Garmin | G950 | Garmin G950 G950 Vulcanair P68 Pilot's Guide

Garmin G950 G950 Vulcanair P68 Pilot's Guide
G950
®
Integrated Flight Deck
Pilot’s Guide
®
G950 Pilot’s Guide
Garmin AT, Inc.
2345 Turner Road SE
Salem, OR 97302, U.S.A.
Tel: 503.581.8101
Fax: 503.364.2138
Garmin (Europe) Ltd.
Liberty House,Houndsdown Business Park
Southampton, Hampshire, SO40 9LR, U.K.
Tel: +44 (0) 238 052 4000
Fax: +44 (0) 238 052 4004
Aviation Support: +44 (0) 370 850 1243
Garmin Corporation
No. 68, Zhangshu 2nd Road
Xizhi District,
New Taipei City, Taiwan
Tel: 34-93-357-2608
Fax: 34-93-429-4484
Vulcanair P68
Garmin International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street
Olathe, KS 66062, U.S.A.
Tel: 913.397.8200
Fax: 913.397.8282
AOG Hotline: 913.397.0836
Aviation Dealer
Technical Support: 888.606.5482
www.garmin.com
190-01325-01
Revision A
Vulcanair P68
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
AUDIO PANEL & CNS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Copyright © 2011, 2016 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 0935.37 or later for the Vulcanair P68 Some differences in operation may
be observed when comparing the information in this manual to earlier or later software versions.
Garmin International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street
Olathe, Kansas 66062, U.S.A.
Tel: 913.397.8200
Fax: 913.397.8282
Aircraft On Ground (AOG) Hotline: 913.397.0836
Aviation Dealer Technical Support: 888.606.5482
Garmin AT, Inc.
2345 Turner Road SE
Salem, OR 97302, U.S.A.
Tel: 503.581.8101
Fax 503.364.2138
Garmin (Europe) Ltd.
Liberty House, Hounsdown Business Park
Southampton, Hampshire SO40 9LR U.K.
Tel: 44.(0).23.8052.4000
Fax: 44.(0).23.8052.4004
Aviation Support: 44.(0).37.0850.1243
Garmin Corporation
No. 68, Zhangshu 2nd Road
Xizhi District, New Taipei City, Taiwan
Tel: 34.93.357.2608
Fax: 34.93.429.4484
Website Address: www.garmin.com
Except as expressly provided herein, no part of this manual may be reproduced, copied, transmitted, disseminated, downloaded or stored
in any storage medium, for any purpose without the express written permission of Garmin. Garmin hereby grants permission to download
a single copy of this manual and of any revision to this manual onto a hard drive or other electronic storage medium to be viewed for
personal use, provided that such electronic or printed copy of this manual or revision must contain the complete text of this copyright notice
and provided further that any unauthorized commercial distribution of this manual or any revision hereto is strictly prohibited.
Garmin® is a registered trademark of Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries, and G950® is a trademark of Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. These
trademarks may not be used without the express permission of Garmin.
Honeywell® is a registered trademark of Honeywell International, Inc. Stormscope® is a registered trademark of L-3 Communications.
Avidyne® is a registered trademark of Avidyne Corporation. AC-U-KWIK® is a registered trademark of Penton Business Media Inc. SiriusXM
Weather and SiriusXM Satellite Radio are provided by SiriusXM Satellite Radio, Inc.
AOPA Membership Publications, Inc. and its related organizations (hereinafter collectively “AOPA”) expressly disclaim all warranties,
with respect to the AOPA information included in this data, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties
of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The information is provided “as is” and AOPA does not warrant or make any
representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Under no circumstances including negligence, shall AOPA be liable for any
incidental, special or consequential damages that result from the use or inability to use the software or related documentation, even if
AOPA or an AOPA authorized representative has been advised of the possibility of such damages. User agrees not to sue AOPA and, to
the maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AOPA from any causes of action, claims or losses related to any actual
or alleged inaccuracies in the information. Some jurisdictions do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for
incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you.
AC-U-KWIK and its related organizations (hereafter collectively “AC-U-KWIK Organizations”) expressly disclaim all warranties with
respect to the AC-U-KWIK information included in this data, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The information is provided “as is” and AC-U-KWIK Organizations do not warrant or
make any representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Licensee agrees not to sue AC-U-KWIK Organizations and, to the
maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AC-U-KWIK Organizations from any cause of action, claims or losses related
to any actual or alleged inaccuracies in the information arising out of Garmin’s use of the information in the datasets. Some jurisdictions
do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations
or exclusions may not apply to licensee.
May 2016
Printed in the U.S.A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for maintaining separation
from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data from third party sources and cannot
independently verify the accuracy of the information.
WARNING: Always refer to current aeronautical charts and NOTAMs for verification of displayed aeronautical
information. Displayed aeronautical data may not incorporate the latest NOTAM information.
WARNING: Do not use geometric altitude for compliance with air traffic control altitude requirements. The
primary barometric altimeter must be used for compliance with all air traffic control altitude regulations,
requirements, instructions, and clearances.
WARNING: Do not use basemap information (land and water data) as the sole means of navigation. Basemap
data is intended only to supplement other approved navigation data sources and should be considered only
an aid to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate information
from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
WARNING: The displayed minimum safe altitude (MSAs) are only advisory in nature and should not be relied
upon as the sole source of obstacle and terrain avoidance information. Always refer to current aeronautical
charts for appropriate minimum clearance altitudes.
WARNING: Always obtain qualified instruction prior to operational use of this equipment.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not operate properly
with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height above mean sea level, or the
standard pressure setting, as applicable.
WARNING: Do not use GPS to navigate to any active waypoint identified as a ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ by a
system message. ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ waypoints are derived from an unknown map reference datum that
may be incompatible with the map reference datum used by GPS (known as WGS84) and may be positioned
in error as displayed.
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
i
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: When using the autopilot to fly an approach with vertical guidance, the autopilot will not level
the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the altitude preselect.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Because of variation in the earth’s magnetic field, do not rely on the accuracy of attitude and
heading indications (GRS 77 installations only) in the following geographic areas: North of 72° North
latitude at all longitudes; South of 70° South latitude at all longitudes; North of 65° North latitude between
longitude 75° W and 120° W. (Northern Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 70° W and
128° W. (Northern Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 85° E and 114° E. (Northern
Russia); South of 55° South latitude between longitude 120° E and 165° E. (Region south of Australia and
New Zealand).
WARNING: Do not rely on information from a lightning detection system display as the sole basis for hazardous
weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate or
incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
Garmin SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or
reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the Garmin SVT display or may
appear as a partial symbol.
WARNING: Do not use the Garmin SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of
the aircraft to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
the MPEL boundary.
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain or obstacle avoidance. TAWS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
ii
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
CAUTION: Do not clean display surfaces with abrasive cloths or cleaners containing ammonia. They will
harm the anti-reflective coating.
CAUTION: Repairs should only be made by an authorized Garmin service center. Unauthorized repairs or
modifications could void both the warranty and affect the airworthiness of the aircraft.
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE: All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen images of the system panel
and displays, are subject to change and may not reflect the most current system and aviation databases.
Depictions of equipment may differ slightly from the actual equipment.
NOTE: The United States government operates the Global Positioning System and is solely responsible for
its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy and
performance of all GPS equipment. Portions of the system utilize GPS as a precision electronic NAVigation
AID (NAVAID). Therefore, as with all NAVAIDs, information presented by the system can be misused or
misinterpreted and, therefore, become unsafe.
NOTE: This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any
interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
NOTE: Interference from GPS repeaters operating inside nearby hangars can cause an intermittent loss of
attitude and heading displays while the aircraft is on the ground. Moving the aircraft more than 100 yards
away from the source of the interference should alleviate the condition.
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the flight displays to appear dim or blank.
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals known to the State of California
to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This notice is being provided in accordance with
California’s Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would like additional information, please refer to
our web site at www.garmin.com/prop65.
NOTE: Operating the system in the vicinity of metal buildings, metal structures, or electromagnetic fields
can cause sensor differences that may result in nuisance miscompare annunciations during start up, shut
down, or while taxiing. If one or more of the sensed values are unavailable, the annunciation indicates no
comparison is possible.
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
iii
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: The system responds to a terminal procedure based on data coded within that procedure in the
Navigation Database. Differences in system operation may be observed among similar types of procedures
due to differences in the Navigation Database coding specific to each procedure.
NOTE: The FAA has asked Garmin to remind pilots who fly with Garmin database-dependent avionics of the
following:
• It is the pilot’s responsibility to remain familiar with all FAA regulatory and advisory guidance and information
related to the use of databases in the National Airspace System.
• Garmin equipment will only recognize and use databases that are obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen. Databases
obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen are assured compliance with all data quality requirements (DQRs) by virtue
of a Type 2 Letter of Authorization (LOA) from the FAA. A copy of the Type 2 LOA is available for each database
and can be viewed at http://fly.garmin.com by selecting ‘Type 2 LOA Status.’
• Use of a current Garmin or Jeppesen database in your Garmin equipment is required for compliance with
established FAA regulatory guidance, but does not constitute authorization to fly any and all terminal procedures
that may be presented by the system. It is the pilot’s responsibility to operate in accordance with established
AFM(S) and regulatory guidance or limitations as applicable to the pilot, the aircraft, and installed equipment.
NOTE: The pilot/operator must review and be familiar with Garmin’s database exclusion list as discussed in
SAIB CE-14-04 to determine what data may be incomplete. The database exclusion list can be viewed at
www.flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Database Exclusions List.’
NOTE: The pilot/operator must have access to Garmin and Jeppesen database alerts and consider their
impact on the intended aircraft operation. The database alerts can be viewed at www.flygarmin.com by
selecting ‘Aviation Database Alerts.’
NOTE: If the pilot/operator wants or needs to adjust the database, contact Garmin Product Support to
coordinate the revised DQRs.
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information.
These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles
and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go
to FlyGarmin.com and select ‘Aviation Data Error Report’.
NOTE: Lamp(s) inside this product contain mercury (HG) and must be recycled or disposed of according to
local, state, or federal laws. For more information, refer to our website at www.garmin.com/aboutGarmin/
environment/disposal.jsp
NOTE: When using Stormscope, there are several atmospheric phenomena in addition to nearby thunderstorms
that can cause isolated discharge points in the strike display mode. However, clusters of two or more
discharge points in the strike display mode do indicate thunderstorm activity if these points reappear after
the screen has been cleared.
iv
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
REVISION INFORMATION
Record of Revisions
Part Number
190-01325-00
Revision
A
Date
12/20/11
190-01325-01
A
5/12/2016
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Page Range
Description
i – I-6
Initial release for 12.01 software.
ALL
Added support for GWX 70 Weather Radar
Added support for GDL 69A SXM
Added support for GRA 55 Radar Altimeter
Added support for GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver
Added support for GTS 825 Traffic Advisory System (TAS)
Added other GDU 15.02 parameters
Added support for Auxiliary Video
Added User Defined Holds
Added Temperature Compensated Altitudes
Updated Engine Parameter Displays
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
v
REVISION INFORMATION
Blank Page
vi
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Line Replaceable Units............................................ 2
Secure Digital (SD) Cards........................................ 8
System Power-up...................................................... 9
System Operation................................................... 10
Display Operation........................................................ 10
G950 System Annunciations......................................... 11
System Status.............................................................. 12
AHRS Operation.......................................................... 14
GPS Receiver Operation............................................... 15
G950 Controls......................................................... 20
PFD/MFD Controls....................................................... 20
Softkey Function.......................................................... 22
Accessing G950 Functionality............................... 29
Menus........................................................................ 29
Data Entry.................................................................. 29
Page Groups............................................................... 31
System Settings........................................................... 35
System Utilities............................................................ 45
Display Backlighting.............................................. 49
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 Flight Instruments.................................................. 54
Airspeed Indicator....................................................... 54
Attitude Indicator........................................................ 55
Altimeter.................................................................... 56
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)........................................ 58
Vertical Deviation........................................................ 59
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............................... 60
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)................................... 65
2.2 Supplemental Flight Data..................................... 72
Temperature Displays................................................... 72
Wind Data.................................................................. 73
Vertical Navigation (VNV) Indications............................ 74
2.3 PFD Annunciations and Alerting Functions......... 75
System Alerting........................................................... 75
Marker Beacon Annunciations...................................... 76
Traffic Annunciation..................................................... 77
TAWS Annunciations.................................................... 78
Altitude Alerting.......................................................... 79
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Low Altitude Annunciation........................................... 79
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height Alerting....... 80
Radar Altimeter........................................................... 81
2.4 Abnormal Operations............................................ 83
Abnormal GPS Conditions............................................ 83
Unusual Attitudes........................................................ 84
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM (EIS)
3.1 Engine Display........................................................ 87
Manifold Pressure Gauges............................................ 88
Tachometers................................................................ 88
Fuel Flow Indicators..............................................................
88
Cylinder Head Temperatures......................................... 88
Oil Pressure and Temperature Gauges............................ 89
Electrical Information................................................... 89
Fuel Quantity Gauge.................................................... 89
3.2 Engine Page............................................................ 90
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Overview................................................................. 95
PFD Controls and Frequency Display.............................. 96
GMA 1347 Audio Panel Controls................................... 98
COM Operation..................................................... 100
COM Transceiver Selection and Activation.................... 100
COM Transceiver Manual Tuning................................. 101
Quick-tuning and Activating 121.500 MHz................... 102
Auto-tuning the COM Frequency................................. 103
Auto-tuning from the MFD......................................... 104
Frequency Spacing..................................................... 107
Automatic Squelch..................................................... 108
Volume..................................................................... 108
NAV Operation...................................................... 109
NAV Radio Selection and Activation............................ 109
NAV Receiver Manual Tuning...................................... 110
Auto-tuning a NAV Frequency from the MFD................ 112
Auto-tuning NAV Frequencies on Approach Activation.. 116
Marker Beacon Receiver............................................. 117
GTX 33 Mode S Transponders............................. 118
Transponder Controls................................................. 118
Transponder Mode Selection....................................... 119
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Entering a Transponder Code...................................... 121
IDENT Function......................................................... 122
Flight ID Reporting.................................................... 123
4.5 Additional Audio Panel Functions...................... 124
Power-Up.................................................................. 124
Mono/Stereo Headsets............................................... 124
Speaker.................................................................... 124
Intercom................................................................... 125
Passenger Address (PA) System................................... 127
Clearance Recorder and Player.................................... 127
Split COM Operation.................................................. 128
Entertainment Inputs................................................. 129
4.6 Audio Panel Preflight Procedure........................ 130
4.7 Abnormal Operation............................................ 131
Stuck Microphone...................................................... 131
COM Tuning Failure.................................................... 131
Audio Panel Fail-safe Operation.................................. 131
PFD Failure (Reversionary Mode)................................ 131
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 Introduction.......................................................... 133
Navigation Status Box................................................ 134
5.2 Using Map Displays.............................................. 136
Map Orientation........................................................ 136
Map Range............................................................... 138
Map Panning............................................................. 140
Measuring Bearing and Distance................................. 145
Topography............................................................... 146
Map Symbols............................................................ 149
Airways.................................................................... 155
Track Vector.............................................................. 157
Wind Vector.............................................................. 158
Nav Range Ring........................................................ 159
Fuel Range Ring........................................................ 160
Field of View (SVT)..................................................... 161
Selected Altitude Intercept Arc.................................... 162
5.3 Waypoints.............................................................. 163
Airports.................................................................... 164
Intersections............................................................. 171
NDBs........................................................................ 173
VORs........................................................................ 175
User Waypoints......................................................... 177
viii
5.4 Airspaces............................................................... 183
5.5 Direct-to-Navigation ........................................... 187
5.6 Flight Planning...................................................... 193
Flight Plan Creation................................................... 194
Adding Waypoints to an Existing Flight Plan................. 199
Adding Airways to a Flight Plan.................................. 201
Adding Procedures to a Stored Flight Plan................... 204
Flight Plan Storage.................................................... 211
Flight Plan Editing..................................................... 213
Along Track Offsets.................................................... 216
Parallel Track............................................................. 217
Activating a Flight Plan Leg........................................ 220
Inverting a Flight Plan................................................ 222
Flight Plan Views....................................................... 223
Closest Point of FPL................................................... 225
User-Defined Holding Patterns.................................... 225
5.7 Vertical Navigation.............................................. 230
Altitude Constraints................................................... 232
5.8 Procedures............................................................ 236
Departures................................................................ 237
Arrivals .................................................................... 240
Approaches .............................................................. 243
5.9 Trip Planning......................................................... 251
Trip Planning............................................................. 251
Weight Planning........................................................ 255
Weight Caution And Warning Conditions..................... 257
5.10 RAIM Prediction................................................... 258
5.11 Navigating a Flight Plan...................................... 262
5.12 Abnormal Operation............................................ 290
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 SiriusXM Weather................................................. 294
Activating Services..................................................... 294
Using SiriusXM Weather Products............................... 295
6.2 Garmin Connext Weather.................................... 327
Registering the Iridium Satellite System....................... 327
Registering the system for Garmin Connext Weather..... 328
Accessing Garmin Connext Weather Products............... 330
Connext Data Requests.............................................. 336
Garmin Connext Weather Products.............................. 340
Abnormal Operations................................................. 355
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
TABLE OF CONTENTS
6.3 Airborne Color Weather Radar........................... 357
System Description.................................................... 357
Principles of Pulsed Airborne Weather Radar................ 357
Safe Operating Distance............................................. 361
Basic Antenna Tilt Setup............................................. 362
Weather Mapping and Interpretation.......................... 363
Ground Mapping and Interpretation............................ 376
Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page.... 376
System Status............................................................ 378
6.4 WX-500 Stormscope............................................ 380
Setting Up Stormscope on the Navigation Map............ 380
Selecting the Stormscope Page................................... 384
6.5 Terrain Proximity.................................................. 386
Displaying Terrain Proximity Data................................ 386
6.6 Profile View Terrain.............................................. 391
Profile View Display................................................... 392
6.7 Terrain-SVS............................................................ 395
Displaying Terrain-SVS Data........................................ 396
Terrain-SVS Page....................................................... 398
Terrain-SVS Alerts...................................................... 400
System Status............................................................ 403
6.8 TAWS-B.................................................................. 404
Displaying TAWS-B Data............................................. 405
TAWS-B Page............................................................ 408
TAWS-B Alerts........................................................... 410
System Status............................................................ 416
6.9 Traffic Information Service (TIS)......................... 418
Displaying Traffic Data............................................... 419
Traffic Map Page........................................................ 421
TIS Alerts.................................................................. 422
System Status............................................................ 423
6.10 TAS Traffic.............................................................. 426
Theory of operation................................................... 426
TAS Alerts................................................................. 429
System Test............................................................... 430
Operation................................................................. 431
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 S-TEC Fifty Five X Autopilot (Optional)............. 439
Flight Director Mode Annunciation.............................. 439
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Altitude Preselect...................................................... 439
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT)...................... 442
SVT Operation........................................................... 443
SVT Features............................................................. 445
Field of View............................................................. 454
SafeTaxi................................................................. 456
SafeTaxi Cycle Number and Revision........................... 459
ChartView.............................................................. 462
ChartView Softkeys.................................................... 462
Terminal Procedures Charts........................................ 463
Chart Options............................................................ 471
Day/Night View......................................................... 477
ChartView Cycle Number and Expiration Date.............. 479
FliteCharts............................................................. 482
FliteCharts Softkeys................................................... 482
Terminal Procedures Charts........................................ 483
Chart Options............................................................ 490
Day/Night View......................................................... 494
FliteCharts Cycle Number and Expiration Date.............. 496
AOPA Airport Directory........................................ 499
AOPA Database Cycle Number and Revision................ 500
Satellite Telephone and SMS Messaging........... 502
Registering With Garmin Connext............................... 502
Telephone Communication......................................... 503
Text Messaging (SMS)................................................ 517
SiriusXM Radio Entertainment........................... 529
Activating SiriusXM Satellite Radio Services................. 529
Using SiriusXM Radio................................................. 531
Scheduler............................................................... 535
Flight Data Logging............................................. 537
Auxiliary Video (Optional)................................... 539
Video Setup.............................................................. 540
Display Selection....................................................... 540
Zoom/Range............................................................. 541
Abnormal Operation............................................ 542
SVT Troubleshooting.................................................. 542
Reversionary Mode.................................................... 542
Unusual Attitudes...................................................... 543
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS
APPENDICES
Annunciations and Alerts.............................................. 547
G950 System Message Advisories............................... 554
Flight Plan Import/Export Messages............................ 564
TAS Alerts and Annunciations..................................... 566
TIS Alerts and Annunciations...................................... 567
TAWS-B ALERTS and Annunciations............................. 568
SVS Terrain Alerts....................................................... 570
Weather Radar Alerts and Annunciations..................... 571
GDL 69A/GDL 69A SXM Data Link Receiver Messages... 572
Database Management.............................................. 573
Navigation Databases................................................ 573
Garmin Databases/Jeppesen Chartview Database......... 578
Garmin Aviation Glossary............................................. 585
Frequently Asked Questions......................................... 595
General TIS Information................................................ 599
Map Symbols.................................................................. 601
INDEX
x
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: This document provides a complete description of all existing features of the Garmin G950 system.
Not all of those are available on P68 series aircraft. The Aircraft Owner/Operator shall refer only to the
sections of this document relevant to the current aircraft configuration.
The G950 Integrated Flight Deck System presents flight instrumentation, position, navigation, communication,
and identification information to the pilot using flat-panel color displays. The system is distributed across the
following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• GMU 44 Magnetometer
• GDU 1040A Multi Function Display (MFD)
• GDC 74A Air Data Computer (ADC)
EIS
• GDU 1040A Primary Flight Display (PFD)
• GEA 71 Engine/Airframe Unit
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• GMA 1347 Audio Panel with Integrated Marker • GTX 33 ES Mode S Transponder with Extended
Beacon Receiver
Squitter
• GTP 59 Outside Air Temperature (OAT) Probe
• GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Units (IAU)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• GRS 77 Attitude and Heading Reference System
(AHRS)
Figure 1-1 shows interactions between the LRUs. Additional/optional equipment are shown in Figure 1-2. The
G950 is capable of interfacing with the following optional equipment:
• GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver (optional)
• GWX 68 and GWX 70 Weather Radar
• KN 63 DME
• GTS 800/820/825 Traffic Advisory System
• KR 87 ADF
• GRA 5500 Radar Altimeter– Provides altitude above
the ground to the PFD, through the GIA 63W, via
HSDB connection.
• WX 500 Lightning Detection System
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• GDL 69A/GDL 69A SXM Satellite Data Link
Receiver
• S-TEC 55X Autopilot
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
1
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 LINE REPLACEABLE UNITS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• GDU 1040 (2) – The left-hand GDU is configured as a Primary Flight Display (PFD) and the right-hand GDU
as a Multi Function Display (MFD). Both feature 10.4-inch LCD screens with 1024 x 768 resolution. The
displays communicate with each other through a High-Speed Data Bus (HSDB) Ethernet connection. Each
display is also paired with an Ethernet connection to an IAU.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• GMA 1347 (1) – The Audio Panel integrates navigation/communication radio (NAV/COM) digital audio,
intercom, and marker beacon controls, and is installed between the displays. This unit also provides manual
control of display reversionary mode (red DISPLAY BACKUP Button; see Section 1.5, System Operation) and
communicates with both IAUs using an RS-232 digital interface.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• GIA 63W (2) – The Integrated Avionics Units (IAU) function as the main communication hubs, linking all
LRUs with the on-side display. Each IAU contains a GPS SBAS receiver, VHF COM/NAV/GS receivers, and
system integration microprocessors, and is paired with the on-side display via HSDB connection. The IAUs are
not paired together and do not communicate with each other directly.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• GDC 74A (1) – The Air Data Computer (ADC) processes data from the pitot/static system and outside air
temperature (OAT) sensor. The ADC provides pressure altitude, airspeed, vertical speed, and OAT information
to the G950 System, and it communicates with the primary IAU, displays, and AHRS using an ARINC 429
digital interface.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• GEA 71 (2) – The Engine Airframe Unit receives and processes signals from the engine and airframe sensors.
This unit communicates with both IAUs using an RS-485 digital interface.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• GTX 33 ES with Extended Squitter (1) – Solid-state transponder that provides Modes A, C and S capability.
The transponder can be controlled from the PFD. The transponder communicates with the GIA 63Ws through
an RS-232 digital interface. The GTX 33 with Extended Squitter will also provide 1090 MHz Extended Squitter
(1090ES) transmit capability. The transponder communicates with both IAUs through an RS-232 digital
interface.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
• GRS 77 (1) – The Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) provides aircraft attitude and heading
information via ARINC 429 to both PFDs and the primary IAU. The AHRS contains advanced sensors (including
accelerometers and rate sensors) and interfaces with the Magnetometer to obtain magnetic field information,
with the ADC to obtain air data, and with both IAUs to obtain GPS information. AHRS operation is discussed
in Section 1.4, System Operation.
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
3
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• GMU 44 (1) – The Magnetometer measures local magnetic field and sends data to the AHRS for processing to
determine aircraft magnetic heading. This unit receives power directly from the AHRS and communicates with
it via an RS-485 digital interface.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
• GTP 59 (1) – Provides Outside Air Temperature (OAT) data to the GDC 74A.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• GDL 69A/69A SXM (1) (optional) – A satellite radio receiver that provides real-time weather information
to the MFD (and, indirectly, to the inset map of the PFD) as well as digital audio entertainment.
The GDL 69A/GDL69A SXM communicates with the MFD via HSDB connection. A subscription to the XM
Satellite Radio service is required to enable the GDL 69A/GDL69A SXM capability.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
• GSR 56 (1) (optional) – The Iridium Transceiver operation for voice communication is by means of a telephone
handset. The tranceiver can also send and receive data provided by the GDL 59 through the RS-232 bus.
INDEX
APPENDICES
• GWX 68/70 (1) (optional) – Provides airborne weather and ground mapped radar data to the MFD, through the
GDL 69A or directly linked to the MFD, via HSDB connection.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• GTS 800/820/825 (1) (optional) – The GTS 800/820/825 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) uses active interrogations
of Mode S, Mode A, and Mode C transponders to provide Traffic Advisories to the pilot independent of the air
traffic control system.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
• GA 58 (1) (optional) – The GA 58 is directional antenna for the Traffic Avoidance System. One top-mounted
directional antenna is required when the optional GTRS 800/820 is installed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• GA 36 (2) (1 optional with GDL 69A installation) and GA 37 (1 optional with GDL 69A installation) – The GA 36
is a through-mount GPS/SBAS antenna. The GA 37 is a through-mount GPS/SBAS antenna with XM/Data Link.
GA 36
GA 37
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• GRA 5500 (1) (optional) – The optional Radar Altimeter provides altitude above the ground information and
rate of change of radar altitude information.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
5
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Audio Panel
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
G
GDC
74A
A
Air Data
C
Computerr
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Traffic Awareness
System
No. 1 GIA 63W
Integrated Avionics Unit
System Inegration Processors
I/O Processors
VHF COM
VHF NAV/LOC
GPS
Glideslope
GPS Output
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Multi-Function Display
Reversionary
Control
Reversionary
Control
GTS 800/820/825
GDU 1040
GMA 1347
GDU 1040
Primary Flight Display
OAT
Airspeed
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Ve
ed
GRS 77
AHRS
Attitude
Rate of Turn
Slip/Skid
No. 2 GIA 63W
Integrated Avionics Unit
System Integration Processors
I/O Processors
VHF COM
VHF NAV/LOC
GPS
Glideslope
GPS Output
GMU 44
Magnetometer
Heading
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
GTX 33 ES
Transponder
GEA 71 #1
Engine/Airframe
Unit
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
GEA 71 #2
Engine/Airframe
Unit
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 1-1 Basic G950 Block Diagram
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
No. 2 GIA 63W
Integrated Avionics Unit
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
System Integration Processors
I/O Processors
VHF COM
VHF NAV/LOC
GPS
Glideslope
(optional)
KN 63
DME
(optional)
GWX 68/GWX 70
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
KR 87
ADF
Weather Radar
(optional)
GDL 69A
GDL 69A SXM
Datalink
Weather Radar
(optional)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
XM Weather/Audio
(optional)
GWX 68/GWX70
WX 500
Stormscope
(optional)
GRA 5500
Radar Altimeter
(optional)
AFCS
GSR 56
Satellite
Transceiver
(optional)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 1-2 G950 With Optional/Additional Equipment
NOTE: For information on non-Garmin optional/additional equipment shown in Figure 1-2, consult the
applicable optional interface user’s guide. This document assumes that the reader is already familiar with
the operation of this additional equipment.
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
7
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.2 SECURE DIGITAL (SD) CARDS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Ensure the G950 System is powered off before inserting an SD card.
NOTE: Refer to Appendix B for instructions on updating the aviation database.
EIS
The PFD and MFD data card slots use Secure Digital (SD) cards and are located on the upper right side of the
display bezels. Each display bezel is equipped with two SD card slots. SD cards are used for aviation database
and system software updates as well as terrain database storage.
Installing an SD card:
1) Insert the SD card in the SD card slot (the front of the card should be flush with the face of the display bezel).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) To eject the card, gently press on the SD card to release the spring latch.
AFCS
SD Card Slots
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 1-3 Display Bezel SD Card Slots
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1.3 SYSTEM POWER-UP
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Refer to Appendix A for system-specific annunciations and alerts.
The G950 System is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical
busses. The PFD, MFD, and supporting sub-systems include both power-on and continuous built-in test features
that exercise the processor, RAM, ROM, external inputs, and outputs to provide safe operation.
EIS
During system initialization, test annunciations are displayed, as shown in Figure 1-4. All system annunciations
should disappear typically within the first minute of power-up. Upon power-up, key annunciator lights also
become momentarily illuminated on the Audio Panel, the MFD Control Unit, and the display bezels.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
On the PFD, the AHRS begins to initialize and displays “AHRS ALIGN: Keep Wings Level”. The AHRS should
display valid attitude and heading fields typically within the first minute of power-up. The AHRS can align itself
both while taxiing and during level flight.
When the MFD powers up, the Power-up screen (Figure 1-5) displays the following information:
• System version
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Copyright
• Land database name and version
• SafeTaxi database information (see Additional Features)
• Terrain, Obstacle, and Aviation database name, version, and effective dates
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Current database information includes valid operating dates, cycle number, and database type. When this
information has been reviewed for currency (to ensure that no databases have expired), the pilot is prompted to
continue.
AFCS
Pressing the ENT Key (or right-most softkey) acknowledges this information, and the Navigation Map Page is
displayed upon pressing the key a second time. When the system has acquired a sufficient number of satellites to
determine a position, the aircraft’s current position is shown on the Navigation Map Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Figure 1-5 Example MFD Power-up Screen
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
INDEX
Figure 1-4 PFD Initialization
9
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.4 SYSTEM OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The G950 system alerts the pilot when backup paths are utilized by the LRUs. Refer to the Appendices
for further information regarding system-specific alerts.
The displays are connected together via a single Ethernet bus for high-speed communication. As shown in
Figure 1-1, each IAU is connected to the on-side display. This section discusses normal and reversionary G950
display operation, AHRS modes, GPS receiver operation, and G950 System Annunciations.
EIS
DISPLAY OPERATION
NOTE: In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be adjusted from the PFD (see Section 1.7). In
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
reversionary mode, it can be adjusted from the remaining display(s).
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
In normal operating mode, the PFD presents graphical flight instrumentation (attitude, heading, airspeed,
altitude, vertical speed), replacing the traditional flight instrument cluster (see the Flight Instruments Section
for more information). The MFD normally displays a full-color moving map with navigation information (see
the Flight Management Section), while the left portion of the MFD is dedicated to the Engine Indication System
(see the EIS Section). Both displays offer control for COM and NAV frequency selection.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 1-6 G950 System Normal Operation
In the event of a display failure, the G950 System automatically switches to reversionary (backup) mode. In
reversionary mode, all important flight information is presented on the remaining display(s) in the same format
as in normal operating mode.
APPENDICES
• PFD failure – MFD enters reversionary mode.
• MFD failure – PFD enters reversionary mode.
INDEX
If a display fails, the appropriate IAU-display Ethernet interface is cut off. Thus, the IAU can no longer
communicate with the remaining display (refer to Figure 1-1), and the NAV and COM functions provided to
the failed display by the IAU are flagged as invalid on the remaining display. The system reverts to backup
paths for the AHRS, ADC, Engine/Airframe Unit, and Transponder, as required. The change to backup paths is
completely automated for all LRUs and no pilot action is required.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
If the system fails to detect a display problem, reversionary mode may be manually activated by pressing the
display backup button installed in the cockpit. Pressing this button again deactivates reversionary mode.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NAV1 and COM1 (provided by the
failed PFD) Flagged Invalid
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 1-7 G950 Reversionary Mode (Failed PFD)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
G950 SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
11
INDEX
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
GTX 33 Transponder
Or
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
APPENDICES
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Figure 1-8 G950 System Failure Annunciations
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
GRS 77 AHRS
Or
GMU 44
Magnetometer
GEA 71 Engine
Airframe Unit
Or
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Unit
GDC 74A Air
Data Computer
AFCS
GDC 74A Air
Data Computer
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red ‘X’ is typically displayed over the instrument experiencing
failed data (Figure 1-8 displays all possible flags and responsible LRUs). Upon G950 power-up, certain
instruments remain invalid as equipment begins to initialize. All instruments should be operational within one
minute of power-up. If any instrument remains flagged, the G950 should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized
repair facility.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM STATUS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The System Status Page displays the statuses, serial numbers, and software version numbers for all detected
system LRUs. Active LRUs are indicated by green check marks; failed, by red ‘X’s. Failed LRUs should be noted
and a service center or Garmin-authorized dealer informed.
Viewing LRU information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
2) To place the cursor in the ‘LRU Info’ Box,
EIS
a) Press the LRU Softkey.
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) With ‘Select LRU Window’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Use the FMS Knob to scroll through the box to view LRU status information.
INDEX
Figure 1-9 Example System Status Page
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pertinent information on all system databases is also displayed on this page. Refer to the Appendices and
Additional Features sections for more information about databases.
Viewing database information:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
2) To place the cursor in the ‘Database’ Box,
a) Press the DBASE Softkey.
Or:
EIS
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Highlight ‘Select Dbase Window’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to scroll through the box to view database status information.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The G950 uses aural tones to convey the priority of airframe-specific alerts. The alerting system’s annunciation
tone may be tested from the System Status Page. Refer to the Appendices for airframe-specific alerts.
Testing the system annunciation tone:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
2) Press the ANN TEST Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
b) Highlight ‘Enable Annunciator Test Mode’ and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
13
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AHRS OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for specific AHRS alert information.
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering while AHRS is not operating normally may degrade AHRS accuracy.
EIS
In addition to using internal sensors, the GRS 77 AHRS uses GPS information, magnetic field data and air
data to assist in attitude/heading calculations. In normal mode, the AHRS relies upon GPS and magnetic
field measurements. If either of these external measurements is unavailable or invalid, the AHRS uses air
data information for attitude determination. Four AHRS modes of operation are available (see Figure 1-10)
and depend upon the combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of air data, GPS, or magnetometer sensor
inputs is communicated to the pilot by message advisory alerts.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
available
unavailable
GPS Data
Magnetometer Data
available
AFCS
available
unavailable
Magnetometer Data
available
unavailable
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
AHRS
no-GPS
Mode
le
ab
AHRS no- AHRS no-Mag/
Mag Mode
no-Air Mode
Heading Invalid
Air Data
ail
av
un
available
Air Data
AHRS Normal
Operation
unavailable
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The AHRS (GRS 77) corrects for shifts and variations in the Earth’s magnetic field by applying the Magnetic
Field Variation Database. The Magnetic Field Variation Database is derived from the International Geomagnetic
Reference Field (IGRF). The IGRF is a mathematical model that describes the Earth’s main magnetic field
and its annual rate of change. The database is updated approximately every 5 years. See the Appendices for
information on updating the Magnetic Field Variation Database. The system will prompt you on startup when
an update is available. Failure to update this database could lead to erroneous heading information being
displayed to the pilot.
Attitude/Heading Invalid
Figure 1-10 AHRS Operation
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
GPS INPUT FAILURE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G1000 system provides two sources of GPS information. If a single GPS receiver fails, or if the
information provided from one of the GPS receivers is unreliable, the AHRS seamlessly transitions to using
the other GPS receiver. An alert message informs the pilot of the use of the backup GPS path. If both
GPS inputs fail, the AHRS continues to operate in reversionary No-GPS mode so long as the air data and
magnetometer inputs are available and valid.
AIR DATA INPUT FAILURE
EIS
A failure of the air data input has no effect on AHRS output while AHRS is operating in normal mode. A
failure of the air data input while the AHRS is operating in reversionary No-GPS mode results in invalid
attitude and heading information on the PFD (as indicated by red “X” flags).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
MAGNETOMETER FAILURE
If the magnetometer input fails, the AHRS transitions to one of the reversionary No-Magnetometer modes
and continues to output valid attitude information. However, if the aircraft is airborne, the heading output
on the PFD does become invalid (as indicated by a red “X”).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
GPS RECEIVER OPERATION
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Each Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU) contains a GPS receiver. Internal system checking is performed to
ensure both GPS receivers are providing accurate data to the PFD. When both GPS receivers are providing
accurate data, the GPS receiver producing the better solution is used by the system. Information collected by
the specified receiver (GPS1 for the #1 IAU or GPS2 for the #2 IAU) may be viewed on the AUX - GPS Status
Page.
Viewing GPS receiver status information:
AFCS
1) Use the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Auxiliary Page Group (see Section 1.6 for information on
navigating MFD page groups).
2) Use the small FMS Knob to select GPS Status Page (third page in the AUX Page Group).
3) To change the selected GPS receiver:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press the desired GPS Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the receiver which is not selected and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
15
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Satellite Signal
Information
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Satellite Constellation
Diagram
GPS
Receiver
Status
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
RAIM
Availability
Prediction
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Satellite
Signal
Strength
Bars
Figure 1-11 GPS Status Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
GPS sensor annunciations are most often seen after system power-up when one GPS receiver has acquired
satellites before the other or one of the GPS receivers has not yet acquired an SBAS signal. While the aircraft
is on the ground, the SBAS signal may be blocked by obstructions causing one GPS receiver to have difficulty
acquiring a good signal. Also, while airborne, turning the aircraft may result in one of the GPS receivers
temporarily losing the SBAS signal. If no failure message exists, check the GPS Status Page and compare the
information for GPS1 and GPS2. Discrepancies may indicate a problem.
GPS RECEIVER STATUS
APPENDICES
The GPS solution type (ACQUIRING, 2D NAV, 2D DIFF NAV, 3D NAV, 3D DIFF NAV) for the active
GPS receiver (GPS1 or GPS2) is shown in the upper right of the GPS Status Page. When the receiver is
in the process of acquiring enough satellite signals for navigation, the receiver uses satellite orbital data
(collected continuously from the satellites) and last known position to determine the satellites that should be
in view. ACQUIRING is indicated as the solution until a sufficient number of satellites have been acquired
for computing a solution.
INDEX
When the receiver is in the process of acquiring a 3D differential GPS solution, 3D NAV is indicated as the
solution until the 3D differential fix has finished acquisition. Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS)
status should be indicated as INACTIVE at this point. When acquisition is complete, the solution status
changes to 3D DIFF NAV and SBAS becomes active.
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• SBAS Selection (SBAS Softkey is pressed)
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of the SBAS coverage area, it may
be desirable to disable EGNOS, MSAS or WAAS (although it is not recommended). When disabled, the SBAS
field in the GPS Status box indicates DISABLED. There may be a small delay for the GPS Status box to be
updated upon EGNOS, MSAS or WAAS enabling/disabling.
Disabling SBAS
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, press the SBAS Softkey.
EIS
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn either FMS Knob to select ‘EGNOS’ or ‘MSAS’ or ‘WAAS’, as necessary.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Press the ENT Key to uncheck the box.
6) Repeat steps 4 & 5 as necessary, then press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 1-12 Enable/Disable SBAS
RAIM PREDICTION
AFCS
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to
calculate a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nautical miles for oceanic and enroute, 1.0
nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of
flight, RAIM is available nearly 100% of the time.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a specified date and time. RAIM
computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival date and time. In most cases
performing RAIM prediction is not necessary. However, in some cases, the selected approach may be outside
the SBAS coverage area and it may be necessary to perform a RAIM prediction for the intended approach.
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not available. The
G950 automatically monitors RAIM and warns with an alert message when it is not available. If RAIM is not
predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become active, as indicated by
the messages “Approach is not active”. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the missed approach
procedure must be flown.
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
17
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Predicting RAIM availability:
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window.
5) Enter the desired waypoint:
EIS
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired waypoint by identifier, facility, or city name and press the ENT Key. Refer
to Section 1.7 for instructions on entering alphanumeric data into the G950.
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
a) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
b) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the NRST, RECENT, or AIRWAY waypoints, if required.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
c) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint. The G950 automatically fills in the identifier,
facility, and city fields with the information for the selected waypoint.
d) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
6) Enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
7) Enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) With the cursor highlighting ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one
of the following is displayed:
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
AFCS
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
Predicting RAIM availability at present position
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
APPENDICES
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) With ‘Set WPT to Present Position’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
INDEX
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
9) With the cursor highlighting ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one
of the following is displayed:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
EIS
SATELLITE INFORMATION
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Satellites currently in view are shown at their respective positions on a satellite constellation diagram.
This sky view is always oriented north-up, with the outer circle representing the horizon, the inner circle
representing 45° above the horizon, and the center point showing the position directly overhead. Each satellite
is represented by an oval containing the Pseudo-random noise (PRN) number (i.e., satellite identification
number). Satellites whose signals are currently being used are represented by solid ovals.
The GPS Status Page can be helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due to poor satellite
coverage or installation problems. As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength bar is displayed
for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite PRN number (01-32 or 120-138 for WAAS) below each
bar. The progress of satellite acquisition is shown in three stages, as indicated by signal bar appearance:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- No bar—Receiver is looking for the indicated satellite
- Hollow bar—Receiver has found the satellite and is collecting data
- Cyan bar—Receiver has collected the necessary data and the satellite signal can be used
- Green bar—Satellite is being used for the GPS solution
- Checkered bar—Receiver has excluded the satellite (Fault Detection and Exclusion)
- “D” indication—Denotes the satellite is being used as part of the differential computations
AFCS
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission that must be collected (signal strength bar is hollow) before
the satellite may be used for navigation (signal strength bar becomes solid).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Using the current satellite signal information, they system calculates the aircraft’s GPS position, time,
altitude, ground speed, and track for the aircraft (displayed below the satellite signal accuracy measurements
for reference). The following quantities denote the accuracy of the aircraft’s GPS fix:
• Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU)—A statistical error indication; the radius of a circle centered on an
estimated horizontal position in which actual position has 95% probability of lying
APPENDICES
• Horizontal Dilution of Precision (HDOP)—Measures satellite geometry quality (i.e., number of satellites
received and where they are relative to each other) on a range from 0.0 to 9.9, with lower numbers denoting
better accuracy
• Horizontal and Vertical Figures of Merit (HFOM and VFOM)—Measures of horizontal and vertical position
uncertainty; the current 95% confidence horizontal and vertical accuracy values reported by the GPS
receiver
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
19
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.5 G950 CONTROLS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 controls have been designed to simplify operation of the system and minimize workload and the time
required to access sophisticated functionality. Controls are located on the PFD and MFD bezels, and the Audio
Panel. PFD and MFD controls and softkeys are discussed in this section. Audio Panel controls are described in
the Audio Panel and CNS section; see the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information about NAV/COM
controls.
EIS
PFD/MFD CONTROLS
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1
10
13
11
14
12
15
AFCS
16
18
17
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 1-13 PFD/MFD Controls
1
INDEX
APPENDICES
NAV VOL/ID Knob Turn to control NAV audio volume (shown in the NAV Frequency Box as a
percentage)
Press to toggle Morse code identifier audio ON/OFF
2 NAV Frequency
Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies
Transfer Key
3 NAV Knob
Turn to tune NAV receiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for kHz)
Press to toggle cyan tuning box between NAV1 and NAV2
4 Heading Knob
Turn to manually select a heading
Press to display a digital heading momentarily to the left of the HSI and synchronize
the Selected Heading to the and current heading
20
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
6
11
13
MENU Key
14
PROC Key
15
ENT Key
16
FMS Knob
Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus
Press and hold to display the MFD Navigation Map Page (MFD only).
Displays a context-sensitive list of options for accessing additional features or making
setting changes
Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs), and
approach procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan or selected airport
Validates/confirms menu selection or data entry
AFCS
CLR Key
(DFLT MAP)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
12
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
10
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
9
EIS
8
Turn to change map range
Press to activate Map Pointer for map panning
Turn large knob for altimeter barometric pressure setting
CRS/BARO Knob
Turn small knob to adjust course (only when HSI is in VOR or OBS Mode)
Press to re-center the CDI and return course pointer directly TO bearing of active
waypoint/station
Turn to tune COM transceiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for
COM Knob
kHz)
Press to toggle cyan tuning box between COM1 and COM2
The selected COM (green) is controlled with the COM MIC Key (Audio Panel).
Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies
COM Frequency
Transfer Key
Press and hold 2 seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically
(EMERG)
into the active frequency field
COM VOL/SQ Knob Turn to control COM audio volume level (shown as a percentage in the COM
Frequency Box)
Press to turn the COM automatic squelch ON/OFF
Direct-to Key ( ) Activates the direct-to function and allows the user to enter a destination waypoint
and establish a direct course to the selected destination (specified by identifier,
chosen from the active route)
Displays flight plan information
FPL Key
Joystick
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
7
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5
INDEX
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
APPENDICES
190-01325-01 Rev. A
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press to turn the selection cursor ON/OFF.
(Flight Management Data Entry: With cursor ON, turn to enter data in the highlighted field (large
knob moves cursor location; small knob selects character for highlighted cursor
System Knob)
location)
Scrolling: When a list of information is too long for the window/box, a scroll bar
appears, indicating more items to view. With cursor ON, turn large knob to scroll
through the list.
Page Selection: Turn knob on MFD to select the page to view (large knob selects a
page group; small knob selects a specific page from the group)
17 Softkey Selection
Press to select softkey shown above the bezel key on the PFD/MFD display
Keys
18 ALT Knob
Sets the Selected Altitude, shown above the Altimeter (the large knob selects the
thousands, the small knob selects the hundreds)
21
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The NAV, CRS/BARO, COM, FMS, and ALT knobs are concentric dual knobs, each having small (inner)
and large (outer) control portion. When a portion of the knob is not specified in the text, either may be used.
Large (Outer) Knob
Small (Inner) Knob
EIS
Figure 1-14 Dual Concentric Knob
SOFTKEY FUNCTION
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The softkeys are located along the bottoms of the displays. The softkeys shown depend on the softkey level
or page being displayed. The bezel keys below the softkeys can be used to select the appropriate softkey. When
a softkey is selected, its color changes to black text on gray background and remains this way until it is turned
off, at which time it reverts to white text on black background. When a softkey function is disabled, the softkey
label is subdued (dimmed).
Softkeys revert to the previous level after 45 seconds of inactivity.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Softkey
On
Softkey Names
(Displayed)
Bezel-Mounted
Softkeys (Press)
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 1-15 Softkeys (Third-Level PFD Configuration)
22
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PFD SOFTKEYS
The CDI, IDENT, TMR/REF, NRST, and ALERTS softkeys undergo a momentary change to black text on
gray background and automatically switch back to white text on black background when selected.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Displays terrain information on Inset Map (not available with TAWS-A)
Displays Stormscope information on Inset Map (optional)
Displays NEXRAD weather and coverage information on Inset Map Page (optional)
AFCS
TERRAIN
STRMSCP
NEXRAD-B
or
NEXRAD-C
Displays icon and age on the Inset Map for the selected weather products (optional)
Displays traffic information on Inset Map
TRAFFIC: No Traffic displayed on Inset Map
TRFC-1: Traffic displayed on Inset Map
TRFC-2: Traffic Only display shown
Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes) and elevation scale on
Inset Map
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TOPO
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
WX LGND
TRAFFIC
Displays Inset Map in PFD lower left corner.
Removes Inset Map
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through declutter levels:
DCLTR (No Declutter): All map features visible
DCLTR-1: Declutters land data
DCLTR-2: Declutters land and SUA data
DCLTR-3: Removes everything except for the active flight plan
EIS
LVL1 LVL2 LVL3
INSET
OFF
DCLTR (3)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The PFD softkeys provide control over flight management functions, including GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic,
and lightning (optional). Each softkey sublevel has a BACK Softkey which can be selected to return to the
previous level. The ALERTS Softkey is visible at all softkey levels (label changes if messages are issued).
or
or
or
PFD
SYN VIS
PATHWAY
190-01325-01 Rev. A
or
Displays Connext Weather lightning information on the Inset Map (optional)
Displays METAR information on Inset Map (optional)
Displays second-level softkeys for additional PFD configurations
Displays the softkeys for enabling or disabling Synthetic Vision features
Displays rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active
flight plan
Enables synthetic terrain depiction
Displays compass heading along the Zero-Pitch line
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
INDEX
SYN TERR
HRZN HDG
LVL1 LVL2 LVL3
Displays XM lightning information on Inset Map Page (optional)
APPENDICES
DL LTNG
METAR
Displays Connext Weather precipitation on Inset Map (optional)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
PRECIP
XM LTNG
23
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
LVL1 LVL2 LVL3
APTSIGNS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
DFLTS
WIND
OPTN 1
OPTN 2
OPTN 3
OFF
DME
BRG1
HSI FRMT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
360 HSI
ARC HSI
BRG2
ALT UNIT
METERS
IN
HPA
Press to display the BARO setting as hectopacals
AFCS
OBS
CDI
DME
XPDR
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
STBY
ON
ALT
VFR
CODE
LVL1 LVL2
INDEX
Displays the softkeys for selecting the two HSI formats
Displays HSI as a 360° compass rose
Displays HSI as a 140° viewable arc
Cycles the Bearing 2 Information Window through NAV2 or GPS waypoint identifier and
GPS-derived distance information, and ADF/frequency.
Displays softkeys for setting the altimeter and BARO settings to metric units
When enabled, displays altimeter in meters
Press to display the BARO setting as inches of mercury
STD BARO
24
Displays position markers for airports within approximately 15 nm of the current aircraft
position. Airport identifiers are displayed when the airport is within approximately 9 nm.
Resets PFD to default settings, including changing units to standard
Displays softkeys to select wind data parameters
Headwind/tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed components
Wind direction arrow with numeric speed
Wind direction arrow with numeric headwind/tailwind and crosswind components
Information not displayed
Displays DME Information Window
Cycles the Bearing 1 Information Window through NAV1 or GPS waypoint identifier and
GPS-derived distance information, and ADF/frequency.
0—7
LVL3
Sets barometric pressure to 29.92 in Hg (1013 hPa if metric units are selected)
Selects OBS mode on the CDI when navigating by GPS (only available with active leg)
Cycles through GPS, VOR1, and VOR2 navigation modes on the CDI
Displays the DME Tuning Window, allowing tuning and selection of the DME (optional)
Displays transponder mode selection softkeys
Selects standby mode (transponder does not reply to any interrogations)
Selects Mode A (transponder replies to interrogations)
White (On-Ground) - Transponder does not allow Mode A or Mode C replies to
interrogations, , but it does permit acquisition and extended squitters including
ADS-B out, and replies to discretely addressed Mode S interrogations.
Green (Airborne) - Transponder generates Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S replies
to interrogations, as well as transmissions of acquisition and extended squitters
including ADS-B out.
Automatically enters the VFR code (1200 in the U.S.A. only)
Displays transponder code selection softkeys 0-7
Use numbers to enter code
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Removes numbers entered, one at a time
Enables/disables automatic transmission of ADS-B position and speed.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds, identifying the
transponder return on the ATC screen
Displays Timer/References Window
Displays Nearest Airports Window
Displays Alerts Window
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TMR/REF
NRST
ALERTS
LVL1 LVL2
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
LVL1 LVL2 LVL3
BKSP
ADS-B TX
IDENT
LVL3
EIS
INSET
PFD
OBS
CDI
(optional)
DME
XPDR
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
ALERTS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
CDI (NAV1)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
CDI (NAV2)
CDI (GPS)
Figure 1-16 Top Level PFD Softkeys
PFD
OBS
CDI
(optional)
DME
XPDR
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
INSET
ALERTS
(optional)
PRECIP
AFCS
(optional) (optional)
NEXRAD-B DL LTNG
or
or
(optional) (optional) (optional) (optional) (optional)
DCLTR
WX LGND TRAFFIC
TRFC-1
DCLTR-2
TRFC-2
TERRAIN STRMSCP NEXRAD-C XM LTNG
METAR
BACK
ALERTS
Select the BACK or OFF Softkey
to return to the top-level softkeys.
APPENDICES
DCLTR-1
TOPO
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
OFF
DCLTR-3
Figure 1-17 INSET Softkeys
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
25
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
PFD
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
INSET
DFLTS
WIND
(optional)
DME
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
SYN VIS
OBS
CDI
BRG1
HSI FRMT
DME
XPDR
BRG2
NAV1
NAV2
GPS
GPS
ADF
ADF
OFF
OFF
360 HSI
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
(optional)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
OPTN2
OPTN3
TMR/REF
NRST
ALERTS
ALT UNIT STD BARO
BACK
ALERTS
Select the BACK Softkey
to return to the top-level softkeys
ARC HSI
METERS
OPTN1
IDENT
IN
HPA
OFF
PATHWAY SYN TERR HRZN HDG APTSIGNS
BACK
ALERTS
BACK
ALERTS
BACK
ALERTS
BACK
ALERTS
AFCS
Figure 1-18 PFD Configuration Softkeys
PFD
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
INSET
OBS
CDI
(optional)
DME
XPDR
IDENT
TMR/REF
NRST
ALERTS
APPENDICES
Press the BACK Softkey to return
to the top-level softkeys.
STBY
ON
ALT
2
3
4
VFR
CODE
IDENT
ADS-B TX
BACK
ALERTS
Selecting BACK returns to the previous softkey level.
0
1
5
6
7
IDENT
BKSP
BACK
ALERTS
INDEX
Figure 1-19 XPDR Softkeys
26
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MFD SOFTKEYS
MFD softkeys vary depending on the page selected. EIS and Navigation Map Page (default MFD page)
softkeys are described here.
PROFILE
TOPO
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
STRMSCP
NEXRAD-B
or
NEXRAD-C
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TERRAIN
AIRWAYS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
TRAFFIC
Enables second level engine softkeys
Returns to the top-level softkeys
Decreases displayed fuel remaining in 1-gal increments
Increases displayed fuel remaining in 1-gal increments
Resets displayed fuel remaining to maximum fuel capacity for aircraft and fuel used to
zero
Enables second-level Navigation Map Page softkeys
Displays/removes traffic information on Navigation Map Page
Displays profile view on Navigation Map Page
Displays/removes topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes) on Navigation
Map Page
Displays/removes terrain information on Navigation Map Page
Selects the desired display of Airways; cycles through:
AIRWY ON: All Airways displayed
AIRWY LO: Low Altitude (Victor) Airways displayed
AIRWY HI: High Altitude Airways (Jetways) displayed
AIRWAYS: Airways are not displayed
Displays Stormscope information on Navigation Map (optional)
Displays NEXRAD weather and coverage information on Navigation Map Page (optional)
EIS
MAP
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
LVL1 LVL2
LVL3
ENGINE
ENGINE
DEC FUEL
INC FUEL
RST FUEL
or
PRECIP
XM LTNG
or
Displays Connext Weather lightning information on the Navigation Map (optional)
Displays METAR flags on airport symbols shown on the Navigation Map
Displays legends for the displayed XM Weather products (optional)
Displays the weather radar scan on the Navigation Map (optional)
Returns to top-level softkeys
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through declutter levels:
DCLTR (No Declutter): All map features visible
DCLTR-1: Removes land data
DCLTR-2: Removes land and SUA data
DCLTR-3: Removes everything except the active flight plan
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Displays XM lightning information on Navigation Map Page (optional)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
LVL2
Displays Connext Weather precipitation on Navigation Map (optional)
or
DL LTNG
METAR
LEGEND
WX RADAR
BACK
DCLTR (3)
LVL1
AFCS
or
LVL3
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
27
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
ENGINE
MAP
DCLTR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
DCLTR-1
DCLTR-2
DCLTR-3
ENGINE
DEC FUEL INC FUEL RST FUEL
EIS
(optional)
PRECIP
or
(optional) (optional)
NEXRAD-B
DL LTNG
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
or
or
(optional) (optional) (optional) (optional) (optional) (optional)
TRAFFIC PROFILE
TOPO
TERRAIN AIRWAYS STRMSCP NEXRAD-C XM LTNG
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AIRWY ON
METAR
LEGEND
WX RADAR
BACK
Select the BACK softkey to
return to the top-level softkeys.
