifier, turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of waypoints
in the active flight plan (list is titled FPL). If desired, turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to scroll through lists
of other waypoints (NRST, USER, AIRWAY, RECENT).
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint from the list and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to select a character for the first placeholder.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Or:
b) Use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next placeholder in the field.
Turning the knob clockwise scrolls through the alphabet (where appropriate) toward the letter Z, starting at
K, and the digits zero through nine. Afterwards, turning the knob counter-clockwise scrolls in the opposite
direction.
c) Repeat, using the small FMS Knob to select a character and the large FMS Knob to move the cursor, until the
field is complete.
d) Press the ENT Key to confirm entry.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to cancel data entry (the field reverts back to its previous information).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PAGE GROUPS
NOTE: Refer to other supporting sections in this Pilot’s Guide for details on specific pages.
EIS
Active Page Title
Page Group
MFD
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Information on the MFD is presented on pages which are grouped according to function. The page group and
active page title are displayed in the upper center of the screen, below the Navigation Status Box. In the bottom
right corner of the screen, the page group tabs are displayed along the bottom Number of pages available in the
group are displayed in a list above the page groups. The current page group and current page within the group
are shown in cyan. For some of these pages (Airport/Procedures/Weather Information, Procedure Loading), the
active title of the page changes while the page name in the list remains the same.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pages in
Current
Group
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Page Groups
Figure 1-22 Page Title and Page Groups
AFCS
The main page groups are navigated using the FMS Knob; specific pages within each group can vary depending
on the configuration of optional equipment.
Selecting a page using the FMS Knob:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to display the list of page groups; continue turning the large FMS Knob until the
desired page group is selected
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired page within a specific page group.
APPENDICES
There are also several pages (Airport/Procedures/Weather Information pages) which are selected first from
within a main page group with the FMS Knob, then with the appropriate softkey at the bottom of the page. In
this case, the page remains set to the selected page until a different page softkey is selected, even if a different
page group is selected.
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
31
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Map Pages (MAP)
Navigation Map
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Traffic Map
Weather Radar (optional)
Stormscope®(optional)
Weather Data Link (service optional)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Terrain Map
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 1-23 Map Pages
Waypoint Pages (WPT)
Airport/Procedures/Weather Information Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Airport Information
(INFO-1 Softkey)
- Airport Directory Information
(INFO-2 Softkey)
AFCS
- Departure Information
(DP Softkey)
- Arrival Information
(STAR Softkey)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Approach Information
(APR Softkey)
- Weather Information (optional)
(WX Softkey)
Airport/Procedures/
Weather Information
Pages
APPENDICES
Intersection Information
NDB Information
VOR Information
Figure 1-24 Waypoint Pages
INDEX
User Waypoint Information
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Auxiliary Pages (AUX)
Trip Planning
Utility
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
GPS Status
System Setup
XM Satellite pages
- XM Radio
(RADIO Softkey)
EIS
- XM Information
(INFO Softkey)
XM
Satellite
Pages
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
System Status
Figure 1-25 Auxiliary Pages
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Nearest Pages (NRST)
Nearest Airports
Nearest Intersections
Nearest NDB
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Nearest VOR
Nearest User Waypoints
Nearest Frequencies
Nearest Airspaces
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 1-26 Nearest Pages
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
33
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
In addition to the main page groups accessed exclusively using the FMS Knob, there are pages for flight
planning (FPL) and loading procedures (PROC) which are accessed by key. In some instances, softkeys may be
used to access the Procedure Loading pages.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Flight Plan pages are accessed using the FPL Key on the MFD. Main pages within this group are selected
by turning the small FMS Knob.
Flight Plan Pages (FPL)
Active Flight Plan
Flight Plan Catalog
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
- Stored Flight Plan
(NEW Softkey)
Figure 1-27 Flight Plan Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Procedure Loading pages may be accessed at any time on the MFD by pressing the PROC Key. A menu
is initialized, and when a departure, approach, or arrival is selected, the appropriate Procedure Loading page is
opened. These pages can also be accessed from the Stored Flight Plan page using the LD softkeys. Turning the
FMS Knob does not scroll through the Procedure Loading pages.
Procedure Pages (PROC)
Departure Loading
AFCS
Arrival Loading
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Approach Loading
Figure 1-28 Procedure Loading Pages
INDEX
Information on optional electronic checklist pages is offered later in this section. Checklist pages may be
accessed from any page on the MFD using the CHKLIST Softkey.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM SETTINGS
The System Setup Page allows management of the following system parameters:
• Audio alert voice
• Displayed measurement units
• MFD Data Bar (Navigation Status Box) fields
• Baro transition alert (see Flight Instruments
Section)
• GPS Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) range
• Airspace alerts
• Displayed nearest airports
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Time format (local 12- or 24-hr, or UTC)
• COM transceiver channel spacing
EIS
• Arrival alerts
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 1-29 System Setup Page
APPENDICES
Restoring system setup defaults:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the DFLTS Softkey.
Or:
INDEX
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Restore Defaults’ and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
PILOT PROFILES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
System settings may be saved under a pilot profile. When the system is powered on, the last selected
pilot profile is shown on the MFD Power-up Screen (Figure 1-5). The G950 can store up to 25 profiles;
the currently active profile, the amount of memory used, and the amount of memory available are shown at
the top of the System Setup Page in the box labeled ‘Pilot Profile’. From here, pilot profiles may be created,
selected, renamed, or deleted.
Creating a profile:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
EIS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CREATE’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Create Profile’ window is displayed.
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter a profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key. Pilot profile names
cannot begin with a blank as the first letter.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
6) In the next field, use the small FMS Knob to select the desired settings upon which to base the new profile.
Profiles can be created based on Garmin factory defaults, default profile settings (initially based on Garmin
factory defaults unless edited by the pilot), or current system settings.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘CREATE’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to create the profile
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Or:
Use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CREATE and ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to activate the new profile.
9) To cancel the process, select ‘CANCEL’ with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key.
Selecting an active profile:
AFCS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the active profile field in the Pilot Profile Box.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the pilot profile list and highlight the desired profile.
5) Press the ENT Key. The G950 loads and displays the system settings for the selected profile.
Renaming a profile:
APPENDICES
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘RENAME’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
5) In the ‘Rename Profile’ window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to rename.
6) Press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter a new profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘RENAME’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
9) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Deleting a profile:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘DELETE’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
EIS
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Delete Profile’ window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to delete.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) With ‘DELETE’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
8) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
DATE/TIME
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The system time is displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Time and date format (local 12-hr,
local 24-hr, or UTC) are modified on the System Setup Page. Universal Coordinated Time (UTC; also called
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or Zulu) date and time are calculated directly from the GPS satellites signals
and cannot be changed. An offset is provided to add or subtract the desired amount of time (hours:minutes)
from UTC to define current local time.
Configuring the system time:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
AFCS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Time Format’ field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired format and press the ENT Key to confirm selection. The ‘Time
Offset’ field is highlighted (for local time formats).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time offset (±HH:MM) and press the ENT Key to confirm selection.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
DISPLAY UNITS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Units in which various quantities are displayed on the G950 screens can be changed on the System Setup
Page.
Changing a display units setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Display Units’ box.
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select from a list of measurement units and press the ENT Key when the desired
unit is highlighted.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Category
Settings
Navigation Angle Magnetic*
True
Altitude and
Vertical Speed
Feet*
Meters
Temperature
Celsius
Fahrenheit*
Pounds*
Kilograms
HDDD°MM.MM’*
HDDD°MM’SS.S”
Weight
Position
AFCS
Affected Quantities
Heading
Course
Bearing
Track
Desired Track
Wind direction (Trip Planning Page)
All altitudes on MFD
All elevations on MFD
All temperatures on PFD
Total Air Temperature (Trip Planning Page)
N/A
All positions
Exceptions
Altimeter
Vertical Speed Indicator
VNV altitudes (Active Flight Plan)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
N/A
N/A
* Default setting
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 1-1 Display Units Settings (System Status Page)
AIRSPACE ALERTS
APPENDICES
The Airspace Alert feature provides a message alert when the aircraft is approaching or near a controlled or
special-use airspace. The altitude buffer setting increases the range above or below an airspace for which an
alert is generated; the default value is 200 feet. Alerts for the following airspaces can be turned on/off from
the System Setup Page:
• Class B/TMA
• Class D
• MOA (Military)
• Class C/TCA
• Restricted
• Other airspaces
INDEX
Turning Airspace Alerts off does not affect the alerts listed on the Nearest Airspaces Page or the airspace
boundaries depicted on the Navigation Map Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Turning an airspace alert on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
EIS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the altitude buffer field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
ARRIVAL ALERTS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Arrival Alert Box on the System Setup Page allows the Alerts Window arrival alerts to be turned
ON/OFF, and the alert trigger distance (up to 99.9 units) set for alerts in the Alerts Window and the PFD
Navigation Status Box. An arrival alert can be set to notify the pilot with a message upon reaching a userspecified distance from the final destination (the direct-to waypoint or the last waypoint in a flight plan).
When Arrival Alerts is set to ON, and the set distance is reached, an “Arrival at waypoint” message is displayed
in the PFD Navigation Status Box, and a “WPT ARRIVAL - Arriving at waypoint - [xxxx]” is displayed in the
Alerts Window. When Arrival Alerts is set to OFF, only the PFD Navigation Status Box message “Arriving at
waypoint” is displayed, and it is displayed when the time to the final destination is approximately ten seconds.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 1-30 Arrival Alert Settings (System Setup Page)
Enabling/disabling the Alerts Window arrival alert:
APPENDICES
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ON/OFF field in the Arrival Alert Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Changing the arrival alert trigger distance:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the distance field in the Arrival Alert Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO ALERTS
EIS
The gender of the voice used to announce audio alerts may be set to male or female on the System Setup
Page. See the Appendices for voice alerts.
Changing the audio alert voice:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the voice in the Audio Alert Box.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and highlight the desired voice and press the ENT Key.
MFD DATA BAR FIELDS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
By default, the Navigation Status Box on the MFD is set to display ground speed (GS), distance to next
waypoint (DIS), estimated time enroute (ETE), and enroute safe altitude (ESA). These four data fields can be
changed to display the following information:
• Bearing (BRG)
• Distance (DIS)
• Desired Track (DTK)
AFCS
• Endurance (END)
• Enroute Safe Altitude (ESA)
• Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Estimated Time Enroute (ETE)
• Fuel on Board (FOB)
• Fuel over Destination (FOD)
APPENDICES
• Ground Speed (GS)
• Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA)
• True Air Speed (TAS)
• Track Angle Error (TKE)
INDEX
• Track (TRK)
• Vertical Speed Required (VSR)
• Crosstrack Error (XTK)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The Navigation Status Box on the PFD is not affected by these changes; flight plan, distance, and bearing
information are displayed at all times.
Changing the information shown in the MFD Navigation Status Box:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the MFD Data Bar Fields Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired selection from the data options list and press the ENT Key.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 1-31 Navigation Status Box (MFD)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
GPS CDI
AFCS
The GPS CDI Box on the System Setup Page allows the pilot to define the scale for the Course Deviation
Indicator (CDI) when GPS is the selected navigation source and also displays the current system value for the
CDI scale. The range values represent full scale deflection for the CDI to either side. The default setting is
‘Auto’ (refer to the CDI description in the Flight Instruments Section for information on CDI scaling).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
If a lower CDI scale setting is selected (i.e., 1.0 or 0.3 nm), the higher scale settings are not selected during
any phase of flight. Note that the Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) protection limits follow
the selected CDI scale and corresponding flight phase.
Changing the selected GPS CDI setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
APPENDICES
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Selected’ in the ‘GPS CDI’ box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting (2 nm, 1 nm, 0.3 nm, Auto) and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
COM CONFIGURATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The COM Configuration Box on the System Setup Page allows the pilot to select 8.33 kHz or 25.0 kHz
COM frequency channel spacing.
Changing COM channel spacing:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the channel spacing field in the COM Configuration Box.
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired spacing and press the ENT Key.
NEAREST AIRPORTS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Nearest Airports Box on the System Setup Page defines the minimum runway length and surface type
used when determining the nine nearest airports to display on the MFD Nearest Airports Page. A minimum
runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways or runways that are
not of appropriate surface from being displayed. Default settings are 0 feet (or meters) for runway length and
“any” for runway surface type.
Selecting nearest airport surface matching criteria (any, hard only, hard/soft, water):
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the runway surface field in the Nearest Airports Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (any, hard only, hard/soft, water) and press the
ENT Key.
Selecting nearest airport minimum runway length matching criteria:
AFCS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the minimum length field in the Nearest Airport Box.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Enter the minimum runway length (zero to 99,999 feet) and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM UTILITIES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
For flight planning purposes, timers, trip statistics, and a scheduler feature are provided on the AUX - Utility
Page. The timers available include a stopwatch-like generic timer, a total time in flight timer, and a record of the
time of departure. Trip statistics—odometer, trip odometer, and average trip and maximum groundspeeds—are
displayed from the time of the last reset. A scheduler feature is also provided so the pilot can enter reminder
messages to be displayed at specified intervals in the Alerts Window on the PFD (see Figure 1-33).
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 1-32 Utility Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
TIMERS
APPENDICES
The generic timer can be set to count up or down from a specified time (HH:MM:SS). When the countdown
on the timer reaches zero the digits begin to count up from zero. If the timer is reset before reaching zero
on a countdown, the digits are reset to the initial value. If the timer is counting up when reset, the digits are
zeroed.
Setting the generic timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
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INDEX
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (UP/DN) and press the ENT Key.
43
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
4) If a desired starting time is desired:
a) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the HH:MM:SS field.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘START?’ and press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to
‘STOP?’.
6) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘STOP?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘RESET?’.
EIS
7) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘RESET?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘START?’ and the
digits are reset.
The flight timer can be set to count up from zero starting at system power-up or from the time that the
aircraft lifts off; the timer can also be reset to zero at any time.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Setting the flight timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the flight timer.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (PWR-ON or IN-AIR) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the flight timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Reset Flight Timer’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
AFCS
The G950 records the time at which departure occurs, measured from system power-up or aircraft lift off.
The displayed departure time can also be reset to display the current time at the point of reset. The format in
which the time is displayed is controlled from the System Setup Page.
Setting the departure timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the departure time.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (PWR-ON or IN-AIR) and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
Resetting the departure time:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Reset Departure Time’ and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRIP STATISTICS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The odometer and trip odometer record the total mileage traveled from the last reset; these odometers can
be reset independently. Resetting the trip odometer also resets the average trip groundspeed. Maximum
groundspeed for the period of time since the last reset is also displayed.
Resetting trip statistics readouts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key. The following reset options for trip statistics are displayed:
EIS
• Reset Trip ODOM/AVG GS—Resets trip average ground speed readout and odometer
• Reset Odometer—Resets odometer readout only
• Reset Maximum Speed—Resets maximum speed readout only
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Reset All—Resets flight timer, departure timer, odometers, and groundspeed readouts
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired reset option and press the ENT Key. The selected parameters are reset
to zero and begin to display data from the point of reset.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SCHEDULER
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., “Change oil”, “Switch
fuel tanks”, “Overhaul”). Messages can be set to display based on a specific date and time (event), once the
message timer reaches zero (one-time; default setting), or recurrently whenever the message timer reaches
zero (periodic). Message timers set to periodic alerting automatically reset to the original timer value once
the message is displayed. When power is cycled, messages are retained until deleted, and message timer
countdown is restarted.
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
AFCS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty scheduler message naming field.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the message text to be displayed in the Alerts Window and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the field next to ‘Type’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select set the message alert type:
• Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
APPENDICES
• One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
• Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
INDEX
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HHH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
9) For event-based messages:
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MMM-YYY) and press the ENT Key.
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
EIS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the name field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Press the ENT Key to confirm message deletion.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Scheduler messages appear in the Alerts Window on the PFD and cause the ALERTS Softkey label to
change to ‘ADVISORY’. Selecting the ADVISORY Softkey opens the Alerts Window and acknowledges
the scheduler message. The softkey reverts to the ‘ALERTS’ label and when pressed, the Alerts Window is
removed from the display and the scheduler message is deleted from the message list.
PFD
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 1-33 PFD Alerts Window
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1.7 DISPLAY BACKLIGHTING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Backlighting of the PFD and MFD, and Audio Panel keys can be adjusted automatically or manually. The
automatic setting (default) uses photocells to adjust for ambient lighting conditions. Photocell calibration curves
are pre-configured to optimize display appearance through a broad range of cockpit lighting conditions. In
normal display mode, backlighting can only be adjusted from the PFD. In Reversionary Mode, it can be adjusted
from the remaining display(s).
Adjusting display backlighting manually:
EIS
1) Press the PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘AUTO’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD DSPL’. No
other window can be displayed on the PFD while the PFD Setup Menu is displayed. Pressing the MENU Key
while any other PFD window is displayed does not display the PFD Setup Menu.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MANUAL’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘AUTO’ next to ‘MFD DSPL’ and repeat steps 2-4.
5) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Adjusting key backlighting manually:
1) Press the PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘AUTO’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD DSPL’.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘PFD DSPL’.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘PFD KEY’.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘AUTO’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MANUAL’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘MFD DSPL’.
8) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘MFD KEY’ and repeat steps 4-7.
9) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
PFD
Figure 1-34 PFD Setup Menu
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INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: If the airspeed, attitude, altitude, or heading indications become unusable, refer to the backup
instruments.
Increased situational awareness is provided by replacing the traditional instruments on the panel with two easyto-scan Primary Flight Displays (PFDs) that feature large horizons, airspeed, attitude, altitude, vertical speed, and
course deviation information. In addition to the flight instruments, navigation, communication, terrain, traffic,
and weather information are also presented on the PFDs and explained in other sections of this Pilot’s Guide.
EIS
The following flight instruments and supplemental flight data are displayed on the PFDs:
• Airspeed Indicator, showing
• Outside air temperature (OAT)
• Horizontal Situation Indicator, showing
– True airspeed
– Turn Rate Indicator
– Airspeed awareness ranges
– Bearing pointers and information windows
– Navigation source
• Altimeter, showing
– Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Attitude Indicator with slip/skid indication
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
– Indicated airspeed
– Bearing pointers and information windows
– Trend vector
• Transponder Mode, Code, and Ident/Reply
– Reference altitude
• Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope, and Glidepath
Indicators
• Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
• Timer/References Window, showing
– Generic timer
– Barometric minimum descent altitude (MDA)
• Wind data
AFCS
• Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
– Barometric setting
The PFDs also display various alerts and annunciations.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
21
20
19
1
18
17
16
2
EIS
15
14
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3
13
4
12
5
11
6
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
10
9
7
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8
1
NAV Frequency Box
12
Turn Rate Indicator
2
Airspeed Indicator
13
Barometric Altimeter Setting
3
Ground Speed
14
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
4
True Airspeed
15
Reference Altitude Bug
5
Current Heading
16
Altimeter
6
Horizontal Situation Indicator ( HSI)
17
Reference Altitude
7
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
18
COM Frequency Box
8
Softkeys
19
Navigation Status Box
9
System Time
20
Slip/Skid Indicator
10
Transponder Data Box
21
Attitude Indicator
11
Heading Bug
INDEX
Figure 2-1 Primary Flight Display (Default)
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
14
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
13
1
12
EIS
11
10
2
9
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8
3
7
4
6
8
Annunciation Window
2
Selected Heading
9
Selected Course
3
Wind Data Box
10
4
Inset Map
Required Vertical Speed
Indicator
11 Vertical Deviation Indication
5
Bearing Information Windows
12
Comparator Window
6
Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height
Flight Plan Window
13
VNV Target Altitude
14
Terrain Annunciation
AFCS
Traffic Annunciation
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1
7
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 2-2 Additional PFD Information
APPENDICES
INDEX
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
51
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
NOTE: Refer to the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) for airspeed criteria and Vspeed values.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The true airspeed is
displayed in knots below the Airspeed Indicator. The ground speed is displayed in knots to the left of the true
airspeed. The numeric labels and major tick marks on the moving tape are shown at intervals of 10 knots. The
minor tick marks on the moving tape are shown at intervals of five knots. Speed indication starts at 20 knots,
with 60 knots of airspeed viewable at any time. The indicated airspeed is displayed inside the black pointer. The pointer remains black until reaching maximum operating speed (VMO), at which point it turns red.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Airspeed
Trend
Vector
Indicated
Airspeed
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Speed
Ranges
Ground
Speed
VYSE
Blue Line
Low
Speed
Range
VMCA
Red Line
Red
Pointer
at VNE
True
Airspeed
Color coded stripes appear on the Airspeed Indicator to show the operating ranges. The low speed range
stripe is red and extends to the flap operating range. Normal operating range is green, caution range is yellow,
and the never exceed speed (VNE) begins with a red and white barber pole.
The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical magenta line that appears to the right of the color-coded speed range
strip when airspeed is either accelerating or decelerating. One end of the magenta line is anchored to the
tip of the airspeed pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down corresponding to the rate of
acceleration or deceleration. For any constant rate of acceleration or deceleration, the moving end of the line
shows approximately what the indicated airspeed value will be in six seconds. If the trend vector crosses VNE,
the number in the indicated airspeed pointer changes to yellow. The trend vector is absent if the speed remains
constant or if any data needed to calculate airspeed is not available due to a system failure.
INDEX
APPENDICES
AFCS
Figure 2-4 Red Pointer
Showing Overspeed
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 2-3 Airspeed Indicator
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ATTITUDE INDICATOR
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a white horizon line. The
Attitude Indicator displays the pitch, roll, and slip/skid information.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
9
8
1
7
2
3
5
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
Aircraft Symbol
5
Land Representation
6
Pitch Scale
7
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4
Roll Pointer
EIS
6
1
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-5 Attitude Indicator
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Above and below the horizon line, major pitch marks and numeric
labels are shown for every 10˚, up to 80˚. Minor pitch marks are shown for intervening 5˚ increments, up to
25˚ below and 45˚ above the horizon line. Between 20˚ below to 20˚ above the horizon line, minor pitch marks
occur every 2.5˚.
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚ and 60˚ and minor tick
marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the zero. Angle of bank is indicated by the position
of the pointer on the roll scale.
AFCS
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the bar beneath the roll pointer. One bar displacement is equal to one ball
displacement on a traditional inclinometer. The indicator bar moves with the roll pointer and moves laterally
away from the pointer to indicate uncoordinated flight. Slip (inside the turn) or skid (outside the turn) is
indicated by the location of the bar relative to the pointer.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 2-6 Slip/Skid Indication
INDEX
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53
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ALTIMETER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Altimeter displays 600 feet of barometric altitude values at a time on a moving tape rolling number gauge. Numeric labels and major tick marks are shown at intervals of 100 feet. Minor tick marks are at intervals of 20
feet. The indicated altitude is displayed inside the black pointer.
The Selected Altitude is displayed above the Altimeter in the box indicated by a selection bug symbol. A bug
corresponding to this altitude is shown on the tape. If the Selected Altitude exceeds the range shown on the
tape, the bug appears at the upper or lower edge of the tape. When the metric value is selected it is displayed
in a separate box above the Selected Altitude.
EIS
A magenta Altitude Trend Vector extends up or down the left of the altitude tape, the end resting at the
approximate altitude to be reached in six seconds at the current vertical speed. The trend vector is not shown
if altitude remains constant or if data needed for calculation is not available due to a system failure.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Setting the Selected Altitude:
T urn the ALT Knob to set the Selected Altitude. Turn the large knob for 1000-ft increments, small knob for 100ft increments. If set to Metric mode, the large knob adjusts the Selected Altitude in 500-meter increments; the
small knob adjusts the Selected Altitude in 50-meter increments..
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If a Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height (MDA/DH) value has been set, this altitude is also available for
the Selected Altitude.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Reference
Altitude
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Altitude
Trend
Vector
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Reference
Altitude
(Meters)
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Indicated
Altitude
Indicated
Altitude
(Meters)
MDA/DH
Altitude
Bug
Barometric
Setting Box
(Hectopascals)
Barometric
Setting
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 2-7 Altimeter
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Altitudes can also be displayed in meters (Figure 2-7). Note that the altitude tape does not change scale.
Displaying altitude in meters:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT UNIT Softkey.
3) Press the METERS Softkey to turn on metric altitude readouts.
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
EIS
The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury (in Hg) or hectopascals
(hPa) when metric units are selected. Adjusting the altimeter barometric pressure setting creates discontinuities
in VNV vertical deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the
aircraft to re-establish on the descent patch. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target
Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
Turn the BARO Knob to select the desired setting.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selecting standard barometric pressure (29.92 in Hg):
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the STD BARO Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-8 Standard Barometric Setting
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units:
AFCS
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT UNIT Softkey.
3) Press the IN Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in inches of mercury (in Hg).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or, press the HPA Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in hectopascals (hPa).
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
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55
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
A Baro Transition Alert is provided to alert the pilot to change the barometric pressure setting when crossing
the transition altitude in either direction. This is displayed by the flashing light blue barometric pressure setting
when crossing the transition altitude.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Setting the Baro Transition Alert:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Altitude in the Baro Transition Alert box.
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to turn the alert OFF or ON and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to change the altitude and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 2-9 Baro Transition Alert
(AUX - System Setup Page)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI; Figure 2-10) displays the aircraft vertical speed on a fixed scale with labels
at 1000 and 2000 fpm and minor tick marks every 500 fpm. Digits appear in the pointer when the climb or
descent rate is greater than 100 fpm. If the rate of ascent/descent exceeds 2000 fpm, the pointer appears at the
edge of the tape and the rate appears inside the pointer.
A magenta chevron is displayed on the VSI to indicate the Required Vertical Speed for reaching a VNV target
altitude once the “TOD [Top of Descent] within 1 minute” alert has generated.
VERTICAL DEVIATION
EIS
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator is only shown for aircraft with GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Units when
SBAS is available.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI; Figure 2-10) is a magenta chevron indicating the baro-VNV vertical
deviation when Vertical Navigation (VNV) is being used. The VDI appears in conjunction with the “TOD within
1 minute” alert. The VDI is removed from the display if vertical deviation becomes invalid. See the Flight
Management Section for details on VNV features, and refer to Section 2.2, Supplemental Flight Data, for more
information about VNV indications on the PFD.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Glideslope Indicator (Figure 2-11) appears to the left of the Altimeter whenever an ILS frequency is
tuned in the active NAV field. A green diamond acts as the Glideslope Indicator, like a glideslope needle on
a conventional indicator. If a localizer frequency is tuned and there is no glideslope, “NO GS” is displayed in
place of the diamond.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The glidepath is analogous to the glideslope for GPS approaches supporting SBAS vertical guidance (LNAV+V,
L/VNAV, LPV). When an approach of this type is loaded into the flight plan and GPS is the selected navigation
source, the Glidepath Indicator (Figure 2-12) appears as a magenta diamond during the approach. If the
approach type downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the diamond.
Full-scale deflection of two dots is 1000 feet.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
57
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
VNV Target
Altitude
Marker
Beacon
Annunciation
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Vertical Glideslope
Speed
Indicator
Pointer
Glipepath
Indicator
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Required
Vertical
Speed
Figure 2-11 Glideslope Indicator
Figure 2-12 Glidepath Indicator
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-10 Vertical Speed and
Deviation Indicator (VSI and VDI)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) displays a rotating compass card in a heading-up orientation. Letters
indicate the cardinal points with numeric labels every 30˚. Major tick marks are at 10˚ intervals and minor tick
marks are at 5˚ intervals. A digital reading of the current heading appears on top of the HSI, and the current
track is represented on the HSI by a magenta diamond connected to a gray dashed line. The HSI also presents
turn rate, course deviation, bearing, and navigation source information. The HSI is available in two formats, a
360˚ compass rose and a 140˚ arc.
Changing the HSI display format:
EIS
1) Press the PFD Softkey
2) Press the HSI FRMT Softkey.
3) Press the 360 HSI or ARC HSI Softkey.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The 360˚ HSI contains a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI), with a Course Pointer, To/From Indicator, and a
sliding deviation bar and scale. The course pointer is a single line arrow (GPS, VOR1, and LOC1) or a double
line arrow (VOR2 and LOC2) which points in the direction of the set course. The To/From arrow rotates with
the course pointer and is displayed when the active NAVAID is received.
14
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
15
13
1
12
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2
11
3
10
5
9
6
9
7
8
9
Lateral Deviation Scale
2
Current Track Indicator
10
Flight Phase
3
To/From Indicator
11
Course Pointer
4
Navigation Source
12
Heading Bug
5
Aircraft Symbol
13
6
7
Course Deviation Indicator
(CDI)
Rotating Compass Card
15
8
OBS Mode Active
APPENDICES
Turn Rate Indicator
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1
AFCS
4
Turn Rate and Heading
Trend Vector
14 Current Heading
Lubber Line
INDEX
Figure 2-13 Horizontal Situation Indicator (360˚ HSI)
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
59
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Arc HSI is a 140˚ expanded section of the compass rose. The Arc HSI contains a Course Pointer,
combined To/From Indicator and a sliding deviation indicator, and a deviation scale. Upon station passage, the
To/From Indicator flips and points to the tail of the aircraft, just like a conventional To/From flag. Depending
on the navigation source, the CDI on the Arc HSI can appear in two different ways, an arrowhead (GPS, VOR,
OBS) or a diamond (LOC).
Course Pointer
Current Track Indicator
Flight Phase
Annunciation
EIS
Navigation
Source
Lateral
Deviation
Scale
Course
Deviation
and To/From
Indicator
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 2-14 Arc HSI
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Selected Heading is shown to the upper left of the HSI for 3 seconds after being adjusted The light blue
bug on the compass rose corresponds to the Selected Heading. While the HSI is displayed as an arc, if the
Heading Bug is adjusted off the shown portion of the compass rose, the digital reading is displayed.
Adjusting the Selected Heading:
Turn the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Press the HDG Knob to synchronize the bug to the current heading.
The Selected Course is shown to the upper right of the HSI for 3 seconds after being adjusted. While the
HSI is displayed as an arc, the Selected Course is displayed whenever the Course Pointer is not within the 140˚
currently shown.
Adjusting the Selected Course:
AFCS
Turn the CRS Knob to set the Selected Course.
Press the CRS Knob to re-center the CDI and return the course pointer to the bearing of the active waypoint or
navigation station.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Current Track Indicator
Current Heading
Selected
Course
Selected
Heading
Bug
APPENDICES
Selected
Heading
INDEX
Figure 2-15 Heading and Course Indications
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Navigation angles (track, heading, course, bearing) are corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag
Var) or referenced to true north (T), set on the AUX - System Setup Page. When an approach referenced to
true north has been loaded into the flight plan, the system generates a message to change the navigation angle
setting to True at the appropriate time.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Figure 2-16 Heading and Course Indications (True)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Changing the navigation angle true/magnetic setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Nav Angle in the Display Units box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
• TRUE - References angles to true north (T)
• MAGNETIC - Angles corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag Var)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
INDEX
Figure 2-17 Navigation Angle Settings
(AUX - System Setup Page)
61
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
TURN RATE INDICATOR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Turn Rate Indicator is located directly above the rotating compass card. Tick marks to the left and right
of the lubber line denote half-standard and standard turn rates. A magenta Turn Rate Trend Vector shows the
current turn rate. The end of the trend vector gives the heading predicted in 6 seconds, based on the present
turn rate. A standard-rate turn is shown on the indicator by the trend vector stopping at the standard turn
rate tick mark, corresponding to a predicted heading of 18˚ from the current heading. At rates greater than 4
deg/sec, an arrowhead appears at the end of the magenta trend vector and the prediction is no longer valid.
Standard
Turn Rate
EIS
Arrow Shown
for Turn Rate
> 4 deg/sec
Half-standard
Turn Rate
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 2-18 Turn Rate Indicator and Trend Vector
BEARING POINTERS AND INFORMATION WINDOWS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: When the Arc HSI is displayed, the Bearing Information windows and pointers are disabled.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Two bearing pointers and associated information can be displayed on the HSI for NAV and GPS sources by
pressing the PFD Softkey then a BRG Softkey. The bearing pointers are light blue and are single-line (BRG1)
or double-line (BRG2). A pointer symbol is shown in the information window to indicate the navigation
source. The bearing pointers never override the CDI and are visually separated from the CDI by a white ring.
Bearing pointers may be selected but not necessarily visible due to data unavailability.
Bearing 1
Pointer
Station
Identifier
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Distance to
Bearing Source
Bearing 2
Pointer
Bearing
Pointer
Source
Icon
Bearing 1 Information Window
Pointer
Bearing
Icon
Source
Bearing 2 Information Window
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 2-19 HSI with Bearing Information
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When a bearing pointer is displayed, the associated information window is also displayed. The Bearing
Information windows (Figure 2-19) are displayed at the lower sides of the HSI and give the following
information:
• Station/waypoint identifier (NAV, GPS)
• Frequency (NAV)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Pointer icon (BRG1 = single line, BRG2 = double line)
• GPS-derived great circle distance to bearing
source
• Bearing source (NAV, GPS)
EIS
When the NAV radio is tuned to an ILS frequency the bearing source and the bearing pointer is removed
from the HSI. When NAV1 or NAV2 is the selected bearing source, the frequency is replaced by the station
identifier when the station is within range. If GPS is the bearing source, the active waypoint identifier is
displayed instead of a frequency.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and NO DATA is displayed in the information window if
the NAV radio is not receiving a VOR station or if GPS is the bearing source and an active waypoint is not
selected.
Selecting bearing display and changing sources:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press a BRG Softkey to display the desired bearing pointer and information window with a NAV source.
3) Press the BRG Softkey again to change the bearing source to GPS.
4) To remove the bearing pointer and information window, press the BRG Softkey again.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
63
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
NOTE: During a heading change of greater than 105˚ with respect to the course, the CDI on the Arc HSI
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
switches to the opposite side of the deviation scale and displays reverse sensing.
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer along a lateral deviation
scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data is not valid, the CDI is not
displayed.
EIS
360º HSI
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Arc HSI
Navigation
Source
Scale
Flight
Phase
Navigation
Source
Flight
Phase
CDI
CDI
Scale
CDI
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Crosstrack
Error
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-20 Course Deviation Indicator
AFCS
The CDI can display two sources of navigation, GPS or VOR/LOC. The color indicates the current navigation
source, magenta for GPS and green for VOR and LOC. The full scale limits for the CDI are defined by a GPSderived distance when navigating GPS. When navigating using a VOR or localizer (LOC), the CDI uses the
same angular deviation as a mechanical CDI. If the CDI exceeds the maximum deviation on the scale (two dots)
while navigating with GPS, the crosstrack error (XTK) is displayed below the white aircraft symbol.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Yellow
Indicates
Navigation
Source
Selected on
Both PFDs
is not
Synchronized
INDEX
Figure 2-21 Navigation Sources
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Changing navigation sources:
1) Press the CDI Softkey to change from GPS to VOR1 or LOC1. This places the light blue tuning box over the
NAV1 standby frequency in the upper left corner of the PFD.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the CDI Softkey again to change from VOR1 or LOC1 to VOR2 or LOC2. This places the light blue tuning
box over the NAV2 standby frequency.
3) Press the CDI Softkey a third time to return to GPS.
NAV1 Selected for Tuning
NAV2 Selected for Tuning
EIS
LOC1
Selected
VOR2
Selected
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
GPS
Selected
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pressing the CDI Softkey
Cycles through
Navigation Sources
Figure 2-22 Selecting a Navigation Source
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The system automatically switches from GPS to LOC navigation source and changes the CDI scaling accordingly
when all of the following occur:
• A localizer or ILS approach has been loaded into the active flight plan
• The final approach fix (FAF) is the active leg, the FAF is less than 15 nm away, and the aircraft is moving
toward the FAF
AFCS
• A valid localizer frequency has been tuned
• The GPS CDI deviation is less than 1.2 times full-scale deflection
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
GPS steering guidance is still provided after the CDI automatically switches to LOC until LOC capture, up
to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) for an ILS approach, or until GPS information becomes invalid. Activating a
Vector-to-Final (VTF) also causes the CDI to switch to LOC navigation source. GPS steering guidance is not
provided after the switch.
APPENDICES
GPS CDI SCALING
When GPS is the selected navigation source, the flight plan legs are sequenced automatically and
annunciations appear on the HSI for the flight phase. Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in
magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the color changes to yellow. If the current leg in the flight plan
is a heading leg, HDG LEG is annunciated in magenta beneath the aircraft symbol.
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
INDEX
The current GPS CDI scale setting is displayed as System CDI on the AUX - System Setup Page and the fullscale deflection setting may also be changed (2.0 nm, 1.0 nm, 0.3 nm, or Auto) from this page. If the selected
65
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
scaling is smaller than the automatic setting for enroute and terminal phases, the CDI is scaled accordingly
and the selected setting is displayed rather than the flight phase annunciation.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Changing the selected GPS CDI setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Selected in the GPS CDI box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
5) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
AFCS
Figure 2-23 GPS CDI Setting
(AUX - System Setup Page)
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When set to Auto (default), the GPS CDI scale automatically adjusts to the desired limits based upon the
current phase of flight (Figure 2-24, Table 2-1).
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Enroute
(Oceanic if >200 nm
from nearest airport)
Terminal
Approach
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
Terminal
Refer to accompanying
approach CDI scaling figures
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Departure
D
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CDI Full-scale Deflection
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Missed
Approach
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 2-24 Automatic CDI Scaling
• Once a departure procedure is activated, the CDI is scaled for departure (0.3 nm).
• The system switches from departure to terminal CDI scaling (1.0 nm) under the following conditions:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not aligned with the departure runway
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not a CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF (see
Glossary for leg type definitions)
- After any leg in the departure procedure that is not a CA or FA
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• At 30 nm from the departure airport, the enroute phase of flight is automatically entered and CDI scaling
changes to 2.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
- When navigating with an active departure procedure, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change
until the aircraft arrives at the last departure waypoint (if more than 30 nm from the departure airport) or
the leg after the last departure waypoint has been activated or a direct-to waypoint is activated.
AFCS
• If after completing the departure procedure the nearest airport is more than 200 nm away from the aircraft
and the approach procedure has not yet commenced, the CDI is scaled for oceanic flight (2.0 nm).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Within 31 nm of the destination airport (terminal area), the CDI scale gradually ramps down from 2.0 nm
to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm; except under the following conditions:
- Upon reaching the first waypoint of an arrival route that is more than 31 nm from the destination airport,
the flight phase changes to terminal and the CDI scale begins to transition down from 2.0 nm to 1.0 nm
over a distance of 1.0 nm.
APPENDICES
• During approach, the CDI scale ramps down even further (Figures 2-27 and 2-28). This transition normally
occurs within 2.0 nm of the final approach fix (FAF). The CDI switches to approach scaling automatically
once the approach procedure is activated or if Vectors-To-Final (VTF) are selected.
- If the active waypoint is the FAF, the ground track and the bearing to the FAF must be within 45° of the
final approach segment course.
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INDEX
- If the active waypoint is part of the missed approach procedure, the active leg and the preceding missed
approach legs must be aligned with the final approach segment course and the aircraft must not have
passed the turn initiation point.
67
2 nm
FAF
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2 nm
FAF
EIS
angle based
on database
information
course width
angle set
by system
CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
CDI scale is set to the smaller of 0.3 nm
or an angle set by the system
350 ft
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
CDI Full-scale Deflection
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Landing
Threshold
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
Figure 2-25 Typical LNAV and LNAV+V Approach CDI Scaling
Figure 2-26 Typical LNAV/VNAV and LPV Approach CDI Scaling
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• When a missed approach is activated, the CDI scale changes to 0.3 nm.
• The system automatically switches back to terminal mode under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not aligned with the final approach path
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not a CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- After any leg in the missed approach procedure that is not a CA or FA
Flight Phase
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Annunciation*
DPRT
TERM
ENR
OCN
Approach
(Non-precision)
LNAV
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Approach
(Non-precision with
Vertical Guidance)
Approach
(LNAV/VNAV)
Approach
(LPV)
Missed Approach
Automatic CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
2.0 nm
1.0 nm decreasing to 350 feet depending on
variables (Figure 2-25)
LNAV + V
L/VNAV
LPV
MAPR
1.0 nm decreasing to a specified course width, then
0.3 nm, depending on variables (Figure 2-26)
0.3 nm
* Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in magenta, but when cautionary
conditions exist the color changes to yellow.
INDEX
Table 2-1 Automatic GPS CDI Scaling
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
OBS MODE
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Enabling Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode suspends the automatic sequencing of waypoints in a GPS
flight plan (GPS must be the selected navigation source), but retains the current Active-to waypoint as the
navigation reference even after passing the waypoint. OBS is annunciated to the lower right of the aircraft
symbol when OBS Mode is selected.
EIS
While OBS is enabled, a course line is drawn through the Active-to waypoint on the moving map. If
desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled, the GPS flight
plan returns to normal operation, with automatic sequencing of waypoints, following the course set in OBS
Mode. The flight plan on the moving map retains the modified course line.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
GPS
Selected
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Extended
Course
Line
OBS Mode
Enabled
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Again
Disables OBS Mode
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Enables
OBS Mode
Figure 2-27 Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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69
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Enabling/disabling OBS Mode while navigating a GPS flight plan:
1) Press the OBS Softkey to select OBS Mode.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the CRS Knob to select the desired course to/from the waypoint. Press the CRS Knob to synchronize the
Selected Course with the bearing to the next waypoint.
3) Press the OBS Softkey again to return to automatic waypoint sequencing.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
As the aircraft crosses the missed approach point (MAP), automatic approach waypoint sequencing is
suspended. SUSP appears on the HSI at the lower right of the aircraft symbol. The OBS Softkey label
changes to indicate the suspension is active as shown if Figure 2-28. Pressing the SUSP Softkey, deactivates
the suspension and resumes automatic sequencing of approach waypoints.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SUSP
Softkey
SUSP
Annunciation
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 2-28 Suspension of Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
2.2 SUPPLEMENTAL FLIGHT DATA
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Pressing the DFLTS Softkey turns off metric Altimeter display, the Inset Map and wind data display.
In addition to the flight instruments, the PFDs also display various supplemental information, including
temperatures, wind data, and Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications.
TEMPERATURE DISPLAYS
EIS
The Outside Air Temperature (OAT) is displayed in degrees Celsius (°C) or Fahrenheit (°F) as selected by
the pilot, in the lower left of the PFD under normal display conditions. Temperature is displayed below the
groundspeed in reversionary mode.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Normal Display
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Reversionary Mode
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 2-29 Outside Air Temperature
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
WIND DATA
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
No Data
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Wind direction and speed in knots can be displayed relative to the aircraft in a window to the upper left of
the HSI. When the window is selected for display, but wind information is invalid or unavailable, the window
displays NO WIND DATA. Wind data can be displayed in three different ways.
Figure 2-30 Wind Data
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Displaying wind data:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the WIND Softkey to display wind data to the left of the HSI.
3) Press one of the OPTN softkeys to change how wind data is displayed:
• OPTN 1: Headwind/tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed components
AFCS
• OPTN 2: Wind direction arrow and speed
• OPTN 3: Wind direction arrow with headwind/tailwind and crosswind components
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) To remove the window, press the OFF Softkey.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNV) INDICATIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When a VNV flight plan has been activated, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, RVSI, VDI) appear on the
PFD in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” message and “Vertical track” voice alert. See the Flight
Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features. VNV indications are removed from the PFD
according to the criteria listed in the table.
Top of Descent Message
VNV Target
Altitude
EIS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
GPS is the
Selected
Navigation
Source
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Phase of
Flight
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-31 Vertical Navigation Indications (PFD)
AFCS
VNV Indication Removed
Required Vertical
Vertical
VNV Target
Speed (RVSI)
Deviation (VDI)
Altitude*
Aircraft > 1 min before the next TOD due to flight plan change
X
X
X
VNV cancelled (CNCL VNV Softkey pressed on MFD)
X
X
X
Distance to active waypoint cannot be computed due to
unsupported flight plan leg type (see Flight Management
X
X
X
Section)
Aircraft > 250 feet below active VNV Target Altitude
X
X
X
Current crosstrack or track angle error has exceeded limit
X
X
X
Active altitude-constrained waypoint can not be reached within
X
X
maximum allowed flight path angle and vertical speed
Criteria
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Table 2-2 VNV Indication Removal Criteria
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.3 PFD ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTING FUNCTIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The following annunciations and alerting functions are displayed on the PFD. Refer to Appendix A for more
information on alerts and annunciations.
SYSTEM ALERTING
EIS
Messages appear in the Alerts Window in the lower right corner of the PFD (Figure 2-32) when a warning,
caution, advisory alert, or G1000 message advisory occurs. System alert messages are provided for awareness
of G1000 system problems or status and may or may not require pilot action. The Alerts Window allows
system alerts to be displayed simultaneously. The FMS Knob is used to scroll through the alert messages. The
Alerts Window is enabled/disabled by pressing the ALERTS Softkey. If the window is already open when a new
message is generated, pressing the ALERTS Softkey to acknowledge the message turns the softkey gray.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The ALERTS Softkey label changes to display the appropriate annunciation when an alert is issued. The
annunciation flashes and the appropriate aural alert sounds until acknowledged by pressing the softkey. The
softkey then reverts to the ALERTS label, and when pressed again opens the Alerts Window to display a
descriptive message of the alert.
Comparator
Window
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Reversionary
Sensor
Window
Annunciation
Window
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Alerts
Window
Softkey
Annunciation
INDEX
Figure 2-32 G1000 Alerting System
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The Annunciation Window appears to the right of the Vertical Speed Indicator (Figure 2-32) and displays
abbreviated annunciation text for aircraft alerts. Warnings appear in red, cautions in yellow, advisory alerts
in white, and safe operating annunciations in green. New alerts are displayed at the top of the Annunciation
Window, regardless of priority. Once acknowledged, they are sequenced based on priority.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Critical values generated by redundant sensors are monitored by comparators. If differences in the sensors
exceed a specified amount, the Comparator Window appears in the upper right corner of the PFD (Figure 2-32)
and the discrepancy is annunciated in the Comparator Window as a MISCOMP (miscompare). If one or both
of the sensed values are unavailable, it is annunciated as a NO COMP (no compare).
EIS
Reversionary sensor selection is annunciated in a window on the right side of the PFD (Figure 2-32). These
annunciations reflect reversionary sensors selected on one or both PFDs. Pressing the SENSOR Softkey accesses
the ADC1, ADC2, AHRS1, and AHRS2 softkeys. These softkeys allow switching of the sensors being viewed
on each PFD. With certain types of sensor failures, the system may make some sensor selections automatically. The GPS sensor cannot be switched manually.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATIONS
Outer Marker
Middle Marker
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Marker Beacon Annunciations are displayed on the PFD to the left of the Selected Altitude. Outer marker
reception is indicated in blue, middle in yellow, and inner in white. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section
for more information on Marker Beacon Annunciations.
Inner Marker
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Altimeter
AFCS
Figure 2-33 Marker Beacon Annunciations
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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75
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
TRAFFIC ANNUNCIATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Traffic is displayed symbolically on the PFD Inset Map, the MFD Navigation Map Page, and various other
MFD page maps. Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section and Appendix F for more details about the Traffic
Information Service (TIS) and optional Traffic Advisory Systems (TAS). When a traffic advisory (TA) is detected,
the following automatically occur:
• The PFD Inset Map is enabled and displays traffic
• A flashing black-on-yellow TRAFFIC annunciation appears to the top left of the Attitude Indicator for five
seconds and remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area
EIS
• A single “TRAFFIC” aural alert is heard, unless an optional Traffic Advisory System (TAS) is installed. Refer
to the applicable TAS documentation for alerts generated by TAS equipment.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
If additional TAs appear, new aural and visual alerts are generated.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Traffic
Symbols
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 2-34 Traffic Annunciation and Inset Map with Traffic Displayed
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TAWS ANNUNCIATIONS
Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) annunciations appear on the PFD at the top left of the Altimeter. Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section and Appendix A for information on TAWS alerts and annunciations.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-35 Traffic and Example TAWS Annunciations
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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77
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ALTITUDE ALERTING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Altitude Alerting function provides visual and aural alerts when the aircraft is approaching the Selected
Altitude. Whenever the Selected Altitude is changed, the Altitude Alerter is reset. The Altitude Alerter is
independent of the installed AFCS. The following occur when approaching the Selected Altitude:
• Upon passing through 1000 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude changes to black text on a light
blue background and flashes for five seconds.
• When the aircraft passes within 200 feet of the Selected Altitude an aural tone is heard. The Selected Altitude
changes to light blue text on a black background and flashes for five seconds.
EIS
• After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the pilot flies outside the deviation band (±200 feet of the Selected
Altitude) an aural tone is heard. The Selected Altitude changes to yellow text on a black background and
flashes for five seconds.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Within 1000 ft
Within 200 ft
Deviation of ±200 ft
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-36 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
LOW ALTITUDE ANNUNCIATION
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: A Low Altitude Annunciation is available only when SBAS is available. This annunciation is only
available when TAWS-B alerting has been inhibited.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
When the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach using vertical guidance,
a Low Altitude Annunciation may appear if the current aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed
altitude at the FAF. A black-on-yellow LOW ALT annunciation appears to the top left of the Altimeter, flashing
for several seconds, then remaining displayed until the condition is resolved.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 2-37 Low Altitude on GPS SBAS Approach
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT ALERTING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
For altitude awareness, a barometric Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH) can be set
in the Timer/References Window and is reset when the power is cycled. When active, the altitude setting is
displayed to the bottom left of the Altimeter. Once the altitude is within the range of the tape, a bug appears
at the reference altitude on the Altimeter. The following visual annunciations occur when approaching the
MDA/DH:
• When the aircraft altitude descends to within 2500 feet of the MDA/DH setting, the BARO MIN box appears
with the altitude in light blue text. The bug appears on the altitude tape in light blue once in range.
EIS
• When the aircraft passes through 100 feet of the MDA/DH, the bug and text turn white.
• Once the aircraft reaches MDA/DH, the bug and text turn yellow and the aural alert, “Minimums. Minimums”,
is heard.
Within 100 ft
Altitude Reached
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Within 2500 ft
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Barometric
Minimum
Bug
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Barometric
Minimum
Box
Figure 2-38 Barometric MDA/DH Alerting Visual Annunciations
AFCS
Alerting is inhibited while the aircraft is on the ground and until the aircraft reaches 150 feet above the MDA. If the aircraft proceeds to climb after having reached the MDA, once it reaches 50 feet above the MDA, alerting
is disabled.
The MDA/DH may be set from either PFD and is synchronized on both PFDs. The function is reset when the
power is cycled or a new approach is activated.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Setting the barometric Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height and bug:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Minimums field.
APPENDICES
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select BARO. Off is selected by default. Press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS
Knob to highlight the next field.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired altitude (from zero to 16,000 feet).
5) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
INDEX
Figure 2-39 Barometric MDA/DH
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79
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.4 ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ABNORMAL GPS CONDITIONS
The annunciations listed in Table 2-3 can appear on the HSI when abnormal GPS conditions occur (Figure
2-40). Refer to the Flight Management Section for more information on Dead Reckoning Mode.
Annunciation
EIS
LOI
INTEG OK
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
DR
Location
Lower left of
aircraft symbol
Lower left of
aircraft symbol
Upper right of
aircraft symbol
Description
Loss of Integrity Monitoring–GPS integrity is insufficient for the current
phase of flight
Integrity OK–GPS integrity has been restored to within normal limits
(annunciation displayed for five seconds)
Dead Reckoning–System is using projected position rather than GPS position
to compute navigation data and sequence active flight plan waypoints
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Table 2-3 Abnormal GPS Conditions Annunciated on HSI
Figure 2-40 Example HSI Annunciations
AFCS
In Dead Reckoning Mode the CDI is removed from the display when GPS is the selected navigation source. The following items on the PFD are then shown in yellow:
• Current Track Bug
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Wind Data
• Ground Speed
• Distances in the Bearing Information Windows
• GPS bearing pointers
INDEX
APPENDICES
These items should be verified when operating in Dead Reckoning Mode as they become increasingly
inaccurate over time.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
Nose High
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When the aircraft enters an unusual pitch attitude, red chevrons pointing toward the horizon warn of extreme
pitch. The chevrons are displayed on the Attitude Indicator, starting at 50˚ above and 30˚ below the horizon
line.
Nose Low
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 2-41 Pitch Attitude Warnings
• PFD Setup Menu
• Flight director Command Bars
• Inset Map
• Windows displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD:
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope,
and Glidepath Indicators
• Outside air temperature (OAT)
– Timer/References
• Altimeter Barometric Setting
• Wind data
– Nearest Airports
• Selected Altitude
• Selected Heading readout
– Flight Plan
• VNV Target Altitude
• Selected Course readout
– Messages
• Ground Speed
• Transponder Status Box
– Procedures
• True Airspeed
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• AFCS Annunciations
• Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height readout
AFCS
• System Time
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Traffic Annunciations
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚, some information displayed on the PFD is removed. The
Altimeter and Airspeed, Attitude, Vertical Speed, and Horizontal Situation indicators remain on the display
and the Bearing Information, Alerts, and Annunciation windows can be displayed during such situations. The
following information is removed from each PFD and their softkeys are disabled when the aircraft experiences
unusual attitudes:
APPENDICES
INDEX
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81
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Blank Page
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM (EIS)
NOTE: Refer to the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) for limitations.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 Engine Indication System (EIS) for the Vulcanair P68 displays critical engine, electrical, and other
system parameters on the left side of the Multi Function Display (MFD) during normal operations (Figure 3-1).
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Display
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 3-1 Multi Function Display (Normal Mode)
EIS information is presented in three displays, accessed using the ENGINE Softkey on the MFD:
• Engine Display – Default display, shows all critical engine and electrical indicators
AFCS
• Lean Display – Provides engine leaning information
• System Display – Shows numeric readouts of critical engine and electrical indicators
The manifold pressure indicator and tachometer are present on all displays
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
The EIS instrument types include vertical slider gauges, horizontal bar indicators, and digital readouts. Green
bands indicate normal ranges of operation; yellow and red bands indicate caution and warning, respectively.
When unsafe operating conditions occur, readouts and labels may change color corresponding to the level of the
condition. The pointers (labeled left, L, and right, R) on the horizontal bar indicators appear in white to indicate
normal operation and change to yellow or red to indicate caution or warning conditions.
If sensory data to an instrument is invalid or unavailable, the system displays a red ‘X’ across the instrument.
The G950 fuel quantity gauge displays a red ‘X’ over the left and right fuel quantities as this data is unavailable.
INDEX
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83
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In Reversionary Mode, the reversionary display is configured to present PFD symbology with the EIS Display
(Figure 3-2). When a display enters reversionary mode, the G950 uses the EIS display shown prior to entering
Reversionary Mode (Engine, Lean, or System) and the EIS softkeys are unavailable. Refer to the System Overview
for information about Reversionary Mode.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Display
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 3-2 Primary Flight Display (Reversionary Mode)
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The Engine softkeys provide access to the three EIS Displays (Engine, Lean, System). To return to the Engine
Display from the Lean or System Display, press the ENGINE or BACK Softkey.
ENGINE
SYSTEM
BACK
ENGINE
LEAN
SYSTEM
CYL SLCT
ASSIST
BACK
ENGINE
LEAN
SYSTEM
DEC FUEL INC FUEL RST FUEL
BACK
EIS
LEAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ENGINE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 3-3 EIS Softkeys
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ASSIST
• SYSTEM
DEC FUEL
INC FUEL
RST FUEL
Displays second-level engine softkeys
Displays the EIS Lean Display
Cycles through the cylinders to obtain information about a particular cylinder, shown in
light blue on the bar graphs
Accesses Leaning Assist Mode
Displays the EIS System Display
Softkey function not available
Softkey function not available
Softkey function not available
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• ENGINE
• LEAN
CYL SLCT
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.1 ENGINE DISPLAY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Engine Display is the default EIS display and can be selected by pressing the ENGINE or BACK Softkey
when another EIS display is currently shown.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
1
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2
3
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4
5
AFCS
6
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7
8
APPENDICES
8
INDEX
Figure 3-4 Engine Display
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
6
Oil Pressure Indicator
2
Tachometer
7
Ammeter
3
Fuel Flow Indicator
8
Voltmeter
4
Cylinder Head Temperature Indicator
9
Fuel Quantity Indicator (Not used on the P68)
5
Oil Temperature Indicator
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Manifold Pressure Indicator
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1
EIS
MANIFOLD PRESSURE GAUGES
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Manifold Pressure Gauges are located at the top of each EIS display (Engine, Lean, and System). The
gauges indicate engine manifold pressure in inches of Mercury (in HG) for the left and right engine. Green
bands indicate normal operating ranges. The system displays digital readout of manifold pressures below the
vertical gauges.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 3-5 Manifold Pressure Gauges
TACHOMETERS
AFCS
The system displays the tachometers for the left and right propellers directly below the manifold pressure
gauges. The tachometers display propeller rotation speed in revolutions per minute (RPM). The system displays
digital readouts below the tachometer gauges. The gauge issues a warning if the propeller speed enters the red
band.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 3-6 Tachometers
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
87
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
FUEL FLOW INDICATORS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Fuel Flow indicators provide readouts for fuel flow in gallons per hour (GPH).
Figure 3-7 Fuel Flow Indicators
EIS
CYLINDER HEAD TEMPERATURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The cylinder head temperature (CHT) gauge indicates the head temperature of the hottest cylinder for each
engine. A number inside the triangular pointer corresponds to the hottest cylinder head number. If the CHT
pointer enters the yellow or red band, the system issues a caution or warning, respectively.
Figure 3-8 Cylinder Head Temperature
Gauge
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
OIL PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE GAUGES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The oil temperature and pressure gauges are located beneath the CHT gauge. Triangular pointers represent
the oil temperature and pressure for the left (L) and right (R) engine. If the oil temperature or pressure enters
the yellow or red band, the system issues a caution or warning respectively.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 3-9 Oil Pressure and Temperature Gauges
88
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ELECTRICAL INFORMATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The ammeter displays the load of left (L) and right (R) alternators in amps. The voltmeter shows the voltage
for the left and right electrical bus in volts.. If the bus voltage enters the yellow or red bands, the system issues
a caution or warning, respectively.
EIS
Figure 3-10 Ammeter and Voltmeter
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FUEL QUANTITY GAUGE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The fuel quantity gauge display is not used on the P68. The system displays a red ‘X’ over the left and right
fuel quantities, as fuel quantity data is not available.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 3-11 Fuel Quantity Gauge
(Not used on the P68)
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
89
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.2 LEAN DISPLAY
NOTE: The pilot should follow the engine manufacturer’s recommended leaning procedures as described in
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM).
The Lean Display (Figure 3-12) is accessed by pressing the ENGINE Softkey followed by the LEAN Softkey and
provides information for performing engine leaning.
EIS
Manifold Gauge, Tachometer and Fuel Flow Indicator remain on the Lean Display. Exhaust Gas Temperature
(EGT) and Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) are displayed graphically with numeric readouts for the selected
cylinder for each engine.
Accessing the EIS Lean Display:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press the ENGINE Softkey.
2) Press the LEAN Softkey.
3) To return to the default Engine Display, press the ENGINE or BACK Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
From the Lean Display, the CYL SLCT and ASSIST Softkeys are used to get information about specific cylinders
on both the EGT and CHT graphs. The CYL SLCT Softkey is disabled during warning or caution conditions or
when the ASSIST Softkey is pressed.
Monitoring the desired cylinder’s EGT and CHT:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
From the Lean Display, press the CYL SLCT Softkey to cycle through each cylinder and view its EGT and CHT.