AIRWY LO
AIRWY HI
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 1-20 MFD Softkeys (EIS and Navigation Map Page)
28
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1.6 ACCESSING G950 FUNCTIONALITY
MENUS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
The G950 has a dedicated MENU Key that when pressed displays a context-sensitive list of options. This
options list allows the user to access additional features or make settings changes which specifically relate to
the currently displayed window/page. There is no all-encompassing menu. Some menus provide access to
additional submenus that are used to view, edit, select, and review options. Menus display ‘NO OPTIONS’
when there are no options for the window/page selected. The main controls used in association with all
window/page group operations are described in Section 1.5, G950 Controls.
Navigating a menu:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the menu.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through a list of available options (a scroll bar always appears to the right of the
window/box when the option list is longer than the window/box).
3) Press the ENT Key to select the desired option.
No Options for
NRST Window
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Press the CLR Key or the FMS Knob to remove the menu and cancel the operation.
Options for FPL Window
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 1-21 Page Menu Examples
AFCS
DATA ENTRY
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The method for directly entering alphanumeric data (e.g., Flight ID, waypoint identifiers, barometric
minimum descent altitude) into the G950 is by using the FMS Knob corresponding to the display (PFD, MFD).
APPENDICES
In some instances, such as when entering an identifier, the G950 tries to predict the desired identifier based
on the characters being entered. In this case, if the desired identifier appears, use the ENT Key to confirm the
entry without entering the rest of the identifier manually. This can save the pilot from entering all the characters
of the identifier.
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
INDEX
Besides character-by-character data entry, the system also provides a shortcut for entering waypoint identifiers.
When the cursor is on a field awaiting entry of a waypoint identifier, turning the small FMS Knob counterclockwise accesses five different lists of waypoint identifiers for quick selection: flight plan (FPL), nearest
(NRST), recently-entered (RECENT), user-defined (USER), and airway (AIRWAY)(AIRWAY available when
active leg is part of an airway). The G950 automatically fills in the identifier, facility, and city fields with the
information for the selected waypoint.
29
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Using the FMS Knob to enter data:
1) If needed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field.
3) Begin entering data.
a) To quickly enter a waypoint identifier, turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of waypoints
in the active flight plan (list is titled FPL). If desired, turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to scroll through lists
of other waypoints (NRST, USER, AIRWAY, RECENT).
EIS
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to select a character for the first placeholder.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Turning the knob clockwise scrolls through the alphabet (where appropriate) toward the letter Z, starting at
K, and the digits zero through nine. Afterwards, turning the knob counter-clockwise scrolls in the opposite
direction.
b) Use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next placeholder in the field.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
c) Repeat, using the small FMS Knob to select a character and the large FMS Knob to move the cursor, until the
field is complete.
d) Press the ENT Key to confirm entry.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to cancel data entry (the field reverts back to its previous information).
30
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PAGE GROUPS
NOTE: Refer to other supporting sections in this Pilot’s Guide for details on specific pages.
EIS
Active Page Title
Page Group
MFD
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Information on the MFD is presented on pages which are grouped according to function. The page group and
active page title are displayed in the upper center of the screen, below the Navigation Status Box. In the bottom
right corner of the screen, the page group tabs are displayed along the bottom Number of pages available in the
group are displayed in a list above the page groups. The current page group and current page within the group
are shown in cyan. For some of these pages (Airport/Procedures/Weather Information, Procedure Loading), the
active title of the page changes while the page name in the list remains the same.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pages in
Current
Group
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Page Groups
Figure 1-22 Page Title and Page Groups
AFCS
The main page groups are navigated using the FMS Knob; specific pages within each group can vary depending
on the configuration of optional equipment.
Selecting a page using the FMS Knob:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to display the list of page groups; continue turning the large FMS Knob until the
desired page group is selected
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired page within a specific page group.
APPENDICES
There are also several pages (Airport/Procedures/Weather Information pages) which are selected first from
within a main page group with the FMS Knob, then with the appropriate softkey at the bottom of the page. In
this case, the page remains set to the selected page until a different page softkey is selected, even if a different
page group is selected.
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
31
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Map Pages (MAP)
Navigation Map
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Traffic Map
Weather Radar (optional)
Stormscope®(optional)
Weather Data Link (service optional)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Terrain, Map
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 1-23 Map Pages
Waypoint Pages (WPT)
Airport/Procedures/Weather Information Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Airport Information
(INFO-1 Softkey)
- Airport Directory Information
(INFO-2 Softkey)
AFCS
- Departure Information
(DP Softkey)
- Arrival Information
(STAR Softkey)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Approach Information
(APR Softkey)
- Weather Information (optional)
(WX Softkey)
Airport/Procedures/
Weather Information
Pages
APPENDICES
Intersection Information
NDB Information
VOR Information
Figure 1-24 Waypoint Pages
INDEX
User Waypoint Information
32
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Auxiliary Pages (AUX)
Weight and Fuel Planning
Trip Planning
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Utility
GPS Status
System Setup
XM Satellite pages
EIS
- XM Information
(INFO Softkey)
Satellite Phone
- Telephone
(TEL Softkey)
- SMS
(SMS Softkey)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- XM Radio
(RADIO Softkey)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
XM
Satellite
Pages
System Status
Video
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 1-25 Auxiliary Pages
Nearest Pages (NRST)
Nearest Airports
Nearest Intersections
AFCS
Nearest NDB
Nearest VOR
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Nearest User Waypoints
Nearest Frequencies
Nearest Airspaces
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 1-26 Nearest Pages
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33
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
In addition to the main page groups accessed exclusively using the FMS Knob, there are pages for flight
planning (FPL) and loading procedures (PROC) which are accessed by key. In some instances, softkeys may be
used to access the Procedure Loading pages.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Flight Plan pages are accessed using the FPL Key on the MFD. Main pages within this group are selected
by turning the small FMS Knob.
Flight Plan Pages (FPL)
Active Flight Plan
Flight Plan Catalog
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
- Stored Flight Plan
(NEW Softkey)
Figure 1-27 Flight Plan Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Procedure Loading pages may be accessed at any time on the MFD by pressing the PROC Key. A menu
is initialized, and when a departure, approach, or arrival is selected, the appropriate Procedure Loading page is
opened. These pages can also be accessed from the Stored Flight Plan page using the LD softkeys. Turning the
FMS Knob does not scroll through the Procedure Loading pages.
Procedure Pages (PROC)
Departure Loading
AFCS
Arrival Loading
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Approach Loading
Figure 1-28 Procedure Loading Pages
INDEX
Information on optional electronic checklist pages is offered later in this section. Checklist pages may be
accessed from any page on the MFD using the CHKLIST Softkey.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM SETTINGS
The System Setup Page allows management of the following system parameters:
• Audio alert voice
• Displayed measurement units
• MFD Data Bar (Navigation Status Box) fields
• Baro transition alert (see Flight Instruments
Section)
• GPS Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) range
• Airspace alerts
• Displayed nearest airports
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Time format (local 12- or 24-hr, or UTC)
• COM transceiver channel spacing
EIS
• Arrival alerts
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 1-29 System Setup Page
APPENDICES
Restoring system setup defaults:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the DFLTS Softkey.
Or:
INDEX
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Restore Defaults’ and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
PILOT PROFILES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
System settings may be saved under a pilot profile. When the system is powered on, the last selected
pilot profile is shown on the MFD Power-up Screen (Figure 1-5). The G950 can store up to 25 profiles;
the currently active profile, the amount of memory used, and the amount of memory available are shown at
the top of the System Setup Page in the box labeled ‘Pilot Profile’. From here, pilot profiles may be created,
selected, renamed, or deleted.
Creating a profile:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
EIS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CREATE’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Create Profile’ window is displayed.
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter a profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key. Pilot profile names
cannot begin with a blank as the first letter.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
6) In the next field, use the small FMS Knob to select the desired settings upon which to base the new profile.
Profiles can be created based on Garmin factory defaults, default profile settings (initially based on Garmin
factory defaults unless edited by the pilot), or current system settings.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘CREATE’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to create the profile
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Or:
Use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CREATE and ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to activate the new profile.
9) To cancel the process, select ‘CANCEL’ with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key.
Selecting an active profile:
AFCS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the active profile field in the Pilot Profile Box.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the pilot profile list and highlight the desired profile.
5) Press the ENT Key. The G950 loads and displays the system settings for the selected profile.
Renaming a profile:
APPENDICES
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘RENAME’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
5) In the ‘Rename Profile’ window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to rename.
6) Press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter a new profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘RENAME’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
9) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Deleting a profile:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘DELETE’ in the Pilot Profile Box.
EIS
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Delete Profile’ window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to delete.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) With ‘DELETE’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
8) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Importing a profile from an SD card:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Insert an SD card containing the pilot profile(s) into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
3) Select the IMPORT Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Import Pilot Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
4) The system displays the Pilot Profile Importing Window with ‘IMPORT’ highlighted. To change the selected
profile to be imported from the SD card (shown as ‘SELECT FILE’), turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the
profile file name, then turn the small FMS Knob to highlight a profile from the list, and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) If desired, the profile name to be used after profile has been imported can be changed by turning the FMS
Knob to highlight the ‘PROFILE NAME’ field, then use the large and small FMS Knobs to enter the name, and
press the ENT Key. Imported profile names cannot begin with a blank space or be named ‘DEFAULT’, ‘GARMIN
DEFAULTS’ or ‘DEFAULT SETTINGS’.
6) With ‘IMPORT’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
7) If the imported profile name is the same as an existing profile on the system, the system displays an ‘Overwrite
existing file? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to replace profile on the system with the profile
imported from the SD card, or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to the
Pilot Profile Importing Window.
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INDEX
8) If successful, the system displays ‘Pilot profile import succeeded.’ in the IMPORT RESULTS window below. With
‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT or CLR Keys or press the FMS Knob to return to the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
The imported profile becomes the active profile.
37
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Pilot Profile Importing and Import
Results Window
Pilot Profiles Available for Import from
SD Card (‘STEVE’S PROFILE’ Selected)
Import Successful
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 1-30 Pilot Profile Importing Window (AUX - System Setup 1 Page)
Exporting a profile to an SD card:
1) Insert the SD card for storing the Pilot Profile into the top card slot on the MFD.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
3) If necessary, activate the desired pilot profile to export. Only the currently active Pilot Profile can be exported.
4) Select the EXPORT Softkey. The system displays the Pilot Profile Exporting Window.
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Export Pilot Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
5) To export the pilot profile using the current supplied name, press the ENT Key with ‘EXPORT’ highlighted. To
change the profile file name turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘SELECT FILE’ field, then enter the new
name with the large and small FMS Knobs, then press the ENT Key. Then press the ENT Key with ‘EXPORT’
highlighted.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) If the profile name to be exported is the same as an existing profile file name on the SD card, the system displays
an ‘Overwrite existing file? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to replace the profile on the SD card
with the profile to be exported, or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to
the Pilot Profile Exporting Window without exporting the profile.
INDEX
APPENDICES
7) If successful, the EXPORT RESULTS window displays ‘Pilot profile export succeeded.’ With ‘OK’ highlighted,
press the ENT or CLR Keys, or press the FMS Knob to return to the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Export Successful
EIS
Pilot Profile Exporting Window, Enter a
Name to Use for Exported Profile
Figure 1-31 Pilot Profile Exporting Window (AUX - System Setup 1 Page)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
DATE/TIME
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The system time is displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Time and date format (local 12-hr,
local 24-hr, or UTC) are modified on the System Setup Page. Universal Coordinated Time (UTC; also called
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or Zulu) date and time are calculated directly from the GPS satellites signals
and cannot be changed. An offset is provided to add or subtract the desired amount of time (hours:minutes)
from UTC to define current local time.
Configuring the system time:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Time Format’ field.
AFCS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired format and press the ENT Key to confirm selection. The ‘Time
Offset’ field is highlighted (for local time formats).
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time offset (±HH:MM) and press the ENT Key to confirm selection.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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39
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
DISPLAY UNITS
Units in which various quantities are displayed on the G950 screens can be changed on the System Setup
Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Changing a display units setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Display Units’ box.
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select from a list of measurement units and press the ENT Key when the desired
unit is highlighted.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Category
Settings
Navigation Angle Magnetic*
True
Affected Quantities
Heading
Course
Bearing
Track
Desired Track
Wind direction (Trip Planning Page)
All altitudes on MFD
All elevations on MFD
Altitude and
Vertical Speed
Feet*
Meters
Temperature
Celsius
Fahrenheit*
Pounds*
Kilograms
HDDD°MM.MM’*
HDDD°MM’SS.S”
Weight
Position
All temperatures on PFD
Total Air Temperature (Trip Planning Page)
N/A
All positions
Exceptions
Altimeter
Vertical Speed Indicator
VNV altitudes (Active Flight Plan)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
N/A
N/A
AFCS
* Default setting
Table 1-1 Display Units Settings (System Status Page)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AIRSPACE ALERTS
APPENDICES
The Airspace Alert feature provides a message alert when the aircraft is approaching or near a controlled or
special-use airspace. The altitude buffer setting increases the range above or below an airspace for which an
alert is generated; the default value is 200 feet. Alerts for the following airspaces can be turned on/off from
the System Setup Page:
• Class B/TMA
• Class D
• MOA (Military)
• Class C/TCA
• Restricted
• Other airspaces
INDEX
Turning Airspace Alerts off does not affect the alerts listed on the Nearest Airspaces Page or the airspace
boundaries depicted on the Navigation Map Page.
Turning an airspace alert on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the altitude buffer field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
EIS
ARRIVAL ALERTS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Arrival Alert Box on the System Setup Page allows the Alerts Window arrival alerts to be turned
ON/OFF, and the alert trigger distance (up to 99.9 units) set for alerts in the Alerts Window and the PFD
Navigation Status Box. An arrival alert can be set to notify the pilot with a message upon reaching a userspecified distance from the final destination (the direct-to waypoint or the last waypoint in a flight plan).
When Arrival Alerts is set to ON, and the set distance is reached, an “Arrival at waypoint” message is displayed
in the PFD Navigation Status Box, and a “WPT ARRIVAL - Arriving at waypoint - [xxxx]” is displayed in the
Alerts Window. When Arrival Alerts is set to OFF, only the PFD Navigation Status Box message “Arriving at
waypoint” is displayed, and it is displayed when the time to the final destination is approximately ten seconds.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 1-32 Arrival Alert Settings (System Setup Page)
Enabling/disabling the Alerts Window arrival alert:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ON/OFF field in the Arrival Alert Box.
APPENDICES
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
Changing the arrival alert trigger distance:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
INDEX
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the distance field in the Arrival Alert Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AUDIO ALERTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The gender of the voice used to announce audio alerts may be set to male or female on the System Setup
Page. See the Appendices for voice alerts.
Changing the audio alert voice:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the voice in the Audio Alert Box.
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and highlight the desired voice and press the ENT Key.
MFD DATA BAR FIELDS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
By default, the Navigation Status Box on the MFD is set to display ground speed (GS), distance to next
waypoint (DIS), estimated time enroute (ETE), and enroute safe altitude (ESA). These four data fields can be
changed to display the following information:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Distance (DIS)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Bearing (BRG)
• Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA)
• Desired Track (DTK)
• Endurance (END)
• Enroute Safe Altitude (ESA)
• Estimated Time Enroute (ETE)
• Fuel on Board (FOB)
• Fuel over Destination (FOD)
AFCS
• Ground Speed (GS)
• Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• True Air Speed (TAS)
• Track Angle Error (TKE)
• Track (TRK)
• Vertical Speed Required (VSR)
APPENDICES
• Crosstrack Error (XTK)
The Navigation Status Box on the PFD is not affected by these changes; flight plan, distance, and bearing
information are displayed at all times.
Changing the information shown in the MFD Navigation Status Box:
INDEX
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the MFD Data Bar Fields Box.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired selection from the data options list and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 1-33 Navigation Status Box (MFD)
GPS CDI
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The GPS CDI Box on the System Setup Page allows the pilot to define the scale for the Course Deviation
Indicator (CDI) when GPS is the selected navigation source and also displays the current system value for the
CDI scale. The range values represent full scale deflection for the CDI to either side. The default setting is
‘Auto’ (refer to the CDI description in the Flight Instruments Section for information on CDI scaling).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If a lower CDI scale setting is selected (i.e., 1.0 or 0.3 nm), the higher scale settings are not selected during
any phase of flight. Note that the Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) protection limits follow
the selected CDI scale and corresponding flight phase.
Changing the selected GPS CDI setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
AFCS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Selected’ in the ‘GPS CDI’ box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting (2 nm, 1 nm, 0.3 nm, Auto) and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
COM CONFIGURATION
The COM Configuration Box on the System Setup Page allows the pilot to select 8.33 kHz or 25.0 kHz
COM frequency channel spacing.
APPENDICES
Changing COM channel spacing:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the channel spacing field in the COM Configuration Box.
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INDEX
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired spacing and press the ENT Key.
43
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
NEAREST AIRPORTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Nearest Airports Box on the System Setup Page defines the minimum runway length and surface type
used when determining the nine nearest airports to display on the MFD Nearest Airports Page. A minimum
runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways or runways that are
not of appropriate surface from being displayed. Default settings are 0 feet (or meters) for runway length and
“any” for runway surface type.
Selecting nearest airport surface matching criteria (any, hard only, hard/soft, water):
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
EIS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the runway surface field in the Nearest Airports Box.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (any, hard only, hard/soft, water) and press the
ENT Key.
Selecting nearest airport minimum runway length matching criteria:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the minimum length field in the Nearest Airport Box.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Enter the minimum runway length (zero to 99,999 feet) and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM UTILITIES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
For flight planning purposes, timers, trip statistics, and a scheduler feature are provided on the AUX - Utility
Page. The timers available include a stopwatch-like generic timer, a total time in flight timer, and a record of the
time of departure. Trip statistics—odometer, trip odometer, and average trip and maximum groundspeeds—are
displayed from the time of the last reset. A scheduler feature is also provided so the pilot can enter reminder
messages to be displayed at specified intervals in the Alerts Window on the PFD (see Figure 1-34).
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 1-34 Utility Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
TIMERS
APPENDICES
The generic timer can be set to count up or down from a specified time (HH:MM:SS). When the countdown
on the timer reaches zero the digits begin to count up from zero. If the timer is reset before reaching zero
on a countdown, the digits are reset to the initial value. If the timer is counting up when reset, the digits are
zeroed.
Setting the generic timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
INDEX
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (UP/DN) and press the ENT Key.
4) If a desired starting time is desired:
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
a) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the HH:MM:SS field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘START?’ and press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to
‘STOP?’.
6) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘STOP?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘RESET?’.
7) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘RESET?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘START?’ and the
digits are reset.
EIS
The flight timer can be set to count up from zero starting at system power-up or from the time that the
aircraft lifts off; the timer can also be reset to zero at any time.
Setting the flight timer starting criterion:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the flight timer.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (PWR-ON or IN-AIR) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the flight timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) With ‘Reset Flight Timer’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
The G950 records the time at which departure occurs, measured from system power-up or aircraft lift off.
The displayed departure time can also be reset to display the current time at the point of reset. The format in
which the time is displayed is controlled from the System Setup Page.
AFCS
Setting the departure timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the departure time.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (PWR-ON or IN-AIR) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the departure time:
APPENDICES
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Reset Departure Time’ and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRIP STATISTICS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The odometer and trip odometer record the total mileage traveled from the last reset; these odometers can
be reset independently. Resetting the trip odometer also resets the average trip groundspeed. Maximum
groundspeed for the period of time since the last reset is also displayed.
Resetting trip statistics readouts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key. The following reset options for trip statistics are displayed:
EIS
• Reset Trip ODOM/AVG GS—Resets trip average ground speed readout and odometer
• Reset Odometer—Resets odometer readout only
• Reset Maximum Speed—Resets maximum speed readout only
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Reset All—Resets flight timer, departure timer, odometers, and groundspeed readouts
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired reset option and press the ENT Key. The selected parameters are reset
to zero and begin to display data from the point of reset.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SCHEDULER
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., “Change oil”, “Switch
fuel tanks”, “Overhaul”). Messages can be set to display based on a specific date and time (event), once the
message timer reaches zero (one-time; default setting), or recurrently whenever the message timer reaches
zero (periodic). Message timers set to periodic alerting automatically reset to the original timer value once
the message is displayed. When power is cycled, messages are retained until deleted, and message timer
countdown is restarted.
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
AFCS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty scheduler message naming field.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the message text to be displayed in the Alerts Window and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the field next to ‘Type’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select set the message alert type:
• Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
APPENDICES
• One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
• Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
INDEX
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HHH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
9) For event-based messages:
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MMM-YYY) and press the ENT Key.
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
EIS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the name field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Press the ENT Key to confirm message deletion.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Scheduler messages appear in the Alerts Window on the PFD and cause the ALERTS Softkey label to
change to ‘ADVISORY’. Selecting the ADVISORY Softkey opens the Alerts Window and acknowledges
the scheduler message. The softkey reverts to the ‘ALERTS’ label and when pressed, the Alerts Window is
removed from the display and the scheduler message is deleted from the message list.
PFD
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 1-35 PFD Alerts Window
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1.7 DISPLAY BACKLIGHTING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Backlighting of the PFD and MFD, and Audio Panel keys can be adjusted automatically or manually. The
automatic setting (default) uses photocells to adjust for ambient lighting conditions. Photocell calibration curves
are pre-configured to optimize display appearance through a broad range of cockpit lighting conditions. In
normal display mode, backlighting can only be adjusted from the PFD. In Reversionary Mode, it can be adjusted
from the remaining display(s).
Adjusting display backlighting manually:
EIS
1) Press the PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘AUTO’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD DSPL’. No
other window can be displayed on the PFD while the PFD Setup Menu is displayed. Pressing the MENU Key
while any other PFD window is displayed does not display the PFD Setup Menu.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MANUAL’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘AUTO’ next to ‘MFD DSPL’ and repeat steps 2-4.
5) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Adjusting key backlighting manually:
1) Press the PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘AUTO’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD DSPL’.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘PFD DSPL’.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘PFD KEY’.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘AUTO’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MANUAL’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘MFD DSPL’.
8) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘MFD KEY’ and repeat steps 4-7.
9) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
PFD
Figure 1-36 PFD Setup Menu
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49
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Blank Page
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Garmin G950 includes an easy-to-scan Primary Flight Displays (PFD) that feature large horizons, airspeed,
attitude, altitude, vertical speed, and course deviation information. In addition to the flight instruments,
navigation, communication, terrain, traffic, and weather information are also presented on the PFD and explained
in other sections of this Pilot’s Guide.
The following flight instruments and supplemental flight data are displayed on the PFD:
• Outside air temperature (OAT)
• Airspeed Indicator, showing
• Horizontal Situation Indicator, showing
– Turn Rate Indicator
– Ground speed
– Bearing pointers and information windows
– Airspeed awareness ranges
– Navigation source
• Attitude Indicator with slip/skid indication
– Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
• Altimeter, showing
– Bearing pointers and information windows
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
– True airspeed
EIS
– Indicated airspeed
– Barometric setting
• Transponder Mode, Code, and Ident/Reply
– Reference altitude
• Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
– DME Information Window (optional)
– Trend vector
• Timer/References Window, showing
• Radar Altimeter (optional)
• Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
• Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope, and Glidepath
Indicators
– Generic timer
– Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height
(MDA/DH)
• Wind data
AFCS
The PFD also displays various alerts and annunciations.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
21
20
19
1
18
17
16
2
EIS
15
14
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3
13
4
12
5
11
6
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
10
9
7
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8
1
NAV Frequency Box
12
Turn Rate Indicator
2
Airspeed Indicator
13
Barometric Altimeter Setting
3
Ground Speed
14
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
4
True Airspeed
15
Reference Altitude Bug
5
Current Heading
16
Altimeter
6
Horizontal Situation Indicator ( HSI)
17
Reference Altitude
7
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
18
COM Frequency Box
8
Softkeys
19
Navigation Status Box
9
System Time
20
Slip/Skid Indicator
10
Transponder Data Box
21
Attitude Indicator
11
Heading Bug
INDEX
Figure 2-1 Primary Flight Display (Default)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
16
15
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
14
1
13
EIS
12
11
10
3
9
4
8
7
Traffic Annunciation
9
Annunciation Window
2
Selected Heading
10
Selected Course
3
Wind Data Box
11
4
Inset Map
5
DME Information Window
(optional)
Bearing Information Windows
13
Comparator Window
14
VNV Target Altitude
Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height
Flight Plan Window
15
Terrain Annunciation
16
Radar Altimeter (optional)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
8
Required Vertical Speed
Indicator
12 Vertical Deviation Indication
AFCS
7
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1
6
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
6
5
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2
Figure 2-2 Additional PFD Information
APPENDICES
INDEX
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53
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
NOTE: Refer to the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) for airspeed criteria and Vspeed values.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The true airspeed is
displayed in knots below the Airspeed Indicator. The ground speed is displayed in knots to the left of the true
airspeed. The numeric labels and major tick marks on the moving tape are shown at intervals of 10 knots. The
minor tick marks on the moving tape are shown at intervals of five knots. Speed indication starts at 20 knots,
with 60 knots of airspeed viewable at any time. The indicated airspeed is displayed inside the black pointer.
The pointer remains black until reaching maximum operating speed (VMO), at which point it turns red.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Airspeed
Trend
Vector
Indicated
Airspeed
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Speed
Ranges
Ground
Speed
VYSE
Blue Line
Low
Speed
Range
VMCA
Red Line
Red
Pointer
at VNE
True
Airspeed
Color coded stripes appear on the Airspeed Indicator to show the operating ranges. The low speed range
stripe is red and extends to the flap operating range. Normal operating range is green, caution range is amber,
and the never exceed speed (VNE) begins with a red and white barber pole.
The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical magenta line that appears to the right of the color-coded speed range
strip when airspeed is either accelerating or decelerating. One end of the magenta line is anchored to the
tip of the airspeed pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down corresponding to the rate of
acceleration or deceleration. For any constant rate of acceleration or deceleration, the moving end of the line
shows approximately what the indicated airspeed value will be in six seconds. If the trend vector crosses VNE,
the number in the indicated airspeed pointer changes to amber. The trend vector is absent if the speed remains
constant or if any data needed to calculate airspeed is not available due to a system failure.
INDEX
APPENDICES
AFCS
Figure 2-4 Red Pointer
Showing Overspeed
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 2-3 Airspeed Indicator
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ATTITUDE INDICATOR
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a white horizon line. The
Attitude Indicator displays the pitch, roll, and slip/skid information.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
9
8
1
7
2
3
5
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
Aircraft Symbol
5
Land Representation
6
Pitch Scale
7
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4
Roll Pointer
EIS
6
1
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-5 Attitude Indicator
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Above and below the horizon line, major pitch marks and numeric
labels are shown for every 10˚, up to 80˚. Minor pitch marks are shown for intervening 5˚ increments, up to
25˚ below and 45˚ above the horizon line. Between 20˚ below to 20˚ above the horizon line, minor pitch marks
occur every 2.5˚.
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚ and 60˚ and minor tick
marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the zero. Angle of bank is indicated by the position
of the pointer on the roll scale.
AFCS
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the bar beneath the roll pointer. One bar displacement is equal to one ball
displacement on a traditional inclinometer. The indicator bar moves with the roll pointer and moves laterally
away from the pointer to indicate uncoordinated flight. Slip (inside the turn) or skid (outside the turn) is
indicated by the location of the bar relative to the pointer.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 2-6 Slip/Skid Indication
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ALTIMETER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Altimeter displays 600 feet of barometric altitude values at a time on a moving tape rolling number gauge.
Numeric labels and major tick marks are shown at intervals of 100 feet. Minor tick marks are at intervals of 20
feet. The indicated altitude is displayed inside the black pointer.
The Selected Altitude is displayed above the Altimeter in the box indicated by a selection bug symbol. A bug
corresponding to this altitude is shown on the tape. If the Selected Altitude exceeds the range shown on the
tape, the bug appears at the upper or lower edge of the tape. When the metric value is selected it is displayed
in a separate box above the Selected Altitude.
EIS
A magenta Altitude Trend Vector extends up or down the left of the altitude tape, the end resting at the
approximate altitude to be reached in six seconds at the current vertical speed. The trend vector is not shown
if altitude remains constant or if data needed for calculation is not available due to a system failure.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Setting the Selected Altitude:
T urn the ALT Knob to set the Selected Altitude. Turn the large knob for 1000-ft increments, small knob for 100ft increments. If set to Metric mode, the large knob adjusts the Selected Altitude in 500-meter increments; the
small knob adjusts the Selected Altitude in 50-meter increments..
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If a Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height (MDA/DH) value has been set, this altitude is also available for
the Selected Altitude.
Reference
Altitude
(Meters)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Reference
Altitude
AFCS
Altitude
Trend
Vector
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Barometric
Setting
Indicated
Altitude
(Meters)
Indicated
Altitude
MDA/DH
Altitude
Bug
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Barometric
Setting Box
(Hectopascals)
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 2-7 Altimeter
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Altitudes can also be displayed in meters (Figure 2-7). Note that the altitude tape does not change scale.
Displaying altitude in meters:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT UNIT Softkey.
3) Press the METERS Softkey to turn on metric altitude readouts.
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
EIS
The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury (in Hg) or hectopascals
(hPa) when metric units are selected. Adjusting the altimeter barometric pressure setting creates discontinuities
in VNV vertical deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the
aircraft to re-establish on the descent patch. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target
Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
Turn the BARO Knob to select the desired setting.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selecting standard barometric pressure (29.92 in Hg):
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the STD BARO Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-8 Standard Barometric Setting
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units:
AFCS
1) Press the PFD Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT UNIT Softkey.
3) Press the IN Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in inches of mercury (in Hg).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or, press the HPA Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in hectopascals (hPa).
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
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57
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Baro Transition Alert is provided to alert the pilot to change the barometric pressure setting when crossing
the transition altitude in either direction. If the aircraft is at least 500 feet below the transition altitude and
then climbs through this altitude and the STD BARO Softkey has not been pressed, the barometric pressure
setting flashes in cyan until the pressure setting is changed. If the aircraft is at least 500 feet above the transition
altitude and then descends through this altitude and the barometric pressure setting has not been changed from
STD BARO, the setting flashes in cyan until it is changed (Figure 2-9).
Setting the Baro Transition Alert:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
EIS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Altitude in the Baro Transition Alert box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to turn the alert OFF or ON and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to change the altitude and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
6) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob.
APPENDICES
Figure 2-9 Aux System Setup Page, Baro Transition Alert
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
INDEX
The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI; Figure 2-10) displays the aircraft vertical speed on a fixed scale with labels
at 1000 and 2000 fpm and minor tick marks every 500 fpm. Digits appear in the pointer when the climb or
descent rate is greater than 100 fpm. If the rate of ascent/descent exceeds 2000 fpm, the pointer appears at the
edge of the tape and the rate appears inside the pointer.
A magenta chevron is displayed on the VSI to indicate the Required Vertical Speed for reaching a VNV target
altitude once the “TOD [Top of Descent] within 1 minute” alert has generated.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
VERTICAL DEVIATION
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator is only available on GPS approaches supporting SBAS vertical guidance when
SBAS is available.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI; Figure 2-10) is a magenta chevron indicating the baro-VNV vertical
deviation when Vertical Navigation (VNV) is being used. The VDI appears in conjunction with the “TOD within
1 minute” alert. The VDI is removed from the display if vertical deviation becomes invalid. See the Flight
Management Section for details on VNV features, and refer to Section 2.2, Supplemental Flight Data, for more
information about VNV indications on the PFD.
EIS
The Glideslope Indicator (Figure 2-11) appears to the left of the Altimeter whenever an ILS frequency is tuned
in the active NAV field and the aircraft heading and selected course are within 107. A green diamond acts as
the Glideslope Indicator, like a glideslope needle on a conventional indicator. If a localizer frequency is tuned
and there is no glideslope, “NO GS” is displayed in place of the diamond.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator appears on the display as soon as the Final Approach Fix (FAF) becomes the
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
active waypoint. Depending on procedure design, pilot action, and/or ATC clearance, the aircraft may be
centered on or above the glidepath when the Glidepath Indicator appears.
•
LNAV/VNAV, is +/- 148 feet (45 meters).
•
LPV/LP+V is +/- 49 feet (15 meters).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Glidepath Indicator is a vertical deviation scale for RNAV GPS approaches supporting SBAS vertical
guidance (LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LPV and LP+V approach service levels). The Glidepath Indicator, a magenta
diamond (Figure 2-13) appears on the display as soon as the Final Approach Fix (FAF) becomes the active
waypoint, and the FMS is the selected navigation source. Full-scale deflection (two dots), is angular with upper
and lower limits. The upper limit is +/- 492 feet (150 meters) and the lower limits depends on the approach
service level.
VNV Target
Altitude
AFCS
If the approach type downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the
diamond.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Marker
Beacon
Annunciation
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Vertical Glideslope
Speed
Indicator
Pointer
Glipepath
Indicator
APPENDICES
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
INDEX
Figure 2-10 Vertical Speed and
Deviation Indicator (VSI and VDI)
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Figure 2-11 Glideslope Indicator
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
Figure 2-12 Glidepath Indicator
59
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) displays a rotating compass card in a heading-up orientation. Letters
indicate the cardinal points with numeric labels every 30˚. Major tick marks are at 10˚ intervals and minor tick
marks are at 5˚ intervals. A digital reading of the current heading appears on top of the HSI, and the current
track is represented on the HSI by a magenta diamond connected to a gray dashed line. The HSI also presents
turn rate, course deviation, bearing, and navigation source information. The HSI is available in two formats, a
360˚ compass rose and a 140˚ arc.
Changing the HSI display format:
EIS
1) Press the PFD Softkey
2) Press the HSI FRMT Softkey.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Press the 360 HSI or ARC HSI Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The 360˚ HSI contains a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI), with a Course Pointer, To/From Indicator, and a
sliding deviation bar and scale. The course pointer is a single line arrow (GPS, VOR1, and LOC1) or a double
line arrow (VOR2 and LOC2) which points in the direction of the set course. The To/From arrow rotates with
the course pointer and is displayed when the active NAVAID is received.
15
14
13
1
12
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2
11
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
3
4
10
5
9
6
9
7
8
1
Turn Rate Indicator
9
Lateral Deviation Scale
2
Current Track Indicator
10
Flight Phase
3
To/From Indicator
11
Course Pointer
4
Navigation Source
12
Heading Bug
5
Aircraft Symbol
13
6
7
Course Deviation Indicator
(CDI)
Rotating Compass Card
15
8
OBS Mode Active
Turn Rate and Heading
Trend Vector
14 Current Heading
Lubber Line
Figure 2-13 Horizontal Situation Indicator (360˚ HSI)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Course Pointer
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Arc HSI is a 140˚ expanded section of the compass rose. The Arc HSI contains a Course Pointer,
combined To/From Indicator and a sliding deviation indicator, and a deviation scale. Upon station passage, the
To/From Indicator flips and points to the tail of the aircraft, just like a conventional To/From flag. Depending
on the navigation source, the CDI on the Arc HSI can appear in two different ways, an arrowhead (GPS, VOR,
OBS) or a diamond (LOC).
Current Track Indicator
Flight Phase
Annunciation
EIS
Navigation
Source
Lateral
Deviation
Scale
Course
Deviation
and To/From
Indicator
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 2-14 Arc HSI
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Selected Heading is shown to the upper left of the HSI for three seconds after being adjusted The light
blue bug on the compass rose corresponds to the Selected Heading. While the HSI is displayed as an arc, if the
Heading Bug is adjusted off the shown portion of the compass rose, the digital reading is displayed.
Adjusting the Selected Heading:
Turn the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading.
Press the HDG Knob to synchronize the bug to the current heading.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Selected Course is shown to the upper right of the HSI for three seconds after being adjusted. While the
HSI is displayed as an arc, the Selected Course is displayed whenever the Course Pointer is not within the 140˚
currently shown.
Adjusting the Selected Course:
AFCS
Turn the CRS Knob to set the Selected Course.
Press the CRS Knob to re-center the CDI and return the course pointer to the bearing of the active waypoint or
navigation station.
Current Heading
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Current Track Indicator
APPENDICES
Selected
Course
Selected
Heading
Bug
Selected
Heading
Figure 2-15 Heading and Course Indications
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
61
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Navigation angles (track, heading, course, bearing) are corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag
Var) or referenced to true north (T), set on the AUX - System Setup Page. When an approach referenced to
true north has been loaded into the flight plan, the system generates a message to change the navigation angle
setting to True at the appropriate time.
Figure 2-16 Heading and Course Indications (True)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Changing the navigation angle true/magnetic setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Nav Angle in the Display Units box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
• TRUE - References angles to true north (T)
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• MAGNETIC - Angles corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag Var)
INDEX
Figure 2-17 Navigation Angle Settings
(AUX - System Setup Page)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TURN RATE INDICATOR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Turn Rate Indicator is located directly above the rotating compass card. Tick marks to the left and right
of the lubber line denote half-standard and standard turn rates. A magenta Turn Rate Trend Vector shows the
current turn rate. The end of the trend vector gives the heading predicted in six seconds, based on the present
turn rate. A standard-rate turn is shown on the indicator by the trend vector stopping at the standard turn
rate tick mark, corresponding to a predicted heading of 18˚ from the current heading. At rates greater than
4 deg/sec, an arrowhead appears at the end of the magenta trend vector and the prediction is no longer valid.
Standard
Turn Rate
EIS
Arrow Shown
for Turn Rate
> 4 deg/sec
Half-standard
Turn Rate
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 2-18 Turn Rate Indicator and Trend Vector
BEARING POINTERS AND INFORMATION WINDOWS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: When the Arc HSI is displayed, the Bearing Information windows and pointers are disabled.
Tuning Mode
Frequency
Bearing 1
Pointer
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Two bearing pointers and associated information can be displayed on the HSI for NAV, GPS and ADF
sources by pressing the PFD Softkey then a BRG Softkey. The bearing pointers are cyan and are singleline (BRG1) or double-line (BRG2). A pointer symbol is shown in the information window to indicate the
navigation source. The bearing pointers never override the CDI and are visually separated from the CDI by a
white ring. Bearing pointers may be selected but not necessarily visible due to data unavailability.
Bearing 2
Pointer
Distance to
Bearing Source
AFCS
Distance
Station
Identifier
ADF
Frequency
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Pointer 2 Bearing Source
Bearing 1 Information Window
APPENDICES
Bearing Source Pointer 1
Bearing 2 Information Window
Figure 2-19 HSI with Bearing and Distance Information
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
When a bearing pointer is displayed, the associated information window is also displayed. The Bearing
Information windows (Figure 2-19) are displayed at the lower sides of the HSI and give the following
information:
• Pointer icon (BRG1 = single line, BRG2 = double line)
• GPS-derived great circle distance to bearing
source
• Station/waypoint identifier (NAV, GPS)
• Frequency (ADF)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Bearing source (NAV, GPS, ADF)
EIS
When the NAV radio is tuned to an ILS frequency the bearing source and the bearing pointer is removed
from the HSI. When NAV1 or NAV2 is the selected bearing source, the frequency is replaced by the station
identifier when the station is within range. If GPS is the bearing source, the active waypoint identifier is
displayed instead of a frequency.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and NO DATA is displayed in the information window if
the NAV radio is not receiving a VOR station or if GPS is the bearing source and an active waypoint is not
selected.
Selecting bearing display and changing sources:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press a BRG Softkey to display the desired bearing pointer and information window with a NAV source.
3) Press the BRG Softkey again to change the bearing source to GPS.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) To remove the bearing pointer and information window, press the BRG Softkey again.
DME INFORMATION WINDOW
AFCS
The DME Information Window (optional) is displayed above the BRG1 Information Window on the 360˚
HSI and in a box above and along side the Arc HSI. It shows the DME label, tuning mode (NAV1, NAV2, or
HOLD), frequency, and distance. When a signal is invalid, the distance is replaced by –.– – NM Refer to the
Audio Panel and CNS Section for information on tuning the DMEs.
Displaying the DME Information Window:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the DME Softkey to display the DME Information Window.
INDEX
APPENDICES
3) To remove the DME Information Window, press the DME Softkey again.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
NOTE: During a heading change of greater than 105˚ with respect to the course, the CDI on the Arc HSI
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
switches to the opposite side of the deviation scale and displays reverse sensing.
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer along a lateral deviation
scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data is not valid, the CDI is not
displayed.
360º HSI
EIS
Arc HSI
Flight
Phase
Navigation
Source
Flight
Phase
CDI
CDI
Scale
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Navigation
Source
Scale
CDI
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Crosstrack
Error
Figure 2-20 Course Deviation Indicator
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The CDI can display two sources of navigation, GPS or VOR/LOC. The color indicates the current navigation
source, magenta for GPS and green for VOR and LOC. The full scale limits for the CDI are defined by a GPSderived distance when navigating GPS. When navigating using a VOR or localizer (LOC), the CDI uses the
same angular deviation as a mechanical CDI. If the CDI exceeds the maximum deviation on the scale (two dots)
while navigating with GPS, the crosstrack error (XTK) is displayed below the white aircraft symbol.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 2-21 Navigation Sources
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Changing navigation sources:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the CDI Softkey again to change from VOR1 or LOC1 to VOR2 or LOC2. This places the cyan tuning box
over the NAV2 standby frequency.
1) Press the CDI Softkey to change from GPS to VOR1 or LOC1. This places the cyan tuning box over the NAV1
standby frequency in the upper left corner of the PFD.
3) Press the CDI Softkey a third time to return to GPS.
NAV1 Selected for Tuning
EIS
NAV2 Selected for Tuning
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
GPS
Selected
LOC1
Selected
VOR2
Selected
Pressing the CDI Softkey
Cycles through
Navigation Sources
Figure 2-22 Selecting a Navigation Source
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The system automatically switches from GPS to LOC navigation source and changes the CDI scaling accordingly
when all of the following occur:
• A localizer or ILS approach has been loaded into the active flight plan
AFCS
• The final approach fix (FAF) is the active leg, the FAF is less than 15 nm away, and the aircraft is moving
toward the FAF
• A valid localizer frequency has been tuned
• The GPS CDI deviation is less than 1.2 times full-scale deflection
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
GPS steering guidance is still provided after the CDI automatically switches to LOC until LOC capture, up
to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) for an ILS approach, or until GPS information becomes invalid. Activating a
Vector-to-Final (VTF) also causes the CDI to switch to LOC navigation source. GPS steering guidance is not
provided after the switch.
INDEX
APPENDICES
On some ILS approaches where the glideslope intercept point is at or in close proximity to the fix prior to
the FAF (see Figure 2-23), it is possible to be above the glideslope when the navigation source automatically
switches from GPS to LOC. The probability of this occurring varies based on air temperature.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Fix Prior to the FAF
Glideslope Intercept Point
EIS
Figure 2-23 ILS Approach with Glideslope Intercept Point at Fix Prior to the FAF
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
GPS CDI SCALING
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When GPS is the selected navigation source, the flight plan legs are sequenced automatically and
annunciations appear on the HSI for the flight phase. Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in
magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the color changes to amber. If the current leg in the flight plan
is a heading leg, HDG LEG is annunciated in magenta beneath the aircraft symbol.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The current GPS CDI scale setting is displayed as System CDI on the AUX - System Setup Page and the fullscale deflection setting may also be changed (2.0 nm, 1.0 nm, 0.3 nm, or Auto) from this page. If the selected
scaling is smaller than the automatic setting for enroute and terminal phases, the CDI is scaled accordingly
and the selected setting is displayed rather than the flight phase annunciation.
Changing the selected GPS CDI setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
AFCS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Selected in the GPS CDI box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-24 GPS CDI Setting
(AUX - System Setup Page)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Departure
D
Terminal
Enroute
(Oceanic if >200 nm
from nearest airport)
Terminal
Refer to accompanying
approach CDI scaling figures
Approach
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
1.0 nm
0.3 nm
AFCS
CDI Full-scale Deflection
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When set to Auto (default), the GPS CDI scale automatically adjusts to the desired limits based upon the
current phase of flight (Figure 2-25, Table 2-1).
Missed
Approach
APPENDICES
Figure 2-25 Automatic CDI Scaling
• Once a departure procedure is activated, the CDI is scaled for departure (0.3 nm).
• The system switches from departure to terminal CDI scaling (1.0 nm) under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not aligned with the departure runway
INDEX
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not a CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF (see
Glossary for leg type definitions)
- After any leg in the departure procedure that is not a CA or FA
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• At 30 nm from the departure airport, the enroute phase of flight is automatically entered and CDI scaling
changes to 2.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
- When navigating with an active departure procedure, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change
until the aircraft arrives at the last departure waypoint (if more than 30 nm from the departure airport) or
the leg after the last departure waypoint has been activated or a direct-to waypoint is activated.
• If after completing the departure procedure the nearest airport is more than 200 nm away from the aircraft
and the approach procedure has not yet commenced, the CDI is scaled for oceanic flight (2.0 nm).
• Within 31 nm of the destination airport (terminal area), the CDI scale gradually ramps down from 2.0 nm
to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm; except under the following conditions:
EIS
- Upon reaching the first waypoint of an arrival route that is more than 31 nm from the destination airport,
the flight phase changes to terminal and the CDI scale begins to transition down from 2.0 nm to 1.0 nm
over a distance of 1.0 nm.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• During approach, the CDI scale ramps down even further (Figures 2-26 and 2-27). This transition normally
occurs within 2.0 nm of the final approach fix (FAF). The CDI switches to approach scaling automatically
once the approach procedure is activated or if Vectors-To-Final (VTF) are selected.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- If the active waypoint is the FAF, the ground track and the bearing to the FAF must be within 45° of the
final approach segment course.
FAF
FAF
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2 nm
2 nm
Landing
Threshold
AFCS
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
angle based
on database
information
course width
350 ft
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
angle set
by system
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
CDI scale is set to the smaller of 0.3 nm
or an angle set by the system
CDI Full-scale Deflection
- If the active waypoint is part of the missed approach procedure, the active leg and the preceding missed
approach legs must be aligned with the final approach segment course and the aircraft must not have
passed the turn initiation point.
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 2-26 Typical LNAV and LNAV+V Approach Service Level Figure 2-27 Typical LNAV/VNAV and LPV Approach Service Level
CDI Scaling
CDI Scaling
.
• When a missed approach is activated, the CDI scale changes to 0.3 nm.
APPENDICES
• The system automatically switches back to terminal mode under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not aligned with the final approach path
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not a CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF
- After any leg in the missed approach procedure that is not a CA or FA
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Flight Phase
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Annunciation*
DPRT
TERM
ENR
OCN
Approach
(Non-precision)
LNAV
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Approach
(Non-precision with
Vertical Guidance)
Approach
(LNAV/VNAV)
Approach
(LP)
Approach
(LP+V)
Approach
(LPV)
Missed Approach
LNAV + V
Automatic CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
1.0 nm decreasing to 350 feet depending on
variables (Figure 2-26)
L/VNAV
LP
LP+V
1.0 nm decreasing to a specified course width, then
0.3 nm, depending on variables (Figure 2-27)
LPV
MAPR
0.3 nm
* Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in magenta, but when cautionary
conditions exist the color changes to amber.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Table 2-1 Automatic GPS CDI Scaling
OBS MODE
AFCS
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Enabling Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode suspends the automatic sequencing of waypoints in a GPS
flight plan (GPS must be the selected navigation source), but retains the current Active-to waypoint as the
navigation reference even after passing the waypoint. OBS is annunciated to the lower right of the aircraft
symbol when OBS Mode is selected.
INDEX
APPENDICES
While OBS is enabled, a course line is drawn through the Active-to waypoint on the moving map. If
desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled, the GPS flight
plan returns to normal operation, with automatic sequencing of waypoints, following the course set in OBS
Mode. The flight plan on the moving map retains the modified course line.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
GPS
Selected
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
OBS Mode
Enabled
Extended
Course
Line
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Enables
OBS Mode
EIS
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Again
Disables OBS Mode
Figure 2-28 Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Enabling/disabling OBS Mode while navigating a GPS flight plan:
1) Press the OBS Softkey to select OBS Mode.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the CRS Knob to select the desired course to/from the waypoint. Press the CRS Knob to synchronize the
Selected Course with the bearing to the next waypoint.
3) Press the OBS Softkey again to return to automatic waypoint sequencing.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
As the aircraft crosses the missed approach point (MAP), automatic approach waypoint sequencing is
suspended. SUSP appears on the HSI at the lower right of the aircraft symbol. The OBS Softkey label
changes to indicate the suspension is active as shown if Figure 2-29. Pressing the SUSP Softkey, deactivates
the suspension and resumes automatic sequencing of approach waypoints.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
SUSP
Annunciation
APPENDICES
SUSP
Softkey
Figure 2-29 Suspension of Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
INDEX
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71
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.2 SUPPLEMENTAL FLIGHT DATA
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Pressing the DFLTS Softkey turns off metric Altimeter display, the Inset Map and wind data display.
In addition to the flight instruments, the PFD also displays various supplemental information, including
temperatures, wind data, and Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications.
TEMPERATURE DISPLAYS
EIS
The Outside Air Temperature (OAT) is displayed in degrees Celsius (°C) or Fahrenheit (°F) as selected by
the pilot, in the lower left of the PFD under normal display conditions. Temperature is displayed below the
groundspeed in reversionary mode.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Normal Display
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Reversionary Mode
INDEX
Figure 2-30 Outside Air Temperature
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
WIND DATA
Option 2
Option 3
No Data
EIS
Option 1
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Wind direction and speed in knots can be displayed relative to the aircraft in a window to the upper left of
the HSI. When the window is selected for display, but wind information is invalid or unavailable, the window
displays NO WIND DATA. Wind data can be displayed in three different ways.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-31 Wind Data
Displaying wind data:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the WIND Softkey to display wind data to the left of the HSI.
3) Press one of the OPTN softkeys to change how wind data is displayed:
• OPTN 1: Headwind/tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed components
AFCS
• OPTN 2: Wind direction arrow and speed
• OPTN 3: Wind direction arrow with headwind/tailwind and crosswind components
4) To remove the window, press the OFF Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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73
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNV) INDICATIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When a VNV flight plan has been activated, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, RVSI, VDI) appear on the
PFD in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” message and “Vertical track” voice alert. See the Flight
Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features. VNV indications are removed from the PFD
according to the criteria listed in the table.
Top of Descent Message
EIS
VNV Target
Altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
GPS is the
Selected
Navigation
Source
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Phase of
Flight
AFCS
Figure 2-32 Vertical Navigation Indications (PFD)
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
VNV Indication Removed
Criteria
Required Vertical
Vertical
VNV Target
Speed (RVSI)
Deviation (VDI)
Altitude*
Aircraft > 1 min before the next TOD due to flight plan change
X
X
X
VNV cancelled (CNCL VNV Softkey pressed on MFD)
X
X
X
Distance to active waypoint cannot be computed due to
unsupported flight plan leg type (see Flight Management
X
X
X
Section)
Aircraft > 250 feet below active VNV Target Altitude
X
X
X
Current crosstrack or track angle error has exceeded limit
X
X
X
Active altitude-constrained waypoint can not be reached within
X
X
maximum allowed flight path angle and vertical speed
INDEX
Table 2-2 VNV Indication Removal Criteria
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
2.3 PFD ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTING FUNCTIONS
The following annunciations and alerting functions are displayed on the PFD. Refer to Appendix A for more
information on alerts and annunciations.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM ALERTING
EIS
Messages appear in the Alerts Window in the lower right corner of the PFD (Figure 2-33) when a warning,
caution, advisory alert, or G1000 message advisory occurs. System alert messages are provided for awareness
of G1000 system problems or status and may or may not require pilot action. The Alerts Window allows
system alerts to be displayed simultaneously. The FMS Knob is used to scroll through the alert messages. The
Alerts Window is enabled/disabled by pressing the ALERTS Softkey. If the window is already open when a new
message is generated, pressing the ALERTS Softkey to acknowledge the message turns the softkey gray.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The ALERTS Softkey label changes to display the appropriate annunciation when an alert is issued. The
annunciation flashes and the appropriate aural alert sounds until acknowledged by pressing the softkey. The
softkey then reverts to the ALERTS label, and when pressed again opens the Alerts Window to display a
descriptive message of the alert.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Comparator
Window
Reversionary
Sensor
Window
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Alerts
Window
AFCS
Annunciation
Window
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Softkey
Annunciation
Figure 2-33 Alerting System
INDEX
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75
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Annunciation Window appears to the right of the Vertical Speed Indicator (Figure 2-32) and displays
abbreviated annunciation text for aircraft alerts. Warnings appear in red, cautions in amber, advisory alerts
in white, and safe operating annunciations in green. New alerts are displayed at the top of the Annunciation
Window, regardless of priority. Once acknowledged, they are sequenced based on priority.
Critical values generated by redundant sensors are monitored by comparators. If differences in the sensors
exceed a specified amount, the Comparator Window appears in the upper right corner of the PFD (Figure 2-33)
and the discrepancy is annunciated in the Comparator Window as a MISCOMP (miscompare). If one or both
of the sensed values are unavailable, it is annunciated as a NO COMP (no compare).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Reversionary sensor selection is annunciated in a window on the right side of the PFD (Figure 2-33). These
annunciations reflect reversionary sensors selected on the PFD. Pressing the SENSOR Softkey accesses the
ADC1, ADC2, AHRS1, and AHRS2 softkeys. These softkeys allow switching of the sensors being viewed on
each PFD. With certain types of sensor failures, the system may make some sensor selections automatically.
The GPS sensor cannot be switched manually.
MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATIONS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Marker Beacon Annunciations are displayed on the PFD to the left of the Selected Altitude. Outer marker
reception is indicated in blue, middle in amber, and inner in white. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section
for more information on Marker Beacon Annunciations.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Outer Marker
Middle Marker
Inner Marker
Altimeter
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 2-34 Marker Beacon Annunciations
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRAFFIC ANNUNCIATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Traffic is displayed symbolically on the PFD Inset Map, the MFD Navigation Map Page, and various other
MFD page maps. Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section and Appendix F for more details about the Traffic
Information Service (TIS) and optional Traffic Advisory Systems (TAS). When a traffic advisory (TA) is detected,
the following automatically occur:
• The PFD Inset Map is enabled and displays traffic
• A flashing black-on-amber TRAFFIC annunciation appears to the top left of the Attitude Indicator for five
seconds and remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area
EIS
• A single “TRAFFIC” voice alert is heard, unless an optional Traffic Advisory System (TAS) is installed. Refer
to the applicable TAS documentation for alerts generated by TAS equipment.
If additional TAs appear, new voice and visual alerts are generated.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Traffic
Symbols
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-35 Traffic Annunciation and Inset Map with Traffic Displayed
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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77
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
TAWS ANNUNCIATIONS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) annunciations appear on the PFD at the top left of the
Altimeter. Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section and Appendix A for information on TAWS alerts and
annunciations.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 2-36 Traffic and Example TAWS Annunciations
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ALTITUDE ALERTING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Altitude Alerting function provides visual and aural alerts when the aircraft is approaching the Selected
Altitude. Whenever the Selected Altitude is changed, the Altitude Alerter is reset. The Altitude Alerter is
independent of the installed AFCS. The following occur when approaching the Selected Altitude:
• Upon passing through 1000 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude changes to black text on a cyan
background and flashes for five seconds.
• When the aircraft passes within 200 feet of the Selected Altitude an aural tone is heard. The Selected Altitude
changes to cyan text on a black background and flashes for five seconds.
Within 200 ft
Deviation of ±200 ft
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Within 1000 ft
EIS
• After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the pilot flies outside the deviation band (±200 feet of the Selected
Altitude) an aural tone is heard. The Selected Altitude changes to amber text on a black background and
flashes for five seconds.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-37 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
LOW ALTITUDE ANNUNCIATION
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: A Low Altitude Annunciation is available only when SBAS is available. This annunciation is only
available when TAWS-B alerting has been inhibited.
AFCS
When the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach using vertical guidance,
a Low Altitude Annunciation may appear if the current aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed
altitude at the FAF. A black-on-amber LOW ALT annunciation appears to the top left of the Altimeter, flashing
for several seconds, then remaining displayed until the condition is resolved.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 2-38 Low Altitude on GPS SBAS Approach
APPENDICES
INDEX
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79
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT ALERTING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
For altitude awareness, a Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH), based on barometric
altitude, temperature compensated altitude or radar altitude, can be set in the Timer/References Window and is
reset when the power is cycled or a new approach is activated. When active, the altitude setting is displayed to
the bottom left of the Altimeter. Once the altitude is within the range of the tape, a bug appears at the reference
altitude on the Altimeter. The following visual annunciations occur when approaching the MDA/DH:
EIS
• When the aircraft altitude descends to within 2500 feet of the MDA/DH setting, the BARO MIN, RA MIN, or
COMP MIN box appears with the altitude in cyan text (or magenta for TEMP COMP). The bug appears in
cyan (or magenta for TEMP COMP) on the altitude tape at the corresponding altitude once in range.