The selected cylinder is shown in light blue.
The ASSIST Softkey aids in the leaning process by identifying the peak of the first cylinder whose temperature
falls. The peaked cylinder is selected and a hollow light blue box appears above the cylinder’s bar to indicate EGT
peak. A readout showing the temperature deviation from peak (DPEAK) is displayed above the EGT bar graph.
If the temperature of the peaked cylinder exceeds the peak value, the peak value is not updated.
AFCS
Lean the fuel mixture for the desired engine until the first cylinder peaks. Enrich the mixture until the DPEAK
displays the desired value. This process is performed for each engine.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Monitoring of the cylinder continues until the ASSIST Softkey is pressed again which disables lean assist and
removes the peak line from the bar graph and the DPEAK. The system then returns to seeking the cylinder head
with the highest temperature.
1
APPENDICES
2
INDEX
3
Engine Manifold Pressure Displays manifold pressure in inches of Mercury
Gauge (MAN IN Hg)
Displays propeller speed in revolutions per minute (rpm); the red band
Tachometer (RPM)
indicates propeller overspeed
Displays digital readouts of current fuel flow for each engine in gallons
Fuel Flow Indicator
per hour (gph)
(FUEL FLOW GPH)
90
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
Exhaust Gas Temperature The number of the cylinder with the highest Exhaust Gas Temperature
(EGT) is highlighted in light blue and its readout given below the bar
Bar Graph (EGT °F)
graph in degrees Fahrenheit (°F).
A light blue line appears above the cylinder’s bar to represent the peak
EGT for the selected cylinder when the ASSIST Softkey is pressed.
The EGT deviation from peak (DPEAK) for the selected cylinder is
displayed below the indicator when the ASSIST Softkey is pressed
The number of the cylinder with the highest head temperature is
Cylinder Head
highlighted in light blue and its readout given below the bar graph
Temperature Bar Graph
in °F. A caution or warning condition is denoted by color change of a
(CHT °F)
cylinder’s bar to yellow or red, respectively.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3
AFCS
4
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
5
INDEX
Figure 3-12 Lean Display
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
91
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.3 SYSTEM DISPLAY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Press the SYSTEM Softkey to access the System Display (Figure 3-13). The instruments presented here, in
addition to the engine manifold pressure indicator and tachometer, are separated into four categories: System
(voltmeter, ammeter, and flight hours), Oil (temperature and pressure), Fuel (capacity and flow), and Fuel Calc
(Fuel Calc functionality not available on the P68). A horizontal bar indicator for deice fluid (optional) is located at
the bottom of the display.
Accessing the EIS System Display:
EIS
1) Press the ENGINE Softkey.
2) Press the SYSTEM Softkey.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) To return to the default Engine Display, press the ENGINE or BACK Softkey.
1
Engine Manifold Pressure
Indicator
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
(MAN IN HG)
2 Tachometer (RPM)
Displays manifold pressure in inches of Mercury (in Hg) to indicate
engine power
Displays propeller speeds in revolutions per minute (rpm) on a vertical
slider gauge with digital readouts below the gauge
3
Voltmeter (VOLTS)
Displays the primary bus voltage for each side with digital readouts
4
Ammeter (AMPS)
Displays each alternator load in amperes (amps) with digital readouts
5
Flight Hours (FLT HRS)
Displays the total flight hours and is activated when the aircraft becomes
airborne (note that time airborne is separate from tachometer time)
6
Oil Temperature Indicator (°F) Displays the oil temperature of each side in degrees Fahrenheit (°F)
7
Oil Pressure Indicator (PSI)
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Displays pressure of oil supplied to the engines in pounds per square
inch (psi)
8 Fuel Quantity Indicator (GAL) Fuel quantity data is not available; the G950 displays a red ‘X’ for the
left and right fuel quantities.
9 Fuel Flow Indicator (GPH)
Displays a digital readout of current fuel flow for each engine in gallons
per hour (gph)
10 Set Fuel Remaining (GAL REM) Not used on the P68, readout shows ‘0.0’ gallons remaining
11
INDEX
Calculated Fuel Used
(GAL USED)
12 Calculated Endurance
(ENDUR)
13 Calculated Range
(RANGE NM)
92
Not used on the P68, readout shows ‘0.0’ gallons used
Not used on the P68, readout shows endurance time of ‘00:00’.
Not used on the P68, readout shows a range of ‘0’ nautical miles
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1
EIS
2
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3
4
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5
6
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
7
8
9
AFCS
10
11
12
13
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 3-13 System Display
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
93
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
Blank Page
94
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
4.1 OVERVIEW
The Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) system includes the Audio Panel, communication radios,
navigation radios, and Mode S transponder. The System Overview Section provides a block diagram description
of the Audio Panel and CNS system interconnection.
CNS operation in the G950 is performed by the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• Audio Panel
• Multifunction Display (MFD)
• Mode S Transponder
EIS
• Primary Flight Display (PFD)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Integrated Avionics Unit (2)
The MFD/PFD controls are used to tune the communication transceivers and navigation radios.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Audio Panel provides the traditional audio selector functions of microphone and receiver audio selection.
The Audio Panel includes an intercom system (ICS) between the pilot, copilot, and passengers, a marker beacon
system, and a COM clearance recorder. Ambient noise from the aircraft radios is reduced by a feature called
Master Avionics Squelch (MASQ). When no audio is detected, MASQ processing further reduces the amount of
background noise from the radios.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Mode S Transponder is controlled with softkeys and the FMS Knob located on the Primary Flight Display
(PFD). The Transponder Data Box is located to the left of the System Time Box. The data box displays the active
four-digit code, mode, and a reply status (Figure 4-1).
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
95
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
PFD CONTROLS AND FREQUENCY DISPLAY
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1
9
10
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
11
12
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 4-1 PFD Controls, NAV/COM Frequency Tuning Boxes, and NRST Window
96
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
NAV Frequency Box – Displays NAV standby and active frequency fields, volume, and station ID. The
frequency of the NAV radio selected for navigation is displayed in green.
5
COM Frequency Box – Displays COM standby and active frequency fields and volume. The selected COM
transceiver frequency is displayed in green.
6
COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Press to move the tuning box (light blue box) and Frequency Transfer Arrow between COM1 and
COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this key
for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Press to turn the COM automatic squelch on
and off. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency field as a percentage.
9
Nearest Airports Window – Display by pressing NRST Softkey.
10
ENT Key – Validates or confirms an Auto-tune selection.
11
FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob, used to enter transponder codes and Auto-tune entries
when NRST Window is present. Press the FMS Knob to turn the selection cursor on and off. The large
knob moves the cursor in the window. The small knob selects individual characters for the highlighted
cursor location.
12
Transponder Data Box – Indicates the selected transponder code, operating mode, reply, and ident status
for the applicable transponder.
AFCS
4
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
Press to move the tuning box (light blue box) and Frequency Transfer Arrow between NAV1 and NAV2.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
EIS
2
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to turn the Morse code identifier audio on
and off. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
97
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
GMA 1347 AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
18
19
20
21
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
17
22
23
24
AFCS
Figure 4-2 Audio Panel Controls
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: When a key is selected, a triangular annunciator above the key is illuminated.
98
1
COM1 MIC – Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM receiver to be heard. COM2 receive can be
added by pressing the COM2 Key.
2
COM1 – When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard.
3
COM2 MIC – Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM receiver to be heard. COM1 receive can be
added by pressing the COM1 Key.
4
COM2 – When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard.
5
COM3 MIC – Reserved for optional COM radio.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SPKR – Selects and deselects the cabin speaker (if installed). COM and NAV receiver audio can be heard
on the speaker.
11
MKR/MUTE – Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker beacon receiver
audio. Unmutes automatically when new marker beacon audio is received. Also, stops play of recorded
COM audio.
12
HI SENS – Press to increase marker beacon receiver sensitivity. Press again to return to low sensitivity.
13
DME – Turns optional DME audio on or off.
14
NAV1 – When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
15
ADF – Turns optional ADF receiver audio on or off.
16
NAV2 – When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
17
AUX – Not used in the P68.
18
MAN SQ – Enables manual squelch for the intercom. When the intercom is active, press the PILOT Knob
to illuminate SQ. Turn the PILOT/PASS Knobs to adjust squelch.
19
PLAY – Press once to play the last recorded COM audio. Press again while audio is playing and the
previous block of recorded audio will be played. Each subsequent press plays each previously recorded
block. Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key during play of a memory block stops play.
20
PILOT – Selects and deselects the pilot intercom isolation.
21
COPLT – Selects and deselects the copilot intercom isolation.
22
PILOT Knob – Press to switch between volume and squelch control as indicated by illumination of VOL
or SQ. Turn to adjust intercom volume or squelch. The MAN SQ Key must be selected to allow squelch
adjustment.
23
PASS Knob – Turn to adjust Copilot/Passenger intercom volume or squelch. The MAN SQ Key must be
selected to allow squelch adjustment.
24
DISPLAY BACKUP Button – Manually selects Reversionary Mode.
APPENDICES
10
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
PA – Selects the passenger address system. The selected COM transmitter is deselected when the PA Key
is pressed.
AFCS
9
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TEL – Selects and deselects telephone audio.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
8
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
COM 1/2 – Split COM operation key. When selected, the pilot uses the COM 1 transceiver and the copilot
uses COM 2.
EIS
7
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
COM3 – Reserved for optional COM radio.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
99
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.2 COM OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
COM TRANSCEIVER SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
NOTE: During PA Mode, the COM MIC Annunciator is extinguished and the COM active frequency color
changes to white, indicating that neither COM transmitter is active.
NOTE: When turning on the G950 for use, the system remembers the last frequencies used and the active
EIS
COM transceiver state prior to shutdown.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the left side and the
two standby frequencies are on the right. The COM transceiver is selected for transmitting by pressing the
COM MIC Keys on the Audio Panel. During reception of audio from the COM radio selected for transmission,
audio from the other COM radio is muted.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
An active COM frequency displayed in green indicates that the COM transceiver is selected on the Audio
Panel (COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key). Both active COM frequencies appearing in white indicate that no COM
radio is selected for transmitting (PA Key is selected on the Audio Panel).
Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency in the tuning
box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Active
Fields
Standby
Fields
AFCS
Tuning Box
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
COM2 Radio is Selected
on the Audio Panel
Figure 4-3 Selecting a COM Radio for Transmit
INDEX
APPENDICES
COM3 is reserved for an optional COM radio.
100
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRANSMIT/RECEIVE INDICATIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
During COM transmission, a white TX appears by the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. On the Audio Panel, when the active COM is transmitting, the active transceiver COM MIC
Key Annunciator flashes approximately once per second.
During COM signal reception, a white RX appears by the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency
Transfer Arrow.
EIS
Transmit and
Receive Indicators
Annunciator
Flashes During
Transmission
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-4 COM Radio Transmit and Receive Indications
COM TRANSCEIVER MANUAL TUNING
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The COM frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the right side of each PFD.
Manually tuning a COM frequency:
1) Turn the COM Knob to tune the desired frequency in the COM Tuning Box (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the COM VOL/SQ Knob.
4) Press the COM VOL/SQ Knob to turn automatic squelch on and off.
AFCS
Turn the VOL/SQ Knob to adjust
volume. Press the Knob to Turn
Automatic Squelch On or Off
Press the Frequency Transfer
Key to Transfer COM
Frequencies Between Active
and Standby Frequency Boxes
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Turn the COM Knob to
Tune the Frequency in
the Tuning Box
APPENDICES
Figure 4-5 COM Frequency Tuning
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
101
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SELECTING THE RADIO TO BE TUNED
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Press the small COM Knob to transfer the frequency tuning box and Frequency Transfer Arrow between the
upper and lower radio frequency fields.
EIS
Press the COM Knob to
Switch the Tuning Box From
One COM Radio to the Other
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-6 Switching COM Tuning Boxes
QUICK-TUNING AND ACTIVATING 121.500 MHZ
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pressing and holding the COM Frequency Transfer Key for two seconds automatically loads the emergency
COM frequency (121.500 MHz) in the active field of the COM radio selected for tuning (the one with the
transfer arrow). In the example shown, pressing the Audio Panel COM2 MIC Key activates the transceiver.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Press for Two Seconds
to Load 121.500 MHz
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 4-7 Quickly Tuning 121.500 MHz
102
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTO-TUNING THE COM FREQUENCY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
COM frequencies can be automatically tuned from the following:
• Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies Page (ARTCC, FSS,
WX)
• WPT – Airport Information Page
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces Page
• NRST – Nearest Airports Page
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE PFD
EIS
COM frequencies for the nearest airports can be automatically tuned from the Nearest Airports Window on
the PFD. When the desired frequency is entered, it becomes a standby frequency. Pressing the Frequency
Transfer Key places this frequency into the COM Active Frequency Field.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Auto-tuning a COM frequency for a nearby airport from the PFD:
1) Press the NRST Softkey on the PFD to open the Nearest Airports Window. A list of 25 nearest airport identifiers
and COM frequencies is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the list and highlight the desired COM frequency.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the COM Standby Tuning Box.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 4-8 Nearest Airports Window
Select the NRST
Softkey to Open
the Nearest
Airports Window
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
103
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE MFD
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the COM Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT
page group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key (Figures 4-10, 4-11, and 4-12).
Auto-tuning a COM frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the COM frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob or
selecting the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency (Figure 4-11).
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Turn the FMS
Knob to Scroll
Through a List
of Frequencies
Press the ENT Key to
Load a Highlighted
Frequency into
the COM Standby
Frequency Box
Figure 4-9 Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Or:
1) On the Nearest Airports, Frequencies, or Airspaces page, press the MENU Key to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor on the desired selection.
AFCS
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
104
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
EIS
Nearest Airports Menu
Figure 4-10 Nearest Pages Menus
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
On the WPT - Airport Information Page, the cursor can be placed on the frequency field by pressing the
FMS Knob and scrolling through the list. The frequency is transferred to the COM Standby Field with the
ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Airport
Identifier and
Information
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Runway
Information
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press ENT Key to load
frequency into PFD
COM Standby Field.
Cursor then advances
to the next frequency.
Select INFO Softkey for
AIRPORT, RUNWAYS,
and FREQUENCIES
Windows
APPENDICES
Figure 4-11 WPT – Airport Information Page
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
105
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
COM frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST – Nearest Airspaces, NRST – Nearest Frequencies,
and NRST – Nearest Airports Pages on the MFD in a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU
Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-12 NRST – Nearest Airspaces, NRST – Nearest Airports, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages
106
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FREQUENCY SPACING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing
(118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel spacing
is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in the complete 3040-channel list.
COM channel spacing is set on the System Setup Page of the AUX Page Group.
25-kHz Channel
Spacing
EIS
8.33-kHz Channel
Spacing
Figure 4-13 COM Channel Spacing
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Changing COM frequency channel spacing:
1) Select the AUX – System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Channel Spacing Field in the COM Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired channel spacing.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the channel spacing selection.
While the COM CONFIG Window is selected, the G950 softkeys are blank.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Select 8.33-kHz
or 25.0-kHz
COM Frequency
Channel Spacing
INDEX
Figure 4-14 AUX – System Setup Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUTOMATIC SQUELCH
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Automatic Squelch quiets unwanted static noise when no audio signal is received, while still providing good
sensitivity to weak COM signals. To disable Automatic Squelch, press the VOL/SQ Knob. When Automatic
Squelch is disabled, COM audio reception is always on. Continuous static noise is heard over the headsets and
speaker, if selected. Pressing the VOL/SQ Knob again enables Automatic Squelch.
EIS
When Automatic Squelch is disabled, a white SQ appears next to the COM frequency.
Squelch
Indication
Press the COM VOL/
SQ Knob to turn off
Automatic Squelch.
Press again to restore
Automatic Squelch.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-15 Overriding Automatic Squelch
VOLUME
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
COM radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob. Turning the knob
clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume. When adjusting volume,
the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication remains for two seconds after
the change.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 4-16 COM Volume Level
COM Volume
Level Remains
for Two Seconds
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4.3 NAV OPERATION
NAV RADIO SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; two standby fields and two active fields. The active
frequencies are on the right side and the standby frequencies are on the left.
EIS
A NAV radio is selected for navigation by pressing the CDI Softkey located on the PFD. The active NAV
frequency selected for navigation is displayed in green. Pressing the CDI Softkey once selects NAV1 as the
navigation radio. Pressing the CDI Softkey a second time selects NAV2 as the navigation radio. Pressing the
CDI Softkey a third time activates GPS mode. Pressing the CDI Softkey again cycles back to NAV1.
While cycling through the CDI Softkey selections, the NAV Tuning Box and the Frequency Transfer Arrow are
placed in the active NAV Frequency Field and the active NAV frequency color changes to green.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The three navigation modes that can be cycled through are:
• VOR1 (or LOC1) – If NAV1 is selected, a green single line arrow (not shown) labeled either VOR1 or LOC1
is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV1 frequency is displayed in green.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• VOR2 (or LOC2) – If NAV2 is selected, a green double line arrow (shown) labeled either VOR2 or LOC2 is
displayed on the HSI and the active NAV2 frequency is displayed in green.
• GPS – If GPS Mode is selected, a magenta single line arrow (not shown) appears on the HSI and neither NAV
radio is selected. Both active NAV frequencies are then displayed in white.
Active
Fields
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Standby
Fields
Tuning Box
AFCS
The NAV Radio is
Selected by Selecting
the CDI Softkey
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-17 Selecting a NAV Radio for Navigation
APPENDICES
See the Flight Instruments Section for selecting the DME and Bearing Information windows and using VOR as the source for the bearing pointer.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NAV radios are selected for listening by pressing the corresponding keys on the Audio Panel. Pressing the
NAV1, NAV2, DME, or ADF Key selects and deselects the navigation radio source. Selected audio can be heard
over the headset and the speakers (if selected). All radios can be selected individually or simultaneously.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-18 Selecting a NAV Radio Receiver
NAV RECEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The NAV frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the left side of the MFD and PFDs.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Manually tuning a NAV frequency:
1) Turn the NAV Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box.
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the NAV VOL/ID Knob to turn the Morse code identifier audio on and off.
AFCS
Turn VOL/ID Knob to adjust
volume. Press Knob to Turn
Morse Code On or Off.
Press the Frequency Transfer Key to
Transfer NAV Frequencies Between
Active and Standby Frequency Fields
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Turn the NAV Knob to
Tune the Frequency in
the Tuning Box
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 4-19 NAV Frequency Tuning
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SELECTING THE RADIO TO BE TUNED
Press the small NAV Knob to transfer the frequency tuning box and Frequency Transfer Arrow between the
upper and lower radio frequency fields.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Press the NAV Knob to
Switch the Tuning Box From
One NAV Radio to the Other
EIS
Figure 4-20 Switching NAV Tuning Boxes
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
VOR/LOC ID
When the Morse code Identifier audio is on for a NAV radio, a white ID appears to the left of the active
NAV frequency.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Morse Code Identifier
for the GHM VOR is On
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
In the example shown, in order to listen to either station identifier, press the NAV1 or NAV2 Key on the
Audio Panel. Pressing the VOL/ID Knob turns off the Morse code audio only in the radio with the NAV
Tuning Box. To turn off both NAV IDs, transfer the NAV Tuning Box between NAV1 and NAV2 by pressing
the small NAV Knob and pressing the VOL/ID Knob again to turn the Morse code off in the other radio.
Station
Identifier
Figure 4-21 NAV Radio ID Indication
AFCS
VOLUME
NAV Radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/ID Knob. Turning the knob
clockwise increases volume, counterclockwise decreases volume.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When adjusting, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication remains
for two seconds after the change.
APPENDICES
NAV Volume
Level Remains
for Two Seconds
Figure 4-22 NAV Volume Levels
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTO-TUNING A NAV FREQUENCY FROM THE MFD
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
• WPT – VOR Information
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies (FSS, WX)
• NRST – Nearest Airports
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces
NAV frequencies can be selected and loaded from the following MFD pages:
• WPT – Airport Information
• NRST – Nearest VOR
EIS
The MFD provides auto-tuning of NAV frequencies from waypoint and nearest pages. During enroute
navigation, the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV standby frequency field. During approach
activation the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV active frequency field.
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT page
group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key (Figures 4-23, 4-24, and 4-25).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Auto-tuning a NAV frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the NAV frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob or
selecting the appropriate softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV identifier or NAV frequency.
3) On the Nearest VOR, Nearest Airspaces, and Nearest Airports pages, select the FREQ Softkey to place the cursor
on the NAV frequency (Figure 4-25).
4) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV radio.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
AFCS
Turn the FMS
Knob to Scroll
Through a List
of Frequencies
Press the ENT
Key to Load
a Highlighted
Frequency into
the NAV Standby
Frequency Box
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-23 NAV Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Or:
1) When on the NRST pages, press the MENU Key to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor in the desired window.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV radio.
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Nearest VOR Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-24 Nearest Pages Menus
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In the example shown, the VOR list is selected with the VOR Softkey or from the page menu. The FMS Knob
or ENT Key is used to scroll through the list. The cursor is placed on the frequency with the FREQ Softkey and
loaded into the NAV Tuning Box with the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Press the ENT
Key to Load
the Frequency
into the NAV
Standby Field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Select the VOR Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Identifier
Select the FREQ Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Frequency
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 4-25 Loading the NAV Frequency from the NRST – Nearest VOR Page
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
While enroute, NAV frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST – Nearest Airports,
WPT – Airport Information, WPT – VOR Information, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages on the MFD in
a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 4-26 NRST – Nearest Frequencies, WPT – VOR Information, WPT – Airport Information, and
NRST – Nearest Airports Pages
INDEX
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115
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUTO-TUNING NAV FREQUENCIES ON APPROACH ACTIVATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The primary NAV frequency is auto-tuned upon loading a VOR or ILS/Localizer approach.
NOTE: When an ILS/LOC approach has been activated in GPS Mode, the system switches to NAV Mode as
the final approach course is intercepted (within 15 nm of the FAF). See the Flight Management Section for
details.
NAV frequencies are automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box on approach activation.
EIS
When loading or activating a VOR or ILS/LOC approach, the approach frequency is automatically transferred
to a NAV frequency field as follows:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, the approach frequency is transferred to the NAV1 or NAV2
active frequency fields. The frequency that was previously in the NAV1 or NAV2 active frequency fields are
transferred to standby.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, and if the approach frequency is already loaded into the NAV1
or NAV2 standby frequency field, the standby frequency is transferred to active.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• If the current CDI navigation source is NAV1 or NAV2, the approach frequency is transferred to the standby
frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MARKER BEACON RECEIVER
NOTE: The marker beacon indicators operate independently of marker beacon audio and cannot be turned
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
off.
The marker beacon receiver is used as part of the ILS. The marker beacon receiver is always on and detects
any marker beacon signals within the reception range of the aircraft.
The receiver detects the three marker tones – outer, middle, and inner – and provides the marker beacon
annunciations located to the left of the Altimeter on the PFD.
Middle Marker
Indication
Inner Marker
Indication
EIS
Outer Marker
Indication
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 4-27 Marker Beacon Annunciations on the PFD
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 4-28 Marker Beacon Keys
AFCS
The Audio Panel provides three different states of marker beacon operation; On, Muted, and Deselected. Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key selects and deselects marker beacon audio. The key annunciator indicates when
marker beacon audio is selected.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
During marker beacon audio reception, pressing the MKR/MUTE Key mutes the audio but does not affect the
marker annunciations (Figure 4-27). The marker tone is silenced, then waits for the next marker tone. The
MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is illuminated, indicating audio muting. The audio returns when the next marker
beacon signal is received. If the MKR/MUTE Key is pressed during signal reception (O, M, I indication) while
marker beacon audio is muted, the audio is deselected and the MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is extinguished.
APPENDICES
Pressing the HI SENS Key switches between high and low marker beacon receiver sensitivity. The HI SENS
function (annunciator illuminated) is used to provide an earlier indication when nearing a marker during an
approach. The LO SENS function (annunciator extinguished) results in a narrower marker dwell while over a
station.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.4 GTX 33 MODE S TRANSPONDER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The GTX 33 Mode S Transponder provides Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S interrogation and reply capabilities.
Selective addressing or Mode Select (Mode S) capability includes the following features:
• Level-2 reply data link capability (used to exchange information between aircraft and ATC facilities)
• Surveillance identifier capability
• Flight ID (Flight Identification) reporting – The Mode S Transponder reports aircraft identification as either the
aircraft registration or a unique Flight ID.
EIS
• Altitude reporting
• Airborne status determination
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Transponder capability reporting
• Mode S Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) requirements
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Acquisition squitter – Acquisition squitter, or short squitter, is the transponder 24-bit identification address. The transmission is sent periodically, regardless of the presence of interrogations. The purpose of acquisition
squitter is to enable Mode S ground stations and aircraft equipped with a Traffic Avoidance System (TAS) to
recognize the presence of Mode S-equipped aircraft for selective interrogation.
The Hazard Avoidance Section provides more details on traffic avoidance systems.
TRANSPONDER CONTROLS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Mode Selection, and
Code Selection. When the top-level XPDR Softkey is selected, the Mode Selection softkeys appear: STBY, ON,
ALT, VFR, CODE, IDENT, BACK.
AFCS
When the CODE Softkey is selected, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, IDENT, BKSP,
BACK. The digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Selecting the numbered softkeys in sequence enters
the transponder code. If an error is made, selecting the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the
previous digit. Selecting the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous digit.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selecting the BACK Softkey during code selection reverts to the Mode Selection Softkeys. Selecting the BACK
Softkey during mode selection reverts to the top-level softkeys.
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on either PFD. Code entry must be completed with either
the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
APPENDICES
Selecting the IDENT Softkey while in Mode or Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to the
top-level softkeys.
INDEX
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
ALT
GND
VFR
CODE
IDENT
BACK
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ON
IDENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
STBY
XPDR
ALERTS
Selecting the BACK Softkey
returns to the top-level softkeys.
EIS
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
IDENT
BKSP
BACK
ALERTS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns to the mode selection softkeys.
Figure 4-29 Transponder Softkeys (PFD)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTION
Mode selection can be automatic (Ground and Altitude Modes) or manual (Standby, ON, and Altitude Modes).
The STBY, ON, and ALT Softkeys can be accessed by selecting the XPDR Softkey.
Selecting a transponder mode:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Select the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode.
GROUND MODE
AFCS
Ground Mode is normally selected automatically when the aircraft is on the ground. The transponder
powers up in the last mode it was in when shut down. Ground Mode can be overridden by selecting any one
of the Mode Selection Softkeys. A green GND indication and transponder code appear in the mode field of
the Transponder Data Box. In Ground Mode, the transponder does not allow Mode A and Mode C replies,
but it does permit acquisition squitter and replies to discretely addressed Mode S interrogations.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When Standby Mode has been selected on the ground, the transponder can be returned to Ground Mode
by selecting the GND Softkey.
APPENDICES
GND
Mode
Figure 4-30 Ground Mode
INDEX
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119
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
STANDBY MODE (MANUAL)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by selecting the STBY Softkey. In Standby, the transponder does
not reply to interrogations, but new codes can be entered. When Standby is selected, a white STBY indication
and transponder code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box. In all other modes, these fields
appear in green.
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited.
EIS
STBY Mode (White
Code Number and
Mode)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-31 Standby Mode
MANUAL ON MODE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
ON Mode can be selected at any time by selecting the ON Softkey. ON Mode generates Mode A and Mode S
replies, but Mode C altitude reporting is inhibited. In ON Mode, a green ON indication and transponder
code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ON Mode
(No Altitude
Reporting)
Figure 4-32 ON Mode
AFCS
ALTITUDE MODE (AUTOMATIC OR MANUAL)
Altitude Mode is automatically selected when the aircraft becomes airborne. Altitude Mode may also be
selected manually by selecting the ALT Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
If Altitude Mode is selected, a green ALT indication and transponder code appear in the mode field of the
Transponder Data Box, and all transponder replies requesting altitude information are provided with pressure
altitude information.
APPENDICES
ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting)
INDEX
Figure 4-33 Altitude Mode
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
REPLY STATUS
When the transponder sends replies to interrogations, a white R indication appears momentarily in the
reply status field of the Transponder Data Box.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Reply to
Interrogation
Figure 4-34 Reply Indication
EIS
ENTERING A TRANSPONDER CODE
Entering a transponder code with softkeys:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Select the CODE Softkey to display the Transponder Code Selection Softkeys, for digit entry.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Select the digit softkeys to enter the code in the code field. When entering the code, the next softkey in sequence
must be selected within 10 seconds, or the entry is cancelled and restored to the previous code. Selecting the
BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the previous digit. Five seconds after the fourth digit has been
entered, the transponder code becomes active.
Entering
a Code
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 4-35 Entering a Code
Entering a transponder code with the PFD FMS Knob:
AFCS
1) Select the XPDR and the CODE Softkeys as in the previous procedure to enable code entry.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the first two code digits.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
Press the
ENT Key to
Complete
Code Entry
Turn the Large
FMS Knob
to Move the
Cursor to the
Next Code Field
INDEX
Turn the Small
FMS Knob to
Enter Two Code
Digits at a Time
APPENDICES
Pressing the CLR Key or small FMS Knob before code entry is complete cancels code entry and restores the
previous code. Waiting for 10 seconds after code entry is finished activates the code automatically.
Figure 4-36 Entering a Code with the FMS Knob
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
VFR CODE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The VFR code can be entered either manually or by selecting the XPDR Softkey, then the VFR Softkey.
When the VFR Softkey is selected, the pre-programmed VFR code is automatically displayed in the code field
of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting the VFR Softkey again restores the previous identification code.
The pre-programmed VFR Code is set at the factory to 1200. If a VFR code change is required, contact a
Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
EIS
VFR Code
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
IDENT FUNCTION
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 4-37 VFR Code
Selecting the IDENT Softkey sends a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The indication
distinguishes the identing transponder from all the others on the air traffic controller’s screen. The IDENT
Softkey appears on all levels of transponder softkeys. When the IDENT Softkey is selected, a green IDNT
indication is displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for a duration of 18 seconds.
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT Softkey is inoperative.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
After the IDENT Softkey is selected while in Mode or Code Selection, the system reverts to the top-level
softkeys.
IDNT
Indication
AFCS
Select the
IDENT Softkey
to Initiate the
ID Function
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-38 IDENT Softkey and Indication
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT ID REPORTING
NOTE: If the Flight ID is required but the system is not configured for it, contact a Garmin-authorized service
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
center for configuration.
When the Flight ID must be entered before flight operation, the identifier is placed in the Timer/References
Window on the PFD. The Flight ID is not to exceed seven characters. No space is needed when entering Flight
ID. When a Flight ID contains a space, the system automatically removes it upon completion of Flight ID entry. If configuration is set to “SAME AS TAIL” the aircraft tail number will always be displayed.
EIS
Entering a Flight ID:
1) Select the TMR/REF Softkey to display the Timer/References Window.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the selection cursor, if not already activated.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll down to the Flight ID.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the desired Flight ID.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete Flight ID entry. The word “updating” appears until the new entry is completed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If an error is made during Flight ID entry, pressing the CLR Key returns to the original Flight ID entry. While
entering a Flight ID, turning the FMS Knob counterclockwise moves the cursor back one space for each detent
of rotation. If an incorrect Flight ID is discovered after the unit begins operation, reenter the correct Flight ID
using the same procedure.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Flight ID
PFD Entry
Figure 4-39 Timer/References Window, Entering Flight ID
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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123
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.5 ADDITIONAL AUDIO PANEL FUNCTIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
POWER-UP
The Audio Panel performs a self-test during power-up. During the self-test all Audio Panel annunciator lights
illuminate for approximately two seconds. Once the self-test is completed, most of the settings are restored to
those in use before the unit was last turned off.
MONO/STEREO HEADSETS
EIS
Stereo headsets are recommended for use with the G950.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Using a monaural headset in a stereo jack shorts the right headset channel output to ground. While this does
not damage the Audio Panel, a person listening on a monaural headset hears only the left channel in both ears.
If a monaural headset is used at one of the passenger positions, any other passenger using a stereo headset hears
audio in the left ear only.
SPEAKER
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
All of the radios can be heard over the cabin speaker (if installed). Pressing the SPKR Key selects and
deselects the cabin speaker. Speaker audio is muted when the PTT is pressed. Certain aural alerts and warnings
(autopilot, traffic, altitude) are always heard on the speaker, even when the speaker is not selected.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The speaker volume is adjustable within a nominal range. Volume can be adjusted though configuration.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 4-40 Speaker Key
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
INTERCOM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Audio Panel includes a four-position intercom system (ICS) and a stereo music input for the pilot, copilot
and up to four passengers. The intercom provides Pilot and Copilot isolation from the passengers and aircraft
radios.
EIS
Figure 4-41 Intercom Controls
PILOT KEY
Annunciator
COPLT KEY
Annunciator
Pilot Hears
Copilot Hears
OFF
OFF
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, copilot,
passengers, music
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, copilot,
passengers, music
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, copilot,
passengers, music
ON
OFF
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot
Copilot,
passengers,
music
Copilot,
passengers,
music
OFF
ON
Selected radios,
aural alerts, pilot;
passengers, music
Copilot
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, passengers,
music
ON
ON
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, copilot
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, copilot
Passengers;
music
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Passenger Hears
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Table 4-1 ICS Isolation Modes
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Pilot isolation is selected when the PILOT Annunciator is illuminated. During Pilot isolation, the pilot can
hear the selected radios and aural alerts and warnings. The copilot and passengers can communicate with each
other. The copilot is isolated from aural alerts and warnings.
Copilot isolation is selected when the COPLT Annunciator is illuminated. The copilot is isolated from the
selected radios, aural alerts and warnings, and everyone else. The pilot and passengers can hear the selected
radios, aural alerts, and communicate with each other.
APPENDICES
When both the PILOT and COPLT Annunciators are illuminated, the pilot and copilot can hear the selected
radios, aural alerts, and communicate with each other. The passengers are isolated from the pilot and copilot
but can communicate with each other.
When both the PILOT and COPLT Annunciators are extinguished, everyone hears the selected radios, aural
alerts, and is able to communicate with everyone else.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
INTERCOM VOLUME AND SQUELCH
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The PILOT/PASS Knob controls volume or manual squelch adjustment for the pilot and copilot/passenger.
The small knob controls the pilot volume and squelch. The large knob controls the copilot/passenger volume
and squelch. The VOL and SQ annunciations at the bottom of the unit indicate which function the knob is
controlling. Pressing the PILOT/PASS Knob switches between volume and squelch control as indicated by
the VOL or SQ annunciation being illuminated.
The MAN SQ Key allows either automatic or manual control of the squelch setting.
EIS
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is extinguished (Automatic Squelch is on), the PILOT/PASS Knob
controls only the volume (pressing the PILOT/PASS Knob has no effect on the VOL/SQ selection).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is illuminated (Manual Squelch), the PILOT/PASS Knob controls
either volume or squelch (selected by pressing the PILOT/PASS Knob and indicated by the VOL or SQ
annunciation).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Manual Squelch Annunciator;
Off for Automatic Squelch, On
for Manual Squelch
Automatic/Manual Squelch
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pilot Volume or Manual
Squelch. Press to switch
between VOL and SQ. Turn
to adjust Squelch when SQ
Annunciation is lit, Volume
when VOL Annunciation is lit.
Copilot/Passenger
Volume or
Manual Squelch
AFCS
Volume Annunciation
Squelch Annunciation
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-42 Volume/Squelch Control
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PASSENGER ADDRESS (PA) SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A passenger address system is available for delivering voice messages over the cabin speaker. When the PA
Key is pressed on the Audio Panel, the COM MIC Annunciator is extinguished, and the active COM frequency
changes to white, indicating that there is no COM selected. A Push-to-Talk (PTT) must be pressed to deliver PA
announcements. The PA Annunciator flashes about once per second while the PTT is depressed.
EIS
PA Key is Selected on
the Audio Panel
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-43 PA Key Selected for Cabin Announcements
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
CLEARANCE RECORDER AND PLAYER
The Audio Panel contains a digital clearance recorder that records up to 2.5 minutes of the selected COM
radio signal. Recorded COM audio is stored in separate memory blocks. Once 2.5 minutes of recording time
have been reached, the recorder begins recording over the stored memory blocks, starting from the oldest
block.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The PLAY Key controls the play function. Pressing the PLAY Key once plays the latest recorded memory
block. The PLAY Annunciator flashes to indicate when play is in progress. The PLAY Annunciator turns off
after the present memory block has finished playing.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key during play of a memory block stops play. If a COM input signal is detected
during play of a recorded memory block, play is halted.
AFCS
Pressing the PLAY Key while audio is playing begins playing the previously recorded memory block. Each
subsequent press of the PLAY Key selects the previously recorded memory block.
Powering off the unit automatically clears all recorded blocks.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 4-44 Play Key
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SPLIT COM OPERATION
NOTE: Split COM performance is affected by the distance between the COM antennas and the separation
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
of the tuned frequencies. If the selected COM1 and COM2 frequencies are too close together, interference
may be heard during transmission on the other radio.
During Split COM operation, both the pilot and the copilot can transmit simultaneously over separate radios.
The pilot can still monitor NAV1, NAV2, ADF, DME, and MKR Audio as selected, but the copilot is only able
to monitor COM2.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Pressing the COM 1/2 Key selects Split COM operation. The COM 1/2 Annunciator is illuminated indicating
Split COM operation. COM1 and COM2 frequencies are displayed in green indicating that both transceivers
are active. Split COM operation is cancelled by pressing the COM 1/2 Key again, at which time the annunciator
is extinguished.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When Split COM operation is selected, COM1 is used by the pilot and COM2 is used by the copilot. The
COM1 MIC Annunciator flashes when the pilot’s microphone PTT is pressed. The COM2 MIC Annunciator
flashes when the copilot’s microphone PTT is pressed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
COM1 Radio is Used
by the Pilot
AFCS
COM2 Radio is Used
by the Copilot
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-45 Split COM Operation
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS
NOTE: Music1 and Music2 audio cannot be completely turned off. Audio level for the crew and passengers
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
can be adjusted by a Garmin-authorized service center.
The Audio Panel provides two stereo auxiliary entertainment inputs: Music1 and Music2. The pilot and
copilot hear Music1 and the passengers hear Music2. These inputs are compatible with popular portable
entertainment devices such as MP3 and CD players. Two 3.5-mm stereo phone jacks can be installed in
convenient locations for audio connection. The headphone outputs of the entertainment devices are plugged
into the Music1 or Music2 jacks.
EIS
The current ICS state of isolation affects the distribution of the entertainment input (see Table 4‑1).
CREW MUSIC
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Crew music (Music1) can be heard by the pilot and copilot when both the PILOT and the COPLT ICS
Annunciators are extinguished. Crew music can also be heard by the pilot when the COPLT Annunciator is
illuminated and by the copilot when the PILOT Annunciator is illuminated.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Music Muting
Crew music muting occurs when aircraft radio or marker beacon activity is heard. Crew music is always
soft muted when an interruption occurs from these sources. Soft muting is the gradual return of music to
its original volume level. The time required for music volume to return to normal is between one-half and
four seconds.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Music Muting Enable/Disable
Pressing and holding the MKR/MUTE Key for three seconds switches crew music muting on and off.
When switching, either one or two beeps are heard; one beep indicates that music muting is enabled, two
beeps indicate music muting is disabled. Crew music muting is reset (enabled) during power up.
AFCS
PASSENGER MUSIC
Passenger music (Music2) can be heard only by the passengers and is never muted.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.6 AUDIO PANEL PREFLIGHT PROCEDURE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: If the pilot and/or copilot are using headsets that have a high/low switch or volume control knob,
verify that the switch is in the high position and the volume control on the headsets are at maximum volume
setting. On single‑pilot flights, verify that all other headsets are not connected to avoid excess noise in the
audio system.
NOTE: When the MAN SQ is activated, the ICS squelch can be set manually by the pilot and copilot. If
EIS
manual squelch is set to full open (SQ annunciated and the knobs turned counterclockwise) background
noise is heard in the ICS system as well as during COM transmissions.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
After powering up the G1000 System, the following steps aid in maximizing the use of the Audio Panel as well
as prevent pilot and copilot induced issues. These preflight procedures should be performed each time a pilot
boards the aircraft to insure awareness of all audio levels in the Audio Panel and radios.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Automatic/Manual
Squelch
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pilot and
Copilot ICS
Isolation Keys
Pilot Volume
or Manual
Squelch
Copilot/Passenger
Volume or
Manual Squelch
Squelch
Annunciation
AFCS
Volume
Annunciation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-46 Audio Panel Controls
Setting the Audio Panel during preflight:
1) Verify that the PILOT and COPLT Annunciators are extinguished.
2) Verify that manual squelch is set to full open.
APPENDICES
3) Turn the PILOT Knob and COPILOT Knob fully clockwise. This will set the headset intercom audio level to max
volume (least amount of attenuation).
4) Adjust radio volume levels (COM, NAV, etc.) to a suitable level.
5) Adjust the PILOT Knob and COPILOT Knob volume to the desired intercom level.
INDEX
6) Reset squelch to automatic, or adjust to the appropriate level manually.
Once this procedure has been completed, the pilot and copilot can change settings, keeping in mind the notes
above.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4.7 ABNORMAL OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Abnormal operation of the G950 includes equipment failures of the G950 components and failure of associated
equipment, including switches and external devices.
STUCK MICROPHONE
If the push-to-talk (PTT) Key becomes stuck, the COM transmitter stops transmitting after 35 seconds of
continuous operation. An alert appears on the PFD to advise the crew of a stuck microphone.
EIS
The COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key Annunciator on the Audio Panel flashes as long as the PTT Key remains
stuck.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-47 Stuck Microphone Alert
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
COM TUNING FAILURE
In case of a COM system tuning failure, the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) is automatically tuned in
the radio in which the tuning failure occurred. Depending on the failure mode, a red X may appear on the
frequency display.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Emergency Channel
Loaded Automatically
Figure 4-48 COM Tuning Failure
AFCS
AUDIO PANEL FAIL-SAFE OPERATION
If there is a failure of the Audio Panel, a fail-safe circuit connects the pilot’s headset and microphone directly
to the COM1 transceiver. Audio will not be available on the speaker.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
PFD FAILURE (REVERSIONARY MODE)
The red DISPLAY BACKUP Button selects the Reversionary Mode. See the System Overview Section for
more information on Reversionary Mode.
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 4-49 Display Backup Button
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INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Blank Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The G950 is an integrated flight, engine, communication, navigation and surveillance system. This section of
the Pilot’s Guide explains flight management using the G950.
EIS
The most prominent part of the G950 are the full color displays: one Primary Flight Display (PFD) and a
Multi Function Display (MFD). The information to successfully navigate the aircraft using the GPS sensors is
displayed on the PFD and the MFD. See examples in the Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2. Detailed descriptions of flight
management functions are discussed later in this section.
A brief description of the GPS navigation data on the PFD and MFD follows.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Navigation mode indicates which sensor is providing the course data (e.g., GPS, VOR) and the flight plan phase
(e.g., Departure (DPRT), Terminal (TERM), Enroute (ENR), Oceanic (OCN), Approach (LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV,
or LPV), or Missed Approach (MAPR)).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Inset Map is a small version of the MFD Navigation Map and can be displayed in the lower left corner of
the PFD. When the system is in reversionary mode, the Inset Map is displayed in the lower right corner. The
Inset Map is displayed by pressing the INSET Softkey. Pressing the INSET Softkey again, then pressing the OFF
Softkey removes the Inset Map.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Navigation Map displays aviation data (e.g., airports, VORs, airways, airspaces), geographic data (e.g.,
cities, lakes, highways, borders), topographic data (map shading indicating elevation), and hazard data (e.g.,
traffic, terrain, weather). The amount of displayed data can be reduced by pressing the DCLTR Softkey. The
Navigation Map can be oriented four different ways: North Up (NORTH UP), Track Up (TRK UP), Desired Track
Up (DTK UP), or Heading Up (HDG UP).
AFCS
An aircraft icon is placed on the Navigation Map at the location corresponding to the calculated present position.
The aircraft position and the flight plan legs are accurately based on GPS calculations. The basemap upon which
these are placed are from a source with less resolution, therefore the relative position of the aircraft to map features
is not exact. The leg of the active flight plan currently being flown is shown as a magenta line on the navigation
map. The other legs are shown in white.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 500 feet to 2000 nm. The current range is indicated in the
lower right corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. To change the map
range on any map, turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to zoom in ( -, decreasing), or clockwise to zoom out (+,
increasing).
APPENDICES
The Direct-to Window, the Flight Plan Window, the Procedures Window, and the Nearest Airports Window
can be displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Details of these windows are discussed in detail later in
the section.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Navigation Status Box
Navigation Mode
Inset Map
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Location of:
- Direct To Window
- Flight Plan Window
- Procedures Window
- Nearest Airports Window
- Timer/Reference Window
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Navigation Status Box
Map Orientation
Navigation Page Title
Navigation Map
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Aviation Data
- Geographic Data
- Topographic Data
- Hazard Data
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Active Flight Plan Leg
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Flight Plan Leg
Map Range
APPENDICES
Figure 5-2 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Page
NAVIGATION STATUS BOX
INDEX
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the PFD contains two fields displaying the following
information:
PFD Navigation Status Box
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
• Distance (DIS) and Bearing (BRG) to the next
waypoint or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘TOD
within 1 minute’)
• Bearing (BRG)
The symbols used in the PFD status bar are:
Symbol
Description
Active Leg
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the
MFD contains four data fields, each displaying one of
the following items:
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• Active flight plan leg (e.g., ‘D-> KICT’ or ‘KIXD ->
KCOS’) or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘Turn
right to 021˚ in 8 seconds’)
• Distance (DIS)
• Desired Track (DTK)
• Endurance (END)
• Enroute Safe Altitude (ESA)
EIS
• Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA)
Direct-to
• Estimated Time Enroute (ETE)
Left Procedure Turn
Right Holding Pattern
• Fuel on Board (FOB)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Right Procedure Turn
• Fuel over Destination (FOD)
• Ground Speed (GS)
• Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA)
• True Air Speed (TAS)
Vector to Final
• Track Angle Error (TKE)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Left Holding Pattern
• Track (TRK)
Right DME Arc
Left DME Arc
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Vertical Speed Required (VSR)
• Crosstrack Error (XTK)
MFD Navigation Status Box
AFCS
The navigation information displayed in the four data fields can be selected on the MFD Data Bar Fields Box
on the AUX - System Setup Page. The default selections (in order left to right) are GS, DTK, TRK, and ETE.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Changing a field in the MFD Navigation Status Box:
1) Select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
APPENDICES
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the MFD Data Bar Fields Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the data options list.
5) Select the desired data.
6) Press the ENT Key. Pressing the DFLTS Softkey returns any field to its default setting.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.2 USING MAP DISPLAYS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Map displays are used extensively in the G950 to provide situational awareness in flight. Most G950 maps can
display the following information:
• Airports, NAVAIDs, airspaces, airways, land data
(highways, cities, lakes, rivers, borders, etc.) with
names
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
• Map Pointer information (distance and bearing
to pointer, location of pointer, name, and other
pertinent information)
• Icons for enabled map features
• Aircraft icon (representing present position)
• Nav range ring
• Flight plan legs
• User waypoints
• Map range
• Track vector
• Wind direction and speed
• Topography scale
• Map orientation
• Topography data
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The information in this section applies to the following maps unless otherwise noted:
• All Map Group Pages (MAP)
• Flight Plan Pages (FPL)
• All Waypoint Group Pages (WPT)
• Direct-to Window
• AUX - Trip Planning
• PFD Inset Map
• All Nearest Group Pages (NRST)
• Procedure Loading Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
MAP ORIENTATION
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Maps are shown in one of four different orientation options, allowing flexibility in determining aircraft
position relative to other items on the map (north up) or for determining where map items are relative to where
the aircraft is going (track up, desired track up, or heading up). The map orientation is shown in the upper
right corner of the map.
Figure 5-3 Map Orientation
INDEX
• North up (NORTH UP) aligns the top of the map display to north (default setting).
• Track up (TRK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current ground track.
• Desired track up (DTK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the desired course.
• Heading up (HDG UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current aircraft heading.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NOTE: When panning or reviewing active flight plan legs in a non-North Up orientation, the map does not
show the map orientation nor the wind direction and speed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Map orientation can only be changed on the Navigation Map Page. Any other displays that show
navigation data reflect the orientation selected for the Navigation Map Page:
Changing the Navigation Map orientation:
1) With the Navigation Map Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Map Setup
Selection
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-4 Navigation Map Page Menu Window
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Map Setup Window.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob, or press the ENT Key once, to select the ‘ORIENTATION’ field.
Map Group Selection
Orientation Field
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-5 Map Setup Menu Window - Map Group
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired orientation.
INDEX
5) Press the ENT Key to select the new orientation.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the base page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
MAP RANGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 500 feet to 2000 nm. The current range is indicated in
the lower right corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. When the
map range is decreased to a point that exceeds the capability of the G950 to accurately represent the map,
a magnifying glass icon is shown to the left of the map range. To change the map range turn the Joystick
counter-clockwise to decrease the range, or clockwise to increase the range.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Range Overzoom
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-6 Map Range
AUTO ZOOM
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Auto zoom allows the G950 to change the map display range to the smallest range clearly showing the
active waypoint. Auto zoom can be overridden by adjusting the range with the Joystick, and remains until
the active waypoint changes, a terrain or traffic alert occurs, the aircraft takes off, or the manual override times
out (timer set on Map Setup Window).
AFCS
If a terrain caution or warning occurs, any map page displaying TAWS/TERRAIN data automatically adjusts
to the smallest map range clearly showing the highest priority alert. If a new traffic advisory alert occurs, any
map page capable of displaying traffic advisory alerts automatically adjusts to the smallest map range clearly
showing the traffic advisory. When terrain or traffic alerts clear, the map returns to the previous auto zoom
range based on the active waypoint.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The auto zoom function can be turned on or off independently for the PFD(s) and MFD. Control of the
ranges at which the auto zoom occurs is done by setting the minimum and maximum ‘look forward’ times
(set on the Map Setup Window for the Map Group). These settings determine the minimum and maximum
distance to display based upon the aircraft’s ground speed.
APPENDICES
• Waypoints that are long distances apart cause the map range to increase to a point where many details on
the map are decluttered. If this is not acceptable, lower the maximum look ahead time to a value that limits
the auto zoom to an acceptable range.
INDEX
• Waypoints that are very short distances apart cause the map range to decrease to a point where situational
awareness may not be what is desired. Increase the minimum look ahead time to a value that limits the auto
zoom to a minimum range that provides acceptable situational awareness.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• Flight plans that have a combination of long and short legs cause the range to increase and decrease as
waypoints sequence. To avoid this, auto zoom can be disabled or the maximum/minimum times can be
adjusted.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• The ‘time out’ time (configurable on the Map Setup Page for the Map Group) determines how long auto
zoom is overridden by a manual adjustment of the range knob. At the expiration of this time, the auto
zoom range is restored. Setting the ‘time out’ value to zero causes the manual override to never time out.
• When the maximum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the upper limit becomes the maximum range available
(2000 nm).
• When the minimum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the lower limit becomes 1.5 nm.
EIS
Manual Range Override
Expiration Time
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Auto Zoom
Off, MFD Only, PFD Only, All On
Maximum Look Forward Time
Minimum Look Forward Time
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-7 Map Setup Menu Window - Map Group, Auto Zoom
Configuring automatic zoom:
AFCS
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘AUTO ZOOM’ field.
6) Select ‘Off’, ‘MFD Only’, ‘PFD Only’, or ‘ALL On’.
APPENDICES
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘MAX LOOK FWD’ field.
Times are from zero to 999 minutes.
8) Use the FMS Knobs to set the time. Press the ENT Key.
9) Repeat step 8 for ‘MIN LOOK FWD’ (zero to 99 minutes) and ‘MAX LOOK FWD’ (zero to 999 minutes).
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
MAP PANNING
Map panning allows the pilot to:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• View parts of the map outside the displayed range without adjusting the map range
• Highlight and select locations on the map
• Review information for a selected airport, NAVAID or user waypoint
• Designate locations for use in flight planning
• View airspace and airway information
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
When the panning function is selected by pressing the Joystick, the Map Pointer flashes on the map display.
A window also appears at the top of the map display showing the latitude/longitude position of the pointer,
the bearing and distance to the pointer from the aircraft’s present position, and the elevation of the land at the
position of the pointer.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Map Pointer
Information
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Map
Pointer
Figure 5-8 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
APPENDICES
NOTE: The map is normally centered on the aircraft’s position. If the map has been panned and there has
INDEX
been no pointer movement for about 60 seconds, the map reverts back to centered on the aircraft position
and the flashing pointer is removed.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When the Map Pointer is placed on an object, the name of the object is highlighted (even if the name was
not originally displayed on the map). When any map feature or object is selected on the map display, pertinent
information is displayed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Information about Point
of Interest
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Map Pointer on POI
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-9 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When the Map Pointer crosses an airspace boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace information
is shown at the top of the display. The information includes the name and class of airspace, the ceiling in feet
above Mean Sea Level (MSL), and the floor in feet MSL.
EIS
Information about
Airspace
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Map Pointer on Airspace
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-10 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Airspace
Panning the map:
1) Press the Joystick to display the Map Pointer.
AFCS
2) Move the Joystick to move the Map Pointer around the map.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and recenter the map on the aircraft’s current position.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Reviewing information for an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint:
1) Place the Map Pointer on a waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Waypoint Information Page for the selected waypoint.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the GO BACK Softkey, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the Waypoint Information Page and return to
the Navigation Map showing the selected waypoint.
EIS
NAVAID
Information
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
GO BACK Softkey
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Information Window - NAVAID
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Viewing airspace information for a special-use or controlled airspace:
1) Place the Map Pointer on an open area within the boundaries of an airspace.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the ENT Key to display an options menu.
3) ‘Review Airspace?’ should already be highlighted, if not select it. Press the ENT Key to display the Airspace
Information Page for the selected airspace.
EIS
4) Press the CLR or ENT Key to exit the Airspace Information Page.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airspace
Information
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-12 Navigation Map - Information Window - Airspace
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MEASURING BEARING AND DISTANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Distance and bearing from the aircraft’s present position to any point on the viewable navigation map may be
calculated using the ‘Measure Bearing and Distance’ selection from Navigation Map page menu. The bearing
and distance tool displays a dashed Measurement Line and a Measure Pointer to aid in graphically identifying
points with which to measure. Lat/Long, distance and elevation data for the Measure Pointer is provided in a
window at the top of the navigation map.
Measuring bearing and distance between any two points:
1) Press the MENU Key (with the Navigation Map Page displayed).
EIS
2) Highlight the ‘Measure Bearing/Distance’ field.
3) Press the ENT Key. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present position.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Move the Joystick to place the reference pointer at the desired location. The bearing and distance are displayed
at the top of the map. Elevation at the current pointer position is also displayed. Pressing the ENT Key changes
the starting point for measuring.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance option, press the Joystick; or select ‘Stop Measuring’ from the Page
Menu and press the ENT Key.
Measurement Information
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pointer Lat/Long
Measurement Line
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Measuring Bearing and Distance
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
TOPOGRAPHY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
All navigation maps can display various shades of topography colors representing land elevation, similar
to aviation sectional charts. Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following
procedures.
Navigation Map
Topographic Data
EIS
Navigation Map
Black Background
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Topographic data
on Profile Map
TOPO Softkey
Not Enabled
TOPO Softkey
Enabled
TOPO Off
TOPO On
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-14 Navigation Map - Topographic Data
Displaying/removing topographic data on all pages displaying navigation maps:
1) Press the MAP Softkey (the INSET Softkey for the PFD Inset Map).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the TOPO Softkey.
3) Press the TOPO Softkey again to remove topographic data from the Navigation Map. When topographic data
is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data (TOPO DATA) using the Navigation Map Page Menu:
AFCS
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘TOPO DATA’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
INDEX
APPENDICES
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TOPO DATA
Range
EIS
TOPO DATA
On/Off
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-15 Navigation Map Setup Menu - TOPO DATA Setup
The topographic data range is the maximum map range on which topographic data is displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: Since the PFD Inset Map is much smaller than the MFD navigation maps, items are removed on the
PFD Inset Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the Map Setup pages (e.g., a setting
of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD navigation maps, while the PFD Inset Map
removes the same item at 50 nm).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selecting a topographical data range (TOPO DATA):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
AFCS
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘TOPO DATA’ range field. TOPO ranges are from 500 ft to 2000 nm.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) To change the TOPO range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
7) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
In addition, the Navigation Map can display a topographic scale (located in the lower right hand side of the
map) showing a scale of the terrain elevation and current elevation values.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Maximum Displayed Elevation
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Minimum Displayed Elevation
Range of
Displayed
Elevations
Aircraft Altitude (MSL)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Ground Elevation at Pointer
Location (only visible when
Pointer is displayed)
Figure 5-16 Navigation Map - TOPO SCALE
Displaying/removing the topographic scale (TOPO SCALE):
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group and press the ENT Key.
4) Highlight the ‘TOPO SCALE’ field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
APPENDICES
TOPO SCALE
On/Off
INDEX
Figure 5-17 Navigation Map Setup Menu - TOPO SCALE Setup
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MAP SYMBOLS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
This section discusses the types of land and aviation symbols that can be displayed. Each listed type of symbol
can be turned on or off, and the maximum range to display each symbol can be set. The decluttering of the
symbols from the map using the DCLTR Softkey is also discussed.
LAND SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the land menu:
Land Symbols
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
EIS
(Text label size can be None, Small, Medium (Med), or Large
(Lrg)
Latitude/Longitude (LAT/LON)
Off
2000
Interstate Highway (FREEWAY)
300
800
International Highway (FREEWAY)
300
800
US Highway (NATIONAL HWY)
30
80
State Highway (LOCAL HWY)
15
30
8
15
Railroads (RAILROAD)
15
30
LARGE CITY (> 200,000)
800
1500
MEDIUM CITY (> 50,000)
100
200
SMALL CITY (> 5,000)
States and Provinces (STATE/PROV)
20
800
50
1500
Rivers and Lakes (RIVER/LAKE)
200
500
USER WAYPOINT
150
300
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
N/A
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Local Road (LOCAL ROAD)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Highways and Roads
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Table 5-1 Land Symbol Information
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AVIATION SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the aviation menu:
Aviation Symbols
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
(Text label size can be None, Small, Medium (Med),
or Large (Lrg)
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Active Flight Plan Leg (ACTIVE FPL)
2000
2000
Non-active Flight Plan Leg (ACTIVE FPL)
2000
2000
2000
250
150
50
3
Off
15
2000
500
300
100
20
100
30
Non-directional Beacon (NDB WAYPOINT)
15
30
VOR (VOR WAYPOINT)
150
300
Class B Airspace/TMA (CLASS B/TMA)
200
500
Class C Airspace/TCA (CLASS C/TCA)
200
500
Class D Airspace (CLASS D)
150
300
Restricted Area (RESTRICTED)
200
500
Military Operations Area [MOA(MILITARY)]
200
500
Other/Air Defense Interdiction Zone (OTHER/ADIZ)
200
500
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
500
2000
Active Flight Plan Waypoint (ACTIVE FPL WPT)
Large Airports (LARGE APT)
Medium Airports (MEDIUM APT)
Small Airports (SMALL APT)
Taxiways (SAFETAXI)
Runway Extension (RWY EXTENSION)
Intersection (INT WAYPOINT)
APPENDICES
Symbol
See Airports, NAVAIDs
See Additional Features
N/A
INDEX
Table 5-2 Aviation Symbol Information
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYMBOL SETUP
All pages with maps can display land symbols (roads, lakes, borders, etc). Land symbols can be removed
totally (turned off).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Displaying/removing all land symbols:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The Page Menu is displayed and the cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Group Menu is displayed and the cursor flashes on the ‘Map’ option.