• When the aircraft passes through 100 feet of the MDA/DH, the bug and text turn white.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Once the aircraft reaches MDA/DH, the bug and text turn amber and the voice alert, “Minimums. Minimums”,
is heard. When the radar altimeter is selected as the altitude source for the Minimum Descent Altitude
alerting function, the color of the current radar height changes to amber.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Within 2500 ft
Within 100 ft
Altitude Reached
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Barometric
Minimum
Bug
Barometric
Minimum
Box
Figure 2-39 Barometric MDA/DH Alerting Visual Annunciations
AFCS
The MDA/DH may be set from the PFD.
Setting the Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height and bug:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Minimums field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select BARO, temperature compensated (TEMP COMP), or radar altimeter (RAD
ALT). Off is selected by default. Press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field.
APPENDICES
4) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired altitude.
5) If using temperature compensated (TEMP COMP). use the small FMS Knob to enter destination air temperature.
INDEX
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 2-40 Barometric MDA/DH
EIS
Alerting is inhibited while the aircraft is on the ground and until the aircraft reaches 150 feet above the MDA.
If the aircraft proceeds to climb after having reached the MDA, once it reaches 50 feet above the MDA, alerting
is disabled.
RADAR ALTIMETER
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
If an optional radar altimeter is installed, when the radar height (the aircraft altitude above ground level
detected by the radar altimeter) is between zero and 2500 feet, the current value is displayed in green to the
right of the current aircraft heading (Figure 2-41). Display of radar height becomes more sensitive as the height
above ground decreases (Table 2-3).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Radar Altimeter
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-41 Current Radar Height
Shown to Nearest
0 to 200 feet
5 feet
200 to 1500 feet
10 feet
1500 to 2500 feet
50 feet
AFCS
Radar Height Range
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 2-3 Radar Altimeter Sensitivity
APPENDICES
When the radar altimeter is selected as the altitude source for the minimum descent altitude alerting function
(Figure 2-42), the color of the radar height changes to amber upon reaching at or below the MDA/DH (Figure
2-43).
Figure 2-42 RAD ALT Setting
(References Window)
INDEX
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81
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 2-43 RA as Altitude Source for MDA/DH
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
A ground line (Figure 2-44) appears on the Altimeter to display the aircraft’s height relative to the ground.
Diagonal lines appear underneath the ground line. If the radar altimeter provides invalid data, the message “RA
FAIL” is displayed in amber in the RA box (Figure 2-45).
Radar
Altimeter
Ground
Line
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Radar Altimeter
Minimums Box
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-44 Altimeter Displaying the Ground Line (RAD ALT)
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 2-45 Radar Altimeter with Invalid Data
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
2.4 ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
ABNORMAL GPS CONDITIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The annunciations listed in Table 2-4 can appear on the HSI when abnormal GPS conditions occur (Figure
2-46). Refer to the Flight Management Section for more information on Dead Reckoning Mode.
Annunciation
LOI
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
DR
Description
Loss of Integrity Monitoring–GPS integrity is insufficient for the current
phase of flight
Integrity OK–GPS integrity has been restored to within normal limits
(annunciation displayed for five seconds)
Dead Reckoning–System is using projected position rather than GPS position
to compute navigation data and sequence active flight plan waypoints
EIS
INTEG OK
Location
Lower left of
aircraft symbol
Lower left of
aircraft symbol
Upper right of
aircraft symbol
Table 2-4 Abnormal GPS Conditions Annunciated on HSI
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-46 Example HSI Annunciations
AFCS
In Dead Reckoning Mode the CDI is removed from the display when GPS is the selected navigation source.
The following items on the PFD are then shown in amber:
• Current Track Bug
• Wind Data
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Ground Speed
• Distances in the Bearing Information Windows
• GPS bearing pointers
APPENDICES
These items should be verified when operating in Dead Reckoning Mode as they become increasingly
inaccurate over time.
INDEX
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83
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When the aircraft enters an unusual pitch attitude, red chevrons pointing toward the horizon warn of extreme
pitch. The chevrons are displayed on the Attitude Indicator, starting at 50˚ above and 30˚ below the horizon
line.
Nose Low
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Nose High
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Traffic Annunciations
• PFD Setup Menu
• AFCS Annunciations
• Flight Director Command Bars
• Windows displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD:
• Inset Map
– Timer/References
• Selected Altitude
• Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
– Nearest Airports
• VNV Target Altitude
• Wind Data
– Flight Plan
• DME Window
• Selected Heading Readout
– Messages
• Ground Speed
• Selected Course Readout
– Procedures
• True Airspeed
• Transponder Status Box
• Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height Readout
• Metric Altitude Display
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
If pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚, some information displayed on the PFD is removed. The
Altimeter and Airspeed, Attitude, Vertical Speed, and Horizontal Situation indicators remain on the display
and the Bearing Information, Alerts, and Annunciation windows can be displayed during such situations. The
following information is removed from each PFD and their softkeys are disabled when the aircraft experiences
unusual attitudes:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-47 Pitch Attitude Warnings
• Altimeter Barometric Setting
INDEX
APPENDICES
• System Time
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope,
and Glidepath Indicators
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM (EIS)
NOTE: Refer to the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) for limitations.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 Engine Indication System (EIS) for the Vulcanair P68 displays critical engine, electrical, and other
system parameters on the left side of the Multi Function Display (MFD) during normal operations (Figure 3-1).
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Display
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 3-1 Multi Function Display (Normal Mode)
EIS information is presented one the EIS display and one the Engine Page which is accessed with the ENGINE
Softkey on the MFD.
AFCS
The EIS instrument types include vertical slider gauges, horizontal bar indicators, and digital displays. Green
bands indicate normal ranges of operation; amber and red bands indicate caution and warning, respectively.
When unsafe operating conditions occur, displays and labels may change color corresponding to the level of the
condition. The pointers (labeled left, L, and right, R) on the horizontal bar indicators appear in white to indicate
normal operation and change to amber or red to indicate caution or warning conditions.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
If sensory data to an instrument is invalid or unavailable, the system displays a red ‘X’ across the instrument.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In Reversionary Mode, the reversionary display is configured to present PFD symbology with the EIS Display
(Figure 3-2). When a display enters reversionary mode, the Engine softkey is unavailable. Refer to the System
Overview for information about Reversionary Mode.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Display
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 3-2 Primary Flight Display (Reversionary Mode)
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3.1 ENGINE DISPLAY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1
EIS
2
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4
5
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6
7
AFCS
8
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
9
Figure 3-3 Engine Display
6
Oil Pressure Indicator
2
Tachometer
7
Ammeter
3
Fuel Flow Indicator
8
Voltmeter
4
Cylinder Head Temperature Indicator
9
Fuel Quantity Indicator
5
Oil Temperature Indicator
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INDEX
Manifold Pressure Indicator
APPENDICES
1
87
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
MANIFOLD PRESSURE GAUGES
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Manifold Pressure Gauges are located at the top of the EIS display. The gauges indicate engine manifold
pressure in inches of Mercury (in HG) for the left and right engine. Green bands indicate normal operating
ranges. The system displays digital values of manifold pressures below the vertical gauges.
Figure 3-4 Manifold Pressure Gauges
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
TACHOMETERS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The system displays the tachometers for the left and right propellers directly below the manifold pressure
gauges. The tachometers display propeller rotation speed in revolutions per minute (RPM). The system displays
digital values for the tachometer gauges. The gauge issues a warning if the propeller speed enters the red band.
Figure 3-5 Tachometers
FUEL FLOW INDICATORS
AFCS
Fuel Flow indicators provide values for fuel flow in gallons per hour (GPH).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 3-6 Fuel Flow Indicators
CYLINDER HEAD TEMPERATURES
INDEX
APPENDICES
The cylinder head temperature (CHT) gauge indicates the head temperature of the hottest cylinder for each
engine. A number inside the triangular pointer corresponds to the hottest cylinder head number. If the CHT
pointer enters the amber or red band, the system issues a caution or warning.
Figure 3-7 Cylinder Head Temperature Gauge
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
OIL PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE GAUGES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The oil temperature and pressure gauges are located beneath the CHT gauge. Triangular pointers represent
the oil temperature and pressure for the left (L) and right (R) engine. If the oil temperature or pressure enters
the amber or red band, the system issues a caution or warning.
EIS
Figure 3-8 Oil Pressure and Temperature Gauges
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ELECTRICAL INFORMATION
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The ammeter displays the load of left (L) and right (R) alternators in amps. The voltmeter shows the voltage
for the left and right electrical bus in volts. If the bus voltage enters the amber or red bands, the system issues
a caution or warning, respectively.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 3-9 Ammeter and Voltmeter
AFCS
FUEL QUANTITY GAUGE
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The fuel quantity gauge displays the amount of fuel in gallons (gal) for each tank (L and R) on a horizontal
slider bar.
NOTE: A fuel gauge for standard range tanks is shown in Figure 3-10. Long-range fuel tanks will display a
higher fuel capacity on the fuel gauge.
APPENDICES
Figure 3-10 Fuel Quantity Gauge
INDEX
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89
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.2 ENGINE PAGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The EIS - Engine Page displays all engine, fuel, fuel calculation, electrical, and oil information. To access this
page, press the ENGINE Softkey or turn the large FMS Knob and select the EIS - Engine Page.
The Engine softkey provides access to the Engine Display. To return to the EIS display on the MFD display from
the Engine Page Display, press the ENGINE Softkey.
EIS
ENGINE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ENGINE
MAP
ENGINE
DCLTR
DEC FUEL INC FUEL RST FUEL
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 3-11 EIS Softkeys
• ENGINE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
DEC FUEL
INC FUEL
RST FUEL
Displays Engine Page and second-level engine softkeys
Decreases displayed fuel remaining in 1-gal increments
Increases displayed fuel remaining in 1-gal increments
Resets displayed fuel remaining to maximum fuel capacity for aircraft and fuel used to zero
1 Engine Manifold Pressure
AFCS
Indicator
(MAN IN HG)
2 Fuel Flow Indicator (FFLOW
GPH)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3 Fuel Pressure Gauge (FUEL PSI)
Displays manifold pressure in inches of Mercury (in Hg) to indicate
engine power
Displays a digital value of current fuel flow for each engine in gallons
per hour (gph)
Displays fuel pressure in pounds per square inch (psi)
4 Oil Pressure Indicator (OIL PSI) Displays pressure of oil supplied to the engines in pounds per square
APPENDICES
inch (psi)
5 Left Fuel Quantity Indicator
Displays the amount of fuel in gallons (gal) for the left fuel tank
6 Right Fuel Quantity Indicator
Displays the amount of fuel in gallons (gal) for the right fuel tank
7 Fuel Calculations Group
Displays calculated gallons remaining, gallons used, endurance, range,
and gallons per nautical mile.
INDEX
(FUEL CALC)
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8 Engine Temperature Group
9 Electrical Group
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Displays exhaust gas (EGT) and head (CHT) temperatures of all
cylinders in degrees Fahrenheit (°F)
Turbocharged Aircraft – Displays the temperature at the turbine inlet
(TIT) in degrees Fahrenheit (°F)
(TEMPERATURE)
Displays the primary bus voltage for each side with a vertical slider bar
and digital values
Displays alternator and prop deice loads in amperes (amps) with slider
bars and digital values
(ELECTRICAL)
10 Oil Temperature Indicator (OIL
Displays the oil temperature of each side in degrees Fahrenheit (°F)
EIS
TEMP)
11 Tachometer (RPM)
Displays propeller speeds in revolutions per minute (rpm) on a vertical
slider gauge with digital values below the gauge
2
3
4
5
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1
6
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
7
11
10
8
AFCS
9
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 3-12 Engine Page (Normally Aspirated)
APPENDICES
INDEX
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91
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
1
3
4
5
6
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2
7
11
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
10
8
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
9
Figure 3-13 Engine Page (Turbo-Charged)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FUEL CALCULATIONS
NOTE: Fuel calculations do not use the aircraft fuel quantity indicators and are calculated from the last time
the fuel was reset.
AFCS
Fuel used (GAL USED), endurance (ENDUR), range (in nautical miles, RANGE NM), and fuel efficiency
(in statute miles per gallon, MPG) are calculated based on the displayed fuel remaining (GAL REM) and the
fuel flow totalizer. The calculated range also takes into account the aircraft’s heading and the wind direction
and speed.
Adjusting the fuel totalizer quantity:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
On the Engine Page, use the DEC FUEL and INC FUEL softkeys to obtain the desired fuel remaining (GAL REM).
Resetting the fuel totalizer:
APPENDICES
On the Engine Page, select the RST FUEL Softkey; this resets displayed fuel remaining (GAL REM) to the
maximum fuel capacity for the aircraft and fuel used to zero.
Set Fuel Remaining
Calculated Fuel Used
INDEX
Calculated Endurance
Calculated Range
Fuel Efficiency
Figure 3-14 Fuel Calculations Group
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A map feature related to the EIS Fuel Calculations is the Fuel Range Ring, which graphically illustrates the
aircraft’s remaining range based on the endurance (ENDUR), heading, groundspeed, and wind direction and
speed. The solid green circle represents the range until all the remaining fuel is depleted. The dashed green
circle indicates the aircraft range until only reserve fuel remains. Once on reserve fuel, the range is indicated
by a solid amber circle.
The Fuel Range Ring shifts position in relation to the aircraft according to wind effects. For example, more
fuel is required for flying into a headwind, and the aircraft’s decreased range in that direction is indicated by
the Fuel Range Ring shifting toward the tail of the Aircraft Symbol.
EIS
The amount of reserve fuel (only for purposes of the Fuel Range Ring) is set on the Navigation Map Page
Setup Menu in terms of remaining flight time. When enabled the Fuel Range Ring appears on the Navigation
Map Page, the Weather Data Link Page, and PFD Inset Map.
ENGINE TEMPERATURE GROUP
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Exhaust Gas Temperature
The number of the cylinder with the highest Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) is highlighted in cyan and its
numeric value is displayed in a cyan rectangle.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Cylinder Head Temperature
The number of the cylinder with the highest head temperature is highlighted in cyan and its numeric
value is displayed in a cyan rectangle. A caution or warning condition is denoted by color change of a
cylinder’s bar to amber or red, respectively.
Highest Temperature
Cylinder
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Highest Temperature
Cylinder
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 3-15 Temperature Group
Turbine Inlet Temperature (Turbo-Charged Only)
Displays the temperature of the turbine inlet (TIT) in degrees Fahrenheit along a vertical slider bar.
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 3-16 Turbine Inlet Temperature Gauge
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93
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
PROPELLER DEICE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Propeller deice ampheres are shown in the Electrical Group of the Engine Page along a vertical slider bar
with the numerical display shown above the slider bar.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 3-17 Prop Deice
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
4.1 OVERVIEW
The Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) system includes the Audio Panel, communication radios,
navigation radios, and Mode S transponder. The System Overview Section provides a block diagram description
of the Audio Panel and CNS system interconnection.
CNS operation in the G950 is performed by the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• Audio Panel
• Multifunction Display (MFD)
• Mode S Transponder
EIS
• Primary Flight Display (PFD)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Integrated Avionics Unit (2)
The MFD/PFD controls are used to tune the communication transceivers and navigation radios.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Audio Panel provides the traditional audio selector functions of microphone and receiver audio selection.
The Audio Panel includes an intercom system (ICS) between the pilot, copilot, and passengers, a marker beacon
system, and a COM clearance recorder. Ambient noise from the aircraft radios is reduced by a feature called
Master Avionics Squelch (MASQ). When no audio is detected, MASQ processing further reduces the amount of
background noise from the radios.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Mode S Transponder(s) are controlled with softkeys and the FMS Knob located on the Primary Flight
Display (PFD). The Transponder Data Box is located to the left of the System Time Box. The data box displays
the active four-digit code, mode, and a reply status (Figure 4-1).
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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95
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
PFD CONTROLS AND FREQUENCY DISPLAY
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1
9
10
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
11
12
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 4-1 PFD Controls, NAV/COM Frequency Tuning Boxes, and NRST Window
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
NAV Frequency Box – Displays NAV standby and active frequency fields, volume, and station ID. The
frequency of the NAV radio selected for navigation is displayed in green.
5
COM Frequency Box – Displays COM standby and active frequency fields and volume. The selected COM
transceiver frequency is displayed in green.
6
COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Press to move the tuning box (light blue box) and Frequency Transfer Arrow between COM1 and
COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this key
for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Press to turn the COM automatic squelch on
and off. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency field as a percentage.
9
Nearest Airports Window – Display by pressing NRST Softkey.
10
ENT Key – Validates or confirms an Auto-tune selection.
11
FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob, used to enter transponder codes and Auto-tune entries
when NRST Window is present. Press the FMS Knob to turn the selection cursor on and off. The large
knob moves the cursor in the window. The small knob selects individual characters for the highlighted
cursor location.
12
Transponder Data Box – Indicates the selected transponder code, operating mode, reply, and ident status
for the applicable transponder.
AFCS
4
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
Press to move the tuning box (light blue box) and Frequency Transfer Arrow between NAV1 and NAV2.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
EIS
2
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to turn the Morse code identifier audio on
and off. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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97
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
GMA 1347 AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
18
19
20
21
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
17
22
23
24
AFCS
Figure 4-2 Audio Panel Controls
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: When a key is selected, a triangular annunciator above the key is illuminated.
98
1
COM1 MIC – Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM receiver to be heard. COM2 receive can be
added by pressing the COM2 Key.
2
COM1 – When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard.
3
COM2 MIC – Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM receiver to be heard. COM1 receive can be
added by pressing the COM1 Key.
4
COM2 – When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard.
5
COM3 MIC – Reserved for optional COM radio.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SPKR – Selects and deselects the cabin speaker (if installed). COM and NAV receiver audio can be heard
on the speaker.
11
MKR/MUTE – Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker beacon receiver
audio. Unmutes automatically when new marker beacon audio is received. Also, stops play of recorded
COM audio.
12
HI SENS – Press to increase marker beacon receiver sensitivity. Press again to return to low sensitivity.
13
DME – Turns optional DME audio on or off.
14
NAV1 – When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
15
ADF – Turns optional ADF receiver audio on or off.
16
NAV2 – When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
17
AUX – Not used in the P68.
18
MAN SQ – Enables manual squelch for the intercom. When the intercom is active, press the PILOT Knob
to illuminate SQ. Turn the PILOT/PASS Knobs to adjust squelch.
19
PLAY – Press once to play the last recorded COM audio. Press again while audio is playing and the
previous block of recorded audio will be played. Each subsequent press plays each previously recorded
block. Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key during play of a memory block stops play.
20
PILOT – Selects and deselects the pilot intercom isolation.
21
COPLT – Selects and deselects the copilot intercom isolation.
22
PILOT Knob – Press to switch between volume and squelch control as indicated by illumination of VOL
or SQ. Turn to adjust intercom volume or squelch. The MAN SQ Key must be selected to allow squelch
adjustment.
23
PASS Knob – Turn to adjust Copilot/Passenger intercom volume or squelch. The MAN SQ Key must be
selected to allow squelch adjustment.
24
DISPLAY BACKUP Button – Manually selects Reversionary Mode.
APPENDICES
10
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
PA – Selects the passenger address system. The selected COM transmitter is deselected when the PA Key
is pressed.
AFCS
9
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TEL – Selects and deselects telephone audio.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
8
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
COM 1/2 – Split COM operation key. When selected, the pilot uses the COM 1 transceiver and the copilot
uses COM 2.
EIS
7
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
COM3 – Reserved for optional COM radio.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6
INDEX
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99
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.2 COM OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
COM TRANSCEIVER SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
NOTE: During PA Mode, the COM MIC Annunciator is extinguished and the COM active frequency color
changes to white, indicating that neither COM transmitter is active.
NOTE: When turning on the G950 for use, the system remembers the last frequencies used and the active
EIS
COM transceiver state prior to shutdown.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the left side and the
two standby frequencies are on the right. The COM transceiver is selected for transmitting by pressing the
COM MIC Keys on the Audio Panel. During reception of audio from the COM radio selected for transmission,
audio from the other COM radio is muted.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
An active COM frequency displayed in green indicates that the COM transceiver is selected on the Audio
Panel (COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key). Both active COM frequencies appearing in white indicate that no COM
radio is selected for transmitting (PA Key is selected on the Audio Panel).
Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency in the tuning
box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Active
Fields
Standby
Fields
AFCS
Tuning Box
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
COM2 Radio is Selected
on the Audio Panel
Figure 4-3 Selecting a COM Radio for Transmit
INDEX
APPENDICES
COM3 is reserved for an optional COM radio.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRANSMIT/RECEIVE INDICATIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
During COM transmission, a white TX appears by the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. On the Audio Panel, when the active COM is transmitting, the active transceiver COM MIC
Key Annunciator flashes approximately once per second.
During COM signal reception, a white RX appears by the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency
Transfer Arrow.
EIS
Transmit and
Receive Indicators
Annunciator
Flashes During
Transmission
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-4 COM Radio Transmit and Receive Indications
COM TRANSCEIVER MANUAL TUNING
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The COM frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the right side of each PFD.
Manually tuning a COM frequency:
1) Turn the COM Knob to tune the desired frequency in the COM Tuning Box (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the COM VOL/SQ Knob.
4) Press the COM VOL/SQ Knob to turn automatic squelch on and off.
AFCS
Turn the VOL/SQ Knob to adjust
volume. Press the Knob to Turn
Automatic Squelch On or Off
Press the Frequency Transfer
Key to Transfer COM
Frequencies Between Active
and Standby Frequency Boxes
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Turn the COM Knob to
Tune the Frequency in
the Tuning Box
APPENDICES
Figure 4-5 COM Frequency Tuning
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SELECTING THE RADIO TO BE TUNED
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Press the small COM Knob to transfer the frequency tuning box and Frequency Transfer Arrow between the
upper and lower radio frequency fields.
EIS
Press the COM Knob to
Switch the Tuning Box From
One COM Radio to the Other
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-6 Switching COM Tuning Boxes
QUICK-TUNING AND ACTIVATING 121.500 MHZ
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pressing and holding the COM Frequency Transfer Key for two seconds automatically loads the emergency
COM frequency (121.500 MHz) in the active field of the COM radio selected for tuning (the one with the
transfer arrow). In the example shown, pressing the Audio Panel COM2 MIC Key activates the transceiver.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Press for Two Seconds
to Load 121.500 MHz
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 4-7 Quickly Tuning 121.500 MHz
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTO-TUNING THE COM FREQUENCY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
COM frequencies can be automatically tuned from the following:
• Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies Page (ARTCC, FSS,
WX)
• WPT – Airport Information Page
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces Page
• NRST – Nearest Airports Page
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE PFD
EIS
COM frequencies for the nearest airports can be automatically tuned from the Nearest Airports Window on
the PFD. When the desired frequency is entered, it becomes a standby frequency. Pressing the Frequency
Transfer Key places this frequency into the COM Active Frequency Field.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Auto-tuning a COM frequency for a nearby airport from the PFD:
1) Press the NRST Softkey on the PFD to open the Nearest Airports Window. A list of 25 nearest airport identifiers
and COM frequencies is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the list and highlight the desired COM frequency.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the COM Standby Tuning Box.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 4-8 Nearest Airports Window
Select the NRST
Softkey to Open
the Nearest
Airports Window
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE MFD
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the COM Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT
page group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key (Figures 4-10, 4-11, and 4-12).
Auto-tuning a COM frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the COM frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob or
selecting the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency (Figure 4-11).
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Turn the FMS
Knob to Scroll
Through a List
of Frequencies
Press the ENT Key to
Load a Highlighted
Frequency into
the COM Standby
Frequency Box
Figure 4-9 Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Or:
1) On the Nearest Airports, Frequencies, or Airspaces page, press the MENU Key to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor on the desired selection.
AFCS
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
EIS
Nearest Airports Menu
Figure 4-10 Nearest Pages Menus
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
On the WPT - Airport Information Page, the cursor can be placed on the frequency field by pressing the
FMS Knob and scrolling through the list. The frequency is transferred to the COM Standby Field with the
ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Airport
Identifier and
Information
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Runway
Information
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press ENT Key to load
frequency into PFD
COM Standby Field.
Cursor then advances
to the next frequency.
Select INFO Softkey for
AIRPORT, RUNWAYS,
and FREQUENCIES
Windows
APPENDICES
Figure 4-11 WPT – Airport Information Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
COM frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST – Nearest Airspaces, NRST – Nearest Frequencies,
and NRST – Nearest Airports Pages on the MFD in a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU
Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-12 NRST – Nearest Airspaces, NRST – Nearest Airports, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FREQUENCY SPACING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing
(118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel spacing
is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in the complete 3040-channel list.
COM channel spacing is set on the System Setup Page of the AUX Page Group.
25-kHz Channel
Spacing
EIS
8.33-kHz Channel
Spacing
Figure 4-13 COM Channel Spacing
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Changing COM frequency channel spacing:
1) Select the AUX – System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Channel Spacing Field in the COM Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired channel spacing.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the channel spacing selection.
While the COM CONFIG Window is selected, the G950 softkeys are blank.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Select 8.33-kHz
or 25.0-kHz
COM Frequency
Channel Spacing
INDEX
Figure 4-14 AUX – System Setup Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUTOMATIC SQUELCH
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Automatic Squelch quiets unwanted static noise when no audio signal is received, while still providing good
sensitivity to weak COM signals. To disable Automatic Squelch, press the VOL/SQ Knob. When Automatic
Squelch is disabled, COM audio reception is always on. Continuous static noise is heard over the headsets and
speaker, if selected. Pressing the VOL/SQ Knob again enables Automatic Squelch.
EIS
When Automatic Squelch is disabled, a white SQ appears next to the COM frequency.
Squelch
Indication
Press the COM VOL/
SQ Knob to turn off
Automatic Squelch.
Press again to restore
Automatic Squelch.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-15 Overriding Automatic Squelch
VOLUME
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
COM radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob. Turning the knob
clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume. When adjusting volume,
the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication remains for two seconds after
the change.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 4-16 COM Volume Level
COM Volume
Level Remains
for Two Seconds
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4.3 NAV OPERATION
NAV RADIO SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; two standby fields and two active fields. The active
frequencies are on the right side and the standby frequencies are on the left.
EIS
A NAV radio is selected for navigation by pressing the CDI Softkey located on the PFD. The active NAV
frequency selected for navigation is displayed in green. Pressing the CDI Softkey once selects NAV1 as the
navigation radio. Pressing the CDI Softkey a second time selects NAV2 as the navigation radio. Pressing the
CDI Softkey a third time activates GPS mode. Pressing the CDI Softkey again cycles back to NAV1.
While cycling through the CDI Softkey selections, the NAV Tuning Box and the Frequency Transfer Arrow are
placed in the active NAV Frequency Field and the active NAV frequency color changes to green.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The three navigation modes that can be cycled through are:
• VOR1 (or LOC1) – If NAV1 is selected, a green single line arrow (not shown) labeled either VOR1 or LOC1
is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV1 frequency is displayed in green.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• VOR2 (or LOC2) – If NAV2 is selected, a green double line arrow (shown) labeled either VOR2 or LOC2 is
displayed on the HSI and the active NAV2 frequency is displayed in green.
• GPS – If GPS Mode is selected, a magenta single line arrow (not shown) appears on the HSI and neither NAV
radio is selected. Both active NAV frequencies are then displayed in white.
Active
Fields
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Standby
Fields
Tuning Box
AFCS
The NAV Radio is
Selected by Selecting
the CDI Softkey
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-17 Selecting a NAV Radio for Navigation
APPENDICES
See the Flight Instruments Section for selecting the DME and Bearing Information windows and using VOR
as the source for the bearing pointer.
The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code station identifier that is received from the
navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station identifier is still required, and can be accomplished
by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pressing the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
INDEX
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109
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NAV radios are selected for listening by pressing the corresponding keys on the Audio Panel. Pressing the
NAV1, NAV2, DME, or ADF Key selects and deselects the navigation radio source. Selected audio can be heard
over the headset and the speakers (if selected). All radios can be selected individually or simultaneously.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-18 Selecting a NAV Radio Receiver
NAV RECEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The NAV frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the left side of the MFD and PFDs.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Manually tuning a NAV frequency:
1) Turn the NAV Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box.
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the NAV VOL/ID Knob to turn the Morse code identifier audio on and off.
AFCS
Turn VOL/ID Knob to adjust
volume. Press Knob to Turn
Morse Code On or Off.
Press the Frequency Transfer Key to
Transfer NAV Frequencies Between
Active and Standby Frequency Fields
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Turn the NAV Knob to
Tune the Frequency in
the Tuning Box
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 4-19 NAV Frequency Tuning
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SELECTING THE RADIO TO BE TUNED
Press the small NAV Knob to transfer the frequency tuning box and Frequency Transfer Arrow between the
upper and lower radio frequency fields.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Press the NAV Knob to
Switch the Tuning Box From
One NAV Radio to the Other
EIS
Figure 4-20 Switching NAV Tuning Boxes
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
VOR/LOC ID
When the Morse code Identifier audio is on for a NAV radio, a white ID appears to the left of the active
NAV frequency.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Morse Code Identifier
for the GHM VOR is On
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
In the example shown, in order to listen to either station identifier, press the NAV1 or NAV2 Key on the
Audio Panel. Pressing the VOL/ID Knob turns off the Morse code audio only in the radio with the NAV
Tuning Box. To turn off both NAV IDs, transfer the NAV Tuning Box between NAV1 and NAV2 by pressing
the small NAV Knob and pressing the VOL/ID Knob again to turn the Morse code off in the other radio.
Station
Identifier
Figure 4-21 NAV Radio ID Indication
AFCS
VOLUME
NAV Radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/ID Knob. Turning the knob
clockwise increases volume, counterclockwise decreases volume.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When adjusting, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication remains
for two seconds after the change.
APPENDICES
NAV Volume
Level Remains
for Two Seconds
Figure 4-22 NAV Volume Levels
INDEX
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111
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTO-TUNING A NAV FREQUENCY FROM THE MFD
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
• WPT – VOR Information
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies (ARTCC, FSS, WX)
• NRST – Nearest Airports
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces
NAV frequencies can be selected and loaded from the following MFD pages:
• WPT – Airport Information
• NRST – Nearest VOR
EIS
The MFD provides auto-tuning of NAV frequencies from waypoint and nearest pages. During enroute
navigation, the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV standby frequency field. During approach
activation the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV active frequency field.
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT page
group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key (Figures 4-23, 4-24, and 4-25).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Auto-tuning a NAV frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the NAV frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob or
selecting the appropriate softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV identifier or NAV frequency.
3) On the Nearest VOR, Nearest Airspaces, and Nearest Airports pages, select the FREQ Softkey to place the cursor
on the NAV frequency (Figure 4-25).
4) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV radio.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
AFCS
Turn the FMS
Knob to Scroll
Through a List
of Frequencies
Press the ENT
Key to Load
a Highlighted
Frequency into
the NAV Standby
Frequency Box
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-23 NAV Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Or:
1) When on the NRST pages, press the MENU Key to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor in the desired window.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV radio.
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Nearest VOR Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-24 Nearest Pages Menus
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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113
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In the example shown, the VOR list is selected with the VOR Softkey or from the page menu. The FMS Knob
or ENT Key is used to scroll through the list. The cursor is placed on the frequency with the FREQ Softkey and
loaded into the NAV Tuning Box with the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Press the ENT
Key to Load
the Frequency
into the NAV
Standby Field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Select the VOR Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Identifier
Select the FREQ Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Frequency
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 4-25 Loading the NAV Frequency from the NRST – Nearest VOR Page
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
While enroute, NAV frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST – Nearest Airports,
WPT – Airport Information, WPT – VOR Information, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages on the MFD in
a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 4-26 NRST – Nearest Frequencies, WPT – VOR Information, WPT – Airport Information, and
NRST – Nearest Airports Pages
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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115
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUTO-TUNING NAV FREQUENCIES ON APPROACH ACTIVATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The primary NAV frequency is auto-tuned upon loading a VOR or ILS/Localizer approach.
NOTE: When an ILS/LOC approach has been activated in GPS Mode, the system switches to NAV Mode as
the final approach course is intercepted (within 15 nm of the FAF). See the Flight Management Section for
details.
NAV frequencies are automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box on approach activation.
EIS
When loading or activating a VOR or ILS/LOC approach, the approach frequency is automatically transferred
to a NAV frequency field as follows:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, the approach frequency is transferred to the NAV1 or NAV2
active frequency fields. The frequency that was previously in the NAV1 or NAV2 active frequency fields are
transferred to standby.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, and if the approach frequency is already loaded into the NAV1
or NAV2 standby frequency field, the standby frequency is transferred to active.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• If the current CDI navigation source is NAV1 or NAV2, the approach frequency is transferred to the standby
frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MARKER BEACON RECEIVER
NOTE: The marker beacon indicators operate independently of marker beacon audio and cannot be turned
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
off.
The marker beacon receiver is used as part of the ILS. The marker beacon receiver is always on and detects
any marker beacon signals within the reception range of the aircraft.
The receiver detects the three marker tones – outer, middle, and inner – and provides the marker beacon
annunciations located to the left of the Altimeter on the PFD.
Middle Marker
Indication
Inner Marker
Indication
EIS
Outer Marker
Indication
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 4-27 Marker Beacon Annunciations on the PFD
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 4-28 Marker Beacon Keys
AFCS
The Audio Panel provides three different states of marker beacon operation; On, Muted, and Deselected.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key selects and deselects marker beacon audio. The key annunciator indicates when
marker beacon audio is selected.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
During marker beacon audio reception, pressing the MKR/MUTE Key mutes the audio but does not affect the
marker annunciations (Figure 4-27). The marker tone is silenced, then waits for the next marker tone. The
MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is illuminated, indicating audio muting. The audio returns when the next marker
beacon signal is received. If the MKR/MUTE Key is pressed during signal reception (O, M, I indication) while
marker beacon audio is muted, the audio is deselected and the MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is extinguished.
APPENDICES
Pressing the HI SENS Key switches between high and low marker beacon receiver sensitivity. The HI SENS
function (annunciator illuminated) is used to provide an earlier indication when nearing a marker during an
approach. The LO SENS function (annunciator extinguished) results in a narrower marker dwell while over a
station.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.4 GTX 33 MODE S TRANSPONDERS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The GTX 33 Mode S Transponder provides Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S interrogation and reply capabilities.
Selective addressing or Mode Select (Mode S) capability includes the following features:
• Level-2 reply data link capability (used to exchange information between aircraft and ATC facilities)
• Surveillance identifier capability
• Flight ID (Flight Identification) reporting – The Mode S Transponder reports aircraft identification as either the
aircraft registration or a unique Flight ID.
EIS
• Altitude reporting
• Airborne status determination
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Transponder capability reporting
• Mode S Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) requirements
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Acquisition squitter – Acquisition squitter, or short squitter, is the transponder 24-bit identification address.
The transmission is sent periodically, regardless of the presence of interrogations. The purpose of acquisition
squitter is to enable Mode S ground stations and aircraft equipped with a Traffic Avoidance System (TAS) to
recognize the presence of Mode S-equipped aircraft for selective interrogation.
• Extended squitter – The extended squitter is transmitted periodically and contains information such as altitude
(barometric and GPS), GPS position, and aircraft identification. The purpose of extended squitter is to provide
aircraft position and identification to ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and other aircraft.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Hazard Avoidance Section provides more details on traffic avoidance systems.
TRANSPONDER CONTROLS
AFCS
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Mode Selection, and
Code Selection. When the top-level XPDR Softkey is selected, the Mode Selection softkeys appear: XPDR1,
XPDR2 (optional), STBY, ON, ALT, VFR, CODE, IDENT, ADS-B TX, BACK.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When the CODE Softkey is selected, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, IDENT, BKSP,
BACK. The digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Selecting the numbered softkeys in sequence enters
the transponder code. If an error is made, selecting the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the
previous digit. Selecting the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous digit.
Selecting the BACK Softkey during code selection reverts to the Mode Selection Softkeys. Selecting the BACK
Softkey during mode selection reverts to the top-level softkeys.
APPENDICES
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on either PFD. Code entry must be completed with either
the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
Selecting the IDENT Softkey while in Mode or Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to the
top-level softkeys.
INDEX
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
CODE
IDENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
IDENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
XPDR
(Optional)
XPDR1
XPDR2
STBY
ON
ALT
VFR
ADS-B TX
BACK
ALERTS
Selecting the BACK Softkey
returns to the top-level softkeys.
EIS
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
IDENT
BKSP
BACK
ALERTS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns to the mode selection softkeys.
Figure 4-29 Transponder Softkeys (PFD)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selecting and activating Transponder 1 or Transponder 2 (Optional):
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Select the XPDR1 or XPDR2 Softkey to select and activate the desired transponder.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When turning the G950 on for use, the system activates Transponder 1 as the default unit, regardless of
which transponder was active prior to shutdown. When switching between Transponder 1 and Transponder
2, the code and mode remain the same. If a new code is entered in the active transponder, switching
transponders does not bring back the previous code.
TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTION
AFCS
Mode selection can be automatic (Altitude Modes) or manual (Standby, ON, and Altitude Modes). The STBY,
ON, and ALT Softkeys can be accessed by selecting the XPDR Softkey.
Selecting a transponder mode:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Select the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
STANDBY MODE (MANUAL)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the STBY Softkey. In Standby, the transponder is
powered and new codes can be entered, but no replies or squitters are transmitted.. When Standby is selected,
a white STBY indication and transponder code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited.
EIS
STBY Mode (White
Code Number and
Mode)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-30 Standby Mode
MANUAL ON MODE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
ON Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the ON Softkey. ON Mode generates Mode A and Mode
S replies as well as transmission of acquisition and extended squitters, including ADS-B out. Mode S replies
will not include altitude information. Mode C altitude reporting is inhibited.
The ON indication and transponder code in the Transponder Data Box will appear green while airborne
and white while on the ground.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ON Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
On-Ground (White Indication)
Airborne (Green Indication)
AFCS
Figure 4-31 ON Mode
ALTITUDE MODE (AUTOMATIC OR MANUAL)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The white Altitude Reporting Mode is normally selected automatically when the aircraft is on the ground.
White Altitude Mode may also be selected manually by pressing the ALT Softkey while on the ground. White
Altitude Mode generates Mode S replies to discrete interrogations as well as transmission of acquisition and
extended squitters, including ADS-B out. Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call replies are inhibited.
APPENDICES
If Altitude Mode is selected while on the ground, a white ALT indication and transponder code appear in
the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
On-Ground ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting Inhibited)
INDEX
Figure 4-32 Altitude Mode
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The green Altitude Mode is automatically selected when the aircraft becomes airborne. Green Altitude
Mode may also be selected manually by pressing the ALT Softkey while airborne. Green Altitude Mode
generates Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S replies as well as transmissions of acquisition and extended squitters
including ADS-B out.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If Altitude Mode is selected while airborne, a green ALT indication and transponder code appear in the
mode field of the Transponder Data Box, and all transponder replies requesting altitude information are
provided with pressure altitude information.
EIS
Airborne ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting)
Figure 4-33 Altitude Mode
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
REPLY STATUS
When the transponder sends replies to interrogations, a white R indication appears momentarily in the
reply status field of the Transponder Data Box.
Reply to
Interrogation
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 4-34 Reply Indication
ENTERING A TRANSPONDER CODE
AFCS
Entering a transponder code with softkeys:
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Select the CODE Softkey to display the Transponder Code Selection Softkeys, for digit entry.
APPENDICES
3) Select the digit softkeys to enter the code in the code field. When entering the code, the next softkey in sequence
must be selected within 10 seconds, or the entry is cancelled and restored to the previous code. Selecting the
BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the previous digit. Five seconds after the fourth digit has been
entered, the transponder code becomes active.
Entering
a Code
INDEX
Figure 4-35 Entering a Code
Entering a transponder code with the PFD FMS Knob:
1) Select the XPDR and the CODE Softkeys as in the previous procedure to enable code entry.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the first two code digits.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
Pressing the CLR Key or small FMS Knob before code entry is complete cancels code entry and restores the
previous code. Waiting for 10 seconds after code entry is finished activates the code automatically.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Turn the Small
FMS Knob to
Enter Two Code
Digits at a Time
Press the
ENT Key to
Complete
Code Entry
Turn the Large
FMS Knob
to Move the
Cursor to the
Next Code Field
Figure 4-36 Entering a Code with the FMS Knob
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
VFR CODE
The VFR code can be entered either manually or by selecting the XPDR Softkey, then the VFR Softkey.
When the VFR Softkey is selected, the pre-programmed VFR code is automatically displayed in the code field
of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting the VFR Softkey again restores the previous identification code.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The pre-programmed VFR Code is set at the factory to 1200. If a VFR code change is required, contact a
Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
AFCS
VFR Code
Figure 4-37 VFR Code
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
IDENT FUNCTION
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT Softkey is inoperative.
APPENDICES
Selecting the IDENT Softkey sends a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The indication
distinguishes the identing transponder from all the others on the air traffic controller’s screen. The IDENT
Softkey appears on all levels of transponder softkeys. When the IDENT Softkey is selected, a green IDNT
indication is displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for a duration of 18 seconds.
INDEX
After the IDENT Softkey is selected while in Mode or Code Selection, the system reverts to the top-level
softkeys.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
IDNT
Indication
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Select the
IDENT Softkey
to Initiate the
ID Function
Figure 4-38 IDENT Softkey and Indication
FLIGHT ID REPORTING
EIS
NOTE: If the Flight ID is required but the system is not configured for it, contact a Garmin-authorized service
center for configuration.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When the Flight ID must be entered before flight operation, the identifier is placed in the Timer/References
Window on the PFD. The Flight ID is not to exceed seven characters. No space is needed when entering Flight
ID. When a Flight ID contains a space, the system automatically removes it upon completion of Flight ID entry.
If configuration is set to “SAME AS TAIL” the aircraft tail number will always be displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Entering a Flight ID:
1) Select the TMR/REF Softkey to display the Timer/References Window.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the selection cursor, if not already activated.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll down to the Flight ID.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the desired Flight ID.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete Flight ID entry. The word “updating” appears until the new entry is completed.
AFCS
If an error is made during Flight ID entry, pressing the CLR Key returns to the original Flight ID entry. While
entering a Flight ID, turning the FMS Knob counterclockwise moves the cursor back one space for each detent
of rotation. If an incorrect Flight ID is discovered after the unit begins operation, reenter the correct Flight ID
using the same procedure.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Flight ID
PFD Entry
Figure 4-39 Timer/References Window, Entering Flight ID
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.5 ADDITIONAL AUDIO PANEL FUNCTIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
POWER-UP
The Audio Panel performs a self-test during power-up. During the self-test all Audio Panel annunciator lights
illuminate for approximately two seconds. Once the self-test is completed, most of the settings are restored to
those in use before the unit was last turned off.
MONO/STEREO HEADSETS
EIS
Stereo headsets are recommended for use with the G950.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Using a monaural headset in a stereo jack shorts the right headset channel output to ground. While this does
not damage the Audio Panel, a person listening on a monaural headset hears only the left channel in both ears.
If a monaural headset is used at one of the passenger positions, any other passenger using a stereo headset hears
audio in the left ear only.
SPEAKER
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
All of the radios can be heard over the cabin speaker (if installed). Pressing the SPKR Key selects and
deselects the cabin speaker. Speaker audio is muted when the PTT is pressed. Certain aural alerts and warnings
(autopilot, traffic, altitude) are always heard on the speaker, even when the speaker is not selected.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The speaker volume is adjustable within a nominal range. Volume can be adjusted though configuration.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 4-40 Speaker Key
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
INTERCOM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Audio Panel includes a four-position intercom system (ICS) and a stereo music input for the pilot, copilot
and up to four passengers. The intercom provides Pilot and Copilot isolation from the passengers and aircraft
radios.
EIS
Figure 4-41 Intercom Controls
PILOT KEY
Annunciator
COPLT KEY
Annunciator
Pilot Hears
Copilot Hears
OFF
OFF
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, copilot,
passengers, music
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, copilot,
passengers, music
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, copilot,
passengers, music
ON
OFF
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot
Copilot,
passengers,
music
Copilot,
passengers,
music
OFF
ON
Selected radios,
aural alerts, pilot;
passengers, music
Copilot
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, passengers,
music
ON
ON
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, copilot
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, copilot
Passengers;
music
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Passenger Hears
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Table 4-1 ICS Isolation Modes
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Pilot isolation is selected when the PILOT Annunciator is illuminated. During Pilot isolation, the pilot can
hear the selected radios and aural alerts and warnings. The copilot and passengers can communicate with each
other. The copilot is isolated from aural alerts and warnings.
Copilot isolation is selected when the COPLT Annunciator is illuminated. The copilot is isolated from the
selected radios, aural alerts and warnings, and everyone else. The pilot and passengers can hear the selected
radios, aural alerts, and communicate with each other.
APPENDICES
When both the PILOT and COPLT Annunciators are illuminated, the pilot and copilot can hear the selected
radios, aural alerts, and communicate with each other. The passengers are isolated from the pilot and copilot
but can communicate with each other.
When both the PILOT and COPLT Annunciators are extinguished, everyone hears the selected radios, aural
alerts, and is able to communicate with everyone else.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
INTERCOM VOLUME AND SQUELCH
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The PILOT/PASS Knob controls volume or manual squelch adjustment for the pilot and copilot/passenger.
The small knob controls the pilot volume and squelch. The large knob controls the copilot/passenger volume
and squelch. The VOL and SQ annunciations at the bottom of the unit indicate which function the knob is
controlling. Pressing the PILOT/PASS Knob switches between volume and squelch control as indicated by
the VOL or SQ annunciation being illuminated.
The MAN SQ Key allows either automatic or manual control of the squelch setting.
EIS
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is extinguished (Automatic Squelch is on), the PILOT/PASS Knob
controls only the volume (pressing the PILOT/PASS Knob has no effect on the VOL/SQ selection).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is illuminated (Manual Squelch), the PILOT/PASS Knob controls
either volume or squelch (selected by pressing the PILOT/PASS Knob and indicated by the VOL or SQ
annunciation).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Manual Squelch Annunciator;
Off for Automatic Squelch, On
for Manual Squelch
Automatic/Manual Squelch
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pilot Volume or Manual
Squelch. Press to switch
between VOL and SQ. Turn
to adjust Squelch when SQ
Annunciation is lit, Volume
when VOL Annunciation is lit.
Copilot/Passenger
Volume or
Manual Squelch
AFCS
Volume Annunciation
Squelch Annunciation
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-42 Volume/Squelch Control
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PASSENGER ADDRESS (PA) SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A passenger address system is available for delivering voice messages over the cabin speaker. When the PA
Key is pressed on the Audio Panel, the COM MIC Annunciator is extinguished, and the active COM frequency
changes to white, indicating that there is no COM selected. A Push-to-Talk (PTT) must be pressed to deliver PA
announcements. The PA Annunciator flashes about once per second while the PTT is depressed.
EIS
PA Key is Selected on
the Audio Panel
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-43 PA Key Selected for Cabin Announcements
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
CLEARANCE RECORDER AND PLAYER
The Audio Panel contains a digital clearance recorder that records up to 2.5 minutes of the selected COM
radio signal. Recorded COM audio is stored in separate memory blocks. Once 2.5 minutes of recording time
have been reached, the recorder begins recording over the stored memory blocks, starting from the oldest
block.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The PLAY Key controls the play function. Pressing the PLAY Key once plays the latest recorded memory
block. The PLAY Annunciator flashes to indicate when play is in progress. The PLAY Annunciator turns off
after the present memory block has finished playing.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key during play of a memory block stops play. If a COM input signal is detected
during play of a recorded memory block, play is halted.
AFCS
Pressing the PLAY Key while audio is playing begins playing the previously recorded memory block. Each
subsequent press of the PLAY Key selects the previously recorded memory block.
Powering off the unit automatically clears all recorded blocks.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 4-44 Play Key
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SPLIT COM OPERATION
NOTE: Split COM performance is affected by the distance between the COM antennas and the separation
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
of the tuned frequencies. If the selected COM1 and COM2 frequencies are too close together, interference
may be heard during transmission on the other radio.
During Split COM operation, both the pilot and the copilot can transmit simultaneously over separate radios.
The pilot can still monitor NAV1, NAV2, ADF, DME, and MKR Audio as selected, but the copilot is only able
to monitor COM2.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Pressing the COM 1/2 Key selects Split COM operation. The COM 1/2 Annunciator is illuminated indicating
Split COM operation. COM1 and COM2 frequencies are displayed in green indicating that both transceivers
are active. Split COM operation is cancelled by pressing the COM 1/2 Key again, at which time the annunciator
is extinguished.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When Split COM operation is selected, COM1 is used by the pilot and COM2 is used by the copilot. The
COM1 MIC Annunciator flashes when the pilot’s microphone PTT is pressed. The COM2 MIC Annunciator
flashes when the copilot’s microphone PTT is pressed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
COM1 Radio is Used
by the Pilot
AFCS
COM2 Radio is Used
by the Copilot
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-45 Split COM Operation
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS
NOTE: Music1 and Music2 audio cannot be completely turned off. Audio level for the crew and passengers
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
can be adjusted by a Garmin-authorized service center.
The Audio Panel provides two stereo auxiliary entertainment inputs: Music1 and Music2. The pilot and
copilot hear Music1 and the passengers hear Music2. These inputs are compatible with popular portable
entertainment devices such as MP3 and CD players. Two 3.5-mm stereo phone jacks can be installed in
convenient locations for audio connection. The headphone outputs of the entertainment devices are plugged
into the Music1 or Music2 jacks.
EIS
The current ICS state of isolation affects the distribution of the entertainment input (see Table 4‑1).
CREW MUSIC
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Crew music (Music1) can be heard by the pilot and copilot when both the PILOT and the COPLT ICS
Annunciators are extinguished. Crew music can also be heard by the pilot when the COPLT Annunciator is
illuminated and by the copilot when the PILOT Annunciator is illuminated.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Music Muting
Crew music muting occurs when aircraft radio or marker beacon activity is heard. Crew music is always
soft muted when an interruption occurs from these sources. Soft muting is the gradual return of music to
its original volume level. The time required for music volume to return to normal is between one-half and
four seconds.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Music Muting Enable/Disable
Pressing and holding the MKR/MUTE Key for three seconds switches crew music muting on and off.
When switching, either one or two beeps are heard; one beep indicates that music muting is enabled, two
beeps indicate music muting is disabled. Crew music muting is reset (enabled) during power up.
AFCS
PASSENGER MUSIC
Passenger music (Music2) can be heard only by the passengers and is never muted.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.6 AUDIO PANEL PREFLIGHT PROCEDURE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: If the pilot and/or copilot are using headsets that have a high/low switch or volume control knob,
verify that the switch is in the high position and the volume control on the headsets are at maximum volume
setting. On single‑pilot flights, verify that all other headsets are not connected to avoid excess noise in the
audio system.
NOTE: When the MAN SQ is activated, the ICS squelch can be set manually by the pilot and copilot. If
EIS
manual squelch is set to full open (SQ annunciated and the knobs turned counterclockwise) background
noise is heard in the ICS system as well as during COM transmissions.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
After powering up the G1000 System, the following steps aid in maximizing the use of the Audio Panel as well
as prevent pilot and copilot induced issues. These preflight procedures should be performed each time a pilot
boards the aircraft to insure awareness of all audio levels in the Audio Panel and radios.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Automatic/Manual
Squelch
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pilot and
Copilot ICS
Isolation Keys
Pilot Volume
or Manual
Squelch
Copilot/Passenger
Volume or
Manual Squelch
Squelch
Annunciation
AFCS
Volume
Annunciation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 4-46 Audio Panel Controls
Setting the Audio Panel during preflight:
1) Verify that the PILOT and COPLT Annunciators are extinguished.
2) Verify that manual squelch is set to full open.
APPENDICES
3) Turn the PILOT Knob and COPILOT Knob fully clockwise. This will set the headset intercom audio level to max
volume (least amount of attenuation).
4) Adjust radio volume levels (COM, NAV, etc.) to a suitable level.
5) Adjust the PILOT Knob and COPILOT Knob volume to the desired intercom level.
INDEX
6) Reset squelch to automatic, or adjust to the appropriate level manually.
Once this procedure has been completed, the pilot and copilot can change settings, keeping in mind the notes
above.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4.7 ABNORMAL OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Abnormal operation of the G950 includes equipment failures of the G950 components and failure of associated
equipment, including switches and external devices.
STUCK MICROPHONE
If the push-to-talk (PTT) Key becomes stuck, the COM transmitter stops transmitting after 35 seconds of
continuous operation. An alert appears on the PFD to advise the crew of a stuck microphone.
EIS
The COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key Annunciator on the Audio Panel flashes as long as the PTT Key remains
stuck.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-47 Stuck Microphone Alert
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
COM TUNING FAILURE
In case of a COM system tuning failure, the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) is automatically tuned in
the radio in which the tuning failure occurred. Depending on the failure mode, a red X may appear on the
frequency display.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Emergency Channel
Loaded Automatically
Figure 4-48 COM Tuning Failure
AFCS
AUDIO PANEL FAIL-SAFE OPERATION
If there is a failure of the Audio Panel, a fail-safe circuit connects the pilot’s headset and microphone directly
to the COM1 transceiver. Audio will not be available on the speaker.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
PFD FAILURE (REVERSIONARY MODE)
The red DISPLAY BACKUP Button selects the Reversionary Mode. See the System Overview Section for
more information on Reversionary Mode.
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 4-49 Display Backup Button
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INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The G950 is an integrated flight, engine, communication, navigation and surveillance system. This section of
the Pilot’s Guide explains flight management using the G950.
EIS
The most prominent part of the G950 are the full color displays: a Primary Flight Display (PFD) and a Multi
Function Display (MFD). The information to successfully navigate the aircraft using the GPS sensors is displayed on
the PFD and the MFD. See examples in the Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2. Detailed descriptions of flight management
functions are discussed later in this section.
A brief description of the GPS navigation data on the PFD and MFD follows.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Navigation mode indicates which sensor is providing the course data (e.g., GPS, VOR) and the flight plan phase
(e.g., Departure (DPRT), Terminal (TERM), Enroute (ENR), Oceanic (OCN), RNAV Approach (LNAV, LNAV+V,
L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV), or Missed Approach (MAPR)). L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service levels are
only available with SBAS L/VNAV approaches will be flown as an LNAV approach when SBAS is not available.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Inset Map is a small version of the MFD Navigation Map and can be displayed in the lower left corner of
the PFD. When the system is in reversionary mode, the Inset Map is displayed in the lower right corner. The
Inset Map is displayed by pressing the INSET Softkey. Pressing the INSET Softkey again, then pressing the OFF
Softkey removes the Inset Map.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Navigation Map displays aviation data (e.g., airports, VORs, airways, airspaces), geographic data (e.g.,
cities, lakes, highways, borders), topographic data (map shading indicating elevation), and hazard data (e.g.,
traffic, terrain, weather). The amount of displayed data can be reduced by pressing the DCLTR Softkey. The
Navigation Map can be oriented four different ways: North Up (NORTH UP), Track Up (TRK UP), Desired Track
Up (DTK UP), or Heading Up (HDG UP).
AFCS
An aircraft icon is placed on the Navigation Map at the location corresponding to the calculated present position.
The aircraft position and the flight plan legs are accurately based on GPS calculations. The basemap upon which
these are placed are from a source with less resolution, therefore the relative position of the aircraft to map features
is not exact. The leg of the active flight plan currently being flown is shown as a magenta line on the navigation
map. The other legs are shown in white.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 500 feet to 2000 nm. The current range is indicated in the
lower right corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. To change the map
range on any map, turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to zoom in ( -, decreasing), or clockwise to zoom out (+,
increasing).
APPENDICES
The Direct-to Window, the Flight Plan Window, the Procedures Window, and the Nearest Airports Window
can be displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Details of these windows are discussed in detail later in
the section.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Navigation Status Box
Navigation Mode
Inset Map
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Location of:
- Direct To Window
- Flight Plan Window
- Procedures Window
- Nearest Airports Window
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Navigation Status Box
Map Orientation
Navigation Page Title
Navigation Map
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Aviation Data
- Geographic Data
- Topographic Data
- Hazard Data
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Active Flight Plan Leg
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Flight Plan Leg
Map Range
Figure 5-2 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Page
APPENDICES
NAVIGATION STATUS BOX
INDEX
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the PFD contains two fields displaying the following
information:
PFD Navigation Status Box
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• Active flight plan leg (e.g., ‘D-> KICT’ or ‘KIXD -> KCOS’) or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘Turn right to
021˚ in 8 seconds’)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Distance (DIS) and Bearing (BRG) to the next waypoint or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘TOD within 1
minute’)
The symbols used in the PFD status bar are:
Symbol
Description
Active Leg
Symbol
Description
Left Holding Pattern
Vector to Final
Right Procedure Turn
Right DME Arc
Left Procedure Turn
Left DME Arc
EIS
Direct-to
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Right Holding Pattern
Bearing
Distance
Desired Track
Endurance
Enroute Safe Altitude
Estimated Time of Arrival
Estimated Time Enroute
Fuel on Board
FOD
GS
MSA
TAS
TKE
TRK
VSR
XTK
Fuel over Destination
Ground Speed
Minimum Safe Altitude
True Air Speed
Track Angle Error
Track
Vertical Speed Required
Crosstrack Error
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
BRG
DIS
DTK
END
ESA
ETA
ETE
FOB
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the MFD contains four data fields, each displaying one of the
following items:
AFCS
MFD Navigation Status Box
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The navigation information displayed in the four data fields can be selected on the MFD Data Bar Fields Box
on the AUX - System Setup Page. The default selections (in order left to right) are GS, DTK, TRK, and ETE.