EIS
3) Highlight the ‘LAND DATA’ field.
4) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off.’
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
LAND DATA
On/Off
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map Setup Menu - LAND DATA Setup
AFCS
The label size (TEXT) sets the size at which labels appear on the display (none, small, medium, and large).
The range (RNG) sets the maximum range at which items appear on the display.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selecting a ‘Land’ or ‘Aviation’ group item text size and range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
APPENDICES
3) Select the ‘Land’ or ‘Aviation’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Select the desired land option.
6) Select the desired text size.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected size.
INDEX
6) Select the desired range.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected range.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Text Label Size
(None, Small, Med, or Lrg)
Maximum Display Range
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-19 Navigation Map Setup Menu - LAND GROUP Setup
Maximum Display Range
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Text Label Size
(None, Small, Med, or Lrg)
APPENDICES
Figure 5-20 Navigation Map Setup Menu - AVIATION GROUP Setup
NOTE: Since the PFD Inset Map is much smaller than the MFD navigation maps, items are removed on the
INDEX
PFD Inset Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the Map Setup pages (e.g., a setting
of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD navigation maps, while the PFD Inset Map
removes the same item at 50 nm).
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MAP DECLUTTER
The declutter feature allows the pilot to progressively step through four levels of removing map information.
The declutter level is displayed in the DCLTR Softkey and next to the Declutter Menu Option.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Declutter Level
DCLTR Softkey
EIS
Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 5-21 Navigation Map - Declutter Level Indications
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Decluttering the map:
Press the DCLTR Softkey with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The current declutter level is shown. With
each softkey selection, another level of map information is removed.
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed.
2) Select ‘Declutter’. The current declutter level is shown.
3) Press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Decluttering the PFD Inset Map:
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
2) Press the DCLTR Softkey. The current declutter level is shown. With each selection, another level of map
information is removed.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Table 5-3 lists the items displayed at each declutter level. The ‘X’ represents map items displayed for the
various levels of declutter.
Item
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Flight Plan Route Lines
Flight Plan Route Waypoints
Rivers/Lakes
Topography Data
International Borders
Track Vector
Navigation Range Ring
Fuel Range Ring
Terrain Data
Traffic
Airways
NEXRAD
XM Lightning Data
Airports
Runway Labels
Restricted
MOA (Military)
User Waypoints
Latitude/Longitude Grid
NAVAIDs
Class B Airspaces/TMA
Class C Airspaces/TCA
Class D Airspaces
Other Airspaces/ADIZ
TFRs
Obstacles
Land/Country Text
Cities
Roads
Railroads
State/Province Boundaries
River/Lake Names
No Declutter Declutter-1 Declutter-2 Declutter-3
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
INDEX
Table 5-3 Navigation Map Items Displayed by Declutter Level
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AIRWAYS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Low Altitude Airways (or Victor Airways) primarily serve smaller piston-engine, propeller-driven airplanes on
shorter routes and at lower altitudes. Airways are eight nautical miles wide and start 1,200 feet above ground
level (AGL) and extend up to but not including 18,000 feet mean sea level (MSL). Low Altitude Airways are
designated with a “V” before the airway number (hence the name “Victor Airways”) since they run primarily
between VORs.
EIS
High Altitude Airways (or Jet Routes) primarily serve airliners, jets, turboprops, and turbocharged piston
aircraft operating above 18,000 feet MSL. Jet Routes start at 18,000 feet MSL and extend upward to 45,000 feet
MSL (altitudes above 18,000 feet are called “flight levels” and are described as FL450 for 45,000 feet MSL). Jet
Routes are designated with a “J” before the route number.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Low Altitude Airways are drawn in gray (the same shade used for roads). High Altitude Airways are drawn
in green. When both types of airways are displayed, High Altitude Airways are drawn on top of Low Altitude
Airways.
When airways are selected for display on the map, the airway waypoints (VORs, NDBs and Intersections) are
also displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Low Altitude
Airway
(Victor Airway)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
High Altitude
Airway
(Jet Route)
APPENDICES
Figure 5-22 Airways on MFD Navigation Page
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Airways may be displayed on the map at the pilot’s discretion using either a combination of AIRWAY Softkey
presses, or menu selections using the MENU Key from the Navigation Map Page. The Airway range can also be
programmed to only display Airways on the MFD when the map range is at or below a specific number.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Displaying/removing airways:
1) Press the MAP Softkey.
2) Press the AIRWAYS Softkey. Both High and Low Altitude Airways are displayed.
3) Press the softkey again to display Low Altitude Airways only.
EIS
4) Press the softkey again to display High Altitude Airways only.
5) Press the softkey again to remove High Altitude Airways. No airways are displayed.
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ group, and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘AIRWAYS’ field.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Off’, ‘All’, ‘LO Only’, or ‘HI Only’, and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Airway Display Selection
Off, All, LO Only, HI Only
Low Altitude Airway Range
High Altitude Airway Range
AFCS
Figure 5-23 Navigation Map Setup Menu - AIRWAYS Setup
The airway range is the maximum map range on which airways are displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selecting an airway range (LOW ALT AIRWAY or HI ALT AIRWAY):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Airway’ group.
APPENDICES
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘LOW ALT AIRWAY’ or ‘HI ALT AIRWAY’ range field.
6) To change the range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
7) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
INDEX
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The following range items are configurable on the airways menu:
Airway Type
Symbol
Low Altitude Airway (LOW ALT AIRWAY)
High Altitude Airway (HI ALT AIRWAY)
300
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
200
500
500
Table 5-4 Airway Range Information
EIS
TRACK VECTOR
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Navigation Map can display a track vector that is useful in minimizing track angle error. The track vector
is a dashed light blue line segment with an arrowhead attached to the end, extended to a predicted location
along the current aircraft track. The track vector look-ahead time is selectable (30 sec, 60 sec (default), 2 min,
5 min, 10 min, 20 min) and determines the length of the track vector. The arrowhead is continuously pointing
to the predicted aircraft location.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Track Vector
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-24 Navigation Map -Track Vector
Displaying/removing the track vector:
AFCS
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘TRACK VECTOR’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’. Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the look
ahead time field. Use the FMS Knob to select the desired time. Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
EIS
Wind Vector On/Off
Nav Range Ring On/Off
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SVS Field of View On/Off
Track Vector
- On/Off
- Look Ahead Time
Fuel Range
- On/Off
- Fuel Reserve Time
Selected Altitude Arc On/Off
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-25 Navigation Map Setup Menu -TRACK VECTOR, WIND VECTOR, NAV RANGE RING, FUEL RANGE RING,
SVS FIELD OF VIEW, SELECTED ALTITUDE ARC Setup
WIND VECTOR
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The map displays a wind vector arrow in the upper right-hand portion of the screen. Wind vector information
is displayed as a white arrow pointing in the direction in which the wind is moving for wind speeds greater than
or equal to 1 kt.
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
AFCS
Figure 5-26 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
NOTE: The wind vector is not displayed until the aircraft is moving. It is not displayed on the Waypoint
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Information pages.
Displaying/removing the wind vector:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
APPENDICES
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘WIND VECTOR’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
INDEX
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NAV RANGE RING
The Nav Range Ring shows the direction of travel (ground track) on a rotating compass card. The range is
determined by the map range. The range is 1/4 of the map range (e.g., 37.5 nm on a 150 nm map).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Range (radius)
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Nav Range Ring
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-27 Navigation Map - Nav Range Ring
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: The Nav Range Ring is not displayed on the Waypoint Information pages, Nearest pages, or Direct-to
Window map.
Displaying/removing the Nav Range Ring:
AFCS
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘NAV RANGE RING’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
APPENDICES
NOTE: The Nav Range Ring is referenced to either magnetic or true north, based on the selection on the AUX
- System Setup Page.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FUEL RANGE RING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The map can display a fuel range ring which shows the remaining flight distance. A dashed green circle
indicates the selected range to reserve fuel. A solid green circle indicates the total endurance range. If only
reserve fuel remains, the range is indicated by a solid yellow circle.
Total Endurance Range
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Time to Reserve Fuel
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Range to Reserve Fuel
Figure 5-28 Navigation Map - Fuel Range Ring
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Displaying/removing the fuel range ring and selecting a fuel range time:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
AFCS
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘FUEL RNG (RSV)’ field.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Highlight the fuel reserve time field. This time should be set to the amount of flight time equal to the amount
of fuel reserve desired.
APPENDICES
8) To change the reserve fuel time, enter a time (00:00 to 23:59; hours:minutes). The default setting is 00:45
minutes.
9) Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FIELD OF VIEW (SVS)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The map can display the boundaries of the PFD Synthetic Vision System (SVS) lateral field of view. The field
of view is shown as two dashed lines forming a V shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map. This is only
available if SVS is installed on the aircraft.
EIS
Lateral Field
of View
Boundaries
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-29 Navigation Map - Field of View
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Displaying/removing the field of view:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘FIELD OF VIEW’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
AFCS
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SELECTED ALTITUDE INTERCEPT ARC
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The map can display the location along the current track where the aircraft will intercept the selected altitude.
The location will be shown as a light blue arc when the aircraft is actuallly climbing or descending.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Range to
Altitude Arc
Figure 5-30 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Displaying/removing the selected altitude intercept arc:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘SEL ALT ARC’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5.3 WAYPOINTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Waypoints are predetermined geographical positions (internal database) or pilot-entered positions, and are
used for all phases of flight planning and navigation.
Communication and navigation frequencies can be tuned “automatically” from various Waypoint Information
(WPT) pages, Nearest (NRST) pages, and the Nearest Airports Window (on PFD). This auto-tuning feature
simplifies frequency entry over manual tuning. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS section for details on autotuning.
City Entry Field
Facility
Entry Field
- Waypoint Identifier
- Type (symbol)
- Facility Name
- City
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Map Area Showing
Entered Waypoint
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Identifier Entry Field
EIS
Waypoints can be selected by entering the ICAO identifier, entering the name of the facility, or by entering the
city name. See the System Overview section for detailed instructions on entering data in the G950. As a waypoint
identifier, facility name, or location is entered, the G950’s Spell’N’Find™ feature scrolls through the database,
displaying those waypoints matching the characters which have been entered to that point. A direct-to navigation
leg to the selected waypoint can be initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key on any of the waypoint pages.
Entered Waypoint on
Map
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Waypoint Location
AFCS
Figure 5-31 Waypoint Information Window
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
If duplicate entries exist for the entered facility name or location, additional entries may be viewed by continuing
to turn the small FMS Knob during the selection process. If duplicate entries exist for an identifier, a Duplicate
Waypoints Window is displayed when the ENT Key is pressed.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Identifier with
Duplicates
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Duplicate
Waypoints
Duplicate Message
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AIRPORTS
Figure 5-32 Waypoint Information Window - Duplicate Identifier
NOTE: ‘North Up’ orientation on the Airport Information Page cannot be changed; the pilot needs to be
aware of proper orientation if the Navigation Map orientation is different from the Airport Information Page
Map.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Airport Information Page is the first page in WPT group and allows the pilot to view airport information,
load frequencies (COM, NAV, and lighting), review runways, and review instrument procedures that may be
involved in the flight plan. See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information on loading frequencies
(auto-tuning). After engine startup, the Airport Information Page defaults to the airport where the aircraft is
located. After a flight plan has been loaded, it defaults to the destination airport. On a flight plan with multiple
airports, it defaults to the airport which is the current active waypoint.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the Airport Information
Page displays airport information in three boxes labeled ‘AIRPORT’, ‘RUNWAYS’, and ‘FREQUENCIES’. For
airports with multiple runways, information for each runway is available. This information is viewed on the
Airport Information Page by pressing the INFO softkey until INFO-1 is displayed.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Airport Information
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Airport
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
- Lat/Long/Elev
- Fuel Available
- Time Zone (UTC Offset)
Runway Information
- Designation
- Length/Width/Surface
- Lighting Available
EIS
Airport/Runway
Diagram
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Identification
- Frequency
- Availability
- Additional Information
Softkeys
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-33 Airport Information Page
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the Airport Information Page:
• Usage type: Public, Military, Private, or Heliport
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Runway surface type: Hard, Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft, Unknown, or Water
• Runway lighting type: No Lights, Part Time, Full Time, Unknown, or PCL Freq (for pilot-controlled
lighting)
• COM Availability: TX (transmit only), RX (receive only), PT (part time), i (additional information available)
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Airport Information
Airport Directory
Information
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Softkeys
Figure 5-34 Airport Directory Page Example
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The AOPA directory information is viewed on the Airport Directory Page by pressing the INFO softkey until
INFO-2 is displayed. The following are types of AOPA airport directory informantion shown (if available) on
the Airport Directory Page:
• Airport:
Identifier, Site
Number, Name, City, State
• Phones: Phone/Fax Numbers
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
• Hours: Facility Hours, Light
Hours, Tower Hours, Beacon
Hours
• Location: Sectional, Magnetic
Variation
• Frequencies: Type/Frequency
• Runway: Headings, Length,
Width, Obstructions, Surface
• Obstructions:
General
Airport Obstructions
• Special
Operations
at
Airport
• Instrument
Approaches:
Published Approach, Freq.
• NAVAIDS: Type, Identifier,
Frequency, Radial, Distance
• Noise:
Noise Abatement
Procedures
• Charts: Low Altitude Chart
Number
• Services Available: Category,
Specific Service
• Notes: Airport Notes
• Pilot Controlled Lighting:
High/Med/Low Clicks/Second
• FBO: Type, Frequencies,
Services, Fees, Fuel, Credit
Cards, Phone/Fax Numbers
INDEX
APPENDICES
• Transportation:
Ground
Transportation Type Available
• Approach: Approach Facility
Name, Frequency, Frequency
Parameter
• Traffic Pattern Altitudes
(TPA): Aircraft Class/Altitude
• Weather:
Service Type,
Frequency, Phone Number
• Flight Service Station (FSS):
FSS Name, Phone Numbers
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting an airport for review by identifier, facility name, or location:
1) From the Airport Information Page, press the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Selecting a runway:
1) With the Airport Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
EIS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘RUNWAYS’ Box, on the runway designator.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired runway (if more than one) for the selected airport.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) To remove the flashing cursor, press the FMS Knob.
View a destination airport:
From the Airport Information Page press the MENU Key. Select ‘View Destination Airport’. The Destination
Airport is displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Airport Frequencies Box uses the descriptions and abbreviations listed in the following table:
Navigation Frequencies
ILS
LOC
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Communication Frequencies
Approach * Control
Pre-Taxi
Arrival *
CTA *
Radar
ASOS
Departure * Ramp
ATIS
Gate
Terminal *
AWOS
Ground
TMA *
Center
Helicopter
Tower
Class B *
Multicom
TRSA *
Class C *
Other
Unicom
Clearance
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
* May include Additional Information
Table 5-5 Airport Frequency Abbreviations
APPENDICES
A departure, arrival, or approach can be loaded using the softkeys on the Airport Information Page. See the
procedures section for details. METARs or TAFs applicable to the selected airport can be selected for display (see
the Hazard Avoidance section for details about weather.
The G950 provides a NRST Softkey on the PFD, which gives the pilot quick access to nearest airport
information (very useful if an immediate need to land is required). The Nearest Airports Window displays a
list of the 25 nearest airports (three entries can be displayed at one time). If there are more than three they are
displayed in a scrollable list. If there are no nearest airports available, “NONE WITHIN 200NM” is displayed.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Bearing/Distance to Airport
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Airport Identifier/
Type
Approach Available
Length of Longest
Runway
COM Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Additional Airports
(within 200 nm)
NRST Softkey
Figure 5-35 Nearest Airports Window on PFD
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pressing the ENT Key displays the PFD Airport Information Window for the highlighted airport. Pressing the
ENT Key again returns to the Nearest Airports Window with the cursor on the next airport in the list. Continued
presses of the ENT Key sequences through the information pages for all airports in the Nearest Airports list.
Airport Information
- ID/Type/City
- Facility
Airport Information
- Usage/Time/Elev
- Region
AFCS
Airport Information
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-36 Airport Information Window on PFD
APPENDICES
The Nearest Airports Page on the MFD is first in the group of NRST pages because of its potential use in
the event of an in-flight emergency. In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and
surrounding area, the page displays nearest airport information in five boxes labeled ‘NEAREST AIRPORTS’,
‘INFORMATION’, ‘RUNWAYS’, ‘FREQUENCIES’, and ‘APPROACHES’. INDEX
The selected airport is indicated by a white arrow, and a dashed white line is drawn on the navigation map
from the aircraft position to the nearest airport. Up to five nearest airports, one runway, up to three frequencies,
and up to three approaches are visible at one time. If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled.
If there are no items for display in a boxed area, text indicating that fact is displayed. The currently selected
airport remains in the list until it is unselected.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Navigation Map Showing Nearest Airport
Nearest Airport
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Nearest Airports
- ID/Type
- Bearing/Distance
Airport Information
- Facility/City/Elevation
EIS
Runway Information
- Designation/Surface
- Length/Width
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Approaches Available
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
LD APR Softkey (only
available if an approach is
highlighted)
Window Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-37 Nearest Airport Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the PFD:
1) Press the NRST Softkey to display the Nearest Airports Window.
2) Highlight the airport identifier with the FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to display the Airport Information
Window.
AFCS
3) To return to the Nearest Airports Window press the ENT Key (with the cursor on ‘BACK’) or press the CLR
Key. The cursor is now on the next airport in the nearest airports list. (Repeatedly pressing the ENT Key
moves through the airport list, alternating between the Nearest Airports Window and the Airport Information
Window.)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the CLR Key to close the PFD Nearest Airports Window.
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the NRST page group.
APPENDICES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Nearest Airports Page (it is the first page of the group, so it may already
be selected. If there are no Nearest Airports available, “NONE WITHIN 200 NM” is displayed.
3) Press the APT Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Airport Window’ and
press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘NEAREST AIRPORTS’ Box. The first airport in the nearest airports
list is highlighted.
INDEX
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport. (Pressing the ENT Key also moves to the next airport)
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Viewing runway information for a specific airport:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway.
1) With the Nearest Airports Page displayed, press the RNWY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select
Runway Window’; and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘RUNWAYS’ Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for frequency selection and the Procedures section for approaches.
EIS
The Nearest Airports Box on the System Setup Page defines the minimum runway length and surface type
used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on the MFD Nearest Airports Page. A minimum
runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways or runways that are
not appropriately surfaced from being displayed. Default settings are 0 feet (or meters) for runway length and
“HARD/SOFT” for runway surface type.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selecting nearest airport surface matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the runway surface field in the Nearest Airports Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (ANY, HARD ONLY, HARD/SOFT, WATER).
5) Press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Selecting nearest airport minimum runway length matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
AFCS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the minimum length field in the Nearest Airport Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the minimum runway length (zero to 25,000 feet) and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Nearest Airport Criteria
INDEX
- Type of Runway Surface
- Minimum Runway Length
Figure 5-38 System Setup Page - Nearest Airport Selection Criteria
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
INTERSECTIONS
NOTE: The VOR displayed on the Intersection Information Page is the nearest VOR, not necessarily the VOR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
used to define the intersection.
The Intersection Information Page is used to view information about intersections. In addition to displaying
a map of the currently selected intersection and surrounding area, the Intersection Information Page displays
intersection information in three boxes labeled ‘INTERSECTION’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘NEAREST VOR’.
Selected Intersection
EIS
Intersection Identifier
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Intersection Info
- Region
- Lat/Long
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Nearest VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Intersection
AFCS
Figure 5-39 Intersection Information Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Select an intersection:
1) With the Intersection Information Page displayed, enter an identifier in the Intersection Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest Intersections Page displayed, press the FMS Knob
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest Intersection Box.
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INDEX
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
171
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
The Nearest Intersections Page can be used to quickly find an intersection close to the flight path. In addition
to displaying a map of the surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest intersections in
three boxes labeled ‘NEAREST INT’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘REFERENCE VOR’.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The selected intersection is indicated by a white arrow. Up to eleven Intersections are visible at a time. If
there are more than can be shown, the list can be scrolled. If there are no items for display, text indicating that
fact is displayed
NOTE: The list only includes waypoints that are within 200 nm.
Navigation Map Showing Nearest Intersection
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Nearest Intersection
Intersection Information
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to
intersection from
aircraft position
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Intersection Lat/Long
Reference VOR Info
AFCS
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- VOR Frequency
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-40 Nearest Intersections Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NDBS
Selected NDB
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The NDB Information Page is used to view information about NDBs. In addition to displaying a map of
the currently selected NDB and surrounding area, the page displays NDB information in four boxes labeled
‘NDB’, ‘INFORMATION’, ‘FREQUENCY’, and ‘NEAREST AIRPORT.
Navigation Map Showing Selected NDB
NDB Identifier/Type
EIS
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
NDB Information
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Type
- Region
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Nearest Airport Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-41 NDB Information Page
AFCS
NOTE: Compass locator (LOM): a low power, low or medium frequency radio beacon installed in conjunction
with the instrument landing system. When LOM is used, the locator is at the Outer Marker; when LMM is
used, the locator is at the Middle Marker.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Select an NDB:
1) With the NDB Information Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the NDB, or the city in which it’s
located in the NDB Box.
APPENDICES
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest NDB Page displayed, press the FMS Knob
INDEX
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest NDB Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
The Nearest NDB Page can be used to quickly find a NDB close to the flight path. In addition to displaying
a map of the surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest NDBs in three boxes labeled
‘NEAREST NDB’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘FREQUENCY’.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A white arrow before the NDB identifier indicates the selected NDB. Up to eleven NDBs are visible at a time.
If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. The list only includes waypoints that are within
200nm. If there are no NDBs in the list, text indicating that there are no nearest NDBs is displayed. If there are
no nearest NDBs in the list, the information and frequency fields are dashed.
Nearest NDB
EIS
Navigation Map Showing Selected NDB
NDB Identifier/Symbol
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Bearing/Distance to
NDB from aircraft
position
NDB Information
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Facility Name/City
- Type
- Lat/Long
AFCS
NDB Frequency
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-42 Nearest NDB Page
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
VORS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The VOR Information Page can be used to view information about VOR and ILS signals (since ILS signals
can be received on a NAV receiver), or to quickly auto-tune a VOR or ILS frequency. Localizer information
cannot be viewed on the VOR Information Page. If a VOR station is combined with a TACAN station it is
listed as a VORTAC on the VOR Information Page and if it includes only DME, it’s displayed as VOR-DME.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected VOR and surrounding area, the VOR Information
Page displays VOR information in four boxes labeled ‘VOR’, ‘INFORMATION’, ‘FREQUENCY’, and ‘NEAREST
AIRPORT’.
Navigation Map Showing Selected VOR
EIS
Selected VOR
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
VOR Identifier/Type
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
VOR Information
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Region
- Lat/Long
VOR Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
AFCS
Figure 5-43 VOR Information Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The VOR classes used in the VOR information box are: LOW ALTITUDE, HIGH ALTITUDE, and
TERMINAL
Select a VOR:
APPENDICES
1) With the VOR Information Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the VOR, or the city in which it’s
located in the VOR Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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INDEX
Or:
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
175
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
1) With the Nearest VOR Page displayed, press the FMS Knob or press the VOR Softkey.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VOR Box.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest VOR Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT VOR WINDOW’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VOR Box.
EIS
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Nearest VOR Page can be used to quickly find a VOR station close to the aircraft. Also, a NAV frequency
from a selected VOR station can be loaded from the Nearest VOR Page. In addition to displaying a map of
the surrounding area, the Nearest VOR Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VOR stations in three
boxes labeled ‘NEAREST VOR’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘FREQUENCY’. The list only includes waypoints that
are within 200 nm.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
A white arrow before the VOR identifier indicates the selected VOR. Up to eleven VORs are visible at a
time. If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. If there are no VORs in the list, text
indicating that there are no nearest VORs is displayed. If there are no nearest VORs in the list, the information
is dashed.
Navigation Map Showing Nearest VOR
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Nearest VOR
VOR Identifier/Symbol
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
from aircraft position
VOR Information
APPENDICES
- Facility Name/City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Lat/Long
VOR Frequency
INDEX
Figure 5-44 Nearest VOR Page
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
USER WAYPOINTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 can create and store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. User waypoints can be created from any
map page (except PFD Inset Map, AUX-Trip Planning Page, or Procedure Pages) by selecting a position on the
map using the Joystick, or from the User Waypoint Information Page by referencing a bearing/distance from
an existing waypoint, bearings from two existing waypoints, or latitude and longitude. Once a waypoint has
been created, it can be renamed, deleted, or moved. Temporary user waypoints are erased upon system power
down.
EIS
User Waypoint Info
- Identifier
- Temporary/Normal
- Waypoint Type
User Wpt Comment
Reference Wpt/Info
Selected User
Waypoint
User Waypoint List
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
User Waypoint
- Identifier/Rad/Dist or
- Identifiers/Radials or
- Region/Lat/Long
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Identifier
- Comment
# User Wpts Used
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
GO BACK displayed if
User Wpt was created
on map page
Softkeys
Figure 5-45 User Waypoint Information Page
AFCS
Selecting a User Waypoint:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, enter the name of the User Waypoint, or scroll to the
desired waypoint in the User Waypoint List using the large FMS Knob.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
APPENDICES
1) With the Nearest User Waypoint Page displayed, press the FMS Knob
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest USR Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Navigation Map Showing Selected User Waypoint
Selected User Waypoint
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Nearest User Wpt List
EIS
- Identifier
- Bearing/Distance from
aircraft position
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
User Waypoint Info
- Comment
- Lat/Long
Reference Wpt Info
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-46 Nearest User Waypoint Page
CREATING USER WAYPOINTS
User waypoints can be created from the User Waypoint Information Page in the following ways:
Creating user waypoints from the User Waypoint Information Page:
AFCS
1) Press the NEW Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Create New User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the ENT Key. The current aircraft position is the default location of the new waypoint.
4) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
a) Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
APPENDICES
Or:
b) Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
INDEX
c) Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
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OVERVIEW
6) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “TEMPORARY” or “NORMAL” by moving the cursor
to “TEMPORARY” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Are you sure you want to create the new User Waypoint AAAAAA?’ is
displayed.
EIS
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
a) Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
b) Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
c) Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “TEMPORARY” or “NORMAL” by moving the cursor
to “TEMPORARY” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-47 User Waypoint Information Page Menu
Creating user waypoints from map pages:
INDEX
1) Press the Joystick to activate the panning function and pan to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key. The User Waypoint Information Page is displayed with the captured position.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
NOTE: If the pointer has highlighted a map database feature, one of three things happens upon pressing
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
the ENT Key: 1) information about the selected feature is displayed instead of initiating a new waypoint,
2) a menu pops up allowing a choice between ‘Review Airspaces’ or ‘Create User Waypoint’, or 3) a new
waypoint is initiated with the default name being the selected map item.
3) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected name. The first reference waypoint box is highlighted.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
EIS
a) Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
b) Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
c) Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “TEMPORARY” or “NORMAL” by moving the cursor
to “TEMPORARY” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
9) Press the GO BACK Softkey to return to the map page.
EDITING USER WAYPOINTS
AFCS
Editing a user waypoint comment or location:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Move the cursor to the desired field.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to make any changes.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
APPENDICES
Renaming user waypoints:
1) Highlight a user waypoint in the User Waypoint List. Press the RENAME Softkey, or press the MENU Key and
select ‘Rename User Waypoint’
2) Enter a new name.
INDEX
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Do you want to rename the user waypoint AAAAAA to BBBBBB?’ is
displayed.
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OVERVIEW
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing the location of an existing waypoint to the aircraft present position:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Enter a waypoint name or select the waypoint in the User Waypoint List, then press the ENT Key.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Use Present Position’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice. The new waypoint’s location is saved.
EIS
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
A system generated comment for a user waypoint incorporates the reference waypoint identifier, bearing,
and distance. If a system generated comment has been edited, a new comment can be generated.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Resetting the comment field to the system generated comment:
1) Enter a waypoint name or select the waypoint in the User Waypoint List, then press the ENT Key.
2) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Select ‘Auto Comment’.
4) Press the ENT Key. The generated comment is based on the reference point used to define the waypoint.
The default type of user waypoint (normal or temporary) can be changed using the user waypoint information
page menu. Temporary user waypoints are automatically deleted upon the next power cycle.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Changing the user waypoint storage duration default setting:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Move the cursor to select ‘Waypoint Setup’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Select ‘NORMAL’ or ‘TEMPORARY’ as desired, and press the ENT Key
AFCS
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor and return to the User Waypoint Information Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
DELETING USER WAYPOINTS
Deleting a single user waypoint
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List, or enter a waypoint in the User Waypoint field.
2) Press the DELETE Softkey or press the CLR Key. ‘Yes’ is highlighted in the confirmation window.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
EIS
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List, or enter a waypoint in the User Waypoint field.
2) Press the MENU Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Select ‘Delete User Waypoint’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: The option to ‘Delete All User Waypoints’ is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all user waypoints
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete All User Waypoints’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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OVERVIEW
5.4 AIRSPACES
Class D Airspace
Restricted Area
Class B Airspace
EIS
MOA (Military)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 can display the following types of airspaces: Class B/TMA, Class C/TCA, Class D, Restricted, MOA
(Military), Other Airspace, Air Defense Interdiction Zone (ADIZ), and Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Alert Area
Class C Airspace
AFCS
ADIZ
Warning Area
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
TFR
Figure 5-48 Airspaces
APPENDICES
The Nearest Airspaces Page, Airspace Alerts Window, and Airspace Alerts on the PFD provide additional
information about airspaces and the location of the aircraft in relationship to them.
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INDEX
The Airspace Alerts Box allows the pilot to turn the controlled/special-use airspace message alerts on or off.
This does not affect the alerts listed on the Nearest Airspaces Page or the airspace boundaries depicted on the
Navigation Map Page. It simply turns on/off the warning provided when the aircraft is approaching or near an
airspace.
183
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below an airspace. For example,
if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/below an airspace, an alert message is
not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below an airspace and projected to enter it, the pilot
is notified with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the altitude buffer field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
EIS
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Turning an airspace alert on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AFCS
Airspace Alerts Box
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Airspace Altitude Buffer
- Alert On/Off
(Default Settings Shown)
DFLTS Softkey
INDEX
Figure 5-49 System Setup Page - Airspace Alerts
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OVERVIEW
Map ranges for the airspace boundaries are selected from the Aviation Group in the Map Setup Menu: See Table
5-2 for the default and maximum ranges for each type of airspace and the symbol used to define the airspace area.
Airspace 1
Airspace 2
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Nearest Airspaces Page can be used to quickly find airspaces close to the flight path. In addition, a selected
frequency associated with the airspace can be loaded from the Nearest Airspaces Page. In addition to displaying
a map of airspace boundaries and surrounding area, the Nearest Airspaces Page displays airspace information in
four boxes labeled ‘AIRSPACE ALERTS’, ‘AIRSPACE, AGENCY’, VERTICAL LIMITS’, and ‘FREQUENCIES’.
Airspace 3
EIS
Airspace Alerts Info
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Name
- Proximity (Ahead, Inside,
Ahead < 2nm, Within 2nm)
- Time till Intercept (only if
Ahead or Ahead < 2nm)
Airspace/Agency Info
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Airspace Type
- Controlling Agency
Airspace Vertical Limits
- Ceiling
- Floor
Associated Frequencies
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Type
- Availability/Info
- Frequency
Softkeys
Figure 5-50 Nearest Airspaces Page
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Airspace alerts and associated frequencies are shown in scrollable lists on the Nearest Airspaces Page. The
ALERTS and FREQ softkeys place the cursor in the respective list. The FREQ Softkey is enabled only if one or
more frequencies exist for a selected airspace.
Selecting and viewing an airspace alert with its associated information:
1) Select the Nearest Airspace Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the ALERTS Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Alerts Window’,
and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘AIRSPACE ALERTS’ Box.
3) Select the desired airspace.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Pressing the PFD ALERTS Softkey displays the message window on the PFD. The following airspace alerts are
displayed in the message window:
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead –
less than 10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and
ahead.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near –
less than 2 nm.
Comments
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft penetrates the airspace within 10
minutes.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Table 5-6 PFD Airspace Alert Messages
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5.5 DIRECT-TO-NAVIGATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Direct-to method of navigation, initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key on either the MFD or PFD, is
quicker to use than a flight plan when the desire is to navigate to a single point such as a nearby airport.
Once a direct-to is activated, the G950 establishes a point-to-point course line from the present position to the
selected direct-to destination. Course guidance is provided until the direct-to is replaced with a new direct-to or
flight plan, or cancelled.
EIS
A vertical navigation (VNV) direct-to creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the current altitude to a selected altitude at the direct-to waypoint. Vertical navigation is based on barometric
altitudes, not on GPS altitude, and is used for cruise and descent phases of flight.
The Direct-to Window allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation. The Direct-to Window displays
selected direct-to waypoint data on the PFD and the MFD.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Direct-to Point Info
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Identifier/Symbol/Region
- Facility Name
- City
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Map of Selected Point
AFCS
Location of Destination
- Bearing/Distance
Desired Course
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-51 Direct-to Window - MFD
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/City
- Facility Name
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Direct-to Point Info
- Bearing/Distance
- Desired Course
EIS
Activation Command
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-52 Direct-to Window - PFD
Any waypoint can be entered as a direct-to destination from the Direct-to Window.
Entering a waypoint identifier, facility name, or city as a direct-to destination:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed (with the active flight plan wayoint as the default
selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it counter-clockwise brings
up the waypoint selection submenu - press the CLR Key to remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the
facility name, or city field and turn the small FMS Knob to begin entering a facility name or city. If duplicate
entries exist for the entered facility or city name, additional entries can be viewed by turning the small FMS
Knob during the selection process.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the direct-to.
AFCS
Any waypoint contained in the active flight plan can be selected as a direct-to waypoint from the Direct-to
Window, the Active Flight Plan Page, or the Active Flight Plan Window.
Waypoint Submenu
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Flight Plan Waypoints
- Nearest Airports
- Recent Waypoints
- User Waypoints
- Airway Waypoints
(only available when
active leg is part of an
airway)
INDEX
Figure 5-53 Waypoint Submenu
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting an active flight plan waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) While navigating an active flight plan, press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the
active flight plan waypoint as the default selection.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
3) Select the desired waypoint.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
EIS
Or:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, or the Active Flight Plan Window on the PFD.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Select the desired waypoint.
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Any NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoints can be selected as a direct-to destination in the Direct-to
Window.
Selecting a NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoint as a direct-to destination:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed (with the active flight plan destination as the
default selection or a blank destination if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of FPL waypoints (the FPL list is populated only
when navigating a flight plan, and the AIRWAY list is available only when the active leg is part of an airway).
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoints
AFCS
4) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Direct-to Window can be displayed from any page and allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation.
If the direct-to is initiated from any page except the WPT pages, the default waypoint is the active flight plan
waypoint (if a flight plan is active) or a blank waypoint field. Direct-to requests on any WPT page defaults to the
displayed waypoint.
APPENDICES
Selecting any waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Select the page or window containing the desired waypoint type and select the desired waypoint.
2) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window with the selected waypoint as the direct-to
destination.
INDEX
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
4) Press ENT again to activate the direct-to.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Selecting a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the NRST Softkey on the PFD; or turn the FMS Knob to display the Nearest Airports Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Select the desired airport (the nearest one is already selected).
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
EIS
Direct-to destinations may also be selected by using the pointer on the navigation map pages. If no airport,
NAVAID, or user waypoint exists at the desired location, a temporary waypoint named ‘MAPWPT’ is automatically
created at the location of the map arrow.
Selecting a waypoint as a direct-to destination using the pointer:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) From a navigation map page, press the Joystick to display the pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to place the pointer at the desired destination location.
3) If the pointer is placed on an existing airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint, the waypoint name is highlighted.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window with the selected point entered as the direct-to
destination.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Cancelling a Direct-to:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
3) With ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. If a flight plan is still active, the G950 resumes
navigating the flight plan along the closest leg.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Page Menu
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
- Cancel Direct-To Navigation
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-54 Direct-to Window - Cancelling Direct-to Navigation
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When navigating a direct-to, the G950 sets a direct great circle course to the selected destination. The course to
a destination can also be manually selected using the course field (‘COURSE’) on the Direct-to Window.
Selecting a manual direct-to course:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the destination field highlighted.
2) Highlight the course field.
AFCS
3) Enter the desired course.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Reselecting the direct course from the current position:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the destination field highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
APPENDICES
3) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A direct-to with altitude constraints creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the aircraft’s current altitude to the altitude of the direct-to waypoint. The altitude is reached at the waypoint,
or at the specified distance along the flight path if an offset distance has been entered. All VNV altitudes prior
to the direct-to destination are removed from the active flight plan upon successful activation of the direct-to.
All VNV altitudes following the direct-to waypoint are retained. See the section on Vertical Navigation for more
information regarding the use and purpose of VNV altitudes and offset distances.
Entering a VNV altitude and along-track offset for the waypoint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
EIS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor over the ‘VNV’ altitude field.
3) Enter the desired altitude.
4) Press the ENT Key. The option to select MSL or AGL is now displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now flashing in the VNV offset distance field.
7) Enter the desired along-track distance before the waypoint.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
8) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
9) Press the ENT Key to activate.
Removing a VNV altitude constraint:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
AFCS
3) With ‘Clear Vertical Constraints’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Page Menu
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Clear Vertical Navigation
Constraints
Figure 5-55 Direct-to Window - Clearing Vertical Constraints
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OVERVIEW
5.6 FLIGHT PLANNING
Flight Plan Leg Type
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Flight planning on the G950 consists of building a flight plan by entering waypoints one at a time, adding
waypoints along airways, and inserting departures, airways, arrivals, or approaches as needed. The G950 allows
flight planning information to be entered from either the MFD or PFD. The flight plan is displayed on maps using
different line widths, colors, and types, based on the type of leg and the segment of the flight plan currently being
flown (departure, enroute, arrival, approach, or missed approach).
Symbol
EIS
Active non-heading Leg
Active heading Leg
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Non-heading Leg in the current flight segment
Heading Leg not in the current flight segment
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Non-heading leg not in the active flight segment
Turn Anticipation Arc
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Table 5-7 Flight Plan Leg Symbols
AFCS
Up to 99 flight plans with up to 99 waypoints each can be created and stored in memory. One flight plan can be
activated at a time and becomes the active flight plan. The active flight plan is erased when the system is turned
off and overwritten when another flight plan is activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, departure,
or arrival, the G950 uses the waypoint information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the
database is changed or updated, the G950 automatically updates the information if the procedure has not been
modified. If an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is no longer available, the procedure is deleted from the
affected stored flight plan(s), and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A) advising that
one or more stored flight plans need to be edited.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Whenever an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach,
departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan along with a header line describing the instrument
procedure the pilot selected. The original enroute portion of the flight plan remains active (unless an instrument
procedure is activated) when the procedure is loaded.
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INDEX
When the database is updated, the airways need to be reloaded also. Each airway segment is reloaded from
the database given the entry waypoint, the airway identifier and the exit waypoint. This re-loads the sequence of
waypoints between the entry and exit waypoints (the sequence may change when the database is updated). The
update of an airway can fail during this process. If that happens, the airway waypoints are changed to regular
(non-airway) flight plan waypoints, and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A).
193
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
The following could cause the airway update to fail:
• Airway identifier, entry waypoint or exit waypoint not found in the new database.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Airway entry/exit waypoint is not an acceptable waypoint for the airway – either the waypoint is no longer on
the airway, or there is a new directional restriction that prevents it being used.
• Loading the new airway sequence would exceed the capacity of the flight plan.
FLIGHT PLAN CREATION
There are three methods to create or modify a flight plan:
EIS
• Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• Active Flight Plan Window on the PFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Flight Plan Catalog Page on the MFD (create/modify a stored flight plan)
Non-Active, Flight Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Leg
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Active FPL Waypoint List
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Comment
- Procedure Header
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
AFCS
Turn Anticipation Arc
Vertical Navigation Profile
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Active Vertical WPT Alt/ID
- Vertical Speed Target
- Flight Path Angle
- Vertical Speed Target
- Time to Top of Descent
- Vertical Deviation
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 5-56 Active Flight Plan Page
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Active Flight Plan Comment
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Waypoint List
- Waypoint ID
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Airway Identifier
EIS
Figure 5-57 Active Flight Plan Window on PFD
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Catalog Contents
- # Used
- # Empty
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Flight Plan List
- Comment
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selected Flight Plan Map
Selected FPL Info
AFCS
- Departure Waypoint
- Destination Waypoint
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Softkeys
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-58 Flight Plan Catalog Page
APPENDICES
The active flight plan is listed on the active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, and in the Active Flight Plan
Window on the PFD. It is the flight plan to which the G950 is currently providing guidance, and is shown
on the navigation maps. Stored flight plans are listed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page, and are available for
activation (becomes the active flight plan).
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Creating an active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (only on MFD).
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window with a
waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, or airway waypoints).
4) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
EIS
5) Repeat step numbers 3 and 4 to enter each additional flight plan waypoint.
6) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Creating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the NEW Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create New Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key to
display a blank flight plan for the first empty storage location.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window with a
waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, or airway waypoints).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key.
6) Repeat step numbers 4 and 5 to enter each additional flight plan waypoint.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
7) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to return to the Flight Plan Catalog Page. The new
flight plan is now in the list.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Flight plans can be imported from an SD Card or exported to an SD Card from the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Importing a Flight Plan from an SD Card
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Insert the SD card containing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key on the Control Unit to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight an empty or existing flight plan.
EIS
6) Press the IMPORT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Import Flight Plan”, and press the ENT Key.
If an empty slot is selected, a list of the available flight plans on the SD card will be displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Or:
If an existing flight plan is selected, an “Overwrite existing flight plan? OK or CANCEL” prompt is displayed.
Press the ENT Key to choose to overwrite the selected flight plan and see the list of available flight plans on the
SD card. If overwriting the existing flight plan is not desired, select “CANCEL” using the FMS Knob, press the
ENT Key, select another flight plan slot, and press the IMPORT Softkey again.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan for importing.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the import.
9) Press the ENT Key again to confirm the import.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
List of Flight Plans to Import &
Details for the Selected File
APPENDICES
Import/Export Softkeys
Import Successful
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INDEX
Figure 5-59 Flight Plan Import
197
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
NOTE: If the imported flight plan contains a waypoint with a name that duplicates the name of a waypoint
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
already stored on the system, the system compares the coordinates of the imported waypoint with those of
the existing waypoint. If the coordinates are different, the imported waypoint is automatically renamed by
adding characters to the end of the name.
Exporting a Flight Plan to an SD Card
1) Insert the SD card into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key on the Control Unit to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
EIS
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be exported.
6) Press the EXPORT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Export Flight Plan”.
7) If desired, change the name for the exported file by turning the large FMS Knob to the left to highlight the
name, then use the small and large FMS knobs to enter the new name, and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the export.
9) Press the ENT Key to confirm the export.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: The exported flight plan will not contain any procedures or airways.
Import/Export Softkeys
Stored Flight Plan to be Exported &
Exported Flight Plan Name
Export Successful
INDEX
Figure 5-60 Flight Plan Export
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDING WAYPOINTS TO AN EXISTING FLIGHT PLAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose the flight plan, select the
desired point of insertion, enter the waypoint, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. Flight plans
are limited to 99 waypoints (including waypoints within airways and procedures). If the number of waypoints
in the flight plan exceeds 99, the message “Flight plan is full. Remove unnecessary waypoints.” appears and the
new waypoint(s) are not added to the flight plan.
Stored Flight Plan Selected
EIS
- Memory Slot
- Comment
- Procedure Identifier
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Softkeys
Figure 5-61 Stored Flight Plan Page
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Flight Plan Full Message
Figure 5-62 Active Flight Plan Page - FPL Full
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Adding a waypoint to a stored flight plan:
1) On the Flight Plan Catalog Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select “EDIT” and press the
ENT Key. The Stored Flight Plan Page is displayed.
4) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly in front of the
highlighted waypoint.
EIS
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city of the new waypoint.
6) Press the ENT Key. The new waypoint now exists in the flight plan.
NOTE: If the identifier entered in the Waypoint Information Window has duplicates, a Duplicate Waypoint
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Window is displayed. Use the FMS Knob to select the correct waypoint.
AFCS
Figure 5-63 Duplicate Waypoints Window
Adding a waypoint to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Select the point in the flight plan before which to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly
in front of the highlighted waypoint.
APPENDICES
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window with a
waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, or airway waypoints).
INDEX
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Creating and adding user waypoints to the active flight plan:
1) Press the Joystick to activate the panning function on the Active Flight Plan Page and pan to the map location
of the desired user waypoint.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the LD WPT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The user
waypoint is created with a name of USRxxx (using the next available in sequence) and is added to the end of
the active flight plan.
ADDING AIRWAYS TO A FLIGHT PLAN
EIS
Airways can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose a flight plan (add the desired
airway entry point if not already in the flight plan), select the waypoint after the desired airway entry point,
select the airway, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. An airway can only be loaded if there is a
waypoint in the flight plan that is part of the desired airway and is not part of an arrival or approach procedure.
The G950 also anticipates the desired airway and exit point based on loaded flight plan waypoints.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airway Entry Waypoint
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Airway
Airways Available at TOP
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Airway Waypoint Sequence
Preview of Selected Airway
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-64 Select Airway Page - Selecting Airway
Adding an airway to a flight plan:
APPENDICES
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint after the desired airway entry point. If this waypoint is not
a valid airway entry point, a valid entry point should be entered at this time.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and select the LD AIRWY Softkey, or press the MENU Key and
select “Load Airway”. The Select Airway Page is displayed. The LD AIRWY Softkey or the “Load Airway” menu
item is available only when a valid airway entry waypoint has been chosen (the waypoint ahead of the cursor
position).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways are
shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is
highlighted.
EIS
7) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Exit Point
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Airway Exit Points
Available
AFCS
Preview of
Selected Airway
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-65 Select Airway Page - Selecting Exit Point
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Inserted Airway Header
- Airway Identifier: [airway
identifier].[exit waypoint identifier]
(e.g., V4.SLN)
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-66 Active Flight Plan Page - Airway Inserted
RESTRICTIONS ON ADDING AIRWAYS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Some airways have directional restrictions on all or part of the route. Airway “A2” in Europe has a directional
restriction over the whole route such that it can be flown only in the direction MTD-ABB-BNE-DEVAL.
Airway “UR975” in North Africa has more complicated directional restrictions within the list of airway
waypoints AMANO, VAKOR, LIBRO, NELDA, DIRKA, GZO, KOSET, and SARKI:
• Starting from AMANO, the airway can be flown only to LIBRO.
AFCS
• Starting from SARKI, the airway can be flown only to LIBRO.
• Between NELDA and GZO, the airway can be flown in either direction.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
In the US, airways that are “one-way” for specified hours of operation are not uncommon. These airways
are always bidirectional in the G950 database.
The system only allows correct airway sequences to be inserted. If the pilot subsequently inverts the flight
plan, the system inverts the airway waypoint sequence and removes the airway header. APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
ADDING PROCEDURES TO A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 allows the pilot to insert pre-defined instrument procedures from the navigation database into a
flight plan. The procedures are designed to facilitate routing of traffic leaving an airport (departure), arriving at
an airport (arrival), and landing at an airport (approach). See the procedures section for more details.
EIS
Flight Plan Name
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Flight Plan Waypoint
List
Softkeys
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- New Waypoint
- Load Departure
- Load Arrival
- Load Approach
- Activate Flight Plan
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 5-67 Stored Flight Plan Page
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DEPARTURE (DP)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can
be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
Departure Airport
EIS
Selected Departure
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Departures Available at
KMKC
Departure Waypoint
Sequence
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Preview of Selected
Departure
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-68 Departure Loading Page - Selecting the Departure
Loading a departure procedure into a stored flight plan:
AFCS
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘EDIT FLIGHT PLAN’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the LD DP Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Departure”, and press the ENT Key. The
Departure Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select a departure. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a transition for the selected departure. Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
6) Select a runway served by the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected departure procedure.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Departure Airport
Selected Departure
Selected Runway
Selected Transition
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Departure Transition
Points Available
Preview of
Selected Departure
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Departure
End Point
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-69 Departure Loading Page - Selecting Transition
Inserted Departure Header
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
- Departure Identifier: [departure
airport]-[departure runway].
[departure transition].
[departure end point]
(e.g., KMKC-ALL.WLDCT2.SLN)
INDEX
Figure 5-70 Stored Flight Plan Page - Departure Inserted
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ARRIVAL (STAR)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) is loaded at the destination airport in the flight plan. Only one arrival
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
Destination Airport
EIS
Selected Arrival
Arrivals Available at KCOS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selected Runway
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Preview of
Selected Arrival
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-71 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Arrival
Loading an arrival procedure into a stored flight plan:
AFCS
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘EDIT FLIGHT PLAN’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the LD STAR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Arrival”, and press the ENT Key. The Arrival
Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select an arrival. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a transition for the selected arrival. Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
6) Select a runway served by the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected arrival procedure.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Destination Airport
Selected Arrival
Selected Transition
Transitions Available
with DBRY1
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Arrival Waypoint
Sequence
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Preview of
Selected Arrival
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-72 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
Inserted Arrival Header
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
- Arrival Identifier:
[arrival airport]-[arrival transition].
[arrival].[arrival runway]
(e.g., KCOS-TBE.DBRY1.ALL)
INDEX
Figure 5-73 Stored Flight Plan Page - Arrival Inserted
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPROACH (APPR)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has an approach available. Only one
approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route for a selected approach is defined by designating
transition waypoints.
Destination Airport
EIS
Selected Approach
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Approaches Available at
KCOS
Barometric Minimum
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Preview of
Selected
Approach
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-74 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Approach
Loading an approach procedure into a stored flight plan:
AFCS
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘EDIT FLIGHT PLAN’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Approach”, and press the ENT Key. The
Approach Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select an approach. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a transition for the selected approach. Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
6) Press the ENT Key to load the selected approval procedure.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Destination Airport
Selected Approach
Selected Transition
EIS
Transitions Available
with Selected Approach
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Preview of Selected
Approach
Load Approach?
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-75 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
Inserted Approach Header
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
- Approach Identifier: [approach
airport].[runway and approach type]
(e.g., KCOS-RNAV 35RGPS LPV)
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 5-76 Stored Flight Plan Page - Approach Inserted
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT PLAN STORAGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 can store up to 99 flight plans, numbered 1 through 99. The active flight plan is erased when
the G950 is powered off or when another flight plan is activated. Details about each stored flight plan can be
viewed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page and on the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Viewing information about a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
EIS
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
4) The Flight Plan Information is displayed showing departure, destination, total distance, and enroute safe altitude
information for the selected Flight Plan.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Press the EDIT Softkey to open the Stored Flight Plan Page and view the waypoints in the flight plan.
6) Press the FMS Knob to exit the Stored Flight Plan Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Flight Plan Name
(Comment)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selected Flight Plan
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan
AFCS
Stored Flight Plan Info
Figure 5-77 Stored Flight Plan Information
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Departure Airport
- Destination Airport
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Stored FPL Editing
Softkeys
APPENDICES
Storing an active flight plan from the Active Flight Plan Page or the Active Flight Plan Window:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
INDEX
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. The flight plan is stored in the next available position in the flight
plan list on the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
ACTIVATE A FLIGHT PLAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Activating a stored flight plan erases the active flight plan and replaces it with the flight plan being activated.
Inverting a stored flight plan reverses the waypoint order and activates it.
Activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
EIS
3) Press the ACTIVE Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The
‘Activate Stored Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the INVERT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key.
The ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
COPY A FLIGHT PLAN
The G950 allows copying a flight plan into a new flight plan memory slot, allowing editing, etc., without
affecting the original flight plan. This can be used to duplicate an existing stored flight plan for use in creating
a modified version of the original stored flight plan.
AFCS
Copying a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the COPY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Copy Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Copy
to Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to copy the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
DELETE A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
Individual or all stored flight plans can be deleted from the G950 memory.
Deleting a stored flight plan:
INDEX
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3) Press the DELETE Softkey; press the CLR Key; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
NOTE: The option to delete all stored flight plans is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all stored flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
EIS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Delete All’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all flight plans. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT PLAN EDITING
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The active flight plan or any stored flight plan can be edited. The edits made to the active flight plan affect
navigation as soon as they are entered.
DELETING THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The G950 allows deletion of an active flight plan. Deleting the active flight plan suspends navigation by
the G950.
Deleting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
AFCS
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete all waypoints in flight
plan?’ window is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the active flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
DELETING FLIGHT PLAN ITEMS
Individual waypoints, entire airways, and entire procedures can be deleted from a flight plan. Some waypoints
in the final approach segment (such as the FAF or MAP) can not be deleted individually. Attempting to delete
a waypoint that is not allowed results in a window displaying ‘Invalid flight plan modification.’
APPENDICES
Deleting an individual waypoint from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint to be deleted.
INDEX
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Deleting an entire airway from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the white header of the airway to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name>?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
EIS
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the white header of the procedure to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove <procedure>’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
AFCS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
Deleting an individual waypoint from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
APPENDICES
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
INDEX
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Deleting an entire airway from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the airway to be deleted.
EIS
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name>?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the procedure to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AFCS
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
APPENDICES
5) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove <procedure>’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
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INDEX
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
215
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
CHANGING FLIGHT PLAN COMMENTS (NAMES)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The comment field (or name) of each flight plan can be changed to something that is useful for identification
and sorting.
Changing the active flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
3) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
EIS
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Changing a stored flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ALONG TRACK OFFSETS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
A waypoint having an “along track offset” distance from an existing waypoint can be entered into a flight plan.
Along track offset waypoints lie along the path of the existing flight plan, and can be used to make the system
reach a specified altitude before or after reaching the specified flight plan waypoint. Offset distances can be
entered from 1 to 99 nm in increments of 1 nm. Entering a negative offset distance results in an along track
offset waypoint inserted before the selected waypoint, whereas entering a positive offset distance results in an
along track offset waypoint inserted after the selected waypoint. Multiple offset waypoints are allowed.
APPENDICES
A waypoint must be adjacent to its parent waypoint in the flight plan, so the system limits the along-track
distance to less than the length of the leg before or after the selected waypoint. If the selected waypoint is the
active waypoint, the distance is limited to less than the distance to go to the active waypoint. Assigning an along
track offset to a leg with indeterminate length is not permitted. An along track offset is not allowed at or after
the final approach fix of an approach.
INDEX
An along track offset distance cannot be modified once entered. If the along track offset distance must be
changed, the existing along track offset waypoint must be deleted and a new one created with the new offset
distance.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Along Track Offset
Waypoint and
Distance from Flight
Plan Waypoint
EIS
Along Track
Offset Waypoint
and Distance
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-78 Along Track Offset
Entering an along track offset distance:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the along track offset.
3) Press the ATK OFST Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create ATK Offset Waypoint’, and
press the ENT Key.
AFCS
4) Enter a positive or negative offset distance in the range of +/- 1 to 99 nm (limited by leg distances).
5) Press the ENT Key to create the offset waypoint.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
PARALLEL TRACK
APPENDICES
The Parallel Track (PTK) feature allows creation of a parallel course offset of 1 to 50 nm left or right of the
current flight plan. When Parallel Track is activated, the course line drawn on the map pages shows the parallel
course, and waypoint names have a lower case “p” placed after the identifier.
Using direct-to, loading an approach, a holding pattern, or editing and activating the flight plan automatically
cancels Parallel Track. Parallel Track is also cancelled if a course change occurs greater than 120° or the parallel
tracks overlap as a result of the course change.
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INDEX
NOTE: Vertical navigation is unavailable while the Parallel Track feature is active.
217
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Active Flight Plan prior to Parallel Track
EIS
Selecting Parallel Track
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-79 Active Flight Plan Window - Selecting Parallel Track
Activating parallel track:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The Parallel Track Window is displayed
with the direction field highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Left’ or ‘Right’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘DISTANCE’ field is highlighted.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a distance from 1-99 nm and press the ENT Key. ‘ACTIVATE PARALLEL
TRACK’ is highlighted.
AFCS
5) Press the ENT Key to activate parallel track. Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to cancel the parallel track
activation.
Offset Direction
Offset Distance
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Activation Prompt
Figure 5-80 Parallel Track Window
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OVERVIEW
Original Track
Parallel Track
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Parallel Track
Waypoints
EIS
- TIFTO-p
- TOP-p
- SLN-p
- HYS-p
- LAA-p
- ...
Activating Parallel Track
affects the entire active
flight plan (up to, but
not including the IAF)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-81 Parallel Track Active
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If the parallel track proposed by the offset direction and distance is not allowed by the system, the activation
prompt is displayed, but disabled. Parallel Track cannot be activated if a course is set using direct-to or if the
active leg is the first leg of the departure procedure. Attempting to activate parallel track with these conditions
results in the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable Invalid Route Geometry’. If an approach leg is active the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track with the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable
Approach Leg Active’. If the offset direction and distance results in an unreasonable route geometry the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because of invalid geometry.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Subdued Prompt
(Unavailable)
Unavailable Status
Approach
Active
APPENDICES
Invalid
Geometry
Figure 5-82 Parallel Track Unavailable
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If the active leg is not a track between two fixes (TF) or a course to a fix (DF) leg, the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because parallel track is not available for the
active leg type.
Offset Direction &
Distance Subdued
(Unavailable)
EIS
Cancel Prompt
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Active Status
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Cancelling parallel track:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-83 Cancelling Parallel Track
3) Press the ENT Key.
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The Parallel Track Window is displayed
with ‘CANCEL PARALLEL TRACK?’ highlighted.
ACTIVATING A FLIGHT PLAN LEG
AFCS
The G950 allows selection of a highlighted leg as the “active leg” (the flight plan leg which is currently used
for navigation guidance).
Activating a flight plan leg:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the destination waypoint for the desired leg.
3) Press the ACT LEG Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Leg’, and press the ENT Key.
A confirmation window is displayed with ‘ACTIVATE’ highlighted.
APPENDICES
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan leg. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press
the ENT Key.
INDEX
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Current
Active Leg
Selected Destination
Waypoint
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Activate Leg Softkey
Figure 5-84 Active Flight Plan Page - Selecting the Leg Destination Waypoint
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
New Active
Flight Plan Leg
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Confirmation Window
APPENDICES
Figure 5-85 Active Flight Plan Page - New Active Leg
INDEX
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
INVERTING A FLIGHT PLAN
Any flight plan may be inverted (reversed) for navigation back to the original departure point.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Inverting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. An ‘Invert Active Flight Plan?’
confirmation window is displayed.
3) Select ‘OK’.
EIS
4) Press the ENT Key to invert and activate the active flight plan. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be inverted.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Press the INVERT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Invert & Activate Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key.
An ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ confirmation window is displayed.
5) Select ‘OK’.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Press the ENT Key to invert and activate the stored flight plan. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Information about flight plans can be viewed in more than one way. The active flight plan can be configured
to show cumulative distance over the length of the flight plan or the distance for each leg of the flight plan;
and the active flight plan can be viewed in a narrow or wide view. In the wide view, additional information is
displayed: Fuel Remaining (FUEL REM), Estimated Time Enroute (ETE), Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA), and
Bearing to the waypoint (BRG).