Changing a field in the MFD Navigation Status Box:
APPENDICES
1) Select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the MFD Data Bar Fields Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the data options list.
INDEX
5) Select the desired data.
6) Press the ENT Key. Pressing the DFLTS Softkey returns all fields to the default setting.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.2 USING MAP DISPLAYS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Map displays are used extensively in the G950 to provide situational awareness in flight. Most G950 maps can
display the following information:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
• Airports, NAVAIDs, airspaces, airways,
land data (highways, cities, lakes, rivers,
borders, etc.) with names
• Map range
•Wind direction and speed
• Map orientation
• Icons for enabled map features
• Aircraft icon (representing present position)
• Nav range ring
• Fuel range ring
• Map Pointer information (distance and
bearing to pointer, location of pointer,
name, and other pertinent information)
• Flight plan legs
• User waypoints
• Track vector
• Topography scale
• Topography data
• Obstacle data
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The information in this section applies to the following maps unless otherwise noted:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• All Map Group Pages (MAP)
• All Waypoint Group Pages (WPT)
• AUX - Trip Planning
• All Nearest Group Pages (NRST)
• Flight Plan Pages (FPL)
• Direct-to Window
• PFD Inset Map
• Procedure Loading Pages
MAP ORIENTATION
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Maps are shown in one of four different orientation options, allowing flexibility in determining aircraft
position relative to other items on the map (north up) or for determining where map items are relative to where
the aircraft is going (track up, desired track up, or heading up). The map orientation is shown in the upper
right corner of the map.
Figure 5-3 Map Orientation
INDEX
• North up (NORTH UP) aligns the top of the map display to north (default setting).
• Track up (TRK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current ground track.
• Desired track up (DTK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the desired course.
• Heading up (HDG UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current aircraft heading.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NOTE: When panning or reviewing active flight plan legs in a non-North Up orientation, the map does not
show the map orientation nor the wind direction and speed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Map orientation can only be changed on the Navigation Map Page. Any other displays that show
navigation data reflect the orientation selected for the Navigation Map Page:
Changing the Navigation Map orientation:
1) With the Navigation Map Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Map Setup
Selection
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-4 Navigation Map Page Menu Window
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Map Setup Window.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob, or press the ENT Key once, to select the ‘ORIENTATION’ field.
Map Group Selection
Orientation Field
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-5 Map Setup Menu Window - Map Group
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired orientation.
INDEX
5) Press the ENT Key to select the new orientation.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the base page.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
The map can be configured to switch automatically to a north up orientation when the map range reaches a
minimum range.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Enabling/disabling Auto North Up and selecting the minimum switching range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
EIS
5) Highlight the ‘AUTO NORTH UP’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’ using the small FMS Knob.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the range field.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select the desired range.
9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
MAP RANGE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 500 feet to 2000 nm. The current range is indicated in
the lower right corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. When the
map range is decreased to a point that exceeds the capability of the G950 to accurately represent the map,
a magnifying glass icon is shown to the left of the map range. To change the map range turn the Joystick
counter-clockwise to decrease the range, or clockwise to increase the range.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Range Overzoom
Figure 5-6 Map Range
APPENDICES
AUTO ZOOM
INDEX
Auto zoom allows the system to change the map display range to the smallest range clearly showing the
active waypoint. Auto zoom can be overridden by adjusting the range with the Joystick, and remains until
the active waypoint changes, a terrain or traffic alert occurs, the aircraft takes off, or the manual override times
out (timer set on Map Setup Window). Auto zoom is suspended while the map pointer is active.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If a terrain caution or warning occurs, all navigation maps automatically adjust to the smallest map range
clearly showing the potential impact points If a new traffic advisory alert occurs, any map page capable of
displaying traffic advisory alerts automatically adjusts to the smallest map range clearly showing the traffic
advisory. When terrain or traffic alerts clear, the map returns to the previous auto zoom range based on the
active waypoint.
The auto zoom function can be turned on or off independently for the PFDs and MFD. Control of the
ranges at which the auto zoom occurs is done by setting the minimum and maximum ‘look forward’ times
(set on the Map Setup Window for the Map Group). These settings determine the minimum and maximum
distance to display based upon the aircraft’s ground speed.
EIS
• Waypoints that are long distances apart cause the map range to increase to a point where many details on
the map are decluttered. If this is not acceptable, lower the maximum look ahead time to a value that limits
the auto zoom to an acceptable range.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Waypoints that are very short distances apart cause the map range to decrease to a point where situational
awareness may not be what is desired. Increase the minimum look ahead time to a value that limits the auto
zoom to a minimum range that provides acceptable situational awareness.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Flight plans that have a combination of long and short legs cause the range to increase and decrease as
waypoints sequence. To avoid this, auto zoom can be disabled or the maximum/minimum times can be
adjusted.
• The ‘time out’ time (configurable on the Map Setup Page for the Map Group) determines how long auto
zoom is overridden by a manual adjustment of the range knob. At the expiration of this time, the auto
zoom range is restored. Setting the ‘time out’ value to zero causes the manual override to never time out.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• When the maximum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the upper limit becomes the maximum range available
(2000 nm).
• When the minimum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the lower limit becomes 1.5 nm.
Maximum Look Forward Time
Minimum Look Forward Time
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Manual Range Override
Expiration Time
AFCS
Auto Zoom
Off, MFD Only, PFD Only, All On
APPENDICES
Figure 5-7 Map Setup Menu Window - Map Group, Auto Zoom
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Configuring automatic zoom:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘AUTO ZOOM’ field.
6) Select ‘Off’, ‘MFD Only’, ‘PFD Only’, or ‘ALL On’.
EIS
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘MAX LOOK FWD’ field.
Times are from zero to 999 minutes.
8) Use the FMS Knobs to set the time. Press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
9) Repeat step 8 for ‘MIN LOOK FWD’ (zero to 99 minutes) and ‘TIME OUT’ (zero to 99 minutes).
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
MAP PANNING
Map panning allows the pilot to:
• View parts of the map outside the displayed range without adjusting the map range
• Highlight and select locations on the map
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Review information for a selected airport, NAVAID or user waypoint
• Designate locations for use in flight planning
• View airspace and airway information
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
When the panning function is selected by pressing the Joystick, the Map Pointer flashes on the map display.
A window also appears at the top of the map display showing the latitude/longitude position of the pointer,
the bearing and distance to the pointer from the aircraft’s present position, and the elevation of the land at the
position of the pointer.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Map Pointer
Information
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Map
Pointer
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-8 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: The map is normally centered on the aircraft’s position. If the map has been panned and there has
been no pointer movement for about 60 seconds, the map reverts back to centered on the aircraft position
and the flashing pointer is removed.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When the Map Pointer is placed on an object, the name of the object is highlighted (even if the name was
not originally displayed on the map). When any map feature or object is selected on the map display, pertinent
information is displayed.
EIS
Information about
Point of Interest
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Map Pointer on POI
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-9 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
AFCS
When the Map Pointer crosses an airspace boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace information
is shown at the top of the display. The information includes the name and class of airspace, the ceiling in feet
above Mean Sea Level (MSL), and the floor in feet MSL.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Information about
Airspace
INDEX
APPENDICES
Map Pointer on Airspace
Figure 5-10 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Airspace
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Panning the map:
1) Press the Joystick to display the Map Pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to move the Map Pointer around the map.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and recenter the map on the aircraft’s current position.
Reviewing information for an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint:
1) Place the Map Pointer on a waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Waypoint Information Page for the selected waypoint.
EIS
3) Press the GO BACK Softkey, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the Waypoint Information Page and return to
the Navigation Map showing the selected waypoint.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NAVAID
Information
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
GO BACK Softkey
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Information Window - NAVAID
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Viewing airspace information for a special-use or controlled airspace:
1) Place the Map Pointer on an open area within the boundaries of an airspace.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the ENT Key to display an options menu.
3) ‘Review Airspaces’ should already be highlighted, if not select it. Press the ENT Key to display the Airspace
Information Page for the selected airspace.
EIS
4) Press the CLR or ENT Key to exit the Airspace Information Page.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airspace
Information
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-12 Navigation Map - Information Window - Airspace
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MEASURING BEARING AND DISTANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Distance and bearing from the aircraft’s present position to any point on the viewable navigation map may be
calculated using the ‘Measure Bearing and Distance’ selection from Navigation Map page menu. The bearing
and distance tool displays a dashed Measurement Line and a Measure Pointer to aid in graphically identifying
points with which to measure. Lat/Long, distance and elevation data for the Measure Pointer is provided in a
window at the top of the navigation map.
Measuring bearing and distance between any two points:
1) Press the MENU Key (with the Navigation Map Page displayed).
EIS
2) Highlight the ‘Measure Bearing/Distance’ field.
3) Press the ENT Key. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present position.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Move the Joystick to place the reference pointer at the desired location. The bearing and distance are displayed
at the top of the map. Elevation at the current pointer position is also displayed. Pressing the ENT Key changes
the starting point for measuring.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance option, press the Joystick; or select ‘Stop Measuring’ from the Page
Menu and press the ENT Key.
Measurement Information
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pointer Lat/Long
Measurement Line
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Measuring Bearing and Distance
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
TOPOGRAPHY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
All navigation maps can display various shades of topography colors representing land elevation, similar
to aviation sectional charts. Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following
procedures.
Navigation Map
Topographic Data
EIS
Navigation Map
Black Background
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Topographic data
on Profile Map
TOPO Softkey
Not Enabled
TOPO Softkey
Enabled
TOPO Off
TOPO On
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-14 Navigation Map - Topographic Data
Displaying/removing topographic data on all pages displaying navigation maps:
1) Press the MAP Softkey (the INSET Softkey for the PFD Inset Map).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the TOPO Softkey.
3) Press the TOPO Softkey again to remove topographic data from the Navigation Map. When topographic data
is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data (TOPO DATA) using the Navigation Map Page Menu:
AFCS
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘TOPO DATA’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
INDEX
APPENDICES
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TOPO DATA
On/Off
TOPO DATA
Range
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-15 Navigation Map Setup Menu - TOPO DATA Setup
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The topographic data range is the maximum map range on which topographic data is displayed.
NOTE: Since the PFD Inset Map is much smaller than the MFD navigation maps, items are removed on the
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PFD Inset Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the Map Setup pages (e.g., a setting
of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD navigation maps, while the PFD Inset Map
removes the same item at 50 nm).
Selecting a topographical data range (TOPO DATA):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
AFCS
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘TOPO DATA’ range field. TOPO ranges are from 500 ft to 2000 nm.
6) To change the TOPO range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
7) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
APPENDICES
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
In addition, the Navigation Map can display a topographic scale (located in the lower right hand side of the
map) showing a scale of the terrain elevation and current elevation values.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Maximum Displayed Elevation
Minimum Displayed Elevation
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Range of
Displayed
Elevations
Aircraft Altitude (MSL)
Ground Elevation at Pointer
Location (only visible when
Pointer is displayed)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-16 Navigation Map - TOPO SCALE
Displaying/removing the topographic scale (TOPO SCALE):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Select the ‘Map’ group and press the ENT Key.
4) Highlight the ‘TOPO SCALE’ field.
5) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
INDEX
TOPO SCALE
On/Off
Figure 5-17 Navigation Map Setup Menu - TOPO SCALE Setup
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MAP SYMBOLS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
This section discusses the types of land and aviation symbols that can be displayed. Each listed type of symbol
can be turned on or off, and the maximum range to display each symbol can be set. The decluttering of the
symbols from the map using the DCLTR Softkey is also discussed.
LAND SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the land menu:
Land Symbols
Symbol
Latitude/Longitude (LAT/LON)
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
2000
Interstate Highway (FREEWAY)
300
800
International Highway (FREEWAY)
300
800
US Highway (NATIONAL HWY)
30
80
State Highway (LOCAL HWY)
15
30
8
15
Railroads (RAILROAD)
15
30
LARGE CITY (> 200,000)
800
1500
MEDIUM CITY (> 50,000)
SMALL CITY (> 5,000)
100
20
200
50
States and Provinces (STATE/PROV)
800
1500
Rivers and Lakes (RIVER/LAKE)
200
500
USER WAYPOINT
150
300
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Off
EIS
(Text label size can be None, Small, Medium (Med), or Large
(Lrg))
Highways and Roads
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
N/A
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Local Road (LOCAL ROAD)
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Table 5-1 Land Symbol Information
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AVIATION SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the aviation menu:
Aviation Symbols
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
(Text label size can be None, Small, Medium (Med),
or Large (Lrg))
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Large Airports (LARGE APT) (Longest Runway ≥ 8100 ft)
Medium Airports (MEDIUM APT) (8100 ft > Longest
Runway ≥ 5000 ft)
Small Airports (SMALL APT) (Longest Runway < 5000 ft)
(Medium Airport if it has a tower frequency)
Taxiways (SAFETAXI)
Runway Extension (RWY EXTENSION)
Intersection (INT WAYPOINT)
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
200
500
150
300
50
100
3
Off
15
20
100
30
Non-directional Beacon (NDB WAYPOINT)
15
30
VOR (VOR WAYPOINT)
150
300
Class B Airspace/TMA (CLASS B/TMA)
200
500
Class C Airspace/TCA (CLASS C/TCA)
200
500
Class D Airspace (CLASS D)
150
300
Restricted Area (RESTRICTED)
200
500
Military Operations Area [MOA(MILITARY)]
200
500
Other/Air Defense Interdiction Zone (OTHER/ADIZ)
200
500
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
500
2000
Off
N/A
Smart Airspace On/Off (SMART AIRSPACE)
See Additional Features
N/A
See Airspaces
INDEX
APPENDICES
Table 5-2 Aviation Symbol Information
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYMBOL SETUP
All pages with maps can display land symbols (roads, lakes, borders, etc). Land symbols can be removed
totally (turned off).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Displaying/removing all land symbols:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The Page Menu is displayed and the cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Group Menu is displayed and the cursor flashes on the ‘Map’ option.
EIS
3) Highlight the ‘LAND DATA’ field.
4) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
LAND DATA
On/Off
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map Setup Menu - LAND DATA Setup
AFCS
The label size (TEXT) sets the size at which labels appear on the display (none, small, medium, and large).
The range (RNG) sets the maximum range at which items appear on the display.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selecting a ‘Land’ or ‘Aviation’ group item text size and range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
APPENDICES
3) Select the ‘Land’ or ‘Aviation’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Select the desired land option.
6) Select the desired text size.
INDEX
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected size.
8) Select the desired range.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected range.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Text Label Size
(None, Small, Med, or Lrg)
Maximum Display Range
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-19 Navigation Map Setup Menu - LAND GROUP Setup
Maximum Display Range
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Text Label Size
(None, Small, Med, or Lrg)
APPENDICES
Figure 5-20 Navigation Map Setup Menu - AVIATION GROUP Setup
NOTE: Since the PFD Inset Map is much smaller than the MFD navigation maps, items are removed on the
INDEX
PFD Inset Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the Map Setup pages (e.g., a setting
of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD navigation maps, while the PFD Inset Map
removes the same item at 50 nm).
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MAP DECLUTTER
The declutter feature allows the pilot to progressively step through four levels of removing map information.
The declutter level is displayed in the DCLTR Softkey and next to the Declutter Menu Option.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Declutter Level
EIS
DCLTR Softkey
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 5-21 Navigation Map - Declutter Level Indications
Decluttering the map:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Press the DCLTR Softkey with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The current declutter level is shown. With
each softkey selection, another level of map information is removed.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed.
2) Select ‘Declutter’. The current declutter level is shown.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the ENT Key.
Decluttering the PFD Inset Map:
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
AFCS
2) Press the DCLTR Softkey. The current declutter level is shown. With each selection, another level of map
information is removed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Table 5-3 lists the items that are decluttered at each map detail level. The ‘X’ represents map items
decluttered for each level of detail.
Item
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Data Link Radar Precipitation
Data Link Lightning
Graphical METARs
Airports
Safe Taxi
Runway Labels
TFRs
Restricted
MOA (Military)
User Waypoints
Latitude/Longitude Grid
NAVAIDs (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Intersections (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Class B Airspaces/TMA
Class C Airspaces/TCA
Class D Airspaces
Other Airspaces/ADIZ
Obstacles
Cities
Roads
Railroads
State/Province Boundaries
Declutter-1 Declutter-2 Declutter-3
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 5-3 Navigation Map Items Decluttered for each Detail Level
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AIRWAYS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
This airways discussion is based upon the North American airway structure. The airway structure in places
other than North America vary by location, etc. and are not discussed in this book. Low Altitude Airways
(Victor Airways or T-Routes) start 1,200 feet above ground level (AGL) and extend up to 18,000 feet mean sea
level (MSL). Low Altitude Airways are designated with a “V” or a “T” before the airway number.
High Altitude Airways (Jet Routes or Q-Routes) start at 18,000 feet MSL and extend upward to 45,000 feet
MSL. High Altitude Airways are designated with a “J” or a “Q” before the airway number.
EIS
Low Altitude Airways are drawn in gray (the same shade used for roads). High Altitude Airways are drawn
in green. When both types of airways are displayed, High Altitude Airways are drawn on top of Low Altitude
Airways.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When airways are selected for display on the map, the airway waypoints (VORs, NDBs and Intersections) are
also displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Low Altitude
Airway
(T-Route)
Low Altitude
Airway
(Victor Airway)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-22 Airways on MFD Navigation Map
High Altitude
Airway
(Jet Route)
High Altitude
Airway
(Q-Route)
APPENDICES
Airways may be displayed on the map at the pilot’s discretion using either a combination of AIRWAY Softkey
presses, or menu selections using the MENU Key from the Navigation Map Page. The Airway range can also be
programmed to only display Airways on the MFD when the map range is at or below a specific number.
Displaying/removing airways:
1) Press the MAP Softkey.
2) Press the AIRWAYS Softkey. Both High and Low Altitude Airways are displayed.
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INDEX
3) Press the softkey again to display Low Altitude Airways only.
155
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
4) Press the softkey again to display High Altitude Airways only.
5) Press the softkey again to remove High Altitude Airways. No airways are displayed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘AIRWAYS’ field.
EIS
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Off’, ‘All’, ‘LO Only’, or ‘HI Only’, and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Airway Display Selection
Low Altitude Airway Range
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Off, All, LO Only, HI Only
High Altitude Airway Range
Figure 5-23 Navigation Map Setup Menu - AIRWAYS Setup
The airway range is the maximum map range on which airways are displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selecting an airway range (LOW ALT AIRWAY or HI ALT AIRWAY):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Highlight the ‘LOW ALT AIRWAY’ or ‘HI ALT AIRWAY’ range field.
AFCS
5) To change the range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
6) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
The following range items are configurable on the airways menu:
APPENDICES
Airway Type
Symbol
Low Altitude Airway (LOW ALT AIRWAY)
High Altitude Airway (HI ALT AIRWAY)
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
200
500
300
500
INDEX
Table 5-4 Airway Range Information
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRACK VECTOR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Navigation Map can display a track vector that is useful in minimizing track angle error. The track vector
is a solid cyan line segment extended to a predicted location. The track vector look-ahead time is selectable (30
sec, 60 sec (default), 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min) and determines the length of the track vector. The track
vector shows up to 90 degrees of a turn for the 30 and 60 second time settings. It is always a straight line for
the 2 min, 5 min, 10 min and 20 min settings.
Track Vector
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-24 Navigation Map -Track Vector
Displaying/removing the track vector:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Highlight the ‘TRACK VECTOR’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’. Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the look
ahead time field. Use the FMS Knob to select the desired time. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
AFCS
SVT Field of View On/Off
Selected Altitude Arc On/Off
Track Vector
- On/Off
- Look Ahead Time
APPENDICES
Nav Range Ring On/Off
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Wind Vector On/Off
Fuel Range Ring
- On/Off
- Fuel Reserve Time
INDEX
Figure 5-25 Navigation Map Setup Menu - WIND VECTOR On/Off, NAV RANGE RING On/Off, FIELD OF VIEW On/Off,
SEL ALT ARC On/Off, TRACK VECTOR Setup, FUEL RNG (RSV) Setup
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
WIND VECTOR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The map displays a wind vector arrow in the upper right-hand portion of the screen. Wind vector information
is displayed as a white arrow pointing in the direction in which the wind is moving for wind speeds greater than
or equal to 1 kt.
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
EIS
Figure 5-26 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
NOTE: The wind vector is not displayed until the aircraft is moving. It is not displayed on the Waypoint
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Information pages.
Displaying/removing the wind vector:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘WIND VECTOR’ field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NAV RANGE RING
The Nav Range Ring shows the direction of travel (ground track) on a rotating compass card. The range is
determined by the map range. The range is 1/4 of the map range (e.g., 37.5 nm on a 150 nm map).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Range (radius)
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Nav Range Ring
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-27 Navigation Map - Nav Range Ring
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: The Nav Range Ring is not displayed on the Waypoint Information pages, Nearest pages, or Direct-to
Window map.
Displaying/removing the Nav Range Ring:
AFCS
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘NAV RANGE RING’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
APPENDICES
NOTE: The Nav Range Ring is referenced to either magnetic or true north, based on the selection on the AUX
- System Setup Page.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FUEL RANGE RING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The map can display a fuel range ring which shows the remaining flight distance. A dashed green circle
indicates the selected range to reserve fuel. A solid green circle indicates the total endurance range. If only
reserve fuel remains, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle.
Total Endurance Range
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Time to Reserve Fuel
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Range to Reserve Fuel
Figure 5-28 Navigation Map - Fuel Range Ring
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Displaying/removing the fuel range ring and selecting a fuel range time:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
AFCS
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘FUEL RNG (RSV)’ field.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Highlight the fuel reserve time field. This time should be set to the amount of flight time equal to the amount
of fuel reserve desired.
APPENDICES
8) To change the reserve fuel time, enter a time (00:00 to 23:59; hours:minutes). The default setting is 00:45
minutes.
9) Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FIELD OF VIEW (SVT)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The map can display the boundaries of the PFD Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) lateral field of view. The
field of view is shown as two dashed lines forming a V shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map. This is
only available if SVT is installed on the aircraft.
EIS
Lateral Field
of View
Boundaries
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-29 Navigation Map - Field of View
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Displaying/removing the field of view:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘FIELD OF VIEW’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
AFCS
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SELECTED ALTITUDE INTERCEPT ARC
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The map can display the location along the current track where the aircraft will intercept the selected altitude.
The location will be shown as a cyan arc when the aircraft is actually climbing or descending.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Range to
Altitude Arc
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-30 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
Displaying/removing the selected altitude intercept arc:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setup’ option.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Setup Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘SEL ALT ARC’ field.
AFCS
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5.3 WAYPOINTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Waypoints are predetermined geographical positions (internal database) or pilot-entered positions, and are
used for all phases of flight planning and navigation.
Communication and navigation frequencies can be tuned “automatically” from various Waypoint Information
(WPT) pages, Nearest (NRST) pages, and the Nearest Airports Window (on PFD). This auto-tuning feature
simplifies frequency entry over manual tuning. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS section for details on autotuning.
City Entry Field
Facility
Entry Field
- Waypoint Identifier
- Type (symbol)
- Facility Name
- City
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Map Area Showing
Entered Waypoint
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Identifier Entry Field
EIS
Waypoints can be selected by entering the ICAO identifier, entering the name of the facility, or by entering the
city name. See the System Overview section for detailed instructions on entering data in the G950. As a waypoint
identifier, facility name, or location is entered, the G950’s Spell’N’Find™ feature scrolls through the database,
displaying those waypoints matching the characters which have been entered to that point. A direct-to navigation
leg to the selected waypoint can be initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key on any of the waypoint pages.
Entered Waypoint on
Map
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Waypoint Location
AFCS
Figure 5-31 Waypoint Information Window
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
If duplicate entries exist for the entered facility name or location, additional entries may be viewed by continuing
to turn the small FMS Knob during the selection process. If duplicate entries exist for an identifier, a Duplicate
Waypoints Window is displayed when the ENT Key is pressed.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Identifier with
Duplicates
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Duplicate
Waypoints
Duplicate Message
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AIRPORTS
Figure 5-32 Waypoint Information Window - Duplicate Identifier
NOTE: ‘North Up’ orientation on the Airport Information Page cannot be changed; the pilot needs to be
aware of proper orientation if the Navigation Map orientation is different from the Airport Information Page
Map.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Airport Information Page is the first page in WPT group and allows the pilot to view airport information,
load frequencies (COM, NAV, and lighting), review runways, and review instrument procedures that may be
involved in the flight plan. See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information on loading frequencies
(auto-tuning). After engine startup, the Airport Information Page defaults to the airport where the aircraft is
located. After a flight plan has been loaded, it defaults to the destination airport. On a flight plan with multiple
airports, it defaults to the airport which is the current active waypoint.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the Airport Information
Page displays airport information in three boxes labeled ‘AIRPORT’, ‘RUNWAYS’, and ‘FREQUENCIES’. For
airports with multiple runways, information for each runway is available. This information is viewed on the
Airport Information Page by pressing the INFO softkey until INFO-1 is displayed.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Airport Information
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Airport
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
- Lat/Long/Elev
- Fuel Available
- Time Zone (UTC Offset)
Runway Information
- Designation
- Length/Width/Surface
- Lighting Available
EIS
Airport/Runway
Diagram
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Identification
- Frequency
- Availability
- Additional Information
Softkeys
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-33 Airport Information Page
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the Airport Information Page:
• Usage type: Public, Military, Private, or Heliport
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Runway surface type: Hard, Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft, Unknown, or Water
• Runway lighting type: No Lights, Part Time, Full Time, Unknown, or PCL Freq (for pilot-controlled
lighting)
• COM Availability: TX (transmit only), RX (receive only), PT (part time), i (additional information available)
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Airport Directory
Information
Airport Information
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
Softkeys
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-34 Airport Directory Page Example
The airport directory information is viewed on the Airport Directory Page by pressing the INFO softkey
until INFO-2 is displayed. The following are types of airport directory information shown (if available) on the
Airport Directory Page:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Airport:
Identifier, Site
Number, Name, City, State
• Phones: Phone/Fax Numbers
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
• Hours: Facility Hours, Light
Hours, Tower Hours, Beacon
Hours
• Location: Sectional, Magnetic
Variation
• Frequencies: Type/Frequency
• Runway: Headings, Length,
Width, Obstructions, Surface
• Obstructions: General Airport
Obstructions
• Special
Operations
at
Airport
• Instrument
Approaches:
Published
Approach,
Frequency
• NAVAIDS: Type, Identifier,
Frequency, Radial, Distance
• Noise:
Noise Abatement
Procedures
• Charts: Low Altitude Chart
Number
• Services Available: Category,
Specific Service
• Notes: Airport Notes
• Pilot Controlled Lighting:
High/Med/Low Clicks/Second
• FBO:
Type, Frequencies,
Services, Fees, Fuel, Credit
Cards, Phone/Fax Numbers
INDEX
APPENDICES
• Transportation:
Ground
Transportation Type Available
• Approach: Approach Facility
Name, Frequency, Frequency
Parameter
• Traffic Pattern Altitudes
(TPA): Aircraft Class/Altitude
• Weather:
Service Type,
Frequency, Phone Number
• Flight Service Station (FSS):
FSS Name, Phone Numbers
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting an airport for review by identifier, facility name, or location:
1) From the Airport Information Page, press the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Selecting a runway:
1) With the Airport Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
EIS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘RUNWAYS’ Box, on the runway designator.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired runway (if more than one) for the selected airport.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) To remove the flashing cursor, press the FMS Knob.
Viewing a destination airport:
From the Airport Information Page press the MENU Key. Select ‘View Destination Airport’. The Destination
Airport is displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Airport Frequencies Box uses the descriptions and abbreviations listed in the following table:
Navigation Frequencies
ILS
LOC
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Communication Frequencies
Approach * Control
Pre-Taxi
Arrival *
CTA *
Radar
ASOS
Departure * Ramp
ATIS
Gate
Terminal *
AWOS
Ground
TMA *
Center
Helicopter
Tower
Class B *
Multicom
TRSA *
Class C *
Other
Unicom
Clearance
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
* May include Additional Information
Table 5-5 Airport Frequency Abbreviations
APPENDICES
A departure, arrival, or approach can be loaded using the softkeys on the Airport Information Page. See the
Procedures section for details. METARs or TAFs applicable to the selected airport can be selected for display (see
the Hazard Avoidance section for details about weather).
The G950 provides a NRST Softkey on the PFD, which gives the pilot quick access to nearest airport
information (very useful if an immediate landing is required). The Nearest Airports Window displays a list
of up to 25 nearest airports (three entries can be displayed at one time). If there are more than three they are
displayed in a scrollable list. If there are no nearest airports available, “NONE WITHIN 200NM” is displayed.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Bearing/Distance to Airport
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Airport Identifier/
Type
Approach Available
Length of Longest
Runway
COM Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Additional Airports
(within 200 nm)
NRST Softkey
Figure 5-35 Nearest Airports Window on PFD
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pressing the ENT Key displays the PFD Airport Information Window for the highlighted airport. Pressing
the ENT Key again returns to the Nearest Airports Window with the cursor on the next airport in the list.
Continued presses of the ENT Key sequences through the information pages for all airports in the Nearest
Airports list.
Airport Information
- ID/Type/City
- Facility
AFCS
Airport Information
- Usage/Time/Elev
- Region
Airport Information
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Lat/Long
APPENDICES
The Nearest Airports Page on the MFD is first in the group of NRST pages because of its potential use in
the event of an in-flight emergency. In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and
surrounding area, the page displays nearest airport information in five boxes labeled ‘NEAREST AIRPORTS’,
‘INFORMATION’, ‘RUNWAYS’, ‘FREQUENCIES’, and ‘APPROACHES’.
INDEX
Figure 5-36 Airport Information Window on PFD
The selected airport is indicated by a white arrow, and a dashed white line is drawn on the navigation map
from the aircraft position to the nearest airport. Up to five nearest airports, one runway, up to three frequencies,
and up to three approaches are visible at one time. If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled.
If there are no items for display in a boxed area, text indicating that fact is displayed. The currently selected
airport remains in the list until it is unselected.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Navigation Map Showing Nearest Airport
Nearest Airport
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Nearest Airports
- ID/Type
- Bearing/Distance
Airport Information
- Facility/City/Elevation
EIS
Runway Information
- Designation/Surface
- Length/Width
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Approaches Available
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
LD APR Softkey (only
available if an approach is
highlighted)
Window Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-37 Nearest Airport Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the PFD:
1) Press the NRST Softkey to display the Nearest Airports Window.
2) Highlight the airport identifier with the FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to display the Airport Information
Window.
AFCS
3) To return to the Nearest Airports Window press the ENT Key (with the cursor on ‘BACK’) or press the CLR
Key. The cursor is now on the next airport in the nearest airports list. (Repeatedly pressing the ENT Key
moves through the airport list, alternating between the Nearest Airports Window and the Airport Information
Window.)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the CLR Key or the NRST Softkey to close the PFD Nearest Airports Window.
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the NRST page group.
APPENDICES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Nearest Airports Page (it is the first page of the group, so it may already
be selected). If there are no Nearest Airports available, “NONE WITHIN 200 NM” is displayed.
3) Press the APT Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Airport Window’ and
press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘NEAREST AIRPORTS’ Box. The first airport in the nearest airports
list is highlighted.
INDEX
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport. (Pressing the ENT Key also moves to the next airport.)
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Viewing runway information for a specific airport:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway.
1) With the Nearest Airports Page displayed, press the RNWY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select
Runway Window’; and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘RUNWAYS’ Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for frequency selection and the Procedures section for approaches.
EIS
The Nearest Airports Box on the System Setup Page defines the minimum runway length and surface type
used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on the MFD Nearest Airports Page. A minimum
runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways or runways that are
not appropriately surfaced from being displayed. Default settings are 0 feet (or meters) for runway length and
“HARD/SOFT” for runway surface type.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selecting nearest airport surface matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the runway surface field in the Nearest Airports Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (ANY, HARD ONLY, HARD/SOFT, WATER).
5) Press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Selecting nearest airport minimum runway length matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
AFCS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the minimum length field in the Nearest Airport Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the minimum runway length (zero to 25,000 feet) and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Nearest Airport Criteria
INDEX
- Type of Runway Surface
- Minimum Runway Length
Figure 5-38 System Setup Page - Nearest Airport Selection Criteria
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
INTERSECTIONS
NOTE: The VOR displayed on the Intersection Information Page is the nearest VOR, not necessarily the VOR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
used to define the intersection.
The Intersection Information Page is used to view information about intersections. In addition to displaying
a map of the currently selected intersection and surrounding area, the Intersection Information Page displays
intersection information in three boxes labeled ‘INTERSECTION’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘NEAREST VOR’.
Selected Intersection
EIS
Intersection Identifier
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Intersection Info
- Region
- Lat/Long
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Nearest VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Intersection
AFCS
Figure 5-39 Intersection Information Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selecting an intersection:
1) With the Intersection Information Page displayed, enter an identifier in the Intersection Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest Intersections Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest Intersection Box.
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3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
171
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
The Nearest Intersections Page can be used to quickly find an intersection close to the flight path. In addition
to displaying a map of the surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest intersections in
three boxes labeled ‘NEAREST INT’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘REFERENCE VOR’.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The selected intersection is indicated by a white arrow. Up to eleven intersections are visible at a time. If
there are more than can be shown, the list can be scrolled. If there are no items for display, text indicating that
fact is displayed.
NOTE: The list only includes waypoints that are within 200 nm.
Navigation Map Showing Nearest Intersection
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Nearest Intersection
Intersection Information
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to
intersection from
aircraft position
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Intersection Lat/Long
Reference VOR Info
AFCS
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- VOR Frequency
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-40 Nearest Intersections Page
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OVERVIEW
NDBS
Selected NDB
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The NDB Information Page is used to view information about NDBs. In addition to displaying a map of
the currently selected NDB and surrounding area, the page displays NDB information in four boxes labeled
‘NDB’, ‘INFORMATION’, ‘FREQUENCY’, and ‘NEAREST AIRPORT’.
Navigation Map Showing Selected NDB
NDB Identifier/Type
EIS
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
NDB Information
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Type
- Region
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Nearest Airport Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-41 NDB Information Page
AFCS
NOTE: Compass locator (LOM, LMM): a low power, low or medium frequency radio beacon installed in
conjunction with the instrument landing system. When LOM is used, the locator is at the Outer Marker;
when LMM is used, the locator is at the Middle Marker.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selecting an NDB:
1) With the NDB Information Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the NDB, or the city in which it’s
located in the NDB Box.
APPENDICES
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest NDB Page displayed, press the FMS Knob
INDEX
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest NDB Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
The Nearest NDB Page can be used to quickly find a NDB close to the flight path. In addition to displaying
a map of the surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest NDBs in three boxes labeled
‘NEAREST NDB’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘FREQUENCY’.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A white arrow before the NDB identifier indicates the selected NDB. Up to eleven NDBs are visible at a time.
If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. The list only includes waypoints that are within
200nm. If there are no NDBs in the list, text indicating that there are no nearest NDBs is displayed. If there are
no nearest NDBs in the list, the information and frequency fields are dashed.
Nearest NDB
EIS
Navigation Map Showing Selected NDB
NDB Identifier/Symbol
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Bearing/Distance to
NDB from aircraft
position
NDB Information
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Facility Name/City
- Type
- Lat/Long
AFCS
NDB Frequency
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-42 Nearest NDB Page
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OVERVIEW
VORS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The VOR Information Page can be used to view information about VOR and ILS signals (since ILS signals
can be received on a NAV receiver), or to quickly auto-tune a VOR or ILS frequency. Localizer information
cannot be viewed on the VOR Information Page. If a VOR station is combined with a TACAN station it is
listed as a VORTAC on the VOR Information Page and if it includes only DME, it is displayed as VOR-DME.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected VOR and surrounding area, the VOR Information
Page displays VOR information in four boxes labeled ‘VOR’, ‘INFORMATION’, ‘FREQUENCY’, and ‘NEAREST
AIRPORT’.
Navigation Map Showing Selected VOR
EIS
Selected VOR
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
VOR Identifier/Type
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
VOR Information
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Region
- Lat/Long
VOR Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
AFCS
Figure 5-43 VOR Information Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The VOR classes used in the VOR information box are: LOW ALTITUDE, HIGH ALTITUDE, and
TERMINAL.
Selecting a VOR:
APPENDICES
1) With the VOR Information Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the VOR, or the city in which it’s
located in the VOR Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Or:
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SYSTEM
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
1) With the Nearest VOR Page displayed, press the FMS Knob or press the VOR Softkey.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VOR Box.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest VOR Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Select VOR Window’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VOR Box.
EIS
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Nearest VOR Page can be used to quickly find a VOR station close to the aircraft. Also, a NAV frequency
from a selected VOR station can be loaded from the Nearest VOR Page. In addition to displaying a map of
the surrounding area, the Nearest VOR Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VOR stations in three
boxes labeled ‘NEAREST VOR’, ‘INFORMATION’, and ‘FREQUENCY’. The list only includes waypoints that
are within 200 nm.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
A white arrow before the VOR identifier indicates the selected VOR. Up to eleven VORs are visible at a
time. If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. If there are no VORs in the list, text
indicating that there are no nearest VORs is displayed. If there are no nearest VORs in the list, the information
is dashed.
Navigation Map Showing Nearest VOR
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Nearest VOR
VOR Identifier/Symbol
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
from aircraft position
VOR Information
APPENDICES
- Facility Name/City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Lat/Long
VOR Frequency
INDEX
Figure 5-44 Nearest VOR Page
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OVERVIEW
USER WAYPOINTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 can create and store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. User waypoints can be created from any
map page (except PFD Inset Map, AUX-Trip Planning Page, or Procedure Pages) by selecting a position on the
map using the Joystick, or from the User Waypoint Information Page by referencing a bearing/distance from an
existing waypoint, bearings from two existing waypoints, or latitude and longitude. Once a waypoint has been
created, it can be renamed, deleted, or moved. Temporary user waypoints are erased upon system power down.
User Waypoint Info
User Wpt Comment
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
User Waypoint
Reference Wpt/Info
Selected User
Waypoint
User Waypoint List
EIS
- Identifier
- Temporary/Normal
- Waypoint Type
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Identifier/Rad/Dist or
- Identifiers/Radials or
- Region/Lat/Long
- Identifier
- Comment
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
# User Wpts Used
Softkeys
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
GO BACK displayed if
User Wpt was created
on map page
Figure 5-45 User Waypoint Information Page
AFCS
Selecting a User Waypoint:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, enter the name of the User Waypoint, or scroll to the
desired waypoint in the User Waypoint List using the large FMS Knob.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest User Waypoints Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
APPENDICES
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest USR Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Navigation Map Showing Selected User Waypoint
Selected User Waypoint
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Nearest User Wpt List
EIS
- Identifier
- Bearing/Distance from
aircraft position
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
User Waypoint Info
- Comment
- Lat/Long
Reference Wpt Info
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-46 Nearest User Waypoint Page
CREATING USER WAYPOINTS
User waypoints can be created from the User Waypoint Information Page in the following ways:
Creating user waypoints from the User Waypoint Information Page:
AFCS
1) Press the NEW Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Create New User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the ENT Key. The current aircraft position is the default location of the new waypoint.
4) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
APPENDICES
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
INDEX
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into the
INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
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OVERVIEW
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
6) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “TEMPORARY” or “NORMAL” by moving the cursor
to “TEMPORARY” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Are you sure you want to create the new User Waypoint AAAAAA?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into the
INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “TEMPORARY” or “NORMAL” by moving the cursor
to “TEMPORARY” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
AFCS
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-47 User Waypoint Information Page Menu
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Creating user waypoints from map pages:
1) Press the Joystick to activate the panning function and pan to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the ENT Key. The User Waypoint Information Page is displayed with the captured position.
NOTE: If the pointer has highlighted a map database feature, one of three things happens upon pressing
the ENT Key: 1) information about the selected feature is displayed instead of initiating a new waypoint,
2) a menu pops up allowing a choice between ‘Review Airspaces’ or ‘Create User Waypoint’, or 3) a new
waypoint is initiated with the default name being the selected map item.
EIS
3) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected name. The first reference waypoint box is highlighted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the REFERENCE WAYPOINTS window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into the
INFORMATION window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “TEMPORARY” or “NORMAL” by moving the cursor
to “TEMPORARY” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AFCS
9) Press the GO BACK Softkey to return to the map page.
EDITING USER WAYPOINTS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Editing a user waypoint comment or location:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Select a user waypoint in the User Waypoint List, if required, and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
3) Move the cursor to the desired field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to make any changes.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
INDEX
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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OVERVIEW
Renaming user waypoints:
1) Highlight a user waypoint in the User Waypoint List. Press the RENAME Softkey, or press the MENU Key and
select ‘Rename User Waypoint’.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Enter a new name.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Do you want to rename the user waypoint AAAAAA to BBBBBB?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
EIS
Changing the location of an existing waypoint to the aircraft present position:
1) Enter a waypoint name or select the waypoint in the User Waypoint List, then press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Use Present Position’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice. The new waypoint’s location is saved.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
A system generated comment for a user waypoint incorporates the reference waypoint identifier, bearing,
and distance. If a system generated comment has been edited, a new comment can be generated.
Resetting the comment field to the system generated comment:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Enter a waypoint name or select the waypoint in the User Waypoint List, then press the ENT Key.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Auto Comment’.
4) Press the ENT Key. The generated comment is based on the reference point used to define the waypoint.
AFCS
The default type of user waypoint (normal or temporary) can be changed using the user waypoint information
page menu. Temporary user waypoints are automatically deleted upon the next power cycle.
Changing the user waypoint storage duration default setting:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Move the cursor to select ‘Waypoint Setup’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Select ‘NORMAL’ or ‘TEMPORARY’ as desired, and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor and return to the User Waypoint Information Page.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
DELETING USER WAYPOINTS
Deleting a single user waypoint:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List, or enter a waypoint in the User Waypoint field.
2) Press the DELETE Softkey or press the CLR Key. ‘Yes’ is highlighted in the confirmation window.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
EIS
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List, or enter a waypoint in the User Waypoint field.
2) Press the MENU Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Select ‘Delete User Waypoint’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: The option to ‘Delete All User Waypoints’ is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all user waypoints:
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete All User Waypoints’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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OVERVIEW
5.4 AIRSPACES
Class D Airspace
Restricted Area
Class B Airspace
EIS
MOA (Military)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 can display the following types of airspaces: Class B/TMA, Class C/TCA, Class D, Restricted, MOA
(Military), Other Airspace, Air Defense Interdiction Zone (ADIZ), and Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Alert Area
Class C Airspace
AFCS
ADIZ
Warning Area
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
TFR
Figure 5-48 Airspaces
APPENDICES
The Nearest Airspaces Page, Airspace Alerts Window, and Airspace Alerts on the PFD provide additional
information about airspaces and the location of the aircraft in relationship to them.
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INDEX
The Airspace Alerts Box allows the pilot to turn the controlled/special-use airspace message alerts on or off.
This does not affect the alerts listed on the Nearest Airspaces Page or the airspace boundaries depicted on the
Navigation Map Page. It simply turns on/off the warning provided when the aircraft is approaching or near an
airspace.
183
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below an airspace. For example,
if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/below an airspace, an alert message is
not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below an airspace and projected to enter it, the pilot
is notified with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the altitude buffer field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
EIS
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Turning an airspace alert on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AFCS
Airspace Alerts Box
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Airspace Altitude Buffer
- Alert On/Off
(Default Settings Shown)
DFLTS Softkey
INDEX
Figure 5-49 System Setup Page - Airspace Alerts
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OVERVIEW
Map ranges for the airspace boundaries are selected from the Aviation Group in the Map Setup Menu. See Table
5-2 for the default and maximum ranges for each type of airspace and the symbol used to define the airspace area.
Airspace 1
Airspace 2
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Nearest Airspaces Page can be used to quickly find airspaces close to the flight path. In addition, a selected
frequency associated with the airspace can be loaded from the Nearest Airspaces Page. In addition to displaying
a map of airspace boundaries and surrounding area, the Nearest Airspaces Page displays airspace information in
four boxes labeled ‘AIRSPACE ALERTS’, ‘AIRSPACE, AGENCY’, ‘VERTICAL LIMITS’, and ‘FREQUENCIES’.
Airspace 3
EIS
Airspace Alerts Info
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Name
- Proximity (Ahead, Inside,
Ahead < 2nm, Within 2nm)
- Time till Intercept (only if
Ahead or Ahead < 2nm)
Airspace/Agency Info
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Airspace Type
- Controlling Agency
Airspace Vertical Limits
- Ceiling
- Floor
Associated Frequencies
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Type
- Availability/Info
- Frequency
Softkeys
Figure 5-50 Nearest Airspaces Page
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Airspace alerts and associated frequencies are shown in scrollable lists on the Nearest Airspaces Page. The
ALERTS and FREQ softkeys place the cursor in the respective list. The FREQ Softkey is enabled only if one or
more frequencies exist for a selected airspace.
Selecting and viewing an airspace alert with its associated information:
1) Select the Nearest Airspaces Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the ALERTS Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Alerts Window’,
and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘AIRSPACE ALERTS’ Box.
3) Select the desired airspace.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Pressing the PFD ALERTS Softkey displays the message window on the PFD. The following airspace alerts are
displayed in the alerts window:
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead –
less than 10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and ahead.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near –
less than 2 nm.
Comments
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft penetrates the airspace
within 10 minutes.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
Table 5-6 PFD Airspace Alert Messages
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Smart Airspace function de-emphasizes airspaces above or below the current aircraft altitude. The function
does not require the aircraft present position or flight path to enter the lateral boundaries of the airspace. If the
current aircraft altitude is within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace, the airspace boundary is
shown normally. If the current aircraft altitude is not within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace,
the airspace boundary is shown subdued.
Smart Airspace On
Smart Airspace Off
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-51 Smart Airspace
Turning smart airspace on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Navigation Map Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the MENU Key, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘GROUP’ Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Aviation’ in the ‘GROUP’ Box and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘SMART AIRSPACE’ field in the Aviation Map Setup Window.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn smart airspace ON or counterclockwise to turn smart airspace OFF.
INDEX
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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OVERVIEW
5.5 DIRECT-TO-NAVIGATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Direct-to method of navigation, initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key on either the MFD or PFD, is
quicker to use than a flight plan when the desire is to navigate to a single point such as a nearby airport.
Once a direct-to is activated, the G950 establishes a point-to-point course line from the present position to the
selected direct-to destination. Course guidance is provided until the direct-to is replaced with a new direct-to or
flight plan, or cancelled.
EIS
A vertical navigation (VNV) direct-to creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the current altitude to a selected altitude at the direct-to waypoint. Vertical navigation is based on barometric
altitudes, not on GPS altitude, and is used for cruise and descent phases of flight.
The Direct-to Window allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation. The Direct-to Window displays
selected direct-to waypoint data on the PFD and the MFD.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Direct-to Point Info
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Identifier/Symbol/Region
- Facility Name
- City
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Map of Selected Point
Location of Destination
AFCS
- Bearing/Distance
Desired Course
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-52 Direct-to Window - MFD
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/City
- Facility Name
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Direct-to Point Info
- Bearing/Distance
- Desired Course
EIS
Activation Command
Figure 5-53 Direct-to Window - PFD
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Any waypoint can be entered as a direct-to destination from the Direct-to Window.
Entering a waypoint identifier, facility name, or city as a direct-to destination:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed (with the active flight plan waypoint as the default
selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it counter-clockwise brings
up the waypoint selection submenu - press the CLR Key to remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the
facility name, or city field and turn the small FMS Knob to begin entering a facility name or city. If duplicate
entries exist for the entered facility or city name, additional entries can be viewed by turning the small FMS
Knob during the selection process.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the direct-to.
AFCS
Any waypoint contained in the active flight plan can be selected as a direct-to waypoint from the Direct-to
Window, the Active Flight Plan Page, or the Active Flight Plan Window.
Waypoint Submenu
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Flight Plan Waypoints
- Nearest Airports
- Recent Waypoints
- User Waypoints
- Airway Waypoints
(only available when
active leg is part of an
airway)
INDEX
Figure 5-54 Waypoint Submenu
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting an active flight plan waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) While navigating an active flight plan, press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the
active flight plan waypoint as the default selection.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
3) Select the desired waypoint.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
EIS
Or:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, or the Active Flight Plan Window on the PFD.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Select the desired waypoint.
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Any NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoint can be selected as a direct-to destination in the Direct-to
Window.
Selecting a NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoint as a direct-to destination:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed (with the active flight plan destination as the
default selection or a blank destination if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of FPL waypoints (the FPL list is populated only
when navigating a flight plan, and the AIRWAY list is available only when the active leg is part of an airway).
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the NRST, RECENT, USER, or AIRWAY waypoints.
AFCS
4) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Direct-to Window can be displayed from any page and allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation.
If the direct-to is initiated from any page except the WPT pages, the default waypoint is the active flight plan
waypoint (if a flight plan is active) or a blank waypoint field. Direct-to requests on any WPT page defaults to the
displayed waypoint.
APPENDICES
Selecting any waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Select the page or window containing the desired waypoint type and select the desired waypoint.
2) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window with the selected waypoint as the direct-to
destination.
INDEX
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
4) Press ENT again to activate the direct-to.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
2) Select the desired airport (the nearest one is already selected).
1) Press the NRST Softkey on the PFD; or turn the FMS Knob to display the Nearest Airports Page and press the
FMS Knob.
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
EIS
Direct-to destinations may also be selected by using the pointer on the navigation map pages. If no airport,
NAVAID, or user waypoint exists at the desired location, a temporary waypoint named ‘MAPWPT’ is automatically
created at the location of the map arrow.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selecting a waypoint as a direct-to destination using the pointer:
1) From a navigation map page, press the Joystick to display the pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to place the pointer at the desired destination location.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) If the pointer is placed on an existing airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint, the waypoint name is highlighted.
4) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window with the selected point entered as the direct-to
destination.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Cancelling a Direct-to:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
3) With ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. If a flight plan is still active, the G950 resumes
navigating the flight plan along the closest leg.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Page Menu
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
- Cancel Direct-To Navigation
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-55 Direct-to Window - Cancelling Direct-to Navigation
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When navigating a direct-to, the G950 sets a direct great circle course to the selected destination. The course to
a destination can also be manually selected using the course field (‘COURSE’) on the Direct-to Window.
Selecting a manual direct-to course:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the destination field highlighted.
2) Highlight the course field.
AFCS
3) Enter the desired course.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Reselecting the direct course from the current position:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the destination field highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘ACTIVATE?’.
APPENDICES
3) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
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INDEX
A direct-to with altitude constraints creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the aircraft’s current altitude to the altitude of the direct-to waypoint. The altitude is reached at the waypoint,
or at the specified distance along the flight path if an offset distance has been entered. All VNV altitudes prior
to the direct-to destination are removed from the active flight plan upon successful activation of the direct-to.
All VNV altitudes following the direct-to waypoint are retained. See the section on Vertical Navigation for more
information regarding the use and purpose of VNV altitudes and offset distances.
191
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Entering a VNV altitude and along-track offset for the waypoint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor over the ‘VNV’ altitude field.
3) Enter the desired altitude.
4) Press the ENT Key. The option to select MSL or AGL is now displayed.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now flashing in the VNV offset distance field.
EIS
7) Enter the desired along-track distance before the waypoint.
8) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
9) Press the ENT Key to activate.
Removing a VNV altitude constraint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the MENU Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) With ‘Clear Vertical Constraints’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Page Menu
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
- Clear Vertical Navigation
Constraints
INDEX
Figure 5-56 Direct-to Window - Clearing Vertical Constraints
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5.6 FLIGHT PLANNING
Flight Plan Leg Type
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Flight planning on the G950 consists of building a flight plan by entering waypoints one at a time, adding
waypoints along airways, and inserting departures, airways, arrivals, or approaches as needed. The G950 allows
flight planning information to be entered from either the MFD or PFD. The flight plan is displayed on maps using
different line widths, colors, and types, based on the type of leg and the segment of the flight plan currently being
flown (departure, enroute, arrival, approach, or missed approach).
Symbol
EIS
Active non-heading Leg (TOPO On)
Active non-heading Leg (TOPO Off)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Active heading Leg (TOPO On)
Active heading Leg (TOPO Off)
Non-heading Leg in the current flight segment (TOPO On)
Non-heading Leg in the current flight segment (TOPO Off)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO On)
Heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO Off)
Non-heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO On)
Non-heading Leg not in the current flight segment (TOPO Off)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Turn Anticipation Arc (TOPO On/TOPO Off)
AFCS
Table 5-7 Flight Plan Leg Symbols
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Up to 99 flight plans with up to 100 waypoints each can be created and stored in memory. One flight plan can
be activated at a time and becomes the active flight plan. The active flight plan is erased when the system is turned
off and overwritten when another flight plan is activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, departure,
or arrival, the G950 uses the waypoint information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the
database is changed or updated, the G950 automatically updates the information if the procedure has not been
modified. If an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is no longer available, the procedure is deleted from the
affected stored flight plan(s), and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A) advising that
one or more stored flight plans need to be edited.
APPENDICES
Whenever an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach,
departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan along with a header line describing the instrument
procedure the pilot selected. The original enroute portion of the flight plan remains active (unless an instrument
procedure is activated) when the procedure is loaded.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When the database is updated, the airways need to be reloaded also. Each airway segment is reloaded from
the database given the entry waypoint, the airway identifier and the exit waypoint. This reloads the sequence of
waypoints between the entry and exit waypoints (the sequence may change when the database is updated). The
update of an airway can fail during this process. If that happens, the airway waypoints are changed to regular
(non-airway) flight plan waypoints, and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A).
The following could cause the airway update to fail:
• Airway identifier, entry waypoint or exit waypoint not found in the new database.
EIS
• Airway entry/exit waypoint is not an acceptable waypoint for the airway – either the waypoint is no longer on
the airway, or there is a new directional restriction that prevents it being used.
• Loading the new airway sequence would exceed the capacity of the flight plan.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT PLAN CREATION
There are three methods to create or modify a flight plan:
• Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• Active Flight Plan Window on the PFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Flight Plan Catalog Page on the MFD (create/modify a stored flight plan)
Non-Active, Flight Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Leg
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Active FPL Waypoint List
AFCS
- Comment
- Procedure Header
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Turn Anticipation Arc
Vertical Navigation Profile
APPENDICES
- Active Vertical WPT Alt/ID
- Vertical Speed Target
- Flight Path Angle
- Vertical Speed Target
- Time to Top of Descent
- Vertical Deviation
INDEX
Figure 5-57 Active Flight Plan Page
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Active Flight Plan Comment
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Waypoint List
- Waypoint ID
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Airway Identifier
EIS
Figure 5-58 Active Flight Plan Window on PFD
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Catalog Contents
- # Used
- # Empty
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Flight Plan List
- Comment
Selected Flight Plan Map
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selected FPL Info
AFCS
- Departure Waypoint
- Destination Waypoint
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Softkeys
Figure 5-59 Flight Plan Catalog Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
The active flight plan is listed on the active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, and in the Active Flight Plan
Window on the PFD. It is the flight plan to which the G950 is currently providing guidance, and is shown
on the navigation maps. Stored flight plans are listed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page, and are available for
activation (becomes the active flight plan).
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
NOTE: The system supports AFCS lateral guidance for all leg types (using NAV or FMS APPR mode). The
system does not support course deviation for any heading leg types (VA, VD, VI, VM, or VR).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Creating an active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (only on MFD).
EIS
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window with a
waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Repeat step numbers 3 and 4 to enter each additional flight plan waypoint.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the FPL Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
6) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Creating a stored flight plan:
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the NEW Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create New Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key to
display a blank flight plan for the first empty storage location.
AFCS
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key.
6) Repeat step numbers 4 and 5 to enter each additional flight plan waypoint.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to return to the Flight Plan Catalog Page. The new
flight plan is now in the list.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Flight plans can be imported from an SD Card or exported to an SD Card from the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Importing a Flight Plan from an SD Card
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Insert the SD card containing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight an empty or existing flight plan.
EIS
6) Press the IMPORT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Import Flight Plan”, and press the ENT Key.
If an empty slot is selected, a list of the available flight plans on the SD card will be displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Or:
If an existing flight plan is selected, an “Overwrite existing flight plan? OK or CANCEL” prompt is displayed.
Press the ENT Key to choose to overwrite the selected flight plan and see the list of available flight plans on the
SD card. If overwriting the existing flight plan is not desired, select “CANCEL” using the FMS Knob, press the
ENT Key, select another flight plan slot, and press the IMPORT Softkey again.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan for importing.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the import.
9) Press the ENT Key again to confirm the import.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
List of Flight Plans to Import &
Details for the Selected File
APPENDICES
Import/Export Softkeys
Import Successful
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INDEX
Figure 5-60 Flight Plan Import
197
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
NOTE: If the imported flight plan contains a waypoint with a name that duplicates the name of a waypoint
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
already stored on the system, the system compares the coordinates of the imported waypoint with those of
the existing waypoint. If the coordinates are different, the imported waypoint is automatically renamed by
adding characters to the end of the name.
Exporting a Flight Plan to an SD Card
1) Insert the SD card into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
EIS
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be exported.
6) Press the EXPORT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Export Flight Plan”.
7) If desired, change the name for the exported file by turning the large FMS Knob to the left to highlight the
name, then use the small and large FMS knobs to enter the new name, and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the export.
9) Press the ENT Key to confirm the export.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: The exported flight plan will not contain any procedures or airways.
Import/Export Softkeys
Stored Flight Plan to be Exported &
Exported Flight Plan Name
Export Successful
INDEX
Figure 5-61 Flight Plan Export
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDING WAYPOINTS TO AN EXISTING FLIGHT PLAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose the flight plan, select the
desired point of insertion, enter the waypoint, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. Flight plans are
limited to 100 waypoints (including waypoints within airways and procedures). If the number of waypoints in
the flight plan exceeds 100, the message “Flight plan is full. Remove unnecessary waypoints.” appears and the
new waypoint(s) are not added to the flight plan.
Stored Flight Plan Selected
EIS
- Memory Slot
- Comment
- Procedure Identifier
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Softkeys
Figure 5-62 Stored Flight Plan Page
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Flight Plan Full Message
Figure 5-63 Active Flight Plan Page - FPL Full
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Adding a waypoint to a stored flight plan:
1) On the Flight Plan Catalog Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select “EDIT” and press the
ENT Key. The Stored Flight Plan Page is displayed.
4) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly in front of the
highlighted waypoint.
EIS
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The new waypoint now exists in the flight plan.
NOTE: If the identifier entered in the Waypoint Information Window has duplicates, a Duplicate Waypoint
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Window is displayed. Use the FMS Knob to select the correct waypoint.
Figure 5-64 Duplicate Waypoints Window
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Adding a waypoint to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
APPENDICES
3) Select the point in the flight plan before which to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly
in front of the highlighted waypoint.
INDEX
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Creating and adding user waypoints to the active flight plan:
1) Press the Joystick to activate the panning function on the Active Flight Plan Page and pan to the map location
of the desired user waypoint.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the LD WPT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The user
waypoint is created with a name of USRxxx (using the next available in sequence) and is added to the end of
the active flight plan.
ADDING AIRWAYS TO A FLIGHT PLAN
EIS
Airways can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose a flight plan (add the desired
airway entry point if not already in the flight plan), select the waypoint after the desired airway entry point,
select the airway, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. An airway can only be loaded if there is a
waypoint in the flight plan that is part of the desired airway and is not part of an arrival or approach procedure.
The G950 also anticipates the desired airway and exit point based on loaded flight plan waypoints.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airway Entry Waypoint
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Airway
Airways Available at TOP
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Airway Waypoint Sequence
Preview of Selected Airway
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-65 Select Airway Page - Selecting Airway
Adding an airway to a flight plan:
APPENDICES
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint after the desired airway entry point. If this waypoint is not
a valid airway entry point, a valid entry point should be entered at this time.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and press the LD AIRWY Softkey, or press the MENU Key and
select “Load Airway”. The Select Airway Page is displayed. The LD AIRWY Softkey or the “Load Airway” menu
item is available only when a valid airway entry waypoint has been chosen (the waypoint ahead of the cursor
position).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways are
shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is
highlighted.
EIS
7) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Exit Point
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Airway Exit Points
Available
AFCS
Preview of
Selected Airway
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-66 Select Airway Page - Selecting Exit Point
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Inserted Airway Header
EIS
- Airway Identifier: [airway
identifier].[exit waypoint identifier]
(e.g., V4.SLN)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-67 Active Flight Plan Page - Airway Inserted
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
RESTRICTIONS ON ADDING AIRWAYS
Some airways have directional restrictions on all or part of the route. Airway “A2” in Europe has a directional
restriction over the whole route such that it can be flown only in the direction MTD-ABB-BNE-DEVAL.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Airway “UR975” in North Africa has more complicated directional restrictions within the list of airway
waypoints AMANO, VAKOR, LIBRO, NELDA, DIRKA, GZO, KOSET, and SARKI:
• Starting from AMANO, the airway can be flown only to LIBRO.
• Starting from SARKI, the airway can be flown only to LIBRO.
AFCS
• Between NELDA and GZO, the airway can be flown in either direction.
In the US, airways that are “one-way” for specified hours of operation are not uncommon. These airways
are always bidirectional in the G950 database.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The system only allows correct airway sequences to be inserted. If the pilot subsequently inverts the flight
plan, the system inverts the airway waypoint sequence and removes the airway header.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
ADDING PROCEDURES TO A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 allows the pilot to insert pre-defined instrument procedures from the navigation database into a
flight plan. The procedures are designed to facilitate routing of traffic leaving an airport (departure), arriving at
an airport (arrival), and landing at an airport (approach). See the procedures section for more details.
EIS
Flight Plan Name
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Flight Plan Waypoint
List
Softkeys
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- New Waypoint
- Load Departure
- Load Arrival
- Load Approach
- Activate Flight Plan
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 5-68 Stored Flight Plan Page
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OVERVIEW
DEPARTURE (DP)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can
be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
Departure Airport
EIS
Selected Departure
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Departures Available at
KMKC
Departure Waypoint
Sequence
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Preview of Selected
Departure
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-69 Departure Loading Page - Selecting the Departure
Loading a departure procedure into a stored flight plan:
AFCS
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the LD DP Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Departure”, and press the ENT Key. The
Departure Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select a departure. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a runway served by the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
6) Select a transition for the selected departure. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected departure procedure.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Departure Airport
Selected Departure
Selected Runway
Selected Transition
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Departure Transition
Points Available
Preview of
Selected Departure
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Departure
End Point
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-70 Departure Loading Page - Selecting Transition
Inserted Departure Header
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
- Departure Identifier: [departure
airport]-[departure runway].
[departure transition].
[departure end point]
(e.g., KMKC-ALL.WLDCT2.SLN)
INDEX
Figure 5-71 Stored Flight Plan Page - Departure Inserted
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ARRIVAL (STAR)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) is loaded at the destination airport in the flight plan. Only one arrival
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
Destination Airport
EIS
Selected Arrival
Arrivals Available at KCOS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selected Runway
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Preview of
Selected Arrival
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-72 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Arrival
Loading an arrival procedure into a stored flight plan:
AFCS
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the LD STAR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Arrival”, and press the ENT Key. The Arrival
Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select an arrival. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a transition for the selected arrival. Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
6) Select a runway served by the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected arrival procedure.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Destination Airport
Selected Arrival
Selected Transition
Transitions Available
with DBRY1
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Arrival Waypoint
Sequence
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Preview of
Selected Arrival
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-73 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
Inserted Arrival Header
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
- Arrival Identifier:
[arrival airport]-[arrival transition].
[arrival].[arrival runway]
(e.g., KCOS-TBE.DBRY1.ALL)
INDEX
Figure 5-74 Stored Flight Plan Page - Arrival Inserted
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPROACH (APPR)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has an approach available. Only one
approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route for a selected approach is defined by designating
transition waypoints.
Destination Airport
EIS
Selected Approach
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Approaches Available at
KCOS
Barometric Minimum
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Preview of
Selected
Approach
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-75 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Approach
Loading an approach procedure into a stored flight plan:
AFCS
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Approach”, and press the ENT Key. The
Approach Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the APPROACH CHANNEL field.
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INDEX
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
209
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5) Select a transition for the selected approach. Press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
6) Press the ENT Key to load the selected approach procedure.
Destination Airport
EIS
Selected Approach
Selected Transition
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Transitions Available
with Selected Approach
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Preview of Selected
Approach
Load Approach?
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-76 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
AFCS
Inserted Approach Header
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Approach Identifier: [approach
airport].[runway and approach type]
(e.g., KCOS-RNAV 35RGPS LPV)
INDEX
Figure 5-77 Stored Flight Plan Page - Approach Inserted
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT PLAN STORAGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 can store up to 99 flight plans, numbered 1 through 99. The active flight plan is erased when
the G950 is powered off or when another flight plan is activated. Details about each stored flight plan can be
viewed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page and on the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Viewing information about a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
EIS
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
4) The Flight Plan Information is displayed showing departure, destination, total distance, and enroute safe altitude
information for the selected Flight Plan.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Press the EDIT Softkey to open the Stored Flight Plan Page and view the waypoints in the flight plan.
6) Press the FMS Knob to exit the Stored Flight Plan Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Flight Plan Name
(Comment)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selected Flight Plan
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan
AFCS
Stored Flight Plan Info
Figure 5-78 Stored Flight Plan Information
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Departure Airport
- Destination Airport
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Stored FPL Editing
Softkeys
APPENDICES
Storing an active flight plan from the Active Flight Plan Page or the Active Flight Plan Window:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
INDEX
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. The flight plan is stored in the next available position in the flight
plan list on the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
ACTIVATE A FLIGHT PLAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Activating a stored flight plan erases the active flight plan and replaces it with the flight plan being activated.
Inverting a stored flight plan reverses the waypoint order, erases the active flight plan, and replaces it with the
flight plan being activated (the stored flight plan is not changed).
Activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
EIS
3) Press the ACTIVE Softkey; or press the ENT Key twice; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’,
and press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Stored Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the INVERT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key.
The ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
COPY A FLIGHT PLAN
AFCS
The G950 allows copying a flight plan into a new flight plan memory slot, allowing editing, etc., without
affecting the original flight plan. This can be used to duplicate an existing stored flight plan for use in creating
a modified version of the original stored flight plan.
Copying a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the COPY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Copy Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Copy
to Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
APPENDICES
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to copy the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
DELETE A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
Individual or all stored flight plans can be deleted from the G950 memory.
INDEX
Deleting a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3) Press the DELETE Softkey; press the CLR Key; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
NOTE: The option to delete all stored flight plans is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all stored flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
EIS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Delete All’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all flight plans. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT PLAN EDITING
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The active flight plan or any stored flight plan can be edited. The edits made to the active flight plan affect
navigation as soon as they are entered.
DELETING THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The G950 allows deletion of an active flight plan. Deleting the active flight plan suspends navigation by
the G950.
Deleting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
AFCS
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete all waypoints in flight
plan?’ window is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the active flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
DELETING FLIGHT PLAN ITEMS
Individual waypoints, entire airways, and entire procedures can be deleted from a flight plan. Some waypoints
in the final approach segment (such as the FAF or MAP) can not be deleted individually. Attempting to delete
a waypoint that is not allowed results in a window displaying ‘Invalid flight plan modification.’
APPENDICES
Deleting an individual waypoint from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint to be deleted.
INDEX
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Deleting an entire airway from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the white header of the airway to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name>?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
EIS
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the white header of the procedure to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove <procedure>’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
AFCS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
Deleting an individual waypoint from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
APPENDICES
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
INDEX
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Deleting an entire airway from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the airway to be deleted.
EIS
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name>?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the procedure to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AFCS
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
APPENDICES
5) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove <procedure>’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
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INDEX
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
215
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
CHANGING FLIGHT PLAN COMMENTS (NAMES)
The comment field (or name) of each flight plan can be changed to something that is useful for identification.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Changing the active flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
3) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
EIS
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing a stored flight plan comment:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ALONG TRACK OFFSETS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
A waypoint having an “along track offset” distance from an existing waypoint can be entered into a flight plan.
Along track offset waypoints lie along the path of the existing flight plan, and can be used to make the system
reach a specified altitude before or after reaching the specified flight plan waypoint. Offset distances can be
entered from 1 to 999 nm in increments of 1 nm. Entering a negative offset distance results in an along track
offset waypoint inserted before the selected waypoint, whereas entering a positive offset distance results in an
along track offset waypoint inserted after the selected waypoint. Multiple offset waypoints are allowed.
APPENDICES
A waypoint must be adjacent to its parent waypoint in the flight plan, so the system limits the along-track
distance to less than the length of the leg before or after the selected waypoint. If the selected waypoint is the
active waypoint, the distance is limited to less than the distance to go to the active waypoint. Assigning an along
track offset to a leg with indeterminate length is not permitted. An along track offset is not allowed at or after
the final approach fix of an approach.
INDEX
An along track offset distance cannot be modified once entered. If the along track offset distance must be
changed, the existing along track offset waypoint must be deleted and a new one created with the new offset
distance.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Along Track Offset
Waypoint and
Distance from Flight
Plan Waypoint
EIS
Along Track
Offset Waypoint
and Distance
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-79 Along Track Offset
Entering an along track offset distance:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the along track offset.
3) Press the ATK OFST Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create ATK Offset Waypoint’, and
press the ENT Key.
AFCS
4) Enter a positive or negative offset distance in the range of +/- 1 to 999 nm (limited by leg distances).
5) Press the ENT Key to create the offset waypoint.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
PARALLEL TRACK
APPENDICES
The Parallel Track (PTK) feature allows creation of a parallel course offset of 1 to 50 nm left or right of the
current flight plan. When Parallel Track is activated, the course line drawn on the map pages shows the parallel
course, and waypoint names have a lower case “p” placed after the identifier.
Using direct-to, loading an approach, a holding pattern, or editing and activating the flight plan automatically
cancels Parallel Track. Parallel Track is also cancelled if a course change occurs greater than 120° or the parallel
tracks overlap as a result of the course change.
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INDEX
NOTE: Vertical navigation is unavailable while the Parallel Track feature is active.
217
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Active Flight Plan prior to Parallel Track
EIS
Selecting Parallel Track
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-80 Active Flight Plan Window - Selecting Parallel Track
Activating parallel track:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The Parallel Track Window is displayed
with the direction field highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Left’ or ‘Right’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘DISTANCE’ field is highlighted.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a distance from 1-99 nm and press the ENT Key. ‘ACTIVATE PARALLEL
TRACK’ is highlighted.
AFCS
5) Press the ENT Key to activate parallel track. Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to cancel the parallel track
activation.
Offset Direction
Offset Distance
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Activation Prompt
Figure 5-81 Parallel Track Window
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Original Track
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Parallel Track
Parallel Track
Waypoints
EIS
- TIFTO-p
- TOP-p
- ...
- LAA-p
Activating Parallel Track
affects the active flight
plan from the current
position on (will not
affect an approach)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-82 Parallel Track Active
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If the parallel track proposed by the offset direction and distance is not allowed by the system, the activation
prompt is displayed, but disabled. Parallel Track cannot be activated if a course is set using direct-to or if the
active leg is the first leg of the departure procedure. Attempting to activate parallel track with these conditions
results in the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable Invalid Route Geometry’. If an approach leg is active the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track with the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable
Approach Leg Active’. If the offset direction and distance results in an unreasonable route geometry the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because of invalid geometry.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Subdued Prompt
(Unavailable)
Unavailable Status
Approach
Active
APPENDICES
Invalid
Geometry
Figure 5-83 Parallel Track Unavailable
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If the active leg is not a track between two fixes (TF) or a course to a fix (DF) leg, the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because parallel track is not available for the
active leg type.
Offset Direction &
Distance Subdued
(Unavailable)
EIS
Cancel Prompt
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Active Status
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Cancelling parallel track:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-84 Cancelling Parallel Track
3) Press the ENT Key.
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The Parallel Track Window is displayed
with ‘CANCEL PARALLEL TRACK?’ highlighted.
ACTIVATING A FLIGHT PLAN LEG
AFCS
The G950 allows selection of a highlighted leg as the “active leg” (the flight plan leg which is currently used
for navigation guidance).
Activating a flight plan leg:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the destination waypoint for the desired leg.
3) Press the ACT LEG Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Leg’, and press the ENT Key.
A confirmation window is displayed with ‘ACTIVATE’ highlighted.
APPENDICES
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan leg. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press
the ENT Key.
INDEX
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Current
Active Leg
Selected Destination
Waypoint
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Activate Leg Softkey
Figure 5-85 Active Flight Plan Page - Selecting the Leg Destination Waypoint
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
New Active
Flight Plan Leg
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Confirmation Window
APPENDICES
Figure 5-86 Active Flight Plan Page - New Active Leg
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
INVERTING A FLIGHT PLAN
Any flight plan may be inverted (reversed) for navigation back to the original departure point.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Inverting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. An ‘Invert Active Flight Plan?’
confirmation window is displayed.
3) Select ‘OK’.
EIS
4) Press the ENT Key to invert and activate the active flight plan. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the INVERT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key.
The ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Information about flight plans can be viewed in more than one way. The active flight plan can be configured
to show cumulative distance over the length of the flight plan or the distance for each leg of the flight plan;
and the active flight plan can be viewed in a narrow or wide view. In the wide view, additional information is
displayed: Fuel Remaining (FUEL REM), Estimated Time Enroute (ETE), Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA), and
Bearing to the waypoint (BRG).
Switching between leg-to-leg waypoint distance and cumulative waypoint distance:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
EIS
2) Press the VIEW Softkey to display the CUM and LEG-LEG Softkeys.
3) Press the CUM Softkey to view cumulative waypoint distance, or press the LEG-LEG Softkey to view leg-to-leg
waypoint distance.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
Active Flight Plan Cumulative Distance
WIDE Softkey, NARROW Softkey
LEG-LEG Softkey, CUM Softkey
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Active Flight Plan Leg to Leg Distance
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-87 Active Flight Plan - Leg to Leg vs. Cumulative Distance
APPENDICES
Switching between wide and narrow view:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Press the VIEW Softkey to display the WIDE and NARROW Softkeys.
3) Press the WIDE Softkey to display the wide view, or press the NARROW Softkey to display the narrow view.
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INDEX
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
223
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Active Flight Plan Narrow View
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Active Flight Plan Wide View
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
WIDE Softkey, NARROW Softkey
LEG-LEG Softkey, CUM Softkey
Figure 5-88 Active Flight Plan - Wide vs. Narrow View
COLLAPSING AIRWAYS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The G950 allows airways on the active flight plan to be collapsed or expanded from the Active Flight Plan
Page/Window. When airways have been collapsed, it is indicated on the airway heading.
When airways are collapsed, leg-to-leg computed values such as DIS or ETE shown for the exit waypoint
reflect the total of all the legs on the airway that have been hidden in the collapsed display. The DTK value is
inhibited because it is not usable in this context.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The Active Flight Plan Page always keeps the following three waypoints visible: “From” waypoint, “To”
waypoint, and “Next” waypoint. To prevent one or more of these waypoints from being hidden in a collapsed
airway segment, the airway segment that contains either the “To” or the “Next” waypoint is automatically
expanded. When an airway is loaded, airways are automatically expanded to facilitate flight plan review.
Q3.FEPOT Airway
INDEX
APPENDICES
Collapsed View
Expanded View
Figure 5-89 Expanded/Collapsed Airways
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Collapsing/expanding the airways in the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Collapse Airways’ or ‘Expand Airways’, and press the ENT Key. The airways are
collapsed/expanded.
CLOSEST POINT OF FPL
‘Closest Point of FPL’ calculates the bearing and closest distance at which a flight plan passes a reference
waypoint, and creates a new user waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to a chosen reference
waypoint.
EIS
Determining the closest point along the active flight plan to a selected waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Closest Point Of FPL’’, and press the ENT Key. A window appears with the
reference waypoint field highlighted.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Enter the identifier of the reference waypoint and press the ENT Key. The G950 displays the bearing (BRG) and
distance (DIS) to the closest point along the flight plan to the selected reference waypoint and creates a user
waypoint at this location. The name for the new user waypoint is derived from the identifier of the reference
waypoint.
USER-DEFINED HOLDING PATTERNS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
A holding pattern can be defined at any active flight plan waypoint, at the aircraft present position, or at a
direct-to waypoint.
Creating a user-defined hold at an active flight plan waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
AFCS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the hold.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The HOLD AT window appears with
the course field highlighted.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘INBOUND’ or ‘OUTBOUND’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘TIME’ or ‘DIST’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘RIGHT’ or ‘LEFT’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC TIME), and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted to insert the hold into the flight plan.
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Waypoint
Selected
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Hold At
Wpt Menu
Selection
Location of Hold
Hold Entry Course
Course Direction
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
(INBOUND or OUTBOUND)
Leg Length Mode Button
(TIME or DIST))
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
(RIGHT or LEFT)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Map of Hold Location
APPENDICES
Expect Further Clearance Time
Load Hold in Active Flight Plan
INDEX
Figure 5-90 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at an Active Flight Plan Waypoint
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Creating a user-defined hold at the aircraft present position:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Present Position’, and press the ENT Key. The HOLD AT window appears
with the course field highlighted.
3) If desired, use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘INBOUND’ or ‘OUTBOUND’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘TIME’ or ‘DIST’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
EIS
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘RIGHT’ or ‘LEFT’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC TIME), and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
9) Press the ENT Key while ‘ACTIVATE?’ is highlighted to create an Offroute Direct-to hold waypoint at the aircraft
present position and activate the hold.
Creating a user-defined hold at a direct-to waypoint:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press a Direct-to Key and set up the direct-to waypoint as desired, but select ‘HOLD?’ instead of ‘ACTIVATE?’
when finished (MFD or PFD).
2) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘INBOUND’ or ‘OUTBOUND’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘TIME’ or ‘DIST’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘RIGHT’ or ‘LEFT’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC TIME), and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
8) Press the ENT Key while ‘ACTIVATE?’ is highlighted to activate the direct-to with the user-defined hold defined
at the direct-to waypoint. (If the direct-to waypoint is part of the active flight plan, the HOLD is inserted into
the active flight plan. If the direct-to waypoint is not part of the active flight plan, an off-route direct-to hold is
created.)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Exiting a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
Press the SUSP Softkey. The system will provide guidance to follow the holding pattern to the inbound course
and resume automatic waypoint sequencing.
APPENDICES
Removing a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the HOLD waypoint.
INDEX
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove Holding Pattern?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed from the active flight plan. Select ‘CANCEL’
and press the ENT Key to cancel the removal of the holding pattern.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Removing a user-defined hold at an off-route direct-to:
1) Press a Direct To Key to display the DIRECT TO Window (PFD or MFD).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU with the cursor on the ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ selection.
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Hold At
Present
Position
Menu
Selection
Location of Hold
Hold Entry Course
Course Direction
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
(INBOUND or OUTBOUND)
Leg Length Mode Button
(TIME or DIST))
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
AFCS
(RIGHT or LEFT)
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Map of Hold Location
INDEX
Expect Further Clearance Time
Activate Hold
Figure 5-91 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at the Aircraft Present Position
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Waypoint
Selected
EIS
Hold Entry Course
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Location of Hold
Course Direction
(INBOUND or OUTBOUND)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Leg Length
(Time in nm or
Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(RIGHT or LEFT)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Leg Length Mode Button
(TIME or DIST))
AFCS
Map of Hold Location
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Expect Further
Clearance Time
APPENDICES
Load Hold and
Activate Direct To
Hold At Direct To Waypoint selection
Figure 5-92 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at a Direct To Waypoint
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.7 VERTICAL NAVIGATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The system supports vertical path guidance and altitude constraints for the following leg types: AF,
CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FC, FD, PI, RF, and TF. Altitude constraints are not retained in stored flight plans.
EIS
The G950 system Vertical Navigation (VNV) feature provides vertical profile guidance during the enroute and
terminal phases of flight. Guidance based on specified altitudes at waypoints in the active flight plan or to a
direct-to waypoint is provided. It includes vertical path guidance to a descending path, which is provided as a
linear deviation from the desired path. The desired path is defined by a line joining two waypoints with specified
altitudes or as a vertical angle from a specified waypoint/altitude. The vertical waypoints are integrated into the
active flight plan.
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Enabled (valid data)
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Disabled (fields dashed)
ENBL VNV Softkey
CNCL VNV Softkey
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-93 Enabling/Disabling Vertical Navigation
Enabling VNV guidance:
APPENDICES
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the ENBL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Enable VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is enabled, and vertical guidance begins with the waypoint shown in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box
(defaults first waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude enabled for vertical navigation (e.g., HABUK)).
Disabling VNV guidance:
INDEX
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the CNCL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Cancel VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is disabled.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ), and time
to top of descent/bottom of descent (TIME TO TOD/BOD) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI)
and Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) on the PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ, and TIME TO
TOD items displayed in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box are dashed. VNV remains disabled until manually
enabled. Vertical guidance in reversionary mode can only be enabled for a direct-to waypoint.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
EIS
The G950 allows a vertical navigation direct-to to any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV Direct-to Softkey on the Active Flight Plan Page
allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV direct-to
waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan from current
position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with
altitude constraint activated by pressing the Direct-to Key also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass
flight plan waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent
(TOD) point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached.
Current Vertical Navigation Profile
Prior to VNV Direct-to
After VNV Direct-to
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
VNV PROF Softkey
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
VNV Direct-To Softkey
Figure 5-94 Vertical Navigation Direct-To
Activating a vertical navigation direct-to:
APPENDICES
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint.
NOTE: The selected waypoint must have a designated altitude constraint (cyan number) to be used. If not,
the first waypoint in the flight plan with a designated altitude constraint is selected.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
3) Press the VNV Direct-To Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘VNV Direct-To’, and press the ENT Key.
An ‘Activate vertical Direct-to to: NNNNNFT at XXXXXX?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. Vertical guidance begins to the altitude constraint for the selected waypoint.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The vertical navigation profile can be modified by directly entering a vertical speed target (VS TGT) and/or flight
path angle (FPA) in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box.
Modifying the VS TGT and FPA:
EIS
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the VNV PROF Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select VNV Profile Window’, and press the ENT
Key. The cursor is now located in the CURRENT VNV PROFILE box.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Turn the FMS Knobs as needed to edit the values.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ALTITUDE CONSTRAINTS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The G950 system can use altitude constraints associated with lateral waypoints to give guidance for vertical
navigation. These altitudes are, depending on the specific instance, manually entered or retrieved from the
published altitudes in the navigation database. The navigation database only contains altitudes for procedures
that call for “Cross at” altitudes. If the procedure states “Expect to cross at,” then the altitude is not in the
database. In this case the altitude may be entered manually.
Displayed Text
Examples
Cross AT
or ABOVE
5,000 ft
Large White Text
Large Cyan Text
AFCS
Cross AT
2,300 ft
Small Cyan Text
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Cross AT
or BELOW
3,000 ft
Small Cyan Subdued
Text
APPENDICES
Altitude Constraint
Examples
Small White Text with
Altitude Restriction Bar
INDEX
Figure 5-95 Waypoint Altitude Constraints
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Small
Text
Altitude is designated for use in giving
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude has been retrieved from the
navigation database or has been entered
manually and matches a published
altitude in the navigation database.
The system cannot use this
altitude in determining vertical
speed and deviation guidance
because of an invalid constraint
condition.
Altitude is not designated to be used in
determining vertical speed and deviation
guidance. Altitude has been retrieved
from the navigation database and is
provided as a reference.
EIS
Cyan Subdued Text
The system cannot use this
altitude in determining vertical
speed and deviation guidance
because of an invalid constraint
condition.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Cyan Text
Altitude has been entered manually.
Altitude is designated for use in giving
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Altitude does not match the published
altitude in navigation database or no
published altitude exists.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
White Text
Large Altitude calculated by the system
Text estimating the altitude of the aircraft as
it passes over the navigation point. This
altitude is provided as a reference and is
not designated to be used in determining
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Table 5-8 Altitude Constraint Size and Color Coding
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Altitudes associated with approach procedures are “auto-designated”. This means the system automatically
uses the altitudes loaded with the arrival or approach for giving vertical speed and deviation guidance. Note
that these altitudes are displayed as cyan text up to, but not including, the FAF. The FAF is always a “reference
only” altitude and cannot be designated, unless the selected approach does not provide vertical guidance. In
this case, the FAF altitude can be designated.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Altitudes that are not designated for use in vertical guidance can be “designated” using the ENT Key. The
altitude is now displayed as cyan text and is used to give vertical guidance. Other displayed altitudes may
change due to re-calculations or be rendered invalid as a result of manually changing an altitude to a designated
altitude.
Altitudes that have been designated for use in vertical guidance can be “un-designated” using the CLR Key.
The altitude is now displayed only as a reference. It is not used to give vertical guidance. Other displayed
altitudes may change due to re-calculations or be rendered invalid as a result of manually changing an altitude
to a non-designated altitude.
AFCS
Designating an altitude from the navigation database to be used for vertical guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude.
3) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical guidance.
Designating an altitude not from the navigation database value to be used for vertical guidance:
APPENDICES
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter editing mode.
4) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical guidance.
INDEX
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Altitude constraints are displayed and entered in feet mean sea level (MSL) values to the nearest hundred. An
altitude constraint in feet above ground level (AGL) format is supported for airports. When a database altitude
restriction is displayed, the G950 allows entry of a different altitude when creating a waypoint, effectively
overriding the database restriction (only before the FAF). When a database altitude restriction of type “AT or
ABOVE” or “AT or BELOW” is activated, the system uses the “AT” portion of the restriction to define the vertical
profile.
An altitude constraint is invalid if:
• Meeting the constraint requires the aircraft to climb
EIS
• Meeting the constraint requires the maximum flight path angle or maximum vertical speed to be exceeded
• The altitude constraint results in a TOD behind the aircraft present position
• The constraint is within a leg type for which altitude constraints are not supported
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• The altitude constraint is added to the FAF of an approach that provides vertical guidance (i.e., ILS or GPS
SBAS approach)
• The altitude constraint is added to a waypoint past the FAF.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Entering/modifying an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Enter an altitude constraint value using the FMS Knobs. To enter altitudes as a flight level, turn the small
FMS Knob counter-clockwise past zero or clockwise past 9 on the first character, and the system automatically
changes to show units of Flight Level. Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight the first zero and enter
the three digit flight level.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport, an additional choice
is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Altitude constraints can be modified or deleted after having been added to the flight plan. In the event
an altitude constraint is deleted and the navigation database contains an altitude restriction for the lateral
waypoint, the G950 displays the altitude restriction from the database provided no predicted altitude can
be provided. The G950 also provides a way to reinstate a published altitude constraint that has been edited.
Deleting an altitude constraint provided by the navigation database:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
APPENDICES
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove VNV altitude constraint?’ confirmation window is displayed.
INDEX
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Deleting an altitude constraint that has been manually entered:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘REMOVE’ and press the ENT Key. The manually entered altitude is deleted (it is replaced by a system
calculated altitude, if available).
Reverting a manually entered altitude constraint back to the navigation database value:
EIS
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘REVERT’ and press the ENT Key. The altitude is changed to the navigation database value.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Modifying a system calculated altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the CLR Key. An ‘Edit or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘EDIT’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Edit the value using the FMS Knobs, and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.8 PROCEDURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 can access the whole range of instrument procedures available. Departures (DPs), arrivals (STARs),
and non-precision and precision approaches (APPRs) are stored within the database and can be loaded using the
Procedures (PROC) Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The selected procedure for the departure or arrival airport is added to the active flight plan. No waypoints are
required to be in the active flight plan to load procedures; however, if the departure and arrival airport are already
loaded, the procedure loading window defaults to the appropriate airport, saving some time selecting the correct
airport on the Procedure Loading Page. Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “load” or “activate”
is given. “Loading” adds the approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation
guidance. This allows continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps
the procedure available on the Active Flight Plan Page for quick activation when needed. “Activating” also adds
the procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in
the approach.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The system adds terminal procedures to the flight plan based on leg types coded within that procedure in the
navigation database. If the terminal procedure in the flight plan contains an identifier like ‘6368ft’, that indicates
a leg that terminates when the specified altitude (6368 feet) has been exceeded. A heading leg in the flight plan
displays ‘hdg’ preceding the DTK (e.g. ‘hdg 008°’). A flight plan leg requiring the pilot to manually initiate
sequencing to the next leg displays ‘MANSEQ’ as the identifier.
Heading Leg Terminating at the
Specified Altitude
AFCS
Manually Sequenced Heading Leg
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-96 Procedure Leg Identifiers
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DEPARTURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can be
loaded at a time in a flight plan. If a departure is loaded when another departure is already in the active flight
plan, the new departure replaces the previous departure. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
LOADING A DEPARTURE INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading a departure into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
EIS
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT DEPARTURE’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Departure Loading Page is displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select a departure from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure.
Departure Airport
Available Procedure Actions
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Loaded Procedures
Departure Preview
Departure Choices
APPENDICES
Figure 5-97 Departure Selection
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Loaded Departure
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected Departure
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-98 Departure Loading
Viewing available departures at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the DP Softkey. The Departure Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on the map.
AFCS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The cursor
moves to the Runway box. The departure is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The departure is previewed on the map.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The departure is previewed on the map.
INDEX
APPENDICES
7) Select the INFO-1 Softkey or the INFO-2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Loading a departure into the active flight plan from the Departure Information Page:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), select the DP Softkey. The Departure Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Select a different departure, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on the map.
EIS
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The
cursor moves to the Runway box. The departure is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The departure is previewed on the map.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the Sequence box. The departure is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the Departure Information Page Menu.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Departure’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure into the active flight plan.
REMOVING A DEPARTURE FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, departures can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Removing a departure procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Departure’.
AFCS
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the departure header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
APPENDICES
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
ARRIVALS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available. Only one arrival
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an arrival is loaded when another arrival is already in the active
flight plan, the new arrival replaces the previous arrival. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
LOADING AN ARRIVAL INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
EIS
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT ARRIVAL’.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the ENT Key. The Arrival Loading Page is displayed.
7) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted.
5) Select an arrival from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure.
Destination Airport
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Available Procedure Actions
APPENDICES
Loaded Procedures
Arrival Preview
Arrival Choices
INDEX
Figure 5-99 Arrival Selection
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selected Arrival
Loaded Arrival
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-100 Arrival Loading
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Viewing available arrivals at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the STAR Softkey. The Arrival Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport Information Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Arrival. The arrival is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor moves
to the Transition box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
AFCS
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Runway box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
7) Select the INFO-1 Softkey or the INFO-2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan from the Arrival Information Page:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), select the STAR Softkey. The Arrival Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
3) Select a different arrival, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the arrival. The arrival is previewed on the map.
EIS
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor
moves to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The arrival is previewed on the map.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the Runway box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the Arrival Information Page Menu.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Arrival’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure into the active flight plan.
REMOVING AN ARRIVAL FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When plans change while flying IFR, arrivals can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing an arrival from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Arrival’.
AFCS
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the arrival header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
APPENDICES
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
INDEX
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPROACHES
NOTE: If certain GPS parameters (SBAS, RAIM, etc.) are not available, some published approach procedures
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
for the desired airport may not be displayed in the list of available approaches.
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available, and provides guidance
for non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach procedures.
Only one approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an approach is loaded when another approach
is already in the active flight plan, the new approach replaces the previous approach. The route is defined by
selection of an approach and the transition waypoints.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “load” or “activate” is given. “Loading” adds the
approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This allows
continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps the procedure
available on the Active Flight Plan Page for quick activation when needed. “Activating” also adds the procedure
to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in the approach.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When selecting an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure name indicates the procedure
can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures do not have this designation, meaning the GPS
receiver can be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. If the GPS receiver cannot be used for
primary guidance, the appropriate navigation receiver must be used for the selected approach (e.g., VOR or
ILS). The final course segment of ILS approaches, for example, must be flown by tuning the NAV receiver to
the proper frequency and selecting that NAV receiver on the CDI.
Example on HSI
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Approach Service Level
- LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV
INDEX
HSI Annunciation
Description
LNAV
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV
minima
LNAV+V
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV
minima. Advisory vertical guidance is provided
L/VNAV
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV/
(available only if VNAV minima (downgrades to LNAV if SBAS
SBAS available) unavailable)
LP
RNAV GPS approach using published LP minima
(available only if (downgrades to LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
SBAS available)
LP+V
RNAV GPS approach using published LP minima
(available only if Advisory vertical guidance is provided
SBAS available) (downgrades to LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
LPV
RNAV GPS approach using published LPV
(available only if minima
SBAS available)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The G1000 SBAS GPS allows for flying LNAV, LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LP+V and LPV approach service
levels according to the published chart. The ‘+V’ designation adds advisory vertical guidance for assistance in
maintaining a constant vertical glidepath similar to an ILS glideslope on approach. This guidance is displayed
on the system PFD in the same location as the ILS glideslope using a magenta diamond. The active approach
service level is annunciated on the HSI as shown in the following table:
Table 5-9 Approach Types
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
LOADING AN APPROACH INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading an approach into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘SELECT APPROACH’, and press the ENT Key. The Approach Loading Page is displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
EIS
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the APPROACH CHANNEL field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
4) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Minimums
a) To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘RAD ALT’, or ‘TEMP COMP’, and press the
ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
AFCS
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘LOAD?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
NOTE: When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV
receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Available Procedure Actions
Destination Airport
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Approach Preview
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Loaded Procedures
Approach Choices
Figure 5-101 Approach Selection
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Approach
Loaded Approach
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
LOAD or ACTIVATE? Annunciation
Figure 5-102 Approach Loading
APPENDICES
Viewing available approaches at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the APR Softkey. The Approach
Information Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
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INDEX
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
245
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Approach. The approach is previewed on
the map.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Minimums box. The approach is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available approaches. Press the ENT Key to select the approach. The
cursor moves to the Transition box. The approach is previewed on the map.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select minimums on or off. Press the ENT Key.
EIS
a) When minimums are selected on, the cursor moves to the minimum altitude field . Use the small FMS Knob
to select the altitude. Press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
b) If temperature compensated minimums was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Use the
small FMS Knob to select the temperature. Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the Sequence box. The
approach is previewed on the map.
Or:
When minimums are selected off, the cursor moves to the Sequence box. The approach is previewed on the
map.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7) Press the INFO-1 or the INFO-2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
Loading an approach into the active flight plan from the Nearest Airport Page:
1) Select the Nearest Airports Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired nearest airport. The airport is
previewed on the map.
3) Press the APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Approach Window’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired approach.
AFCS
5) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Load Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The
Approach Loading Page is displayed with the transitions field highlighted.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired transition, and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7) Minimums
a) To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’, and press the ENT Key.
Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key. The ‘LOAD?’ field is highlighted.
INDEX
8) Press the ENT Key with ‘LOAD?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure. The system continues
navigating the current flight plan until the approach is activated. When GPS is not approved for the selected
final approach course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the
approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ACTIVATING AN APPROACH
A previously loaded approach can be activated from the Procedures Window.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Activating a previously loaded approach:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed with ‘Activate Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
EIS
In many cases, it may be easiest to “load” the full approach while still some distance away, enroute to the
destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, use the steps above to select ‘Activate Vector-To-Final’ — which
makes the inbound course to the FAF waypoint active.
Activating a previously loaded approach with vectors to final:
1) Press the PROC Key to display the Procedures Window.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Highlight ‘ACTIVATE VECTOR-TO-FINAL’ and press the ENT Key.
Loading and activating an approach using the MENU Key:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) From the Approach Loading Page, press the MENU Key. The page menu is displayed with ‘Load & Activate
Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT
APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to
a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
REMOVING AN APPROACH FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, approaches can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing an approach from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
AFCS
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the approach header in the active flight plan.
APPENDICES
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
INDEX
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
MISSED APPROACH
Activating a missed approach in the active flight plan:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘ACTIVATE MISSED APPROACH’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The aircraft automatically sequences to the MAHP.
Or:
EIS
Press the Go-Around Button.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6368ft’) is
not part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along
the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded.
This altitude is provided by the navigation database, and may be below, equal to, or above the published
minimums for this approach. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,368 feet)
after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of
6,368 feet is reached. After reaching 6,368 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case
MOGAL). If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established
to the published fix (MOGAL) to begin the missed approach procedure..
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Course to Altitude Leg
Figure 5-103 Course to Altitude
INDEX
APPENDICES
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed Approach
Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if the
aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to Altitude leg
when the missed approach procedure is activated.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED ALTITUDE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If desired, the system can compensate the loaded approach altitudes based on a pilot-supplied temperature
at the destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C, the system increases
the approach altitudes accordingly. A temperature compensated altitude is displayed in slanted text.
Activating temperature compensated altitude:
1) From the Active Flight Plan Page, press the MENU Key. The Page Menu is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key. The TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION Window is displayed.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select the temperature at the <airport>. The compensated altitude is computed as
the temperature is selected.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered in the TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION Window
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
on the MFD, or in the REFERENCES Window on the PFD. There is only one compensation temperature for
the system, therefore, changing the temperature will affect both the loaded approach altitudes and the
minimums. Refer to the Flight Instruments section for information about applying temperature compensation
to the MDA/DH.
5) Press the ENT Key. ‘ACTIVATE COMPENSATION?’ is highlighted.
6) Press the ENT Key. The compensated altitudes for the approach are shown in the flight plan.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Selected
Temperature
FAF Altitude
Compensated
Altitude
Temperature
Compensation
Selected
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-104 Temperature Compensation
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
ACTIVATE
COMPENSATION?
Highlighted
CANCEL
COMPENSATION?
Highlighted
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Figure 5-105 Activating/Cancelling Temperature Compensation
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Compensated
Altitudes
Uncompensated
Altitudes
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-106 Temperature Compensation in the Active Flight Plan
Cancelling temperature compensated altitude:
1) From the Active Flight Plan Page, press the MENU Key. The Page Menu is displayed.
AFCS
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION Window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘CANCEL COMPENSATION?’ is highlighted.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Press the ENT Key. The temperature compensated altitude at the FAF is cancelled.
NOTE: Activating/cancelling temperature compensation for the loaded approach altitudes does not select/
INDEX
APPENDICES
deselect temperature compensated minimums (MDA/DH), nor does selecting/deselecting temperature
compensated minimums activate/cancel temperature compensated approach altitudes.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5.9 TRIP PLANNING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 allows the pilot to view trip planning information, fuel information, and other information for a
specified flight plan or flight plan leg based on automatic data, or based on manually entered data. Weight
planning is also available, based on fuel data and the active flight plan (to estimate remaining fuel).
TRIP PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the statistics is done on the Trip Planning Page
located in the AUX Page Group.
EIS
Selected Flight Plan Segment
- FPL Number/Cumulative Legs (CUM or REM) or Leg Number (NN)
- Waypoints Defining Selected Flight Plan/Flight Plan Leg
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Trip Planning Page Mode
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan/
Flight Plan Leg
- Automatic/Manual
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Trip Input Data (sensor/pilot)
Trip Statistics
Desired Track Distance Est. Time Enroute Est. Time of Arrival Enroute Safe Altitude Sunrise Time (local) Sunset Time (local) -
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Departure Time (local)
- Ground Speed
- Fuel Flow
- Fuel On Board Aircraft
- Calibrated Airspeed
- Indicated Altitude
- Barometric Pressure
- Total Air Temperature
Other Statistics
- Density Altitude
- True Airspeed (TAS)
Fuel Statistics
AFCS
Efficiency Total Endurance Remaining Fuel Remaining Endurance Fuel Required Total Range -
Softkeys
- Automatic/Manual Page Mode
- Flight Plan/Waypoint Mode
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-107 Trip Planning Page
The trip planning inputs are based on sensor inputs (automatic page mode) or on pilot inputs (manual page
mode). Some additional explanation of the sources for some of the inputs is as follows:
APPENDICES
• Departure time (DEP TIME) - This defaults to the current time in automatic page mode. The computations
are from the aircraft present position, so the aircraft is always just departing.
• Calibrated airspeed (CALIBRATED AS) - The primary source is from the air data system, and the secondary
source of information is GPS ground speed.
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INDEX
• Indicated altitude (IND ALTITUDE) - The primary source is the barometric altitude, and the secondary source
of information is GPS altitude.
251
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRIP STATISTICS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and the entire flight plan (CUM) selected,
the waypoints are the starting and ending waypoints of the selected flight plan.
The trip statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
waypoints are the endpoints of the selected leg.
EIS
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and the remaining flight plan (REM)
selected, the ‘from’ waypoint is the present position of the aircraft and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the
active flight plan.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
‘from’ waypoint is the current aircraft position and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the selected leg.
In waypoint (WPTS) mode these are manually selected waypoints (if there is an active flight plan, these
default to the endpoints of the active leg).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has already
been flown.
• Desired Track (DTK) - DTK is shown as nnn° and is the desired track between the selected waypoints.
It is dashed unless only a single leg is selected.
• Distance (DIS) - The distance is shown in tenths of units up to 99.9, and in whole units up to 9999.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Estimated time enroute (ETE) - ETE is shown as hours:minutes until less than an hour, then it is shown
as minutes:seconds.
• Estimated time of arrival (ETA) - ETA is shown as hours:minutes and is the local time at the
destination.
AFCS
- If a flight plan other than the active flight plan is selected it shows the ETA by adding to the departure
time all of the ETEs of the legs up to the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA
is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- If in waypoint mode then the ETA is the ETE added to the departure time.
- If the active flight plan is selected the ETA reflects the current position of the aircraft and the current leg
being flown. The ETA is calculated by adding to the current time the ETEs of the current leg up to the
selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg of the flight
plan was selected.
APPENDICES
• Enroute safe altitude (ESA) - The ESA is shown as nnnnnFT
INDEX
• Destination sunrise and sunset times (SUNRISE, SUNSET) - These times are shown as hours:minutes
and are the local time at the destination.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FUEL STATISTICS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The fuel statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs. Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has
already been flown.
• Fuel efficiency (EFFICIENCY) - This value is calculated by dividing the current ground speed by the
current fuel flow.
• Time of fuel endurance (TOTAL ENDUR) - This time is shown as hours:minutes. This value is obtained
by dividing the amount of fuel on board by the current fuel flow.
EIS
• Fuel on board upon reaching end of selected leg (REM FUEL) - This value is calculated by taking the
amount of fuel onboard and subtracting the fuel required to reach the end of the selected leg.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Fuel endurance remaining at end of selected leg (REM ENDUR) - This value is calculated by taking the time
of fuel endurance and subtracting the estimated time enroute to the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel required for trip (FUEL REQ) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time to go by the fuel flow.
• Total range at entered fuel flow (TOTAL RANGE) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time of fuel
endurance by the ground speed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
OTHER STATISTICS
These statistics are calculated based on the system sensor inputs or the manual trip planning inputs.
• Density altitude (DENSITY ALT)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• True airspeed (TRUE AIRSPEED)
The pilot may select automatic (AUTO) or manual (MANUAL) page mode, and flight plan (FPL) or waypoint
(WPTS) mode. In automatic page mode, only the FPL, LEG, or waypoint IDs are editable (based on FPL/WPTS
selection).
Selected Flight Plan NN -
Selected Leg(s)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Starting and Ending Waypoint of
Selected Flight Plan Segment
Stored Flight Plan
- CUM: Beginning to End of FPL
- NN: Beginning to End of Selected Leg
Active Flight Plan
- REM: Pres. Pos. to End of FPL
- NN: Pres. Pos. to End of Selected Leg
AFCS
00 is Active FPL
01-99 are Stored FPLs
Figure 5-108 Trip Planning Page - Flight Plan Mode
Selected Flight Plan
APPENDICES
Selected Leg(s)
Not Available
Not Available
Selected Starting and Ending Waypoints
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INDEX
Figure 5-109 Trip Planning Page - Waypoint Mode
253
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting automatic or manual page mode:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Selecting flight plan or waypoint mode:
Press the AUTO Softkey or the MANUAL Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Auto Mode’ or ‘Manual
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Press the FPL Softkey or the WPTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Flight Plan Mode’ or ‘Waypoints
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting a flight plan and leg for trip statistics:
EIS
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the flight plan number field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired flight plan number.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CUM’ or ‘REM’. The statistics for each leg can be viewed by turning the
small FMS Knob to select the desired leg. The Inset Map also displays the selected data.
Selecting waypoints for waypoint mode:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the WPTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the ENT Key. The
cursor is positioned in the waypoint field directly below the FPL field.
2) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint (or select from the Page Menu ‘Set WPT to Present Position’
if that is what is desired), and press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the second waypoint field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint, and press the ENT Key. The statistics for the selected leg
are displayed.
In manual page mode, the other eight trip input data fields must be entered by the pilot, in addition to flight
plan and leg selection.
Entering manual data for trip statistics calculations:
AFCS
1) Press the MANUAL Softkey or select ‘Manual Mode’ from the Page Menu, and press the ENT Key. The cursor
may now be positioned in any field in the top right two boxes.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to move the cursor onto the DEP TIME field and enter the desired value. Press the ENT Key.
The statistics are calculated using the new value and the cursor moves to the next entry field. Repeat until all
desired values have been entered.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
WEIGHT PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the data is done on the Weight and Fuel
Planning Page located in the AUX Page Group.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: All weight and fuel planning page data fields display data rounded to the nearest 10 pounds or 5
kilograms.
Fuel Weight Calculator
A/C Payload Calculator
FOB SYNC Softkey
(resets fuel on board to measured
value)
Empty Weight Softkey
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Reset Fuel Used Softkey
(selects Basic Empty Weight)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Fuel Remaining Fuel Used from Sync or FOB Entry Range Total Fuel Used since Reset Time to Destination Fuel Remaining over Destination Endurance Time -
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Fuel Calculations
EIS
- Zero Fuel Weight Calculation
- Fuel on Board Entry (or sync)
- Aircraft Weight Calculation
- Estimated Landing Weight Calculation
- Estimated Landing Fuel Calculation
- Fuel Reserve Entry
- Excess Fuel Calculation
Basic Empty Weight Entry Pilot and Stores Weight Entry Basic Operating Weight Calculation Passenger(s) Weight Entry Cargo Weight Entry Zero Fuel Weight Calculation -
(resets total fuel used to zero)
Figure 5-110 Weight and Fuel Planning Page
Entering basic empty weight:
AFCS
1) Press the EMPTY WT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Basic Empty Weight’, and press the ENT
Key to select the ‘BASIC EMPTY WEIGHT’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the basic empty weight.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering a pilot and stores weight:
APPENDICES
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘PILOT AND STORES’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the pilot and stores weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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INDEX
The basic operating weight is calculated by adding the basic empty weight and the pilot and stores weight.
255
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Entering the number of passengers:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘PASSENGERS #’ field.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the number of passengers.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering the average passenger weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the passenger weight field.
EIS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the average passenger weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The total weight of passengers is calculated by multiplying the number of passengers by the average passenger
weight.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Entering the cargo weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘CARGO’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the cargo weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The ‘ZERO FUEL WEIGHT’ is calculated by adding the basic empty, pilot and stores, passenger, and cargo
weights.
Entering a fuel on board weight:
AFCS
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘FUEL ON BOARD’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel on board.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering fuel reserve:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘FUEL RESERVES’ field.
APPENDICES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel reserves amount.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor
Synchronizing the fuel on board with the actual measured fuel on board:
INDEX
Press the FOB SYNC Softkey; or press the MENU Softkey, highlight ‘Synchronize Fuel on Board’, and press the
ENT Key. The actual measured fuel on board is displayed in the ‘FUEL ON BOARD’ field.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When the aircraft is in the air and a destination waypoint has been entered, the fuel calculations can be
completed.
• Estimated landing weight = zero fuel weight + estimated landing fuel weight.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Estimated landing fuel weight = fuel on board weight - (fuel flow x ETE)
• Excess fuel weight = estimated landing fuel weight - fuel reserves weight
If the aircraft is on the ground or a destination waypoint has not been entered, the following fields display
invalid values consisting of six dashes:
• Estimated landing weight
EIS
• Estimated landing fuel weight
• Excess fuel weight
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
WEIGHT CAUTION AND WARNING CONDITIONS
If the zero fuel weight is greater than the maximum allowable zero fuel weight, then the zero fuel weight is
displayed in amber.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If the aircraft weight is greater than the maximum allowable takeoff weight, then the aircraft weight is displayed
in amber.
If the estimated landing weight is greater than the maximum allowable landing weight, then the estimated
landing weight is displayed in amber.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If the estimated landing fuel weight is positive, but less than or equal to the fuel reserves weight, the following
values are displayed in amber:
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
If the estimated landing fuel weight is zero or negative, then the following values are displayed in red:
AFCS
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.10 RAIM PREDICTION
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to calculate
a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nm for oceanic, 2.0 nm for enroute, 1.0 nm for terminal,
and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of flight, RAIM is
available nearly 100% of the time. The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a
specified date and time. RAIM computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival
date and time. Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not
available. RAIM prediction must be initiated manually if there is concern over SBAS coverage at the destination
or some other reason that compromises navigation precision. If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the
final approach course, the approach does not become active. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the
missed approach procedure must be flown.
RAIM PREDICTION Box
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Prediction Waypoint
- Arrival Time
- Arrival Date
- RAIM Status
RAIM Softkey
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
Figure 5-111 RAIM Prediction
APPENDICES
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. The RAIM Prediction ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
INDEX
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window with a
waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint; or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
6) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key with ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ highlighted to begin the computation.
Predicting RAIM availability at the aircraft present position:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
EIS
2) Press the FMS Knob. The RAIM Prediction ‘WAYPOINT’ field is highlighted.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set WPT to Present Position’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key with ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ highlighted to begin the computation.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Status of the RAIM computation for the selected waypoint, time, and date is displayed at the bottom of the
RAIM PREDICTION Box as follows:
• ‘COMPUTE RAIM?’ - RAIM has not been computed.
• ‘COMPUTING AVAILABILITY’ - RAIM calculation is in progress.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• ‘RAIM AVAILABLE’ - RAIM is predicted to be available.
• ‘RAIM NOT AVAILABLE’ - RAIM is predicted to be unavailable.
The Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) provides increased navigation accuracy when available. SBAS
can be enabled or disabled manually on the GPS Status Page.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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259
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SBAS Status
SBAS SELECTION Box
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
- EGNOS Enable/Disable
- MSAS Enable/Disable
- WAAS Enable/Disable
RAIM Softkey
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
Figure 5-112 SBAS Display - Active
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Enabling/Disabling SBAS:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
2) Press the SBAS softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘EGNOS’, ‘MSAS’ or ‘WAAS’.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
4) Press the ENT Key to disable SBAS. Press the ENT Key again to enable SBAS.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SBAS Status
SBAS SELECTION Box
- EGNOS Enable/Disable
- MSAS Enable/Disable
- WAAS Enable/Disable
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
RAIM Softkey
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
Figure 5-113 SBAS Display - Active
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.11 NAVIGATING A FLIGHT PLAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The following discussion is an example of navigating a flight plan with the SBAS capable GPS system while the
G950 provides vertical guidance through descents. A lateral flight plan (LNAV) would be navigated in much the
same way, but would not include vertical guidance when the final approach course is active.
NOTE: The following example flight plan is for instructional purposes only. All database information depicted
should be considered not current.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Prior to departure, the TIFTO2 departure, the airways, and the DBRY1 arrival at KCOS are loaded. See the
Procedures section for loading departures and arrivals. Note the magenta arrow in Figure 5-114 indicating the
active departure leg.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
EIS
The example is a flight plan from KMKC to KCOS filed using the TIFTO2 departure, various Victor Airways,
and the DBRY1 arrival with the transition at TBE. The flight plan includes an enroute altitude of 12,000 feet, an
LPV (WAAS) approach selected for runway 35R, and a missed approach executed at the Missed Approach Point
(MAP). A few enroute changes are demonstrated.
2) Figure 5-114 shows the aircraft on the assigned heading of 240º. ‘TERM’ (Terminal) is the current CDI flight
phase displayed on the HSI indicating 1.0 nm CDI scaling.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
After takeoff, ATC assigns a heading of 240º.
INDEX
Figure 5-114 Assigned Heading of 240º
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3) ATC now assigns routing to join V4. A heading of 290º is assigned to intercept V4. The aircraft turns to heading
290° as seen in Figure 5-115.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-115 Assigned Heading of 290º
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Enter V4 into the flight plan.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
b) The desired entry point for V4 (TOP) must be entered. Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired
flight plan insertion point (SLN) as shown in Figure 5-116. When the V4 entry point (TOP) is inserted, it is
placed immediately above the highlighted waypoint (SLN).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-116 Begin Adding V4 to the Flight Plan
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. Enter the desired entry point for
V4, Topeka VOR (TOP), as shown in Figure 5-117.