Switching between leg-to-leg waypoint distance and cumulative waypoint distance:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
EIS
2) Press the VIEW Softkey to display the CUM and LEG-LEG Softkeys.
3) Press the CUM Softkey to view cumulative waypoint distance, or press the LEG-LEG Softkey to view leg-to-leg
waypoint distance.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
Active Flight Plan Cumulative Distance
WIDE Softkey, NARROW Softkey
LEG-LEG Softkey, CUM Softkey
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Active Flight Plan Leg to Leg Distance
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-86 Active Flight Plan - Leg to Leg vs. Cumulative Distance
APPENDICES
Switching between wide and narrow view:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Press the VIEW Softkey to display the WIDE and NARROW Softkeys.
3) Press the WIDE Softkey to display the wide view, or press the NARROW Softkey to display the narrow view.
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INDEX
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
223
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Active Flight Plan Wide View
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Active Flight Plan Narrow View
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
WIDE Softkey, NARROW Softkey
LEG-LEG Softkey, CUM Softkey
Figure 5-87 Active Flight Plan - Wide vs. Narrow View
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The G950 allows airways on the active flight plan to be collapsed or expanded from the Active Flight Plan
Page/Window. When airways have been collapsed, it is indicated on the airway heading.
AFCS
COLLAPSING AIRWAYS
The Active Flight Plan Page always keeps the following three waypoints visible: “From” waypoint, “To”
waypoint, and the “Next” waypoint. To prevent one or more of these waypoints from being hidden in a collapsed
airway segment, the airway segment that contains either the “To” or the “Next” waypoint is automatically
expanded. When an airway is loaded, airways are automatically expanded to facilitate flight plan review.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When airways are collapsed, leg-to-leg computed values such as DIS or ETE shown for the exit waypoint
reflects the total of all the legs on the airway that have been hidden in the collapsed display. The DTK value is
inhibited because it is not usable in this context.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Q3.FEPOT Airway
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Collapsed View
Expanded View
EIS
Figure 5-88 Expanded/Collapsed Airways
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Collapsing/expanding the airways in the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Collapse Airways’ or ‘Expand Airways’, and press the ENT Key. The airways are
collapsed/expanded.
CLOSEST POINT OF FPL
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
‘Closest Point of FPL’ calculates the bearing and closest distance at which a flight plan passes a reference
waypoint, and creates a new user waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to a chosen reference
waypoint.
Determining the closest point along the active flight plan to a selected waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
AFCS
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Closest Point of FPL’’, and press the ENT Key. A window appears with the
reference waypoint field highlighted.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Enter the identifier of the reference waypoint and press the ENT Key. The G950 displays the bearing (BRG) and
distance (DIS) to the closest point along the flight plan to the selected reference waypoint and creates a user
waypoint at this location. The name for the new user waypoint is derived from the identifier of the reference
waypoint.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.7 VERTICAL NAVIGATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The G950 supports vertical navigation for all lateral leg types except for CA, CI, FA, FM, HA, HM, PI,
VA, VD, VI, VR, and VM. Vertical constraints are not retained in stored flight plans.
EIS
The G950 system Vertical Navigation (VNV) feature provides vertical profile guidance during the enroute and
teminal phases of flight. Guidance based on specified altitudes at waypoints in the active flight plan or to a
direct-to waypoint is provided. It includes vertical path guidance to a descending path, which is provided as a
linear deviation from the desired path. The desired path is defined by a line joining two waypoints with specified
altitudes or as a vertical angle from a specified waypoint/altitude. The vertical waypoints are integrated into the
active flight plan.
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Enabled (valid data)
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Disabled (fields dashed)
ENBL VNV Softkey
CNCL VNV Softkey
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-89 Enabling/Disabling Vertical Navigation
Enabling VNV guidance:
APPENDICES
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the ENBL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Enable VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is enabled, and vertical guidance begins with the waypoint shown in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box
(defaults first waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude enabled for vertical navigation (e.g., HABUK)).
Disabling VNV guidance:
INDEX
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the CNCL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Cancel VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is disabled.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ), and time
to top of descent/bottom of descent (TIME TO TOD/BOD) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI)
and Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) on the PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ, and TIME TO
TOD items displayed in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box are dashed. VNV remains disabled until manually
enabled. Vertical guidance in reversionary mode can only be enabled for a direct-to waypoint.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
EIS
The G950 allows a vertical navigation direct-to to any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV Direct-to Softkey on the Active Flight Plan Page
allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV direct-to
waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan from current
position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with
altitude constraint activated by pressing the Direct-to Key also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass
flight plan waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent
(TOD) point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached.
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Prior to VNV Direct-to
After VNV Direct-to
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
VNV PROF Softkey
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
VNV Direct-To Softkey
Figure 5-90 Vertical Navigation Direct-To
Activating a vertical navigation direct-to:
APPENDICES
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint.
NOTE: The selected waypoint must have a designated altitude constraint (light blue number) to be used. If
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not, the first waypoint in the flight plan with a designated altitude constraint is selected.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
3) Press the VNV Direct-To Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘VNV Direct-To’, and press the ENT Key.
An ‘Activate vertical Direct-to to: NNNNNFT at XXXXXX?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. Vertical guidance begins to the altitude constraint for the selected waypoint.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The vertical navigation profile can be modified by directly entering a vertical speed target (VS TGT) and/or flight
path angle (FPA) in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box.
Modifying the VS TGT and FPA:
EIS
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the VNV PROF Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select VNV Profile Window’, and press the ENT
Key. The cursor is now located in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Turn the FMS Knobs as needed to edit the values.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ALTITUDE CONSTRAINTS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The G950 system can use altitude constraints associated with lateral waypoints to give guidance for vertical
navigation. These altitudes are, depending on the specific instance, manually entered or retrieved from the
published altitudes in the navigation database. The navigation database only contains altitudes for procedures
that call for “Cross at” altitudes. If the procedure states “Expect to cross at,” then the altitude is not in the
database. In this case the altitude may be entered manually.
Displayed Text
Examples
Cross AT
or ABOVE
5,000 ft
Large White Text
Large Light Blue Text
AFCS
Cross AT
2,300 ft
Small Light Blue Text
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Cross AT
or BELOW
3,000 ft
Small Light Blue
Subdued Text
APPENDICES
Altitude Constraint
Examples
Small White Text with
Altitude Restriction Bar
INDEX
Figure 5-91 Waypoint Altitude Constraints
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Light Blue Text
Light Blue Subdued Text
The system cannot use this
altitude in determining vertical
speed and deviation guidance
because of an invalid constraint
condition
Small
Text
Altitude is designated for use in giving
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude has been retrieved from the
navigation database or has been entered
manually and matches a published
altitude in the navigation database.
The system cannot use this
altitude in determining vertical
speed and deviation guidance
because of an invalid constraint
condition
EIS
Altitude has been entered manually.
Altitude is designated for use in giving
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude does not match the published
altitude in navigation database or no
published altitude exists.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Large Altitude calculated by the system
Text estimating the altitude of the aircraft as
it passes over the navigation point. This
altitude is provided as a reference and is
not designated to be used in determining
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude is not designated to be used in
determining vertical speed and deviation
guidance. Altitude has been retrieved
from the navigation database and is
provided as a reference.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
White Text
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Table 5-8 Altitude Constraint Size and Color Coding
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Altitudes associated with approach procedures are “auto-designated”. This means the system automatically
uses the altitudes loaded with the approach for giving vertical speed and deviation guidance. Note that these
altitudes are displayed as blue text up to, but not including the FAF. The FAF is always a “reference only”
altitude and cannot be designated, unless the selected approach does not provide vertical guidance. In this case,
the FAF altitude can be designated.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Altitudes that have been designated for use in vertical guidance can be “un-designated” using the CLR Key.
The altitude is now displayed only as a reference. It is not used to give vertical guidance. Other displayed
altitudes may change due to re-calculations or be rendered invalid as a result of manually changing an altitude
to a non-designated altitude.
Designating a waypoint altitude to be used for vertical guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
AFCS
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter editing mode.
4) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in blue, indicating it is usable for vertical guidance.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Designating a procedure waypoint altitude to be used for vertical guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude.
APPENDICES
3) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in blue, indicating it is usable for vertical guidance.
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Altitude constraints are displayed and entered in feet mean sea level (MSL) values to the nearest hundred. An
altitude constraint in feet above ground level (AGL) format is supported for airports. When a database altitude
restriction is displayed, the G950 allows entry of a different altitude when creating a waypoint, effectively
overriding the database restriction (only before the FAF). When a database altitude restriction of type “AT or
ABOVE” or “AT or BELOW” is activated, the system uses the “AT” portion of the restriction to define the vertical
profile.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
An altitude constraint is invalid if:
• Meeting the constraint requires the aircraft to climb
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Meeting the constraint requires the maximum flight path angle or maximum vertical speed to be exceeded
• The altitude constraint results in a TOD behind the aircraft present position
• The constraint is within a leg type for which altitude constraints are not supported
• The altitude constraint is added to the FAF of an approach that provides vertical guidance (i.e., ILS or GPS
WAAS approach)
EIS
• The altitude constraint is added to a waypoint past the FAF.
Entering/modifiying an altitude constraint:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Enter an altitude constraint value using the FMS Knobs. To enter altitudes as a flight level, turn the small
FMS Knob counter-clockwise past zero or clockwise past 9 on the first character, and the system automatically
changes to show units of Flight Level. Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight the first zero and enter
the three digit flight level.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport, an additional choice
is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Altitude constraints can be modified or deleted after having been added to the flight plan. In the event
an altitude constraint is deleted and the navigation database contains an altitude restriction for the lateral
waypoint, the G950 displays the altitude restriction from the database provided no predicted altitude can be
provided. The G950 also provides a way to reinstate a published altitude constraint that has been edited.
Deleting an altitude constraint provided by the navigation database:
AFCS
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove VNV altitude constraint?’ confirmation window is displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting an altitude constraint that has been manually entered:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
APPENDICES
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
INDEX
4) Select ‘REMOVE’ and press the ENT Key. The manually entered altitude is deleted (it is replaced by a system
calculated altitude, if available).
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Reverting a manually entered altitude constraint back to the navigation database value:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘REVERT’ and press the ENT Key. The altitude is changed to the navigation database value.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
EIS
Modifying a system calculated altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Press the CLR Key. An ‘Edit or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘EDIT’ and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Edit the value using the FMS Knobs, and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.8 PROCEDURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 can access the whole range of instrument procedures available. Departures (DPs), arrivals (STARs),
and non-precision and precision approaches (APPRs) are stored within the database and can be loaded using the
Procedures (PROC) Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The selected procedure for the departure or arrival airport is added to the active flight plan. No waypoints are
required to be in the active flight plan to load procedures; however, if the departure and arrival airport are already
loaded, the procedure loading window defaults to the appropriate airport, saving some time selecting the correct
airport on the Procedure Loading Page. Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “load” or “activate”
is given. “Loading” adds the approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation
guidance. This allows continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps
the procedure available on the Active Flight Plan Page for quick activation when needed. “Activating” also adds
the procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in
the approach.
DEPARTURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can be
loaded at a time in a flight plan. If a departure is loaded when another departure is already in the active flight
plan, the new departure replaces the previous departure. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
LOADING A DEPARTURE INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading a departure into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT DEPARTURE’.
AFCS
3) Press the ENT Key. The Departure Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select a departure from the list and press the ENT Key.
5) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted.
INDEX
APPENDICES
7) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Departure Airport
Available Procedure Actions
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Departure Preview
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Loaded Procedures
Departure Choices
Figure 5-92 Departure Selection
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Departure
Loaded Departure
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-93 Departure Loading
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Viewing available departures at an airport:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the DP Softkey. The Departure Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on
the map.
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The cursor
moves to the Runway box. The departure is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Transition box. The departure is previewed on the map.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The departure is previewed on the map.
7) Press the INFO Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
REMOVING A DEPARTURE FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, departures can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing a departure procedure from the active flight plan:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
AFCS
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the departure header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
INDEX
APPENDICES
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ARRIVALS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available. Only one arrival
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an arrival is loaded when another arrival is already in the active
flight plan, the new arrival replaces the previous arrival. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
LOADING AN ARRIVAL INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
EIS
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT ARRIVAL’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Arrival Loading Page is displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Select an arrival from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
8) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure.
Destination Airport
Available Procedure Actions
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Arrival Preview
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Loaded Procedures
Arrival Choices
Figure 5-94 Arrival Selection
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Loaded Arrival
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected Arrival
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-95 Arrival Loading
Viewing available arrivals at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), select the STAR Softkey. The Arrival Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport Information Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Arrival. The arrival is previewed on the
map.
AFCS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor moves
to the Transition box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Runway box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
INDEX
APPENDICES
7) Press the INFO Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
REMOVING AN ARRIVAL FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, arrivals can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Removing an arrival from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
EIS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the arrival header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
APPROACHES
NOTE: If certain GPS parameters (WAAS, RAIM, etc.) are not available, some published approach procedures
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
for the desired airport may not be displayed in the list of available approaches.
AFCS
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available, and provides guidance
for non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach procedures.
Only one approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an approach is loaded when another approach
is already in the active flight plan, the new approach replaces the previous approach. The route is defined by
selection of an approach and the transition waypoints.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “load” or “activate” is given. “Loading” adds the
approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This allows
continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps the procedure
available on the Active Flight Plan Page for quick activation when needed. “Activating” also adds the
procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in
the approach.
APPENDICES
When selecting an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure name indicates the procedure
can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures do not have this designation, meaning the GPS
receiver can be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. If the GPS receiver cannot be used for
primary guidance, the appropriate navigation receiver must be used for the selected approach (e.g., VOR or
ILS). The final course segment of ILS approaches, for example, must be flown by tuning the NAV receiver to
the proper frequency and selecting that NAV receiver on the CDI.
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The G950 WAAS GPS allows for flying LNAV, LNAV/VNAV, and LPV approaches according to the published
chart. LNAV+V is a standard LNAV approach with advisory vertical guidance provided for assistance in
237
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
maintaining a constant vertical glidepath similar to an ILS glideslope on approach. This guidance is displayed
on the G950 PFD in the same location as the ILS glideslope using a magenta diamond. In all cases where
LNAV+V is indicated by the system during an approach, LNAV minima are used. The active approach type
is annunciated on the HSI as shown in the following table:
EIS
HSI Annunciation
Description
LNAV
GPS approach using published LNAV minima
LNAV+V
GPS approach using published LNAV minima.
Advisory vertical guidance is provided
L/VNAV
GPS approach using published LNAV/VNAV
minima
LPV
GPS approach using published LPV minima
Example on HSI
Approach Type
- LNAV
- LNAV+V
- L/VNAV
- LPV
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Table 5-9 Approach Types
LOADING AN APPROACH INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading an approach into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT APPROACH’, and press the ENT Key. The Approach Loading Page is displayed.
3) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
5) Barometric Minimums
a) To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, and press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS
Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
AFCS
b) To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘LOAD?’ highlighted to load the arrival procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
NOTE: When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED
INDEX
APPENDICES
FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV
receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Available Procedure Actions
Destination Airport
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Approach Preview
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Loaded Procedures
Approach Choices
Figure 5-96 Approach Selection
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Approach
Loaded Approach
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
LOAD or ACTIVATE? Annunciation
Figure 5-97 Approach Loading
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Viewing available approaches at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the APR Softkey. The Departure
Information Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Approach. The approach is previewed on
the map.
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available approaches. Press the ENT Key to select the approach. The
cursor moves to the Runway box. The approach is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Transition box. The approach is previewed on the map.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The approach is previewed on the map.
7) Press the INFO Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Loading an approach into the active flight plan from the Nearest Airport Page:
1) Select the Nearest Airports Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired nearest airport. The airport is
previewed on the map.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Approach Window’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired approach.
5) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Load Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The
Approach Loading Page is displayed with the transitions field highlighted.
AFCS
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired transition, and press the ENT Key.
7) Barometric Minimums
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
a) To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, and press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS
Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key. The ‘LOAD?’ field is highlighted.
Or:
b) To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key. The ‘LOAD?’ field is highlighted.
INDEX
APPENDICES
8) Press the ENT Key with ‘LOAD?’ highlighted to load the arrival procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure. The system continues
navigating the current flight plan until the approach is activated. When GPS is not approved for the selected
final approach course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the
approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ACTIVATING AN APPROACH
A previously loaded approach can be activated from the Procedures Window.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Activating a previously loaded approach:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed with ‘Activate Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
EIS
In many cases, it may be easiest to “load” the full approach while still some distance away, enroute to the
destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, use the steps above to select ‘Activate Vector-To-Final’ — which
makes the inbound course to the FAF waypoint active.
Activating a previously loaded approach with vectors to final:
1) Press the PROC Key to display the Procedures Window.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Highlight ‘ACTIVATE VECTOR-TO-FINAL’ and press the ENT Key.
Loading and activating an approach using the MENU Key:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) From the Approach Loading Page, press the MENU Key. The page menu is displayed with ‘Load & Activate
Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT
APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to
a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
REMOVING AN APPROACH FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, approaches can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing an approach from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
AFCS
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD)
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the approach header in the active flight plan.
APPENDICES
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
MISSED APPROACH
Activating a missed approach in the active flight plan:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘ACTIVATE MISSED APPROACH’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The aircraft automatically sequences to the MAHP.
Or:
EIS
Press the Go-Around Button.
COURSE TO ALTITUDE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6368ft’) is
not part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along
the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded.
This altitude is provided by Jeppesen, and may be below, equal to, or above the published minimums for
this approach. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,368 feet) after crossing
the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of 6,368 feet is
reached. After reaching 6,368 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case MOGAL).
If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to the
published fix (MOGAL) to begin the missed approach procedure.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed Approach
Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if the
aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to Altitude leg
when the missed approach procedure is activated.
APPENDICES
Course to Altitude Leg
INDEX
Figure 5-98 Course to Altitude
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5.9 TRIP PLANNING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 allows the pilot to view trip planning information, fuel information, and other information for a
specified flight plan or flight plan leg based on automatic data, or based on manually entered data. Weight
planning is also available, based on fuel data and the active flight plan (to estimate remaining fuel).
TRIP PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the statistics is done on the Trip Planning Page
located in the AUX Page Group.
EIS
Selected Flight Plan Segment
- FPL Number/Cumulative Legs (CUM or REM) or Leg Number (NN)
- Waypoints Defining Selected Flight Plan/Flight Plan Leg
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Trip Planning Page Mode
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan/
Flight Plan Leg
- Automatic/Manual
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Trip Input Data (sensor/pilot)
Trip Statistics
Desired Track Distance Est. Time Enroute Est. Time of Arrival Enroute Safe Altitude Sunrise Time (local) Sunset Time (local) -
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Departure Time (local)
- Ground Speed
- Fuel Flow
- Fuel On Board Aircraft
- Calibrated Airspeed
- Indicated Altitude
- Barometric Pressure
- Total Air Temperature
Other Statistics
- Density Altitude
- True Airspeed (TAS)
Fuel Statistics
AFCS
Efficiency Total Endurance Remaining Fuel Remaining Endurance Fuel Required Total Range -
Softkeys
- Automatic/Manual Page Mode
- Flight Plan/Waypoint Mode
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-99 Trip Planning Page
The trip planning inputs are based on sensor inputs (automatic page mode) or on pilot inputs (manual page
mode). Some additional explanation of the sources for some of the inputs is as follows:
APPENDICES
• Departure time (DEP TIME) - This defaults to the current time in automatic page mode. The computations
are from the aircraft present position, so the aircraft is always just departing.
• Calibrated airspeed (CALIBRATED AS) - The primary source is from the air data system, and the secondary
source of information is GPS ground speed.
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INDEX
• Indicated altitude (IND ALTITUDE) - The primary source is the barometric altitude, and the secondary source
of information is GPS altitude.
243
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRIP STATISTICS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and the entire flight plan (CUM) selected,
the waypoints are the starting and ending waypoints of the selected flight plan.
The trip statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
waypoints are the endpoints of the selected leg.
EIS
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and the remaining flight plan (REM)
selected, the ‘from’ waypoint is the present position of the aircraft and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the
active flight plan.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
‘from’ waypoint is the current aircraft position and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the selected leg.
In waypoint (WPTS) mode these are manually selected waypoints (if there is an active flight plan, these
default to the endpoints of the active leg).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has already
been flown.
• Desired Track (DTK) - DTK is shown as nnn° and is the desired track between the selected waypoints. It is dashed unless only a single leg is selected.
• Distance (DIS) - The distance is shown in tenths of units up to 99.9, and in whole units up to 9999. HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Estimated time enroute (ETE) - ETE is shown as hours:minutes until less than an hour, then it is shown
as minutes:seconds.
• Estimated time of arrival (ETA) - ETA is shown as hours:minutes and is the local time at the
destination.
AFCS
- If a flight plan other than the active flight plan is selected it shows the ETA by adding to the departure
time all of the ETEs of the legs up to the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA
is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- If in waypoint mode then the ETA is the ETE added to the departure time.
- If the active flight plan is selected the ETA reflects the current position of the aircraft and the current leg
being flown. The ETA is calculated by adding to the current time the ETEs of the current leg up to the
selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg of the flight
plan was selected.
APPENDICES
• Enroute safe altitude (ESA) - The ESA is shown as nnnnnFT
INDEX
• Destination sunrise and sunset times (SUNRISE, SUNSET) - These times are shown as hours:minutes
and are the local time at the destination.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FUEL STATISTICS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The fuel statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs. Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has
already been flown.
• Fuel efficiency (EFFICIENCY) - This value is calculated by dividing the current ground speed by the
current fuel flow.
• Time of fuel endurance (TOTAL ENDUR) - This time is shown as hours:minutes. This value is obtained
by dividing the amount of fuel on board by the current fuel flow.
EIS
• Fuel on board upon reaching end of selected leg (REM FUEL) - This value is calculated by taking the
amount of fuel onboard and subtracting the fuel required to reach the end of the selected leg. AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Fuel endurance remaining at end of selected leg (REM ENDUR) - This value is calculated by taking the time
of fuel endurance and subtracting the estimated time enroute to the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel required for trip (FUEL REQ) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time to go by the fuel flow. • Total range at entered fuel flow (TOTAL RANGE) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time of fuel
endurance by the ground speed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
OTHER STATISTICS
These statistics are calculated based on the system sensor inputs or the manual trip planning inputs.
• Density altitude (DENSITY ALT)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• True airspeed (TRUE AIRSPEED)
The pilot may select automatic (AUTO) or manual (MANUAL) page mode, and flight plan (FPL) or waypoint
(WPTS) mode. In automatic page mode, only the FPL, LEG, or waypoint IDs are editable (based on FPL/WPTS
selection).
Selected Flight Plan NN -
Selected Leg(s)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Starting and Ending Waypoint of
Selected Flight Plan Segment
Stored Flight Plan
- CUM: Beginning to End of FPL
- NN: Beginning to End of Selected Leg
Active Flight Plan
- REM: Pres. Pos. to End of FPL
- NN: Pres. Pos. to End of Selected Leg
AFCS
00 is Active FPL
01-99 are Stored FPLs
Figure 5-100 Trip Planning Page - Flight Plan Mode
Selected Flight Plan
APPENDICES
Selected Leg(s)
Not Available
Not Available
Selected Starting and Ending Waypoints
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INDEX
Figure 5-101 Trip Planning Page - Waypoint Mode
245
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting automatic or manual page mode:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Selecting flight plan or waypoint mode:
Press the AUTO Softkey or the MANUAL Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Auto Mode’ or ‘Manual
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Press the FPL Softkey or the WPTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Flight Plan Mode’ or ‘Waypoints
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting a flight plan and leg for trip statistics:
EIS
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the flight plan number field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired flight plan number.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CUM’ or ‘REM’. The statistics for each leg can be viewed by turning the
small FMS Knob to select the desired leg. The Inset Map also displays the selected data.
Selecting waypoints for waypoint mode:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the WPTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the ENT Key. The
cursor is positioned in the waypoint field directly below the FPL field.
2) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint (or select from the Page Menu ‘Set WPT to Present Position’
if that is what is desired), and press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the second waypoint field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint, and press the ENT Key. The statistics for the selected leg
are displayed.
In manual page mode, the other eight trip input data fields must be entered by the pilot, in addition to flight
plan and leg selection.
Entering manual data for trip statistics calculations:
AFCS
1) Press the MANUAL Softkey or select ‘Manual Mode’ from the Page Menu, and press the ENT Key. The cursor
may now be positioned in any field in the top right two boxes.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to move the cursor onto the DEP TIME field and enter the desired value. Press the ENT Key.
The statistics are calculated using the new value and the cursor moves to the next entry field. Repeat until all
desired values have been entered.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5.10 RAIM PREDICTION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to calculate
a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nm for oceanic, 2.0 nm for enroute, 1.0 nm for terminal,
and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of flight, RAIM is
available nearly 100% of the time. The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a
specified date and time. RAIM computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival
date and time. Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not
available. RAIM prediction must be initiated manually if there is concern over WAAS coverage at the destination
or some other reason that compromises navigation precision. If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the
final approach course, the approach does not become active. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the
missed approach procedure must be flown.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
RAIM PREDICTION Box
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Prediction Waypoint
- Arrival Time
- Arrival Date
- RAIM Status
AFCS
RAIM Softkey
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
Figure 5-102 RAIM Prediction
APPENDICES
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. The RAIM Prediction ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
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INDEX
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window with a
waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, or airway waypoints).
247
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
4) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint; or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
6) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key with ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ highlighted to begin the computation.
Predicting RAIM availability at the aircraft present position:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
EIS
2) Press the FMS Knob. The RAIM Prediction ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set WPT to Present Position’, and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Status of the RAIM computation for the selected waypoint, time, and date is displayed at the bottom of the
RAIM PREDICTION Box as follows:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
7) Press the ENT Key with ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ highlighted to begin the computation.
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’ - RAIM is predicted to be available.
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ - RAIM has not been computed.
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’ - RAIM calculation is in progress.
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’ - RAIM is predicted to be unavailable.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) provides increased navigation accuracy when available. SBAS
can be enabled or disabled manually on the GPS Status Page.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SBAS Status
SBAS SELECTION Box
- EGNOS Enable/Disable
- MSAS Enable/Disable
- WAAS Enable/Disable
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
RAIM Softkey
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
Figure 5-103 SBAS Display - Active
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Enabling/Disabling SBAS:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
2) Press the SBAS Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘EGNOS’, ‘MSAS’ or ‘WAAS’.
AFCS
4) Press the ENT Key to disable SBAS. Press the ENT Key again to enable SBAS.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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249
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SBAS Status
SBAS SELECTION Box
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
- EGNOS Enable/Disable
- MSAS Enable/Disable
- WAAS Enable/Disable
RAIM Softkey
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-104 SBAS Display - Active
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5.11 NAVIGATING A FLIGHT PLAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The following discussion is an example of navigating a flight plan with the WAAS capable GPS system while the
G950 provides vertical guidance through descents. A lateral flight plan (LNAV) would be navigated in much the
same way, but would not include vertical guidance when the final approach course is active.
NOTE: The following example flight plan is for instructional purposes only. All database information depicted
should be considered not current.
EIS
The example is a flight plan from KMKC to KCOS filed using the TIFTO2 departure, various Victor Airways,
and the DBRY1 arrival with the transition at TBE. The flight plan includes an enroute altitude of 12,000 feet, an
LPV (WAAS) approach selected for runway 35R, and a missed approach executed at the Missed Approach Point
(MAP). A few enroute changes are demonstrated.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Prior to departure, the TIFTO2 departure, the airways, and the DBRY1 arrival at KCOS are loaded. See the
Procedures section for loading departures and arrivals. Note the magenta arrow in Figure 5-105 indicating the
active departure leg.
After takeoff, ATC assigns a heading of 240º.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Figure 5-105 shows the aircraft on the assigned heading of 240º. ‘TERM’ (Terminal) is the current CDI flight
phase displayed on the HSI indicating 1.0 nm CDI scaling.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-105 Assigned Heading of 240º
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) ATC now assigns routing to join V4. A heading of 290º is assigned to intercept V4. The aircraft turns to heading
290° as seen in Figure 5-106.
Figure 5-106 Assigned Heading of 290º
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Enter V4 into the flight plan.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
b) The desired entry point for V4 (TOP) must be entered. Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight
plan insertion point (SLN) as shown in Figure 5-107. When the V4 entry point (TOP) is inserted, it is placed
immediately above the highlighted waypoint (SLN).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-107 Begin Adding V4 to the Flight Plan
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. Enter the desired entry point for V4,
Topeka VOR (TOP), as shown in Figure 5-108.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-108 Entering V4 Entry Point
INDEX
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253
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
d) Press the ENT Key. TOP is inserted into the flight plan as in Figure 5-109.
Figure 5-109 TOP Inserted into the Flight Plan
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
e) With SLN still highlighted as in Figure 5-109, turn the small FMS Knob clockwise. The Waypoint Information
Page is displayed and the LD AIRWY Softkey is now available.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
f) Press the LD AIRWY Softkey to display the list of available airways for TOP as seen in Figure 5-110.
APPENDICES
Figure 5-110 List of Available Airways for TOP
INDEX
g) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight V4 in the list as seen in Figure 5-110.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
h) Press the ENT Key. The list of available exits for V4 is now displayed as in Figure 5-111.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-111 List of Available Exits for V4
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
i) If necessary, turn either FMS Knob to select the desired exit. In this case Salina VOR (SLN) is selected as in
Figure 5-111.
j) Press the ENT Key. The selected airway and exit are displayed, and the prompt “LOAD?” highlighted as in
Figure 5-112.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-112 Ready to Load V4
k) Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
l) V4 is now loaded into the flight plan as shown in Figure 5-113.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-113 V4 is Loaded in the Flight Plan
5) Making V4 the active leg of the flight plan.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight SLN. The TO waypoint of the leg is selected in order to activate the leg.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
c) Press the ACT LEG Softkey. The confirmation window is now displayed as in Figure 5-114. Note the TOP to
SLN leg is actually part of V4.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-114 Comfirm Active Leg
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
d) Verify the displayed leg is the desired leg and press the ENT Key. Note in Figure 5-115, the magenta arrow in
the flight plan window and magenta line on the map indicating V4 is now the active flight plan leg. Note the
phase of flight remained in Terminal (TERM) mode up to this point because a departure leg was active. Since a
leg after the departure is now active, the current CDI flight phase is ENR (Enroute) and CDI scaling has changed
to 2.0 nm.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-115 V4 Now Active Leg
6) The aircraft continues on heading 290º. When crosstrack distance is less than 2.0 nm, the XTK disappears from
the HSI and the CDI is positioned on the last dot indicating a 2.0 nm distance from the centerline of the next
course.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
7) As the CDI approaches center, the aircraft turns onto the active leg as seen in Figure 5-116.
Figure 5-116 Turn on to Active Leg
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) At SLN, Victor Airway 244 (V244) is intercepted. Turn prompts are displayed in the PFD Navigation Status Box
as seen in Figure 5-117.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 5-117 Turn to Intercept V244
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
9) As seen in Figure 5-118, V244 is now the active flight plan leg.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-118 V244 Now Active Leg
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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259
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
10) At Lamar VOR (LAA) V263 is intercepted. See Figure 5-119.
Figure 5-119 HYS to LAA Leg Active
11) ATC grants clearance to proceed direct to the OPSHN intersection to begin the arrival procedure. ATC advises
to expect an altitude of 10,000 feet at OPSHN.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to select OPSHN in the flight plan list.
) Key. The Direct-to Window is now displayed as shown in Figure 5-120.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
c) Press the Direct-to (
INDEX
Figure 5-120 Direct To OPSHN
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
d) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the VNV altitude field as shown in Figure 5-121.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-121 Enter VNV Altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
e) An altitude of 10,000 feet is entered as requested by ATC.
f) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the VNV offset field as shown in Figure 5-122.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-122 Enter VNV Offset Distance
g) Enter the offset, or distance from the waypoint at which to reach the selected altitude. In this case, three miles
prior to OPSHN is entered. In other words, the G950 gives vertical guidance so the aircraft arrives at an altitude
of 10,000 feet three miles prior to OPSHN.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
h) Press the ENT Key twice to activate the direct-to. Note, in Figure 5-123, the magenta arrow indicating the
direct-to OPSHN after the offset waypoint for OPSHN. The preceding offset waypoint indicates the offset
distance and altitude that were previously entered. The remaining waypoints in the loaded arrival procedure
have no database specified altitudes, therefore, dashes are displayed. Keep the CDI centered and maintain a
track along the magenta line to OPSHN.
Note the Direct-to waypoint is within the loaded arrival procedure, therefore, phase of flight scaling for the CDI
changes to Terminal Mode and is annunciated by displaying ‘TERM’ on the HSI.
NOTE: If the loaded arrival procedure has waypoints with altitude constraints retrieved from the database
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
that will be used as is, the altitude must be manually accepted by placing the cursor over the desired
altitude, then pressing the ENT Key. The altitude is now displayed as light blue meaning it will be used by
the system to determine vertical speed and deviation guidance.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-123 Direct-to Active
12) The aircraft is proceeding to OPSHN. The expected approach is the RNAV LPV approach to runway 35R, so it is
selected.
INDEX
APPENDICES
a) Press the PROC Key to display the Procedures Window.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
b) ‘SELECT APPROACH’ should be highlighted as shown in Figure 5-124.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-124 Procedures Window
c) Press the ENT Key. A list of available approaches for the destination airport is displayed as in Figure 5-125.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-125 List of Available Approaches
APPENDICES
d) Turn either FMS Knob to select the LPV approach for 35R as shown in Figure 5-125.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
e) Press the ENT Key. A list of available transitions for the selected approach is displayed as in Figure 5-126.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
f) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired transition. In this case, the Initial Approach Fix (IAF) at HABUK is
used.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-126 List of Available Transitions
To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, and press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
g) Press the ENT Key.
h) Barometric Minimums (Figure 5-127)
Or:
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
Figure 5-127 Barometric Minimums Set
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
i) With ‘LOAD?’ highlighted, again press the ENT Key. The selected approach is added to the flight plan as seen
in Figure 5-128.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-128 Loaded Approach
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
13) Note the altitude constraints associated with each of the approach waypoints as seen in Figure 5-129. These
altitudes are loaded from the database and are displayed as light blue text, indicating these values are
“designated” for use in computing vertical deviation guidance.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Note: To no longer use the displayed altitude for calculating vertical deviation guidance, perform the
following:
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired altitude.
c) Press the CLR Key.
EIS
d) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
After making the altitude “non-designated”, it is displayed as white text.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Altitude constraint values associated with the Final Approach Fix (FAF) and waypoints beyond the FAF cannot be
designated for vertical guidance. These altitude values are always displayed as white text, as in Figure 5-129.
Vertical guidance from the FAF and on to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) is given using the WAAS GPS
altitude source, therefore, the displayed altitude values are for reference only.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-129 Vertical Guidance is Active to the FAF
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
14) As the aircraft approaches OPSHN, it may be desirable to adjust the speed, or steepness of the upcoming
descent. The default Flight Path Angle (FPA) is -3.0 degrees and a required vertical speed is computed to
maintain the -3.0 FPA. To change the vertical flight path, perform the following steps.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
a) Press the VNV PROF Softkey to place the cursor in the target vertical speed field (VS TGT) as shown in Figure
5-130.
b) At this point, the descent vertical speed can be selected, or the FPA can be selected. Turn the large FMS Knob
to select the desired selection field, then turn the small FMS Knob to enter the desired value.
EIS
Note the information now displayed in the ‘CURRENT VNV PROFILE’ box. Also, note the offset waypoint (orange
box) and gray circle are now displayed on the map. The gray circle marks the Top of Descent (TOD). In this
example, vertical guidance is provided at the TOD that results in a -3.0 degree FPA descent to an altitude of
10,000 feet upon reaching the offset waypoint.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 5-130 Adjusting the Descent
c) Press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
15) As seen in Figure 5-131, the aircraft is approaching TOD. Note the target vertical speed required to reach the
selected altitude. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) and the Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) are
now displayed on the PFD as shown in Figure 5-129. When the aircraft is within one minute of the TOD, it is
annunciated as shown in Figure 5-132, and an aural alert ‘Vertical track’ will be heard.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-131 Approaching Top of Descent (TOD)
AFCS
Target Altitude
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
APPENDICES
Required Vertical
Speed Indicator
(RVSI)
INDEX
Figure 5-132 VDI & RVSI Upon Reaching Top of Descent (TOD)
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
16) Upon reaching TOD, a descent vertical speed is established which places the VSI pointer in line with the RVSI as
shown in Figure 5-133.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Align Actual Vertical Speed
with
Required Vertical Speed
EIS
Keep Vertical Deviation
Pointer Centered
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-133 VDI & RVSI Showing Correctly Established Descent
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
17) When the aircraft is one minute from the bottom of descent (BOD) it is annunciated as shown in Figure 5-134.
Upon reaching the offset waypoint for OPSHN, the aircraft is at 10,000 feet.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-134 Approaching Bottom of Descent (BOD) at OPSHN Offset Waypoint
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
18) The aircraft is approaching OPSHN. The upcoming turn and next heading are annunciated at the top left of the
PFD as seen in Figure 5-135. Initiate the turn and maneuver the aircraft on a track through the turn radius to
intercept the magenta line for the OPSHN to FSHER leg and center the CDI.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 5-135 Turn to intercept OPSHN to FSHER Leg
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
19) After passing OPSHN, the next leg of the arrival turns magenta as shown in Figure 5-136. The magenta arrow
in the flight plan list now indicates the OPSHN to FSHER leg of the arrival procedure is now active.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-136 Tracking the OPSHN to FSHER Leg
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
20) The flight continues through the arrival procedure to PYNON (see Figure 5-137). At a point 31 nm from the
destination airport, the phase of flight scaling for the CDI changes to Terminal Mode and is annunciated by
displaying ‘TERM’ on the HSI.
A descent to HABUK is in the next leg. Note the TOD point on the map. Annunciations for the upcoming turn
and descent, as well as the VDI and RVSI, appear on the PFD as the flight progresses.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-137 Approaching PYNON
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
21) Upon passing PYNON the approach procedure automatically becomes active. The approach may be activated
at any point to proceed directly to the IAF. In this example, the aircraft has progressed through the final
waypoint of the arrival and the flight plan has automatically sequenced to the IAF as the active leg, activating
the approach procedure (see Figure 5-138).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-138 Approach is Now Active
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Note: To manually activate the approach procedure, perform the following steps:
a) Press the PROC Key.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘ACTIVATE APPROACH’ as shown in Figure 5-139.
c) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-139 Manually Activate Approach
APPENDICES
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
22) The IAF is the next waypoint. At the TOD, establish a descent vertical speed as previously discussed in Step 16.
The aircraft altitude is 9,000 feet upon reaching HABUK.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-140 Descending Turn to the Initial Approach Fix (IAF)
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
23) After crossing FALUR the next waypoint is the FAF. The flight phase changes to LPV on the HSI indicating the
current phase of flight is in Approach Mode and the approach type is LPV. CDI scaling changes accordingly and is
used much like a localizer when flying an ILS approach. The RVSI is no longer displayed and the VDI changes to
the Glidepath Indicator (as shown in Figure 5-141) when the final approach course becomes active.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-141 Descending to the FAF
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The descent continues through the FAF (CEGIX) using the Glidepath Indicator, as one would use a glideslope
indicator, to obtain an altitude “AT” 7,800 feet at the FAF. Note the altitude restriction lines over and under (At)
the altitude in the ‘ALT’ field in Figure 5-141.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
24) After crossing CEGIX, the aircraft continues following the glidepath to maintain the descent to “AT or ABOVE”
6,370 feet at the Missed Approach Point (MAP) (RW35R) as seen in Figure 5-142.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-142 Descending to the Missed Approach Point
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6368ft’) is not part
of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along the runway
centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded. This altitude
is provided by Jeppesen, and may be below, equal to, or above the published minimums for this approach. In
this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,368 feet) after crossing the MAP, a direct-to
is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of 6,368 feet is reached. After reaching
6,368 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case MOGAL). If the aircraft altitude is
above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to the published fix (MOGAL) to
begin the missed approach procedure.
INDEX
APPENDICES
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure. For
example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed Approach Hold
Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if the aircraft
altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to Altitude leg when the
missed approach procedure is activated.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
25) Upon reaching the MAP, it is decided to execute a missed approach. Automatic waypoint sequencing is
suspended past the MAP. Press the SUSP Softkey on the PFD to resume automatic waypoint sequencing
through the missed approach procedure.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A direct-to is initiated to MOGAL, which is the Missed Approach Hold Point (MAHP) as seen in Figure 5-143.
The aircraft is climbing to 10,000 feet. The CDI flight phase now changes from LPV to MAPR as seen on the HSI.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-143 Missed Approach Active
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
26) The aircraft continues climbing to “AT or ABOVE” 10,000 feet at MOGAL. A holding pattern is established at
the MAHP (MOGAL) as shown in Figure 5-144.
Figure 5-144 Establishing the Holding Pattern
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
27) The aircraft maintains 10,000 feet while following the magenta line through the hold as in Figure 5-145.
INDEX
Figure 5-145 Hold Established
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5.12 ABNORMAL OPERATION
This section discusses the Dead Reckoning mode of operation and the subsequent indications.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Dead Reckoning Mode only functions in Enroute (ENR) or Oceanic (OCN) phase of flight. In all other
phases, an invalid GPS solution produces a “NO GPS POSITION” annunciation on the map and the G950
stops using GPS.
EIS
While in Enroute or Oceanic phase of flight, if the G950 detects an invalid GPS solution or is unable to calculate
a GPS position, the system automatically reverts to Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode. In DR Mode, the G950 uses
its last-known position combined with continuously updated airspeed and heading data (when available) to
calculate and display the aircraft’s current estimated position.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the G950 in DR Mode may become increasingly
unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. If while in DR Mode airspeed and/or heading data
is also lost or not available, the DR function may not be capable of accurately tracking estimated position and,
consequently, the system may display a path that is different than the actual movement of the aircraft. Estimated
position information displayed by the G950 through DR while there is no heading and/or airspeed data available
should not be used for navigation.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
DR Mode is inherently less accurate than the standard GPS/SBAS Mode due to the lack of satellite measurements
needed to determine a position. Changes in wind speed and/or wind direction compound the relative inaccuracy
of DR Mode. Because of this degraded accuracy, other navigation equipment must be relied upon for position
awareness until GPS-derived position data is restored.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
DR Mode is indicated on the G950 by the appearance of the letters ‘DR’ superimposed in yellow over the
‘own aircraft’ symbol as shown in Figure 5-146. In addition, ‘DR’ is prominently displayed in yellow on the HSI
slightly above and to the right of the aircraft symbol on the CDI as shown in Figure 5-146. The CDI deviation
bar remains, but is removed from the display after 20 minutes in DR Mode. The autopilot will remain coupled
in DR mode as long as the deviation info is available (20 min.) Lastly, but at the same time, a ‘GPS NAV LOST’
alert message appears on the PFD. Normal navigation using GPS/SBAS source data resumes automatically once
a valid GPS solution is restored.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
As a result of operating in DR Mode, all GPS-derived data is computed based upon an estimated position and
is displayed as yellow text on the display to denote degraded navigation source information as shown in Figure
5-146.
Also, while the G1000 is in DR Mode, some terrain functions are not available. Additionally, the accuracy of
all nearest information (airports, airspaces, and waypoints) is questionable. Finally, airspace alerts continue to
function, but with degraded accuracy.
APPENDICES
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Distance &
Bearing
Current
Track
Indicator
Dead Reckoning
Annunciaion
EIS
Ground Speed
Wind Data
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
GPS Navigation
Lost Message
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Bearing
Pointer/
Distance
Nav Data Bar
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
All data except
Active Leg,
TAS, and DTK
are in yellow
AFCS
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Subdued Aircraft
Symbol
APPENDICES
Figure 5-146 Dead Reckoning Mode - GPS Derived Data Shown in Yellow
NOTE: The Inset Map is removed from the PFD any time aircraft pitch is greater than +30° or less than –20°,
INDEX
or when a 65° bank angle is reached.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Hazard avoidance features available for the G950 are designed to aid situational awareness and provide advisory
information with regard to potential hazards to flight safety associated with weather, terrain, and air traffic.
Weather
• GDL 69A XM WX Satellite Weather (Optional)
• GWX 68 Airborne Color Weather Radar (Optional)
• L-3 STORMSCOPE® WX-500 Series II Weather Mapping Sensor (Optional)
EIS
Terrain Avoidance
• Terrain Proximity
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Terrain-SVS (Included with SVS Option)
• Terrain Awareness and Warning System Class-B (TAWS-B) (Optional)
Traffic
• Traffic Information Service (TIS)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Garmin GTS 800/820 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) (Optional)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 XM WX SATELLITE WEATHER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: XM WX Satellite Weather data provides information for avoiding hazardous weather. Do not use XM
Weather information to penetrate hazardous weather.
EIS
XM WX Satellite Weather is provided through the GDL 69A, a remote-mounted data-link satellite receiver. Received graphical weather information and associated text is displayed on the Multi Function Display (MFD)
and the Primary Flight Display (PFD) Inset Map. The GDL 69A can also receive SiriusXM Satellite Radio
entertainment services. Both weather data and entertainment programming operate in the S-band frequency
range to provide continuous reception capabilities at any altitude throughout North America.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SiriusXM services are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit www.
siriusxm.com.
ACTIVATING SERVICES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Before XM WX Satellite Weather can be used, the service must be activated. Service is activated by providing
SiriusXM with coded IDs unique to the installed GDL 69A. SiriusXM Satellite Radio (audio) and XM WX
Satellite Weather (data) services each have coded IDs. The Data and Audio Radio IDs must be provided to
SiriusXM to activate the weather service and entertainment subscriptions, respectively. These IDs are located
on:
• The label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• The XM Information Page on the MFD (Figure 6-1)
• The XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit (available at www.garmin.com, P/N
190-00355-04)
Contact the installer if the Audio and Data Radio IDs cannot be located.
AFCS
SiriusXM uses the coded IDs to send an activation signal that allows the G950 to display weather data and/or
entertainment programming provided through the GDL 69A.
Activating XM Satellite Weather and SiriusXM Satellite Radio services:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Contact SiriusXM using the customer service phone number listed on the website, www.siriusxm.com. Follow
the instructions provided by SiriusXM customer service.
2) Select the XM page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
3) Press the INFO Softkey to display the XM Information Page.
APPENDICES
4) Verify that the desired services are activated.
5) Press the LOCK Softkey.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘YES’.
INDEX
7) To complete activation, press the ENT Key.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Audio Radio
ID
(for SirisuXM
Satellite Radio)
Data Radio ID
(for XM Weather)
Figure 6-1 XM Information Page
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Select to Display
XM Information
page
EIS
Weather
Products
(Available
Products for
Service Class
Indicated in
Green)
Select to Lock
Subscription
Information
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
USING XM SATELLITE WEATHER PRODUCTS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The primary map for viewing XM WX Satellite Weather data is the Weather Data Link (XM) Page in the
Map Page Group. This is the only G950 map display capable of showing information for all available XM WX
products.
Viewing the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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283
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
NEXRAD Weather
Product Symbol
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NEXRAD Weather
Product Ages (US
& Canada)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NEXRAD Weather
Product Selected
for Display
Figure 6-2 Weather Data Link (XM) Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When an XM WX product is active on a map, the age of the data is displayed on the screen to the right of the
product symbol (Figure 6-2). The age of the product is based on the time difference between when the data
was assembled on the ground and the current GPS time. Weather products are refreshed at specific intervals
(defined in the Refresh Rate column in Table 6-1).
AFCS
If for any reason, a weather product is not refreshed within the Expiration Time intervals (see Table 6-1),
the data is considered expired and is removed from the display. This ensures the displayed data is consistent
with the data XM WX services is currently transmitting. If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed,
the color of the product age displayed changes to yellow. If no data is available for a weather product, ‘N/A’ is
displayed next to the weather product symbol.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 6-1 shows the weather product symbols, the expiration time and the refresh rate. The refresh rate
represents the interval at which XM WX services provides new signals that may or may not contain new weather
data. It does not represent the rate at which weather data is updated or new content is received by the Data
Link Receiver. Weather data is updated at intervals that are defined and controlled by XM WX services and its
data providers, and are subject to change.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Symbol
Echo Top
(ECHO TOP)
12
60
12
90
12
60
12
60
12
60
12
60
12
60
5
60
12
90
22
90
12
90
12
180
12
30
5
60
12
60
12
INDEX
30
APPENDICES
5
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
30
AFCS
7.5
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
30
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
15
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
60
EIS
XM Lightning
(LTNG)
Cell Movement
(CELL MOV)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
City Forecast
(CITY)
Surface Analysis
(SFC)
Freezing Levels
(FRZ LVL)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
County Warnings
(COUNTY)
Cyclone Warnings
(CYCLONE)
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD)
(ICNG)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Air Report
(AIREPs)
Turbulence
(TURB)
Radar Coverage
no product image
(RADAR CVRG)
Temporary Flight Restrictions
no product image
(TFRs)
Terminal Aerodrome Reports
no product image
(TAFs)
30
Refresh Rate
(Minutes)
5 (U.S.)
10 (Canada)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD)
Cloud Top
(CLD TOP)
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Weather Product
Table 6-1 Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
+
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
+
Flight Plan Pages
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Cell Movement (CELL MOV)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
+
City Forecast (CITY)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
METARs
County Warnings (COUNTY)
+
Cyclone Warnings (CYCLONE)
+
Icing Potential (ICNG)
+
PIREPs
+
+
AIREPs
+
+
Turbulence (TURB)
+
+
Surface Analysis (SFC)
+
Freezing Levels (FRZ LVL)
+
Winds Aloft (WIND)
AFCS
+
XM Lightning (LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
+*
Radar Coverage
TFRs
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Nearest Page Group
+
AUX - Video Page
+
AUX - Trip Planning
Page
+
Weather Information
Page
Weather Data Link
(XM) Page
EIS
NEXRAD
Navigation Map Page
Weather Product
PFD Inset Map
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Table 6-2 shows which XM WX products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on specific maps.
TAFs
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
INDEX
APPENDICES
* Winds Aloft Data displayed inside Profile View on the Navigation Map Page.
Table 6-2 Weather Product Display Maps
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Softkeys control the display of weather information on most MFD pages and the PFD Inset Map. Figure
6-3 shows the weather product softkeys for the Weather Data Link (XM) Page. When a weather product is
selected for display, the corresponding softkey label changes to gray to indicate the product is enabled. CYCLONE SFC OFF
FRZ LVL
SIG/AIR
METAR
LEGEND MORE WX CHKLIST
WIND OFF ICNG OFF TURB OFF AIREPS
PIREPS
COUNTY
LTNG
CELL MOV
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NEXRAD ECHO TOP CLD TOP
ENGINE
BACK
SFC Softkey label changes
to reflect current selection.
WIND/ICNG/TURB Softkey labels
change to reflect current selection.
CURRENT
12 HR
24 HR
36 HR
48 HR
LEGEND
BACK
EIS
OFF
Select the BACK Softkey
to move up one level.
3000
6000
9000
12000
15000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
36000
39000
42000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
1000
3000
6000
9000
12000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
39000
42000
45000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
15000
36000
AFCS
SFC
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
OFF
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
PREV
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
PREV and NEXT Softkeys cycle through Winds Aloft,
Icing, and Turbulence altitude selection softkeys.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-3 Weather Data Link (XM) Page Weather Product Softkeys
APPENDICES
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link (XM) Page control the map range
settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the
weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The menus
also provide a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling display of weather products.
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-4).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘PRODUCT GROUP 1’ or ‘PRODUCT GROUP 2’, and press the ENT Key (Figure
6-5).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
EIS
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the changed settings.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-4 Weather Data Link Page Menu
Figure 6-5 Weather Data Link Page Setup Menu
Restoring default Weather Data Link (XM) Page settings:
APPENDICES
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
5) Highlight the desired option to restore defaults (for all or for selection), and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Weather displayed on Pages other than the Weather Data Link (XM) Page use settings based on those selected
for the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the Navigation Map Page:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-6).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-7).
EIS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-8).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-6 Navigation Map Page Menu
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-7 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-8 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
APPENDICES
When an XM WX product is enabled for display on the PFD Inset Map, the weather product information box
(with the product icon and age) can be displayed inside the PFD Inset Map.
Viewing the weather product information box on the PFD Inset Map:
1) On the PFD, press the INSET Softkey.
INDEX
2) Press the WX LGND Softkey.
3) To remove the weather product information box, press the WX LGND Softkey again or deselect all active XM
weather products on the PFD Inset Map.
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Each active weather product has an associated legend which can be displayed on the Weather Data Link (XM)
Page. Viewing legends for displayed weather products (on the XM Weather Data Link Page):
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the LEGEND Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
EIS
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends.
4) To remove the Legend Window, press the LEGEND Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Viewing legends for displayed weather products (on the Navigation Map Page):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the LEGEND Softkey (available if one or more XM weather products are enabled for display).
4) To remove the Legend Window, press the LEGEND Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Additional information about the following can be displayed by panning over the display on the map:
• Echo Tops
• County Warnings
• Cell Movement
• TFRs
• SIGMETs
• PIREPs
• AIRMETs
• AIREPs
AFCS
• METARs
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the RANGE Knob. The map range is adjusted by turning
the RANGE Knob. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map
Pointer.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Additional
Information on
Weather Feature
Selected with
Map Pointer
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Echo Top Data
Selected with
Map Pointer
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-9 Panning on the Weather Data Link Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NEXRAD
NOTE: NEXRAD data cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain, echo tops, turbulence, or icing data
is displayed.
AFCS
WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar), is a network of 158 high-resolution Doppler radar
systems that are operated by the National Weather Service (NWS). NEXRAD data provides centralized
meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The maximum
range of a single NEXRAD radar site is 250 nm. In addition to a wide array of services, the NEXRAD network
provides important information about severe weather and air traffic safety.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
NEXRAD data is not real-time. The lapsed time between collection, processing, and dissemination of
NEXRAD images can be significant and may not reflect the current radar synopsis. Due to the inherent delays
and the relative age of the data, it should be used for long-range planning purposes only. Never use NEXRAD
data or any radar data to penetrate hazardous weather. Rather, use it in an early-warning capacity of predeparture and enroute evaluation.
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-10 NEXRAD Data on the Weather Data Link Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NEXRAD data can be displayed on the following maps:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Weather Data Link Page
• Flight Plan Pages
• Airport Information Page
• AUX - Video Page
AFCS
Displaying NEXRAD weather information:
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Composite data from all the NEXRAD radar sites in the United States is shown. This data is composed of
the maximum reflectivity from the individual radar sweeps. The display of the information is color-coded
to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can be viewed on the Weather Data Link
(XM) Page. For the NEXRAD legend (Figure 6-11), press the LEGEND Softkey when NEXRAD is selected
for display.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
No Radar Coverage
EIS
Figure 6-11 NEXRAD Data with Legend
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The display of radar coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is selected. Areas where
NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is not being collected are
indicated in a gray shade of purple (Figure 6-11). Radar capability exists in these areas, but it is not active or
is off-line.
Reflectivity
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
AFCS
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• NEXRAD base reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine cloud layers or precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet snow, wet
hail, and rain.
• NEXRAD base reflectivity is sampled at the minimum antenna elevation angle. An individual NEXRAD
site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information about storms directly over
the site.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
• When zoomed in to a range of 30 nm, each square block on the display represents an area of four square
kilometers. The intensity level reflected by each square represents the highest level of NEXRAD data
sampled within the area (Figure 6-12).
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Block Area is 4 km2
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-12 NEXRAD Data - Zoomed
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
APPENDICES
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
INDEX
• Metallic dust from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NEXRAD Limitations (Canada)
• Radar coverage extends to 55ºN.
• Any precipitation displayed between 52ºN and 55ºN is displayed as mixed because it is unknown.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
No Coverage Above 55ºN
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Precipitation
Above 52ºN
Displays As Mixed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-13 NEXRAD Data - Canada
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ECHO TOPS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Echo Tops data (Figure 6-14) shows the location, elevation, and direction of the highest radar echo. The
highest radar echo does not indicate the top of a storm or clouds; rather it indicates the highest altitude at
which precipitation is detected. Information is derived from NEXRAD data.
EIS
NOTE: Display of Echo Tops is mutually exclusive with Cloud Tops and NEXRAD.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-14 Echo Tops Data
AFCS
Displaying Echo Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the ECHO TOP Softkey.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To display the Echo Tops legend (Figure 6-15), press the LEGEND Softkey when Echo Tops is selected for
display. Since Echo Tops and Cloud Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Echo Tops is activated, NEXRAD and Cloud Tops data are
removed.
INDEX
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-15 Echo Tops Legend
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The display of radar coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is selected. Areas where
NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is not being collected are
indicated in gray shade of purple (Figure 6-15).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
CLOUD TOPS
NOTE: Cloud Tops and Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time.
Cloud Tops data (Figure 6-16) depicts cloud top altitudes as determined from satellite imagery.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-16 Cloud Tops Data
AFCS
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the CLD TOP Softkey.
To display the Cloud Tops legend (Figure 6-17), press the LEGEND Softkey when Cloud Tops is selected
for display. Since Cloud Tops and Echo Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Cloud Tops is activated, Echo Tops data is removed.
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 6-17 Cloud Tops Legend
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OVERVIEW
XM LIGHTNING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Lightning data (Figure 6-18) shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes. A strike
icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. The exact location of the lightning
strike is not displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
NOTE: XM Lightning cannot be displayed at the same time as optional Stormscope® lightning.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Lightning
Strikes
Figure 6-18 Lightning Data
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
XM Lightning data displays on the following maps:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Weather Data Link Page
• Flight Plan Pages
Displaying XM Lightning information:
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the XM LTNG Softkey (LTNG Softkey on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page).
INDEX
To display the XM Lightning legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page (Figure 6-19), press the LEGEND
Softkey when XM Lightning is selected for display.
Figure 6-19 Lightning Legend
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CELL MOVEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Cell Movement data (Figure 6-20) shows the location and movement of storm cells as identified by the
ground-based system. Cells are represented by yellow squares, with direction of movement indicated with short, orange arrows.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Storm Cells
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-20 Cell Movement Data
On most applicable maps, Cell Movement data is selected for display along with NEXRAD. On the Weather
Data Link (XM) Page, Cell Movement data can be selected independently. Cell Movement data can be
displayed on the following maps:
• Nearest Pages
•Navigation Map
• AUX - Video Page
AFCS
• PFD Inset Map
• AUX - Trip Planning Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Displaying Cell Movement information:
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey (CEL MOV Softkey on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page). For Cell Movement to
be displayed on maps other than the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, Cell Movement must be turned on in the
Navigation Map Setup Menu (see “Setting Up XM Satellite Weather”).
To display the Cell Movement legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, (Figure 6-21), press the
LEGEND Softkey when Cell Movement is selected for display.
INDEX
Figure 6-21 Cell Movement Legend
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SIGMETs (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMETs (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are broadcast for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather. A localized SIGMET is a significant weather condition occurring at a localized geographical position.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-22 SIGMET/AIRMET Data
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
AFCS
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the RANGE Knob and move the Map Pointer over the
icon.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the ENT key. Figure 6-23 shows sample SIGMET text.
INDEX
APPENDICES
To display the SIGMET and AIRMET legend (Figure 6-24), press the LEGEND Softkey when SIGMETs and
AIRMETs are selected for display.