INDEX
Figure 5-117 Entering V4 Entry Point
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
d) Press the ENT Key. TOP is inserted into the flight plan as in Figure 5-118.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-118 TOP Inserted into the Flight Plan
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
e) With SLN still highlighted as in Figure 5-118, turn the small FMS Knob clockwise. The Waypoint Information
Page is displayed and the LD AIRWY Softkey is now available.
f) Press the LD AIRWY Softkey to display the list of available airways for TOP as seen in Figure 5-119.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-119 List of Available Airways for TOP
APPENDICES
g) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight V4 in the list as seen in Figure 5-119.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
h) Press the ENT Key. The list of available exits for V4 is now displayed as in Figure 5-120.
i)
If necessary, turn either FMS Knob to select the desired exit. In this case Salina VOR (SLN) is selected as in
Figure 5-120.
j)
Press the ENT Key. The selected airway and exit are displayed, and the prompt “LOAD?” highlighted as in
Figure 5-121.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-120 List of Available Exits for V4
Figure 5-121 Ready to Load V4
INDEX
k) Press the ENT Key.
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OVERVIEW
l)
V4 is now loaded into the flight plan as shown in Figure 5-122.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-122 V4 is Loaded in the Flight Plan
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Making V4 the active leg of the flight plan.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight SLN. The TO waypoint of the leg is selected in order to activate the
leg.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
c) Press the ACT LEG Softkey. The confirmation window is now displayed as in Figure 5-123. Note the TOP
to SLN leg is actually part of V4.
AFCS
Figure 5-123 Comfirm Active Leg
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
d) Verify the displayed leg is the desired leg and press the ENT Key. Note in Figure 5-124, the magenta arrow
in the flight plan window and magenta line on the map indicating V4 is now the active flight plan leg. Note
the phase of flight remained in Terminal (TERM) mode up to this point because a departure leg was active.
Since a leg after the departure is now active, the current CDI flight phase is ENR (Enroute) and CDI scaling
has changed to 2.0 nm.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-124 V4 Now Active Leg
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
6) The aircraft continues on heading 290º. When crosstrack distance is less than 2.0 nm, the XTK disappears from
the HSI and the CDI is positioned on the last dot indicating a 2.0 nm distance from the centerline of the next
course.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
7) As the CDI approaches center, the aircraft turns onto the active leg as seen in Figure 5-125.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-125 Turn on to Active Leg
8) At SLN, Victor Airway 244 (V244) is intercepted. Turn prompts are displayed in the PFD Navigation Status Box
as seen in Figure 5-126.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-126 Turn to Intercept V244
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
9) As seen in Figure 5-127, V244 is now the active flight plan leg.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-127 V244 Now Active Leg
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
10) At Lamar VOR (LAA) V263 is intercepted. See Figure 5-128.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-128 HYS to LAA Leg Active
11) ATC grants clearance to proceed direct to the OPSHN intersection to begin the arrival procedure. ATC advises
to expect an altitude of 10,000 feet at OPSHN.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to select OPSHN in the flight plan list.
c) Press the Direct-to (
) Key. The Direct-to Window is now displayed as shown in Figure 5-129.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-129 Direct To OPSHN
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
d) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the VNV altitude field as shown in Figure 5-130.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-130 Enter VNV Altitude
e) An altitude of 10,000 feet is entered as requested by ATC.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
f) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the VNV offset field as shown in Figure 5-131.
APPENDICES
Figure 5-131 Enter VNV Offset Distance
INDEX
g) Enter the offset, or distance from the waypoint at which to reach the selected altitude. In this case, three
miles prior to OPSHN is entered. In other words, the G950 gives vertical guidance so the aircraft arrives at
an altitude of 10,000 feet three miles prior to OPSHN.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
h) Press the ENT Key twice to activate the direct-to. Note, in Figure 5-132, the magenta arrow indicating
the direct-to OPSHN after the offset waypoint for OPSHN. The preceding offset waypoint indicates the
offset distance and altitude that were previously entered. The remaining waypoints in the loaded arrival
procedure have no database specified altitudes, therefore, dashes are displayed. Keep the CDI centered
and maintain a track along the magenta line to OPSHN.
Note the Direct-to waypoint is within the loaded arrival procedure, therefore, phase of flight scaling for the
CDI changes to Terminal Mode and is annunciated by displaying ‘TERM’ on the HSI.
NOTE: If the loaded arrival procedure has waypoints with altitude constraints retrieved from the database
EIS
that will be used as is, the altitude must be manually accepted by placing the cursor over the desired
altitude, then pressing the ENT Key. The altitude is now displayed as cyan meaning it will be used by the
system to determine vertical speed and deviation guidance.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 5-132 Direct-to Active
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
12) The aircraft is proceeding to OPSHN. The expected approach is the RNAV LPV approach to runway 35R, so it is
selected.
a) Press the PROC Key to display the Procedures Window.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
b) ‘SELECT APPROACH’ should be highlighted as shown in Figure 5-133.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-133 Procedures Window
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
c) Press the ENT Key. A list of available approaches for the destination airport is displayed as in Figure 5-134.
Figure 5-134 List of Available Approaches
INDEX
APPENDICES
d) Turn either FMS Knob to select the LPV approach for 35R as shown in Figure 5-134.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
e) Press the ENT Key. A list of available transitions for the selected approach is displayed as in Figure 5-135.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-135 List of Available Transitions
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
f) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired transition. In this case, the Initial Approach Fix (IAF) at HABUK
is used.
g) Press the ENT Key.
h) Barometric Minimums (Figure 5-136)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, and press the ENT Key. Turn the small
FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 5-136 Barometric Minimums Set
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
With ‘LOAD?’ highlighted, again press the ENT Key. The selected approach is added to the flight plan as
seen in Figure 5-137.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
i)
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-137 Loaded Approach
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
13) Note the altitude constraints associated with each of the approach waypoints as seen in Figure 5-138. These
altitudes are loaded from the database and are displayed as cyan text, indicating these values are “designated”
for use in computing vertical deviation guidance.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired altitude.
c) Press the CLR Key.
d) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Note: To no longer use the displayed altitude for calculating vertical deviation guidance, perform the
following:
After making the altitude “non-designated”, it is displayed as white text.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Altitude constraint values associated with the Final Approach Fix (FAF) and waypoints beyond the FAF
cannot be designated for vertical guidance. These altitude values are always displayed as white text, as in
Figure 5-138. Vertical guidance from the FAF and on to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) is given using
the WAAS GPS altitude source, therefore, the displayed altitude values are for reference only.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 5-138 Vertical Guidance is Active to the FAF
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
14) As the aircraft approaches OPSHN, it may be desirable to adjust the speed, or steepness of the upcoming
descent. The default Flight Path Angle (FPA) is -3.0 degrees and a required vertical speed is computed to
maintain the -3.0 FPA. To change the vertical flight path, perform the following steps.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
a) Press the VNV PROF Softkey to place the cursor in the target vertical speed field (VS TGT) as shown in
Figure 5-139.
b) At this point, the descent vertical speed can be selected, or the FPA can be selected. Turn the large FMS
Knob to select the desired selection field, then turn the small FMS Knob to enter the desired value.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Note the information now displayed in the ‘CURRENT VNV PROFILE’ box. Also, note the offset waypoint
(orange box) and gray circle are now displayed on the map. The gray circle marks the Top of Descent (TOD).
In this example, vertical guidance is provided at the TOD that results in a -3.0 degree FPA descent to an
altitude of 10,000 feet upon reaching the offset waypoint.
Figure 5-139 Adjusting the Descent
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
c) Press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
15) As seen in Figure 5-140, the aircraft is approaching TOD. Note the target vertical speed required to reach the
selected altitude. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) and the Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) are
now displayed on the PFD as shown in Figure 5-141. When the aircraft is within one minute of the TOD, it is
annunciated as shown in Figure 5-141, and an aural alert ‘Vertical track’ will be heard.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-140 Approaching Top of Descent (TOD)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Target Altitude
AFCS
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Required Vertical
Speed Indicator
(RVSI)
APPENDICES
Figure 5-141 VDI & RVSI Upon Reaching Top of Descent (TOD)
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
16) Upon reaching TOD, a descent vertical speed is established which places the VSI pointer in line with the RVSI as
shown in Figure 5-142.
EIS
Keep Vertical Deviation
Pointer Centered
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Align Actual Vertical Speed
with
Required Vertical Speed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-142 VDI & RVSI Showing Correctly Established Descent
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
17) When the aircraft is one minute from the bottom of descent (BOD) it is annunciated as shown in Figure 5-143.
Upon reaching the offset waypoint for OPSHN, the aircraft is at 10,000 feet.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 5-143 Approaching Bottom of Descent (BOD) at OPSHN Offset Waypoint
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
18) The aircraft is approaching OPSHN. The upcoming turn and next heading are annunciated at the top left of the
PFD as seen in Figure 5-144. Initiate the turn and maneuver the aircraft on a track through the turn radius to
intercept the magenta line for the OPSHN to FSHER leg and center the CDI.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-144 Turn to intercept OPSHN to FSHER Leg
APPENDICES
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
19) After passing OPSHN, the next leg of the arrival turns magenta as shown in Figure 5-145. The magenta arrow
in the flight plan list now indicates the OPSHN to FSHER leg of the arrival procedure is now active.
Figure 5-145 Tracking the OPSHN to FSHER Leg
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
20) The flight continues through the arrival procedure to PYNON (see Figure 5-146). At a point 31 nm from the
destination airport, the phase of flight scaling for the CDI changes to Terminal Mode and is annunciated by
displaying ‘TERM’ on the HSI.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
A descent to HABUK is in the next leg. Note the TOD point on the map. Annunciations for the upcoming turn
and descent, as well as the VDI and RVSI, appear on the PFD as the flight progresses.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
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INDEX
Figure 5-146 Approaching PYNON
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
21) Upon passing PYNON the approach procedure automatically becomes active. The approach may be activated
at any point to proceed directly to the IAF. In this example, the aircraft has progressed through the final
waypoint of the arrival and the flight plan has automatically sequenced to the IAF as the active leg, activating
the approach procedure (see Figure 5-147).
Figure 5-147 Approach is Now Active
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Note: To manually activate the approach procedure, perform the following steps:
a) Press the PROC Key.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘ACTIVATE APPROACH’ as shown in Figure 5-148.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
c) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 5-148 Manually Activate Approach
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OVERVIEW
22) The IAF is the next waypoint. At the TOD, establish a descent vertical speed as previously discussed in Step 16.
The aircraft altitude is 9,000 feet upon reaching HABUK.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-149 Descending Turn to the Initial Approach Fix (IAF)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
23) After crossing FALUR the next waypoint is the FAF. The flight phase changes to LPV on the HSI indicating the
current phase of flight is in Approach Mode and the approach type is LPV. CDI scaling changes accordingly and is
used much like a localizer when flying an ILS approach. The RVSI is no longer displayed and the VDI changes to
the Glidepath Indicator (as shown in Figure 5-150) when the final approach course becomes active.
Figure 5-150 Descending to the FAF
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The descent continues through the FAF (CEGIX) using the Glidepath Indicator, as one would use a glideslope
indicator, to obtain an altitude “AT” 7,800 feet at the FAF. Note the altitude restriction lines over and under (At)
the altitude in the ‘ALT’ field in Figure 5-150.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
24) After crossing CEGIX, the aircraft continues following the glidepath to maintain the descent to “AT or ABOVE”
6,370 feet at the Missed Approach Point (MAP) (RW35R) as seen in Figure 5-151.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-151 Descending to the Missed Approach Point
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6368ft’) is not
part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along
the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded.
This altitude is provided by Jeppesen, and may be below, equal to, or above the published minimums for
this approach. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,368 feet) after crossing
the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of 6,368 feet is
reached. After reaching 6,368 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case MOGAL).
If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to the
published fix (MOGAL) to begin the missed approach procedure.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed
Approach Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’.
Again, if the aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to
Altitude leg when the missed approach procedure is activated.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
A direct-to is initiated to MOGAL, which is the Missed Approach Hold Point (MAHP) as seen in Figure
5-152. The aircraft is climbing to 10,000 feet. The CDI flight phase now changes from LPV to MAPR as
seen on the HSI.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
25) Upon reaching the MAP, it is decided to execute a missed approach. Automatic waypoint sequencing is
suspended past the MAP. Press the SUSP Softkey on the PFD to resume automatic waypoint sequencing
through the missed approach procedure.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
INDEX
Figure 5-152 Missed Approach Active
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
26) The aircraft continues climbing to “AT or ABOVE” 10,000 feet at MOGAL. A holding pattern is established at
the MAHP (MOGAL) as shown in Figure 5-153.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-153 Establishing the Holding Pattern
27) The aircraft maintains 10,000 feet while following the magenta line through the hold as in Figure 5-154.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-154 Hold Established
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.12 ABNORMAL OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The Inset Map is removed from the PFD any time aircraft pitch is greater than +30° or less than –20°,
or when a 65° bank angle is reached.
This section discusses the Dead Reckoning mode of operation and the subsequent indications.
NOTE: Dead Reckoning Mode only functions in Enroute (ENR) or Oceanic (OCN) phase of flight. In all other
EIS
phases, an invalid GPS solution produces a “NO GPS POSITION” annunciation on the map and the G950
stops using GPS.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the G950 in DR Mode may become increasingly
unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. If while in DR Mode airspeed and/or heading data
is also lost or not available, the DR function may not be capable of accurately tracking estimated position and,
consequently, the system may display a path that is different than the actual movement of the aircraft. Estimated
position information displayed by the G950 through DR while there is no heading and/or airspeed data available
should not be used for navigation.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
DR Mode is inherently less accurate than the standard GPS/SBAS Mode due to the lack of satellite measurements
needed to determine a position. Changes in wind speed and/or wind direction compound the relative inaccuracy
of DR Mode. Because of this degraded accuracy, other navigation equipment must be relied upon for position
awareness until GPS-derived position data is restored.
AFCS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
While in Enroute or Oceanic phase of flight, if the G950 detects an invalid GPS solution or is unable to calculate
a GPS position, the system automatically reverts to Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode. In DR Mode, the G950 uses
its last-known position combined with continuously updated airspeed and heading data (when available) to
calculate and display the aircraft’s current estimated position.
DR Mode is indicated on the G950 by the appearance of the letters ‘DR’ superimposed in amber over the
‘own aircraft’ symbol as shown in Figure 5-155. In addition, ‘DR’ is prominently displayed in amber on the HSI
slightly above and to the right of the aircraft symbol on the CDI as shown in Figure 5-155. The CDI deviation bar
is removed from the display. Lastly, but at the same time, a ‘GPS NAV LOST’ alert message appears on the PFD.
Normal navigation using GPS/SBAS source data resumes automatically once a valid GPS solution is restored.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
As a result of operating in DR Mode, all GPS-derived data is computed based upon an estimated position and
is displayed as amber text on the display to denote degraded navigation source information as shown in Figure
5-155.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Also, while the G950 is in DR Mode, both TAWS and Terrain Proximity are disabled. Additionally, the accuracy
of all nearest information (airports, airspaces, and waypoints) is questionable. Finally, airspace alerts continue to
function, but with degraded accuracy.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Distance &
Bearing
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Current
Track
Indicator
EIS
Dead Reckoning
Annunciaion
Ground Speed
Wind Data
GPS Navigation
Lost Message
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Bearing
Pointer/
Distance
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Nav Data Bar
All data except
Active Leg,
TAS, and DTK
are in amber
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
AFCS
Subdued Aircraft
Symbol
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-155 Dead Reckoning Mode - GPS Derived Data Shown in Amber
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INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Hazard avoidance features available for the G950 are designed to aid situational awareness and provide advisory
information with regard to potential hazards to flight safety associated with weather, terrain, and air traffic.
Weather
• GDL 69A/69A or 69/69A SXM SiriusXM Weather (Optional)
• GWX 68/70 Airborne Color Weather Radar (Optional)
• L-3 STORMSCOPE® WX-500 Series II Weather Mapping Sensor (Optional)
EIS
Terrain Avoidance
• Terrain Proximity
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Terrain-SVS (Included with SVS Option)
• Terrain Awareness and Warning System Class-B (TAWS-B) (Optional)
Traffic
• Traffic Information Service (TIS)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Garmin GTS 800/820/825 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) (Optional)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 SIRIUSXM WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
EIS
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The optional GDL 69/69A or GDL69/69A SXM is a remote-mounted data link satellite receiver. Differences
in the receiver models, where applicable, are discussed throughout this section; refer to appropriate aircraft
documentation to determine the receiver model installed in this aircraft. Received graphical weather information
and associated text is displayed on the Multi Function Display (MFD) and the Primary Flight Display (PFD)
Inset Map. The GDL 69A and GDL 69A SXM can also receive SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment services.
Both weather data and audio entertainment programming operate in the S-band frequency range to provide
continuous reception capabilities at any altitude throughout North America.
Services from SiriusXM are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit www.
siriusxm.com.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ACTIVATING SERVICES
Before SiriusXM Weather and SiriusXM Satellite Radio can be used, the services must be activated. Services
are activated by providing coded IDs unique to the installed receiver. SiriusXM Satellite Radio (audio) and
SiriusXM Weather (data) services each have coded IDs. The Data and Audio Radio IDs must be provided to
activate the weather service and entertainment subscriptions, respectively. These IDs are located on:
AFCS
• The label on the back of the GDL 69/69A or GDL 69/69A SXM Data Link Receiver
• The XM Information Page on the MFD (Figure 6-1)
• The SiriusXM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Contact the installer if the Audio and Data Radio IDs cannot be located.
SiriusXM uses the coded IDs to send an activation signal that allows the system to receive weather data and/
or entertainment programming provided through the receiver.
Establishing an account for SiriusXM services:
APPENDICES
1) Select the XM Page in the AUX Page Group.
2) Select the INFO Softkey to display the AUX - XM Information Page.
3) Note the Data Radio ID (for SiriusXM Weather) and the Audio Radio ID (for SiriusXM Satellite Radio).
4) Contact SiriusXM Customer Service using the phone number listed on its website, www.siriusxm.com.
INDEX
5) Provide SiriusXM Customer Service the Audio and/or Data Radio IDs, payment information, and the desired
weather product subscription package.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Activating the SiriusXM Weather service:
1) Once a SiriusXM Weather account has been established, select the XM Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Select the INFO Softkey to display the XM Information Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) View the list of supported Weather Products. A white empty box appears next to an unavailable weather
product; a green filled box appears next to an available weather product. During activation, it may take several
minutes for supported weather products in the selected subscription Service Class to become available.
4) When the available weather products displayed match the weather products offered in the selected SiriusXM
Weather product subscription Service Class, select the LOCK Softkey.
EIS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘YES’.
6) To complete activation, press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Data Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Weather)
Audio Radio
ID (for
SiriusXM
Satellite Radio)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-1 XM Information Page
Select to Lock
Subscription
Information
AFCS
Select to Display
XM Information
page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Weather
Products
(Available
Products for
Service Class
Indicated in
Green)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
USING SIRIUSXM WEATHER PRODUCTS
The principal map for viewing SiriusXM Weather information is the Weather Data Link (XM) Page in the Map
Page Group. This is the only map display capable of showing information for all available SiriusXM Weather
products.
APPENDICES
Viewing the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT) Page. If ‘XM’ is not displayed in the
page title, proceed to the next step to change the data link weather source to SiriusXM.
INDEX
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display XM Weather’ and press the ENT Key. SiriusXM is now the
selected data link weather source.
The available softkeys and displayed data link weather information on the navigation maps correspond to the
selected data link weather source.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
NEXRAD Weather
Product Symbol
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NEXRAD Weather
Product Ages (US
& Canada)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NEXRAD Weather
Product Selected
for Display
Figure 6-2 Weather Data Link (XM) Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
For each enabled SiriusXM Weather product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, the system automatically
displays a weather product icon and product age, with the exception of TAFs and TFRs, discussed later. The
product age is the elapsed time (in minutes) since the weather data provider compiled the weather product. The
product age display does not indicate the age of the information contained within the weather product, which
can be significantly older than the displayed weather product age.
AFCS
When a SiriusXM Weather product is enabled for display on the PFD Inset Map, the weather product
information box (with the product icon and age) can be displayed inside the PFD Inset Map.
Viewing the weather product information box on the PFD Inset Map:
1) On the PFD, press the INSET Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the WX LGND Softkey.
APPENDICES
3) To remove the weather product information box, press the WX LGND Softkey again or deselect all active XM
weather products on the PFD Inset Map.
The SiriusXM Weather service broadcasts weather products at specific intervals (defined in the Broadcast
Rate column in Table 6-1). If for any reason, a product is not broadcast within the Expiration Time intervals
(see Table 6-1), the system removes the expired data from the display, and shows dashes instead of the product
age. This ensures the displayed information is consistent with what is currently being transmitted by the
SiriusXM Weather service. If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age
changes to amber. If data for a weather product is not available or has not been received, the system displays
‘N/A’ next to the weather product symbol instead of the product age.
INDEX
Table 6-1 shows the weather product symbols, the expiration times and the broadcast rates. The broadcast
rate represents the interval at which the SiriusXM Weather service transmits new signals that may or may not
contain updated weather products. It does not represent the rate at which the weather information is updated
or when the Data Link Receiver receives new data. SiriusXM and its weather data suppliers define and control
the data update intervals, which are subject to change.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Symbol
Echo Top
(ECHO TOP)
60
12
90
12
60
12
60
12
60
12
60
12
60
5
60
12
90
22
90
12
90
12
180
12
30
5
60
12
60
12
INDEX
60
APPENDICES
12
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
30
AFCS
5
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
30
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7.5
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
30
EIS
XM Lightning
(LTNG)
Cell Movement
(CELL MOV)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
City Forecast
(CITY)
Surface Analysis
(SFC)
Freezing Levels
(FRZ LVL)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
County Warnings
(COUNTY)
Cyclone Warnings
(CYCLONE)
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD)
(ICNG)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Air Report
(AIREPs)
Turbulence
(TURB)
Radar Coverage
no product image
(RADAR CVRG)
Temporary Flight Restrictions
no product image
(TFRs)
Terminal Aerodrome Reports
no product image
(TAFs)
30
Refresh Rate
(Minutes)
5 (U.S.)
10 (Canada)
15 (69/69A)
30 (69/69A SXM)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD)
Cloud Top
(CLD TOP)
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Weather Product
Table 6-1 Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
+
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
+
Flight Plan Pages
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Cell Movement (CELL MOV)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
METARs
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Winds Aloft (WIND)
AFCS
+
SiriusXM Lightning (LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
+
+
+
+
City Forecast (CITY)
+
Surface Analysis (SFC)
+
Freezing Levels (FRZ LVL)
+
+*
+
+
County Warnings (COUNTY)
+
Cyclone Warnings (CYCLONE)
+
Icing Potential (ICNG)
+
PIREPs
+
+
AIREPs
+
+
Turbulence (TURB)
+
Radar Coverage
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Nearest Page Group
+
AUX - Video Page
+
AUX - Trip Planning
Page
+
Weather Information
Page
Weather Data Link
(XM) Page
NEXRAD
Navigation Map Page
EIS
Weather Product
PFD Inset Map
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Table 6-2 shows which SiriusXM Weather products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on specific
maps.
TFRs
TAFs
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
INDEX
APPENDICES
* Winds Aloft Data displayed inside Profile View on the Navigation Map Page.
Table 6-2 Weather Product Display Maps
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Softkeys control the display of weather information on most MFD pages and the PFD Inset Map. The following
figure shows the weather product softkeys for the Weather Data Link (XM) Page. When a weather product is
selected for display, the corresponding softkey label changes to gray to indicate the product is enabled.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NEXRAD-B
Or:
NEXRAD-C ECHO TOP CLD TOP
ENGINE
CYCLONE SFC OFF
FRZ LVL
SIG/AIR
METAR
LEGEND MORE WX CHKLIST
WIND OFF ICNG OFF TURB OFF AIREPS
PIREPS
COUNTY
XM LTNG CELL MOV
BACK
EIS
SFC Softkey label changes
to reflect current selection.
WIND/ICNG/TURB Softkey labels
change to reflect current selection.
CURRENT
12 HR
24 HR
36 HR
48 HR
LEGEND
BACK
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
OFF
Select the BACK Softkey
to move up one level.
PREV and NEXT Softkeys cycle through Winds Aloft,
Icing, and Turbulence altitude selection softkeys.
6000
9000
12000
15000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
36000
39000
42000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
1000
3000
6000
9000
12000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
39000
42000
45000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
15000
36000
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3000
AFCS
SFC
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
OFF
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
PREV
Figure 6-3 Weather Data Link (XM) Page Weather Product Softkeys
APPENDICES
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link (XM) Page control the map range
settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the
weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The menus
also provide a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling display of weather products.
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-4).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘PRODUCT GROUP 1’ or ‘PRODUCT GROUP 2’, and press the ENT Key (Figure
6-5).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
EIS
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the changed settings.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-4 Weather Data Link (XM) Page Menu
Figure 6-5 Weather Data Link (XM) Page Setup Menu
Restoring default Weather Data Link (XM) Page settings:
APPENDICES
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
5) Highlight the desired option to restore defaults (for all or for selection), and press the ENT Key.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Weather displayed on Pages other than the Weather Data Link (XM) Page use settings based on those selected
for the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the Navigation Map Page:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-6).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-7).
EIS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-8).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-6 Navigation Map Page Menu
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-7 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-8 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
If multiple weather data link services are installed, customizing the display settings for the corresponding
weather products shown in Table 6-3 will result in identical settings for a comparable weather product from
another service provider.
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
Precipitation
NEXRAD and No Radar Coverage
(PRECIP) and No Radar Coverage
Cloud Top
Infrared Satellite
(CLD TOP)
(IR SAT)
Garmin Connext Data Link
SiriusXM Lightning
Lightning
(XM LTNG)
(DL LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
(PIREPs)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SiriusXM Weather Product
and Softkey
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Table 6-3 Weather Data Link Map Settings Shared for Multiple
Weather Data Link Sources
Each active SiriusXM Weather product has an associated legend which can be displayed on the Weather Data
Link (XM) Page and Navigation Map Page.
AFCS
Viewing legends for displayed weather products on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the LEGEND Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends.
APPENDICES
4) To remove the Legend Window, press the LEGEND Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products (on the Navigation Map Page):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
INDEX
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the LEGEND Softkey (available if one or more SiriusXM weather products are enabled for display).
4) To remove the Legend Window, press the LEGEND Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Additional information about the following can be displayed by panning over the display on the map:
• County Warnings
• Cell Movement
• TFRs
• SIGMETs
• PIREPs
• AIRMETs
• AIREPs
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Echo Tops
• METARs
EIS
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Additional
Information on
Weather Feature
Selected with
Map Pointer
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Echo Top Data
Selected with
Map Pointer
AFCS
Figure 6-9 Panning on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NEXRAD
NOTE: NEXRAD data cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain, echo tops, turbulence, or icing data
APPENDICES
is displayed.
INDEX
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm. In addition to a wide array of services, the NEXRAD
network provides important information about severe weather and air traffic safety.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider compiles the available
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time to indicate when
it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual images--gathered from
each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The
data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the SiriusXM Weather service, whose satellites transmit this
information during the next designated refresh time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current radar synopsis
and may not depict the current weather conditions. The NEXRAD weather product should never be used as a
basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The system displays either base or composite NEXRAD imagery, depending on the model of the installed
data link receiver.
Data Link Receiver Model
NEXRAD Reflectivity Type
Softkey Displayed
GDL 69/69A
Composite Reflectivity*
NEXRAD-C
GDL 69 SXM and GDL 69A SXM
Base Reflectivity
NEXRAD-B
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
* Radar sites based in Canada provide Base Reflectivity for all receiver models.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The base reflectivity NEXRAD weather product shows the radar returns from the perspective of a single
antenna tilt angle. The composite reflectivity NEXRAD weather product shows the highest radar energy
received from multiple antenna tilt angles. Radar sites based in Canada provide Composite Reflectivity both
models of data link receiver. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate the intensity of the
echoes and the type of precipitation.
INDEX
APPENDICES
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-10 NEXRAD Data on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Displaying NEXRAD weather information:
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the NEXRAD-B or NEXRAD-C Softkey.
For the NEXRAD legend (Figure 6-11), press the LEGEND Softkey when NEXRAD is selected for display
on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page or Navigation Map Page.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
No Radar Coverage
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-11 NEXRAD Data with Legend
The display of radar coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is selected. Areas where
NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is not being collected are
indicated in a gray shade of purple (Figure 6-11).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• NEXRAD base reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine cloud layers or precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet snow, wet
hail, and rain.
• NEXRAD base reflectivity is sampled at the minimum antenna elevation angle. An individual NEXRAD
site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information about storms directly over
the site.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
• When zoomed in to a range of 30 nm, each square block on the display represents an area of four square
kilometers. The intensity level reflected by each square represents the highest level of NEXRAD data
sampled within the area (Figure 6-12).
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Block Area is 4 km2
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-12 NEXRAD Data - Zoomed
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
APPENDICES
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
INDEX
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NEXRAD Limitations (Canada)
• Radar coverage extends to 55ºN.
• Any precipitation displayed between 52ºN and 55ºN is displayed as mixed because it is unknown.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
No Coverage Above 55ºN
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Precipitation
Above 52ºN
Displays As Mixed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-13 NEXRAD Data - Canada
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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307
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ECHO TOPS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Echo Tops data (Figure 6-14) shows the location, elevation, and direction of the highest radar echo. The
highest radar echo does not indicate the top of a storm or clouds; rather it indicates the highest altitude at
which precipitation is detected. Information is derived from NEXRAD data.
EIS
NOTE: Display of Echo Tops is mutually exclusive with Cloud Tops and NEXRAD.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-14 Echo Tops Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
AFCS
Displaying Echo Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the ECHO TOP Softkey.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To display the Echo Tops legend (Figure 6-15), press the LEGEND Softkey when Echo Tops is selected for
display. Since Echo Tops and Cloud Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Echo Tops is activated, NEXRAD and Cloud Tops data are
removed.
INDEX
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-15 Echo Tops Legend
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The display of radar coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is selected. Areas where
NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is not being collected are
indicated in gray shade of purple (Figure 6-15).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
CLOUD TOPS
NOTE: Cloud Tops and Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time.
The Cloud Tops weather product (Figure 6-16) depicts cloud top altitudes as determined from satellite
imagery.
EIS
NOTE: If a GDL 69A SXM receiver is installed, the broadcast rate for Cloud Tops is 30 minutes. As with all
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SiriusXM Weather products, the product age becomes amber when it reaches half of the expiration time,
which is 60 minutes for Cloud Tops. Therefore, this weather product age may be amber during routine
operation.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-16 Cloud Tops Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
APPENDICES
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the CLD TOP Softkey.
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
To display the Cloud Tops legend (Figure 6-17), press the LEGEND Softkey when Cloud Tops is selected
for display. Since Cloud Tops and Echo Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Cloud Tops is activated, Echo Tops data is removed.
EIS
Figure 6-17 Cloud Tops Legend
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SIRIUSXM LIGHTNING
NOTE: The SiriusXM Lightning weather product cannot be displayed at the same time as another lightning
data link source (such as optional Stormscope) is selected for display.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The SiriusXM Lightning weather product (Figure 6-18) shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground
lightning strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. The exact
location of the lightning strike is not displayed.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Lightning
Strikes
Figure 6-18 SiriusXM Lightning Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying SiriusXM Lightning information:
INDEX
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the XM LTNG Softkey (LTNG Softkey on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page).
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
To display the XM Lightning legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page (Figure 6-19), press the LEGEND
Softkey when XM Lightning is selected for display.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 6-19 Lightning Legend
CELL MOVEMENT
EIS
Cell Movement data (Figure 6-20) shows the location and movement of storm cells as identified by the
ground-based system. Cells are represented by yellow squares, with direction of movement indicated with
short, orange arrows.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Storm Cells
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 6-20 Cell Movement Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: The Storm Cell base height is not available if a GDL 69A SXM data link receiver is installed. In this
case, the Storm Cell base height is displayed as 0 feet when the map pointer selects a storm cell.
APPENDICES
On most applicable maps, Cell Movement data is selected for display along with NEXRAD. On the Weather
Data Link (XM) Page, Cell Movement data can be selected independently.
Displaying Cell Movement information:
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
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INDEX
2) Press the NEXRAD-B or NEXRAD-C Softkey (CEL MOV Softkey on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page). For
Cell Movement to be displayed on maps other than the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, Cell Movement must be
turned on in the Navigation Map Setup Menu (see “Setting Up XM Satellite Weather”).
311
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
To display the Cell Movement legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, (Figure 6-21), press the
LEGEND Softkey when Cell Movement is selected for display.
Figure 6-21 Cell Movement Legend
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
SIGMETs (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMETs (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are broadcast for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather. A localized SIGMET is a significant weather condition occurring at a localized geographical position.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-22 SIGMET/AIRMET Data
NOTE: If a GDL 69A SXM receiver installed, the SIGMET and AIRMET weather products are not available
unless at least one SIGMET or AIRMET has been received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no
SIGMET or AIRMET is available.
APPENDICES
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map Pointer over the icon.
INDEX
4) Press the ENT key. Figure 6-23 shows sample SIGMET text.
To display the SIGMET and AIRMET legend (Figure 6-24), press the LEGEND Softkey when SIGMETs and
AIRMETs are selected for display.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 6-23 Sample SIGMET Text
EIS
Figure 6-24 SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
METARS AND TAFS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure as reported for METARs is given in hectopascals (hPa), except for in the United
States, where it is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are reported in Celsius.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service area.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or
observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical
data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the report.
METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
Instructions for
Viewing METAR
and TAF Text
AFCS
Selected Airport
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
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INDEX
Figure 6-25 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link Page
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SYSTEM
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR data is displayed first in a
decoded fashion, followed by the original next. Note the original text may contain additional information not
present in the original text. TAF information is displayed only in its original form when a TAF is available.
Displaying METAR and TAF text:
1) On the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, press the METAR Softkey.
EIS
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Press the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that the METAR text must
be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
METAR Text for the
Selected Airport
METAR Symbol
INDEX
APPENDICES
TAF Text for the
Selected Airport
Figure 6-26 METAR and TAF Text on the Weather Information Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Original METAR text is also accessible while panning the map cursor over a METAR flag on any map page
on which a METAR is displayed. The METAR text is shown in a box near the METAR flag.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In addition, METAR flags and their associated text are displayed on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
METAR flags appears next to waypoints in the flight plan with an associated METAR.
Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
EIS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint. The METAR text will appear in the ‘SELECTED
WAYPOINT WEATHER’ window below.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the Active Flight Plan
Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page (Figure 6-27), press the LEGEND
Softkey when METARs are selected for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. A gray METAR flag is displayed
when the METAR text does not contain adequate information.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-27 METAR Legend
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CITY FORECAST
NOTE: Surface Analysis and City Forecast data are displayed only within the installed navigation database
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
service area.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Surface Analysis and City Forecast information is available for current and forecast weather conditions.
Forecasts are available for intervals of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours.
Figure 6-28 Current Surface Analysis Data
AFCS
Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the SFC Softkey.
4) Select the desired forecast time: CURRENT, 12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, or 48 HR. The SFC Softkey label changes
to reflect the forecast time selected.
INDEX
APPENDICES
To display the Surface Analysis and City Forecast legend (Figure 6-29), press the LEGEND Softkey when
Surface Analysis and City Forecast are selected to be displayed.
Figure 6-29 Surface Analysis Legend
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OVERVIEW
FREEZING LEVELS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Freezing Level data shows the color-coded contour lines for the altitude and location at which the first
isotherm is found (Figure 6-30). When no data is displayed for a given altitude, the data for that altitude has
not been received, or is out of date and has been removed from the display. New data appears at the next
update.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-30 Freezing Level Data
Displaying Freezing Level information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
AFCS
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the FRZ LVL Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To display the Freezing Level legend (Figure 6-31), press the LEGEND Softkey when Freezing Level data
is selected to be displayed.
APPENDICES
Figure 6-31 Freezing Level Legend
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
WINDS ALOFT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Winds Aloft data (Figure 6-32) shows the forecasted wind speed and direction at the surface and at selected
altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3,000-foot increments from the surface up to 42,000 feet MSL.
Displaying Winds Aloft data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the WIND Softkey.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
4) Select the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Press the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The WIND Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Figure 6-32 Winds Aloft Data at 9,000 Feet
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To display the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-33), press the LEGEND Softkey when Winds Aloft is
selected for display.
Figure 6-33 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
INDEX
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Profile View on the Navigation Map Page
(Figure 6-34). The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track, but not to aircraft
speed.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Winds Aloft Data Age
Altitude Scale
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Wind Component
Velocity and Direction
Arrow
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-34 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data on
Profile View
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in Table 6-4.
Tailwind
Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind
Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Headwind
Symbol
5 knots
AFCS
10 knots
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
50 knots
Table 6-4 Profile View Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
APPENDICES
Showing/Hiding Profile View (containing winds aloft data)
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the PROFILE Softkey.
Or:
INDEX
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current
state) and press the ENT Key.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Winds Aloft data inside the Profile View is enabled by default when the Profile View is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Showing/Hiding Profile View (containing winds aloft data)
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the PROFILE Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
EIS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current
state) and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Winds Aloft data inside the Profile View is enabled by default when the Profile View is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display in Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-35).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Profile Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-36).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Profile Winds’ (Figure 6-37).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-35 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-36 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
320
Figure 6-37 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
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OVERVIEW
COUNTY WARNINGS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
County data (Figure 6-38) provides specific public awareness and protection weather warnings from the
National Weather Service (NWS). This can include information on tornadoes, severe thunderstorms, and
flood conditions.
Additional
Information on
Flood Warning
Selected with
Map Pointer
EIS
Flash Flood
Warning
Selected
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-38 County Flood Warning
Displaying County Warning information:
AFCS
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the COUNTY Softkey.
To display the County Warnings legend (Figure 6-39), press the LEGEND Softkey when County Warnings
are selected to be displayed.
APPENDICES
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INDEX
Figure 6-39 County Warnings Legend
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SYSTEM
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
CYCLONE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Cyclone weather product shows the current location of cyclones (hurricanes), tropical storms, and
their projected tracks.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Cyclone
Figure 6-40 Cyclone Data Selected for Display
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Displaying cyclone (hurricane) track information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the CYCLONE Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
To display the Cyclone legend (Figure 6-41), press the LEGEND Softkey when Cyclones are selected to be
displayed.
APPENDICES
Figure 6-41 Cyclone Legend
NOTE: If a GDL 69A SXM receiver is installed, the Cyclone weather product is not available unless at least
INDEX
one cyclone or tropical storm has been received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no cyclone
or tropical storm has been received.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ICING (CIP & SLD)
NOTE: Icing data cannot be displayed at the same time as NEXRAD data.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Current Icing Product (CIP) data (Figure 6-42) shows a graphical view of the current icing environment.
Icing severity is displayed in four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extreme (not specific to aircraft
type). The CIP product is not a forecast, but a presentation of the current conditions at the time of the
analysis.
EIS
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing conditions are characterized by the presence of relatively large,
super cooled water droplets indicative of freezing drizzle and freezing rain aloft. SLD threat areas are depicted
as magenta dots over the CIP colors.
Displaying Icing data:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the ICNG Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Select the desired altitude level: 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet. Press the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle through
the altitude softkeys. The ICNG Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Icing
Potential
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
SLD Threat
Area
Figure 6-42 Icing Data at 6,000 Feet
APPENDICES
To display the Icing Potential legend (Figure 6-43), press the LEGEND Softkey when Icing is selected for
display.
INDEX
Figure 6-43 Icing Potential Legend
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TURBULENCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Turbulence data (Figure 6-44) identifies the potential for erratic movement of high-altitude air mass
associated winds. Turbulence is classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme, at altitudes between 21,000
and 45,000 feet. Turbulence data is intended to supplement AIRMETs and SIGMETs.
NOTE: Turbulence data cannot be displayed at the same time as NEXRAD data.
Displaying Turbulence data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
EIS
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the TURB Softkey.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Select the desired altitude level: 21,000 feet up to 45,000 feet. Press the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The TURB Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-44 Turbulence Data at 21,000 Feet
APPENDICES
To display the Turbulence legend (Figure 6-45), press the LEGEND Softkey when Turbulence is selected for
display.
INDEX
Figure 6-45 Turbulence Legend
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OVERVIEW
PIREPS AND AIREPS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) (Figure 6-46) provide timely weather information for a particular route of
flight. When significant weather conditions are reported or forecast, Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities are
required to solicit PIREPs. A PIREP may contain information not found in forecasts, such as low in-flight
visibility, icing conditions, wind shear, and turbulence. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent
(UUA).
Another type of PIREP is an Air Report (AIREP). Commercial airlines typically generate AIREPs.
EIS
Instructions for
Viewing PIREP
and AIREP Text
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
PIREP
Selected
AIREP
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Urgent
PIREP
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-46 PIREPs and AIREPs on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying PIREP and AIREP text:
AFCS
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the AIREPS or PIREPS Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather report
when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with PIREP or AIREP text. The data is first displayed
in a decoded fashion, then as raw text.
APPENDICES
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP or AIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
EIS
Decoded PIREP Text
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Original PIREP Text
Figure 6-47 PIREP Text on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
AFCS
To display the PIREP or AIREP legend (Figure 6-48), press the LEGEND Softkey when PIREPs or AIREPs are
selected for display.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-48 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
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6.2 GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
EIS
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: The availability of specific Garmin Connext weather products varies by region and is subject to change.
For weather product coverage information, refer to sites.garmin.com/connext. This Pilot’s Guide shows
all Garmin Connext weather products, regardless of product availability in a specific area or subscription
package.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The optional GSR 56 Iridium satellite transceiver provides Garmin Connext Weather reception capabilities to
the system. Graphical weather information and its associated text are displayed on the Multi Function Display
(MFD) and the Primary Flight Display (PFD) Inset Map.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The system provides weather information after the pilot initiates either a manual or automatic Connext Data
Request on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page on the MFD.
Garmin Connext weather requires an active Iridium satellite network account and a subscription to the Garmin
Connext Weather service.
REGISTERING THE IRIDIUM SATELLITE SYSTEM
AFCS
Before setting up an Iridium account, obtain the serial number of the Iridium Transceiver (GSR1) and the
System ID by selecting the AUX- SYSTEM STATUS Page as shown in Figure 6-49. Contact Garmin at 1-866739-5687 in the United States or 913-397-8200, ext. 1135 with this information.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Iridium Transceiver Serial Number
System ID Number
Figure 6-49 Identification Needed for Iridium Registration
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
REGISTERING THE SYSTEM FOR GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
When an account is established, Garmin provides an Access Code which must be entered on the system in
order to complete the registration process.
Registering the system to receive Garmin Connext Weather:
AFCS
1) With the aircraft outside and having a clear view of the sky, turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the
MAP page group.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the MAP-WEATHER DATA LINK (CNXT or XM) Page. If ‘XM’ or ‘FIS-B’ is
displayed in the page title, it will be necessary to change the data link weather source to Garmin Connext
(CNXT) before continuing. Refer to ‘Viewing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page’ procedure to change the data
link weather source to Garmin Connext prior to registration.
INDEX
APPENDICES
3) If the system displays the ‘CONNEXT REGISTRATION’ Window, proceed to step 7. Otherwise, press the MENU
Key. The Page Menu window is now displayed as seen in Figure 6-50.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Figure 6-50 Select ‘Register With Connext’
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Register With Connext’ in the menu list.
6) Press the ENT Key. The system displays the CONNEXT REGISTRATION Window as shown in Figure 6-51.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 6-51 Enter Access Code
INDEX
7) Enter the access code provided by Garmin Flight Data Services in the ACCESS CODE field.
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SYSTEM
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
8) Press the ENT Key. ‘REGISTER’ will now be highlighted as in Figure 6-51.
9) Press the ENT Key. The system contact Garmin Flight Data Services. System registration is complete when
‘REGISTERED’ is displayed in the STATUS field.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ACCESSING GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER PRODUCTS
EIS
The principal map for viewing Garmin Connext Weather information is the Weather Data Link (CNXT)
Page in the Map Page Group. This is the only map display capable of showing information for all available
Garmin Connext Weather products. The Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page also provides the capability to select
a different data link weather source (such as SiriusXM or FIS-B), if more than once source has been installed.
The system uses the selected data link weather source for all maps on which data link weather can be displayed.
Viewing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT) Page.
3) If the page title displays a weather datalink source other than ‘CNXT’, such as ‘XM’, proceed to the following
steps to change the data link weather source.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Press the MENU Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Display Connext Weather’ and press the ENT Key. The page title displays
‘MAP - WEATHER DATA LINK (CNXT)’ to indicate Garmin Connext Weather is now the selected data link weather
source.
Weather
product age
information
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Precip Weather
Product Display
Enabled icon
INDEX
Precip Weather
Product Selected
for Display
330
Figure 6-52 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
(After Connext Data Request)
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When a weather product is selected for display on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page, a box containing a
symbol for the product and its age (in minutes) are shown in the upper right (Figure 6-52). If weather data has
not been requested yet or is not available, ‘N/A’ is shown next to the product symbol instead of age. The age of
the weather product is based on the time difference between when the data was assembled on the ground and
the current GPS time. Weather products are updated continuously or refreshed at specific intervals (defined in
the Refresh Rate column in Table 6-5).
If for any reason, a weather product is not refreshed within the defined Expiration Time intervals (see Table
6-5), the data is considered expired and is removed from the display. The age of the expired product is replaced
by dashes. If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age changes to yellow.
EIS
Table 6-5 shows the Garmin Connext Weather product symbols, expiration times, and the refresh rates.
The refresh rate represents the interval at which the ground-based Garmin Connext weather service makes
available the most current known weather data. It does not necessarily represent the rates at which new
content is received from various weather sources around the world.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: The availability of specific Garmin Connext weather products varies by region. For product coverage
information, refer to sites.garmin.com/connext.
Symbol
30
30
30
Continuous
60
Continuous
90
Continuous
60
Continuous
90
Continuous
no product image
60
Continuous
Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts
(TAF)
no product image
60
Continuous
APPENDICES
Temporary Flight Restrictions
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
60
AFCS
Infrared Satellite
(IR SAT)
Garmin Connext Data Link
Lightning (DL LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METAR)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Reports
(PIREP)
Refresh Rate
(Minutes)
U.S.: 3*
Canada: 3*†
Europe: 15
Australia: 15ˆ
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Radar Precipitation
(PRECIP)
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Garmin Connext Weather
Product and Softkey
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INDEX
* The composite precipitation image is updated every 3 minutes, but individual radar sites may take
between 3 and 10 minutes to provide new data.
†
Canadian radar precipitation data provided by Environment Canada.
ˆ Australian radar precipitation data provided by the Australia Bureau of Meteorology
Table 6-5 Garmin Connext Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
331
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
EIS
Infrared Satellite
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Connext Data Link Lightning
+
+
+
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
+
METARs
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Flight Plan Pages
+
Nearest Page Group
+
AUX - Trip Planning
Page
Weather Data Link
(CNXT) Page
+
Precipitation
Weather Information
Page
Navigation Map Page
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
PFD Inset Map
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Table 6-6 shows which Garmin Connext Weather products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on
specific maps.
+
+
+
Winds Aloft
+*
PIREPs
+
+
+
No Radar Coverage
+
+
+
TFRs
+
+
+
+
+
+
TAFs
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
* Winds Aloft data shown in Profile View on Navigation Map Page.
Table 6-6 Garmin Weather Product Display Maps
AFCS
Softkeys control the display of weather information on most MFD pages and the PFD Inset Map (Figure
6-53 shows the weather product softkeys for the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page). When a weather product
is selected for display, the corresponding softkey label changes to gray to indicate the product display is
enabled.
PRECIP
IR SAT
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
ENGINE
DL LTNG
SIG/AIR
WIND OFF
METAR
LEGEND MORE WX CHKLIST
PIREPS
BACK
WIND Softkey label changes
to reflect current selection.
Press the BACK Softkey
to move up one level.
PREV
OFF
SFC
3000
6000
9000
12000
15000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
PREV
OFF
36000
39000
42000
NEXT
LEGEND
BACK
INDEX
APPENDICES
PREV and NEXT Softkeys cycle through Winds Aloft
altitude selection softkeys.
Figure 6-53 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page (MFD)
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page control the map range
settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the
weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The menus
also provide a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling display of weather products.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-54).
EIS
4) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the product group selections.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page with the changed settings.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 6-55 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Setup Menu
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-54 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Menu
APPENDICES
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
If multiple data link weather services are installed, customizing the display settings for the corresponding
weather products shown in Table 6-7 will result in identical settings for a comparable weather product from
another service provider.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
Precipitation
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD)
(PRECIP)
Cloud Top
Infrared Satellite
(CLD TOP)
(IR SAT)
SiriusXM Lightning
Data Link Lightning
(DL LTNG)
(XM LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
(PIREPs)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
SiriusXM Weather Product
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Table 6-7 Corresponding Data Link Weather Product Settings
Restoring default Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
AFCS
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight ‘PRODUCT GROUP 1’ or an individual setting to restore, then
press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Press the MENU Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob if needed to highlight ‘Restore Selection Default’ (to restore only the highlighted field)
or ‘Restore All Defaults’ (to restore all products within the selected product group to their default settings), and
press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
Maps besides the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation
Map Page.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
INDEX
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-56).
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OVERVIEW
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-57).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-58).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-56 Navigation Map Page Menu
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-57 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-58 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
AFCS
Each active weather product has an associated legend which can be displayed on the Weather Data Link
(CNXT) Page. If no weather product softkeys are selected, the LEGEND Softkey will be unavailable.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the LEGEND Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
APPENDICES
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the window.
4) To remove the Legend Window, select the LEGEND Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Additional information about the following can be displayed by panning over the display on the map:
• Infrared Satellite (IR SAT)
• METARs
• SIGMETs
• TFRs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPs
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the RANGE Knob. The map range is adjusted by turning
the RANGE Knob. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map
Pointer.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Instructions
for Viewing
METAR and
TAF Text
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected
Airport
AFCS
Figure 6-59 Panning on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
CONNEXT DATA REQUESTS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Connext Data Request Window provides the flight crew with the options to enable or disable the
requested weather coverage area(s), choose automatic weather update intervals (if desired), and the ability to
send or cancel weather data requests. The status of the Garmin Connext data request process is also displayed.
APPENDICES
Before a Connext Data Request can occur, a valid request coverage area must be defined from which all
currently available Garmin Connext weather products will be retrieved. At a minimum, either the aircraft’s
present position or a waypoint (as part of a flight plan or entered directly in the ‘WAYPOINT’ coverage field) must
be part of the request coverage area, otherwise the request status window will indicate ‘INVALID COVERAGE
AREA’ and the system will not allow a request to occur.
INDEX
It is not necessary for a destination (based on an active flight plan), a flight plan, or waypoint to be specified
prior to enabling these coverage areas; however no weather data will be retrieved for these option(s) until a
flight plan or waypoint is provided, respectively.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Requesting Garmin Connext Weather data manually:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-60).
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired coverage option(s) and press the ENT Key to check or uncheck
one of more of the following coverage selections (Figures 6-61, 6-62):
• PRESENT POSITION – Requests data based on current location.
EIS
• DESTINATION – Requests data based on the active flight plan destination (Direct-To destinations excluded).
See the Flight Management section for more information about entering and activating flight plans.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• FPL – Requests data along an active flight plan, if one exists. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired
flight plan look-ahead distance option (or choose ‘REMAINING FPL’ to request the remainder of the flight
plan), then press the ENT Key.
• WAYPOINT – Requests data based on a waypoint (which may be off-route). Turn the large and small FMS
Knobs to enter a waypoint, then press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Turn the large FMS Knob highlight to the ‘DIAMETER / RTE WIDTH’ (diameter/route width) distance field and
turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired diameter and route width of the request, then press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob until the ‘SEND REQ’ button is highlighted. Press the ENT Key to initiate the request
immediately or press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page without requesting
weather data.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-60 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Menu
APPENDICES
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INDEX
Figure 6-61 Connext Data Request Window
337
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Destination Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Present Position Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Next 80 nm of Flight Plan
Selected, 200 nm Route
Width Requested
Off-Route Waypoint
Selected, 200 nm Diameter
Requested
APPENDICES
During a Connext Data Request, the REQUEST STATUS window initially displays “Contacting Connext...”.
Once a connection is established, the REQUEST STATUS window displays “Receiving Wx Data... Time
Remaining:” with an estimated data transfer time (either in minutes or seconds). If desired, the Connext
Data Request Window may be closed while the data request is processing by pressing the FMS Knob; the
data request will continue to process in the background. Connext Data Requests typically take between 1 to
4 minutes to complete depending on the size of the selected weather coverage area(s), the amount of weather
activity present, and the Iridium signal strength.
INDEX
Figure 6-62 Connext Data Request Results with Precipitation and Infrared Satellite Displayed
The system retrieves all available Garmin Connext weather products within the selected coverage area(s)
during an initial Connext Data Request, regardless of which products (if any) are currently enabled for display.
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OVERVIEW
On subsequent requests, previously retrieved textual data (such as METARs and TAFs) is retained if it has not
expired, while new textual weather data matching the current coverage area and all graphical weather data is
transferred to the aircraft during every data request.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
At the completion of a successful weather data request, the REQUEST STATUS window (if shown) indicates
‘OK’. Refer to the Abnormal Operations discussion later in this section for more information on the messages
received if the request is unsuccessful.
Cancelling a Connext Data Request in Progress:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
EIS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘CANCEL REQ’ and press the ENT Key. The request status box indicates
‘Request Cancelled’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The pilot can schedule Connext Data Requests to recur automatically. Auto requests remain enabled until the
pilot disables them, or the system power is cycled. The Request Status window will indicate a countdown timer
until the next automatic data request occurs.
NOTE: If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to the system entering Reversionary Mode,
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
the automatic weather data requests will continue in Reversionary Mode, however the Connext Data
Request Window and its associated options will not be available.
Enabling/disabling automatic Connext Data Requests:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
AFCS
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Choose the desired weather coverage options.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘UPDATE RATE’ setting. Then turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the
desired automatic update frequency (select an interval of minutes, or ‘OFF’), then press the ENT Key.
6) The ‘SEND REQ” button is highlighted and a countdown timer is displayed in the ‘REQUEST STATUS’ based
on the currently selected update rate. Press the ENT Key to immediately send an immediate Connext Data
Request.
APPENDICES
Or:
Press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER PRODUCTS
NOTE: Precipitation data cannot be displayed simultaneously on the navigation map with terrain or the
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
airborne weather radar overlay.
EIS
The Precipitation weather product provides radar precipitation information in selected radar coverage areas.
This information comes from individual weather radar sites and weather data sources such as government
agencies. Each radar site or source may provide weather data at differing rates and times. Periodically,
the Garmin Connext service compiles the available information to form a composite image, and assigns a
single time to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the Precipitation weather product.
Individual images--gathered from each radar site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed
Precipitation weather product age.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the Precipitation weather product, the
displayed weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current
radar synopsis and may not depict the current weather conditions. The Precipitation weather product should
never be used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the
information it contains.
Boundary of
Precipitation data
request
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-63 Precipitation Data on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Displaying Precipitation weather information:
INDEX
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the PRECIP Softkey.
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OVERVIEW
Radar data shown represents lowest level, base reflectivity, of radar returns. The display of the information
is color-coded to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can be viewed on the
Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page. For the Precipitation legend (Figure 6-64), press the LEGEND Softkey when
Precipitation is selected for display.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
No Radar Coverage
Boundary of Connext
Data request
Figure 6-64 Precipitation Data Legend
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The display of no radar coverage is enabled when Precipitation is selected for display. Areas where
precipitation radar coverage is not currently available or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of
purple. A white tick-marked boundary line depicts the selected coverage area of the Connext Data Request.
This boundary encloses the precipitation data when this weather product is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the Precipitation
display directly correlate to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous weather
can be very complex.
AFCS
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The different radar echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). Weather
radars measure the reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
APPENDICES
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Precipitation Limitations
Radar images may have certain limitations:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Radar base reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine cloud layers or precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet snow, wet
hail, and rain.
• Radar base reflectivity is sampled at the minimum antenna elevation angle. An individual radar site
cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information about storms directly over the
site.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
• When zoomed in to a range of 30 nm, each square block on the display represents an area of four square
kilometers.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Block represents
4 km2
Figure 6-65 Precipitation Data - Zoomed
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
APPENDICES
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
INDEX
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
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INFRARED SATELLITE
Infrared Satellite (IR SAT) data (Figure 6-66) depicts cloud top temperatures from satellite imagery. Brighter
cloud top colors indicate cooler temperatures occurring at higher altitudes.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-66 Infrared Satellite Data on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the IR SAT Softkey.