Figure 6-23 Sample SIGMET Text
300
Figure 6-24 SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure as reported for METARs is given in hectopascals (hPa), except for in the United
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
States, where it is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are reported in Celsius.
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service area.
EIS
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or
observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical
data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the report. METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Instructions for
Viewing METAR
and TAF Text
Selected Airport
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 6-25 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
APPENDICES
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR data is displayed first in
a decoded fashion, then as raw text. TAF information is displayed only in its raw form when it is available
Displaying METAR and TAF text:
1) On the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, press the METAR Softkey.
2) Press the RANGE Knob and pan to the desired airport.
INDEX
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
Or:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Press the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that the METAR text must
be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
METAR Text for the
Selected Airport
METAR Symbol
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TAF Text for the
Selected Airport
Figure 6-26 METAR and TAF Text on the Weather Information Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page (Figure 6-27), press the LEGEND
Softkey when METARs are selected for display.
APPENDICES
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. A gray METAR flag is displayed
when the METAR text does not contain adequate information.
INDEX
Figure 6-27 METAR Legend
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CITY FORECAST
NOTE: Surface Analysis and City Forecast data are displayed only within the installed navigation database
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
service area.
Surface Analysis and City Forecast information is available for current and forecast weather conditions. Forecasts are available for intervals of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-28 Current Surface Analysis Data
Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast information:
AFCS
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the SFC Softkey.
4) Select the desired forecast time: CURRENT, 12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, or 48 HR. The SFC Softkey label changes
to reflect the forecast time selected.
APPENDICES
To display the Surface Analysis and City Forecast legend (Figure 6-29), press the LEGEND Softkey when
Surface Analysis and City Forecast are selected to be displayed.
INDEX
Figure 6-29 Surface Analysis Legend
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FREEZING LEVELS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Freezing Level data shows the color-coded contour lines for the altitude and location at which the first
isotherm is found (Figure 6-30). When no data is displayed for a given altitude, the data for that altitude has
not been received, or is out of date and has been removed from the display. New data appears at the next
update.
Figure 6-30 Freezing Level Data
Displaying Freezing Level information:
AFCS
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the FRZ LVL Softkey.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To display the Freezing Level legend (Figure 6-31), press the LEGEND Softkey when Freezing Level data
is selected to be displayed.
INDEX
Figure 6-31 Freezing Level Legend
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
WINDS ALOFT
Winds Aloft data (Figure 6-32) shows the forecasted wind speed and direction at the surface and at selected
altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3,000-foot increments from the surface up to 42,000 feet MSL.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Displaying Winds Aloft data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the WIND Softkey.
EIS
4) Select the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Press the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The WIND Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 6-32 Winds Aloft Data at 9,000 Feet
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To display the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-33), press the LEGEND Softkey when Winds Aloft is
selected for display.
APPENDICES
Figure 6-33 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Profile View on the Navigation Map Page (Figure 6-34). The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track, but not to aircraft
speed.
Winds Aloft Data Age
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Altitude Scale
Wind Component
Velocity and Direction
Arrow
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-34 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data on
Profile View
AFCS
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in Table 6-3.
Headwind
Symbol
Tailwind
Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind
Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5 knots
10 knots
APPENDICES
50 knots
INDEX
Table 6-3 Profile View Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Showing/Hiding Profile View (containing winds aloft data)
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the PROFILE Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current
state) and press the ENT Key.
EIS
Winds Aloft data inside the Profile View is enabled by default when the Profile View is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
Showing/Hiding Profile View (containing winds aloft data)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the PROFILE Softkey.
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current
state) and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Winds Aloft data inside the Profile View is enabled by default when the Profile View is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display in Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
AFCS
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-35).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Profile Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-36).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Profile Winds’ (Figure 6-37).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Figure 6-35 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-37 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-36 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
COUNTY WARNINGS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
County data (Figure 6-38) provides specific public awareness and protection weather warnings from the
National Weather Service (NWS). This can include information on tornadoes, severe thunderstorms, and
flood conditions.
Additional
Information on
Flood Warning
Selected with
Map Pointer
EIS
Flash Flood
Warning
Selected
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-38 County Flood Warning
Displaying County Warning information:
AFCS
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the COUNTY Softkey.
To display the County Warnings legend (Figure 6-39), press the LEGEND Softkey when County Warnings
are selected to be displayed.
APPENDICES
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INDEX
Figure 6-39 County Warnings Legend
309
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
CYCLONE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Cyclone weather product shows the current location of cyclones (hurricanes), tropical storms, and
their projected tracks.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Cyclone
Figure 6-40 Cyclone Data Selected for Display
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Displaying cyclone (hurricane) track information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the CYCLONE Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
To display the Cyclone legend (Figure 6-41), press the LEGEND Softkey when Cyclones are selected to be
displayed.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-41 Cyclone Legend
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ICING (CIP & SLD)
NOTE: Icing data cannot be displayed at the same time as NEXRAD data.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Current Icing Product (CIP) data (Figure 6-42) shows a graphical view of the current icing environment. Icing severity is displayed in four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extreme (not specific to aircraft
type). The CIP product is not a forecast, but a presentation of the current conditions at the time of the
analysis.
EIS
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing conditions are characterized by the presence of relatively large,
super cooled water droplets indicative of freezing drizzle and freezing rain aloft. SLD threat areas are depicted
as magenta dots over the CIP colors.
Displaying Icing data:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the ICNG Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Select the desired altitude level: 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet. Press the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle through
the altitude softkeys. The ICNG Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Icing
Potential
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
SLD Threat
Area
Figure 6-42 Icing Data at 6,000 Feet
APPENDICES
To display the Icing Potential legend (Figure 6-43), press the LEGEND Softkey when Icing is selected for
display.
INDEX
Figure 6-43 Icing Potential Legend
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TURBULENCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Turbulence data (Figure 6-44) identifies the potential for erratic movement of high-altitude air mass
associated winds. Turbulence is classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme, at altitudes between 21,000
and 45,000 feet. Turbulence data is intended to supplement AIRMETs and SIGMETs.
NOTE: Tubulence data cannot be displayed at the same time as NEXRAD data.
Displaying Turbulence data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
EIS
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the TURB Softkey.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Select the desired altitude level: 21,000 feet up to 45,000 feet. Press the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The TURB Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-44 Turbulence Data at 21,000 Feet
APPENDICES
To display the Turbulence legend (Figure 6-45), press the LEGEND Softkey when Turbulence is selected for
display.
INDEX
Figure 6-45 Turbulence Legend
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OVERVIEW
PIREPS AND AIREPS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) (Figure 6-46) provide timely weather information for a particular route of
flight. When significant weather conditions are reported or forecast, Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities are
required to solicit PIREPs. A PIREP may contain unforecast adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight
visibility, icing conditions, wind shear, and turbulence. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent
(UUA).
Another type of PIREP is an Air Report (AIREP). AIREPs are used almost exclusively by commerical
airlines.
EIS
Instructions for
Viewing PIREP
and AIREP Text
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
PIREP
Selected
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AIREP
Urgent
PIREP
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-46 AIREPs and PIREPs on the Weather Data Link Page
AFCS
Displaying PIREP and AIREP text:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the AIREPS or PIREPS Softkey.
4) Press the RANGE Knob and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather
report when it is selected.
APPENDICES
5) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with PIREP or AIREP text. The data is first displayed
in a decoded fashion, then as raw text.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP or AIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
EIS
Decoded PIREP Text
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Original PIREP Text
Figure 6-47 PIREP Text on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
AFCS
To display the PIREP or AIREP legend (Figure 6-48), press the LEGEND Softkey when PIREPs or AIREPs are
selected for display.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-48 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6.2 AIRBORNE COLOR WEATHER RADAR
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Garmin GWX 68 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a four-color digital pulsed radar with 6.5 kilowatts
of output power. It combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with a high-definition target
display. The pulse width is four microseconds (µs) on all ranges except the 2.5 nm range. The GWX 68 uses a
one µs pulse width at this range to reduce the targets smearing together on the display for better target definition
at close range.
EIS
The Vulcanair P68 uses a 12-inch phased array antenna that is fully stabilized to accommodate 30º of pitch
and roll.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
To focus radar scanning on specific areas, Sector Scanning offers pilot-adjustable horizontal scan angles of
20º, 40º, 60º, or 90º. A vertical scanning function helps to analyze storm tops, gradients, and cell buildup
activity at various altitudes.
Radar features include:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Extended Sensitivity Time Constant (STC) logic that automatically correlates distance of the return echo with
intensity, so cells do not suddenly appear to get larger as they get closer.
• WATCH® (Weather ATtenuated Color Highlight) helps identify possible shadowing effects of short-range cell
activity, identifying areas where radar return signals are weakened or attenuated by intense precipitation (or
large areas of lesser precipitation) and may not fully reflect the weather behind a storm.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Weather Alert that looks ahead for intense cell activity in the 80-320 nm range, even if these ranges are not
being monitored.
PRINCIPLES OF PULSED AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
AFCS
The term RADAR is an acronym for RAdio Detecting And Ranging. Pulsed radar locates targets by transmitting
a microwave pulse beam that, upon encountering a target, is reflected back to the radar receiver as a return
echo. The microwave pulses are focused and radiated by the antenna, with the most intense energy in the
center of the beam and decreasing intensity near the edge. The same antenna is used for both transmitting and
receiving. The returned signal is then processed and displayed on the G950 MFD.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Radar detection is a two-way process that requires 12.36 µs for the transmitted microwave pulses to travel out
and back for each nautical mile of target range. It takes 123.6 µs for a transmitted pulse to make the round trip
if a target is ten nautical miles away.
APPENDICES
Airborne weather radar should be used to avoid severe weather, not for penetrating severe weather. The
decision to fly into an area of radar targets depends on target intensity, spacing between the targets, aircraft
capabilities, and pilot experience. Pulse type weather radar detects only precipitation, not clouds or turbulence. The display may indicate clear areas between intense returns, but this does not necessarily mean it is safe to fly
between them. Only Doppler radar can detect turbulence.
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INDEX
Airborne weather radar has other capabilities beyond weather detection. It also has the ability to detect and
provide distance to cities, mountains, coastlines, rivers, lakes, and oceans.
315
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
NEXRAD AND AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Both Airborne Weather Radar and NEXRAD measure weather reflectivity in decibels (dB). A decibel is a
logarithmic expression of the ratio of two quantities. Airborne Weather Radar measures the ratio of power
against the gain of the antenna, while NEXRAD measures the energy reflected back to the radar, or the radar
reflectivity ratio.
Both systems use colors to identify the different echo intensities, but the colors are not interchangeable. Airborne color radar values used by Garmin Airborne Color Weather Radar should not be confused with
NEXRAD radar values.
EIS
ANTENNA BEAM ILLUMINATION
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The radar beam is much like the beam of a spotlight. The further the beam travels, the wider it becomes. The radar is only capable of seeing what is inside the boundaries of the beam. The figure below depicts a radar
beam’s characteristics. The figure illustrates vertical dimensions of the radar beam, although the same holds
true for the horizontal dimensions. In other words, the beam is as wide as it is tall. Note that it is possible to
miss areas of precipitation on the radar display because of the antenna tilt setting. With the antenna tilt set
to zero in this illustration, the beam overshoots the precipitation at 15 nautical miles.
Altitude (x1000 ft.)
80
Antenna at Zero Tilt
18,000 ft.
8°
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
0
0
15
Half Power at
s
Beam Sidelobe
Max Power at Beam Center
18,000 ft.
30
45
60
75
90
Range (nautical miles)
AFCS
Figure 6-49 Radar Beam from a 12 Inch Antenna
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The curvature of the earth can also be a factor in missing areas of precipitation, especially at range settings
of 150 nautical miles or more. Here the beam overshoots the precipitation at less than 320 nautical miles.
INDEX
320 nm
Figure 6-50 Radar Beam in Relation to the Curvature of the Earth
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
RADAR SIGNAL ATTENUATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The phenomenon of radar signal attenuation affects the operation of weather radar. When the radar signal
is transmitted, it is progressively absorbed and scattered, making the signal weaker. This weakening, or
attenuation, is caused by two primary sources, distance and precipitation.
Attenuation because of distance is due to the fact that the radar energy leaving the antenna is inversely
proportional to the square of the distance. The reflected radar energy from a target 40 miles away that fills
the radar beam is one fourth the energy reflected from an equivalent target 20 miles away. This would appear
to the operator that the storm is gaining intensity as the aircraft gets closer. Internal signal processing within
the GWX 68 system compensates for much of this distance attenuation.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Attenuation due to precipitation is not as predictable as distance attenuation. It is also more intense. As the
radar signal passes through moisture, a portion of the radar energy is reflected back to the antenna. However,
much of the energy is absorbed. If precipitation is very heavy, or covers a large area, the signal may not
reach completely through the area of precipitation. The weather radar system cannot distinguish between an
attenuated signal and an area of no precipitation. If the signal has been fully attenuated, the radar displays
a radar shadow. This appears as an end to the precipitation when, in fact, the heavy rain may extend much
further. A cell containing heavy precipitation may block another cell located behind the first, preventing it
from being displayed on the radar. Never fly into these shadowed areas and never assume that all of the heavy
precipitation is being displayed unless another cell or a ground target can be seen beyond the heavy cell. The
WATCH® feature of the GWX 68 Weather Radar system can help in identifying these shadowed areas. Areas
in question appear as shadowed or gray on the radar display. Proper use of the antenna tilt control can also
help detect radar shadows.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Attenuation can also be due to poor maintenance or degradation of the radome. Even the smallest amount of
wear and scratching, pitting, and pinholes on the radome surface can cause damage and system inefficiency.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
RADAR SIGNAL REFLECTIVITY
Precipitation
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Precipitation or objects more dense than water, such as the surface of the earth or solid structures, are
detected by the weather radar. The weather radar does not detect clouds, thunderstorms, or turbulence
directly. It detects precipitation associated with clouds, thunderstorms, and turbulence. The best radar
signal reflectors are raindrops, wet snow, or wet hail. The larger the raindrop, the better the reflectivity. The
size of the precipitation droplet is the most important factor in radar reflectivity. Because large drops in a
small concentrated area are characteristic of a severe thunderstorm, the radar displays the storm as a strong
return. Ice crystals, dry snow, and dry hail have low levels of reflectivity as shown in the illustration, and
are often not displayed by the radar. Additionally, a cloud that contains only small raindrops, such as fog
or drizzle, does not reflect enough radar energy to produce a measurable target return.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-51 Precipitation Type and Reflectivity
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OVERVIEW
Ground Returns
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The intensity of ground target returns depends upon the angle at which the radar beam strikes the
ground target (Angle of Incidence) and the reflective properties of that target. The gain can be adjusted so
shorelines, rivers, lakes, and cities are well-defined. Increasing the gain too much causes the display to fill
in between targets, thus obscuring some landmarks.
Cities normally provide a strong return signal. While large buildings and structures provide good returns,
small buildings can be shadowed from the radar beam by the taller buildings. As the aircraft approaches
and shorter ranges are selected, details become more noticeable as the highly reflective regular lines and
edges of the city become more defined.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, and oceans are not good reflectors and normally do not provide good
returns. The energy is reflected in a forward scatter angle with inadequate energy being returned. They
can appear as dark areas on the display. However, rough or choppy water is a better reflector and provides
stronger returns from the downwind sides of the waves.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Mountains also provide strong return signals to the antenna, but also block the areas behind. However,
over mountainous terrain, the radar beam can be reflected back and forth in the mountain passes or off
canyon walls, using up all or most of the radar energy. In this case, no return signal is received from this
area, causing the display to show a dark spot which could indicate a pass where no pass exists.
Angle of Incidence
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The angle at which the radar beam strikes the target is called the Angle of Incidence. The figure illustrates
the incident angle (‘A’). This directly affects the detectable range, the area of illumination, and the intensity
of the displayed target returns. A large incident angle gives the radar system a smaller detectable range and
lower display intensity due to minimized reflection of the radar energy.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 6-52 Angle of Incidence
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INDEX
A smaller incident angle gives the radar a larger detectable range of operation and the target display shows
a higher intensity. Since more radar energy is reflected back to the antenna with a low incident angle, the
resulting detectable range is increased for mountainous terrain.
319
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SAFE OPERATING DISTANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The following information establishes a minimum safe distance from the antenna for personnel near
operating weather radar. The minimum safe distance is based on the FCC’s exposure limit at 9.3 to 9.5 GHz for
general population/uncontrolled environments, which is 1 mW/cm2. See Advisory Circular 20-68B for more
information on safe distance determination.
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVEL (MPEL)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The zone in which the radiation level exceeds the US Government standard of 1 mW/cm2 is the semicircular
area of at least 11 feet from the 12-inch antenna. All personnel must remain outside of this zone. With a
scanning or rotating beam, the averaged power density at the MPEL boundary is significantly reduced.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
MPEL
Boundary
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
11’ for 12”
antenna
AFCS
Figure 6-53 MPEL Boundary
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
BASIC ANTENNA TILT SETUP
APPENDICES
The following discussion is a simple method for setting up the weather radar antenna tilt for most situations. It is not to be considered an all encompassing setup that works in all situations, but this method does provide
good overall parameters for the monitoring of threats. Ultimately, it is desired to have the antenna tilted so that
the bottom of the radar beam is four degrees below parallel with the ground. The following example explains
one way of achieving this.
INDEX
With the aircraft flying level, adjust the antenna tilt so ground returns are displayed at a distance that equals
the aircraft’s current altitude (AGL) divided by 1,000. For example, if the aircraft is at 14,000 feet, adjust the
tilt so the front edge of ground returns are displayed at 14 nautical miles. Note this antenna tilt angle setting. Now, raise the antenna tilt 6 degrees above this setting. The bottom of the radar beam is now angled down 4º
from parallel with the ground.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PRACTICAL APPLICATION USING THE BASIC TILT SETUP
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
With the antenna tilt set as previously described, any displayed target return should be scrutinized when
flying at altitudes between 2,000 and 30,000 feet AGL. If the displayed target advances on the screen to
within 5 nautical miles of the aircraft, avoid it. This may be either weather or ground returns that are 2,000
feet or less below the aircraft. Raising the antenna tilt 4 degrees can help separate ground returns from
weather returns in relatively flat terrain. This places the bottom of the radar beam parallel with the ground. Return the antenna tilt to the previous setting after a few sweeps.
If the aircraft is above 29,000 feet, be cautious of any target return that gets to within 30 nautical miles. This is likely a thunderstorm that has a top high enough that the aircraft cannot fly over it safely.
EIS
If the aircraft altitude is 15,000 feet or lower, setting the displayed range to 60 miles may be more helpful. Closely monitor anything that enters the display.
+4°
+3°
+2°
+1°
0°
-1°
-2°
-3°
-4°
3000
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
10 nm
4000
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3000
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Change in Antenna Tilt
Vertical Change of Radar Beam (feet)
4000
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Also, after setting up the antenna tilt angle as described previously, ground returns can be monitored for
possible threats. The relationship between antenna tilt angle, altitude, and distance is one degree of tilt equals
100 feet of altitude for every one nautical mile.
Figure 6-54 Vertical Change in Radar Beam per Nautical Mile
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Therefore, with the antenna tilt set so that the bottom of the beam is four degrees below parallel with
the ground, a target return at 10 nm is approximately 4,000 feet below the aircraft; at 20 nm, 8,000 feet;
at 50 nm, 20,000 feet. In other words, at this tilt setting, a ground return (such as a mountain peak) being
displayed at 10 nm would have a maximum distance below the aircraft of 4,000 feet. If that ground target
return moves to 5 nm, maximum distance below the aircraft is 2,000 feet.
This setup provides a good starting point for practical use of the GWX 68. There are many other factors to
consider in order to become proficient at using weather radar in all situations.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
WEATHER MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
WEATHER DISPLAY INTERPRETATION
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When evaluating various target returns on the weather radar display, the colors denote precipitation intensity
and rates shown in the table.
Weather Mode Color
Intensity
Black
Green
Yellow
Red
Magenta
< 23 dBZ
23 dBZ to < 32 dBZ
32 dBZ to < 41 dBZ
41 dBZ to < 50 dBZ
50 dBZ and greater
Approximate
Precipitation Rate
(in/hr.)
< .01.
.01 - 0.1.
0.1 - 0.5
0.5 - 2
>2
Table 6-4 Precipitation Intensity Levels
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Thunderstorms
Updrafts and downdrafts in thunderstorms carry water through the cloud. The more severe the drafts, the
greater the number and size of the precipitation droplets. With this in mind, the following interpretations
can be made from what is displayed on the weather radar. Avoid these areas by an extra wide margin.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• In areas where the displayed target intensity is red or magenta (indicating large amounts of precipitation),
the turbulence is considered severe.
• Areas that show steep color gradients (intense color changes) over thin bands or short distances suggest
irregular rainfall rate and strong turbulence.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
• Areas that show red or magenta are associated with hail or turbulence, as well as heavy precipitation. Vertical
scanning and antenna tilt management may be necessary to identify areas of maximum intensity.
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Along squall lines (multiple cells or clusters of cells in a line) individual cells may be in different stages
of development. Areas between closely spaced, intense targets may contain developing clouds not having
enough moisture to produce a return. However, these areas could have strong updrafts or downdrafts.
Targets showing wide areas of green are generally precipitation without severe turbulence. FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Irregularities in the target return may also indicate turbulence, appearing as hooks, fingers, or scalloped
edges. These irregularities may be present in green areas with no yellow, red, or magenta areas and should
be treated as highly dangerous areas. Avoid these areas as if they are red or magenta.
Squall Line
EIS
Hook or Finger
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Steep Gradient
Scalloped Edge
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-55 Cell Irregularities
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Thunderstorm development is rapid. A course may become blocked within a short time. When displaying
shorter ranges, periodically select a longer range to see if problems are developing further out. That can
help prevent getting trapped in a blind alley or an area that is closed at one end by convective weather.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-56 The Blind Alley - Horizontal Scan
APPENDICES
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EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In areas of multiple heavy cells, use the Vertical Scan feature along with antenna tilt management to
examine the areas. Remember to avoid shadowed areas behind targets.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Blind Alley at Close Range
The Large Storm Behind
Figure 6-57 The Blind Alley
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Tornadoes
There are no conclusive radar target return characteristics which identify a tornado. However, tornadoes
may be present if the following characteristics are observed:
• A narrow, finger-like portion extends and in a short time curls into a hook and closes on itself.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• A hook, which may be in the general shape of the numeral 6 (numeral 9 i the southern hemispehere),
especially if bright and projecting from the southwest quadrant (northeast quadrant in the southern
hemisphere) of a major thunderstorm.
• V-shaped notches.
• Doughnut shapes.
AFCS
These shapes do not always indicate tornadoes, and tornado returns are not limited to these characteristics.
Confirmed radar observations of tornadoes most often have not shown shapes different from those of a
normal thunderstorm display.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Hail
APPENDICES
Hail results from updrafts carrying water high enough to freeze. Therefore, the higher the top of a
thunderstorm, the greater the probability that it contains hail. Vertically scanning the target return can
give the radar top of a thunderstorm that contains hail. Radar top is the top of a storm cell as detected by
radar. It is not the actual top, or true top of the storm. The actual top of a storm cell is seen with the eyes
in clear air and may be much higher than the radar top. The actual top does not indicate the top of the
hazardous area.
INDEX
Hail can fall below the minimum reflectivity threshold for radar detection. It can have a film of water on
its surface, making its reflective characteristics similar to a very large water droplet. Because of this film of
water, and because hail stones usually are larger than water droplets, thunderstorms with large amounts
of wet hail return stronger signals than those with rain. Some hail shafts are extremely narrow (100 yards
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or less) and make poor radar targets. In the upper regions of a cell where ice particles are dry (no liquid
coating), target returns are less intense.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Hail shafts are associated with the same radar target return characteristics as tornados. U-shaped cloud
edges three to seven miles across can also indicate hail. These target returns appear quite suddenly along
any edge of the cell outline. They also change in intensity and shape in a matter of seconds, making vigilant
monitoring essential.
OPERATION IN WEATHER MODE
EIS
WARNING: Begin transmitting only when it is safe to do so. When transmitting while the aircraft is on the
ground, no personnel or objects should be within 9.16 feet of the antenna.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
CAUTION: In Standby mode, the antenna is parked at the center line. It is always a good idea to put the
radar in Standby mode before taxiing the aircraft to prevent the antenna from bouncing on the bottom stop
and possibly causing damage to the radar assembly.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When the weather radar system is in the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically switches
to Standby mode on landing.
In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system automatically switches to Standby mode. The system
remains in Standby mode until both displays are restored. In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system
cannot be controlled.
Scan Line
Antenna Stabilization Status
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Radar Mode
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 6-58 Horizontal Scan Display
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Displaying weather on the Weather Radar Page:
1) Select the Weather Radar Page in the Map Page Group with the FMS Knob.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MODE Softkey.
3) While on the ground, press the STANDBY Softkey. A one-minute warm-up period is initiated (countdown is
displayed on the screen). After the warm-up is complete, the radar enters the Standby Mode.
Press the WEATHER Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
a)
Figure 6-59 Confirming Activating Radar
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight YES and press the ENT Key to continue radar activation.
b)
4) Turn the RANGE Knob to select the desired map range.
Or:
If the aircraft is airborne, press the WEATHER Softkey. A one-minute warm-up period is initiated (countdown
is displayed on the screen). After the warm-up is complete, the radar begins transmitting.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
5) The horizontal scan is initially displayed (Figure 6-60). If desired, press the VERTICAL Softkey to change to
vertical scanning.
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Vertically scanning a storm cell:
NOTE: Vertical scanning of a storm cell should be done with the aircraft wings level to avoid constant
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
adjustment of the Bearing Line.
1) While in the Horizontal Scan view, press the BRG Softkey. This places the cursor in the BEARING field and
displays the Bearing Line.
If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Bearing
Line. Press the ENT Key.
EIS
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line on the desired storm cell or other area to be vertically
scanned.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Scan Line
Bearing Line
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 6-60 Bearing Line on Horizontal Scan
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the VERTICAL Softkey. A vertical slice of the selected area is displayed (Figure 6-61).
5) The small FMS Knob may be used to move the scanned slice a few degrees right or left.
6) Turn the RANGE Knob to adjust the range.
APPENDICES
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
8) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, press the HORIZON Softkey to return to the Horizontal Scan view
and repeat the previous steps.
The RANGE Knob can also be used to adjust bearing from left to right.
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-61 Vertical Scan Display
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
In order to make an accurate interpretation of a storm cell, the radar beam should be pointed at the wet
part of the weather cell to record the proper rainfall intensity (color level). The ideal aiming point is just
below the freezing level of the storm. The best way to find this point is to use the Vertical Scan feature. The
antenna tilt angle can be centered on the strongest return area in the vertical scan to get a more accurate
view of the coverage and intensity of the target in the horizontal scan.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Horizontal Scan display:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the TILT field.
AFCS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired antenna tilt angle.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The RANGE Knob can also be used to adjust tilt up and down.
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Adjusting antenna tilt on the Vertical Scan display:
1) Press the TILT Softkey to activate the cursor in the TILT field and display the Tilt Line.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If the Tilt Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Tilt Line. Press
the ENT Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the antenna tilt angle. The selected tilt angle is implemented when Horizontal
Scan is again selected.
The RANGE Knob can also be used to adjust tilt.
Tilt Line
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Scan Line
Figure 6-62 Adjusting Tilt on Vertical Scan Display
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
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Adjusting Gain:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity. Remember to return the gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the
actual intensity of precipitation.
1) Press the GAIN Softkey to activate the cursor in the GAIN field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the gain for the desirable level. The gain setting is visible in the GAIN field
as a movable horizontal bar in a flashing box. The line pointer is a reference depicting the calibrated position.
EIS
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the GAIN Softkey again to recalibrate the gain. CALIBRATED is displayed in the GAIN field.
Manual Gain Set Below Calibrated
Calibrated Gain
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-63 Gain Calibration
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Sector Scan:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) While in horizontal scan mode, press the BRG Softkey to display the Bearing Line and place the cursor in the
BEARING field. If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select
Show Bearing Line.
2) Press the ENT Key.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-64 Selecting Sector Scan Position
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line in the desired position. The location of the Bearing Line
becomes the center point of the Sector Scan.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the SECTOR SCAN field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select FULL, 60˚, 40˚, or 20˚ scan.
AFCS
6) If desired, readjust the Bearing Line as discussed previously to change the center of the Sector Scan.
7) Press the BRG Softkey again to remove the Bearing Line and cursor. The bearing reference resets to 0º.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-65 40˚ Sector Scan
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Antenna Stabilization
1) To activate or deactivate the antenna stabilization, press the MODE Softkey.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the STAB ON Softkey to activate antenna stabilization or press the STAB OFF Softkey to deactivate. The
current stabilization condition is shown in the upper right of the weather radar display.
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WATCH® (Weather Attenuated Color Highlight)
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Displayed intensity is questionable.
Potentially stronger than displayed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WATCH® identifies deceptively strong or unknown intensity parts of a storm. While in horizontal
scan mode, this feature can be used as a tool to determine areas of possible inaccuracies in displayed
intensity due to weakening of the radar energy. This weakening is known as attenuation. The radar energy
weakens as it passes through areas of intense precipitation, large areas of lesser precipitation, and distance. Issues with the radome also attenuates the radar energy. All these factors have an effect on the return
intensity. The more energy that dissipates, the lesser the displayed intensity of the return. Accuracy of the
displayed intensity of returns located in the shaded areas are suspect. Make maneuvering decisions with
this information in mind. Proper antenna tilt management should still be employed to determine the extent
of attenuation in a shaded area.
To activate or deactivate the WATCH® feature, press the WATCH Softkey.
Areas of
Attenuated Signal
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Horizontal Scan Without WATCH®
Horizontal Scan With WATCH®
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-66 Horizontal Scan Without and With WATCH®
APPENDICES
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Weather Alert
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Weather Alert feature indicates the presence of heavy precipitation between the ranges of 80 and 320
nm regardless of the currently displayed range. Weather Alert targets appear as red bands along the outer
range ring at the approximate azimuth of the detected returns.
If a Weather Alert is detected within ±10° of the aircraft heading, an alert is displayed on the PFD in the
Messages Window.
If the antenna tilt is adjusted too low, a weather alert can be generated by ground returns. To avoid
unwanted weather alerts, deselect the WX ALRT Softkey..
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Weather Alerts
Figure 6-67 Weather Alert Indications
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
To activate or deactivate Weather Alerts, press the WX ALRT Softkey. Activating and deactivating enables
or inhibits the alert on the PFD.
INDEX
Figure 6-68 Weather Alert on PFD
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GROUND MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A secondary use of the weather radar system is for the presentation of terrain. This can be a useful tool for
verifying aircraft position. A picture of the ground is represented much like a topographical map that can be
used as a supplement to the navigation map on the MFD.
Ground Map mode uses a different gain range than Weather mode. Different colors are also used to represent
the intensity levels. The displayed intensity of ground target returns are defined in the table below. Use of the
GAIN and TILT controls help improve contrast so that specific ground targets can be recognized more easily.
As previously discussed, the type and orientation of the target in relation to the aircraft affects the intensity
displayed.
EIS
When the weather radar system is in either the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby mode upon landing.
Black
Light blue
Magenta
Blue
Intensity
0 dB
> 0 dB to < 9 dB
9 dB to < 18 dB
18 dB to < 27 dB
27 dB and greater
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Yellow
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Ground Map
Mode Color
Table 6-5 Ground Target Return Intensity Levels
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Operation in Ground Map Mode
1) Press the MODE Softkey.
2) Press the GROUND Softkey to place the radar in Ground Map mode.
3) Press the BACK Softkey.
AFCS
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the TILT field.
6) Adjust the antenna tilt angle by turning the small FMS Knob to display ground returns at the desired distance.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM STATUS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The radar mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Weather Radar Page. Additional information
may be displayed in the center of the Weather Radar Page as a banner annunciation.
Radar Mode
Radar Mode Annunciation Box
Center Banner Annunciation
Standby
STANDBY
STANDBY
Standby (During Warm-Up)
STANDBY
WARM-UP
XX
(XX indicates number of seconds
remaining in warm-up)
Weather
WEATHER
None
Ground Mapping
Off
Radar Failed*
GROUND MAPPING
OFF
FAIL
None
OFF
RADAR FAIL
* See Table 6-8 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-6 Radar Modes on the Weather Radar Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The system displays the status of the radar antenna stabilization feature in the upper right corner of the
Weather Radar Page.
AFCS
Radar Antenna
Description
Stabilization Status
STAB ON
Antenna stabilization is selected on.
STAB OFF
Antenna stabilization is selected off.
The radar is not receiving pitch and roll information.
STAB INOP
The antenna stabilization feature is inoperative.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 6-7 Antenna Stabilization Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
If the unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown as a banner in the center of the Weather
Radar Page.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Weather Radar
Page Center Banner
Description
Annunciation
BAD CONFIG
The radar configuration is invalid. The radar should be serviced.
RDR FAULT
The radar unit is reporting a fault. The radar should be serviced.
The system is not receiving valid data from the radar unit. The system
RADAR FAIL
should be serviced.
Table 6-8 Abnormal Radar Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
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6.3 WX-500 STORMSCOPE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The optional L-3 STORMSCOPE® WX-500 lightning detection system is not intended for hazardous
thunderstorm penetration. Weather information on the MFD is approved for weather avoidance only. Refer
to the WX-500 User’s Guide for a detailed description of Stormscope operation.
NOTE: Stormscope lightning cannot be displayed at the same time as GDL 69/69A XM WX Satellite Weather
Lightning data.
EIS
The following pages can display Stormscope data:
• AUX - Trip Planning Page
• Nearest Pages
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Stormscope Page
• Navigation Map
To display Stormscope data on the Navigation Map, AUX - Trip Planning Page, or any of the Nearest Pages,
press the MAP Softkey, then press the STRMSCP Softkey. These pages can also display cell or strike data using the
yellow lightning strike symbology shown in Table 6-9.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Table 6-9 Lightning Age and Symbols
AFCS
SETTING UP STORMSCOPE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
Setting up Stormscope options on the Navigation Map:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Setup’ selected (Figure 6-69), press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the group selection window. Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Weather’
and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight and move between the product selections.
5) When an item is highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the option (Figure 6-70).
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page (Figure 6-71).
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The following options are available (Figure 6-70):
• STRMSCP LTNG – Turns the display of Stormscope data on or off.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• STRMSCP MODE – Selects the CELL or STRIKE mode of lightning activity. Cell mode identifies clusters
or cells of electrical activity. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
• STRMSCP SMBL – Selects the range at which Stormscope data displays. Stormscope data is removed
when a map range greater than the STRMSCP SMBL value is selected.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-69 Page Menu
INDEX
Figure 6-70 Map Setup Menu
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OVERVIEW
CELL AND STRIKE MODE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
On the Navigation Map, cell mode identifies cells of lightning activity (Figure 6-71). Stormscope identifies
clusters of electrical activity that indicate cells. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning
strikes.
Selecting the ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Setup’ selected, press the ENT Key.
3) Select the ‘Weather’ group.
EIS
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on ‘STRMSCP LTNG’.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘STRMSCP MODE’.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to change between ‘CELL’ and ‘STRIKE’ options. When an item is selected, press the
ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-71 Navigation Map Page with Stormscope Lightning Data
APPENDICES
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn
(Figure 6-72). This is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the
nose of the aircraft.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Manually clearing Stormscope data on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Select ‘Clear Stormscope® Lightning’ (Figure 6-72).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-72 Navigation Map Page Options Menu
ZOOM RANGE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Stormscope lightning data can be displayed up to 800 nm zoom range (in North up mode) on the Navigation
Map Page. However, in the track up mode at the 500 nm range, a portion of Stormscope lightning data
can be behind the aircraft and therefore not visible on the Navigation Map. Since the range for Stormscope
data is 400 nm diameter total (200 nm in front and 200 nm behind), the 500 nm range in North up mode
shows all the data.
At a map range of less than 30 nm, Stormscope lightning data is not displayed, but can still be present.
The maximum zoom range can also be set on the Navigation Map.
AFCS
Selecting a Stormscope range on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Select ‘MAP SETUP’.
3) Select the ‘Weather’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘STRMSCP SMBL’.
APPENDICES
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the maximum display range.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
INDEX
To change the display range on the Navigation Map Page, turn the RANGE Knob clockwise to zoom out or
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SELECTING THE STORMSCOPE PAGE
Stormscope lightning data can be displayed at the ranges of 25 nm, 50 nm, 100 nm, and 200 nm.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Adjusting the Stormscope Map Range:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Stormscope Page.
3) To change the map range, turn the RANGE Knob clockwise to zoom out or counter-clockwise to zoom in.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-73 Stormscope Page
AFCS
Changing between ‘cell’ and ‘strike’ mode on the Stormscope Page:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the MODE Softkey. The CELL and STRIKE softkeys are displayed.
3) Press the CELL Softkey to display ‘CELL’ data or press the STRIKE Softkey to display ‘STRIKE’ data. ‘CELL’ or
‘STRIKE’ is displayed in the mode box in the upper left corner of the Stormscope Page.
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the main Stormscope page.
APPENDICES
Changing the viewing mode between 360˚ and 120˚ on the Stormscope Page:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the VIEW Softkey. The 360 and ARC softkeys are displayed. Press the 360 Softkey to display a 360˚
viewing area or press the ARC Softkey to display a 120˚ viewing area.
INDEX
3) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the main Stormscope page.
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6.4 TERRAIN PROXIMITY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not use Terrain Proximity information for primary terrain avoidance. Terrain Proximity is
intended only to enhance situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain database coverage
area.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
G950 Terrain Proximity is a terrain awareness system that does not comply with TSO-C151b certification
standards. It increases situational awareness and aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). Do not
confuse Terrain Proximity with the optional Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B (TAWS-B). TAWS-B
is more sophisticated and robust, and it is TSO-C151b certified. Terrain Proximity does not provide warning annunciations or voice alerts. It only provides color indications on map displays when terrain and obstacles are
within a certain altitude threshold from the aircraft. Although the terrain and obstacle color map displays are the
same, TAWS-B uses more sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Terrain Proximity requires the following components to operate properly:
• Valid 3-D GPS position
• Valid terrain/obstacle database
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Terrain Proximity displays altitudes of terrain and obstructions relative to the aircraft position and altitude with
reference to a database that may contain inaccuracies. Terrain and obstructions are shown only if they are in the
database. Terrain and obstacle information should be used as an aid to situational awareness. They should never
be used to navigate or maneuver around terrain.
Note that all obstructions may not be available in the terrain and obstacle database. No terrain and obstacle
information is shown without a valid 3-D GPS position.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The G950 GPS receiver provides the horizontal position and altitude. GPS altitude is derived from satellite
position. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above
mean sea level calculated geometrically. GSL altitude is used to determine terrain and obstacle proximity. GSL
altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that
normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL
altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source.
APPENDICES
Terrain and obstacle databases are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position and altitude, the Terrain Proximity
feature portrays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and altitude of the
aircraft. GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and predict the aircraft’s flight path in relation to
the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this way, the pilot can view predicted dangerous terrain and obstacle
conditions.
DISPLAYING TERRAIN PROXIMITY DATA
INDEX
The symbols and colors in Figure 6-74 and Table 6-10 are used to represent obstacles and aircraft altitude when the Terrain Proximity Page is selected for display. Terrain Proximity uses black, yellow, and red to
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represent terrain information relative to aircraft altitude. The color of each obstacle is associated with the
altitude of the aircraft.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Terrain Above Aircraft Altitude
Red terrain is above
or within 100 ft below
the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude
100 ft Threshold
1000 ft
EIS
Yellow terrain is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Black terrain is more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Figure 6-74 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain Proximity
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Table 6-10 Terrain Proximity Terrain/Obstacle Colors and Symbology
Terrain and obstacle information can be displayed on the following pages:
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Page
AFCS
• PFD Inset Map
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Terrain Proximity Page
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps other than the Terrain Proximity Page):
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey).
2) Press the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
APPENDICES
When Terrain Proximity is selected on maps other than the Terrain Proximity Page, an icon to indicate the
feature is enabled for display and a legend for Terrain Proximity colors are shown (Figure 6-78).
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The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map.
343
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles recognized by
Terrain Proximity as yellow or red are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within
the setting limit.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Maps besides the Terrain Proximity Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the
Navigation Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20
nm, the highest obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
EIS
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-75).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-76).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-77).
• TERRAIN DATA – Turns the display of terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• OBSTACLE DATA – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-75 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-76 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
344
Figure 6-77 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Map Group
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Additional information about obstacles can be displayed by panning over the display on the map. The map
panning feature is enabled by pressing the RANGE Knob. The map range is adjusted by turning the RANGE
Knob. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Additional
Information on
Obstacle Selected
with Map Pointer
Red Terrain Area
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
EIS
Yellow Terrain Area
(Between 100’ and
1000’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Lighted Obstacle
Selected with Map
Pointer
Red Lighted
Obstacles
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Terrain Display
Enabled Icon
Terrain Legend
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-78 Terrain Information on the Navigation Map Page
TERRAIN PROXIMITY PAGE
AFCS
The Terrain Proximity Page is specialized to show terrain and obstacle data in relation to the aircraft’s
current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs) can
be displayed for reference.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are
available relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range is adjustable with the RANGE Knob from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or
arcs).
Displaying the Terrain Proximity Page:
APPENDICES
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain Proximity Page.
3) To change the view,
a) Press the VIEW Softkey.
INDEX
b) Press the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘View Arc’ or ‘View 360º’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key to change the view.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Showing/hiding aviation information on the Terrain Proximity Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
EIS
Map Range Rings
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Yellow Lighted Obstacles
(Between 100’ and
1000’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-79 Terrain Proximity Page
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
AFCS
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Map Range Arc
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Black Terrain
(Terrain More
than 1000’
Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
INDEX
Figure 6-80 Terrain Proximity Page (ARC View)
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6.5 PROFILE VIEW TERRAIN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 offers a Profile View of terrain and obstacles relative to the aircraft’s current flight path and altitude
on the Navigation Map Page of the MFD. Profile View does not provide TAWS-B terrain or obstacle caution or
warning annunciations or voice alerts systems, nor does it display potential impact points inside the Profile View. The colors and symbols in Figure 6-81 and Table 6-11 are used to represent terrain and obstacles.
Terrain Above Aircraft Altitude
100 ft Threshold
EIS
Red terrain is above
or within 100 ft below
the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude
1000 ft
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Yellow terrain is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Black terrain is more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-81 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Profile View Terrain
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Red obstacle is at or above current aircraft
altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 0’ and 250’
below current aircraft altitude
AFCS
Table 6-11 Profile View Obstacle Colors and Symbology
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Accessing Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the PROFILE Softkey to enable or disable Profile View.
APPENDICES
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Enabling/Disabling Profile View Terrain on the Navigation Map (when Profile View is enabled):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the TERRAIN Softkey.
PROFILE VIEW DISPLAY
EIS
When the Profile View is enabled, it is displayed in a window below the Navigation Map. Altitude is shown
along a vertical scale, with an aircraft icon positioned at the current altitude. Distance is represented horizontally
along the bottom of the Profile View, and increases from left (present position) to right.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When the Navigation Map range is adjusted with the RANGE Knob, the horizontal distance of the Profile
View is adjusted proportionately to be 1/2 of the Navigation Map range distance down to 1 nm, at which point
Profile View is no longer available (‘PROFILE NOT AVAILABLE’ is displayed). When Navigation Map range
is adjusted to remove altitude-correlated colored terrain data (as shown in the Terrain Legend) or obstacles
from the Navigation Map, these items are also removed from the Profile View; only an outline of the terrain
will be displayed in black in the Profile View window. Refer to the Terrain Proximity, Terrain-SVS, or TAWS-B
discussions for more information about displaying terrain or obstacles on the Navigation Map Page.
Profile
View Path
Enabled
Navigation Map Range
AFCS
Terrain Legend
Terrain Enabled Icons
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Altitude Scale
Profile View Total
Distance
Distance Scale
APPENDICES
Figure 6-82 Navigation Map Page with Profile View Terrain and Topographic Data
Enabled
INDEX
The Profile View is based on the current aircraft track (or heading if track is unavailable) and shows the highest
known terrain or obstacles within a predetermined width from the present aircraft position to the end of the
profile range. The width of the Profile View is determined by the phase of flight, as annunciated on the HSI,
and is widest during enroute or oceanic phases (Table 6-12). Refer to the Flight Instruments section for more
information on flight phases.
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Approach
0.6 nm
Departure
0.6 nm
Terminal
2.0 nm
Enroute
4.0 nm
Oceanic
4.0 nm
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Total Profile View Width
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Flight Phase
EIS
Table 6-12 Profile View Width Scale
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
PROFILE PATH
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Profile Path displays the horizontal and lateral boundaries of the Profile View. The path is shown as a
white rectangle on the Navigation Map Page and is only available when Profile View is enabled. White range
markers both edges of the Profile Path rectangle match the range markers along the distance scale inside the
Profile View display window whenever the profile range is at least 4 nm (or 7.5 km if configured for metric
units).
The Profile Path rectangle may be configured on or off, and the Navigation Map range at which the Profile
Path is removed from map display can be changed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Customizing the Profile Path display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-83).
AFCS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Profile’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-84).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-85).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• PROFILE PATH – Turns the display of the Profile Path on or off and sets maximum range at which Profile Path
is shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Figure 6-83 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-85 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu,
Profile Group
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-84 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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6.6 TERRAIN-SVS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not use Terrain-SVS information for primary terrain avoidance. Terrain-SVS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the terrain database coverage area.
EIS
NOTE: Terrain-SVS is standard when the Synthetic Vision System (SVS) option is installed. The TAWS-B
option will take precedence over Terrain-SVS.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Terrain-SVS is a terrain awareness system available with the Synthetic Vision System (SVS). SVS functionality
is offered as an optional enhancement. The optional Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B (TAWS-B)
or standard Terrain-SVS is integrated within SVS to provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the presence
of threatening terrain relevant to the projected flight path. For detailed information regarding SVS, refer to the
Synthetic Vision System (SVS) section of the G950 Pilot’s Guide.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Terrain-SVS does not comply with TSO-C151b certification standards. It increases situational awareness and
aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). Do not confuse Terrain-SVS with TAWS-B. TAWS-B is more
sophisticated and robust, and it is TSO-C151b certified. Although the terrain and obstacle color map displays
are the same, TAWS-B uses more sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles.
Terrain-SVS does not provide the following:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Premature Descent Alerting (PDA)
• Excessive Descent Rate (EDR)
• Negative Climb Rate (NCR)
• Descent to 500 Feet Callout (DFC)
AFCS
Terrain-SVS requires the following components to operate properly:
• Valid 3-D GPS position
• Valid terrain/obstacle database
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Terrain-SVS displays altitudes of terrain and obstructions relative to the aircraft position and altitude with
reference to a database that may contain inaccuracies. Terrain and obstructions are shown only if they are in the
database. Terrain and obstacle information should be used as an aid to situational awareness. They should never
be used to navigate or maneuver around terrain.
APPENDICES
Note that all obstructions may not be available in the terrain and obstacle database. No terrain and obstacle
information is shown without a valid 3-D GPS position.
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INDEX
The G950 GPS receiver provides the horizontal position and altitude. GPS altitude is derived from satellite
position. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above
mean sea level calculated geometrically. GSL altitude is used to determine terrain and obstacle proximity. GSL
altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that
normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL
altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source.
351
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Terrain and obstacle databases are referenced to GSL. Using the GPS position and altitude, the Terrain-SVS
feature portrays a 3-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and altitude of the
aircraft. GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and predict the aircraft’s flight path in relation to
the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this way, the pilot can view predicted dangerous terrain and obstacle
conditions.
DISPLAYING TERRAIN-SVS DATA
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Terrain-SVS uses yellow (caution) and red (warning) to depict terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than
200 feet above ground level, AGL) alerts relative to aircraft altitude. Colors are adjusted automatically as the
aircraft altitude changes. The colors and symbols in Figure 6-86 and Tables 6-13 and 6-14 are used to represent
terrain, obstacles, and potential impact points.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-86 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain-SVS
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
AFCS
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Table 6-13 Terrain-SVS Obstacle Colors and Symbology
APPENDICES
Potential Impact
Point Symbol
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
Warning
Caution
INDEX
Table 6-14 Terrain-SVS Potential Impact Point Symbols with Alert Types
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Terrain-SVS information can be displayed on the following maps:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Pages
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Terrain-SVS Page
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps other than the Terrain-SVS Page):
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey).
2) Press the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
EIS
When Terrain-SVS is selected on maps other than the Terrain-SVS Page, a terrain icon is shown to indicate the feature is enabled for display.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling the
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD, while the
range setting also affects the PFD Inset Map.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles for which warnings
and cautions are issued are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting
limit.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Maps besides the Terrain-SVS Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The
maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the Navigation
Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20 nm, the highest
obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
AFCS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-87).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-88).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-89).
• TERRAIN DATA – Turns the display of terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
• OBSTACLE DATA – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
APPENDICES
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
INDEX
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INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Figure 6-87 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-88 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-89 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Map Group
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TERRAIN-SVS PAGE
The Terrain-SVS Page is specialized to show terrain, obstacle, and potential impact point data in relation
to the aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other
NAVAIDs) can be displayed for reference. If an obstacle and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect,
the display automatically zooms in to the closest potential point of impact on the Terrain-SVS Page.
AFCS
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the RANGE Knob from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Displaying the Terrain-SVS Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain-SVS Page.
APPENDICES
Changing the Terrain-SVS Page view:
1) Press the VIEW Softkey.
2) Press the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
Or:
INDEX
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘View Arc’ or ‘View 360º’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key to change the view
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Showing/hiding aviation information on the Terrain-SVS Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
EIS
Map Range Rings
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
Yellow Lighted Obstacles
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below Aircraft Altitude)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Annunciation
Window
Figure 6-90 Terrain-SVS Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
AFCS
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Map Range Arc
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
APPENDICES
Black Terrain
(Terrain More
than 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Annunciation
Window
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INDEX
Figure 6-91 Terrain-SVS Page (ARC View)
355
SYSTEM
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TERRAIN-SVS ALERTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within Terrain-SVS software algorithms. Terrain-SVS alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an alert is
issued, visual annunciations are displayed and aural alerts are simultaneously issued. Table 6-15 shows TerrainSVS alert types with corresponding annunciations and aural messages.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The Terrain-SVS Alert Annunciation is
shown to the upper left of the Altimeter on the PFD and below the Terrain Legend on the MFD. If the TerrainSVS Page is not displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up alert:
EIS
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the Terrain-SVS Page)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Alert Annunciation
Pop-up
Alert
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-92 Terrain-SVS Alert Annunciations
APPENDICES
Terrain Display Enabled
Terrain Legend
Alert Annunciation
INDEX
Figure 6-93 Navigation Map Page
(After Terrain-SVS Pop-up Alert Acknowledgment)
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MFD
Pop-Up Alert (except
Terrain-SVS Page)
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
Aural Message
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning (IOI)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution (IOI)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
EIS
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-15 Terrain-SVS Alerts Summary
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values in Figure 6-94. When an RTC alert is issued, a potential impact point is displayed on the
Terrain-SVS Page.
AFCS
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is below the elevation of a terrain or obstacle cell in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts are
accompanied by a potential impact point displayed on the Terrain-SVS Page. The alert is annunciated when
the projected vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes in Figure 6-94.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Level (FT)
Descending (FT)
800
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Required
Clearance
(FT)
Required Terrain
Clearance (FT)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
0
0
5
10
15
20
Distance From Runway (NM)
25
30
Figure 6-94 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
FLTA alerts are automatically inhibited when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination runway
elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends. When TerrainSVS alerts are inhibted, the annunciation ‘TER INH’ is shown on the PFD and in the MFD terrain annunciation
window.
Figure 6-95 Terrain-SVS Alerting Disabled
(Terrain-SVS Inhibited) Annunciation
AFCS
Inhibiting/enabling Terrain-SVS alerting:
1) Select the Terrain-SVS Page.
2) Press the INHIBIT Softkey to inhibit or enable Terrain-SVS (choice dependent on current state).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Inhibit Terrain-SVS’ or ‘Enable Terrain-SVS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
If Terrain-SVS alerts are inhibited when the Final Approach Fix is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS
approach, a ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation may appear on the PFD next to the Altimeter if the current aircraft
altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed altitude at the Final Approach Fix. See the Flight Instruments
Section for details.
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SYSTEM STATUS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
During power-up, Terrain-SVS conducts a self-test of its aural and visual annunciations. An aural alert is
issued at test completion.
Terrain-SVS continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status, and
GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the aural message “Terrain System Failure” is
generated along with the ‘TER FAIL’ alert annunciation.
System Test in Progress
System Test Pass
None
No GPS position
None
“Terrain System Test OK”
None
None
NO GPS POSITION
“Terrain System Not Available”*
None
“Terrain System Not Available”*
TERRAIN FAIL
“Terrain System Failure”
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
AFCS
None
None
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Excessively degraded GPS signal;
or Out of database coverage area
Terrain System Test Fail; Terrain
or Obstacle database unavailable
or invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid, and
Terrain-SVS operating with PFD
Terrain or Obstacle databases
Aural Message
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Terrain Alerting Inhibited
Terrain-SVS Page Center
Banner Annunciation
TERRAIN TEST
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
PFD/MFD† Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
EIS
Terrain-SVS requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should
the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TER N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the Terrain-SVS Page. The aural message “Terrain
System Not Available” is generated. When sufficient GPS signal is returns and the aircraft is within the
database coverage area, the aural message “Terrain System Available” is generated.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
† Annunciation is shown on Terrain-SVS Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
* “Terrain System Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database coverage area reentered.
Table 6-16 Terrain-SVS System Status Annunciations
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.7 TAWS-B
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The data contained in the TAWS databases comes from government agencies. Garmin accurately
EIS
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain avoidance. TAWS is intended only to enhance
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain database coverage
situational awareness.
processes and cross-validates the data but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
area.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
TAWS-B (Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B) is an optional feature to increase situational awareness
and aid in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). TAWS-B provides visual and aural annunciations when
terrain and obstacles are within the given altitude threshold from the aircraft. The displayed alerts and warnings
are advisory in nature only.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TAWS-B satisfies TSO-C151b Class B requirements for certification.
TAWS-B requires the following to operate properly:
• A valid terrain/obstacle/airport terrain database
• A valid 3-D GPS position solution
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TAWS-B uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. Terrain information is based
on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may be
shown if available in the database. The data undergoes verification by Garmin to confirm accuracy of the content,
per TSO-C151b. However, the displayed information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and data
may be inaccurate.
APPENDICES
The terrain and obstacle databases used by TAWS-B are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position and GSL
altitude, TAWS-B displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and
altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and “predict” the
aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this manner, TAWS-B can provide
advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain conditions.
INDEX
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
TAWS-B uses information provided from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude. GPS
altitude is derived from satellite measurements. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic sea
level (GSL), which is the height above mean sea level (MSL) calculated geometrically. GSL altitude is used to
determine TAWS-B alerts. GSL altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations
in pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local
altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source. Therefore, GSL altitude
provides a highly accurate and reliable MSL altitude source to calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
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OVERVIEW
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
from the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude. This variation results in the aircraft’s GSL altitude differing
from the baro-corrected altitude.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
DISPLAYING TAWS-B DATA
TAWS-B uses yellow (caution) and red (warning) to depict terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than
200 feet above ground level, AGL) alerts relative to aircraft altitude. Colors are adjusted automatically as the
aircraft altitude changes. The colors and symbols in Figure 6-96 and Tables 6-17 and 6-18 are used to represent
terrain, obstacles, and potential impact points.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-96 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for TAWS-B
Obstacle Location
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
AFCS
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Table 6-17 TAWS-B Obstacle Colors and Symbology
Alert Type
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Potential Impact
Point Symbol
Example Annunciation
APPENDICES
Warning
Caution
Table 6-18 TAWS-B Potential Impact Point Symbols with Alert Types
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TAWS-B information can be displayed on the following maps:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Pages
• TAWS-B Page
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps other than the TAWS-B Page):
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey).
EIS
2) Press the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When TAWS-B is selected on maps other than the TAWS-B Page, an icon is shown to indicate that the feature
is enabled for display. A legend for TAWS-B terrain colors will accompany the icon on the Navigation Map Page
(Figure 6-97) and the Flight Plan Pages. The icon is always shown on the TAWS-B Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-97 Terrain Icon and Legend
AFCS
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling the
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD, while the
range setting also affects the PFD Inset Map.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles for which warnings
and cautions are issued are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting
limit.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Maps besides the TAWS-B Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The
maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the Navigation
Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20 nm, the highest
obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
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Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-98).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-99).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-100).
• TERRAIN DATA – Turns the display of terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
EIS
• OBSTACLE DATA – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-98 Navigation Map Page Menu
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-99 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-100 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Map Group
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TAWS-B PAGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The TAWS-B Page is specialized to show terrain, obstacle, and potential impact point data in relation to the
aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs)
can be displayed for reference. If an obstacle and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the display
automatically zooms in to the closest potential point of impact on the TAWS-B Page.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the RANGE Knob from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
EIS
Displaying the TAWS-B Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the TAWS-B Page.
Changing the TAWS-B Page view:
1) Press the VIEW Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘View Arc’ or ‘View 360º’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key to change the view
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Showing/hiding aviation information on the TAWS-B Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
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OVERVIEW
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Map Range Rings
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
EIS
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Yellow Lighted
Obstacles (Between
100’ and 1000’
Below Aircraft
Altitude)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Annunciation
Window
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-101 TAWS-B Page
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
Map Range Arc
AFCS
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Black Terrain
(Terrain More
than 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
APPENDICES
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Annunciation
Window
Figure 6-102 TAWS-B Page (ARC View)
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TAWS-B ALERTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within TAWS-B software algorithms. TAWS-B alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an alert
is issued, visual annunciations are displayed and aural alerts are simultaneously issued. Table 6-19 shows
TAWS-B alert types with corresponding annunciations and aural messages.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The TAWS-B Alert Annunciation is
shown to the upper left of the Altimeter on the PFD and below the Terrain Legend on the MFD. If the TAWS-B
Page is not displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up alert:
EIS
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the TAWS-B Page)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Alert Annunciation
Pop-up
Alert
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-103 TAWS-B Alert Annunciations
APPENDICES
Terrain Display Enabled
Terrain Legend
Alert Annunciation
INDEX
Figure 6-104 Navigation Map Page
(After TAWS-B Pop-up Alert Acknowledgment)
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PFD/MFD**
Alert
Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert
(except TAWS-B Page)
Aural Message
Excessive Descent Rate
Warning (EDR)
*
or
*
or
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
or
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Caution (RTC)
or
Imminent Terrain Impact
Caution (ITI)
or
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Caution (ROC)
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Caution (IOI)
or
AFCS
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
*
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Warning (IOI)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
“Sink Rate”
*
or
APPENDICES
Negative Climb Rate
Caution (NCR)
*
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Warning (ROC)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up’
EIS
Imminent Terrain Impact
Warning (ITI)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
“Pull Up”
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Warning (RTC)
Premature Descent Alert
Caution (PDA)
Altitude Callout “500”
Excessive Descent Rate
Caution (EDR)
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Alert Type
“Don’t Sink”*
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
INDEX
* Alerts with multiple messages are configurable at installation and are installation-dependent. Alerts for the default
configuration when more than one option is available are indicated with asterisks.
** Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-19 TAWS-B Alerts Summary
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide suitable notification when the
aircraft is determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain at an excessive speed. Figure 6-105 shows the
parameters for the alert as defined by TSO-C151b.
6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
EIS
4000
NK
: “SI
ion
Caut
3500
”
RATE
3000
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
Descent Rate (FPM)
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
500
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-105 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values in Figure 6-106. When an RTC alert is issued, a potential impact point is displayed on the
TAWS-B Page.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is below the elevation of a terrain or obstacle cell in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts
are accompanied by a potential impact point displayed on the TAWS-B Page. The alert is annunciated when
the projected vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes in Figure 6-106.
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Level (FT)
Descending (FT)
800
600
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
500
400
300
200
EIS
Required
Clearance
(FT)
Required Terrain
Clearance (FT)
700
100
0
5
10
15
20
25
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
0
30
Distance From Runway (NM)
Figure 6-106 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
FLTA alerts are automatically inhibited when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination runway
elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends.
PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway (Figure 6-107).
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
800
600
500
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
400
300
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
100
APPENDICES
Height Above Destination (Feet)
AFCS
700
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-107 PDA Alerting Threshold
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
PDA and FLTA aural and visual alerts can be manually inhibited. Discretion should be used when
inhibiting TAWS-B and the system should be enabled when appropriate. When TAWS-B is inhibited, the
alert annunciation ‘TAWS INH’ is shown on the PFD and in the TAWS-B annunciation window of the MFD
(Figure 6-108).
Figure 6-108 TAWS Alerting Disabled
(TAWS Inhibited) Annunciation
EIS
Inhibiting/enabling TAWS-B alerting:
1) Select the TAWS-B Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the INHIBIT Softkey to inhibit or enable TAWS (choice dependent on current state).
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
b) Select ‘Inhibit TAWS’ or ‘Enable TAWS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
If TAWS-B alerts are inhibited when the Final Approach Fix is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach,
a ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation may appear on the PFD next to the Altimeter if the current aircraft altitude is at
least 164 feet below the prescribed altitude at the Final Approach Fix. See the Flight Instruments Section for
details.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FIVE-HUNDRED AURAL ALERT
AFCS
The purpose of the aural alert message “Five-hundred” is to provide an advisory alert of when the aircraft
descends to within 500 feet above the terrain or runway threshold. When the aircraft is within 5 nm of an
airport, the “Five Hundred” aural alert is based on the nearest runway threshold elevation. When the aircraft
is more than 5 nm of the nearest airport, the “Five Hundred” aural alert is based on the height above terrain.
There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the aural message.
NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT (NCR)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff. The aural message “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by an annunciation and a pop-up terrain
alert on the display. NCR alerting is only active when departing from an airport and when the following
conditions are met:
APPENDICES
• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
• Distance from the departure airport is 2 nm or less
• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
INDEX
Figures 6-109 and 6-110 shows the NCR alerting parameters as defined by TSO-C151b for altitude loss
and climb rate respectively.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1000
800
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
EIS
200
100
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
0
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-109 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
1000
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
200
100
AFCS
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-110 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM STATUS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
During power-up, TAWS-B conducts a self-test of its aural and visual annunciations. The system test can also
be manually initiated. An aural alert is issued at test completion. TAWS-B System Testing is disabled when
ground speed exceeds 30 knots.
Manually testing the TAWS-B System:
1) Select the TAWS-B Page.
2) Press the MENU Key (Figure 6-111).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
3) Select ‘Test TAWS System’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the selection.
Figure 6-111 TAWS-B Page Menu
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TAWS-B continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status, and
GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the aural message “TAWS System Failure” is
generated along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
TAWS-B requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should the
navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TAWS N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the TAWS-B Page. The aural message “TAWS Not
Available” is generated. When the GPS signal integrity returns and the aircraft is within the database coverage
area, the aural message “TAWS Available” is generated
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
System Test in progress
None
TAWS-B FLTA Alerting Inhibited
No GPS position
TAWS TEST
None
None
“TAWS System Test Test OK”
None
None
NO GPS POSITION
“TAWS Not Available”
None
“TAWS Not Available”
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
EIS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
None
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Excessively degraded GPS signal;
or Out of database coverage
area
TAWS-B System Test Fail; Terrain
or Obstacle database unavailable
or invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or invalid.
TAWS operating with PFD Terrain
or Obstacle databases
Aural Message
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
System Test pass
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PFD/MFD* Alert TAWS-B Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Annunciation
Alert Type
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
† Annunciation is shown on TAWS-B Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
* “TAWS Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database coverage area reentered.
Table 6-20 TAWS-B System Status Annunciations
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.8 TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE (TIS)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: The Traffic Information Service (TIS) is intended for advisory use only. TIS is intended to help the
pilot locate traffic visually. It is the responsibility of the pilot to see and maneuver to avoid traffic.
NOTE: TIS is available only when the aircraft is within the service volume of a TIS-capable terminal radar
EIS
site. Aircraft without an operating transponder are invisible to both Traffic Advisory Systems (TAS) and TIS.
Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude separation data or climb descent
indication.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: TIS is disabled if a Traffic Advisory System (TAS) is installed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Traffic Information Service (TIS) is designed to help in detection and avoidance of other aircraft. TIS uses the
Mode S transponder for the traffic data link. TIS receives traffic information from ground stations, and is updated
every 5 seconds. The G950 displays up to eight traffic targets within a 7.5-nm radius, from 3000 feet below to
3500 feet above the requesting aircraft. Traffic is displayed according to the symbology shown in Table 6-21.
TIS Symbol
Description
Non-Threat Traffic
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
AFCS
Table 6-21 TIS Traffic Symbols
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Traffic Advisories (TA) alert the crew to intruding aircraft. When traffic meets the advisory criteria for the TA,
a solid yellow circle symbol is generated. A TA which is detected but is outside the range of the map on which
traffic is displayed are indicated with a message in the lower left corner of the map.
APPENDICES
TIS also provides a vector line showing the direction in which the traffic is moving, to the nearest 45°. Traffic
information for which TIS is unable to determine the bearing (non-bearing traffic) is displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map Page (Figure 6-116) or in a banner at the lower left corner of maps other than the Traffic Map Page on
which traffic can be displayed (Figure 6-112).
INDEX
The altitude difference between the requesting aircraft and other intruder aircraft is displayed above/below the
traffic symbol in hundreds of feet. If the other aircraft is above the requesting aircraft, the altitude separation
appears above the traffic symbol; if below, the altitude separation appears below. Altitude trend is displayed as
an up/down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in either direction) to the right of the target symbol. Traffic
symbols for aircraft without altitude reporting capability appear without altitude separation or climb/descent
information.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DISPLAYING TRAFFIC DATA
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps (when TIS is operating):
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Navigation Map Page
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision System (SVS) option is
installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
EIS
Displaying traffic information (maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Press the MAP Softkey.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, an icon is shown to indicate the feature is
enabled for display.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Non-Threat
Traffic
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Traffic
Advisory
AFCS
TA Off Scale
Banner
Annunciation
Traffic System
Status Banner
Annunciations
“No Bearing”
Traffic Advisory
Banner
Annunciation
Traffic Status
Icon
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-112 TIS Traffic on Navigation Map Page
APPENDICES
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of traffic. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which traffic data (symbols
and labels) are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use settings based on those selected for the
Navigation Map Page.
Displaying traffic information (PFD Inset Map):
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
INDEX
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data on the inset map (TRFC-1).
3) Press the softkey again to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
4) Press the softkey again to remove traffic data.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Customizing traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-113).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Traffic’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-114).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-115).
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
EIS
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- TA ONLY - Displays Traffic Alerts only
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown (with the option to turn off)
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-113 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-115 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
INDEX
Figure 6-114 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Traffic Map Page is specialized to show surrounding TIS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current
position and altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up
unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the RANGE Knob from 2 to 12 nm, as indicated
by the map range rings.
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is on the
ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. Once the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches from Standby to
Operating Mode and the G950 begins to display traffic information. Refer to the System Status discussion for
more information.
EIS
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Confirm TIS is in Operating Mode:
Press the OPERATE Softkey to begin displaying traffic.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ (shown if TIS is in Standby Mode) and press the ENT Key.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
“TIS Not Available”
Voice Alert Status
AFCS
Traffic Advisory, 500’
Below, Climbing
“Non-Bearing” Traffic
(System Unable to
Determine Bearing)
Distance is 4.0 nm,
500’ Above,
Descending
Off-Scale Traffic
Advisory
400’ Below, Level
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Range
Marking
Rings
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciations
Figure 6-116 Traffic Map Page
APPENDICES
Non-Threat
Traffic,
Altitude Not
Reported
Select
to Mute
“TIS Not
Available”
Voice Alert
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TIS ALERTS
When the number of TAs on the Traffic Map Page increases from one scan to the next, the following occur:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• A single “Traffic” voice alert is generated.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears to the top left of the Attitude Indicator on the PFD, flashing for 5 seconds
and remaining displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with traffic.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
To reduce the number of nuisance alerts due to proximate aircraft, the “Traffic” voice alert is generated only
when the number of TAs increases. For example, when the first TA is displayed, a voice and visual annunciation
are generated. As long as a single TA remains on the display, no additional voice alerts are generated. If a second
TA appears on the display or if the number of TAs initially decreases and then subsequently increases, another
voice alert is generated.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
AFCS
Figure 6-117 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
A “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert is generated when the TIS service becomes unavailable or is out of
range. TIS may be unavailable in the radar coverage area due to the following:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Radar site TIS Mode S sensor is not operational or is out of service
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is beyond the maximum range of the TIS-capable Mode S radar site.
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is above the radar site in the cone of silence and out of range of an adjacent site.
APPENDICES
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is below radar coverage. In flat terrain, the coverage extends from about 3000
feet upward at 55 miles. Terrain and obstacles around the radar site can further decrease radar coverage in all
directions.
• Traffic does not have an operating transponder.
INDEX
The “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert can be manually muted to reduce nuisance alerting. TNA muting
status is shown in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Muting the “TIS Not Available” voice alert:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the TNA MUTE Softkey. The status is displayed in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘‘’Not Available” Mute On’ (shown if TNA muting is currently off) and press the ENT Key.
SYSTEM STATUS
EIS
The G950 performs an automatic test of TIS during power-up. If TIS passes the test, TIS enters Standby Mode
(on the ground) or Operating Mode (in the air). If TIS fails the power up test, an annunciation is shown in the
center of the Traffic Map Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FAILED
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Traffic Map Page Center
Description
Banner Annunciation
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the transponder*
Data is being received from the transponder, but
DATA FAILED
a failure is detected in the data stream*
The transponder has failed*
UNAVAILABLE
TIS is unavailable or out of range
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
* Contact a service center or Garmin dealer for corrective action
Table 6-22 TIS Failure Annunciations
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TIS System Failed
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
No Data Received
from Transponder
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-118 TIS Power-up Test Failure
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is on the
ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. If traffic is selected for display on another map while Standby
Mode is selected, the traffic display enabled icon is crossed out (also the case whenever TIS has failed). Once
the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches to Operating Mode and traffic information is displayed. The mode can be
changed manually using softkeys or the page menu.
Mode
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
TIS Operating
OPERATING
TIS Standby
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TIS Failed*
FAIL
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
* See Table 6-24 for additional failure annunciations
INDEX
APPENDICES
Table 6-23 TIS Modes
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Switching between TIS modes:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the STANDBY or OPERATE Softkey to switch between modes. The mode is displayed in the upper left
corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Operate Mode’ or ‘Standby Mode’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
AGE MM:SS
TRFC RMVD
Traffic is removed because it is too old for coasting (12 to 60 seconds since last message)
Traffic may exist within the selected display range, but it is not displayed
Traffic data has failed
Traffic has not been detected
The traffic service is unavailable or out of range
AFCS
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
TRFC UNAVAIL
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TRFC COAST
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending)
Appears if traffic data is not refreshed within 6 seconds
If after another 6 seconds data is not received, traffic is removed from the display
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced as the age increases
The displayed data is not current (6 to 12 seconds since last message)
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced when this message is displayed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TA X.X ± XX ↕
Description
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
TA OFF SCALE
EIS
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed (Table 6-24).
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 6-24 TIS Traffic Status Annunciations
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.9 GTS 800/820 TRAFFIC
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: The GTS 800/820 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) is intended for advisory use only to aid the pilot
in visually acquiring traffic. No avoidance maneuvers should be based solely upon TAS traffic information.
It is the responsibility of the pilot in command to see and maneuver to avoid traffic.
NOTE: Pilots should be aware of TAS system limitations. TAS systems require transponders of other aircraft
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
to respond to system interrogations. If the transponders do not respond to interrogations due phenomena
such as antenna shading or marginal transponder performance, traffic may be displayed intermittently, or
not at all. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude separation data or climb
descent indication. Pilots should remain vigilant for traffic at all times.
NOTE: TIS is disabled when TAS installed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The optional Garmin GTS 800/820 is a Traffic Advisory System (TAS). It enhances flight crew situational
awareness by displaying traffic information for transponder-equipped aircraft. The system also provides visual
and aural traffic alerts including voice announcements to assist in visually acquiring traffic.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The GTS 800/820 is capable of tracking up to 45 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode A or C transponders,
and up to 30 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode S transponders. A maximum of 30 aircraft with the highest
threat potential can be displayed simultaneously. No TAS surveillance is provided for aircraft without operating
transponders.
THEORY OF OPERATION
AFCS
When the GTS 800/820 is in Operating Mode, the unit interrogates the transponders of intruding aircraft
while monitoring transponder replies. The system uses this information to derive the distance, relative bearing,
and if reported, the altitude and vertical trend for each aircraft within its surveillance range. The GTS 800/820
then calculates a closure rate to each intruder based on the projected Closest Point of Approach (CPA). If the
closure rate meets the threat criteria for a Traffic Advisory (TA), visual and aural alerting is provided.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
TAS SURVEILLANCE VOLUME AND SYMBOLOGY
APPENDICES
The GTS 800 TAS monitors the airspace within ±10,000 feet of own altitude, and up to 12 nm in the
forward direction; the GTS 820 can monitor up to 40 nm in the forward direction. TAS range is somewhat
reduced to the sides and aft of own aircraft due to the directional interrogation signal patterns. The system
displays TAS-detected traffic using the symbology shown in Table 6-25.
In addition, if a 1090 MHz extended squitter transponder is installed, and the GTS 800/820 detects airborne
traffic providing 1090 MHz Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) information, the system
will display the TAS traffic using the ADS-B symbology shown in Table 6-25. NOTE: Do not confuse this functionality with full ADS-B capability, which can provide traffic information
INDEX
from ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and ADS-B traffic outside of the TAS surveillance volume.
This system is limited to displaying ADS-B information from suitably equipped airborne aircraft within the
TAS surveillance volume.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory (TA) arrow with ADS-B directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
(Not available in all installations.)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Traffic Advisory without ADS-B directional information.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Proximity Advisory (PA) arrow with ADS-B directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track. (Not
available in all installations.)
EIS
Proximity Advisory without ADS-B directional information.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Non-threat traffic arrow with ADS-B directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
(Not available in all installations.)
Non-Threat Traffic without ADS-B directional information
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
PA or Non-threat traffic arrow with ADS-B directional information, but positional accuracy is degraded. Points in the
direction of the aircraft track. (Not available in all installations.)
Table 6-25 GTS 800/820 Traffic Symbols
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
A Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as a yellow circle or triangle, alerts the crew to a potentially hazardous
intruding aircraft, if the closing rate, distance, and vertical separation meet TA criteria. A Traffic Advisory
that is beyond the selected display range (off scale) is indicated by a half TA symbol at the edge of the screen
at the relative bearing of the intruder.
AFCS
A Proximity Advisory (PA), displayed as a solid white diamond or triangle, indicates the intruding aircraft
is within ±1200 feet and is within a 6 nm range, but is still not considered a TA threat.
A Non-threat Advisory, shown as an open white diamond or triangle, is displayed for traffic beyond 6 nm
that is neither a TA or PA.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
A solid white rounded arrow indicates either a PA or Non-Threat traffic with ADS-B directional information,
but the position of the traffic is shown with degraded accuracy.
Relative altitude, when available, is displayed above or below the corresponding intruder symbol in
hundreds of feet (Figure 6-119). When this altitude is above own aircraft, it is preceded by a ‘+’ symbol; a
minus sign ‘-’ indicates traffic is below own aircraft.
APPENDICES
A vertical trend arrow to the right of the intruder symbol (Figure 6-119) indicates climbing or descending
traffic with an upward or downward-pointing arrow respectively.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Relative Altitude
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Vertical trend arrow
Figure 6-119 Intruder Altitude and Vertical Trend Arrow
EIS
If the intruding aircraft is providing ADS-B track information, this is displayed as a vector line extending
beyond the traffic symbol in the direction of the track (Figure 6-120).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Vector Line indicates
intruder aircraft track
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-120 Intruder Traffic with ADS-B Directional
Information and Track
Flight IDs may also be displayed with traffic symbols; see the Flight IDs discussion in this section for more
information.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
On-ground aircraft with Mode S transponders are not displayed.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TA ALERTING CONDITIONS
Sensitivity Intruder Altitude
Level
Available
B
Yes
B
No
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
No
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
A
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of vertical and
horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of horizontal
separation and vertical separation is within 600 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 nm and vertical separation is within
600 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of separation.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of vertical and
horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of horizontal
separation and vertical separation is within 800 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 nm and vertical separation is within
800 feet.
Intruder range is less than 20 seconds.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Yes
TA Alerting Conditions
EIS
A
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The GTS 800/820 automatically adjusts its TA sensitivity level to reduce the likelihood of nuisance TA
alerting during flight phases likely to be near airports. The system uses Level A TA sensitivity when the
landing gear is extended and/or the groundspeed is less than 120 knots; Level B TA sensitivity applies in all
other conditions.
AFCS
Table 6-26 TA Sensitivity Level and TA Alerting Criteria
TAS ALERTS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: Aural traffic alerts do not occur when the landing gear is extended. Only visual traffic annunciations
are issued.
When the GTS 800/820 detects a new TA, the following occur:
APPENDICES
• A single “Traffic!” voice alert is generated, followed by additional voice information about the bearing, relative
altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table 6-27). The announcement
“Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the traffic is in front of own aircraft, above own
altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
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INDEX
• A TRAFFIC Annunciation appears at the top right of the airspeed on the PFD, flashing for five seconds and
remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area (Figure 6-121).
385
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with TA traffic.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, a yellow text banner will be displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map Page and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA symbol. The text will indicate
“TA” followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA traffic, if known.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that initially triggered the TA are no
longer present.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Distance (nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-121 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
Table 6-27 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
SYSTEM TEST
NOTE: Traffic surveillance is not available during the system test. Use caution when performing a system
test during flight.
INDEX
APPENDICES
The GTS 800/820 provides a system test mode to verify the TAS system is operating normally. The test takes ten seconds to complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols is displayed on the
Traffic Map Page (Figure 6-122). If the system test passes, the aural announcement “TAS System Test Passed”
is heard, otherwise the system announces “TAS System Test Failed.” When the system test is complete, the traffic system enters Standby Mode.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Testing the traffic system:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Turn the Range knob to set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full test pattern to be displayed during test.
4) Press the TEST Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Test Mode’.
EIS
2) Press the ENT Key.
Test Mode Annunciation
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Operating
Mode
Non-Threat
Traffic at
11 o’clock,
Distance 3.6
nm, 1000’
Above, Level
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Proximity
Traffic at
1 o’clock,
Distance
3.6 nm,
1000’ Below,
Descending
TA at 9 o’clock,
Distance 2.0
nm, 200’ Below,
Climbing
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 6-122 System Test in Progress with Test Pattern
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
OPERATION
NOTE: The GTS 800/820 automatically transitions from STANDBY to OPERATE mode eight seconds after
takeoff. The unit also automatically transitions from OPERATE to STANDBY mode 24 seconds after landing.
APPENDICES
After power-up, the GTS 800/820 is in Standby Mode. The GTS 800/820 must be in Operating Mode for
traffic to be displayed and for TAs to be issued.
Selecting the OPERATE Softkey allows the traffic unit to switch from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as
necessary. Selecting the STANDBY Softkey forces the unit into Standby Mode.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Switching from operating mode to standby mode:
On the Traffic Page, select the STANDBY Softkey
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Standby Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key.
Switching from standby mode to operating mode:
On the Traffic Page, select the OPERATE Softkey
EIS
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Operate Mode’.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the ENT Key. The traffic unit switches from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as necessary.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Traffic Map Page shows surrounding TAS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and
altitude, without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the RANGE Knob, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner of the page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Operating Mode
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B Directional
Information, 500’ Below, Climbing
Altitude
Mode
Traffic Display
Range Rings
AFCS
Non-Threat Traffic,
2500’ Above,
Descending
Non-Threat
Traffic with
ADS-B
Directional
Information,
6000’ Above,
Level
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
“No Bearing”
Traffic (Bearing
Undetermined),
Distance 4.0
nm, 500’ Above,
Climbing
Proximity Traffic,
900’ Above,
Level, Flight ID
Displayed
Traffic
Advisory OffScale, 400’
Below, Level
Non-Threat
Traffic,
Altitude Not
Reported
INDEX
Figure 6-123 Traffic Map Page
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the OPERATE Softkey to begin displaying traffic. OPERATING is displayed in the Traffic mode field.
4) Press the STANDBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. STANDBY is displayed in the Traffic mode
field.
5) Turn the RANGE Knob clockwise to display a larger area or counter-clockwise to display a smaller area.
EIS
Altitude Display
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which non-threat and proximity traffic is displayed. TAs
occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, select the ALT MODE Softkey.
2) PressS one of the following Softkeys:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• ABOVE: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 9000 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• NORMAL: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below
the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
•
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• BELOW: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9000 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the Traffic Page, press the BACK Softkey.
AFCS
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following (see softkey description in step 2 above):
ABOVE
•
NORMAL
•
BELOW
•
UNRESTRICTED
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
•
APPENDICES
3) Press the ENT Key.
Flight ID Display
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INDEX
The Flight IDs of other aircraft (when available) can be enabled for display on the Traffic Map Page
(Figure 6-124). When a flight ID is received, it will appear above or below the corresponding traffic symbol
on the Traffic Map Page when this option is enabled.
389
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Flight ID
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-124 Traffic Map Page with Flight ID Enabled
Enabling/Disabling Flight ID Display:
On the Traffic Map Page, press the FLT ID Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘Show Flight IDs’ or ‘Hide Flight IDs’ (choice dependent on current state)
(Figure 6-125).
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
3) Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
Figure 6-125 Traffic Map Page Menu
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable with the
RANGE Knob, as indicated by the map range rings.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Changing the display range on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the RANGE Knob.
2) The following range options are available:
2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm (GTS 820 only)
•
24 and 40 nm (GTS 820 only)
EIS
•
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
• Traffic Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
• Trip Planning Page
• System Pages
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps on the MFD when the unit is operating:
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision System (SVS) option is
installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Displaying traffic information (MFD maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Select the MAP Softkey.
AFCS
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, a traffic icon is shown to indicate traffic
is enabled for display (Figure 6-126).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Displaying traffic on the Navigation Map
1) Ensure the traffic system is operating. With the Navigation Map displayed, press the MAP Softkey.
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map as shown in the figure.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Non-Threat
Traffic
Traffic Advisory with
ADS-B Directional
Information
Non-Threat
Traffic with
ADS-B
Directional
Information
EIS
Proximity
Traffic with
ADS-B Directional
Information
TA Off Scale Banner
Annunciation
Traffic Status
Icon
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
“No Bearing”
Traffic Advisory
Banner Annunciation
Figure 6-126 TAS Traffic on Navigation Map
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-127).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-128).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections (Figure 6-129).
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
AFCS
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
- TA ONLY - Displays Traffic Advisories only
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
APPENDICES
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
INDEX
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Figure 6-127 Navigation Map Page Menu
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-128 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-129 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
AFCS
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD Inset Map by pressing the INSET Softkey. A traffic map
will appear in heading up orientation. Traffic information can also be overlaid with navigation, topographic
and optional XM Weather data.
Displaying traffic information (PFD Inset Map):
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data on the inset map (TRFC-1).
3) Select the softkey again to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
4) Select the softkey again to remove traffic data.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Mode
TAS System Test
Initiated
TEST
(also shown in white in center of page)
TAS Operating
OPERATING
TAS Standby
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TAS Failed*
FAIL
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
* See Table 6-29 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-28 TAS Modes
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Traffic Map Page Center
Description
Annunciation
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
Data is being received from the TAS unit, but the
DATA FAILED
unit is self-reporting a failure
FAILED
Incorrect data format received from the TAS unit
AFCS
Table 6-29 TAS Failure Annunciations
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
APPENDICES
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
INDEX
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the
selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation
in hundreds of feet, and altitude trend arrow (climbing/
descending).
TAS unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or
sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-30 TAS Traffic Status Annunciations
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Refer to the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) for the installed autopilot.
7.1 S-TEC FIFTY FIVE X AUTOPILOT (OPTIONAL)
FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODE ANNUNCIATION
EIS
NOTE: Only the additional ‘‘FD’ mode annunciation that may appear in the G950 AFCS Status Box is discussed
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
below. This mode annunciation is not analogous to both the G950 and the S-TEC Fifty Five X. Refer to the
approved S-TEC Fifty Five X Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for comprehensive list of annunciations and
operating instructions.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
In addition to the redundant status/mode annunciations and/or visual representations that are simultaneously
displayed on both the G950 (AFCS Status Box and/or PFD) and the S-TEC Fifty Five X (Autopilot Display and/
or Remote Annunciator Display), the G950 displays an additional mode annunciation of ‘FD’ when the Flight
Director Mode is engaged.
Flight
Director
Mode
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 7-1 Flight Director Mode Engaged
(G950 AFCS Status Box)
ALTITUDE PRESELECT
AFCS
The ALT Knob on the PFD is used to enter the selected altitude, which is provided to the STEC Fifty Five X
autopilot. Refer to the STEC Fifty Five X User’s Manual for details on the altitude preselect function.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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395
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Blank Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: With the availability of SafeTaxi®, ChartView, or FliteCharts®, it may be necessary to carry another
source of charts on-board the aircraft.
Additional features of the G950 include the following:
• Synthetic Vision System (SVS)
EIS
• SafeTaxi® diagrams
• ChartView and FliteCharts® electronic charts
• AOPA’s Airport Directory
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment
• Scheduler
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The optional Synthetic Vision System (SVS) provides a three-dimensional forward view of terrain features on
the PFD. SVS imagery shows the pilot’s view of relevant features in relation to the aircraft attitude, as well as the
flight path pertaining to the active flight plan.
SafeTaxi diagrams provide detailed taxiway, runway, and ramp information at more than 700 airports in the
United States. By decreasing range on an airport that has a SafeTaxi diagram available, a close up view of the
airport layout can be seen.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The optional ChartView and FliteCharts provide on-board electronic terminal procedures charts. Electronic
charts offer the convenience of rapid access to essential information. Either ChartView or FliteCharts may be
configured in the system, but not both.
AOPA’s Airport Directory offers detailed information for a selected airport, such as available services, hours of
operation, and lodging options.
AFCS
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment audio feature of the GDL 69A Data Link Receiver offers
more than 170 channels of music, news, and sports. SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers more entertainment choices
and longer range coverage than commercial broadcast stations.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display short term or long term reminder messages such as
maintenance phase checks or other events in the Messages Window on the PFD.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.1 SYNTHETIC VISION SYSTEM (SVS)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: SVS requires a terrain database that has a resolution of nine arc-seconds.
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
SVS is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or reliability
upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The optional Synthetic Vision System (SVS) is a visual enhancement to the G950 Integrated Flight Deck. SVS
depicts a forward-looking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The field of
view is 30 degrees to the left and 35 degrees to the right. SVS information is shown on the Primary Flight Display
(PFD), or on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode (Figure 8‑81). The depicted imagery is
derived from the aircraft attitude, heading, GPS three-dimensional position, and a nine arc-second database of
terrain, obstacles, and other relevant features. The terrain data resolution of nine arc-seconds, meaning that
the terrain elevation contours are stored in squares measuring nine arc-seconds on each side, is required for the
operation of SVS. Loss of any of the required data, including temporary loss of the GPS signal, will cause SVS to
be disabled until the required data is restored.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The SVS terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical map display),
large water features, towers, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are included in the obstacle database. Cultural
features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad tracks, cities, and state boundaries are not displayed
even if those features are found on the MFD map. The terrain display also includes a north–south east–west grid
with lines oriented with true north and spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation relative to the
terrain.
AFCS
The optional Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) or standard Terrain-SVS is integrated within
SVS to provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the presence of terrain and obstacle threats relevant to the
projected flight path. Terrain alerts are displayed in red and yellow shading on the PFD.
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or fidelity on
which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must not be predicated
solely upon the use of the Terrain–SVS or TAWS terrain or obstacle data displayed by the SVS.
• Pathways
• Airport Signs
• Flight Path Marker
• Runway Display
• Horizon Heading Marks
• Terrain Alerting
• Traffic Display
• Obstacle Alerting
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The following SVS enhancements appear on the PFD:
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-1 Synthetic Vision Imagery
SVS OPERATION
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SVS is activated from the PFD using the softkeys located along the bottom edge of the display. Pressing the
softkeys turns the related function on or off. When SVS is enabled, the pitch ladder increments are reduced to
10 degrees up and 7.5 degrees down.
AFCS
SVS functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. The PFD Softkey leads into the PFD function Softkeys,
including synthetic vision. Pressing the SYN VIS Softkey displays the SVS feature softkeys. The softkeys are
labeled PATHWAY, SYN TERR, HRZN HDG, and APTSIGNS. The BACK Softkey returns to the previous
level of softkeys. Synthetic Terrain must be active before any other SVS feature may be activated.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS, and PATHWAY Softkeys are only available when the SYN TERR Softkey is
activated (gray with black characters). After activating the SYN TERR Softkey, the HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS,
and PATHWAY softkeys may be activated in any combination to display desired features. When system power
is cycled, the last selected state (on or off) of the SYN TERR, HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS, and PATHWAY
softkeys is remembered by the system.
APPENDICES
• PATHWAY Softkey enables display of rectangular boxes that represent course guidance.
• SYN TERR Softkey enables synthetic terrain depiction.
• HRZN HDG Softkey enables horizon heading marks and digits.
• APTSIGNS Softkey enables airport signposts.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
PFD
SYN VIS
BACK
Pressing the BACK Softkey
returns to the top-level softkeys.
BACK
EIS
PATHWAY SYN TERR HRZN HDG APTSIGNS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Pressing the BACK Softkey returns to the previous level of softkeys.
Figure 8-2 SVS Softkeys
Activating and deactivating SVS:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Press the SYN TERR Softkey. The SVS display will cycle on or off with the SYN TERR Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Activating and deactivating Pathways:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Press the PATHWAY Softkey. The Pathway feature will cycle on or off with the PATHWAY Softkey.
AFCS
Activating and deactivating Horizon Headings:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the HRZN HDG Softkey. The horizon heading display will cycle on or off with the HRZN HDG Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Airport Signs:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
APPENDICES
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
INDEX
3) Press the APTSIGNS Softkey. Display of airport signs will cycle on or off with the APTSIGNS Softkey.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SVS FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Airport
Runway
Pathways
Traffic
Flight
Path
Marker
Airplane
Symbol
EIS
Zero
Pitch Line
(ZPL) with
Compass
Heading
Marks
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Synthetic
Terrain
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SVS
Softkeys
Figure 8-3 SVS on the Primary Flight Display
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude deviation
information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
AFCS
PATHWAYS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Pathways provide a three-dimensional perspective view of the selected route of flight shown as colored rectangular
boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active flight plan. The box size represents 700 feet
wide by 200 feet tall during enroute, oceanic, and terminal flight phases. During an approach, the box width is
700 feet or one half full scale deviation on the HSI, whichever is less. The height is 200 feet or one half full scale
deviation on the VDI, whichever is less. The altitude at which the pathway boxes are displayed is determined by
the selected altitude during climb, cruise, and when the active leg is the final approach course prior to intercepting
the glidepath/glideslope. During a descent (except while on the approach glidepath/glideslope), the pathway boxes
are displayed at the selected altitude, or the VNAV altitude programmed for the active leg in the flight plan, or the
published altitude constraint, whichever is higher (Figure 8-4). Just prior to intercepting the glidepath/glideslope,
the pathway boxes are displayed on the glidepath/glideslope, or the selected altitude, whichever is lower.
APPENDICES
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INDEX
The color of the rectangular boxes may be magenta, green, or white depending on the route of flight and navigation
source selected. The active GPS or GPS overlay flight plan leg is represented by magenta boxes that correspond to
the Magenta CDI. A localizer course is represented by green boxes that correspond to a green CDI. An inactive
leg of an active flight plan is represented by white boxes corresponding to a white line drawn on the Inset map or
MFD map indicating an inactive leg.
401
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected
Altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Programmed
Altitudes
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-4 Programmed and Selected Altitude
AFCS
Pathways provide supplemental glidepath/glideslope information on an active ILS, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, and
some LNAV approaches. Pathways are intended as an aid to situational awareness and should not be used
independent of the CDI, VDI, glide path indicator, and glide slope indicator. They are removed from the
display when the selected navigation information is not available. Pathways are not displayed beyond the
active leg when leg sequencing is suspended and are not displayed on any portion of the flight plan leg that
would lead to intercepting a leg in the wrong direction.
Departure and Enroute
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Prior to intercepting an active flight plan leg, pathways are displayed as a series of boxes with pointers at
each corner that point in the direction of the active waypoint. Pathways are not displayed for the first leg
of the flight plan if that segment is a Heading-to-Altitude leg. The first segment displaying pathways is the
first active GPS leg or active leg with a GPS overlay. If this leg of the flight plan route is outside the SVS
field of view, pathways will not be visible until the aircraft has turned toward this leg. While approaching
the center of the active leg and prescribed altitude, the number of pathway boxes decreases to a minimum
of four.
INDEX
Climb profiles cannot be displayed due to the variables associated with aircraft performance. Flight
plan legs requiring a climb are indicated by pathways displayed at a level above the aircraft at the altitude
selected or programmed.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Descent and Approach
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pathways are shown descending only for a programmed descent (Figures 8-5, 8-6). When the flight plan
includes programmed descent segments, pathways are displayed along the descent path provided that the
selected altitude is lower than the programmed altitude.
When an approach providing vertical guidance is activated, Pathways are shown level at the selected
altitude up to the point along the final approach course where the altitude intercepts the extended vertical
descent path, glidepath, or glideslope. From the vertical path descent, glidepath, or glideslope intercept
point, the pathways are shown inbound to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) along the published lateral
and vertical descent path, or at the selected altitude, whichever is lower.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
During an ILS approach, the initial approach segment is displayed in magenta at the segment altitudes
if GPS is selected as the navigation source on the CDI. When switching to localizer inbound with LOC
selected as the navigation source on the CDI, pathways are displayed in green along the localizer and glide
slope.
VOR, LOC BC, and ADF approach segments that are approved to be flown using GPS are displayed in
magenta boxes. Segments that are flown using other than GPS or ILS, such as heading legs or VOR final
approach courses are not displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Altitude
set for Enroute
Selected Altitude
set for Departure
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Climbs NOT
displayed
by pathway
Non-programmed descents NOT displayed by pathway
TOD
AFCS
Selected Altitude
for Step Down
Programmed descent
displayed by pathway
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selected Altitude or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
APPENDICES
Figure 8-5 SVS Pathways, Enroute and Descent
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Missed Approach
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Upon activating the missed approach, pathways lead to the Missed Approach Holding Point (MAHP) and
are displayed as a level path at the published altitude for the MAHP, or the selected altitude, whichever is
the highest. If the initial missed approach leg is a Course-to-Altitude (CA) leg, the pathways boxes will
be displayed level at the altitude published for the MAHP. If the initial missed approach leg is defined by
a course using other than GPS, pathways are not displayed for that segment. In this case, the pathways
displayed for the next leg may be outside the field of view and will be visible when the aircraft has turned
in the direction of that leg.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Pathways are displayed along each segment including the path required to track course reversals that are
part of a procedure, such as holding patterns. Pathways boxes will not indicate a turn to a MAHP unless a
defined geographical waypoint exists between the MAP and MAHP.
FAF
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Descent displayed
by pathway
Selected Altitude
or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
MAP Climbs NOT displayed
by pathway
Turn Segment
NOT displayed
by pathway
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
MAHP
INDEX
Figure 8-6 SVS Pathways, Approach, Missed Approach, and Holding
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT PATH MARKER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at groundspeeds
above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft accounting for wind speed
and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM is always available when the Synthetic Terrain feature is in operation. The FPM represents the
direction of the flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display, while the airplane symbol
represents the aircraft heading.
EIS
The FPM works in conjunction with the Pathways feature to assist the pilot in maintaining desired altitudes
and direction when navigating a flight plan. When on course and altitude the FPM is aligned inside the
pathway boxes as shown (Figure 8-7).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The FPM may also be used to identify a possible conflict with the aircraft flight path and distant terrain or
obstacles. Displayed terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s flight path extending above the FPM could indicate
a potential conflict, even before an alert is issued by TAWS. However, decisions regarding terrain and/or
obstacle avoidance should not be made using only the FPM.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Zero Pitch
Line
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Color of
Pathways
match the
CDI color
Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-7 Flight Path Marker and Pathways
APPENDICES
ZERO PITCH LINE
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INDEX
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the aircraft attitude with respect
to the horizon. It may not align with the terrain horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or
when the aircraft is flown at high altitudes.
405
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
HORIZON HEADING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows approximately 60 degrees of compass
heading in 30‑degree increments on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and digits appearing
on the zero pitch line are not visible behind either the airspeed or altitude display. Horizon Heading is used
for general heading awareness, and is activated and deactivated by pressing the HRZN HDG Softkey.
TRAFFIC
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the SVS display or may appear as a
EIS
partial symbol.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic systems. Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting closer, and smaller
when they are further away. Traffic symbols and coloring are consistent with that used for traffic displayed in
the Inset map or MFD traffic page. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not be displayed on the
SVS display. For more details refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard Avoidance section.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AIRPORT SIGNS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic terrain
display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately 15 nm from
an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the identifier until
the aircraft is approximately eight nautical miles from the airport. Airport signs are not shown behind the
airspeed or altitude display. Airport signs are activated and deactivated by pressing the APTSIGNS Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Airport
Sign
without
Identifier
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
INDEX
APPENDICES
Airport
Sign with
Identifier
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
Figure 8-8 Airport Signs
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
RUNWAYS
WARNING: Do not use SVS runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of the aircraft
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these runways are not
displayed.
EIS
Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding terrain. All
runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database. In some situations, where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be layered. As runways are
displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are outlined in white. Other runways will be
outlined in gray. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that runway will appear brighter and be
outlined with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft
gets closer to the runway, more detail such as runway numbers and centerlines will be displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Runway
Selected for
Approach
Other
Runway
on Airport
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-9 Runways
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TERRAIN-SVS AND TAWS ALERTING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward-looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA)
alerts, and corresponds to the red and yellow X symbols on the Inset Map and MFD map displays. For more
detailed information regarding Terrain-SVS and TAWS, refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section.
EIS
In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on the
synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVS field of view to the left or right of the
aircraft.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
TERRAIN
Annunciation
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Terrain
Caution
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Potential
Impact
Point
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-10 Terrain Alert
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower symbols found
on the Inset map and MFD maps and charts. Obstacle symbols appear in the perspective view with relative
height above terrain and distance from the aircraft. Unlike the Inset map and MFD moving map display,
obstacles on the synthetic terrain display do not change colors to warn of potential conflict with the aircraft’s
flight path until the obstacle is associated with an actual FLTA alert. Obstacles greater than 1000 feet below the
aircraft altitude are not shown. Obstacles are shown behind the airspeed and altitude displays.
TERRAIN
Annunciation
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Obstacle
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Potential
Impact
Point
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-11 Obstacle Alert
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FIELD OF VIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The PFD field of view can be represented on the MFD Navigation Map Page. Two dashed lines forming a
V‑shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map, represent the forward viewing area shown on the PFD.
Displaying field of view:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Map Setup and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Field of
View
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Map Setup Menu, Map Group, Field of View Option
AFCS
Figure 8-12 Option Menus
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Map Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Aviation Group options to FIELD OF VIEW.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select On or Off.
INDEX
APPENDICES
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The following figure compares the PFD forward looking depiction with the MFD plan view and FIELD OF
VIEW turned on.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Lines
Depict
PFD Field
of View
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SVS View on the PFD
Field of View on the MFD
Figure 8-13 PFD and MFD Field of View Comparison
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.2 SAFETAXI
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SafeTaxi is an enhanced feature that gives greater map detail when viewing airports at close range. The
maximum map ranges for enhanced detail are pilot configurable. When viewing at ranges close enough to
show the airport detail, the map reveals taxiways with identifying letters/numbers, airport Hot Spots, and airport
landmarks including ramps, buildings, control towers, and other prominent features. Resolution is greater at
lower map ranges. When the MFD display is within the SafeTaxi ranges, the airplane symbol on the airport
provides enhanced position awareness.
EIS
Designated Hot Spots are recognized at airports with many intersecting taxiways and runways, and/or complex
ramp areas. Airport Hot Spots are outlined to caution pilots of areas on an airport surface where positional
awareness confusion or runway incursions happen most often. Hot Spots are defined with a magenta circle or
outline around the region of possible confusion.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Any map page that displays the navigation view can also show the SafeTaxi airport layout within the maximum
configured range. The following is a list of pages where the SafeTaxi feature can be seen:
• Navigation Map Page
• VOR Information Page
• Inset Map (PFD)
• User Waypoint Information Page
• Weather Datalink Page
• Trip Planning Page
• Airport Information Page
• Nearest Pages
• Intersection Information Page
• Active and Stored Flight Plan Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• NDB Information Page
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
During ground operations the aircraft’s position is displayed in reference to taxiways, runways, and airport
features. In the example shown, the aircraft is on taxiway Bravo inside the High Alert Intersection boundary
on KSFO airport. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta. When panning over the airport, features such as
runway holding lines and taxiways are shown at the cursor.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Taxiway
Identification
Aircraft
Position
EIS
Airport Hot
Spot Outline
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airport
Features
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The DCLTR Softkey (declutter) label advances to DCLTR-1, DCLTR -2, and DCLTR-3 each time the softkey is
pressed for easy recognition of decluttering level. Pressing the DCLTR Softkey removes the taxiway markings and
airport feature labels. Pressing the DCLTR-1 Softkey removes VOR station ID, the VOR symbol, and intersection
names if within the airport plan view. Pressing the DCLTR-2 Softkey removes the airport runway layout, unless
the airport in view is part of an active route structure. Pressing the DCLTR-3 Softkey cycles back to the original
map detail. Refer to Map Declutter Levels in the Flight Management Section.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-14 SafeTaxi Depiction on the Navigation Map Page
DCLTR Softkey
Removes Taxiway
Markings
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Configuring SafeTaxi range:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Map Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-15 Navigation Map PAGE MENU, Map Setup Option
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Aviation Group options to SAFETAXI.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the range of distances.
6) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired distance for maximum SafeTaxi display range.
7) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
SAFETAXI
Option
INDEX
APPENDICES
SafeTaxi
Range
Options
Figure 8-16 MAP SETUP Menu, Aviation Group, SAFETAXI Range Options
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SAFETAXI CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SafeTaxi database is revised every 56 days. SafeTaxi is always available for use after the expiration date. When turning on the system, the Power-up Page indicates whether the databases are current, out of date, or
not available.
SafeTaxi Database
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-17 Power-up Page, SafeTaxi Database
Power-up Page Display
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Definition
Normal operation. SafeTaxi database is valid and within current cycle.
SafeTaxi database has expired.
Database card contains no SafeTaxi data.
AFCS
Table 8-1 SafeTaxi Annunciation Definitions
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The SafeTaxi Region, Version, Cycle, Effective date and Expires date of the database cycle can also be found
on the AUX - System Status page, as seen in Figure 8-18.
Press the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is shown.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The SafeTaxi database cycle number shown in the figure, 10S5, is deciphered as follows:
10 – Indicates the year 2010
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
S – Indicates the data is for SafeTaxi
5 – Indicates the fifth issue of the SafeTaxi database for the year
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The SafeTaxi EFFECTIVE date 27–AUG–10 is the beginning date for the current database cycle. SafeTaxi
EXPIRES date 22–OCT–10 is the revision date for the next database cycle.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SafeTaxi Data
AFCS
Figure 8-18 AUX – System Status Page, SafeTaxi Current Information
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
SafeTaxi information appears in blue and yellow text. The EFFECTIVE date appears in blue when data is
current and in yellow when the current date is before the effective date. The EXPIRES date appears in blue
when data is current and in yellow when expired (Figures 8‑18 and 8-19). NOT AVAILABLE appears in blue
in the REGION field if SafeTaxi data is not available on the database card (Figure 8‑19). An expired SafeTaxi
database is not disabled and will continue to function indefinitely.
APPENDICES
Press the MFD1 DB Softkey a second time. The softkey label will change to PFD1 DB. The DATABASE
window will now be displaying database information for PFD1. As before, scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is shown.
INDEX
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for instructions on revising the SafeTaxi database.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 8-19 illustrates possible SafeTaxi database conditions that may appear on the AUX - System Status
Page. The EFFECTIVE date is the beginning date for this database cycle. If the present date is before the
effective date, the EFFECTIVE date appears in yellow and the EXPIRES date appears in blue. The EXPIRES date
is the revision date for the next database cycle. NOT AVAILABLE indicates that SafeTaxi is not available on the
database card or no database card is inserted.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SafeTaxi Database has Expired
SafeTaxi Database Not Installed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Current Date is before Effective Date
Figure 8-19 AUX – System Status Page, SafeTaxi Expired, SafeTaxi Not Available
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.3 CHARTVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ChartView resembles the paper version of Jeppesen terminal procedures charts. The charts are displayed in full
color with high-resolution. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft position on the moving map in the plan view
of approach charts and on airport diagrams. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta.
The ChartView database subscription is available from Jeppesen, Inc. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Airport Diagrams
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• NOTAMs
EIS
• Approaches
CHARTVIEW SOFTKEYS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ChartView functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, pressing the SHW CHRT Softkey displays the available terminal chart and
advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT OPT, CHRT, INFO, DP, STAR, APR, WX, NOTAM,
and GO BACK. The chart selection softkeys shown below appear on the Airport Information Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pressing the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
Pressing the CHRT OPT Softkey advances to the next level of softkeys: ALL, HEADER, PLAN, PROFILE,
MINIMUMS, FIT WDTH, FULL SCN, and BACK.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
While viewing the CHRT OPT Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
SHW CHRT
AFCS
CHRT OPT
CHRT
INFO
DP
STAR
APR
WX
NOTAM
GO BACK
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey returns
to the top-level softkeys and previous page.
ALL
HEADER
PLAN
PROFILE
MINIMUMS FIT WDTH FULL SCN
BACK
APPENDICES
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns
to the Chart Selection Softkeys.
INDEX
Figure 8-20 ChartView SHW CHRT, Chart Selection, and Chart Option Softkeys
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Nearest Airport Page, or Flight Plan Page, press the SHW CHRT
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the OPTIONS Menu to Show Chart.
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page OPTIONS Menu
Figure 8-21 Option Menus
AFCS
When no terminal procedure chart is available for the nearest airport or the selected airport, the banner
CHART NOT AVAILABLE appears on the screen. The CHART NOT AVAILABLE banner does not refer to
the Jeppesen subscription, but rather the availability of a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a
selected airport.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-22 Chart Not Available Banner
APPENDICES
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the banner
UNABLE TO DISPLAY CHART is then displayed.
INDEX
Figure 8-23 Unable To Display Chart Banner
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
When a chart is not available by pressing the SHW CHRT Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts
may be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, pressing the
SHW CHRT Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is one associated with the WPT – Airport Information page. Usually this is the airport runway
diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are available, that
page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport is shown.
EIS
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Flight Plan Page, or Nearest Airports Page, press the SHW CHRT
Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the Airport Information Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the Approach Box. (Press the APR Softkey
if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Approach Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Chart Scale
Select Desired
Approach Chart
From Menu
INDEX
APPENDICES
Scroll Through
Chart With
the Joystick
Figure 8-24 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
While the APPROACH Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the G950 softkeys are blank. Once the desired
chart is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart page can be scrolled using the Joystick. Pressing
the Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The aircraft symbol is shown on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft position is within
the boundaries of the chart. The aircraft symbol is not displayed when the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears
(Figure 8‑28). If the Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, the aircraft symbol is not shown. The
Aircraft Not Shown Icon may appear at certain times, even if the chart is displayed to scale.
EIS
Pressing the CHRT Softkey switches between the ChartView diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the CHRT Softkey switches between the DeKalb Peachtree (KPDK) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the WPT – Airport Information page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press CHRT Softkey
to Switch Between
ChartView and WPT Airport Information Page
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 8-25 CHRT Softkey, Airport Information Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram chart when the view is on a terminal
procedure chart. If the displayed chart is the airport diagram chart, pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey
returns to the Airport Information Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The aircraft position is shown in magenta on the ChartView diagrams when the location of the aircraft is
within the chart boundaries. In the example shown, the aircraft is turning onto Taxiway Bravo on the Charlotte,
NC (KCLT) airport.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Another source for additional airport information is from the INFO Box above the chart for certain airports. This information source is not related to the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey. When the INFO Box is selected
using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. The Charlotte, NC airport has five additional charts offering
information: the Airport Diagram, Take-off Minimums, Class B Airspace, Airline Parking Gate Coordinates, and
Airline Parking Gate Location. (The numbers in parentheses after the chart name are Jeppesen designators.)
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Aircraft
Current
Position
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-26 Airport Information Page, INFO View, Full Screen Width
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
In the example shown in Figure 8-26, the Class B Chart is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays the
Charlotte Class B Airspace Chart (Figure 8-27).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-27 Airport Information Page, Class B Chart Selected from INFO View
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pressing the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
Chart Not
To Scale
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
INDEX
Figure 8-28 Departure Information Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Pressing the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Chart Not
To Scale
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Change Range
and Scroll
Through the
Chart With the
Joystick
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-29 Arrival Information Page
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pressing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
INDEX
Figure 8-30 Approach Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pressing the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, and includes weather data such as
METAR and TAF from the XM Data Link Receiver, when available. Weather information is available only when
an XM Data Link Receiver is installed and the XM WX Satellite Weather subscription is current.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
WX Info
When
Available
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
WX Softkey
Selected
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-31 Weather Information Page
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
AFCS
Recent NOTAMS applicable to the current ChartView cycle are included in the ChartView database. Pressing
the NOTAM Softkey shows the local NOTAM information for selected airports, when available. When NOTAMS
are not available, the NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled as shown in Figure 8-31. The
NOTAM Softkey may appear on the Airport Information Page and all of the chart page selections.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTAM
Softkey
Appears for
Selected
Airports
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-32 NOTAM Softkey Available
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Local
NOTAM on
This Airport
NOTAM
Softkey
Selected
INDEX
Figure 8-33 Airport Information Page, Local NOTAMs
Pressing the NOTAM Softkey again removes the NOTAMS information.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pressing the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page, Nearest Pages, or Flight
Plan Page).
CHART OPTIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pressing the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level (Figure 8-20).
Pressing the ALL Softkey shows the complete approach chart on the screen.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Complete
Chart
Shown
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-34 Approach Information Page, ALL View
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pressing the HEADER Softkey shows the header view (approach chart briefing strip) on the screen.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Approach
Chart
Briefing Strip
Figure 8-35 Approach Information Page, Header View
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pressing the PLAN Softkey shows the approach chart two dimensional plan view.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Approach
Chart Plan
View
Figure 8-36 Approach Information Page, Plan View
Pressing the PROFILE Softkey displays the approach chart descent profile strip.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Approach
Chart Descent
Profile Strip
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-37 Approach Information Page, Profile View, Full Screen Width
Pressing the MINIMUMS Softkey displays the minimum descent altitude/visibility strip at the bottom of the
approach chart.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Minimum
Descent
Altitude/
Visibility Strip
APPENDICES
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INDEX
Figure 8-38 Approach Information Page, Minimums View, Full Screen Width
429
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If the chart scale has been adjusted to view a small area of the chart, pressing the FIT WIDTH Softkey
changes the chart size to fit the available screen width.
Press FIT WDTH
Softkey to Show
Full Chart Width
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 8-39 Airport Information Page, FIT WDTH Softkey Selected
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pressing the FULL SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
Selecting Additional Information:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, press the FULL SCN Softkey to display the information windows
(AIRPORT, INFO).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the AIRPORT, INFO, RUNWAYS, or FREQUENCIES Box (INFO Box shown).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the INFO Box choices. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired
choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
EIS
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Available
Information
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press FULL SCN
Softkey to Switch
Between Full
Screen and Chart
With Info Window
APPENDICES
Figure 8-40 Airport Information Page, Full Screen and Info Window
INDEX
Pressing the BACK Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the FULL SCREEN and COLOR SCHEME Options.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the On and Off Full Screen Options.
Chart Setup Option
Full Screen On/Off Selection
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-41 Page Menus
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ChartView can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a dark
environment. When the CHART SETUP Box is selected the G950 softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-42 Waypoint Information Page, OPTIONS Menu
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the COLOR SCHEME Option (Figure 8‑43).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between Day, Auto, and Night Options.
AFCS
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the Chart Setup Menu.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-43 Arrival Information Page, Day View
INDEX
Figure 8-44 Arrival Information Page, Night View
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CHARTVIEW CYCLE NUMBER AND EXPIRATION DATE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ChartView database is revised every 14 days. Charts are still viewable during a period that extends from the
cycle expiration date to the disables date. ChartView is disabled 70 days after the expiration date and is no
longer available for viewing. When turning on the system, the Power-up Page displays the current status of the
ChartView database. See the table below for the various ChartView Power-up Page displays and the definition
of each.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ChartView Database
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-45 Power-up Page, ChartView Database
Definition
Blank Line. System is not configured for ChartView. Contact a Garminauthorized service center for configuration.
System is configured for ChartView but no chart database is installed.
Contact Jeppesen for a ChartView database.
Normal operation. ChartView database is valid and within current
cycle.
ChartView database is within 1 week after expiration date. A new cycle
is available for update.
ChartView database is beyond 1 week after expiration date, but still
within the 70 day viewing period.
ChartView database has timed out. Database is beyond 70 days after
expiration date. ChartView database is no longer available for viewing.
System time is not available. GPS satellite data is unknown or the
system has not yet locked onto satellites. Check database cycle number
for effectivity.
System is verifying chart database when new cycle is installed for the
first time.
After verifying, chart database is found to be corrupt. ChartView is not
available.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Power-up Page Display
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Table 8-2 ChartView Power-up Page Annunciations and Definitions
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The ChartView time critical information can also be found on the AUX - System Status page. The database
CYCLE number, EXPIRES, and DISABLES dates of the ChartView subscription appear in either blue or yellow
text. When the ChartView EXPIRES date is reached, ChartView becomes inoperative 70 days later. This is
shown as the DISABLES date. When the DISABLES date is reached, charts are no longer available for viewing. The SHW CHRT Softkey label then appears subdued and is disabled until a revised issue of ChartView is
installed.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
EIS
Press the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the ChartView database information is shown.
The ChartView database cycle number shown in the figure, 1004, is deciphered as follows:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
10 – Indicates the year 2010
04 – Indicates the fourth issue of the ChartView database for the year
The EXPIRES date 05–MAR–10 is the date that this database should be replaced with the next issue.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The DISABLES date 14–MAY–10 is the date that this database becomes inoperative.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
ChartView
Data
Figure 8-46 AUX – System Status Page, ChartView Current and Available
INDEX
The ChartView database is obtained directly from Jeppesen. Refer to Updating Jeppesen Databases in
Appendix B for instructions on revising the ChartView database.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Other possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown in Figure 8-47. The EXPIRES date is the
revision date for the next database cycle. The DISABLES date is the date that this database cycle is no longer
viewable. A date displayed in yellow indicates that date has passed. CYCLE NOT AVAILABLE in light blue,
indicates no ChartView data is available on the database card or no database card is inserted.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
ChartView Database is Disabled
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ChartView has Expired, but is not Disabled
ChartView Database is Not Available
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-47 AUX – System Status Page, ChartView Expired, ChartView Disabled, ChartView Not Available
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.4 FLITECHARTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FliteCharts resemble the paper version of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts. The charts are
displayed with high-resolution and in color for applicable charts. FliteCharts database subscription is available
from Garmin. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Approaches
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• Airport Diagrams
EIS
FLITECHARTS SOFTKEYS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FliteCharts functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, pressing the SHW CHRT Softkey displays the available terminal chart
and advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT OPT, CHRT, INFO, DP, STAR, APR, WX, and
GO BACK. The chart selection softkeys appear on the Airport Information Page.
Pressing the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pressing the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the available terminal chart and advances to the next level of
softkeys: ALL, FIT WDTH, FULL SCN, and BACK.
While viewing the CHRT OPT Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
NOTAMs are not available with FliteCharts. The NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SHW CHRT
AFCS
CHRT OPT
CHRT
INFO
DP
STAR
WX
APR
GO BACK
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey returns
to the top-level softkeys and previous page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
ALL
FIT WDTH
FULL SCN
BACK
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns
to the Chart Selection Softkeys.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 8-48 FliteCharts SHW CHRT, Chart Selection, and Chart Option Softkeys
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Nearest Airport Page, or Flight Plan Page, press the SHW CHRT
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the OPTIONS Menu to Show Chart.
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page OPTIONS Menu
Figure 8-49 Option Menus
AFCS
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner CHART NOT AVAILABLE appears on the screen. The CHART NOT AVAILABLE banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability
of a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-50 Chart Not Available Banner
APPENDICES
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the banner
UNABLE TO DISPLAY CHART is then displayed.
INDEX
Figure 8-51 Unable To Display Chart Banner
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
When a chart is not available by pressing the SHW CHRT Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts
may be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, pressing the
SHW CHRT Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is one associated with the WPT – Airport Information page. Usually this is the airport runway
diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are available, that
page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport is shown.
EIS
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Flight Plan Page, or Nearest Airports Page, press the SHW CHRT
Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the Airport Information Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the Approach Box. (Press the APR Softkey
if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Approach Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
AFCS
Chart Not
To Scale
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
APPENDICES
Pan Chart
With the
Joystick
INDEX
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-52 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
While the APPROACH Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the G950 softkeys are blank. Once the desired
chart is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart can be panned using the Joystick. Pressing the
Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The aircraft symbol is not shown on FliteCharts. The Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, and
the Aircraft Not Shown Icon is displayed in the lower right corner of the screen.