AFCS
To display the Infrared Satellite legend (Figure 6-67), select the LEGEND Softkey when Infrared Satellite data
is selected for display.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-67 Infrared Satellite Legend
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
GARMIN CONNEXT DATA LINK LIGHTNING
NOTE: Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning cannot be displayed simultaneously with Stormscope® lightning
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
information on the same map.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The Data Link Lightning (DL LTNG) weather product (Figure 6-68) shows the approximate location of
cloud-to-ground lightning strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer
region. Neither cloud-to-cloud nor the exact location of the lightning strike is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Lightning Strikes
Figure 6-68 Garmin Connext Data Link Lightning
AFCS
Displaying Data Link Lightning information:
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, select the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the DL LTNG Softkey.
APPENDICES
To display the Data Link Lightning legend on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page (Figure 6-69), select the
LEGEND Softkey when Data Link Lightning is selected for display.
INDEX
Figure 6-69 Data Link Lightning Legend
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SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SIGMETs (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMETs (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET can be displayed when significant
weather conditions are not widespread.
The entire SIGMET or AIRMET is displayed as long as any portion of it is issued within the coverage area
of the Connext Data Request.
EIS
Instructions for Viewing
SIGMET/AIRMET Text
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SIGMET
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-70 SIGMET/AIRMET Weather Product
AFCS
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the RANGE Knob and move the Map Pointer over the icon.
4) Press the ENT key. Figure 6-72 shows sample SIGMET text.
APPENDICES
To display the SIGMET and AIRMET legend (Figure 6-72), select the LEGEND Softkey when SIGMETs and
AIRMETs are selected for display.
INDEX
Figure 6-71 Sample SIGMET Text
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Figure 6-72 SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
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SYSTEM
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure as reported for METARs is given in hectopascals (hPa), except for in the United
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
States, where it is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are reported in Celsius.
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service area.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or
observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical
data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the report.
METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
Instructions for
Viewing METAR
and TAF Text
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Airport
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-73 METAR Flags on the Navigation Map Page
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
APPENDICES
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR data is displayed first in a
decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information not
found in the decoded text. TAF information is displayed only in its original form, when a TAF is available.
Displaying METAR and TAF text:
INDEX
1) On the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, press the METAR Softkey.
2) Press the RANGE Knob and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Press the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
EIS
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that the METAR text must
be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
METAR Text for the
Selected Airport
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
METAR Symbol
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TAF Text for the
Selected Airport
AFCS
Figure 6-74 METAR and TAF Text on the Weather Information Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The original METAR text is also accessible while panning the map cursor over a METAR flag on any map
page. The METAR text appears in a box near the METAR flag.
In addition, METAR flags and their associated text are displayed on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
A METAR flag next to a waypoint indicates METAR observations are available for that waypoint.
APPENDICES
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page (Figure 6-75), press the LEGEND
Softkey when METARs are selected for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. A gray METAR flag is displayed
when the METAR text does not contain adequate information to determine the METAR category (e.g. VFR,
IFR).
INDEX
Figure 6-75 METAR Legend
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
WINDS ALOFT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Winds Aloft data (Figure 6-76) shows the forecast wind speed and direction at the surface and at selected
altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3,000-foot increments up to 42,000 feet MSL.
Displaying Winds Aloft data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the WIND Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
4) Select the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Select the NEXT or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The WIND Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Figure 6-76 Winds Aloft at 6,000 Feet
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
To display the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-77), press the LEGEND Softkey when Winds Aloft is selected
for display.
APPENDICES
Figure 6-77 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
INDEX
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Profile View on the Navigation Map Page
(Figure 6-78). The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track, but not to aircraft
speed.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Winds Aloft Data Age
Altitude Scale
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Wind Component
Velocity and Direction
Arrow
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-78 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data on
Profile View
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in Table 6-8.
Tailwind
Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind
Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Headwind
Symbol
5 knots
AFCS
10 knots
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
50 knots
Table 6-8 Profile View Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
APPENDICES
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Showing/Hiding Profile View (containing winds aloft data)
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
2) Press the PROFILE Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
EIS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current
state) and press the ENT Key.
Winds Aloft data inside the Profile View is enabled by default when the Profile View is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display in Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-79).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Profile Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-80).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Profile Winds’ (Figure 6-81).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-79 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-80 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
350
Figure 6-81 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PIREPS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) describe in-flight weather encountered by pilots. A PIREP may contain
adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions, wind shear, turbulence, and type
of aircraft flown. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Instructions for
Viewing PIREP
Text
EIS
Urgent
PIREP
PIREP
Selected
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-82 PIREPs on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Displaying PIREP text:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MORE WX Softkey.
3) Press the PIREPS Softkey.
AFCS
4) Press the RANGE Knob and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather
report when it is selected.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Press the ENT Key. The PIREP tex is first displayed in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the
original text may contain additional information not present in the decoded version.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to close the PIREP text window and return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT)
Page.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
EIS
Decoded PIREP Text
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Raw PIREP Text
Figure 6-83 PIREP Text on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
To display the PIREP legend (Figure 6-84), press the LEGEND Softkey when PIREPs are selected for
display. The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
AFCS
Figure 6-84 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
TFRS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) data from Garmin Connext is only available in the United States
(not including any U.S. territories.) Refer to sites.garmin.com/connext for Garmin Connext Weather product
coverage information.
APPENDICES
In the United States, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issues Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs)
to designate areas where flight is restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including
national security, law enforcement, firefighting, natural disasters., airshows, and large sporting events. TFRs
may be issued at any time, and TFR information displayed on the system is only intended to supplement
official TFR information obtained from Flight Service Stations (FSS), and air traffic control.
INDEX
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system displays
‘TFR N/A’ in the upper-left corner of maps on which TFRs can be displayed.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TFR Summary
Information
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TFR Selected
with Map
Pointer
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-85 TFR Data on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Displaying TFR Data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page or Navigation Map Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the RANGE Knob and pan the map pointer over a TFR to highlight the TFR border. The system displays
TFR summary information above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Review Airspaces’ and press the ENT Key. The system displays the
TFR Information window (Figure 6-86).
AFCS
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the TFR Information window.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-86 Full Text for Selected TFR
APPENDICES
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page control the map range settings above which TFR data is
decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is selected, the TFR
product data is removed from the map.
Maps other than the Navigation Map Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be displayed:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-87).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-88).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product range setting (Figure 6-89).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (Off, range settings).
EIS
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-87 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-89 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-88 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
If the system cannot complete a Connext Data Request, one or more messages will appear in the request status
window.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Weather Request Status
Message
Description
Auto requests inhibited
The system has disabled automatic weather data requests due to excessive errors.
Send manual request to reset. Automatic weather data requests have stopped. Send a manual weather data request to
resume automatic updates.
Connext Comm Error [7]
Connext Comm Error [8]
Connext Login Is Invalid
Reduce Request Area
APPENDICES
Request Cancelled
Request Failed - Try Again
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
No Connext Subscription
AFCS
Invalid Coverage Area
A weather data transfer has timed out. Check Iridium signal strength and re-send the data
request.
A server error has occurred or invalid data received.
There is a problem with the Garmin Connext Weather registration. Contact Garmin at
1-866-739-5687 in the United States or 913-440-1135, wait for the operator, and request
extension 1135 for assistance.
The Garmin Connext weather data servers are temporarily out of service, but are expected
to return to service in less than 30 minutes.
The Garmin Connext weather data servers are expected to be out of service for at least 30
minutes.
The weather data request coverage area does not contain at least one of the following:
a waypoint, a flight plan, or a flight plan destination. Verify at least one of the coverage
options is enabled (checked) and contains required criteria, then re-send the data request.
The system is not be currently subscribed to Garmin Connext weather, or the access code is
incorrect. Verify the access code. Contact Garmin at 1-866-739-5687 in the United States
or 913-440-1135, wait for the operator, and request extension 1135 for assistance.
The Garmin Connext Data request area exceeds size limits. Reduce weather coverage area
and re-send data request.
The pilot has cancelled a Connext Data Request..
The weather data request timed-out. Re-send data request.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Connext Server Temporarily
Inop
Connext Server Inop
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Connext Comm Error [6]
The system will attempt another automatic weather data request after an error occurred
during the previous request. Timer counts down until the next automatic request occurs.
A communications error has occurred with the GIA. The system should be serviced.
This occurs if multiple automatic weather data requests have recently failed, or a GIA is
off-line.
The Iridium or Connext systems are not accessible. Check Iridium signal strength. If this
error persists, the system should be serviced.
A communications error has occurred. It this error persists, the system should be serviced.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Connext Comm Error [5]
EIS
Auto update retry: ##
Seconds
Connext Comm Error [2]
Connext Comm Error [4]
Table 6-9 Abnormal Garmin Connext Weather Data Request Status Messages
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
When the system is operating in Reversionary Mode, only those weather products which can be displayed on
the PFD Inset map will be available for display (see Table 6-7 for a list of weather products and their associated
map availability).
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If manual weather data requests were enabled prior to entering Reversionary Mode, no new Connext Data
Requests can be issued while operating in Reversionary Mode. If automatic weather data requests were enabled
prior to Reversionary Mode operation, the system will continue the automatic data requests in Reversionary
Mode (provided automatic requests have not been inhibited due to a system error).
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6.3 AIRBORNE COLOR WEATHER RADAR
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
The optional Garmin GWX 68 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a four-color digital pulsed radar with 6.5
kilowatts of output power. The Garmin GWX 70 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a solid-state pulsed radar
with forty watts of output power. The radar combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with a
high-definition target display. The pulse width for the GWX 68 is four microseconds (µs) on all ranges except
the 2.5 nm range. The GWX 68 uses a one µs pulse width at this range to reduce the targets smearing together
on the display for better target definition at close range. The GWX 70 has an effective pulse length of 27.31
microseconds (µs), and the system optimizes the pulse length to maximize resolution at each range setting.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
This aircraft uses either a 10-inch or 12-inch phased array antenna that is fully stabilized to accommodate
30º of pitch and roll.
To focus radar scanning on specific areas, Sector Scanning offers pilot-adjustable horizontal scan angles of
20º, 40º, 60º, or 90º. A vertical scanning function helps to analyze storm tops, gradients, and cell buildup
activity at various altitudes.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Radar features include:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Extended Sensitivity Time Constant (STC) logic that automatically correlates distance of the return echo with
intensity, so cells do not suddenly appear to get larger as they get closer.
• WATCH® (Weather ATtenuated Color Highlight) helps identify possible shadowing effects of short-range cell
activity, identifying areas where radar return signals are weakened or attenuated by intense precipitation (or
large areas of lesser precipitation) and may not fully reflect the weather behind a storm.
• Weather Alert that looks ahead for intense cell activity in the 80-320 nm range, even if these ranges are not
being monitored.
PRINCIPLES OF PULSED AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The term RADAR is an acronym for RAdio Detecting And Ranging. Pulsed radar locates targets by transmitting
a microwave pulse beam that, upon encountering a target, is reflected back to the radar receiver as a return
echo. The microwave pulses are focused and radiated by the antenna, with the most intense energy in the
center of the beam and decreasing intensity near the edge. The same antenna is used for both transmitting and
receiving. The returned signal is then processed and displayed on the MFD.
Radar detection is a two-way process that requires 12.36 µs for the transmitted microwave pulses to travel out
and back for each nautical mile of target range. It takes 123.6 µs for a transmitted pulse to make the round trip
if a target is ten nautical miles away.
APPENDICES
Airborne weather radar should be used to avoid severe weather, not for penetrating severe weather. The
decision to fly into an area of radar targets depends on target intensity, spacing between the targets, aircraft
capabilities, and pilot experience. Pulse type weather radar detects only precipitation, not clouds or turbulence.
The display may indicate clear areas between intense returns, but this does not necessarily mean it is safe to fly
between them. Only Doppler radar can detect turbulence.
INDEX
Airborne weather radar has other capabilities beyond weather detection. It also has the ability to detect and
provide distance to cities, mountains, coastlines, rivers, lakes, and oceans.
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
NEXRAD AND AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Both Airborne Weather Radar and NEXRAD measure weather reflectivity in decibels (dB). A decibel is a
logarithmic expression of the ratio of two quantities. Airborne Weather Radar measures the ratio of power
against the gain of the antenna, while NEXRAD measures the energy reflected back to the radar, or the radar
reflectivity ratio.
Both systems use colors to identify the different echo intensities, but the colors are not interchangeable.
Airborne color radar values used by Garmin Airborne Color Weather Radar should not be confused with
NEXRAD radar values.
EIS
ANTENNA BEAM ILLUMINATION
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The radar beam is much like the beam of a spotlight. The further the beam travels, the wider it becomes.
The radar is only capable of seeing what is inside the boundaries of the beam. The following figure depicts
a radar beam’s characteristics. The figure illustrates vertical dimensions of the radar beam, although the
same holds true for the horizontal dimensions. In other words, the beam is as wide as it is tall. Note that
it is possible to miss areas of precipitation on the radar display because of the antenna tilt setting. With the
antenna tilt set to zero in this illustration, the beam overshoots the precipitation at 15 nautical miles.
Altitude (x1000 ft.)
80
Antenna at Zero Tilt
18,000 ft.
8°
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
0
0
15
Half Power at
s
Beam Sidelobe
Max Power at Beam Center
18,000 ft.
30
45
60
75
90
Range (nautical miles)
AFCS
Figure 6-90 Radar Beam from a 12 Inch Antenna
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The curvature of the earth can also be a factor in missing areas of precipitation, especially at range settings
of 150 nautical miles or more. Here the beam overshoots the precipitation at less than 320 nautical miles.
INDEX
320 nm
Figure 6-91 Radar Beam in Relation to the Curvature of the Earth
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RADAR SIGNAL ATTENUATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The phenomenon of radar signal attenuation affects the operation of weather radar. When the radar signal
is transmitted, it is progressively absorbed and scattered, making the signal weaker. This weakening, or
attenuation, is caused by two primary sources, distance and precipitation.
Attenuation because of distance is due to the fact that the radar energy leaving the antenna is inversely
proportional to the square of the distance. The reflected radar energy from a target 40 miles away that fills
the radar beam is one fourth the energy reflected from an equivalent target 20 miles away. This would appear
to the operator that the storm is gaining intensity as the aircraft gets closer. Internal signal processing within
the GWX 68 system compensates for much of this distance attenuation.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Attenuation due to precipitation is not as predictable as distance attenuation. It is also more intense. As the
radar signal passes through moisture, a portion of the radar energy is reflected back to the antenna. However,
much of the energy is absorbed. If precipitation is very heavy, or covers a large area, the signal may not
reach completely through the area of precipitation. The weather radar system cannot distinguish between an
attenuated signal and an area of no precipitation. If the signal has been fully attenuated, the radar displays
a radar shadow. This appears as an end to the precipitation when, in fact, the heavy rain may extend much
further. A cell containing heavy precipitation may block another cell located behind the first, preventing
it from being displayed on the radar. Never fly into these shadowed areas and never assume that all of the
heavy precipitation is being displayed unless another cell or a ground target can be seen beyond the heavy
cell. The WATCH® feature of the system can help in identifying these shadowed areas. Areas in question
appear as shadowed or gray on the radar display. Proper use of the antenna tilt control can also help detect
radar shadows.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Attenuation can also be due to poor maintenance or degradation of the radome. Even the smallest amount of
wear and scratching, pitting, and pinholes on the radome surface can cause damage and system inefficiency.
RADAR SIGNAL REFLECTIVITY
Precipitation
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Precipitation or objects more dense than water, such as the surface of the earth or solid structures, are
detected by the weather radar. The weather radar does not detect clouds, thunderstorms, or turbulence
directly. It detects precipitation associated with clouds, thunderstorms, and turbulence. The best radar
signal reflectors are raindrops, wet snow, or wet hail. The larger the raindrop, the better the reflectivity. The
size of the precipitation droplet is the most important factor in radar reflectivity. Because large drops in a
small concentrated area are characteristic of a severe thunderstorm, the radar displays the storm as a strong
return. Ice crystals, dry snow, and dry hail have low levels of reflectivity as shown in the illustration, and
are often not displayed by the radar. Additionally, a cloud that contains only small raindrops, such as fog
or drizzle, does not reflect enough radar energy to produce a measurable target return.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-92 Precipitation Type and Reflectivity
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The intensity of ground target returns depends upon the angle at which the radar beam strikes the
ground target (Angle of Incidence) and the reflective properties of that target. The gain can be adjusted so
shorelines, rivers, lakes, and cities are well-defined. Increasing the gain too much causes the display to fill
in between targets, thus obscuring some landmarks.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Ground Returns
Cities normally provide a strong return signal. While large buildings and structures provide good returns,
small buildings can be shadowed from the radar beam by the taller buildings. As the aircraft approaches
and shorter ranges are selected, details become more noticeable as the highly reflective regular lines and
edges of the city become more defined.
AFCS
Bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, and oceans are not good reflectors and normally do not provide good
returns. The energy is reflected in a forward scatter angle with inadequate energy being returned. They
can appear as dark areas on the display. However, rough or choppy water is a better reflector and provides
stronger returns from the downwind sides of the waves.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Mountains also provide strong return signals to the antenna, but also block the areas behind. However,
over mountainous terrain, the radar beam can be reflected back and forth in the mountain passes or off
canyon walls, using up all or most of the radar energy. In this case, no return signal is received from this
area, causing the display to show a dark spot which could indicate a pass where no pass exists.
APPENDICES
Angle of Incidence
INDEX
The angle at which the radar beam strikes the target is called the Angle of Incidence. The figure illustrates
the incident angle (‘A’). This directly affects the detectable range, the area of illumination, and the intensity
of the displayed target returns. A large incident angle gives the radar system a smaller detectable range and
lower display intensity due to minimized reflection of the radar energy.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-93 Angle of Incidence
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
A smaller incident angle gives the radar a larger detectable range of operation and the target display shows
a higher intensity. Since more radar energy is reflected back to the antenna with a low incident angle, the
resulting detectable range is increased for mountainous terrain.
SAFE OPERATING DISTANCE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The following information establishes a minimum safe distance from the antenna for personnel near
operating weather radar. The minimum safe distance is based on the FCC’s exposure limit at 9.3 to 9.5 GHz for
general population/uncontrolled environments, which is 1 mW/cm2. See Advisory Circular 20-68B for more
information on safe distance determination.
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVEL (MPEL)
AFCS
The zone in which the radiation level exceeds the US Government standard of 1 mW/cm2 is the semicircular
area of at least 12 feet from the 12-inch antenna, and at least 9.16 feet from the 10-inch antenna. All personnel
must remain outside of this zone. With a scanning or rotating beam, the averaged power density at the MPEL
boundary is significantly reduced.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
MPEL
Boundary
APPENDICES
12’ for 12”
antenna
INDEX
Figure 6-94 MPEL Boundary with a 12-inch Antenna
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
BASIC ANTENNA TILT SETUP
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The following discussion is a simple method for setting up the weather radar antenna tilt for most situations.
It is not to be considered an all encompassing setup that works in all situations, but this method does provide
good overall parameters for the monitoring of threats. Ultimately, it is desired to have the antenna tilted so that
the bottom of the radar beam is four degrees below parallel with the ground. The following example explains
one way of achieving this.
EIS
With the aircraft flying level, adjust the antenna tilt so ground returns are displayed at a distance that equals
the aircraft’s current altitude (AGL) divided by 1,000. For example, if the aircraft is at 14,000 feet, adjust the
tilt so the front edge of ground returns are displayed at 14 nautical miles. Note this antenna tilt angle setting.
Now, raise the antenna tilt 6 degrees above this setting. The bottom of the radar beam is now angled down 4º
from parallel with the ground.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
PRACTICAL APPLICATION USING THE BASIC TILT SETUP
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
With the antenna tilt set as previously described, any displayed target return should be scrutinized when
flying at altitudes between 2,000 and 30,000 feet AGL. If the displayed target advances on the screen to
within 5 nautical miles of the aircraft, avoid it. This may be either weather or ground returns that are 2,000
feet or less below the aircraft. Raising the antenna tilt 4 degrees can help separate ground returns from
weather returns in relatively flat terrain. This places the bottom of the radar beam parallel with the ground.
Return the antenna tilt to the previous setting after a few sweeps.
If the aircraft is above 29,000 feet, be cautious of any target return that gets to within 30 nautical miles.
This is likely a thunderstorm that has a top high enough that the aircraft cannot fly over it safely.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If the aircraft altitude is 15,000 feet or lower, setting the displayed range to 60 miles may be more helpful.
Closely monitor anything that enters the display.
4000
Change in Antenna Tilt
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
+4°
+3°
+2°
+1°
0°
-1°
-2°
-3°
-4°
3000
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
APPENDICES
3000
10 nm
4000
Vertical Change of Radar Beam (feet)
AFCS
Also, after setting up the antenna tilt angle as described previously, ground returns can be monitored for
possible threats. The relationship between antenna tilt angle, altitude, and distance is one degree of tilt equals
100 feet of altitude for every one nautical mile.
Figure 6-95 Vertical Change in Radar Beam per Nautical Mile
INDEX
Therefore, with the antenna tilt set so that the bottom of the beam is four degrees below parallel with
the ground, a target return at 10 nm is approximately 4,000 feet below the aircraft; at 20 nm, 8,000 feet;
at 50 nm, 20,000 feet. In other words, at this tilt setting, a ground return (such as a mountain peak) being
displayed at 10 nm would have a maximum distance below the aircraft of 4,000 feet. If that ground target
return moves to 5 nm, maximum distance below the aircraft is 2,000 feet.
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OVERVIEW
This setup provides a good starting point for practical use of the airborne weather radar. There are many
other factors to consider in order to become proficient at using weather radar in all situations.
WEATHER MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WEATHER DISPLAY INTERPRETATION
When evaluating various target returns on the weather radar display, the colors denote precipitation intensity
and rates shown in the table.
Black
Green
Yellow
Red
Magenta
< 23 dBZ
23 dBZ to < 32 dBZ
32 dBZ to < 41 dBZ
41 dBZ to < 50 dBZ
50 dBZ and greater
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Intensity
EIS
Weather Mode Color
Approximate
Precipitation Rate
(in/hr.)
< .01.
.01 - 0.1.
0.1 - 0.5
0.5 - 2
>2
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Table 6-10 Precipitation Intensity Levels
Thunderstorms
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Updrafts and downdrafts in thunderstorms carry water through the cloud. The more severe the drafts, the
greater the number and size of the precipitation droplets. With this in mind, the following interpretations
can be made from what is displayed on the weather radar. Avoid these areas by an extra wide margin.
• In areas where the displayed target intensity is red or magenta (indicating large amounts of precipitation),
the turbulence is considered severe.
AFCS
• Areas that show steep color gradients (intense color changes) over thin bands or short distances suggest
irregular rainfall rate and strong turbulence.
• Areas that show red or magenta are associated with hail or turbulence, as well as heavy precipitation. Vertical
scanning and antenna tilt management may be necessary to identify areas of maximum intensity.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Along squall lines (multiple cells or clusters of cells in a line) individual cells may be in different stages
of development. Areas between closely spaced, intense targets may contain developing clouds not having
enough moisture to produce a return. However, these areas could have strong updrafts or downdrafts.
Targets showing wide areas of green are generally precipitation without severe turbulence.
Irregularities in the target return may also indicate turbulence, appearing as hooks, fingers, or scalloped
edges. These irregularities may be present in green areas with no yellow, red, or magenta areas and should
be treated as highly dangerous areas. Avoid these areas as if they are red or magenta.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Squall Line
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Steep Gradient
Hook or Finger
Scalloped Edge
Figure 6-96 Cell Irregularities
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Thunderstorm development is rapid. A course may become blocked within a short time. When displaying
shorter ranges, periodically select a longer range to see if problems are developing further out. That can
help prevent getting trapped in a blind alley or an area that is closed at one end by convective weather.
Figure 6-97 The Blind Alley - Horizontal Scan
INDEX
APPENDICES
In areas of multiple heavy cells, use the Vertical Scan feature along with antenna tilt management to
examine the areas. Remember to avoid shadowed areas behind targets.
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INSTRUMENTS
EIS
The Blind Alley at Close Range
The Large Storm Behind
Figure 6-98 The Blind Alley
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Tornadoes
There are no conclusive radar target return characteristics which identify a tornado. However, tornadoes
may be present if the following characteristics are observed:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• A narrow, finger-like portion extends and in a short time curls into a hook and closes on itself.
• A hook, which may be in the general shape of the numeral 6 (numeral 9 in the southern hemisphere),
especially if bright and projecting from the southwest quadrant (northeast quadrant in the southern
hemisphere) of a major thunderstorm.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• V-shaped notches.
• Doughnut shapes.
These shapes do not always indicate tornadoes, and tornado returns are not limited to these characteristics.
Confirmed radar observations of tornadoes most often have not shown shapes different from those of a
normal thunderstorm display.
AFCS
Hail
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Hail results from updrafts carrying water high enough to freeze. Therefore, the higher the top of a
thunderstorm, the greater the probability that it contains hail. Vertically scanning the target return can
give the radar top of a thunderstorm that contains hail. Radar top is the top of a storm cell as detected by
radar. It is not the actual top, or true top of the storm. The actual top of a storm cell is seen with the eyes
in clear air and may be much higher than the radar top. The actual top does not indicate the top of the
hazardous area.
APPENDICES
INDEX
Hail can fall below the minimum reflectivity threshold for radar detection. It can have a film of water on
its surface, making its reflective characteristics similar to a very large water droplet. Because of this film of
water, and because hail stones usually are larger than water droplets, thunderstorms with large amounts
of wet hail return stronger signals than those with rain. Some hail shafts are extremely narrow (100 yards
or less) and make poor radar targets. In the upper regions of a cell where ice particles are dry (no liquid
coating), target returns are less intense.
Hail shafts are associated with the same radar target return characteristics as tornados. U-shaped cloud
edges three to seven miles across can also indicate hail. These target returns appear quite suddenly along
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any edge of the cell outline. They also change in intensity and shape in a matter of seconds, making vigilant
monitoring essential.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
OPERATION IN WEATHER MODE
WARNING: Begin transmitting only when it is safe to do so. When transmitting while the aircraft is on the
ground, no personnel or objects should be within 9.16 feet of the antenna.
EIS
CAUTION: In Standby mode, the antenna is parked at the center line. It is always a good idea to put the
radar in Standby mode before taxiing the aircraft to prevent the antenna from bouncing on the bottom stop
and possibly causing damage to the radar assembly.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When the weather radar system is in the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically switches
to Standby mode on landing.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system automatically switches to Standby mode. The system
remains in Standby mode until both displays are restored. In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system
cannot be controlled.
Scan Line
Antenna Stabilization Status
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Radar Mode
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-99 Horizontal Scan Display
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OVERVIEW
Displaying weather on the Weather Radar Page:
1) Select the Weather Radar Page in the Map Page Group with the FMS Knob.
2) Press the MODE Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) While on the ground, press the STANDBY Softkey. For the GWX 68 only, a one-minute warm-up period is
initiated (countdown is displayed on the screen). After the warm-up is complete, the radar enters the Standby
Mode. The warm-up period is not applicable to the GWX 70.
a)
Press the WEATHER Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-100 Confirming Activating Radar
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
b)
Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight YES and press the ENT Key to continue radar activation.
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If the aircraft is airborne, press the WEATHER Softkey. For the GWX 68 only, a one-minute warm-up period is
initiated (countdown is displayed on the screen). After the warm-up is complete, the radar begins transmitting.
4) Turn the Joystick to select the desired map range.
5) The horizontal scan is initially displayed (Figure 6-99). If desired, press the VERTICAL Softkey to change to
vertical scanning.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Vertically scanning a storm cell:
NOTE: Vertical scanning of a storm cell should be done with the aircraft wings level to avoid constant
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
adjustment of the Bearing Line.
1) While in the Horizontal Scan view, press the BRG Softkey. This places the cursor in the BEARING field and
displays the Bearing Line.
If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Bearing
Line. Press the ENT Key.
EIS
2) Press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line on the desired storm cell or other area to be vertically
scanned.
Bearing Line
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Scan Line
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-101 Bearing Line on Horizontal Scan
4) Press the VERTICAL Softkey. A vertical slice of the selected area is displayed (Figure 6-102).
5) The small FMS Knob may be used to move the scanned slice a few degrees right or left.
6) Turn the Joystick to adjust the range.
APPENDICES
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
8) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, press the HORIZON Softkey to return to the Horizontal Scan view
and repeat the previous steps.
INDEX
The Joystick can also be used to adjust bearing from left to right.
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-102 Vertical Scan Display
Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
In order to make an accurate interpretation of a storm cell, the radar beam should be pointed at the wet
part of the weather cell to record the proper rainfall intensity (color level). The ideal aiming point is just
below the freezing level of the storm. The best way to find this point is to use the Vertical Scan feature. The
antenna tilt angle can be centered on the strongest return area in the vertical scan to get a more accurate
view of the coverage and intensity of the target in the horizontal scan.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Horizontal Scan display:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the TILT field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired antenna tilt angle.
AFCS
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt up and down.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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Adjusting antenna tilt on the Vertical Scan display:
1) Press the TILT Softkey to activate the cursor in the TILT field and display the Tilt Line.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If the Tilt Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Tilt Line. Press
the ENT Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the antenna tilt angle. The selected tilt angle is implemented when Horizontal
Scan is again selected.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Tilt Line
Scan Line
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-103 Adjusting Tilt on Vertical Scan Display
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Adjusting Gain:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity. Remember to return the gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the
actual intensity of precipitation.
1) Press the GAIN Softkey to activate the cursor in the GAIN field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the gain for the desirable level. The gain setting is visible in the GAIN field
as a movable horizontal bar in a flashing box. The line pointer is a reference depicting the calibrated position.
EIS
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
4) Press the GAIN Softkey again to recalibrate the gain. ‘CALIBRATED’ is displayed in the GAIN field.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Manual Gain Set Below Calibrated
Calibrated Gain
AFCS
Figure 6-104 Gain Calibration
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Sector Scan:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) While in horizontal scan mode, press the BRG Softkey to display the Bearing Line and place the cursor in the
BEARING field. If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select
Show Bearing Line.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
2) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-105 Selecting Sector Scan Position
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line in the desired position. The location of the Bearing Line
becomes the center point of the Sector Scan.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the SECTOR SCAN field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select FULL, 60˚, 40˚, or 20˚ scan.
AFCS
6) If desired, readjust the Bearing Line as discussed previously to change the center of the Sector Scan.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7) Press the BRG Softkey again to remove the Bearing Line and cursor. The bearing reference resets to 0º.
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INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-106 40˚ Sector Scan
Antenna Stabilization
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When antenna stabilization is active, the radar tilt is corrected for pitch and roll, and therefore is kept
steady with respect to an earth fixed reference. The commanded tilt angle is kept constant with respect to
the Earth. When the stabilization is disabled off, corrections are no longer made for pitch and roll, and the
radar tilt angle is kept constant with respect to the aircraft reference system.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Enabling/disabling antenna stabilization:
1) Press the MODE Softkey.
2) Press the STAB ON Softkey to activate antenna stabilization or press the STAB OFF Softkey to deactivate. The
current stabilization condition is shown in the upper right of the weather radar display.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
WATCH® (Weather Attenuated Color Highlight)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WATCH® identifies deceptively strong or unknown intensity parts of a storm. While in horizontal
scan mode, this feature can be used as a tool to determine areas of possible inaccuracies in displayed
intensity due to weakening of the radar energy. This weakening is known as attenuation. The radar energy
weakens as it passes through areas of intense precipitation, large areas of lesser precipitation, and distance.
Issues with the radome also attenuates the radar energy. All these factors have an effect on the return
intensity. The more energy that dissipates, the lesser the displayed intensity of the return. Accuracy of the
displayed intensity of returns located in the shaded areas are suspect. Make maneuvering decisions with
this information in mind. Proper antenna tilt management should still be employed to determine the extent
of attenuation in a shaded area.
To activate or deactivate the WATCH® feature, press the WATCH Softkey.
Areas of
Attenuated Signal
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Displayed intensity is questionable.
Potentially stronger than displayed.
Horizontal Scan Without WATCH®
Horizontal Scan With WATCH®
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-107 Horizontal Scan Without and With WATCH®
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Weather Alert
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Weather Alert feature indicates the presence of heavy precipitation between the ranges of 80 and 320
nm regardless of the currently displayed range. Weather Alert targets appear as red bands along the outer
range ring at the approximate azimuth of the detected returns.
If a Weather Alert is detected within ±10° of the aircraft heading, an alert is displayed on the PFD in the
Alerts Window.
If the antenna tilt is adjusted too low, a weather alert can be generated by ground returns. To avoid
unwanted weather alerts, deselect the WX ALRT Softkey..
EIS
Weather Alerts
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-108 Weather Alert Indications
AFCS
To activate or deactivate Weather Alerts being displayed in the Alerts Window, press the WX ALRT
Softkey. Activating and deactivating enables or inhibits the alert on the PFD, and does not affect the display
of the red weather alert target bands on the Weather Radar Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-109 Weather Alert on PFD
APPENDICES
INDEX
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GROUND MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A secondary use of the weather radar system is for the presentation of terrain. This can be a useful tool for
verifying aircraft position. A picture of the ground is represented much like a topographical map that can be
used as a supplement to the navigation map on the MFD.
EIS
Ground Map mode uses a different gain range than Weather mode. Different colors are also used to represent
the intensity levels. The displayed intensity of ground target returns are defined in the following table. Use
of the GAIN and TILT controls help improve contrast so that specific ground targets can be recognized more
easily. As previously discussed, the type and orientation of the target in relation to the aircraft affects the
intensity displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Ground Map
Mode Color
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When the weather radar system is in either the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby mode upon landing.
Yellow
Black
Cyan
Magenta
Blue
Intensity
0 dB
> 0 dB to < 9 dB
9 dB to < 18 dB
18 dB to < 27 dB
27 dB and greater
Table 6-11 Ground Target Return Intensity Levels
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Operation in Ground Map Mode
1) Press the MODE Softkey.
2) Press the GROUND Softkey to place the radar in Ground Map mode.
3) Press the BACK Softkey.
AFCS
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the TILT field.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Adjust the antenna tilt angle by turning the small FMS Knob to display ground returns at the desired distance.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
WEATHER RADAR OVERLAY ON THE NAVIGATION MAP PAGE
APPENDICES
The Map - Weather Radar Page is the principal map page for viewing airborne weather radar information.
Weather radar information may also be shown as an overlay on the Navigation Map Page on the MFD as an
additional reference.
INDEX
When the airborne weather radar overlay is enabled, a weather radar information box appears in the upperright corner of the Navigation Map Page. It indicates the selected weather mode, radar bearing, and antenna
tilt angle. The overlay is capable of showing radar information while the radar is in horizontal scan mode.
If the radar is operating in vertical scan mode while the overlay is enabled, the system indicates ‘N/A’ in the
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information box to indicate the airborne weather radar overlay is not available until the horizontal scan mode
is selected on the Weather Radar Page.
NOTE: When viewing airborne weather radar information overlay on the Navigation Map Page, selecting
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
a Heading Up navigation map orientation may be desired, since it is identical to the orientation on the
Weather Radar Page.
Radar Overlay Enabled Icon
Radar Mode
EIS
Selected
Radar Bearing
Radar Range
Scan Line
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selected Antenna
Tilt Angle
Boundary
of Selected
Radar Scan
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-110 Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page
AFCS
Enabling/Disabling Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the MAP Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Select the WX RADAR Softkey.
Or:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
APPENDICES
2) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the product selections and highlight the WX RADAR overlay selection
(‘On’ or ‘Off’). Turn the small FMS knob to highlight the desired selection.
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INDEX
5) To remove the menu, press the FMS Knob or CLR Key.
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SYSTEM
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Weather radar controls on the Navigation Map Page are limited to adjustment of the radar range, bearing,
and antenna tilt angle. The airborne weather radar overlay is viewable at Navigation Map Ranges between five
and 800 nautical miles (ten to 1,500 kilometers). At map ranges beyond these limits, the system removes the
weather radar information from the map. Adjusting the range on the Navigation Map Page simultaneously
adjusts the range of the weather radar proportionally. This radar range is annunciated on the range arc that
appears when the overlay is enabled and a radar scan is active. When the radar range is adjusted on the
Navigation Map Page, system synchronizes the same range to the Weather Radar Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The weather radar overlay uses the same colors as those shown on the Weather Radar Page to indicate the
intensity of radar returns. However, the display of gray WATCH radar attenuation and red weather alert
target bands is exclusive to the Weather Radar Page. Because data link radar precipitation and terrain present
information using similar colors, enabling the airborne weather radar overlay on the Navigation Map Page
disables the display of the data link radar and terrain information for this page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Radar antenna tilt angle is adjustable in 0.25 degree increments on the Navigation Map Page. Move the
Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward. Move the Joystick down to adjust the antenna tilt angle
upward. An up or down arrow next to the antenna tilt angle setting indicates the direction of the antenna tilt
angle.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
EIS
The radar bearing is adjustable in one degree increments on the Navigation Map Page by moving the Joystick
left or right when the overlay is enabled. A left or right arrow next to the bearing readout indicates the direction
of the selected bearing. The cyan radar bearing line is only viewable on the Weather Radar Page. While the
bearing line is not shown on the Navigation Map Page, adjusting the bearing on the Navigation Map Page while
Sector Scan is enabled centers the radar scan on the selected bearing, and the radar scan boundaries adjust
accordingly on the Navigation Map Page.
SYSTEM STATUS
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The radar mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Weather Radar Page. Additional information
may be displayed in the center of the Weather Radar Page as a banner annunciation.
Radar Mode
Radar Mode Annunciation Box
Center Banner Annunciation
Standby
STANDBY
STANDBY
Standby (During Warm-Up),
applicable to GWX 68 only
STANDBY
WARM-UP
XX
(XX indicates number of seconds
remaining in warm-up)
Weather
WEATHER
None
Ground Mapping
Off
Radar Failed*
GROUND MAPPING
OFF
FAIL
None
OFF
RADAR FAIL
INDEX
* See Table 6-13 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-12 Radar Modes on the Weather Radar Page
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The system displays the status of the radar antenna stabilization feature in the upper right corner of the
Weather Radar Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Radar Antenna
Description
Stabilization Status
STAB ON
Antenna stabilization is selected on.
STAB OFF
Antenna stabilization is selected off.
The radar is not receiving pitch and roll information.
STAB INOP
The antenna stabilization feature is inoperative.
EIS
Table 6-13 Antenna Stabilization Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
If the unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown as a banner in the center of the Weather
Radar Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Weather Radar
Page Center Banner
Description
Annunciation
BAD CONFIG
The radar configuration is invalid. The radar should be serviced.
RDR FAULT
The radar unit is reporting a fault. The radar should be serviced.
The system is not receiving valid data from the radar unit. The system
RADAR FAIL
should be serviced.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Table 6-14 Abnormal Radar Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.4 WX-500 STORMSCOPE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not rely on information from the lightning detection system display as the sole basis for
hazardous weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate
or incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
NOTE: Stormscope lightning cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same navigation map as lightning
EIS
information from data link weather lightning sources.
NOTE: When using Stormscope, there are several atmospheric phenomena in addition to nearby thunderstorms
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
that can cause isolated discharge points in the strike display mode. However, clusters of two or more
discharge points in the strike display mode do indicate thunderstorm activity if these points reappear after
the screen has been cleared.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The following pages can display Stormscope data:
• Stormscope Page
• Navigation Map
• AUX - Trip Planning Page
• Nearest Pages
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
To display Stormscope data on the Navigation Map, AUX - Trip Planning Page, or any of the Nearest Pages,
press the MAP Softkey, then press the STRMSCP Softkey. These pages can also display cell or strike data using the
yellow lightning strike symbology shown in Table 6-15.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 6-15 Lightning Age and Symbols
SETTING UP STORMSCOPE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
APPENDICES
Setting up Stormscope options on the Navigation Map:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Setup’ selected (Figure 6-111), press the ENT Key.
INDEX
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the group selection window. Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Weather’
and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight and move between the product selections.
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5) When an item is highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the option (Figure 6-112).
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page (Figure 6-113).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The following options are available (Figure 6-112):
• STRMSCP LTNG – Turns the display of Stormscope data on or off.
• STRMSCP MODE – Selects the CELL or STRIKE mode of lightning activity. Cell mode identifies clusters
or cells of electrical activity. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
EIS
• STRMSCP SMBL – Selects the range at which Stormscope data displays. Stormscope data is removed
when a map range greater than the STRMSCP SMBL value is selected.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-111 Navigation Map Page Menu
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 6-112 Map Setup Menu
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CELL AND STRIKE MODE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
On the Navigation Map, cell mode identifies cells of lightning activity (Figure 6-113). Stormscope identifies
clusters of electrical activity that indicate cells. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning
strikes.
Selecting the ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Setup’ selected, press the ENT Key.
EIS
3) Select the ‘Weather’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on ‘STRMSCP LTNG’.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘STRMSCP MODE’.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to change between ‘CELL’ and ‘STRIKE’ options. When an item is selected, press the
ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7) Press the FMS knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
APPENDICES
Figure 6-113 Navigation Map Page with Stormscope Lightning Data
INDEX
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn
(Figure 6-114). This is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the
nose of the aircraft.
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Manually clearing Stormscope data on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Clear Stormscope® Lightning’ (Figure 6-114).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the ENT Key.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-114 Navigation Map Page Options Menu
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
ZOOM RANGE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Stormscope lightning data can be displayed up to 800 nm zoom range (in North up mode) on the Navigation
Map Page. However, in the track up mode at the 500 nm range, a portion of Stormscope lightning data
can be behind the aircraft and therefore not visible on the Navigation Map. Since the range for Stormscope
data is 400 nm diameter total (200 nm in front and 200 nm behind), the 500 nm range in North up mode
shows all the data.
At a map range of less than 30 nm, Stormscope lightning data is not displayed, but can still be present.
The maximum zoom range can also be set on the Navigation Map.
AFCS
Selecting a Stormscope range on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘MAP SETUP’.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Select the ‘Weather’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘STRMSCP SMBL’.
APPENDICES
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the maximum display range.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
To change the display range on the Navigation Map Page, turn the Joystick clockwise to zoom out or
counter-clockwise to zoom in.
INDEX
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SELECTING THE STORMSCOPE PAGE
Stormscope lightning data can be displayed at the ranges of 25 nm, 50 nm, 100 nm, and 200 nm.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Adjusting the Stormscope Map Range:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Stormscope Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
3) To change the map range, turn the Joystick clockwise to zoom out or counter-clockwise to zoom in.
AFCS
Figure 6-115 Stormscope Page
Changing between ‘cell’ and ‘strike’ mode on the Stormscope Page:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the MODE Softkey. The CELL and STRIKE softkeys are displayed.
3) Press the CELL Softkey to display ‘CELL’ data or press the STRIKE Softkey to display ‘STRIKE’ data. ‘CELL’ or
‘STRIKE’ is displayed in the mode box in the upper left corner of the Stormscope Page.
APPENDICES
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the main Stormscope page.
Or:
1) With the Stormscope Page selected, press the MENU Key.
INDEX
2) ‘Strike Mode’ or ‘Cell Mode’ is highlighted. Press the ENT Key to select the highlighted mode.
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Changing the viewing mode between 360˚ and 120˚ on the Stormscope Page:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the VIEW Softkey. The 360 and ARC softkeys are displayed. Press the 360 Softkey to display a 360˚
viewing area or press the ARC Softkey to display a 120˚ viewing area.
3) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the main Stormscope page.
Or:
1) With the Stormscope Page selected, press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘View Arc’ or ‘View 360º’, then press the ENT Key.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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6.5 TERRAIN PROXIMITY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not use Terrain Proximity information for primary terrain avoidance. Terrain Proximity is
intended only to enhance situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain database coverage
EIS
G950 Terrain Proximity is a terrain awareness system that does not comply with TSO-C151b certification
standards. It increases situational awareness and aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). Do not
confuse Terrain Proximity with the optional Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B (TAWS-B). TAWS-B
is more sophisticated and robust, and it is TSO-C151b certified. Terrain Proximity does not provide warning
annunciations or voice alerts. It only provides color indications on map displays when terrain and obstacles are
within a certain altitude threshold from the aircraft. Although the terrain and obstacle color map displays are the
same, TAWS-B uses more sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: The terrain system is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South latitude.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
area.
Terrain Proximity requires the following components to operate properly:
• Valid 3-D GPS position
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Valid terrain/obstacle database
Terrain Proximity displays altitudes of terrain and obstructions relative to the aircraft position and altitude with
reference to a database that may contain inaccuracies. Terrain and obstructions are shown only if they are in the
database. Terrain and obstacle information should be used as an aid to situational awareness. They should never
be used to navigate or maneuver around terrain.
AFCS
Note that all obstructions may not be available in the terrain and obstacle database. No terrain and obstacle
information is shown without a valid 3-D GPS position.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The G950 GPS receiver provides the horizontal position and altitude. GPS altitude is derived from satellite
position. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above
mean sea level calculated geometrically. GSL altitude is used to determine terrain and obstacle proximity. GSL
altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that
normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL
altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source.
APPENDICES
Terrain and obstacle databases are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position and altitude, the Terrain Proximity
feature portrays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and altitude of the
aircraft. GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and predict the aircraft’s flight path in relation to
the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this way, the pilot can view predicted dangerous terrain and obstacle
conditions.
INDEX
DISPLAYING TERRAIN PROXIMITY DATA
The symbols and colors in Figure 6-116 and Table 6-16 are used to represent obstacles and aircraft altitude
when the Terrain Proximity Page is selected for display. Terrain Proximity uses black, yellow, and red to
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represent terrain information relative to aircraft altitude. The color of each obstacle is associated with the
altitude of the aircraft.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Terrain Above Aircraft Altitude
Red terrain is above
or within 100 ft below
the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude
100 ft Threshold
1000 ft
Yellow terrain is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
EIS
Black terrain is more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
On the Terrain Proxmity Page only, a gray shade of purple indicates no terrain data is
available.
Figure 6-116 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain Proximity
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Gray obstacle is more than 1000 ft
below aircraft altitude
AFCS
* Gray obstacles only shown on navigation maps.
Table 6-16 Terrain Proximity Terrain/Obstacle Colors and Symbology
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Terrain and obstacle information can be displayed on the following pages:
• Terrain Proximity Page
APPENDICES
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps other than the Terrain Proximity Page):
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey).
2) Press the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
INDEX
When Terrain Proximity is selected on maps other than the Terrain Proximity Page, an icon to indicate the
feature is enabled for display and a legend for Terrain Proximity colors are shown (Figure 6-120).
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
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obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles recognized by
Terrain Proximity as yellow or red are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within
the setting limit.
EIS
Maps besides the Terrain Proximity Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
The maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the
Navigation Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20
nm, the highest obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-117).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-118).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-119).
• TERRAIN DATA – Turns the display of terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
• OBSTACLE DATA – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-117 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-118 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-119 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Map Group
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Additional information about obstacles can be displayed by panning over the display on the map. The map
panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the Joystick. If the
map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Additional
Information on
Obstacle Selected
with Map Pointer
Red Terrain Area
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
EIS
Yellow Terrain Area
(Between 100’ and
1000’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Lighted Obstacle
Selected with Map
Pointer
Red Lighted
Obstacles
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Terrain Display
Enabled Icon
Terrain Legend
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-120 Terrain Information on the Navigation Map Page
TERRAIN PROXIMITY PAGE
AFCS
The Terrain Proximity Page is specialized to show terrain and obstacle data in relation to the aircraft’s
current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs) can
be displayed for reference.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are
available relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display.
Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
Displaying the Terrain Proximity Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
APPENDICES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain Proximity Page.
3) To change the view,
a) Press the VIEW Softkey.
b) Press the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
INDEX
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘View Arc’ or ‘View 360º’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key to change the view.
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Showing/hiding aviation information on the Terrain Proximity Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
EIS
Map Range Rings
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Yellow Lighted Obstacles
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-121 Terrain Proximity Page
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
AFCS
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Map Range Arc
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Black Terrain
(Terrain More
than 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
INDEX
Figure 6-122 Terrain Proximity Page (Arc View)
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6.6 PROFILE VIEW TERRAIN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 offers a Profile View of terrain and obstacles relative to the aircraft’s current flight path and altitude
on the Navigation Map Page of the MFD. Profile View does not provide terrain or obstacle caution or warning
annunciations or voice alerts, nor does it display potential impact points inside the Profile View. The colors and
symbols in Figure 6-123 and Table 6-17 are used to represent terrain and obstacles.
Terrain Above Aircraft Altitude
100 ft Threshold
EIS
Red terrain is above
or within 100 ft below
the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude
1000 ft
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Yellow terrain is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Black terrain is more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-123 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Profile View Terrain
Obstacle Location
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
AFCS
Gray obstacle is more than 1000 ft
below aircraft altitude
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 6-17 Profile View Terrain/Obstacle Colors and Symbology
Enabling/disabling Profile View:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the PROFILE Softkey to enable or disable Profile View.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Profile View’ or ‘Hide Profile View’ (choice dependent on current state)
and press the ENT Key.
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Enabling/Disabling Profile View Terrain on the Navigation Map (when Profile View is enabled):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MAP Softkey.
3) Press the TERRAIN Softkey.
PROFILE VIEW DISPLAY
EIS
When the Profile View is enabled, it is displayed in a window below the Navigation Map. Altitude is shown
along a vertical scale, with an aircraft icon positioned at the current altitude. Distance is represented horizontally
along the bottom of the Profile View, and increases from left (present position) to right.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When the Navigation Map range is adjusted with the Joystick, the horizontal distance of the Profile View
is adjusted proportionately to be 1/2 of the Navigation Map range distance down to 1 nm, at which point
Profile View is no longer available (‘PROFILE NOT AVAILABLE’ is displayed). When Navigation Map range
is adjusted to remove altitude-correlated colored terrain data (as shown in the Terrain Legend) or obstacles
from the Navigation Map, these items are also removed from the Profile View; only an outline of the terrain
will be displayed in black in the Profile View window. Refer to the Terrain Proximity, Terrain-SVS, or TAWS-B
discussions for more information about displaying terrain or obstacles on the Navigation Map Page.
Profile
View Path
Enabled
Navigation Map Range
AFCS
Terrain Legend
Terrain Enabled Icons
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Altitude Scale
Profile View Total
Distance
Distance Scale
APPENDICES
Figure 6-124 Navigation Map Page with Profile View Terrain and Topographic
Data Enabled
INDEX
Obstacles with heights greater than 200 feet AGL appear relative to aircraft altitude along the altitude scale.
The top of the obstacle symbol on the scale represents the obstacle’s height AGL. If the obstacle’s height AGL
is higher than can be represented by the obstacle symbol itself (e.g. for unusually tall obstacles), a vertical line
appears below the obstacle symbol in order to depict the top of the obstacle symbol at its height AGL, as shown
in Figure 6-125.
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 6-125 Profile View with Tall Obstacles
EIS
Approach
0.6 nm
Departure
0.6 nm
Terminal
2.0 nm
Enroute
4.0 nm
Oceanic
4.0 nm
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Total Profile View Width
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Flight Phase
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Profile View is based on the current aircraft track (or heading if track is unavailable) and shows the highest
known terrain or obstacles within a predetermined width from the present aircraft position to the end of the
profile range. The width of the Profile View is determined by the phase of flight, as annunciated on the HSI,
and is widest during enroute or oceanic phases (Table 6-18). Refer to the Flight Instruments section for more
information about flight phases.
Table 6-18 Profile View Width Scale
AFCS
PROFILE PATH
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Profile Path displays the horizontal and lateral boundaries of the Profile View. The path is shown as a
white rectangle on the Navigation Map Page and is only available when Profile View is enabled. White range
markers both edges of the Profile Path rectangle match the range markers along the distance scale inside the
Profile View display window whenever the profile range is at least 4 nm (or 7.5 km if configured for metric
units).
APPENDICES
The pilot can enable or disable the display of the Profile Path, as well as select the maximum navigation map
range above which the Profile Path is removed.
INDEX
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Customizing the Profile Path display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-126).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Profile’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-127).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the PROFILE PATH ‘On’ or ‘Off’ field. Turn the small FMS Knob to change
the selection.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the PROFILE PATH range setting. Turn the small FMS Knob to select a
maximum navigation map range to display the profile path, then press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-126 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-128 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu,
Profile Group
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-127 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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6.7 TERRAIN-SVS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not use Terrain-SVS information for primary terrain avoidance. Terrain-SVS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the terrain database coverage area.
EIS
NOTE: The terrain system is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South latitude.
NOTE: Terrain-SVS is standard when the Synthetic Vision System (SVS) option is installed. The TAWS-B
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
option will take precedence over Terrain-SVS.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Terrain-SVS is a terrain awareness system available with the Garmin Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option.
Terrain-SVS is integrated within SVS to provide visual and voice alerts to indicate the presence of threatening
terrain relevant to the projected flight path. For detailed information regarding SVT, refer to the Additional
Features section of this Pilot’s Guide.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Terrain-SVS does not comply with TSO-C151b certification standards. It increases situational awareness and
aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). Do not confuse Terrain-SVS with a Terrain Awareness and
Warning System (TAWS). TAWS is more sophisticated and robust, and it is TSO-C151b certified. Although the
terrain and obstacle color map displays are the same, TAWS uses more sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft
distance from terrain and obstacles.
Terrain-SVS does not provide the following:
• Premature Descent Alerting (PDA)
• Excessive Descent Rate (EDR)
AFCS
• Negative Climb Rate (NCR)
• Descent to 500 Feet Altitude Voice Callout (VCO)
Terrain-SVS requires the following components to operate properly:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Valid 3-D GPS position
• Valid terrain/obstacle database
APPENDICES
Terrain-SVS displays altitudes of terrain and obstructions relative to the aircraft position and altitude with
reference to a database that may contain inaccuracies. Terrain and obstructions are shown only if they are in the
database. Terrain and obstacle information should be used as an aid to situational awareness. They should never
be used to navigate or maneuver around terrain.
Note that all obstructions may not be available in the terrain and obstacle database. No terrain and obstacle
information is shown without a valid 3-D GPS position.
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INDEX
The G950 GPS receiver provides the horizontal position and altitude. GPS altitude is derived from satellite
position. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above
mean sea level calculated geometrically. GSL altitude is used to determine terrain and obstacle proximity. GSL
altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL
altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Terrain and obstacle databases are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position and altitude, the Terrain-SVS
feature portrays a 3-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and altitude of the
aircraft. GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and predict the aircraft’s flight path in relation to
the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this way, the pilot can view predicted dangerous terrain and obstacle
conditions.
DISPLAYING TERRAIN-SVS DATA
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Terrain-SVS uses yellow (caution) and red (warning) to depict terrain and obstacles (with heights greater
than 200 feet above ground level, AGL) alerts relative to aircraft altitude. Colors are adjusted automatically as
the aircraft altitude changes. The colors and symbols in Figure 6-129 and Tables 6-19 and 6-20 are used to
represent terrain, obstacles, and potential impact points.
Potential Impact Point
Terrain above or
within 100 ft
below the aircraft
altitude
Projected Flight Path
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
100 ft Threshold
Unlighted Obstacle
1000 ft
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Terrain between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the
aircraft altitude
Terrain more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
On the Terrain-SVS Page only, a gray shade of purple indicates no terrain data is
available.
Figure 6-129 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain-SVS
AFCS
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
APPENDICES
Gray obstacle is more than 1000 ft
below aircraft altitude
INDEX
Table 6-19 Terrain-SVS Terrain/Obstacle Colors and Symbology
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Alert Type
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Potential Impact
Point Symbol
Example Annunciation
Warning
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Caution
Table 6-20 Terrain-SVS Potential Impact Point Symbols with Alert Types
Terrain-SVS information can be displayed on the following maps:
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Pages
EIS
• PFD Inset Map
• Terrain-SVS Page
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps other than the Terrain-SVS Page):
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey).
2) Press the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When Terrain-SVS is selected on maps other than the Terrain-SVS Page, a terrain icon is shown to indicate
the feature is enabled for display.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling the
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD, while the
range setting also affects the PFD Inset Map.
AFCS
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles for which warnings
and cautions are issued are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting
limit.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Maps besides the Terrain-SVS Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The
maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the Navigation
Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20 nm, the highest
obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-130).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-131).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-132).
INDEX
• TERRAIN DATA – Turns the display of terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
• OBSTACLE DATA – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
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6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-130 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-131 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-132 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Map Group
TERRAIN-SVS PAGE
AFCS
The Terrain-SVS Page is specialized to show terrain, obstacle, and potential impact point data relative to the
aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs)
can be displayed for reference. If an obstacle and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the display
automatically zooms in to the closest potential point of impact on the Terrain-SVS Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the Joystick from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
APPENDICES
Displaying the Terrain-SVS Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain-SVS Page.
Changing the Terrain-SVS Page view:
INDEX
1) Press the VIEW Softkey.
2) Press the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘View Arc’ or ‘View 360º’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key to change the view
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Showing/hiding aviation information on the Terrain-SVS Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
EIS
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
Map Range Rings
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Yellow Lighted Obstacles
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below Aircraft Altitude)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Terrain Legend
Annunciation
Window
Figure 6-133 Terrain-SVS Page
AFCS
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
Map Range Arc
APPENDICES
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Black Terrain
(Terrain More
than 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
INDEX
Terrain Legend
Annunciation
Window
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Figure 6-134 Terrain-SVS Page (ARC View)
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TERRAIN-SVS ALERTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within Terrain-SVS software algorithms.