Pressing the CHRT Softkey alternates between the FliteCharts diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the CHRT Softkey switches between the Charlotte, NC (KCLT) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the WPT – Airport Information page.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Press CHRT Softkey
to Switch Between
FliteCharts and
Navigation Map Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-53 CHRT Softkey, Airport Information Page
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram chart when the view is on a terminal
procedure chart. If the displayed chart is the airport diagram chart, pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey
returns to the Airport Information Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Another source for additional airport information is from the INFO Box above the chart (Figure 8-53) or to
the right of the chart (Figure 8-54) for certain airports. This information source is not related to the INFO-1 or
INFO-2 Softkey. When the INFO Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. The Charlotte,
NC airport has three additional charts offering information: the Airport Diagram, Alternate Minimums, and
Take-off Minimums.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Info Box
Selected
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-54 Airport Information Page, INFO View with Airport Information
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
In the example shown in Figure 8-54, TAKE OFF MINIMUMS is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays the
Take-off Minimums and Departure Procedures Chart (Figure 8-55).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-55 Airport Information Page, TAKE OFF MINIMUMS Selected from INFO View
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pressing the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 8-56 Departure Information Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pressing the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
Figure 8-57 Arrival Information Page
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pressing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
INDEX
Figure 8-58 Approach Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pressing the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, when available, and includes
weather data such as METAR and TAF from the XM Data Link Receiver. Weather information is available only
when an XM Data Link Receiver is installed and the XM WX Satellite Weather subscription is current.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting Additional Information:
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, press the WX Softkey to display the information windows (AIRPORT,
INFO).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the INFO Box.
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the INFO Box choices. When the INFO Box is selected the G950 softkeys are
blank. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT
Key to complete the selection.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Info Available
on This Airport
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
WX Info
When
Available
AFCS
Chart Not
To Scale
Figure 8-59 Weather Information Page, WX Softkey Selected
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Softkeys are
Blank during
Info Box
Selection
WX Softkey
Selected
APPENDICES
Pressing the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page or Flight Plan Page).
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CHART OPTIONS
Pressing the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level (Figure 8-48).
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pressing the ALL Softkey shows the complete chart on the screen.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Complete
Chart
Shown
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-60 Airport Information Page, ALL View Selected
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pressing the FIT WIDTH Softkey fits the width of the chart in the display viewing area. In the example
shown, the chart at close range is replaced with the full width chart.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press FIT WDTH
Softkey to Show
Full Chart Width
Figure 8-61 Approach Information Page, FIT WDTH Softkey Selected
APPENDICES
INDEX
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447
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pressing the FULL SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Press FULL SCN
Softkey to Switch
Between Chart on
Full Screen and Chart
with Info Window
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-62 Airport Information Page, Full Screen and Info Window
INDEX
APPENDICES
Pressing the BACK Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the FULL SCREEN and COLOR SCHEME Options.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the On and Off Full Screen Options.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Chart Setup Option
Full Screen On/Off Selection
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-63 Page Menus
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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449
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FliteCharts can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a dark
environment. When the CHART SETUP Box is selected the G950 softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-64 Waypoint Information Page, OPTIONS Menu
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the COLOR SCHEME Option (Figure 8‑65).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between Day, Auto, and Night Options.
AFCS
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
INDEX
APPENDICES
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the Chart Setup Menu.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-65 Approach Information Page, Day View
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-66 Approach Information Page, Night View
INDEX
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451
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLITECHARTS CYCLE NUMBER AND EXPIRATION DATE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FliteCharts data is revised every 28 days. Charts are still viewable during a period that extends from the
cycle expiration date to the disables date. FliteCharts are disabled 180 days after the expiration date and are no
longer available for viewing upon reaching the disables date. When turning on the system, the Power-up Page
displays the current status of the FliteCharts database. See the table below for the various FliteCharts Power-up
Page displays and the definition of each.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
FliteCharts Database
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-67 Power-up Page, FliteCharts Database
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Blank Line. System is not configured for FliteCharts. Contact a
Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
System is configured for FliteCharts but no chart database is installed.
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for the FliteCharts
database.
Normal operation. FliteCharts database is valid and within current
cycle.
FliteCharts database is beyond the expiration date, but still within the
180 day viewing period.
FliteCharts database has timed out. Database is beyond 180 days
after expiration date. FliteCharts database is no longer available for
viewing.
APPENDICES
Table 8-3 FliteCharts Power-up Page Annunciations and Definitions
INDEX
Other possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown in Figure 8-68. ‘FliteCharts Expires’ plus a
date in white, indicates the chart database is current. ‘Chart data is out of date!’ in yellow, indicates charts are
still viewable, but approaching the disable date.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When the 180 day grace period has expired, ‘Chart data is disabled.’ in yellow indicates that the FliteCharts
database has expired and is no longer viewable. ‘Chart Data: N/A’ appears in white if no FliteCharts data is
available on the database card or no database card is inserted.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FliteCharts time critical information can also be found on the AUX - System Status page. The FliteCharts
database REGION, CYCLE number, EFFECTIVE, EXPIRES, and DISABLES dates of the subscription appear in
either blue or yellow text. Dates shown in blue are current data. Dates shown in yellow indicate the data is not
within the current subscription period.
EIS
FliteCharts becomes inoperative 180 days after the FliteCharts EXPIRES date is reached, and is no longer
available for viewing. This date is shown as the DISABLES date. After the disable date the SHW CHRT Softkey
label appears subdued and is unavailable until a revised issue of FliteCharts is installed.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Press the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the FliteCharts database information is shown.
The FliteCharts database cycle number shown in the figure, 1005, is deciphered as follows:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
10 – Indicates the year 2010
05 – Indicates the fifth issue of the FliteCharts database for the year
The FliteCharts EFFECTIVE date 07–MAY–10 is the first date that this database is current.
The FliteCharts EXPIRES date 04–JUN–10 is the last date that this database is current.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The DISABLES date 01–DEC–10 is the date that this database becomes inoperative.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
FliteCharts
Data
INDEX
Figure 8-68 AUX – System Status Page, FliteCharts Current and Available
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The FliteCharts database is provided from Garmin. Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for
instructions on revising the FliteCharts database.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The other three possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown here. The EFFECTIVE date is the
beginning date for this database cycle. If the present date is before the effective date, the EFFECTIVE date
appears in yellow and the EXPIRES date appears in blue. The EXPIRES date is the revision date for the next
database cycle. A date displayed in yellow indicates that date has passed. The DISABLES date is the date that
this database cycle is no longer viewable. A date displayed in yellow indicates that date has passed. REGION
and CYCLE NOT AVAILABLE in blue, indicate that FliteCharts database is not available on the database card
or no database card is inserted.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FliteCharts Expired, but is not Disabled
FliteCharts Database is Disabled
FliteCharts Database is Not Available
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-69 AUX – System Status Page, FliteCharts Expired, FliteCharts Disabled, FliteCharts Not Available
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.5 AOPA AIRPORT DIRECTORY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) Airport Directory database offers detailed information
regarding services, hours of operation, lodging options, and more. This information is viewed on the Airport
Information Page by pressing the INFO Softkey until INFO-2 is displayed as shown in Figure 8-70.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-70 AOPA Information on the Airport Information Page
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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455
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
AOPA DATABASE CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The AOPA Airport Directory database is revised four times per year. Check fly.garmin.com for the current
database. The Airport Directory is always available for use after the expiration date. When turning on the
system, the Power-up Page indicates whether the databases are current, out of date, or not available.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AOPA Database
Figure 8-71 Power-up Page, Airport Directory Database
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Normal operation. AOPA Airport Directory database is valid and within
current cycle.
AOPA Airport Directory database has expired.
AFCS
Database card contains no AOPA Airport Directory data.
Table 8-4 Airport Directory Annunciation Definitions
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Airport Directory Region, Version, Cycle, Effective date and Expires date of the database cycle can also be
found on the AUX - System Status page, as seen in Figure 8-72.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Press the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the Airport Directory database information
is shown.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The Airport Directory database cycle number shown in the figure, 10D3, is deciphered as follows:
10 – Indicates the year 2010
D – Indicates the data is for Airport Directory
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3 – Indicates the third issue of the Airport Directory database for the year
The Airport Directory EFFECTIVE date 15–JUL–10 is the beginning date for the current database cycle. The
Airport Directory EXPIRES date 14–OCT–10 is the revision date for the next database cycle.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Airport Directory
Data
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-72 AUX – System Status Page, Airport Directory Current Information
AFCS
Airport Directory information appears in blue and yellow text. The EFFECTIVE date appears in blue when
data is current and in yellow when the current date is before the effective date. The EXPIRES date appears in
blue when data is current and in yellow when expired (Table 8-4). NOT AVAILABLE appears in blue in the
REGION field if Airport Directory data is not available on the database card. An expired Airport Directory
database is not disabled and will continue to function indefinitely.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.6 SIRIUSXM RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section for information about XM WX Satellite Weather products.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment feature of the GDL 69A Data Link Receiver is available for
the pilot’s and passengers’ enjoyment. The GDL 69A can receive SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment services
at any altitude throughout the Continental U.S. Entertainment audio is not available on the GDL 69 Data Link
Receiver.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers a variety of radio programming over long distances without having to constantly
search for new stations. Based on signals from satellites, coverage far exceeds land-based transmissions. SiriusXM Satellite Radio services are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit
www.siriusxm.com.
ACTIVATING SIRIUSXM SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The service is activated by providing SiriusXM Satellite Radio with either one or two coded IDs, depending on
the equipment. Either the Audio Radio ID or the Data Radio ID, or both, must be provided to SiriusXM Satellite
Radio to activate the entertainment subscription.
It is not required to activate both the entertainment and weather service subscriptions with the GDL 69A. Either or both services can be activated. SiriusXM Satellite Radio uses one or both of the coded IDs to send an
activation signal that, when received by the GDL 69A, allows it to play entertainment programming.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
These IDs are located:
• On the label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
• On the XM Information Page on the MFD (Figure 8-73)
• On the XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit (available at www.garmin.com, P/N
190-00355-04)
AFCS
Contact the installer if the Data Radio ID and the Audio Radio ID cannot be located.
NOTE: The LOCK Softkey on the XM Information Page (Auxiliary Page Group) is used to save GDL 69A
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
activation data when the SiriusXM services are initially set up. It is not used during normal SiriusXM
Satellite Radio operation, but there should be no adverse effects if inadvertently selected during flight.
Refer to the GDL 69/69A XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions (190-00355-04, Rev H or later) for
further information.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Activating the SiriusXM Satellite Radio services:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Contact SiriusXM Satellite Radio through the email address listed on their website (www.siriusxm.com) or by
the customer service phone number listed on the website. Follow the instructions provided by SiriusXM Satellite
Radio services.
2) Select the Auxiliary Page Group.
3) Select the next to last page in the AUX Page Group.
4) Press the INFO Softkey to display the XM Information Page.
5) Verify that the desired services are activated.
EIS
6) Press the LOCK Softkey.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight YES.
Data
Radio ID
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) To complete activation, press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Audio
Radio ID
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Weather
Products
Window
AFCS
Figure 8-73 XM Information Page
LOCK Softkey
is Used to Save
Activation Data
During Initial Setup
APPENDICES
If XMWX Satellite Weather services have not been activated, all the weather product boxes are blank on
the XM Information Page and a yellow Activation Required message is displayed in the center of the Weather
Data Link Page (Map Page Group). The Service Class refers to the groupings of weather products available for
subscription.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
RADIO
and INFO
Softkeys
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
USING SIRIUSXM RADIO
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The XM Radio Page provides information and control of the audio entertainment features of the SiriusXM
Satellite Radio.
Selecting the XM Radio Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the displayed AUX - XM Information Page.
EIS
3) Press the RADIO Softkey to show the XM Radio Page where audio entertainment is controlled.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Active
Channel
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Channel
List
Volume
Field
Categories
Field
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-74 XM Radio Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ACTIVE CHANNEL AND CHANNEL LIST
The Active Channel Box on the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected channel that the SiriusXM
Radio is using.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Channels List Box of the XM Radio Page shows a list of the available channels for the selected category. Channels can be stepped through one at a time or may be selected directly by channel number.
Selecting a channel from the channel list:
1) While on the XM Radio Page, press the CHNL Softkey.
EIS
2) Press the CH + Softkey to go up through the list in the Channel Box, or move down the list with the
CH – Softkey.
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press the FMS Knob to highlight the channel list and turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the channels.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
Selecting a channel directly:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) While on the XM Radio Page, press the CHNL Softkey.
2) Press the DIR CH Softkey. The channel number in the Active Channel Box is highlighted.
3) Press the numbered softkeys located on the bottom of the display to directly select the desired channel
number.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CATEGORY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Category Box of the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected category of audio. Categories of
channels such as jazz, rock, or news can be selected to list the available channels for a type of music or other
contents. One of the optional categories is PRESETS to view channels that have been programmed.
Selecting a category:
1) Press the CATGRY Softkey on the XM Radio Page.
2) Press the CAT + and CAT - Softkeys to cycle through the categories.
EIS
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Categories list. Highlight the desired category with the small FMS Knob
and press the ENT Key. Selecting All Categories places all channels in the list.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-75 Categories List
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PRESETS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Up to 15 channels from any category can be assigned a preset number. The preset channels are selected by
pressing the PRESETS and MORE Softkeys. Then the preset channel can be selected directly and added to
the channel list for the Presets category.
Setting a preset channel number:
1) On the XM Radio Page, while listening to an Active Channel that is wanted for a preset, press the PRESETS
Softkey to access the first five preset channels (PS1 - PS5).
EIS
2) Press the MORE Softkey to access the next five channels (PS6 – PS10), and again to access the last five
channels (PS11 – PS15). Pressing the MORE Softkey repeatedly cycles through the preset channels.
3) Press any one of the (PS1 - PS15) softkeys to assign a number to the active channel.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the SET Softkey on the desired channel number to save the channel as a preset.
Select PRESETS to
Access the Preset
Channels Softkeys
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Select MORE to Cycle
Through the Preset
Channels
Select SET
to Save Each
Preset Channel
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-76 Accessing and Selecting XM Preset Channels
Pressing the BACK Softkey, or waiting during 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, returns the system to the top
level softkeys.
VOLUME
AFCS
Radio volume is shown as a percentage of full volume. Volume level is controlled by pressing the VOL
Softkey, which brings up the MUTE Softkey and the volume increase and decrease softkeys.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Adjusting the volume:
1) With the XM Radio Page displayed, press the VOL Softkey.
2) Press the VOL – Softkey to reduce volume or press the VOL + Softkey to increase volume. (Once the VOL
Softkey is pressed, the volume can also be adjusted using the small FMS Knob.)
APPENDICES
3) Press the MUTE Softkey to mute the audio. Press the MUTE Softkey again to unmute the audio.
INDEX
Figure 8-77 Volume Control
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.7 SCHEDULER
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., Change oil, AltimeterTransponder, or Hot Section Inspection or Phase 1 Maintenance Check) in the Messages Window on the PFD. Messages can be set to display based on a specific date and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero
(one-time; default setting), or recurrently whenever the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set
to periodic alerting automatically reset to the original timer value once the message is displayed. When power is
cycled, all messages are retained until deleted, and message timer countdown is resumed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-78 Scheduler (Utility Page)
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
AFCS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty scheduler message naming field.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the message text to be displayed in the Messages Window and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the field next to Type.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the message type:
• Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
• One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
APPENDICES
• Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
INDEX
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MM-YY) and press the ENT Key.
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
EIS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the name field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
5) Press the ENT Key while the message line is cleared to clear the message time.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Scheduler messages appear in the Messages Window on the PFD. When a scheduler message is waiting,
the ALERTS Softkey label changes to ADVISORY. Pressing the ADVISORY Softkey opens the Alerts Window
and acknowledges the scheduler message. The softkey label reverts to ALERTS when selected. Pressing the
ALERTS Softkey again removes the Alerts Window from the display, and the scheduler message is deleted from
the message queue.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-79 PFD Messages Window
APPENDICES
INDEX
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465
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.8 FLIGHT DATA LOGGING
NOTE: Some aircraft installations may not provide all aircraft/engine data capable of being logged by the
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
system.
The Flight Data Logging feature will automatically store critical flight and engine data on an SD data card (up
to 16GB) inserted into the top card slot of the MFD. Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each
1GB of available space on the card.
EIS
Data is written to the SD card once each second while the MFD is powered on. All flight data logged on a
specific date is stored in a file named in a format which includes that date (dataYYYY_MM_DD.csv). The file is
created automatically each time the G950 system is powered on, provided an SD card has been inserted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The status of the Flight Data Logging feature can be viewed on the AUX-UTILITY Page. If no SD card has been
inserted, “NO CARD” is displayed. When data is being written to the SD card, “LOGGING DATA” is displayed.
The .csv file may be viewed with Microsoft Excel® or other spreadsheet applications.
The following is a list of data parameters the G950 system is capable of logging.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Date
• Time
• GPS altitude (MSL)
• GPS altitude (WGS84 datum)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Baro-Corrected altitude (feet)
• Baro Correction (in/Hg)
• Indicated airspeed (kts)
• Vertical speed (fpm)
AFCS
• GPS vertical speed (fpm)
• OAT (degrees C)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• True airspeed (knots)
• Pitch Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Roll Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Lateral and Vertical G Force (g)
APPENDICES
• Ground Speed (kts)
• GPS fix
• Longitude (degrees; geodetic;
+East)
• GPS vertical alert limit
• Magnetic Heading (degrees)
• HSI source
• GPS horizontal alert limit
• SBAS GPS horizontal protection
level
• Selected course
• SBAS GPS vertical protection
level
• Com1/Com2 frequency
• Fuel Qty (right & left)(gals)
• Nav1/Nav2 frequency
• Fuel Flow (gph)
• CDI deflection
• Oil Pressure (psi)
• VDI/GP/GS deflection
• Oil Temperature (deg. F)
• Wind Direction (degrees)
• Manifold Pressure
• Wind Speed (knots)
• Propeller RPM
• Active Waypoint Identifier
• Turbine Inlet Temperature
• Distance to next waypoint (nm)
• Bearing to next waypoint
(degrees)
• Magnetic variation (degrees)
INDEX
• Ground Track (degrees
magnetic)
• Latitude (degrees; geodetic;
+North)
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The file containing the recorded data will appear in the format shown in Figure 8-80. This file can be imported
into most computer spreadsheet applications.
Local 24hr Time
HHMMSS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Local Date
YYMMDD
Nearest Airport
(A blank will be
inserted if no
airport is found)
log_110210_104506_KIXD.csv
EIS
Figure 8-80 Log File Format
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Data logging status can be monitored on the AUX-UTILITY Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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467
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.9 ABNORMAL OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SVS TROUBLESHOOTING
SVS is intended to be used with traditional attitude, heading, obstacle, terrain, and traffic inputs. SVS is
disabled when valid attitude or heading data is not available for the display. In case of invalid SVS data, the PFD
display reverts to the standard blue-over-brown attitude display.
SVS becomes disabled without the following data resources:
EIS
• Attitude data
• Heading data
• GPS position data
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• 9 Arc-second Terrain data
• Obstacle data
• Terrain-SVS or TAWS function is not available, in test mode, or failed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• The position of the aircraft exceeds the range of the terrain database.
REVERSIONARY MODE
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SVS can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If it is enabled when switching
to Reversionary Mode, SVS will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The standard, non-SVS PFD display will
be shown in the interim.
Figure 8-81 SVS Reversionary Mode
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Unusual attitudes are displayed with red chevrons overlaid on the display indicating the direction to fly to
correct the unusual attitude condition. The display shows either a brown or blue colored bar at the top or
bottom of the screen to represent earth or sky. This is intended to prevent losing sight of the horizon during
extreme pitch attitudes.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-82 Unusual Attitude Display
The blue colored bar is also displayed when terrain gradient is great enough to completely fill the display.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Blue Band
AFCS
Terrain
Completely
Fills Display
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-83 Blue Sky Bar with Full Display Terrain
APPENDICES
INDEX
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
469
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
GDL 69/69A DATA LINK RECEIVER TROUBLESHOOTING
Some quick troubleshooting steps listed below can be performed to find the possible cause of a failure.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Ensure the owner/operator of the aircraft in which the Data Link Receiver is installed has subscribed to
SiriusXM Satellite Radio
• Ensure the SiriusXM Satellite Radio subscription has been activated
• Perform a quick check of the circuit breakers to ensure that power is applied to the Data Link Receiver
EIS
• Ensure that nothing is plugged into the Aux Audio In jack(s) because this would prevent SiriusXM Satellite
Radio from being heard
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
For troubleshooting purposes, check the LRU Information Box on the AUX - System Status Page for Data Link
Receiver (GDL 69/69A) status, serial number, and software version number. If a failure has been detected in the
GDL 69/69A the status is marked with a red X.
Selecting the System Status Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page (the last page in the AUX Page Group).
INDEX
Figure 8-84 LRU Information Window on System Status Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
If a failure still exists, the following messages may provide insight as to the possible problem:
NO SIGNAL
LOADING
OFF AIR
---
Message Location
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
Weather Datalink Page - center of page
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
Description
Data Link Receiver antenna error; service required
Data Link Receiver updating encryption code
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
CHECK ANTENNA
UPDATING
Loss of signal; signal strength too low for receiver
EIS
Acquiring channel audio or information
Channel not in service
Missing channel information
No communication from Data Link Receiver
WEATHER DATA LINK FAILURE Weather Datalink Page - center of page
within last 5 minutes
ACTIVATION REQUIRED
Weather Datalink Page - center of page SiriusXM subscription is not activated
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Table 8-5 GDL 69/69A Data Link Receiver Error Messages
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
471
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Blank Page
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
NOTE: The P68 aircraft Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) supersedes information found in this document.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 Alerting System conveys alerts using the following:
EIS
• Annunciation Window: The Annunciation Window displays abbreviated annunciation text. Text color is
based on alert levels described in the following section. The Annunciation Window is located to the right
of the Altimeter and Vertical Speed Indicator. All aircraft annunciations can be displayed simultaneously
in the Annunciation Window. A white horizontal line separates annunciations that are acknowledged from
annunciations that are not yet acknowledged. Higher priority annunciations are displayed towards the top of
the window.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Alerts Window: The Alerts Window displays text messages for up to 64 prioritized alert messages. Pressing
the ALERTS Softkey displays the Alerts Window. Pressing the ALERTS Softkey a second time removes the
Alerts Window from the display. When the Alerts Window is displayed, the FMS Knob can be used to scroll
through the alert message list.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Softkey Annunciation: During certain alerts, the ALERTS Softkey may appear as a flashing annunciation
to accompany an alert. The ALERTS Softkey assumes a new label consistent with the alert level (WARNING,
CAUTION, or ADVISORY). By pressing the softkey when flashing an annunciation, the alert is acknowledged.
The softkey label then returns to ALERTS. If alerts are still present, the ALERTS label is displayed in white
with black text. Pressing the ALERTS Softkey a second time views the alert text messages.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• System Annunciations: Typically, a large red ‘X’ appears over instruments whose information is supplied by
a failed Line Replaceable Unit (LRU). See the G950 System Annunciations Section for more information.
System
Annunciation
(Red ‘X’)
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Annunciation
Window
APPENDICES
Alerts Window
INDEX
Softkey
Annunciation
Figure A-1 G950 Alerting System
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
473
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
• Audio Alerting System: The system issues audio alert tones when specific system conditions are met. See the
Alert Level Definitions Section for more information. Should the #1 GIA 63W fail, audio and voice alerts are
not generated. The annunciation tone may be tested from the AUX - System Status Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Testing the system annunciation tone:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
2) Press the ANN TEST Softkey.
Or:
EIS
a) Press the MENU Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
b) Highlight ‘Enable Annunciator Test Mode’ and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
Select to Test
Annunciation Tone
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure A-2 System Status Page, Annunciation Tone Testing
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APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ALERT LEVEL DEFINITIONS
The G950 Alerting System uses four alert levels.
• WARNING: This level of alert requires immediate attention.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Warning alert text is shown in red in the Annunciation Window and is accompanied by a continuous
chime and a flashing WARNING Softkey annunciation (see Figure A-3). Pressing the WARNING Softkey
acknowledges the presence of the warning alert and stops the aural chime.
Warning voice alerts repeat continuously until acknowledged by pressing the WARNING Softkey.
EIS
• CAUTION: This level of alert indicates the existence of abnormal conditions on the aircraft that may require
intervention.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Caution alert text is shown in yellow in the Annunciation Window and is accompanied by a single chime and
a flashing CAUTION Softkey annunciation (see Figure A-3). Pressing the CAUTION Softkey acknowledges
the presence of the caution alert.
Caution voice alerts repeat three times or until acknowledged by pressing the CAUTION Softkey.
• ANNUNCIATION OR MESSAGE ADVISORY: This level of alert provides general information.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Annunciation alert text is shown in white in the Annunciation Window; no aural tone is generated. An
annunciation alert is accompanied by a flashing ADVISORY Softkey annunciation (see Figure A-3). Pressing
the ADVISORY Softkey acknowledges the presence of the annunciation alert.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Message advisory alerts do not issue annunciations in the Annunciation Window. Instead, message advisory
alerts only issue a flashing ADVISORY Softkey annunciation (see Figure A-3). Pressing the ADVISORY
Softkey acknowledges the presence of the message advisory alert and displays the alert text message in the
Alerts Window.
Message advisory voice alerts generated when the message advisory is issued do not repeat.
AFCS
Figure A-3 Softkey Annunciation (ALERTS Softkey Labels)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• SAFE OPERATING ANNUNCIATIONS: This level of alert provides general information about conditions
which are safe for operation.
Safe operating annunciation alert text is shown in green in the Annunciation Window; no aural tone is
generated. It is accompanied by a flashing ADVISORY Softkey annunciation (see Figure A-3). Pressing the
ADVISORY Softkey acknowledges the presence of the alert.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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475
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
AIRCRAFT ALERTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The following alerts are configured specifically for the the P68 aircraft. See the Pilot’s Operating Handbook
(POH) for information regarding pilot responses.
WARNING ALERTS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Annunciation Window Text
LH ENG FIRE
RH ENG FIRE
BATT LO VOLT
ESSENT LO VOLT
LH MAIN LO VOLT
RH MAIN LO VOLT
LH OVERBOOST
RH OVERBOOST
Alerts Window Message
Left engine fire warning.
Right engine fire warning.
Battery voltage is low.
Essential bus voltage is low.
Left main bus voltage is low.
Right main bus voltage is low.
Left engine pressure is high.
Right engine pressure is high.
Audio Alert
Repeating Tone
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
CAUTION ALERTS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Annunciation Window Text
LH ALT OUT
RH ALT OUT
LH FUEL PRES HI
LH FUEL PRES LO
RH FUEL PRES HI
RH FUEL PRES LO
Alerts Window Message
Left alternator failed.
Right alternator failed.
Left engine fuel pressure is high.
Left engine fuel pressure is low.
Right engine fuel pressure is high.
Right engine fuel pressure is low.
Audio Alert
Single Chime
AFCS
SAFE OPERATING ANNUNCIATIONS
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Annunciation Window Text
LH FUEL PUMP
RH FUEL PUMP
LDG LIGHT ON
PITOT HEAT ON
STALL HEAT ON
STROBE LIGHT ON
PROP DE-ICE
SURF DE-ICE
TAXI LIGHT ON
Alerts Window Message
Left fuel pump is on.
Right fuel pump is on.
Landing light switch is on.
Pitot heating switch is on.
Stall heating switch is on.
Strobe light switch is on.
Propeller de-ice switch is on.
De-ice system is on.
Taxi light switch is on.
Audio Alert
None
INDEX
MESSAGE ADVISORY ALERTS
Alerts Window Message
PFD FAN FAIL – PFD cooling fan is inoperative.
MFD FAN FAIL – MFD cooling fan is inoperative.
476
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
Audio Alert
None
None
190-01325-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
G950 SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
NOTE: Upon power-up, certain windows remain invalid as G950 equipment begins to initialize. All windows
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
should be operational within one minute of power-up. If any window continues to remain flagged, the
system should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized repair facility.
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red ‘X’ is typically displayed on windows associated with the
failed data (refer to Figure A-4 for all possible flags and the responsible LRUs). Refer to the Pilot’s Operating
Handbook (POH) for additional information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
GDC 74A Air
Data Computer
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
GRS 77 AHRS
OR
GMU 44
Magnetometer
GEA 71 Engine
Airframe Unit
OR
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Unit
Figure A-4 G950 System Failure Annunciations
GTX 33 Transponder
OR
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
GDC 74A Air
Data Computer
EIS
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
AFCS
The status of detected LRUs can be checked on the AUX - System Status Page (Figure A-2). Active LRUs
are indicated by green check marks; failed, by red ‘X’s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center or
Garmin-authorized dealer informed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Viewing LRU information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
2) To place the cursor in the ‘LRU Info’ Box,
APPENDICES
a) Press the LRU Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) With ‘Select LRU Window’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
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INDEX
3) Use the FMS Knob to scroll through the box to view LRU status information.
477
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
System Annunciation
Comment
System Annunciation
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Attitude and Heading
Reference System is aligning.
Display system is not receiving
vertical speed input from the
air data computer.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Display system is not receiving
attitude information from the
AHRS.
Display system is not receiving
valid heading input from AHRS.
Display system is not receiving
altitude input from the air data
computer.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AHRS calibration incomplete or
configuration module failure.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
GPS information is either
not present or is invalid for
navigation use. Note that
AHRS utilizes GPS inputs
during normal operation.
AHRS operation may be
degraded if GPS signals are not
present (see POH).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Display system is not receiving
airspeed input from air data
computer.
Comment
Other Various Red X
Indications
Display system is not receiving
valid true airspeed information
from air data computer.
Display system is not receiving
valid OAT information from air
data computer.
Display system is not receiving
valid transponder information.
A red ‘X’ through any other
display field (such as engine
instrumentation fields)
indicates that the field is not
receiving valid data.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Table A-1 G950 System Annunciations
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
G950 SYSTEM MESSAGE ADVISORIES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
This section describes various G950 system message advisories. Certain messages are issued due to an LRU
or an LRU function failure. Such messages are normally accompanied by a corresponding red ‘X’ annunciation
as shown previously in the G950 System Annunciation section.
NOTE: This Section provides information regarding G950 message advisories that may be displayed by the
system. Knowledge of the aircraft, systems, flight conditions, and other existing operational priorities must
be considered when responding to a message. Always use sound pilot judgment. The Pilot’s Operating
Handbook (POH) takes precedence over any conflicting guidance found in this section.
EIS
MFD & PFD MESSAGE ADVISORIES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The PFD and/or MFD self-test has detected a problem. The system should be serviced.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The PFD and/or MFD has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The PFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The MFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The MFD and PFD have different software versions installed. The system should be
serviced.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The PFD and/or MFD is overheating and is reducing power consumption by dimming
the display. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
APPENDICES
A key is stuck on the PFD and/or MFD bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing
it several times. The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
The PFD1 configuration module backup memory has failed. The system should be
serviced.
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Comments
The pilot profile data was lost. System reverts to default pilot profile and settings. The
pilot may reconfigure the MFD & PFD with preferred settings, if desired.
The MFD and PFD are not communicating with each other. The system should be
serviced.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Message
DATA LOST – Pilot stored data was
lost. Recheck settings.
XTALK ERROR – A flight display
crosstalk error has occurred.
PFD1 SERVICE – PFD1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
MFD1 SERVICE – MFD1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
MANIFEST – PFD1 software
mismatch. Communication halted.
MANIFEST – MFD1 software
mismatch. Communication halted.
PFD1 CONFIG – PFD1 configuration
error. Config service req’d.
MFD1 CONFIG – MFD1 configuration
error. Config service req’d.
SW MISMATCH – GDU software
version mismatch. Xtalk is off.
PFD1 COOLING – PFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
MFD1 COOLING – MFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
PFD1 KEYSTK – PFD1 [keyname] Key
is stuck.
MFD1 KEYSTK – MFD [keyname] Key
is stuck.
CNFG MODULE – PFD1 configuration
module is inoperative.
PFD1 VOLTAGE – PFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage.
MFD1 VOLTAGE – MFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage.
The PFD1 voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
The MFD voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
479
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
DATABASE MESSAGE ADVISORIES
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 navigation
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 navigation
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 basemap
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 basemap
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 terrain
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain
database missing.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 terrain
database missing.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 obstacle
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
database missing.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 obstacle
database missing.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 airport terrain
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 airport terrain
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 airport terrain
database missing.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 airport terrain
database missing.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
INDEX
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Chartview
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 FliteCharts
database error exists.
480
Comments
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the navigation database. Attempt to reload
the navigation database. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the basemap database.
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Ensure that the
terrain card is properly inserted in display. Replace terrain card. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
The terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the obstacle database. Ensure that the data
card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
The obstacle database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the airport terrain database. Ensure that
the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The airport terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified
LRU.
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi database. Ensure that the
data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the ChartView database (optional feature). Ensure that
the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the FliteCharts database (optional feature). Ensure that
the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Airport
Directory database error exists.
Comments
The MFD detected a failure in the Airport Directory database. Ensure that the data
card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 multiple
database errors exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 multiple
database errors exists.
DB MISMATCH – Navigation
database mismatch. Xtalk is off.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Message
The MFD and/or PFD detected a failure in more than one database. If problem
persists, the system should be serviced.
EIS
The PFD and MFD have different navigation database versions or regions installed.
Crossfill is off. Check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or regions.
Also, check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization function
not completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Standby Navigation The PFD and MFD have different standby navigation database versions or regions
database mismatch.
installed. Check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or regions.
Also, check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization function
not completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Terrain database
The PFD and MFD have different terrain database versions or regions installed. Check
mismatch.
the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or regions. Also, check the AUXSYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization function not completed. After
synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Obstacle database The PFD and MFD have different obstacle database versions or regions installed.
mismatch.
Check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or regions. Also,
check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization function not
completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Airport Terrain
The PFD and MFD have different airport terrain database versions or regions installed.
database mismatch.
Check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or regions. Also,
check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization function not
completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
NAV DB UPDATED – Active
System has updated the active navigation database from the standby navigation
navigation database updated.
database.
TERRAIN DSP – [PFD1 or MFD1]
One of the terrain, airport terrain, or obstacle databases required for TAWS in the PFD
Terrain awareness display unavailable. or MFD is missing or invalid.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
GMA 1347 MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Message
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
APPENDICES
Comments
The audio panel self-test has detected a failure. The audio panel is unavailable. The
GMA1 FAIL – GMA1 is inoperative.
system should be serviced.
GMA1 CONFIG – GMA1 configuration The audio panel configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory.
error. Config service req’d.
The system should be serviced.
MANIFEST – GMA1 software
The audio panel has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
mismatch. Communication halted.
The audio panel self-test has detected a problem in the unit. Certain audio functions
GMA1 SERVICE – GMA1 needs
may still be available, and the audio panel may still be usable. The system should be
service. Return unit for repair.
serviced when possible.
481
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
GIA 63W MESSAGE ADVISORIES
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
GIA1 CONFIG – GIA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GIA2 CONFIG – GIA2 config error.
Config service req’d.
GIA1 CONFIG – GIA1 audio config
error. Config service req’d.
GIA2 CONFIG – GIA2 audio config
error. Config service req’d.
GIA1 COOLING – GIA1 temperature
too low.
GIA2 COOLING – GIA2 temperature
too low.
GIA1 COOLING – GIA1 over
temperature.
GIA2 COOLING – GIA2 over
temperature.
GIA1 SERVICE – GIA1 needs service.
Return the unit for repair.
GIA2 SERVICE – GIA2 needs service.
Return the unit for repair.
HW MISMATCH – GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA1 communication
halted.
HW MISMATCH – GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA2 communication
halted.
MANIFEST – GIA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – GIA2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
COM1 TEMP – COM1 over temp.
Reducing transmitter power.
COM2 TEMP – COM2 over temp.
Reducing transmitter power.
COM1 SERVICE – COM1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
COM2 SERVICE – COM2 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
COM1 PTT – COM1 push-to-talk key
is stuck.
COM2 PTT – COM2 push-to-talk key
is stuck.
482
Comments
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 configuration settings do not match backup configuration
memory. The system should be serviced.
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 have an error in the audio configuration. The system should be
serviced.
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 temperature is too low to operate correctly. Allow units to
warm up to operating temperature.
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 temperature is too high. If problem persists, the system should
be serviced.
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 self-test has detected a problem in the unit. The system should
be serviced.
A GIA mismatch has been detected, where only one is SBAS capable.
The GIA1 and/or GIA 2 has incorrect software installed. The system should be
serviced.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in COM1 and/or COM2. The
transmitter operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
The system has detected a failure in COM1 and/or COM2. COM1 and/or COM2 may
still be usable. The system should be serviced when possible.
The COM1 and/or COM2 external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or
“pressed”) position. Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation.
If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Comments
G/S1 FAIL – G/S1 is inoperative.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 1 and/or receiver 2. The system
should be serviced.
The COM1 and/or COM2 configuration settings do not match backup configuration
memory. The G950 system should be serviced.
EIS
GPS integrity is insufficient for the current phase of flight.
Loss of GPS navigation due to insufficient satellites.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Loss of GPS navigation due to position error.
Loss of GPS navigation due to GPS failure.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Abort approach due to loss of GPS navigation.
Vertical guidance generated by SBAS is unavailable, use LNAV only minimums.
Displayed after passing the first waypoint of a true north approach when the nav angle is
set to ‘AUTO’.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
A failure has been detected in the GPS1 and/or GPS2 receiver. The receiver may still
be available. The system should be serviced.
AFCS
A failure has been detected in the NAV1 and/or NAV2 receiver. The receiver may still
be available. The system should be serviced.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The remote NAV1 and/or NAV2 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”)
state. Press the transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
APPENDICES
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 1 and/or receiver 2. The receiver
may still be available. The system should be serviced when possible.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
The COM1 and/or COM2 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”)
position. Press the transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem
persists, the system should be serviced.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
G/S2 FAIL – G/S2 is inoperative.
G/S1 SERVICE – G/S1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
G/S2 SERVICE – G/S2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Message
COM1 RMT XFR – COM1 remote
transfer key is stuck.
COM2 RMT XFR – COM2 remote
transfer key is stuck.
COM1 CONFIG – COM1 config error.
Config service req’d.
COM2 CONFIG – COM2 config error.
Config service req’d.
LOI – GPS integrity lost. Crosscheck
with other NAVS.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. Insufficient satellites.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. Position error.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. GPS fail.
ABORT APR – Loss of GPS navigation.
Abort approach.
APR DWNGRADE – Approach
downgraded.
TRUE APR – True north approach.
Change HDG refereence to TRUE.
GPS1 SERVICE – GPS1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GPS2 SERVICE – GPS2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
NAV1 SERVICE – NAV1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
NAV2 SERVICE – NAV2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
NAV1 RMT XFR – NAV1 remote
transfer key is stuck.
NAV2 RMT XFR – NAV2 remote
transfer key is stuck.
483
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
GEA 71 MESSAGE ADVISORIES
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
GEA1 CONFIG – GEA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GEA2 CONFIG – GEA2 config error.
Config service req’d.
MANIFEST – GEA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – GEA2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
Comments
The GEA1 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The system should be serviced.
The GEA2 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The system should be serviced.
The #1 GEA 71 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The #2 GEA 71 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
GTX 33 MESSAGE ADVISORIES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Message
XPDR1 CONFIG – XPDR1 config error.
Config service req’d.
MANIFEST – GTX1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
XPDR1 SRVC – XPDR1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
XPDR1 FAIL – XPDR1 is inoperative.
Comments
The transponder configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration
memory. The system should be serviced.
The transponder has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The #1 transponder should be serviced when possible.
There is no communication with the #1 transponder.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
GRS 77 MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Message
AFCS
AHRS1 TAS – AHRS1 not receiving
airspeed.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 using backup
GPS source.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
any GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
backup GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 operating
exclusively in no-GPS mode.
AHRS1 SRVC – AHRS1 Magnetic-field
model needs update.
GEO LIMITS – AHRS1 too far North/
South, no magnetic compass.
MANIFEST – GRS1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
484
Comments
The #1 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS
relies on GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The system should be
serviced.
The #1 AHRS is using the backup GPS path. Primary GPS path has failed. The system
should be serviced when possible.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving any or any useful GPS information. Check AFMS
limitations. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS information. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is operating exclusively in no-GPS mode. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS earth magnetic field model is out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The aircraft is outside geographical limits for approved AHRS operation. Heading is
flagged as invalid.
The #1 AHRS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
GMU 44 MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Comments
A fault has occurred in the #1 GMU 44. Heading is flagged as invalid. The AHRS uses
GPS for backup mode operation. The system should be serviced.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
HDG FAULT – AHRS1 magnetometer
fault has occurred.
MANIFEST – GMU1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
The GMU 44 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
GDC 74A MESSAGE ADVISORIES
Comments
EIS
GDC1 is reporting that the altitude error correction is unavailable.
GDC1 is reporting that the airspeed error correction is unavailable.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Message
ADC1 ALT EC – ADC1 altitude error
correction is unavailable.
ADC1 AS EC – ADC1 airspeed error
correction is unavailable.
MANIFEST – GDC1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
The GDC 74A has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
GDL 69A MESSAGE ADVISORIES (OPTIONAL)
Message
GDL69 CONFIG – GDL 69 config
error. Config service req’d.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Comments
GDL 69 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GDL 69. The receiver is unavailable. The system
GDL69 FAIL – GDL 69 has failed.
should be serviced
MANIFEST – GDL software mismatch, The GDL 69 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
communication halted.
GWX FAIL – GWX is inoperative.
A failure has been detected in the GWX 68. The GWX 68 may still be usable.
APPENDICES
GWX SERVICE – Needs service.
Return unit for repair.
MANIFEST – GWX software
mismatch, communication halted.
WX ALERT – Possible severe weather
ahead.
Comments
GWX 68 configuration settings do not match those of the GDU configuration. The
system should be serviced.
The GDU is not recieving status packet from the GWX 68 or the GWX 68 is reporting
a fault. The GWX 68 radar system should be serviced.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Message
GWX CONFIG – GWX config error.
Config service req’d.
AFCS
GWX 68 MESSAGE ADVISORIES (OPTIONAL)
The GWX 68 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GWX 68 indicates severe weather within ±10 degrees of the aircraft heading at a
range of 80 to 320 nm.
INDEX
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
485
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
GTS 800/820 TRAFFIC ADVISORY SYSTEM (OPTIONAL)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message Advisory
GTS CONFIG – GTS Config error.
Config service req'd.
MANIFEST – GTS software mismatch,
communication halted.
Comments
The GTS and GDU have different copies of the GTS configuration, or the Mode S
address is invalid. The system should be serviced.
The GTS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
MISCELLANEOUS MESSAGE ADVISORIES
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Message
Comments
FPL WPT LOCK – Flight plan waypoint Upon power-up, the system detects that a stored flight plan waypoint is locked. This
is locked.
occurs when an navigation database update eliminates an obsolete waypoint. The
flight plan cannot find the specified waypoint and flags this message. This can also
occur with user waypoints in a flight plan that is deleted.
Remove the waypoint from the flight plan if it no longer exists in any database,
Or
Update the waypoint name/identifier to reflect the new information.
FPL WPT MOVE – Flight plan
The system has detected that a waypoint coordinate has changed due to a new
waypoint moved.
navigation database update. Verify that stored flight plans contain correct waypoint
locations.
TIMER EXPIRD – Timer has expired.
The system notifies the pilot that the timer has expired.
DB CHANGE – Database changed.
This occurs when a stored flight plan contains an airway that is no longer consistent
Verify user modified procedures.
with the navigation database. This alert is issued only after an navigation database
update. Verify that the user-modified procedures in stored flight plans are correct and
up to date.
DB CHANGE – Database changed.
This occurs when a stored flight plan contains an airway that is no longer consistent
Verify stored airways.
with the navigation database. This alert is issued only after an navigation database
update. Verify use of airways in stored flight plans and reload airways as needed.
FPL TRUNC – Flight plan has been
This occurs when a newly installed navigation database eliminates an obsolete
truncated.
approach or arrival used by a stored flight plan. The obsolete procedure is removed
from the flight plan. Update flight plan with current arrival or approach.
LOCKED FPL – Cannot navigate
This occurs when the pilot attempts to activate a stored flight plan that contains
locked flight plan.
locked waypoint. Remove locked waypoint from flight plan. Update flight plan with
current waypoint.
WPT ARRIVAL – Arriving at waypoint
Arriving at waypoint [xxxx], where [xxxx] is the waypoint name.
-[xxxx]
STEEP TURN – Steep turn ahead.
A steep turn is 15 seconds ahead. Prepare to turn.
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead less Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft will penetrate the airspace within
than 10 minutes.
10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
ahead.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
than 2 nm.
486
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APPENDIX A
Bad parallel track geometry.
EIS
Invalid leg type for parallel offset.
IAF waypoint for parallel offset has been passed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The current vertical waypoint can not be reached within the maximum flight path
angle and vertical speed constraints. The system automatically transitions to the next
vertical waypoint.
The lateral flight plan contains a procedure turn, vector, or other unsupported leg
type prior to the active vertical waypoint. This prevents vertical guidance to the active
vertical waypoint.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The current crosstrack exceeds the limit, causing vertical deviation to go invalid.
The current track angle error exceeds the limit, causing the vertical deviation to go
invalid.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
VNV – Unavailable. Excessive
crosstrack error.
VNV – Unavailable. Excessive track
angle error.
VNV – Unavailable. Parallel course
selected.
NON WGS84 WPT – Do not use GPS
navigation to [xxxx].
Comments
The system notifies the pilot that the loaded approach is not active. Activate
approach when required.
The system notifies the pilot to load the approach frequency for the appropriate NAV
receiver. Select the correct frequency for the approach.
The system notifies the pilot to set the CDI to the correct NAV receiver. Set the CDI to
the correct NAV receiver.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
VNV – Unavailable. Unsupported leg
type in flight plan.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Message
APPR INACTV – Approach is not
active.
SLCT FREQ – Select appropriate
frequency for approach.
SLCT NAV – Select NAV on CDI for
approach.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
bad geometry.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
invalid leg type.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
past IAF.
UNABLE V WPT – Can’t reach current
vertical waypoint.
A parallel course has been selected, causing the vertical deviation to go invalid.
APPENDICES
INDEX
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
190-01325-00 Rev. A
AFCS
The position of the selected waypoint [xxxx] is not calculated based on the WGS84
map reference datum and may be positioned in error as displayed. Do not use GPS to
navigate to the selected non-WGS84 waypoint.
TRAFFIC FAIL – Traffic device has
The system is no longer receiving data from the traffic system. The traffic device
failed.
should be serviced.
FAILED PATH – A data path has failed. A data path connected to the GDU, GDL 69A, or the GIA 63/W has failed.
MAG VAR WARN – Large magnetic
The GDU’s internal model cannot determine the exact magnetic variance for
variance. Verify all course angles.
geographic locations near the magnetic poles. Displayed magnetic course angles may
differ from the actual magnetic heading by more than 2°.
SVS – SVS DISABLED: Out of available Synthetic Vision is disabled because the aircraft is not within the boundaries of the
terrain region.
installed terrain database.
SVS – SVS DISABLED: Terrain DB
Synthetic Vision is disabled because a terrain database of sufficient resolution (9 arcresolution too low.
second or better) is not currently installed.
SCHEDULER [#] – <message>.
Message criteria entered by the user.
CHECK CRS – Database course for
Selected course for LOC1 differs from published localizer course by more than 10
LOC1 / [LOC ID] is [CRS]°.
degrees.
CHECK CRS – Database course for
Selected course for LOC2 differs from published localizer course by more than 10
LOC2 / [LOC ID] is [CRS]°.
degrees.
487
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
Comments
The SD card was removed from the top card slot of the PFD or MFD. The SD card
needs to be reinserted.
The SD card was removed from the bottom card slot of the PFD or MFD. The SD card
needs to be reinserted.
The SD card in the top card slot of the PFD or MFD contains invalid data.
The SD card in the bottom card slot of the specified PFD or MFD contains invalid data.
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
[PFD1, or MFD1] CARD 1 REM –
Card 1 was removed. Reinsert card.
[PFD1, or MFD1] CARD 2 REM –
Card 2 was removed. Reinsert card.
[PFD1, or MFD1] CARD 1 ERR – Card
1 is invalid.
[PFD1, or MFD1] CARD 2 ERR – Card
2 is invalid.
FLIGHT PLAN IMPORT/EXPORT MESSAGES
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In some circumstances, some messages may appear in conjunction with others.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Flight Plan Import/Export Results
‘Flight plan successfully imported.’
‘File contained user waypoints only. User
waypoints imported successfully. No stored
flight plan data was modified.’
‘No flight plan files found to import.’
‘Flight plan import failed.’
‘Flight plan partially imported.’
‘File contained user waypoints only.’
‘Too many points. Flight plan truncated.’
AFCS
‘Some waypoints not loaded. Waypoints
locked.’
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
‘User waypoint database full. Not all loaded.’
APPENDICES
‘One or more user waypoints renamed.’
INDEX
‘Flight plan successfully exported.’
‘Flight plan export failed.’
Description
A flight plan file stored on the SD card was successfully imported as a stored flight plan.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints. These
waypoints have been saved to the system user waypoints. No flight plans stored in the
system have been modified.
The SD card contains no flight plan data.
Flight plan data was not successfully imported from the SD card.
Some flight plan waypoints were successfully imported from the SD card, however others
had errors and were not imported. A partial stored flight plan now exists in the system.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints. One or
more of these waypoints did not import successfully.
The flight plan on the SD card contains more waypoints than the system can support. The
flight plan was imported with as many waypoints as possible.
The flight plan on the SD card contains one or more waypoints that the system cannot find
in the navigation database. The flight plan has been imported, but must be edited within
the system before it can be activated for use.
The flight plan file on the SD card contains user waypoints. The quantity of stored user
waypoints has exceeded system capacity, therefore not all the user waypoints on the SD
card have been imported. Any flight plan user waypoints that were not imported are
locked in the flight plan. The flight plan must be edited within the system before it can be
activated for use.
One or more imported user waypoints were renamed when imported due to naming
conflicts with waypoints already existing in the system.
The stored flight plan was successfully exported to the SD card.
The stored flight plan was not successfully exported to the SD card. The SD card may not
have sufficient available memory or the card may have been removed prematurely.
488
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APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TAWS-B ALERTS
Annunciations appear on the PFD and the MFD. Pop-up alerts appear only on the MFD.
Aural Message
Excessive Descent Rate Warning (EDR)
PULL UP
PULL-UP
“Pull Up”
TERRAIN-PULL-UP
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
PULL UP
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
PULL UP
or
TERRAIN AHEAD-PULL-UP
TERRAIN AHEAD-PULL-UP
or
TERRAIN-PULL-UP
PULL UP
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning
(IOI)
PULL UP
TERRAIN
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
TERRAIN
TERRAIN
Premature Descent Alert Caution (PDA)
or
OBSTACLE-PULL-UP
or
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”
CAUTION-TERRAIN
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
or
TERRAIN AHEAD
TERRAIN AHEAD
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
or
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
or
CAUTION-TERRAIN
CAUTION-OBSTACLE
or
OBSTACLE AHEAD
OBSTACLE AHEAD
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
TERRAIN
TOO LOW-TERRAIN
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
Excessive Descent Rate Caution (EDR)
TERRAIN
SINK RATE
“Sink Rate”
TERRAIN
DON’T SINK
Negative Climb Rate Caution (NCR)
“Don’t Sink”
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
Altitude Callout “500”
or
TOO LOW-TERRAIN
INDEX
CAUTION-OBSTACLE
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
or
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”
or
APPENDICES
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution
(IOI)
OBSTACLE AHEAD-PULL-UP “Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
TERRAIN
OBSTACLE AHEAD-PULL-UP
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
AFCS
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
or
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
OBSTACLE-PULL-UP
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
or
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
EIS
MFD Pop-Up Alert (except
TAWS-B Page)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Alert Type
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
* Annunciation is shown on the TAWS-B Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
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489
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
TAWS-B SYSTEM STATUS ANNUNCIATIONS
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
TAWS-B Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Aural Message
TAWS TEST
TAWS TEST
None
None
None
“TAWS System Test OK”
TAWS-B FLTA Alerting Inhibited
TAWS INH
None
None
No GPS position
TAWS N/A
NO GPS POSITION
“TAWS Not Available”†
TAWS N/A
None
“TAWS Not Available”†
TAWS FAIL
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
None
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Alert Type
System Test in progress
EIS
System Test pass
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Excessively degraded GPS signal; or
Out of database coverage area
TAWS-B System Test Fail;
Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid;
Invalid software configuration; or
System audio fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid, TAWS-B
operating with PFD Terrain or
Obstacle databases
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
* Annunciation is shown on the TAWS-B Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
† “TAWS Available” (in-flight only) when sufficient GPS signal received, or terrain database coverage re-entered.
490
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APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
VOICE ALERTS
Voice alerts are provided to the system by the #1 GIA 63W; should this unit fail, audio and voice alerts are
not generated.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Alert Trigger
The aircraft has descended below the preset barometric minimum descent altitude.
The aircraft is one minute from Top of Descent. Issued only when vertical navigation is enabled.
Played when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is issued (TIS).
The aircraft is outside the Traffic Information Service (TIS) coverage area.
Played when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is issued (TAS system).
Played when the TAS system passes a pilot-initiated self test.
Played when the TAS system fails a pilot-initiated self test.
EIS
Voice Alert
“Minimums, minimums”
“Vertical track”
“Traffic”
“TIS Not Available”
“Traffic, Traffic”
“TAS System Test Passed”
“TAS System Test Failed”
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Table A-2 Voice Alerts
The gender of the voice used to announce audio alerts may be set to male or female on the System Setup Page.
Changing the audio alert voice:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the voice in the Audio Alert Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and highlight the desired voice and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure A-5 System Setup Page, Alert Voice Settings
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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491
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
Blank Page
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APPENDIX B
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DATABASE MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
CAUTION: Never disconnect power to the system when loading a database. Power interuption during the
database loading process could result in maintenance being required to reboot the system.
The system uses Secure Digital (SD) cards to load and store various types of data. For basic flight operations,
SD cards are required for database storage as well as Jeppesen navigation and ChartView database updates. Not
all SD cards are compatible with the G950H. Use only SD cards supplied by Garmin or the aircraft manufacturer.
EIS
CAUTION: When downloading updates to the Jeppesen Navigation Database, copy the data to an SD card
other than a Garmin Supplemental Data Card. Otherwise, data corruption can occur.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: When loading database updates, the ‘DB Mismatch’ message will be displayed until database
synchronization is complete, followed by turning system power off, then on. Synchronization can be
monitored on the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page.
NOTE: Loading a database in the system prior to its effective date will result in the expiration date on the
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
power-up screen and the effective date on the AUX-System Status Page being displayed in yellow.
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles
and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go
to FlyGarmin.com and select “Aviation Data Error Report.
JEPPESEN DATABASES
AFCS
The Jeppesen navigation database is updated on a 28-day cycle. The ChartView database is updated on a
14-day cycle. If the ChartView database is not updated within 70 days of the expiration date, ChartView will
no longer function. Both of these databases are provided directly from Jeppesen.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The ChartView database should be copied to the Garmin supplied Supplemental Data Card which will reside
in the bottom card slot on the MFD. The navigation database must be installed from the Jeppesen or user
supplied SD data card. Contact Jeppesen (www.jeppesen.com) for subscription and update information.
NOTE: After the navigation database is installed, the card may be removed.
APPENDICES
Updating the active Jeppesen navigation database (not using the Dual Navigation Database or
Automatic Database Synchronization Features):
1) With the system OFF, insert the SD card containing the new navigation database version into the top card slot of the
display (PFD or MFD) to be updated (label of SD card facing left).
2) Turn the system ON. A prompt similar to the following is displayed in the upper left corner of the display:
INDEX
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
493
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX B
Figure B-1 Standby Navigation Database Prompt
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
3) Press the NO Softkey to proceed to loading the active database.
4) A prompt similar to the following is displayed, press the YES Softkey to update the active navigation database.
Figure B-2 Database Update Confirmation
5) After the update completes, the display starts in normal mode. Do not remove power while the display is
starting.
AFCS
6) Turn the system OFF and remove the SD card from the top card slot.
7) Repeat steps 1 through 6 for the other display (PFD or MFD). Remove the SD card when finished.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
8) Apply power to the system and press the ENT Key to acknowledge the startup screen.
9) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page group on the MFD.
10) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page.
APPENDICES
11) Press the Display Database Selection Softkey to show active navigation database information for each display (MFD1
DB, PFD1 DB). Verify the correct active navigation database cycle information is shown for each display.
DUAL NAVIGATION DATABASE FEATURE
INDEX
The dual navigation database feature allows each display to store an upcoming navigation database on the
bottom SD card so that the system can automatically load it to replace the active database when the new
database becomes effective (the next cycle becomes available seven days prior to its effective date).
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APPENDIX B
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If a navigation database loader card is inserted into the top SD card slot of a display, and an SD card is in the
bottom slot, the system will prompt the user (upon on-ground power up) as to whether the database should
be stored on the bottom SD card as the standby database. If the user responds affirmatively, the system will
copy the navigation database from the top SD card to the bottom SD card. As long as the bottom SD card
remains in the card slot, this standby navigation database will be available for the system to use as the active
database as soon as it becomes effective.
EIS
The system checks the active and standby databases upon (on-ground only) power-up. If the standby
database is current and the active database is out of date, the display will upload the standby database into the
active internal database location. Uploading the standby database to the active location takes approximately
45-55 seconds. The pilot is alerted that the update is complete by a system alert message, ‘NAV DB UPDATED’.
Loading a standby navigation database:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) With the system OFF, insert the SD card containing the new navigation database version into the top card slot
of the MFD.
2) Verify that an SD card is inserted in the bottom slot of the PFD and the MFD.
3) Turn the system ON. A prompt similar to the following is displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure B-3 Standby Navigation Database Prompt
4) Press the YES Softkey. The navigation database is copied to the SD card in the bottom card slot of the MFD.
AFCS
5) After the navigation database files are copied to the bottom SD card, the display will appear as shown in Figure
B-4.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure B-4 Standby Navigation Database Update Complete
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX B
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
6) As instructed on the display, press any key to continue. The display will now appear as shown in Figure B-5.
Figure B-5 Navigation Database Verification Prompt
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
7) Press any key to continue. The display will now appear as shown in Figure B-6.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure B-6 Active Navigation Database Prompt
8) Press the NO Softkey. The display now starts in normal mode. Since the database effective date is not yet valid,
it should not be loaded as the active database. The display now starts in normal mode. Do not remove power
while the display is starting.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
9) Press the ENT Key to acknowledge the startup screen.
10) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page group on the MFD.
11) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page.
12) The new database is copied to the SD card in the bottom card slot of the PFD. Progress can be monitored in the
SYNC STATUS field. When copying is finished, ‘Complete’ is displayed.
AFCS
13) Turn system power OFF.
14) Remove the SD card from the top card slot of the MFD.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
15) Turn system power ON.
16) Press the ENT Key to acknowledge the startup screen.
17) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page group on the MFD.
18) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page.
APPENDICES
19) Press the Display Database Selection Softkey to show standby navigation database information for each display
(MFD1 DB, PFD1 DB). Verify the correct standby navigation database cycle information is shown for each
display.
NOTE: The system compares the active databases on the PFD and the MFD, and displays a system alert
INDEX
message ‘DB Mismatch’ if they are not identical. Similarly, if the standby databases on the PFD and the MFD
are not identical, the system will display a ‘DB Mismatch’ alert for the standby navigation databases.
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APPENDIX B
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
GARMIN DATABASES
The following databases are stored on Supplemental Data Cards provided by Garmin:
• Obstacle
• FliteCharts
• Terrain
• SafeTaxi
• Airport Directory
(AOPA)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Expanded basemap
EIS
After subscribing to the desired database product, these database products will be downloaded and ultimately
stored on two Supplemental Data Cards (with the exception of FliteCharts, which is loaded on only one card).
Each Supplemental Data Card resides in the bottom card of each display as shown in Figure B-7. These cards
must not be removed except to update the databases stored on each card.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
MFD
PFD
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure B-7 Correct Database Locations
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Since these databases are not stored internally in the displays, a Supplemental Data Card containing identical
database versions must be kept in each display unit.
The basemap database contains data for the topography and land features, such as rivers, lakes, and towns.
It is updated only periodically, with no set schedule. There is no expiration date.
APPENDICES
The terrain database contains the terrain mapping data. These databases are updated periodically and have
no expiration date.
The obstacle database contains data for obstacles, such as towers, that pose a potential hazard to aircraft.
Obstacles 200 feet and higher are included in the obstacle database. It is very important to note that not all
obstacles are necessarily charted and therefore may not be contained in the obstacle database. This database is
updated on a 56-day cycle.
INDEX
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497
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NOTE: The data contained in the terrain and obstacle databases comes from government agencies. Garmin
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
APPENDIX B
The AOPA Airport Directory provides data on airports and heliports throughout the U.S., and offers detailed
information for over 5,300 U. S. airports, along with the names and phone numbers of thousands of FBOs. This
database is updated four times per year.
accurately processes and cross-validates the data, but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of
the data.
EIS
The SafeTaxi database contains detailed airport diagrams for selected airports. These diagrams aid in following
ground control instructions by accurately displaying the aircraft position on the map in relation to taxiways,
ramps, runways, terminals, and services. This database is updated on a 56-day cycle.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The FliteCharts database contains procedure charts for the United States only. This database is updated on a
28-day cycle. If not updated within 180 days of the expiration date, FliteCharts will no longer function.
AUTOMATIC DATABASE SYNCHRONIZATION FEATURE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The automatic database synchronization feature automatically transfers the database from a single
SD database card to the SD cards on the PFD and the MFD to ensure that all databases are synchronized
throughout the system. After power-up, the system compares all copies of each applicable database. If similar
databases do not match, the most recent valid database is automatically copied to each card in the system that
does not already contain that database.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The following databases are checked and synchronized: Basemap, Safetaxi, Airport Terrain, Obstacle,
Airport Directory (AOPA), and Terrain. This feature applies only to databases that are stored on the SD card
that resides in the bottom slot of each display. This feature does not apply to the navigation database which
is stored internally in each display, or to the charts databases (FliteCharts and ChartView) which are only
required to be present on the MFD. The typical procedure would be to download new databases to the MFD
card, then synchronize the data to the PFD.
AFCS
NOTE: The 9-arc second terrain database may take as long as 100 minutes to synchronize using this method.
Therefore the user may want to transfer the data using a PC, or connect the system to a ground power
source while performing the database synchronization.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The synchronization progress may be monitored on the AUX-System Status Page in the Sync Status section
of the Database Window (Figure B-8). This section shows the synchronization status of each applicable
database, including the percent complete, time remaining, and to which displays the databases are being
copied. When the synchronization is complete, the status is listed as ‘Complete’, followed by the displays to
which the databases were copied. This sub-section is only present when a sync is occurring or has occurred
on the current power-up.
INDEX
An indication of ‘Complete’ still requires a power cycle before the synchronized databases will be used by
the system.
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APPENDIX B
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure B-8 AUX-System Status Page, Database Window
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Display Database Softkey (Figure B-11) is used to place the cursor in the Database Window. Upon
first press of the Display Database Softkey, the softkey will change to a selected state (black text on gray
background) and the cursor will appear in the Database Window. At this point the user can scroll through
all databases in the Database Window to view status information. If the Display Database Softkey is pressed
repeatedly, the softkey will switch between the PFD and MFD. Database status information in the Database
Window will reflect the database of the selected display. After a successful sync and restart, verify that the
proper databases are now in use on the AUX–System Status Page (Figure B-8).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If an error occurs during the synchronization, an error message will be displayed, followed by the affected
display in the Sync Status section of the Database Window (Figure B-9). If a synchronization completes on
one display, but an error occurs on another, the error message will be displayed with the affected diaplay
listed after it. When an error message (Table B-1) is displayed, the problem must be corrected before the
synchronization can be completed. A power cycle is required to restart synchronization when ‘Card Full’ or
‘Err’ is shown.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
‘Card Full’ Message
APPENDICES
Figure B-9 Synchronization Error Message
INDEX
Error Message
Description
Canceled
Database synchronization has been canceled by removing the bottom SD card in
display being updated
Card Full
SD card does not contain sufficient memory
Err
Displayed for all other errors that may cause the synchronization process to be halted
Timeout
System timed-out prior to the database transfer completing
Table B-1 Database Synchronization Error Messages
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
499
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX B
UPDATING GARMIN DATABASES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Garmin database updates can be obtained by following the instructions detailed in the ‘Aviation
Databases’ section of the Garmin website (fly.garmin.com). Once the updated files have been downloaded
from the website, a PC equipped with an appropriate SD card reader is used to unpack and program the new
databases onto an existing Supplemental Data Card. Equipment required to perform the update is as follows:
• Windows-compatible PC computer (running Windows XP, Vista, or Windows 7)
• SD Card Reader: SanDisk SDDR-93, SanDisk SDDR-99, Verbatim #96504, or equivalent
• Updated database obtained from the Garmin website
EIS
• Existing Supplemental Database SD Cards (010-00330-4A, -4B, -4C, -4D, -4E, or -4F) from the PFD and
MFD
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In some cases it may be necessary to obtain an unlock code from Garmin in order to make the database
product functional. It may also be necessary to have the system configured by a Garmin authorized service
facility in order to use some database features.
After the data has been copied to the appropriate data card, perform the following steps:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) With system power OFF, remove the MFD database card from the bottom card slot of the MFD.
2) Update the Garmin databases on the MFD card.
3) Insert the MFD database card into the bottom card slot of the MFD.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Apply power to the system, check that the databases are initialized and displayed on the power-up screen
(Figure B-10). When updating the terrain and FliteCharts databases, a ‘Verifying’ message may be seen. If this
message is present, wait for the system to finish loading before proceeding to step 5.
Figure B-10 Database Information on the Power-up Screen
5) Acknowledge the Power-up Page agreement by pressing the ENT Key or the right most softkey.
INDEX
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page group on the MFD.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page.
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APPENDIX B
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8) Monitor the Sync Status in the Database Window. Wait for all databases to complete synching, indicated by
‘Complete’ being displayed as seen in Figure B-9.
9) Remove and reapply power to the system.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
10) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page group on the MFD.
11) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page.
12) Press the Display Database Selection Softkey to show database information for each display (MFD1 DB, PFD1
DB). Verify the correct database cycle information is shown for each database for each display.
EIS
Unselected
MFD1 DB Selected PFD1 DB Selected
Figure B-11 Display Database Softkey
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
MAGNETIC FIELD VARIATION DATABASE UPDATE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
A copy of the current magnetic field variation database (MV DB) is included with the navigation database.
At startup, the system compares this version of the MV DB with that presently being used by each AHRS
(GRS1 and GRS2). If the system determines the MV DB needs to be updated, a prompt is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page, as shown in Figure B-12. Note, in the following example, GRS1 is the first AHRS to
indicate an update is available. In actuality, this is dependent on which AHRS is the first to report status to the
system. GRS2 may be displayed before GRS1. The order is not important, only that both AHRS be updated.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure B-12 GRS1 Magnetic Field Variation Database Update Prompt
Loading the magnetic field variation database update:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) With ‘OK’ highlighted, as seen in Figure B-12, press the ENT Key on the MFD. A progress monitor is displayed
as shown in Figure B-13.
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure B-13 Uploading Database to GRS1
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501
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX B
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) When the upload is complete, the prompt for the next GRS upload is displayed, as seen in Figure B-14.
EIS
Figure B-14 GRS2 Magnetic Field Variation Database Update Prompt
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key on the MFD. A progress monitor is displayed as shown in Figure B-15.
When the upload is complete, the system is ready for use.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure B-15 Uploading Database to GRS2
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APPENDIX C
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
GLOSSARY
auxiliary
Automated Weather Observing System
B ALT
BARO
BATT
BC
Bearing
barometric altitude
barometric setting
battery
backcourse
The compass direction from the
present position to a destination
waypoint.
beat frequency oscillator
backspace
bearing
BFO
BKSP
BRG
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
CO
COM
CONFIG
COOL
COPLT
center runway
degrees Celsius
Course to Altitude
calculator
Indicated airspeed corrected for
installation and instrument errors.
Course to DME distance
Course Deviation Indicator
Control Display Unit
Course to Fix
Cylinder Head Temperature
checklist
channel
Course to Intercept
cloud
clear
centimeter
Communication, Navigation, &
Surveillance
carbon monoxide
communication radio
configuration
coolant
co-pilot
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
C
ºC
CA
CALC
Calibrated
Airspeed
CD
CDI
CDU
CF
CHT
CHKLIST
CHNL
CI
CLD
CLR
cm
CNS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
190-01325-00 Rev. A
AUX
AWOS
EIS
AIM
AIRMET
ALRT
ALT
ALT, ALTN
AMPS
ANNUNC
ANT
AP
AP DISC
APR
APT
ARINC
ARSPC
ARTCC
ARV
AS
ASB
ASOS
ATC
ATCRBS
ATIS
ATK
AUTOSEQ
accuracy
active, activate
air data computer
Automatic Direction Finder
Attitude Direction Indicator
Arc to fix
Automatic Flight Control System
Airplane Flight Manual
Airplane Flight Manual Supplement
airframe
Above Ground Level
Attitude and Heading Reference
System
Airman’s Information Manual
Airman’s Meteorological Information
alert
altitude
alternator
amperes
annunciation
antenna
autopilot
autopilot disconnect
approach
airport, aerodrome
Aeronautical Radio Incorporated
airspace
Air Route Traffic Control Center
arrival
airspeed
Aviation Support Branch
Automated Surface Observing System
Air Traffic Control
ATC Radar Beacon System
Automatic Terminal Information Service
along-track
automatic sequence
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ACC
ACT, ACTV
ADC
ADF
ADI
AF
AFCS
AFM
AFMS
AFRM
AGL
AHRS
503
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX C
Course
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Course to
Steer
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
CR
CRG
CRNT
Crosstrack
Error
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
CRS
CRS
CRSR
CTA
CTRL
Cumulative
CVR
CVRG
CWS
CYL
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
D ALT
DB, DBASE
dBZ
DCLTR,
DECLTR
DEC FUEL
deg
DEIC, DEICE
DEP
Desired Track
INDEX
DEST
DF
DFLT
DGRD
504
The line between two points to be
followed by the aircraft.
The recommended direction to steer
in order to reduce course error or stay
on course. Provides the most efficient
heading to get back to the desired
course and proceed along the flight
plan.
Course to Radial
Cockpit Reference Guide
current
The distance the aircraft is off a
desired course in either direction, left
or right.
course
Course to Steer
cursor
Control Area
control
The total of all legs in a flight plan.
Cockpit Voice Recorder
coverage
control wheel steering
cylinder
density altitude
database
decibels ‘Z’ (radar return)
declutter
decrease fuel
degree
de-icing
departure
The desired course between the active
“from” and “to” waypoints.
destination
Direct to Fix
default
degrade
DH
Dilution of
Precision
DIR
DIS
Distance
DME
DOP
DP
DPRT
DR
DSBL
DTK
E
ECU
Efficiency
EGT
EIS
ELEV
ELEV
EMERGCY
EMI
ENDUR
Endurance
ENG
ENGD
ENR
Enroute Safe
Altitude
decision height
A measure of GPS satellite geometry
quality on a scale of one to ten (lower
numbers equal better geometry,
where higher numbers equal poorer
geometry).
direction
distance
The ‘great circle’ distance from the
present position to a destination
waypoint.
Distance Measuring Equipment
Dilution of Precision
Departure Procedure
departure
dead reckoning
disabled
Desired Track
empty, east
Engine Control Unit
A measure of fuel consumption,
expressed in distance per unit of fuel.
Exhaust Gas Temperature
Engine Indication System
elevation
elevator
emergency
Electromagnetic Interference
endurance
Flight endurance, or total possible
flight time based on available fuel on
board.
engine
engaged
enroute
The recommended minimum altitude
within ten miles left or right of the
desired course on an active flight plan
or direct-to.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
G/S, GS
GA
gal, gl
GBOX
GDC
GDL
GDU
GEA
GEO
GFC
GIA
GLS
glideslope
go-around
gallon(s)
gearbox
Garmin Air Data Computer
Garmin Satellite Data Link
Garmin Display Unit
Garmin Engine/Airframe Unit
geographic
Garmin Flight Control
Garmin Integrated Avionics Unit
Global Navigation Satellite Landing
System
GMA
Garmin Audio Panel System
GMT
Greenwich Mean Time
GMU
Garmin Magnetometer Unit
GND
ground
gph
gallons per hour
GPS
Global Positioning System
Grid MORA
Grid Minimum Off-Route Altitude;
one degree latitude by one degree
longitude in size and clears the highest
elevation reference point in the grid by
1000 feet for all areas of the grid
Groundspeed The velocity that the aircraft is
travelling relative to a ground position.
Ground Track see Track
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
190-01325-00 Rev. A
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
degrees Fahrenheit
Course From Fix to Altitude
Federal Aviation Administration
Full Authority Digital Engine Control
Final Approach Fix
failure
Course From Fix to Distance
Federal Communication Commission
forecast
Course From Fix to DME Distance
flight director
Fault Detection and Exclusion
fuel flow
Flight Information Services-Broadcast
Flight Information Service Data Link
flight level
Flight Level Change
Course From Fix to Manual Termination
Flight Management System
Estimated
Time Enroute
Fuel On
Board
Fuel On Board
flight plan
feet per minute
frequency
freezing
Flight Service Station
foot/feet
The fuel flow rate, expressed in units of
fuel per hour.
The total amount of usable fuel on
board the aircraft.
EIS
ºF
FA
FAA
FADEC
FAF
FAIL
FC
FCC
FCST
FD
FD
FDE
FFLOW
FIS-B
FISDL
FL
FLC
FM
FMS
Estimated
Time of
Arrival
FOB
FPL
fpm
FREQ
FRZ
FSS
ft
Fuel Flow
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ETA
ETE
EXPIRD
enter
Estimated Position Error
Estimated Position Uncertainty
error
Enroute Safe Altitude
A measure of horizontal GPS position
error derived by satellite geometry
conditions and other factors.
The estimated time at which the
aircraft should reach the destination
waypoint, based upon current speed
and track.
The estimated time it takes to reach
the destination waypoint from the
present position, based upon current
ground speed.
Estimated Time of Arrival
Estimated Time Enroute
expired
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENT
EPE
EPU
ERR
ESA
Estimated
Position Error
505
GRS
GS
GTX
Garmin Reference System
Ground speed
Garmin Transponder
HA
HDG
Heading
Hold Terminating at Altitude
heading
The direction an aircraft is pointed,
based upon indications from a
magnetic compass or a properly set
directional gyro.
Hold Terminating at Fix
Horizontal Figure of Merit
mercury
high
High Sensitivity
Hold with Manual Termination
A measure of the uncertainty in the
aircraft’s horizontal position.
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX C
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
HF
HFOM
Hg
HI
HI SENS
HM
Horizontal
Figure of
Merit
hPa
HPL
hr
HSDB
HSI
HT
HUL
Hz
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
I
IAF
IAT
IAU
ICAO
INDEX
ICS
ID
IDENT, IDNT
IF
IFR
506
hectopascal
Horizontal Protection Level
hour
High-Speed Data Bus
Horizontal Situation Indicator
heat
Horizontal Uncertainty Level
Hertz
Inner Marker
Initial Approach Fix
Indicated Air Temperature
Integrated Avionics Unit
International Civil Aviation
Organization
Intercom System
Identification/Morse Code Identifier
identification
Initial Fix
Instrument Flight Rules
IG
ILS
IMC
in
INACTV
INC FUEL
IND
Indicated
INFO
in HG
INT
INTEG
IrDA, IRDA
Imperial gallon
Instrument Landing System
Instrument Meteorological Conditions
inch
inactive
increase fuel
indicated
Information provided by properly
calibrated and set instrumentation on
the aircraft panel.
information
inches of mercury
intersection(s)
integrity (RAIM unavailable)
Infrared Data Association
KEYSTK
kg
kHz
km
kt
key stuck
kilogram
kilohertz
kilometer
knot
L
LAT
LBL
lb
LCD
LCL
LED
Left Over Fuel
On Board
left, left runway
latitude
label
pound
Liquid Crystal Display
local
Light Emitting Diode
The amount of fuel remaining on
board after the completion of one or
more legs of a flight plan or direct-to.
Left Over Fuel The amount of flight time remaining,
Reserve
based on the amount of fuel on board
after the completion of one or more
legs of a flight plan or direct-to, and a
known consumption rate.
Leg
The portion of a flight plan between
two waypoints.
LIFR
Low Instrument Flight Rules
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
INDEX
pressure altitude
Passenger Address
Proximity Advisory
passenger(s)
personal computer
Primary Flight Display
Procedure Turn to Course Intercept
pitch
position
parts per million
Present Position
pressure
procedure(s), procedure turn
pounds per square inch
Procedure Turn
APPENDICES
P ALT
PA
PA
PASS
PC
PFD
PI
PIT, PTCH
POSN
PPM
P. POS
PRES, PRESS
PROC
psi
PT
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Outer Marker
Outside Air Temperature
Omni Bearing Selector
offset
oxygen
AFCS
O
OAT
OBS
OFST
OXY
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NRST
north
navigation
NAVigation AID
Non-directional Beacon
Next Generation Radar
nautical mile(s)
No Procedure Turn Required
(Procdeure shall not be executed
without ATC clearance)
nearest
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
190-01325-00 Rev. A
N
NAV
NAVAID
NDB
NEXRAD
nm
NoPT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
MKR
MOA
MOV
mpm
Middle Marker
meter
Magnetic
Magnetic Variation
Missed Approach Hold Point
manifold pressure (inches Hg)
Manual Squelch
Missed Approach Point
Master Avionics Squelch
maximum
maximum speed (overspeed)
barometric minimum descent altitude
manual electric trim
Meteorological Aviation Routine
manual electric pitch trim
Multi Function Display
Military Grid Reference System
megahertz
microphone
minimum
Uses Grid MORAs to determine a safe
altitude within ten miles of the aircraft
present position.
marker beacon
Military Operations Area
movement
meters per minute
Minimum Safe Altitude
message
Mean Sea Level
meter
millivolt(s)
Marginal Visual Flight Rules
EIS
M
m
MAG
MAG VAR
MAHP
MAN IN
MAN SQ
MAP
MASQ
MAX
MAXSPD
MDA
MET
METAR
MEPT
MFD
MGRS
MHz
MIC
MIN
Minimum
Safe Altitude
MSA
MSG
MSL
MT
mV
MVFR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
LRU
LT
LTNG
LVL
Lateral Navigation
low
localizer
loss of integrity (GPS)
longitude
Localizer Performance with Vertical
guidance
Line Replaceable Unit
left
lightning
level
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
LNAV
LO
LOC
LOI
LON
LPV
507
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX C
PTK
PTT
PWR
parallel track
Push-to-Talk
power
SEL, SLCT
SFC
SIAP
QTY
quantity
R
RAD
RAIM
REQ
RES
REV
RF
RMI
RMT
RNG
RNWY
ROL
ROM
rpm
RST FUEL
RSV
RT
RVRSNRY
RX
right, right runway
radial
Receiver Autonomous Integrity
Monitoring
random access memory
reference
remaining (fuel remaining above
Reserve)
required
reserve (fuel reserve entered by pilot)
reverse, revision, revise
Constant Radius Turn to Fix
Radio Magnetic Indicator
remote
range
runway
roll
read only memory
revolutions per minute
reset fuel
reserve (fuel reserve entered by pilot)
right
reversionary
receive
SID
SIGMET
Sim
SLP/SKD
SMBL
SPD
SPI
SPKR
SQ
SRVC, SVC
STAL
STAR
STATS
STBY
STD
STRMSCP
SUA
SUSP
SVS
SW
SYS
select
surface
Standard Instrument Approach
Procedures
Standard Instrument Departure
Significant Meteorological Information
simulator
slip/skid
symbol
speed
Special Position Identification
speaker
squelch
service
stall
Standard Terminal Arrival Route
statistics
standby
standard
Stormscope
Special Use Airspace
suspend
Synthetic Vision System
software
system
S
SA
SAT
SBAS
SCIT
SD
sec
south
Selective Availability
Static Air Temperature
Satellite-Based Augmentation System
Storm Cell Identification and Tracking
Secure Digital
second(s)
T
TA
TACAN
TAF
TAS
TAS
TAT
TAWS
TCA
TCAS
TEL
TEMP
true
Traffic Advisory
Tactical Air Navigation System
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
True Airspeed
Traffic Advisory System, true airspeed
Total Air Temperature
Terrain Awareness and Warning System
Terminal Control Area
Traffic Collision Avoidance System
telephone
temperature
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
RAM
REF
REM
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APPENDIX C
APPENDICES
INDEX
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
transfer
transponder
cross-talk
cross-track
AFCS
190-01325-00 Rev. A
XFER, XFR
XPDR
XTALK
XTK
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
velocity (airspeed)
Heading Vector to Altitude
VOR approach
variation
Heading Vector to DME Distance
volts, direct current
vertical
A measure of the uncertainty in the
aircraft’s vertical position.
watt(s), west
Wide Area Augmentation System
warning (GPS position error)
World Geodetic System - 1984
waypoint(s)
world wide
weather
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
V, Vspeed
VA
VAPP
VAR
VD
Vdc
VERT
Vertical Figure
of Merit
W
WAAS
WARN
WGS-84
WPT
WW
WX
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
unavailable
user
Coordinated Universal Time
Universal Transverse Mercator /
Universal Polar Stereographic Grid
EIS
UNAVAIL
USR
UTC
UTM/UPS
Vertical Speed The vertical speed necessary to
Required
descend/climb from a current position
and altitude to a defined target
position and altitude, based upon
current groundspeed.
VFOM
Vertical Figure of Merit
VFR
Visual Flight Rules
VHF
Very High Frequency
VI
Heading Vector to Intercept
VLOC
VOR/Localizer Receiver
VM
Heading Vector to Manual Termination
VMC
Visual Meteorological Conditions
VNAV, VNV
vertical navigation
VOL
volume
VOR
VHF Omni-directional Range
VORTAC
very high frequency omnidirectional
range station and tactical air
navigation
VPL
Vertical Protection Level
VPROF
VNV profile, vertical profile
VPTH
VNV path, vertical path
VR
Heading Vector to Radial
VS
vertical speed
VSI
Vertical Speed Indicator
VSR
Vertical Speed Required
VTF
vector to final
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Track Angle
Error
TRG
TRK
TRSA
TRUNC
TTL
TURN
TX
terminal
Track Between Two Fixes
Temporary Flight Restriction
True Heading
Traffic Information System
Turbine Inlet Temperature
Track Angle Error
Terminal Maneuvering Area
Timer/Reference
topographic
Direction of aircraft movement relative
to a ground position; also ‘Ground
Track’
The angle difference between the
desired track and the current track.
target
track
Terminal Radar Service Area
truncated
total
procedure turn
transmit
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TERM
TF
TFR
T HDG
TIS
TIT
TKE
TMA
TMR/REF
Topo
Track
509
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX C
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APPENDIX D
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If a particular aspect of G950 operational capability is not addressed by these commonly asked questions or in
the index, contact Garmin (see the copyright page or back cover for contact information) or a Garmin-authorized
dealer. Garmin is dedicated to supporting its products and customers.
What is SBAS?
EIS
The Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) uses a system of ground stations to correct any GPS signal
errors. These ground stations correct for errors caused by ionospheric disturbances, timing, and satellite
orbit errors. It also provides vital integrity information regarding the health of each GPS satellite. The signal
correction is then broadcast through geostationary satellites. This correction information can then be received
by any SBAS-enabled GPS receiver.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SBAS is designed to provide the additional accuracy, availability, and integrity necessary to enable users to rely
on GPS for all phases of flight.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
There are several SBAS systems serving different parts of the world. The Wide Area Augmentation System
(WAAS) is currently available in the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. The European Geostationary
Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) offers coverage of Europe, parts of the middle east and northern Africa.
The Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS) covers mainly Japan and parts of northern Australia.
How does SBAS affect approach operations?
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Both LNAV/VNAV and LPV approaches use the accuracy of SBAS to include vertical (glide path) guidance
capability. The additional accuracy and vertical guidance capability allows improved instrument approaches to
an expanded number of airports throughout the U.S.
AFCS
The implementation of LPV approaches further improves precision approach capabilities. LPV approaches
are designed to make full use of the improved GPS signal from the SBAS. This approach combines the LNAV/
VNAV vertical accuracy with lateral guidance similar to the typical Instrument Landing System (ILS). LPV
approaches allow lower approach minimums.
What is RAIM and how does it affect approach operations?
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
RAIM is an acronym for Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring. RAIM is a GPS receiver function that
performs the following functions:
• Monitors and verifies integrity and geometry of tracked GPS satellites
• Notifies the pilot when satellite conditions do not provide the necessary coverage to support a certain phase
of flight
APPENDICES
• Predicts satellite coverage of a destination area to determine whether the number of available satellites is
sufficient to satisfy requirements
NOTE: If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
INDEX
active, as indicated by the “RAIM not available from FAF to MAP” message and the LOI annunciation
flagging on the HSI.
511
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX D
For RAIM to work correctly, the GPS receiver must track at least five satellites. A minimum of six satellites is
required to allow RAIM to eliminate a single corrupt satellite from the navigation solution.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
RAIM ensures that satellite geometry allows for a navigation solution calculation within a specified protection
limit (2.0 nm for oceanic and en route, 1.0 nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). The
G950 System monitors RAIM and issues an alert message when RAIM is not available (see Appendix A). Without
RAIM, GPS position accuracy cannot be monitored. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the pilot
must fly the missed approach procedure.
Why are there not any approaches available for a flight plan?
EIS
Approaches are available for the final destination airport in a flight plan or as a direct-to (keep in mind
that some VOR/VORTAC identifiers are similar to airport identifiers). If a destination airport does not have a
published approach, the G950 indicates “NONE” for the available procedures.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
What happens when an approach is selected? Can a flight plan with an approach, a departure, or an
arrival be stored?
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When an approach, departure, or arrival is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach, departure,
or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan, along with a header line showing the title of the selected
instrument procedure. The original en route portion of the flight plan remains active, unless the instrument
procedure is activated. This may be done either when the procedure is loaded or at a later time.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Flight plans can also be stored with an approach, a departure, or an arrival. Note that the active flight plan
is erased when the system is turned off. Also, the active flight plan is overwritten when another flight plan is
activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, a departure, or an arrival, the G950 uses the waypoint
information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the database is changed or updated, the
G950 System automatically updates the information, provided the procedure has not been modified. Should
an approach, departure, or arrival procedure no longer be available, the flight plan becomes locked until the
procedure is deleted from the flight plan.
AFCS
Can “slant Golf” (“/G”) be filed using the G950?
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
“/G” may be filed for a flight plan. The G950 System meets the requirements of TSO-C145a Class 3 and
ETSO-C145 Class 3 installations. GPS approaches are not to be flown with an expired database. See the
approved AFM/POH as well as the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) for more information.
What does the OBS Softkey do?
APPENDICES
The OBS Softkey is used to select manual sequencing of waypoints. Activating OBS mode sets the current
active-to waypoint as the primary navigation reference and prevents the system from sequencing to the next
waypoint in a flight plan. When OBS mode is cancelled, automatic waypoint sequencing is continued, and the
G950 automatically activates the next waypoint in the flight plan once the aircraft has crossed the present active
waypoint.
INDEX
•
•
•
•
512
Normal (OBS not activated)
Automatic sequencing of waypoints
Manual course change on HSI not possible
Always navigates ‘TO’ the active waypoint
Must be in this mode for final approach course
•
•
•
•
OBS
Manual sequencing - ‘holds’ on selected waypoint
Manually select course to waypoint from HSI
Indicates ‘TO’ or ‘FROM’ waypoint
Cannot be set for final approach course or published holding patterns
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX D
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When OBS mode is active, the G950 allows the pilot to set a desired course to/from a waypoint using the
CRS/BARO Knob and HSI (much like a VOR).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The most common application for using the OBS Softkey is the missed approach. The G950 suspends
automatic waypoint sequencing (indicated by a ‘SUSP’ annunciation placed on the HSI) when the missed
approach point (MAP) is crossed. This prevents the G950 from automatically sequencing to the missed approach
holding point (MAHP). During this time, the OBS Softkey designation changes to SUSP. Pressing the SUSP
Softkey reactivates automatic waypoint sequencing. The OBS Softkey then resumes its normal functionality.
Why does the G950 not automatically sequence to the next waypoint?
EIS
The G950 only sequences flight plan waypoints when automatic sequencing is enabled (i.e., no “OBS” or
‘SUSP’ annunciation). For automatic sequencing to occur, the aircraft must also cross the “bisector” of the turn
being navigated. The bisector is a line passing through the waypoint common to two flight plan legs at an
equal angle from each leg.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
How can a waypoint be skipped in an approach, a departure, or an arrival?
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The G950 allows the pilot to manually select any approach, departure, or arrival leg as the active leg of the
flight plan. This procedure is performed on the MFD from the Active Flight Plan Page by highlighting the
desired waypoint and selecting the ACT LEG Softkey then the ENT Key to approve the selection. The GPS
then provides navigation along the selected flight plan leg.
When does turn anticipation begin?
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The G950 smooths adjacent leg transitions based on a normal 15° bank angle (with the ability to roll up to
30°) and provides three pilot cues for turn anticipation:
• A waypoint alert (‘Next DTK ###° in # seconds’ or ‘Next HDG ###° in # seconds’) appears on the PFD 10
seconds before the turn point and flashes as it counts down to zero.
AFCS
• A flashing turn advisory (‘Turn [right/left] to ###° in # seconds’) appears on the PFD 10 seconds before the
turn and flashes as it counts down to zero. ‘Turn [right/left] to ###° now’ or ‘Next [DTK/HDG] to ###° now’
is displayed when the pilot is to begin the turn and the HSI (GPS mode) automatically sequences to the next
DTK or HDG value.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• The To/From indicator on the HSI flips momentarily to indicate that the midpoint of the turn has been
crossed.
When does the CDI scale change?
APPENDICES
Once a departure is activated, the G950 Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) full scale deflection is set to 0.3
nm. The CDI scale changes to 1.0 nm (terminal mode) then ramps up to 2.0 nm (enroute mode) at 30 nm
from the departure airport. When 31 nm from the destination, the CDI scale smoothly transition from 2.0 nm
back to 1.0 nm (terminal mode). At 2.0 nm before the FAF during an active approach, the CDI scale transitions
down further based on the type of approach activated (LNAV, LNAV/VNAV, LPV). When a missed approach is
activated, the CDI is set to 0.3 nm. See the Flight Instruments Section for more details on CDI scaling.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX D
Why does the HSI not respond like a VOR when OBS mode is active?
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Unlike a VOR, the CDI scale used on GPS equipment is based on the crosstrack distance to the desired
course, not on the angular relationship to the destination. Therefore, the CDI deflection on the GPS is constant
regardless of the distance to the destination and does not become less sensitive when further away from the
destination.
What is the correct missed approach procedure? How is the missed approach holding point selected?
EIS
To comply with TSO specifications, the G950 does not automatically sequence past the MAP. The first
waypoint in the missed approach procedure becomes the active waypoint when the SUSP Softkey is selected
after crossing the MAP. All published missed approach procedures must be followed, as indicated on the
approach plate.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
To execute the missed approach procedure prior to the MAP (not recommended), select the Active Flight Plan
Page and use the ACT LEG Softkey to activate the missed approach portion of the procedure.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
After a missed approach, how can the same approach be re-selected? How can a new approach be
activated?
NOTE: Do not attempt to reactivate the current approach prior to crossing the missed approach point
(MAP). If an attempt to do so is made, an alert message “Are you sure you want to discontinue the current
approach?” appears. The G950 directs the pilot back to the transition waypoint and does not take into
consideration any missed approach procedures, if the current approach is reactivated.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
After flying the missed approach procedure, the pilot may reactivate the same approach for another attempt by
pressing the PROC Key. Once the clearance is given for another attempt, activate the approach by highlighting
‘ACTIVATE APPROACH’ using the large FMS Knob and pressing the ENT Key. The G950 provides navigation
along the desired course to the waypoint and rejoins the approach in sequence from that point.
AFCS
To activate a new approach for the same airport, select the new procedure by pressing the PROC Key. Choose
‘SELECT APPROACH’, select the desired approach from the list shown, and press the ENT Key. Select the
desired transition, then activate the approach using the ENT Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To activate a new approach to a different airport, press the Direct-to Key and select the desired airport using
the FMS Knobs. Press the ENT Key to accept the selected airport, then follow the steps in the preceding
paragraph to select an approach for the new airport.
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APPENDIX E
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
GENERAL TIS INFORMATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Aircraft without an operating transponder are invisible to TIS.
NOTE: TIS is not intended to be used as a collision avoidance system and does not relieve the pilot of the
responsibility to “see and avoid” other aircraft. TIS should not be used for avoidance maneuvers during
instrument meterorlogical conditions (IMC) or when there is no visual contact with the intruder aircraft.
EIS
The Traffic Information Service (TIS) provides traffic advisory information to non-TAS/TCAS-equipped aircraft.
TIS is a ground-based service providing the relative locations of all ATCRBS Mode-A and Mode-C transponder
equipped aircraft within a specified service volume. The TIS ground sensor uses real-time track reports to
generate traffic notification. The system displays TIS traffic information on the Traffic Map Page of the MFD. TIS
information may also be displayed for overlay on the MFD Navigation Map Page, as well as on the PFD Inset Map.
Surveillance data includes all transponder-equipped aircraft within the coverage volume. The system displays up
to eight traffic targets within a 7.5-nm radius, from 3,000 feet below, to 3,500 feet above the requesting aircraft.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The main difference between the Traffic Information System (TIS) and Traffic Advisory (TAS) or Traffic Collision
Avoidance Systems (TCAS) is the source of surveillance data. TAS/TCAS uses an airborne interrogator with a halfsecond update rate, while TIS utilizes the terminal Mode-S ground interrogator and accompanying data link to
provide a five-second update rate. TIS and TAS/TCAS have similar ranges.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TIS relies on surveillance of the Mode-S radar system, which is a “secondary surveillance” radar system similar
to that used by ATCRBS. Many limitations are inherent in secondary radar surveillance. Information provided by
TIS is neither better nor more accurate than the information used by ATC. TIS is intended only to assist in visual
acquisition of other aircraft in visual meteorological conditions (VMC). While TIS is a useful aid for visual traffic
avoidance, system limitations must be considered to ensure proper use. No recommended avoidance maneuvers
are given, nor authorized, as a direct result of a TIS intruder display or TIS advisory.
• TIS operation may be intermittent during turns or other maneuvering.
AFCS
• TIS is dependent on two-way, line-of-sight communications between the aircraft and the Mode-S radar antenna. Whenever the structure of the aircraft comes between the transponder antenna and the ground-based radar
antenna, the signal may be temporarily interrupted.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: Refer to the TIS Limitations section of the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) for a more
comprehensive explanation of limitations and anomalies associated with TIS.
APPENDICES
NOTE: TIS is unavailable at low altitudes in many areas of the United States. This is often the case in
mountainous regions.
INDEX
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515
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX E
WARNING: Garmin is not responsible for Mode S geographical coverage. Operation of the ground stations
is the responsibility of the FAA. Refer to the AIM for a Terminal Mode S radar site map.
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TIS information is collected during a single radar sweep. Collected information is then sent through the Mode
S uplink on the next radar sweep. Because of this, the surveillance information is approximately five seconds old.
TIS ground station tracking software uses prediction algorithms to compensate for this delay. These algorithms
use track history data to calculate expected intruder positions consistent with the time of display. Occasionally,
aircraft maneuvering may cause variations in this calculation and create slight errors on the Traffic Map Page which
affect relative bearing information and the target track vector and may delay display of the intruder information.
However, intruder distance and altitude typically remain relatively accurate and may be used to assist in spotting
traffic. The following errors are common examples:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• When the client or intruder aircraft maneuvers excessively or abruptly, the tracking algorithm may report
incorrect horizontal position until the maneuvering aircraft stabilizes.
• When a rapidly closing intruder is on a course that intercepts the client aircraft course at a shallow angle
(either overtaking or head-on) and either aircraft abruptly changes course within 0.25 nm, TIS may display the
intruder aircraft on the incorrect side of the client aircraft.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
These are rare occurrences and are typically resolved within a few radar sweeps once the client/intruder aircraft
course stabilizes.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pilots using TIS can provide valuable assistance in the correction of malfunctions by reporting observations
of undesirable performance. Reports should identify the time of observation, location, type and identity of the
aircraft, and describe the condition observed. Reports should also include the type of transponder and transponder
software version. Since TIS performance is monitored by maintenance personnel, not ATC, malfunctions should
be reported in the following ways:
• By telephone to the nearest Flight Service Station (FSS) facility
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
• By FAA Form 8000-7, Safety Improvement Report (postage-paid card can be obtained at FAA FSSs, General
Aviation District Offices, Flight Standards District Offices, and General Aviation Fixed Base Operators)
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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APPENDIX F
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MAP SYMBOLS
AIRPORTS
BASEMAP
Symbol
Item
Interstate Highway
Non-towered, Non-serviced Airport
State Highway
Towered, Non-serviced Airport
US Highway
Symbol
EIS
Unknown Airport
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Item
National Highway
Non-towered, Serviced Airport
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
City
Towered, Serviced Airport
State/Province Border
Restricted (Private) Airport
Heliport
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
International Border
Road
NAVAIDS
Railroad
Symbol
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Item
Latitude/Longitude
Intersection
LOM (compass locator at outer marker)
AIRSPACE BOUNDARIES
VOR/ILS
Warning Area Prohibited Area
Alert Area
Restricted Area
Caution Area Training Area
Danger Area
Unknown Area
Class C
Terminal Radar Service Area
Mode C Area
VORTAC
TACAN
APPENDICES
Mode C Tower Area
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
VOR/DME
Symbol
AFCS
VOR
Item
ICAO Control Area
Class B Airspace
NDB (non-directional radio beacon)
Military Operations Area (MOA)
INDEX
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
517
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX F
HAZARD AVOIDANCE FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Feature
MISCELLANEOUS
Symbol
Terrain display enabled
ARTCC Frequency or FSS Frequency
Traffic display enabled
Map Pointer (when panning)
EIS
Loss of hazard avoidance feature
(a white X is shown over the symbol
to indicate not available; e.g., traffic
symbol)
Measuring Pointer
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Wind Vector
Item
Non-threat Traffic
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Proximity Advisory
Traffic Advisory, Out of Range
Traffic Advisory
Symbol
Elevation Pointer
(on Topography Scale when panning)
TRAFFIC
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Item
Symbol
Overzoom Indicator
User Waypoint
Vertical Navigation Along Track Waypoint
Parallel Track Waypoint
Unanchored Flight Path Waypoint
Top of Descent (TOD)
AFCS
Bottom of Descent (BOD)
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Navigating using Dead Reckoning
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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APPENDIX F
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
OBSTACLE DATABASE
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
EIS
Gray obstacle is more than 1000 ft
below aircraft altitude
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Table G-1 Obstacle Colors
TERRAIN AVOIDANCE COLORS AND SYMBOLS
Aircraft Altitude
100 ft Threshold
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Terrain Above Aircraft Altitude
Red terrain is above
or within 100 ft below
the aircraft altitude
1000 ft
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Yellow terrain is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Black terrain is more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
AFCS
Figure F-1 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
519
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX F
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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INDEX
EIS
B
Backlighting-------------------------------------------------- 47
Barometric altimeter setting---------------------------50, 55
Bearing/distance, measuring------------------------------145
Bearing information-------------------------------------51, 63
Bearing line------------------------------------------- 327, 331
Bearing pointer----------------------------------------------- 62
Bearing source----------------------------------------------- 63
Bus voltage--------------------------------------------------- 92
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
C
Calibrated Airspeed-----------------------------------------243
CAUTION-----------------------------------------------------475
Caution alerts-----------------------------------------------476
CDI---------------------------- 237, 251, 262, 270, 277, 487
CELL MOV Softkey------------------------------------------299
Chart Not Available---------------------------------- 419, 439
Chart options----------------------------------------- 427, 446
Chart setup box-------------------------------------- 433, 450
ChartView--------------------------------------- 397, 418, 436
ChartView plan view---------------------------------------428
ChartView profile view-------------------------------------429
CLD TOP Softkey--------------------------------------------297
Closest Point-------------------------------------------------225
COM channel spacing--------------------------------------107
COM Frequency Box----------------------------------------100
Communication (COM) frequency box------------------- 50
Comparator window---------------------------------------- 75
COM Tuning Failure-----------------------------------------131
Controls
PFD/MFD------------------------------------------20–21, 30
Softkeys------------------------------------------------ 22–25
Coolant temperature------------------------------------87, 92
Copy a Flight Plan------------------------------------------212
Course deviation indicator (CDI)--------------------- 64–68
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)--------------------- 41–42
Course To Altitude------------------------------------------242
Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT °F)--------------------- 91
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Audio alerting system--------------------------------------474
Audio Panel----------------------------------------------------- 2
Audio Panel Fail-Safe Operation--------------------------131
Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast--------382
Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)----------------395
Automatic squelch------------------------------------------108
Auto-tuning, COM------------------------------------------103
Auto-tuning, NAV------------------------------------ 112, 116
Auto Zoom---------------------------------------------------138
Auxiliary Pages (AUX)--------------------------------------- 33
AUX - system status page-415, 417, 436, 437, 452, 453,
454, 456
Aviation Symbols------------------------------------- 150, 193
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Activate a Flight Plan---------------------------------------212
Active database-------------------------------------- 494, 495
Active frequency------------------------------------- 100, 109
ADS-B---------------------------------------------------------382
Advisory alerts-----------------------------------------------476
AHRS-----------------------------------------------14, 484, 485
Aircraft range------------------------------------------------- 92
Air Data Computer (ADC)------------------------------------ 3
Airport
Information-----------------------------------------------170
Nearest----------------------------------------------------- 42
Airspace Alerts--------------------------------- 185, 186, 279
Airspeed indicator---------------------------------------50, 52
Airways
Collapsed--------------------------------------------------225
Expanded--------------------------------------------------225
Alerting system----------------------------------------------473
Alerts---------------------------------------------------------473
Aircraft-----------------------------------------------------476
Airspace---------------------------------------------------- 38
Audio voice------------------------------------------ 40, 491
Levels------------------------------------------------------475
Alerts window------------------------------------------------ 74
Along Track Offset----------------------------------- 216, 217
ALT------------------------------------------------------------275
Altimeter--------------------------------------------------50, 54
Altitude
Buffer------------------------------------------------------- 39
Constraints------------------------------------------------228
Altitude constraints-----------------------------------------262
Ammeter------------------------------------------------------ 92
Annunciations
System------------------------------------------------ 11, 477
Test tone---------------------------------------------- 13, 474
Annunciation window--------------------------------------- 51
Annunciator lights------------------------------------------124
Antenna stabilization--------------------------------------332
Antenna tilt--------------------------------------------------329
AOPA Airport Directory----------- 397, 455, 456, 457, 498
Approach-----------------------------------------------------512
Activating-------------------------------------------------241
Loading--------------------------------------- 209, 238, 240
Removing--------------------------------------------------241
Approach box-----------------------------------------------441
APR softkey------------------------------------------- 240, 246
Arrival Alerts-------------------------------------------------- 39
Arrival procedure-193, 207, 235, 237, 238, 240, 260, 262,
271
Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS)----- 3, 9,
14–15
Attitude indicator----------------------------------------50, 53
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
A
I-1
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
INDEX
D
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Databases-----------------------------------------8, 9, 13, 493
Database Synchronization-------------------- 493, 498, 499
Data entry------------------------------------------------ 29–30
Data link-------------------------------------------------------- 1
Datalink receiver troubleshooting------------------------470
Data logging-------------------------------------------------467
Date, time----------------------------------------------------- 37
Day/Night views-------------------------------------- 433, 450
Day view----------------------------------433, 434, 450, 451
DB Mismatch------------------------------------------------496
DCLTR---------------------------------------------------------- 27
Dead reckoning---------------------------------------------- 80
Decision height----------------------------------------------- 79
Declutter, display--------------------------------------------- 81
Delete
Entire airway--------------------------------------- 214, 215
Entire procedure----------------------------------- 214, 215
Flight plan items-----------------------------------------213
Flight plans------------------------------------------------212
Individual waypoint------------------------------- 213, 214
Density Altitude---------------------------------------------245
Departure
Procedure------------------------------205, 219, 232, 234
Select------------------------------------232, 235, 238, 241
Time--------------------------------------------------------243
Digital audio entertainment---------------------------------- 4
Dilution of Precision (DOP)--------------------------------- 19
Direct-to-- 163, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 226, 227,
260, 262, 277
Display backup----------------------------------------------- 99
Display controls----------------------------------------- 20–27
Dual navigation database---------------------------------494
E
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
ECHO TOP Softkey------------------------------------------296
Emergency Frequency--------------------------------------131
ENGINE-------------------------------------------------------- 27
Engine Indication System (EIS)------------------------ 83–94
Engine load-----------------------------------------------87, 92
Engine Page-------------------------------------------------- 86
ENGINE softkey---------------------------------------------- 83
Entering Flight ID------------------------------------ 118, 123
Entertainment inputs---------------------------------------129
Estimated Position Error (EPE)----------------------------- 19
Export Flight Plan-------------------------------------------488
extended squitter-------------------------------------------382
Failure
Input-------------------------------------------------------- 15
Field of View (SVS)------------------------------------------161
INDEX
G
Gain-----------------------------------------------------------330
GBT-----------------------------------------------------------382
GDL 69/69A----------------------------------------------1, 282
GEA 71---------------------------------------------------------- 1
Gearbox temperature--------------------------------------- 92
geodetic sea level------------------------------ 342, 351, 360
Glidepath-----------------------------------------------------275
Glidepath indicator------------------------------------------ 57
Glideslope----------------------------------------------------275
Glideslope indicator----------------------------------------- 57
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Navigation----------------------------------------- 187–280
GPS receiver--------------------------------------------- 15–17
Ground-Based Transceivers--------------------------------382
Ground mapping--------------------------------------------335
GSL----------------------------------------------- 342, 351, 360
GTS 800------------------------------------------------------486
GTX 33---------------------------------------------------------- 1
GTX 33 Mode S Transponders----------------------------118
H
F
I-2
Flight ID----------------------------------------------- 118, 123
Flight instruments--------------------------------------- 49–64
Flight plan
Closest point to reference------------------------------225
Storing-----------------------------------------------------512
FliteCharts-------------------------------------------- 397, 438
FliteCharts®-------------------------------------------------397
FliteCharts cycle---------------------------------------------453
FliteCharts expiration--------------------------------------453
FliteCharts functions---------------------------------------438
FPA----------------------------------------------------- 228, 267
Frequency
Nearest----------------------------------------------------183
Frequency spacing------------------------------------------107
Fuel
Efficiency--------------------------------------------------245
Endurance-------------------------------------------------245
Flow--------------------------------------------------------- 87
Quantity---------------------------------------------------- 87
Remaining-------------------------------------------------245
Required---------------------------------------------------245
Statistics---------------------------------------------------245
Temperature----------------------------------------------- 87
Fuel Flow (FFLOW GPH)------------------------------------ 90
Fuel on Board-----------------------------------------------245
Fuel Quantity (FUEL QTY GAL)----------------------------- 90
Heading------------------------------------------------------- 50
Heading bug-------------------------------------------------- 50
HI SENS-------------------------------------------------------117
Horizontal scan--------325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 333, 334
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
INDEX
Jeppesen aviation database-------------------------------493
M
P
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Page
Menus------------------------------------------------------ 29
Page groups--------------------------------------------- 31–34
Parallel Track------------------------------------ 217, 218, 219
Passenger address------------------------------------------127
PA system----------------------------------------------------127
PFDSee Primary Flight Display (PFD)
PFD failure---------------------------------------------------131
Pilot profiles--------------------------------------------- 36–37
Power-up, system---------------------------------------------- 9
Primary Flight Display (PFD)---------------------------------- 2
Controls----------------------------------------------- 20–21
Softkeys------------------------------------------------ 22–24
INDEX
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
APPENDICES
190-01325-00 Rev. A
OBS mode----------------------------------------------------- 69
Obstacles---------------------------------------------- 481, 482
Odometer----------------------------------------------------- 45
Oil
Pressure------------------------------------------------87, 92
Temperature-------------------------------------------87, 92
Oil Pressure (OIL PSI)---------------------------------------- 91
Omni Bearing Selector (OBS)----------------------- 512–513
Other Statistics--------------------------------------- 243, 245
Outside air temperature--------------------------------50, 71
AFCS
Magnetometer----------------------------------------------- 15
Map
Pages-------------------------------------------------------- 32
Map Panning------------------------------------------------140
Map symbols------------------------------------------------517
Marker beacon----------------------------------------------117
Marker beacon annunciations----------------------------- 75
MASQ processing-------------------------------------------- 95
Measurement units------------------------------------------ 38
Menus--------------------------------------------------------- 29
Message advisories---475, 479, 480, 481, 484, 485, 486
Messages
Reminder--------------------------------------------------- 45
Minimum descent altitude---------------------------------- 79
Minimums----------------------------------------------------491
Missed Approach----------------- 193, 242, 247, 251, 277
MKR/MUTE--------------------------------------------------117
Mode S--------------------------------------------24, 118, 119
Mode selection softkeys---------------------------- 118, 119
Morse code identifier---------------------------------------111
Multi Function Display (MFD)-------------------------------- 2
Controls----------------------------------------------- 20–21
Softkeys----------------------------------------------------- 27
O
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Land Symbols------------------------------------------------149
Line Replaceable Units (LRU)------------------------ 2–5, 12
LNAV----------------------------------------------------------251
LO SENS------------------------------------------------------117
LPV----------------------------------------------------- 251, 277
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
L
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
J
National Weather Service----------------------------------309
Navigation mode selection--------------------------------109
Navigation (NAV)
Database------------------------------------- 190, 228, 229
Map-------------------------------------133, 145, 168, 190
Status Box-------------------------------------------------- 40
Navigation (NAV) frequency box-------------------------- 50
Navigation source-------------------------------------- 64–65
Navigation status box--------------------------------------- 50
Nav radio selection-----------------------------------------109
Nearest
Airports-- 42, 133, 134, 163, 167, 168, 169, 170, 190
Page------------------------------------------- 168, 169, 170
Airspaces---------------------------------------38, 183, 185
Intersections--------------------------------------- 171, 172
NDB--------------------------------------------------------174
User Waypoint--------------------------------------------178
VOR------------------------------------------------- 171, 176
Nearest Airport(s)-------------------------------------------240
Nearest airports, frequency tuning-----------------------103
NEXRAD Softkey--------------------------------------------291
Night view--------------------------------433, 434, 450, 451
Normal display operation----------------------------------- 10
EIS
IDENT function--------------------------------------- 120, 123
ID indicator--------------------------------------------------111
Import Flight Plan-------------------------------------------488
Indicated Altitude-------------------------------------------243
Inset map----------------------------------------------------- 51
Intercom system (ICS)--------------------------------------129
Intersection
Information---------------------------------------- 171–172
Inverting a flight plan--------------------------------------212
IOI------------------------------------------------ 357, 367, 489
N
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
I
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)-20, 21, 50, 59–61, 238,
241, 251, 262, 271, 275, 277, 506
HSI double green arrow------------------------------------109
HSI magenta arrow-----------------------------------------109
HSI single green arrow-------------------------------------109
I-3
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
INDEX
Q
Quick tuning 121.500 MHz-------------------------------102
R
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
RAIM----------------------------17, 237, 247, 248, 249, 250
Range---------------------------------------------------------159
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM)-1 7 – 1 8 ,
247, 511
Reminder messages----------------------------------------- 45
Required Vertical Speed------------------------------------268
Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI)--------- 268, 269
Reversionary
Sensor window-------------------------------------------- 75
Reversionary Mode-----------------------------------------131
ROC---------------------------------------------- 357, 367, 489
RS-232----------------------------------------------------------- 3
Runway
Minimum length------------------------------------------- 42
Surface------------------------------------------------------ 42
RX indicator--------------------------------------------------101
S
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Safe Operating Annunciations--------------------- 475, 476
SafeTaxi------------------------------------------ 397, 412, 415
SafeTaxi database-------------------------------------------416
SBAS---------------------------------------247, 249, 250, 511
Scheduler------------------------------ 45–46, 397–398, 464
Sector scan---------------------------------------------------331
Secure Digital (SD) card---------------------------------8, 493
Selected Altitude--------------------------------------------- 78
Selected Altitude Intercept Arc----------------------------162
Selected course-------------------------------------------51, 60
Selected heading-----------------------------------------51, 60
Selecting a COM radio-------------------------------------100
Sequencing, automatic-------------------------------------513
Slip/Skid indicator----------------------------------------50, 53
Softkeys------------------------------------------------------- 50
LTNG-------------------------------------------------------298
MFD--------------------------------------------------------- 27
PFD----------------------------------------------------- 23–25
Speaker-------------------------------------------------------124
Split COM operation----------------------------------------128
SQ annunciation--------------------------------------------126
STAB----------------------------------------------------------332
Standby frequency----------------------------- 100, 103, 109
Standby frequency field------------------------------------100
Standby Navigation Database--------------------- 495, 496
Stereo headsets---------------------------------------------124
Stuck microphone-------------------------------------------131
Sunrise/Sunset-----------------------------------------------244
SUSP----------------------------------------------------------- 70
SVS------------------------------------------------------------487
SVS troubleshooting----------------------------------------468
I-4
Symbols, map------------------------------------------------517
Synthetic vision (SVS)------------------------------- 397, 398
System
Annunciations--------------------------------------- 11, 473
Message advisories--------------------------------------479
Power-up----------------------------------------------------- 9
Time--------------------------------------------------------- 37
System Page (EIS)-------------------------------------------- 92
SYSTEM softkey---------------------------------------------- 92
System time--------------------------------------------------- 50
T
TA-------------------------------------------------------------491
Tachometer-----------------------------------------------87, 92
Tachometer (RPM)------------------------------------------- 90
TAF------------------------------------------------------------301
TAS---------------------------- 325, 326, 328, 329, 330, 331
TAWS
Five-Hundred Aural Alert--------------------------------370
TAWS-B------------------------------------------------ 360, 489
ALERTS-----------------------------------------------------489
System Status Annunciations---------------------------490
Terminal procedures charts------------------------- 419, 439
Terrain------------------------------------------------- 481, 489
Color indications-----------------------------------------519
Terrain awareness and warning system------------------ 77
Terrain Proximity--------------------------------------------342
Terrain-SVS-------------------------------------------- 351, 395
Tilt------------------------------------------------------ 328, 329
Tilt line--------------------------------------------------------329
Timer
Departure--------------------------------------------------- 44
Flight-------------------------------------------------------- 44
TOPO DATA------------------------------------- 146, 147, 156
Top of Descent (TOD)-------------------------- 267, 268, 274
TOPO SCALE-------------------------------------------------148
Track indicator------------------------------------------------ 59
Traffic
Annunciation---------------------------------------------- 51
Traffic Advisory----------------------------------------------491
Traffic Advisory System-------------------------------------486
Traffic Advisory (TA)----------------------------------------325
Traffic annunciation----------------------------------------- 76
Traffic Information Service (TIS)-------------------- 515–516
Voice alerts------------------------------------------------- 76
Transponder code entry------------------------------------121
Transponder data box--------------------------------------- 95
Transponder ground mode--------------------------------119
Transponder mode field-------------------------95, 119, 120
Transponder standby mode-------------------------------120
Transponder status box------------------------------------- 50
Trip
Planning-------------------------------------- 243, 244, 245
Statistics----------------------------------------45, 244, 245
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
INDEX
Unable to display chart----------------------------- 419, 439
Units, measurement----------------------------------------- 38
Updating Garmin databases------------------------------416
V
WAAS-------------------------------------------- 251, 482, 511
WARNING----------------------------------------------------475
Warning alerts-----------------------------------------------476
WATCH------------------------------------------------ 333, 334
Waypoint
Automatic sequencing--------------------------- 512, 513
Skipping---------------------------------------------------513
Waypoint Selection Submenu----------188, 196, 200, 247
Weather Attenuated Color Highlight--------------------333
Weather (real-time)-------------------------------------------- 4
Wind--------------------------------------------------- 136, 158
WIND Softkey------------------------------------------------305
EIS
X
XM
radio--------------------------------------------------------282
XM Satellite Weather------------------------------------282
Activating-------------------------------------------------282
NEXRAD---------------------------------------------------291
XM active channel------------------------------------------461
XM channel list----------------------------------------------460
XM presets---------------------------------------------------463
XM radio-----------------------------------------------------460
XM radio volume--------------------------------------------463
XM Satellite Weather
AIREPs-----------------------------------------------------313
Icing--------------------------------------------------------311
PIREPs-----------------------------------------------------313
Turbulence------------------------------------------ 311, 312
XM service class---------------------------------------------459
XM weather/radio--------------------------------------------- 4
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Z
AFCS
Zoom
Auto--------------------------------------------------------138
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
VDISee Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI)
Vertical
Deviation
Guidance--------------------------------------------------229
Direct-to---------------------------------------------------227
Navigation------------------------------------------------228
Speed
Guidance--------------------------------------------------229
Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI)------------------ 268, 269
Vertical navigation
Direct-to---------------------------------------------------227
Vertical scan------------------------------------------ 328, 329
Vertical speed indicator (VSI)--------------------------50, 57
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)-----------------------------269
Vertical track-------------------------------------------------491
VFR code-----------------------------------------------------122
VNAV-------------------------------------------------- 192, 487
VNV---------------------------------------------------- 267, 509
Guidance
Disabling--------------------------------------------------226
Enabling---------------------------------------------------226
VNV indications---------------------------------------------- 73
Voice alerts--------------------------------------------------476
Voice alerts, TIS Traffic--------------------------------- 76, 378
VOL annunciation-------------------------------------------126
Voltmeter------------------------------------------------------ 92
VOR, NearestSee Nearest: VOR
VOR selection------------------------------------------------109
VSISee Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
VS TGT------------------------------------------------- 228, 267
W
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
U
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
True Airspeed (TAS)------------------------- 50, 52, 245, 484
Turn anticipation--------------------------------------------513
Turn rate indicator---------------------------------------50, 62
TX indicator--------------------------------------------------101
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
I-5
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
INDEX
Blank Page
I-6
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-00 Rev. A
Untitled-1 1
11/13/2007 9:15:37 AM
G950
®
Integrated Flight Deck
Pilot’s Guide
®
G950 Pilot’s Guide
Garmin International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street
Olathe, KS 66062, U.S.A.
p:913.397.8200
f:913.397.8282
Garmin (Europe) Ltd.
Liberty House, Bulls Copse Road
Houndsdown Business Park
Southampton, SO40 9RB, U.K.
p:44/0870.8501241
f:44/0870.8501251
Garmin Corporation
No. 68, Jangshu 2nd Road
Shijr, Taipei County, Taiwan
p:886/02.2642.9199
f:886/02.2642.9099
www.garmin.com
Tecnam P2006T
Garmin AT, Inc.
2345 Turner Road SE
Salem, OR 97302, U.S.A.
p:503.391.3411
f:503.364.2138
190-01146-01
Revision A
Tecnam P2006T
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