Terrain-SVS alerts are issued as a caution or warning. An alert includes simultaneous visual annunciations and
voice alerts. Table 6-21 shows Terrain-SVS alert types with corresponding annunciations and voice alerts.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The Terrain-SVS Alert Annunciation is
shown to the upper left of the Altimeter on the PFD and below the Terrain Legend on the MFD. If the TerrainSVS Page is not displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up alert:
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
EIS
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the Terrain-SVS Page)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Alert Annunciation
Pop-up
Alert
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-135 Terrain-SVS Alert Annunciations
APPENDICES
Terrain Display Enabled
Terrain Legend
Alert Annunciation
INDEX
Figure 6-136 Navigation Map Page
(After Terrain-SVS Pop-up Alert Acknowledgment)
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MFD
Pop-Up Alert (except
Terrain-SVS Page)
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
Aural Message
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning (IOI)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution (IOI)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
EIS
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-21 Terrain-SVS Alerts Summary
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of Terrain-SVS compares the projected flight path
as derived from GPS data with terrain features and obstacles from the terrain and obstacle databases. The
system issues visual and voice alerts when the projected flight path conflicts with terrain or obstacles.
AFCS
The projected flight path is a calculated area ahead of, to the sides, and below the aircraft. The size of
the projected flight path varies based on factors including ground speed (the path ahead is larger when the
ground speed is higher), whether the aircraft is level, turning, or descending, and the proximity to the nearest
runway along the current track. As the aircraft approaches the runway, the projected flight path becomes
narrower until the system automatically disables FLTA alerts or the pilot manually inhibits them.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
There are two types of FLTA alerts, Reduced Required Terrain/Obstacle Clearance (RTC or ROC respectively)
and Imminent Terrain/Obstacle Impact (ITI or IOI respectively).
APPENDICES
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values in Figure 6-137. When an RTC alert is issued, a potential impact point is displayed on the
Terrain-SVS Page.
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is below the elevation of a terrain or obstacle in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts are
accompanied by a potential impact point displayed on the Terrain-SVS Page. The alert is annunciated when
the projected vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes in Figure 6-137.
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Level (FT)
Descending (FT)
800
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Required
Clearance
(FT)
Required Terrain
Clearance (FT)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
0
5
10
15
20
Distance From Runway (NM)
25
30
Figure 6-137 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
FLTA alerts are automatically inhibited when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination runway
elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends. When TerrainSVS alerts are inhibited, the annunciation ‘TER INH’ is shown on the PFD and in the MFD terrain annunciation
window.
Figure 6-138 Terrain-SVS Alerting Disabled
(Terrain-SVS Inhibited) Annunciation
Inhibiting/enabling Terrain-SVS alerting:
AFCS
1) Select the Terrain-SVS Page.
2) Press the INHIBIT Softkey to inhibit or enable Terrain-SVS (choice dependent on current state).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Inhibit Terrain-SVS’ or ‘Enable Terrain-SVS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
If Terrain-SVS alerts are inhibited when the Final Approach Fix is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS
approach, a ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation may appear on the PFD next to the Altimeter if the current aircraft
altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed altitude at the Final Approach Fix. See the Flight Instruments
Section for details.
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OVERVIEW
SYSTEM STATUS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
During power-up, Terrain-SVS conducts a system test of its alerting capabilities.
Terrain-SVS continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status,
and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert “Terrain System Failure” is
generated along with the ‘TER FAIL’ alert annunciation.
System Test in Progress
System Test Pass
None
Terrain Alerting Inhibited
None
“Terrain System Test OK”
None
None
NO GPS POSITION
“Terrain System Not Available”*
None
“Terrain System Not Available”*
TERRAIN FAIL
“Terrain System Failure”
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
AFCS
None
None
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Excessively degraded GPS signal;
or Out of database coverage area
Terrain System Test Fail; Terrain
or Obstacle database unavailable
or invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid, and
Terrain-SVS operating with PFD
Terrain or Obstacle databases
Aural Message
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
No GPS position
Terrain-SVS Page Center
Banner Annunciation
TERRAIN TEST
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
PFD/MFD† Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
EIS
Terrain-SVS requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should
the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TER N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the Terrain-SVS Page. The voice alert “Terrain
System Not Available” is generated. When sufficient GPS signal is returns and the aircraft is within the
database coverage area, the aural message “Terrain System Available” is generated.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
† Annunciation is shown on Terrain-SVS Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
* “Terrain System Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is restored, or Terrain database coverage area reentered.
Table 6-22 Terrain-SVS System Status Annunciations
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.8 TAWS-B
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The data contained in the TAWS databases comes from government agencies. Garmin accurately
EIS
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain avoidance. TAWS is intended only to enhance
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain database coverage
situational awareness.
processes and cross-validates the data but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
area.
NOTE: The terrain system is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South latitude.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TAWS-B (Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B) is an optional feature to increase situational
awareness and aid in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). TAWS-B provides visual and voice alerts when
terrain and obstacles are within the given altitude threshold from the aircraft. The displayed alerts and warnings
are advisory in nature only.
TAWS-B satisfies TSO-C151b Class B requirements for certification.
TAWS-B requires the following to operate properly:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Valid terrain and obstacle databases
• A valid 3-D GPS position solution
AFCS
TAWS-B uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. Terrain information is based
on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may be
shown if available in the database. Garmin verifies the data to confirm accuracy of the content, per TSO-C151b.
However, the displayed information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and may still contain
inaccuracies.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
TAWS-B uses information provided from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude. GPS
altitude is derived from satellite measurements. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic
sea level (GSL), which is the height above mean sea level (MSL) calculated geometrically. The system uses GSL
altitude to determine TAWS-B alerts. GSL altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject
to variations in pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not
require local altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source. Therefore, GSL
altitude provides a highly accurate and reliable altitude source to calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
INDEX
The terrain and obstacle databases used by TAWS-B are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position and GSL
altitude, TAWS-B displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and
altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and “predict” the
aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this manner, TAWS-B can provide
advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain conditions.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
from the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude. This variation results in the aircraft’s GSL altitude differing
from the baro-corrected altitude.
DISPLAYING TAWS-B DATA
EIS
TAWS-B uses yellow (caution) and red (warning) to depict terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than
200 feet above ground level, AGL) alerts relative to aircraft altitude. Colors are adjusted automatically as
the aircraft altitude changes. The colors and symbols in Figure 6-139 and Tables 6-17 and 6-18 are used to
represent terrain, obstacles, and potential impact points.
Potential Impact Point
100 ft Threshold
Unlighted Obstacle
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Terrain above or
within 100 ft
below the aircraft
altitude
Projected Flight Path
1000 ft
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Terrain between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the
aircraft altitude
Terrain more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
On the TAWS-B Page only, a gray shade of purple indicates no terrain data is available.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-139 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for TAWS-B
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
AFCS
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Gray obstacle is more than 1000 ft
below aircraft altitude
Table 6-23 TAWS-B Terrain/Obstacle Colors and Symbology
Alert Type
APPENDICES
Potential Impact
Point Symbol
Example Annunciation
Warning
INDEX
Caution
Table 6-24 TAWS-B Potential Impact Point Symbols with Alert Types
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TAWS-B information can be displayed on the following maps:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Pages
• TAWS-B Page
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (maps other than the TAWS-B Page):
1) Press the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey).
EIS
2) Press the TERRAIN Softkey to display terrain and obstacle data.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When TAWS-B is selected on maps other than the TAWS-B Page, an icon is shown to indicate that the feature
is enabled for display. A legend for TAWS-B terrain colors will accompany the icon on the Navigation Map Page
(Figure 6-140) and the Flight Plan Pages. The legend is always shown on the TAWS-B Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-140 Terrain Overlay Enabled Icon and Legend
AFCS
Maps besides the TAWS-B Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The
maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the Navigation
Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20 nm, the highest
obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles for which warnings
and cautions are issued are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting
limit.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling the
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD, while the
range setting also affects the PFD Inset Map.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-141).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-142).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-143).
• TERRAIN DATA – Turns the display of terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which terrain is shown
EIS
• OBSTACLE DATA – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-141 Navigation Map Page Menu
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-142 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-143 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Map Group
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TAWS-B PAGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The TAWS-B Page is specialized to show terrain, obstacle, and potential impact point data in relation to the
aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs)
can be displayed for reference. If the aircraft’s projected flight path and terrain/obstacles conflict, the system
automatically decreases the map range if necessary to emphasize the display of the closest potential impact
point.
EIS
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like Arc (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the Joystick from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
Displaying the TAWS-B Page:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the TAWS-B Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Press the 360 or ARC Softkey to select the desired view.
Changing the TAWS-B Page view:
1) Press the VIEW Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Select ‘View Arc’ or ‘View 360º’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key to change the view.
Showing/hiding aviation information on the TAWS-B Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Map Range Rings
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
EIS
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Yellow Lighted
Obstacles (Between
100’ and 1000’
Below Aircraft
Altitude)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Annunciation
Window
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-144 TAWS-B Page
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Map Orientation
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
Map Range Arc
AFCS
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’ and
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Black Terrain
(Terrain More
than 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Annunciation
Window
APPENDICES
Figure 6-145 TAWS-B Page (ARC View)
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TAWS-B ALERTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within TAWS-B software algorithms.
TAWS-B terrain and obstacle alerts are classified as either a caution or warning, depending on the severity level.
When an alert is issued, visual annunciations are displayed simultaneously with voice alerts. Table 6-25 shows
TAWS-B alert types with corresponding annunciations and voice alerts.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The TAWS-B Alert Annunciation is
shown to the upper left of the Altimeter on the PFD and below the Terrain Legend on the MFD. If the TAWS-B
Page is not displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up alert:
EIS
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the TAWS-B Page)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Alert Annunciation
Pop-up
Alert
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-146 TAWS-B Alert Annunciations
APPENDICES
Terrain Display Enabled
Terrain Legend
Alert Annunciation
INDEX
Figure 6-147 Navigation Map Page
(After TAWS-B Pop-up Alert Acknowledgment)
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PFD/MFD**
Alert
Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert
(except TAWS-B Page)
Aural Message
Excessive Descent Rate
Warning (EDR)
*
or
*
or
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
or
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Caution (RTC)
or
Imminent Terrain Impact
Caution (ITI)
or
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Caution (ROC)
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Caution (IOI)
or
AFCS
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
*
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Warning (IOI)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
“Sink Rate”
*
or
APPENDICES
Negative Climb Rate
Caution (NCR)
*
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Warning (ROC)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up’
EIS
Imminent Terrain Impact
Warning (ITI)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
“Pull Up”
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Warning (RTC)
Premature Descent Alert
Caution (PDA)
Altitude Callout “500”
Excessive Descent Rate
Caution (EDR)
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Alert Type
“Don’t Sink”*
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
INDEX
* Alerts with multiple messages are configurable at installation and are installation-dependent. Alerts for the default
configuration when more than one option is available are indicated with asterisks.
** Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-25 TAWS-B Alerts Summary
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide suitable notification when the
aircraft is determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain at an excessive speed. Figure 6-148 shows the
parameters for the alert as defined by TSO-C151b.
6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
EIS
4000
NK
: “SI
ion
Caut
3500
”
RATE
3000
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
Descent Rate (FPM)
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
500
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-148 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
AFCS
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of TAWS-B compares the projected flight path as
derived from GPS data with terrain features and obstacles from the terrain and obstacle databases. The system
issues visual and voice alerts when the projected flight path conflicts with terrain or obstacles.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The projected flight path is a calculated area ahead of, to the sides, and below the aircraft. The size of
the projected flight path varies based on factors including ground speed (the path ahead is larger when the
ground speed is higher), whether the aircraft is level, turning, or descending, and the proximity to the nearest
runway along the current track. As the aircraft approaches the runway, the projected flight path becomes
narrower until the system automatically disables FLTA alerts or the pilot manually inhibits them.
There are two types of FLTA alerts, Reduced Required Terrain/Obstacle Clearance (RTC or ROC respectively)
and Imminent Terrain/Obstacle Impact (ITI or IOI respectively).
APPENDICES
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values in Figure 6-149. When an RTC alert is issued, a potential impact point is displayed on maps
with terrain information enabled.
INDEX
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is below the elevation of a terrain or obstacle in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts are
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OVERVIEW
accompanied by a potential impact point displayed on the TAWS-B Page. The alert is annunciated when the
projected vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes in Figure 6-149.
Level (FT)
Descending (FT)
800
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
600
500
400
EIS
Required
Clearance
(FT)
Required Terrain
Clearance (FT)
700
300
200
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Distance From Runway (NM)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-149 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
FLTA alerts are automatically inhibited when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination runway
elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway (Figure 6-150).
AFCS
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
800
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
600
500
400
300
APPENDICES
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
INDEX
Figure 6-150 PDA Alerting Threshold
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
PDA and FLTA visual annunciations and voice alerts can be manually inhibited. Discretion should be used
when inhibiting TAWS-B and the system should be enabled when appropriate. When TAWS-B is inhibited,
the alert annunciation ‘TAWS INH’ is shown on the PFD and in the TAWS-B annunciation window of the
MFD (Figure 6-151).
Figure 6-151 TAWS Alerting Disabled
(TAWS Inhibited) Annunciation
EIS
Inhibiting/enabling TAWS-B alerting:
1) Select the TAWS-B Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the INHIBIT Softkey to inhibit or enable TAWS (choice dependent on current state).
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
b) Select ‘Inhibit TAWS’ or ‘Enable TAWS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
If TAWS-B alerts are inhibited when the Final Approach Fix is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach,
a ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation may appear on the PFD next to the Altimeter if the current aircraft altitude is at
least 164 feet below the prescribed altitude at the Final Approach Fix. See the Flight Instruments Section for
details.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FIVE-HUNDRED ALTITUDE VOICE CALLOUT (VCO)
AFCS
The purpose of the “Five-hundred” voice alert is to provide an advisory alert of when the aircraft descends
to within 500 feet above the terrain or runway threshold. When the aircraft is within 5 nm of an airport, the
“Five Hundred” aural alert is based on the nearest runway threshold elevation. When the aircraft is more
than 5 nm of the nearest airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the height above terrain. There
are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany this voice alert.
NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT (NCR)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff.
The aural message “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by an annunciation and a pop-up terrain
alert on the display. NCR alerting is only active when departing from an airport and when the following
conditions are met:
APPENDICES
• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
• Distance from the departure airport is 5 nm or less
• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
INDEX
Figures 6-109 and 6-110 shows the NCR alerting parameters as defined by TSO-C151b for altitude loss
and climb rate respectively.
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OVERVIEW
1000
800
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
EIS
200
100
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
0
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-152 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
1000
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
200
100
AFCS
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-153 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM STATUS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
During power-up, TAWS-B conducts a system test. The system test can also be manually initiated. A voice
alert is issued when the test is complete. TAWS-B System Testing is disabled when ground speed exceeds 30
knots.
Manually testing the TAWS-B System:
1) Select the TAWS-B Page.
2) Press the MENU Key (Figure 6-154).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
3) Select ‘Test TAWS System’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the selection.
Figure 6-154 TAWS-B Page Menu
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TAWS-B continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status, and
GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert “TAWS System Failure” is generated
along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
TAWS-B requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should the
navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TAWS N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the TAWS-B Page. The voice alert “TAWS Not
Available” is generated. When the GPS signal integrity returns and the aircraft is within the database coverage
area, the voice alert “TAWS Available” is generated.
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System Test pass
None
TAWS-B FLTA Alerting Inhibited
None
“TAWS System Test Test OK”
None
None
NO GPS POSITION
“TAWS Not Available”
None
“TAWS Not Available”
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
None
None
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Excessively degraded GPS signal;
or Out of database coverage
area
TAWS-B System Test Fail; Terrain
or Obstacle database unavailable
or invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or invalid.
TAWS operating with PFD Terrain
or Obstacle databases
TAWS TEST
EIS
No GPS position
Voice Alert
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
System Test in progress
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PFD/MFD* Alert TAWS-B Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Annunciation
Alert Type
† Annunciation is shown on TAWS-B Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
* “TAWS Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is reestablished, or Terrain database coverage area reentered.
Table 6-26 TAWS-B System Status Annunciations
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.9 TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE (TIS)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the displays.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
EIS
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
site. Aircraft without an operating transponder are invisible to both Traffic Advisory Systems (TAS) and TIS.
Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude separation data or climb descent
indication.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: TIS is available only when the aircraft is within the service volume of a TIS-capable terminal radar
NOTE: TIS is disabled if another traffic system is installed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Traffic Information Service (TIS) is designed to help in detection and avoidance of other aircraft. TIS uses the
Mode S transponder for the traffic data link. TIS receives traffic information from ground stations, and is updated
every 5 seconds. The G950 displays up to eight traffic symbols within a 7.5-nm radius, from 3000 feet below
to 3500 feet above the requesting aircraft. Traffic is displayed according to the symbology shown in Table 6-27.
TIS Symbol
Description
Non-Threat Traffic
AFCS
Traffic Advisory (TA)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-27 TIS Traffic Symbols
APPENDICES
Traffic Advisories (TA) alert the crew to intruding aircraft. When traffic meets the advisory criteria for the TA,
a solid amber circle symbol is generated. A TA which is detected but is outside the range of the map on which
traffic is displayed are indicated with a message in the lower left corner of the map.
INDEX
TIS also provides a vector line showing the direction in which the traffic is moving, to the nearest 45°. Traffic
information for which TIS is unable to determine the bearing (non-bearing traffic) is displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map Page (Figure 6-159) or in a banner at the lower left corner of maps other than the Traffic Map Page on
which traffic can be displayed (Figure 6-155).
The altitude difference between the requesting aircraft and other intruder aircraft is displayed above/below the
traffic symbol in hundreds of feet. If the other aircraft is above the requesting aircraft, the altitude separation
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appears above the traffic symbol; if below, the altitude separation appears below. Altitude trend is displayed as
an up/down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in either direction) to the right of the target symbol. Traffic
symbols for aircraft without altitude reporting capability appear without altitude separation or climb/descent
information.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
DISPLAYING TRAFFIC DATA
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps (when TIS is operating):
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
EIS
• Navigation Map Page
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option is
installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Displaying traffic information (maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Press the MAP Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, an icon is shown to indicate the feature is
enabled for display.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Non-Threat
Traffic
Traffic
Advisory
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Traffic Status
Icon
Figure 6-155 TIS Traffic on Navigation Map Page
APPENDICES
TA Off Scale
Banner
Annunciation
Traffic System
Status Banner
Annunciations
“No Bearing”
Traffic Advisory
Banner
Annunciation
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INDEX
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of traffic. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which traffic data (symbols
and labels) are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use settings based on those selected for the
Navigation Map Page.
419
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Displaying traffic information (PFD Inset Map):
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data on the inset map (TRFC-1).
3) Press the softkey again to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
4) Press the softkey again to remove traffic data.
Customizing traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
EIS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-156).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Traffic’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-157).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-158).
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA ONLY - Displays Traffic Alerts only
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown (with the option to turn off)
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Figure 6-156 Navigation Map Page Menu
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-157 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-158 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Traffic Map Page is specialized to show surrounding TIS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current
position and altitude, without clutter from the basemap. It is the principal map page for viewing traffic
information. Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range
is adjustable with the Joystick from 2 to 12 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
AFCS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is on the
ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. Once the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches from Standby to
Operating Mode and the system displays traffic information. Refer to the System Status discussion for more
information.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
APPENDICES
3) Confirm TIS is in Operating Mode:
Press the OPERATE Softkey to begin displaying traffic.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
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INDEX
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ (shown if TIS is in Standby Mode) and press the ENT Key.
421
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Traffic Mode Annunciation
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
“TIS Not Available”
Voice Alert Status
Traffic Advisory, 500’
Below, Climbing
EIS
“Non-Bearing” Traffic
(System Unable to
Determine Bearing)
Distance is 4.0 nm,
500’ Above,
Descending
Range
Marking
Rings
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Off-Scale Traffic
Advisory
400’ Below, Level
Non-Threat
Traffic,
Altitude Not
Reported
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciations
Figure 6-159 Traffic Map Page
Select
to Mute
“TIS Not
Available”
Voice Alert
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TIS ALERTS
When the number of TAs increases from one scan to the next, the following occur:
• A single “Traffic” voice alert is generated.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears to the top left of the Attitude Indicator on the PFD, flashes for five
seconds, and remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
AFCS
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with traffic.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To reduce the number of nuisance alerts due to proximate aircraft, the “Traffic” voice alert is generated only
when the number of TAs increases. For example, when the first TA is displayed, a voice and visual annunciation
are generated. As long as a single TA remains on the display, no additional voice alerts are generated. If a second
TA appears on the display or if the number of TAs initially decreases and then subsequently increases, another
voice alert is generated.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-160 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
A “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert occurs when the TIS service becomes unavailable or is out of range.
TIS may be unavailable in the radar coverage area due to the following:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Radar site TIS Mode S sensor is not operational or is out of service
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is beyond the maximum range of the TIS-capable Mode S radar site.
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is above the radar site in the cone of silence and out of range of an adjacent site.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is below radar coverage. In flat terrain, the coverage extends from about 3000
feet upward at 55 miles. Terrain and obstacles around the radar site can further decrease radar coverage in all
directions.
• Traffic does not have an operating transponder.
The “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert can be manually muted to reduce nuisance alerting. TNA muting
status is shown in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page as either ‘TNA MUTE ON’ or ‘TNA MUTE OFF’.
AFCS
Muting the “TIS Not Available” voice alert:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the TNA MUTE Softkey. The status is displayed in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
APPENDICES
b) Select ‘‘’Not Available” Mute On’ (shown if TNA muting is currently off) and press the ENT Key.
SYSTEM STATUS
The G950 performs an automatic test of TIS during power-up. If TIS passes the test, TIS enters Standby Mode
(on the ground) or Operating Mode (in the air). If TIS fails the power up test, an annunciation is shown in the
center of the Traffic Map Page.
INDEX
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423
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Traffic Map Page Center
Description
Banner Annunciation
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the transponder*
Data is being received from the transponder, but
DATA FAILED
a failure is detected in the data stream*
FAILED
The transponder has failed*
UNAVAILABLE
TIS is unavailable or out of range
EIS
* Contact a service center or Garmin dealer for corrective action
Table 6-28 TIS Failure Annunciations
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
TIS System Failed
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
No Data Received
from Transponder
Figure 6-161 TIS Power-up Test Failure
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is on the
ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. If traffic is selected for display on another map while Standby
Mode is selected, the traffic display enabled icon is crossed out (also the case whenever TIS has failed). Once
the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches to Operating Mode and traffic information is displayed. The mode can be
changed manually using softkeys or the page menu.
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Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
TIS Operating
OPERATING
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TIS Failed*
FAIL
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TIS Standby
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Mode
* See Table 6-30 for additional failure annunciations
EIS
Table 6-29 TIS Modes
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Switching between TIS modes:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the STANDBY or OPERATE Softkey to switch between modes. The mode is displayed in the upper left
corner of the Traffic Map Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Operate Mode’ or ‘Standby Mode’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TRFC COAST
Traffic is removed because it is too old for coasting (12 to 60 seconds since last message)
Traffic may exist within the selected display range, but it is not displayed
Traffic data has failed
Traffic has not been detected
The traffic service is unavailable or out of range
INDEX
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
TRFC UNAVAIL
APPENDICES
TRFC RMVD
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending)
Appears if traffic data is not refreshed within 6 seconds
If after another 6 seconds data is not received, traffic is removed from the display
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced as the age increases
The displayed data is not current (6 to 12 seconds since last message)
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced when this message is displayed
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AGE MM:SS
Description
AFCS
TA X.X ± XX ↕
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed (Table 6-30).
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-30 TIS Traffic Status Annunciations
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.10 TAS TRAFFIC
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate information
from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
EIS
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
NOTE: Pilots should be aware of TAS system limitations. TAS systems require transponders of other aircraft
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
to respond to system interrogations. If the transponders do not respond to interrogations due phenomena
such as antenna shading or marginal transponder performance, traffic may be displayed intermittently, or
not at all. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude separation data or climb
descent indication. Pilots should remain vigilant for traffic at all times.
NOTE: TIS is disabled when TAS installed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The optional Garmin GTS 800/820/825 is a Traffic Advisory System (TAS). It enhances flight crew situational
awareness by displaying traffic information for transponder-equipped aircraft. The system also provides visual
annunciations and voice traffic alerts to assist in visually acquiring traffic.
The traffic system is capable of tracking up to 45 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode A or C transponders,
and up to 30 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode S transponders. A maximum of 30 aircraft with the highest
threat potential can be displayed simultaneously. No TAS surveillance is provided for aircraft without operating
transponders.
AFCS
THEORY OF OPERATION
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When the traffic system is in Operating Mode, the unit interrogates the transponders of intruding aircraft
while monitoring transponder replies. The system uses this information to derive the distance, relative bearing,
and if reported, the altitude and vertical trend for each aircraft within its surveillance range. The traffic system
then calculates a closure rate to each intruder based on the projected Closest Point of Approach (CPA). If the
closure rate meets the threat criteria for a Traffic Advisory (TA), visual and aural alerting is provided.
APPENDICES
TAS SURVEILLANCE VOLUME AND SYMBOLOGY
The GTS 800 TAS monitors the airspace within ±10,000 feet of own altitude, and up to 12 nm in the forward
direction; the GTS 820/825 can monitor up to 40 nm in the forward direction. TAS range is somewhat
reduced to the sides and aft of own aircraft due to the directional interrogation signal patterns. The system
displays TAS-detected traffic using the symbology shown in Table 6-31.
INDEX
In addition, if a 1090 MHz extended squitter transponder is installed, and the traffic system detects airborne
traffic providing 1090 MHz Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) information, the system
will display the TAS traffic using the ADS-B symbology shown in Table 6-31.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NOTE: Do not confuse this functionality with full ADS-B capability, which can provide traffic information
Symbol
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
from ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and ADS-B traffic outside of the TAS surveillance volume.
This system is limited to displaying ADS-B information from suitably equipped airborne aircraft within the
TAS surveillance volume.
Description
Traffic Advisory (TA) arrow with ADS-B directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
(Not available in all installations.)
EIS
Traffic Advisory without ADS-B directional information.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Proximity Advisory (PA) arrow with ADS-B directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track. (Not
available in all installations.)
Proximity Advisory without ADS-B directional information.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Non-threat traffic arrow with ADS-B directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
(Not available in all installations.)
Non-Threat Traffic without ADS-B directional information
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PA or Non-threat traffic arrow with ADS-B directional information, but positional accuracy is degraded. Points in the
direction of the aircraft track. (Not available in all installations.)
Table 6-31 Traffic Symbols
AFCS
A Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as an amber circle or triangle, alerts the crew to a potentially hazardous
intruding aircraft, if the closing rate, distance, and vertical separation meet TA criteria. A Traffic Advisory
that is beyond the selected display range (off scale) is indicated by a half TA symbol at the edge of the screen
at the relative bearing of the intruder.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
A Proximity Advisory (PA), displayed as a solid white diamond or triangle, indicates the intruding aircraft
is within ±1200 feet and is within a 6 nm range, but is still not considered a TA threat.
A Non-threat Advisory, shown as an open white diamond or triangle, is displayed for traffic beyond 6 nm
that is neither a TA or PA.
APPENDICES
A solid white rounded arrow indicates either a PA or Non-Threat traffic with ADS-B directional information,
but the position of the traffic is shown with degraded accuracy.
Relative altitude, when available, is displayed above or below the corresponding intruder symbol in
hundreds of feet (Figure 6-162). When this altitude is above own aircraft, it is preceded by a ‘+’ symbol; a
minus sign ‘-’ indicates traffic is below own aircraft.
INDEX
A vertical trend arrow to the right of the intruder symbol (Figure 6-162) indicates is traffic is climbing or
descending at a rate of at least 500 fpm with an upward or downward-pointing arrow respectively.
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Relative Altitude
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Vertical trend arrow
Figure 6-162 Intruder Altitude and Vertical Trend Arrow
EIS
If the intruding aircraft is providing ADS-B track information, this is displayed as a vector line extending
beyond the traffic symbol in the direction of the track (Figure 6-163).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Vector Line indicates
intruder aircraft track
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Flight IDs may also be displayed with traffic symbols; see the Flight IDs discussion in this section for more
information.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-163 Intruder Traffic with ADS-B Directional
Information and Track
• On-ground aircraft is equipped with a Mode S transponder.
The traffic system automatically suppresses the display of altitude-reporting aircraft on the ground under
either of the following conditions:
• On-ground aircraft is equipped with a Mode C transponder, and own aircraft’s radar altimeter (if installed)
is displaying 1700’ AGL or less.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
On-ground aircraft with Mode S transponders are not displayed.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TA ALERTING CONDITIONS
Sensitivity Intruder Altitude
Level
Available
B
Yes
B
No
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
No
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
A
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of vertical and
horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of horizontal
separation and vertical separation is within 600 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 nm and vertical separation is within
600 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of separation.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of vertical and
horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of horizontal
separation and vertical separation is within 800 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 nm and vertical separation is within
800 feet.
Intruder range is less than 20 seconds.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Yes
TA Alerting Conditions
EIS
A
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The traffic system automatically adjusts its TA sensitivity level to reduce the likelihood of nuisance TA
alerting during flight phases likely to be near airports. The system uses Level A TA sensitivity when the
groundspeed is less than 120 knots, or when the optional radar altimeter indicates own aircraft altitude is
below 2000’ AGL. Level B TA sensitivity applies in all other conditions.
AFCS
Table 6-32 TA Sensitivity Level and TA Alerting Criteria
TAS ALERTS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: If a radar altimeter is installed, traffic voice alerts do not occur at or below 400’ AGL. Only visual
traffic annunciations appear.
When the traffic system detects a new TA, the following occur:
APPENDICES
• A single “Traffic!” voice alert is generated, followed by additional voice information about the bearing, relative
altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table 6-33). The announcement
“Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the traffic is in front of own aircraft, above own
altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
• A TRAFFIC Annunciation appears at the top right of the airspeed on the PFD, flashes for five seconds, and
remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area (Figure 6-164).
INDEX
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with TA traffic.
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, an amber text banner will be displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map Page and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA symbol. The text will indicate
“TA” followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA traffic, if known.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that initially triggered the TA are no
longer present.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-164 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Distance (nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
AFCS
Table 6-33 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
SYSTEM TEST
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: Traffic surveillance is not available during the system test. Use caution when performing a system
test during flight.
APPENDICES
The GTS 800/820 provides a system test mode to verify the TAS system is operating normally. The test takes
ten seconds to complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols is displayed on the
Traffic Map Page (Figure 6-165). If the system test passes, the voice alert “TAS System Test Passed” is heard,
otherwise the system announces “TAS System Test Failed.” When the system test is complete, the traffic
system enters Standby Mode.
Testing the traffic system:
INDEX
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3) Turn the Joystick to set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full test pattern to be displayed during test.
4) Press the TEST Softkey.
Or:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the FMS knob to select ‘Test Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key.
Test Mode Annunciation
Operating
Mode
Non-Threat
Traffic at
11 o’clock,
Distance 3.6
nm, 1000’
Above, Level
EIS
Proximity
Traffic at
1 o’clock,
Distance
3.6 nm,
1000’ Below,
Descending
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TA at 9 o’clock,
Distance 2.0
nm, 200’ Below,
Climbing
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-165 System Test in Progress with Test Pattern
AFCS
OPERATION
NOTE: The GTS 800/820 automatically transitions from STANDBY to OPERATE mode eight seconds after
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
takeoff. The unit also automatically transitions from OPERATE to STANDBY mode 24 seconds after landing.
After power-up, the traffic system is in Standby Mode. The traffic system must be in Operating Mode for
traffic to be displayed and for TAs to be issued.
APPENDICES
Selecting the OPERATE Softkey allows the traffic unit to switch from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as
necessary. Selecting the STANDBY Softkey forces the unit into Standby Mode.
Switching from operating mode to standby mode:
On the Traffic Page, select the STANDBY Softkey
Or:
INDEX
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Standby Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key.
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Switching from standby mode to operating mode:
On the Traffic Page, select the OPERATE Softkey
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Operate Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key. The traffic unit switches from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as necessary.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
EIS
The Traffic Map Page shows surrounding TAS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and
altitude, without basemap clutter. It is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Aircraft
orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick,
as indicated by the map range rings.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner of the page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Operating Mode
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B Directional
Information, 500’ Below, Climbing
Altitude
Mode
Traffic Display
Range Rings
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Non-Threat Traffic,
2500’ Above,
Descending
Non-Threat
Traffic with
ADS-B
Directional
Information,
6000’ Above,
Level
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
“No Bearing”
Traffic (Bearing
Undetermined),
Distance 4.0
nm, 500’ Above,
Climbing
Proximity Traffic,
900’ Above,
Level, Flight ID
Displayed
Traffic
Advisory OffScale, 400’
Below, Level
Non-Threat
Traffic,
Altitude Not
Reported
Figure 6-166 Traffic Map Page
APPENDICES
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Press the OPERATE Softkey to begin displaying traffic. ‘OPERATING’ is displayed in the Traffic mode field.
INDEX
4) Press the STANDBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. STANDBY is displayed in the Traffic mode
field.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5) Turn the Joystick clockwise to display a larger area or counter-clockwise to display a smaller area.
Altitude Display
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which non-threat and proximity traffic is displayed. TAs
occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, press the ALT MODE Softkey.
2) Press one of the following softkeys:
EIS
• ABOVE: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 9900 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• NORMAL: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below
the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• BELOW: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9900 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
•
3) To return to the Traffic Page, press the BACK Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
Above
•
Normal
•
Below
•
Unrestricted
AFCS
•
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following (see softkey description in step 2 above):
3) Press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Flight ID Display
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Flight IDs of other aircraft (when available) can be enabled for display on the Traffic Map Page
(Figure 6-166). When a flight ID is received, it will appear above or below the corresponding traffic symbol
on the Traffic Map Page when this option is enabled.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Flight ID
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-166 Traffic Map Page with Flight ID Enabled
Enabling/Disabling Flight ID Display:
On the Traffic Map Page, press the FLT ID Softkey.
AFCS
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘Show Flight IDs’ or ‘Hide Flight IDs’ (choice dependent on current state)
(Figure 6-167).
INDEX
APPENDICES
3) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-167 Traffic Map Page Menu
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable with the
Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Changing the display range on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the Joystick.
2) The following range options are available:
2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm (GTS 820/825 only)
•
24 and 40 nm (GTS 820/825 only)
EIS
•
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
• Traffic Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
• Trip Planning Page
• System Pages
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps on the MFD when the unit is operating:
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option
is installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Displaying traffic information (MFD maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Select the MAP Softkey.
AFCS
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, a traffic icon is shown to indicate traffic
is enabled for display (Figure 6-168).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Displaying traffic on the Navigation Map
1) Ensure the traffic system is operating. With the Navigation Map displayed, press the MAP Softkey.
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map as shown in the figure.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Non-Threat
Traffic
Traffic Advisory with
ADS-B Directional
Information
Non-Threat
Traffic with
ADS-B
Directional
Information
EIS
Proximity
Traffic with
ADS-B Directional
Information
TA Off Scale Banner
Annunciation
Traffic Status
Icon
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
“No Bearing”
Traffic Advisory
Banner Annunciation
Figure 6-168 TAS Traffic on Navigation Map
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Setup highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-169).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-170).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections (Figure 6-171).
• TRAFFIC – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• TRAFFIC MODE – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
AFCS
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
- TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• TRAFFIC SMBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• TRAFFIC LBL – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the option, or select ‘Off’
to disable the display of traffic labels.
APPENDICES
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
INDEX
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Figure 6-169 Navigation Map Page Menu
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-170 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-171 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
AFCS
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD Inset Map by pressing the INSET Softkey. A traffic map
will appear in heading up orientation. Traffic information can also be overlaid with navigation, topographic
and optional data link weather information.
Displaying traffic information (PFD Inset Map):
1) Press the INSET Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the TRAFFIC Softkey to display traffic data on the inset map (TRFC-1).
3) Select the softkey again to display the traffic-only inset (TRFC-2).
4) Select the softkey again to remove traffic data.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Mode
TAS System Test
Initiated
TEST
(also shown in white in center of page)
TAS Operating
OPERATING
TAS Standby
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TAS Failed*
FAIL
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
* See Table 6-35 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-34 TAS Modes
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Traffic Map Page Center
Description
Annunciation
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
Data is being received from the TAS unit, but the
DATA FAILED
unit is self-reporting a failure
FAILED
Incorrect data format received from the TAS unit
AFCS
Table 6-35 TAS Failure Annunciations
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
APPENDICES
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
INDEX
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the
selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation
in hundreds of feet, and altitude trend arrow (climbing/
descending).
TAS unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or
sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-36 TAS Traffic Status Annunciations
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Refer to the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) for the installed autopilot.
7.1 S-TEC FIFTY FIVE X AUTOPILOT (OPTIONAL)
FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODE ANNUNCIATION
EIS
NOTE: Only the additional ‘‘FD’ mode annunciation that may appear in the G950 AFCS Status Box is discussed
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
below. This mode annunciation is not analogous to both the G950 and the S-TEC Fifty Five X. Refer to the
approved S-TEC Fifty Five X Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for comprehensive list of annunciations and
operating instructions.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
In addition to the redundant status/mode annunciations and/or visual representations that are simultaneously
displayed on both the G950 (AFCS Status Box and/or PFD) and the S-TEC Fifty Five X (Autopilot Display and/
or Remote Annunciator Display), the G950 displays an additional mode annunciation of ‘FD’ when the Flight
Director Mode is engaged.
Flight
Director
Mode
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 7-1 Flight Director Mode Engaged
(G950 AFCS Status Box)
ALTITUDE PRESELECT
AFCS
The ALT Knob on the PFD is used to enter the selected altitude, which is provided to the STEC Fifty Five X
autopilot. Refer to the STEC Fifty Five X User’s Manual for details on the altitude preselect function.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Blank Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: With the availability of SafeTaxi®, ChartView, or FliteCharts®, it may be necessary to carry another
source of charts on-board the aircraft.
Additional features of the G950 include the following:
• Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT)
EIS
• SafeTaxi® diagrams
• ChartView and FliteCharts® electronic charts
• AOPA’s Airport Directory
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment
• Scheduler
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The optional Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) provides a three-dimensional forward view of terrain features
on the PFD. SVT imagery shows the pilot’s view of relevant features in relation to the aircraft attitude, as well as
the flight path pertaining to the active flight plan.
SafeTaxi diagrams provide detailed taxiway, runway, and ramp information at more than 700 airports in the
United States. By decreasing range on an airport that has a SafeTaxi diagram available, a close up view of the
airport layout can be seen.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The optional ChartView and FliteCharts provide on-board electronic terminal procedures charts. Electronic
charts offer the convenience of rapid access to essential information. Either ChartView or FliteCharts may be
configured in the system, but not both.
AOPA’s Airport Directory offers detailed information for a selected airport, such as available services, hours of
operation, and lodging options.
AFCS
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment audio feature of the GDL 69A SXM Data Link Receiver
offers more than 170 channels of music, news, and sports. SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers more entertainment
choices and longer range coverage than commercial broadcast stations.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display short term or long term reminder messages such as
maintenance phase checks or other events in the Messages Window on the PFD.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.1 SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY (SVT)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: SVT requires a terrain database that has a resolution of nine arc-seconds.
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or reliability
upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The optional Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) is a visual enhancement to the G950 Integrated Flight Deck.
SVT depicts a forward-looking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The field of
view is 30 degrees to the left and 35 degrees to the right. SVT information is shown on the Primary Flight Display
(PFD), or on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode (Figure 8‑81). The depicted imagery is
derived from the aircraft attitude, heading, GPS three-dimensional position, and a nine arc-second database of
terrain, obstacles, and other relevant features. The terrain data resolution of nine arc-seconds, meaning that
the terrain elevation contours are stored in squares measuring nine arc-seconds on each side, is required for the
operation of SVT. Loss of any of the required data, including temporary loss of the GPS signal, will cause SVT to
be disabled until the required data is restored.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The SVT terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical map display),
large water features, towers, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are included in the obstacle database. Cultural
features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad tracks, cities, and state boundaries are not displayed even
if those features are found on the MFD map. The terrain display also includes a north–south east–west grid with
lines oriented with true north and spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation relative to the terrain.
The optional Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) or standard Terrain-SVT is integrated within
SVT to provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the presence of terrain and obstacle threats relevant to the
projected flight path. Terrain alerts are displayed in red and yellow shading on the PFD.
AFCS
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or fidelity on
which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must not be predicated
solely upon the use of the Terrain–SVT or TAWS terrain or obstacle data displayed by the SVT.
• Pathways
• Airport Signs
• Flight Path Marker
• Runway Display
• Horizon Heading Marks
• Terrain Alerting
• Traffic Display
• Obstacle Alerting
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The following SVT enhancements appear on the PFD:
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-1 Synthetic Vision Imagery
SVT OPERATION
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SVT is activated from the PFD using the softkeys located along the bottom edge of the display. Pressing the
softkeys turns the related function on or off. When SVT is enabled, the pitch ladder increments are reduced to
10 degrees up and 7.5 degrees down.
AFCS
SVT functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. The PFD Softkey leads into the PFD function
Softkeys, including synthetic vision. Pressing the SYN VIS Softkey displays the SVT feature softkeys. The
softkeys are labeled PATHWAY, SYN TERR, HRZN HDG, and APTSIGNS. The BACK Softkey returns to
the previous level of softkeys. Synthetic Terrain must be active before any other SVT feature may be activated.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS, and PATHWAY Softkeys are only available when the SYN TERR Softkey is
activated (gray with black characters). After activating the SYN TERR Softkey, the HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS,
and PATHWAY softkeys may be activated in any combination to display desired features. When system power
is cycled, the last selected state (on or off) of the SYN TERR, HRZN HDG, APTSIGNS, and PATHWAY
softkeys is remembered by the system.
APPENDICES
• PATHWAY Softkey enables display of rectangular boxes that represent course guidance.
• SYN TERR Softkey enables synthetic terrain depiction.
• HRZN HDG Softkey enables horizon heading marks and digits.
• APTSIGNS Softkey enables airport signposts.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
PFD
SYN VIS
BACK
Pressing the BACK Softkey
returns to the top-level softkeys.
BACK
EIS
PATHWAY SYN TERR HRZN HDG APTSIGNS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Pressing the BACK Softkey returns to the previous level of softkeys.
Figure 8-2 SVT Softkeys
Activating and deactivating SVT:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Press the SYN TERR Softkey. The SVT display will cycle on or off with the SYN TERR Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Activating and deactivating Pathways:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
3) Press the PATHWAY Softkey. The Pathway feature will cycle on or off with the PATHWAY Softkey.
AFCS
Activating and deactivating Horizon Headings:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the HRZN HDG Softkey. The horizon heading display will cycle on or off with the HRZN HDG Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Airport Signs:
1) Press the PFD Softkey.
APPENDICES
2) Press the SYN VIS Softkey.
INDEX
3) Press the APTSIGNS Softkey. Display of airport signs will cycle on or off with the APTSIGNS Softkey.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SVT FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Airport
Runway
Pathways
Traffic
Flight
Path
Marker
Airplane
Symbol
EIS
Zero
Pitch Line
(ZPL) with
Compass
Heading
Marks
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Synthetic
Terrain
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SVT
Softkeys
Figure 8-3 SVT on the Primary Flight Display
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude deviation
information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
AFCS
PATHWAYS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Pathways provide a three-dimensional perspective view of the selected route of flight shown as colored rectangular
boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active flight plan. The box size represents 700 feet
wide by 200 feet tall during enroute, oceanic, and terminal flight phases. During an approach, the box width is
700 feet or one half full scale deviation on the HSI, whichever is less. The height is 200 feet or one half full scale
deviation on the VDI, whichever is less. The altitude at which the pathway boxes are displayed is determined by
the selected altitude during climb, cruise, and when the active leg is the final approach course prior to intercepting
the glidepath/glideslope. During a descent (except while on the approach glidepath/glideslope), the pathway boxes
are displayed at the selected altitude, or the VNAV altitude programmed for the active leg in the flight plan, or the
published altitude constraint, whichever is higher (Figure 8-4). Just prior to intercepting the glidepath/glideslope,
the pathway boxes are displayed on the glidepath/glideslope, or the selected altitude, whichever is lower.
APPENDICES
190-01325-01 Rev. A
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INDEX
The color of the rectangular boxes may be magenta, green, or white depending on the route of flight and navigation
source selected. The active GPS or GPS overlay flight plan leg is represented by magenta boxes that correspond to
the Magenta CDI. A localizer course is represented by green boxes that correspond to a green CDI. An inactive
leg of an active flight plan is represented by white boxes corresponding to a white line drawn on the Inset map or
MFD map indicating an inactive leg.
445
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected
Altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Programmed
Altitudes
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-4 Programmed and Selected Altitude
AFCS
Pathways provide supplemental glidepath/glideslope information on an active ILS, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, and
some LNAV approaches. Pathways are intended as an aid to situational awareness and should not be used
independent of the CDI, VDI, glide path indicator, and glide slope indicator. They are removed from the
display when the selected navigation information is not available. Pathways are not displayed beyond the
active leg when leg sequencing is suspended and are not displayed on any portion of the flight plan leg that
would lead to intercepting a leg in the wrong direction.
Departure and Enroute
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Prior to intercepting an active flight plan leg, pathways are displayed as a series of boxes with pointers at
each corner that point in the direction of the active waypoint. Pathways are not displayed for the first leg
of the flight plan if that segment is a Heading-to-Altitude leg. The first segment displaying pathways is the
first active GPS leg or active leg with a GPS overlay. If this leg of the flight plan route is outside the SVT
field of view, pathways will not be visible until the aircraft has turned toward this leg. While approaching
the center of the active leg and prescribed altitude, the number of pathway boxes decreases to a minimum
of four.
INDEX
Climb profiles cannot be displayed due to the variables associated with aircraft performance. Flight
plan legs requiring a climb are indicated by pathways displayed at a level above the aircraft at the altitude
selected or programmed.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Descent and Approach
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pathways are shown descending only for a programmed descent (Figures 8-5, 8-6). When the flight plan
includes programmed descent segments, pathways are displayed along the descent path provided that the
selected altitude is lower than the programmed altitude.
When an approach providing vertical guidance is activated, Pathways are shown level at the selected
altitude up to the point along the final approach course where the altitude intercepts the extended vertical
descent path, glidepath, or glideslope. From the vertical path descent, glidepath, or glideslope intercept
point, the pathways are shown inbound to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) along the published lateral
and vertical descent path, or at the selected altitude, whichever is lower.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
During an ILS approach, the initial approach segment is displayed in magenta at the segment altitudes
if GPS is selected as the navigation source on the CDI. When switching to localizer inbound with LOC
selected as the navigation source on the CDI, pathways are displayed in green along the localizer and glide
slope.
VOR, LOC BC, and ADF approach segments that are approved to be flown using GPS are displayed in
magenta boxes. Segments that are flown using other than GPS or ILS, such as heading legs or VOR final
approach courses are not displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Altitude
set for Enroute
Selected Altitude
set for Departure
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Climbs NOT
displayed
by pathway
Non-programmed descents NOT displayed by pathway
TOD
AFCS
Selected Altitude
for Step Down
Programmed descent
displayed by pathway
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selected Altitude or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
APPENDICES
Figure 8-5 SVT Pathways, Enroute and Descent
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Missed Approach
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Upon activating the missed approach, pathways lead to the Missed Approach Holding Point (MAHP) and
are displayed as a level path at the published altitude for the MAHP, or the selected altitude, whichever is
the highest. If the initial missed approach leg is a Course-to-Altitude (CA) leg, the pathways boxes will
be displayed level at the altitude published for the MAHP. If the initial missed approach leg is defined by
a course using other than GPS, pathways are not displayed for that segment. In this case, the pathways
displayed for the next leg may be outside the field of view and will be visible when the aircraft has turned
in the direction of that leg.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Pathways are displayed along each segment including the path required to track course reversals that are
part of a procedure, such as holding patterns. Pathways boxes will not indicate a turn to a MAHP unless a
defined geographical waypoint exists between the MAP and MAHP.
FAF
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Descent displayed
by pathway
Selected Altitude
or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
MAP Climbs NOT displayed
by pathway
Turn Segment
NOT displayed
by pathway
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
MAHP
INDEX
Figure 8-6 SVT Pathways, Approach, Missed Approach, and Holding
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT PATH MARKER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at groundspeeds
above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft accounting for wind speed
and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM is always available when the Synthetic Terrain feature is in operation. The FPM represents the
direction of the flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display, while the airplane symbol
represents the aircraft heading.
EIS
The FPM works in conjunction with the Pathways feature to assist the pilot in maintaining desired altitudes
and direction when navigating a flight plan. When on course and altitude the FPM is aligned inside the
pathway boxes as shown (Figure 8-7).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The FPM may also be used to identify a possible conflict with the aircraft flight path and distant terrain or
obstacles. Displayed terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s flight path extending above the FPM could indicate
a potential conflict, even before an alert is issued by TAWS. However, decisions regarding terrain and/or
obstacle avoidance should not be made using only the FPM.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Zero Pitch
Line
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Color of
Pathways
match the
CDI color
Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-7 Flight Path Marker and Pathways
APPENDICES
ZERO PITCH LINE
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INDEX
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the aircraft attitude with respect
to the horizon. It may not align with the terrain horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or
when the aircraft is flown at high altitudes.
449
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
HORIZON HEADING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows approximately 60 degrees of compass
heading in 30‑degree increments on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and digits appearing
on the zero pitch line are not visible behind either the airspeed or altitude display. Horizon Heading is used
for general heading awareness, and is activated and deactivated by pressing the HRZN HDG Softkey.
TRAFFIC
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the SVT display or may appear as a
EIS
partial symbol.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic systems.
Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting closer, and smaller
when they are further away. Traffic symbols and coloring are consistent with that used for traffic displayed in
the Inset map or MFD traffic page. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not be displayed on the
SVT display. For more details refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard Avoidance section.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AIRPORT SIGNS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic terrain
display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately 15 nm from
an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the identifier until
the aircraft is approximately eight nautical miles from the airport. Airport signs are not shown behind the
airspeed or altitude display. Airport signs are activated and deactivated by pressing the APTSIGNS Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Airport
Sign
without
Identifier
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
INDEX
APPENDICES
Airport
Sign with
Identifier
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
Figure 8-8 Airport Signs
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
RUNWAYS
WARNING: Do not use SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of the aircraft
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these runways are not
displayed.
EIS
Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding terrain. All
runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database. In some situations,
where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be layered. As runways are
displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are outlined in white. Other runways will be
outlined in gray. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that runway will appear brighter and be
outlined with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft
gets closer to the runway, more detail such as runway numbers and centerlines will be displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Runway
Selected for
Approach
Other
Runway
on Airport
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-9 Runways
INDEX
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451
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TERRAIN-SVT AND TAWS ALERTING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward-looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA)
alerts, and corresponds to the red and yellow X symbols on the Inset Map and MFD map displays. For more
detailed information regarding Terrain-SVT and TAWS, refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section.
In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on the
synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVT field of view to the left or right of the aircraft.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
TERRAIN
Annunciation
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Terrain
Caution
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Potential
Impact
Point
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-10 Terrain Alert
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower symbols found
on the Inset map and MFD maps and charts. Obstacle symbols appear in the perspective view with relative
height above terrain and distance from the aircraft. Unlike the Inset map and MFD moving map display,
obstacles on the synthetic terrain display do not change colors to warn of potential conflict with the aircraft’s
flight path until the obstacle is associated with an actual FLTA alert. Obstacles greater than 1000 feet below the
aircraft altitude are not shown. Obstacles are shown behind the airspeed and altitude displays.
TERRAIN
Annunciation
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Obstacle
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Potential
Impact
Point
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-11 Obstacle Alert
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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453
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FIELD OF VIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The PFD field of view can be represented on the MFD Navigation Map Page. Two dashed lines forming a
V‑shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map, represent the forward viewing area shown on the PFD.
Displaying field of view:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Map Setup and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Field of
View
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Map Setup Menu, Map Group, Field of View Option
AFCS
Figure 8-12 Option Menus
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Map Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Aviation Group options to FIELD OF VIEW.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select On or Off.
INDEX
APPENDICES
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The following figure compares the PFD forward looking depiction with the MFD plan view and FIELD OF
VIEW turned on.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Lines
Depict
PFD Field
of View
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SVT View on the PFD
Field of View on the MFD
Figure 8-13 PFD and MFD Field of View Comparison
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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455
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.2 SAFETAXI
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SafeTaxi is an enhanced feature that gives greater map detail when viewing airports at close range. The
maximum map ranges for enhanced detail are pilot configurable. When viewing at ranges close enough to
show the airport detail, the map reveals taxiways with identifying letters/numbers, airport Hot Spots, and airport
landmarks including ramps, buildings, control towers, and other prominent features. Resolution is greater at
lower map ranges. When the MFD display is within the SafeTaxi ranges, the airplane symbol on the airport
provides enhanced position awareness.
EIS
Designated Hot Spots are recognized at airports with many intersecting taxiways and runways, and/or complex
ramp areas. Airport Hot Spots are outlined to caution pilots of areas on an airport surface where positional
awareness confusion or runway incursions happen most often. Hot Spots are defined with a magenta circle or
outline around the region of possible confusion.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Any map page that displays the navigation view can also show the SafeTaxi airport layout within the maximum
configured range. The following is a list of pages where the SafeTaxi feature can be seen:
• Navigation Map Page
• VOR Information Page
• Inset Map (PFD)
• User Waypoint Information Page
• Weather Datalink Page
• Trip Planning Page
• Airport Information Page
• Nearest Pages
• Intersection Information Page
• Active and Stored Flight Plan Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• NDB Information Page
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
During ground operations the aircraft’s position is displayed in reference to taxiways, runways, and airport
features. In the example shown, the aircraft is on taxiway Bravo inside the High Alert Intersection boundary
on KSFO airport. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta. When panning over the airport, features such as
runway holding lines and taxiways are shown at the cursor.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Taxiway
Identification
Aircraft
Position
EIS
Airport Hot
Spot Outline
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airport
Features
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The DCLTR Softkey (declutter) label advances to DCLTR-1, DCLTR -2, and DCLTR-3 each time the softkey is
pressed for easy recognition of decluttering level. Pressing the DCLTR Softkey removes the taxiway markings and
airport feature labels. Pressing the DCLTR-1 Softkey removes VOR station ID, the VOR symbol, and intersection
names if within the airport plan view. Pressing the DCLTR-2 Softkey removes the airport runway layout, unless
the airport in view is part of an active route structure. Pressing the DCLTR-3 Softkey cycles back to the original
map detail. Refer to Map Declutter Levels in the Flight Management Section.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-14 SafeTaxi Depiction on the Navigation Map Page
DCLTR Softkey
Removes Taxiway
Markings
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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457
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Configuring SafeTaxi range:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Map Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-15 Navigation Map PAGE MENU, Map Setup Option
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Aviation Group options to SAFETAXI.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the range of distances.
6) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired distance for maximum SafeTaxi display range.
7) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
SAFETAXI
Option
INDEX
APPENDICES
SafeTaxi
Range
Options
Figure 8-16 MAP SETUP Menu, Aviation Group, SAFETAXI Range Options
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SAFETAXI CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SafeTaxi database is revised every 56 days. SafeTaxi is always available for use after the expiration date.
When turning on the system, the Power-up Page indicates whether the databases are current, out of date, or
not available.
SafeTaxi Database
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-17 Power-up Page, SafeTaxi Database
Power-up Page Display
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Definition
Normal operation. SafeTaxi database is valid and within current cycle.
SafeTaxi database has expired.
Database card contains no SafeTaxi data.
AFCS
Table 8-1 SafeTaxi Annunciation Definitions
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The SafeTaxi Region, Version, Cycle, Effective date and Expires date of the database cycle can also be found
on the AUX - System Status page, as seen in Figure 8-18.
Press the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is shown.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The SafeTaxi database cycle number shown in the figure, 10S5, is deciphered as follows:
10 – Indicates the year 2010
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
S – Indicates the data is for SafeTaxi
5 – Indicates the fifth issue of the SafeTaxi database for the year
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The SafeTaxi EFFECTIVE date 27–AUG–10 is the beginning date for the current database cycle. SafeTaxi
EXPIRES date 22–OCT–10 is the revision date for the next database cycle.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SafeTaxi Data
AFCS
Figure 8-18 AUX – System Status Page, SafeTaxi Current Information
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
SafeTaxi information appears in blue and yellow text. The EFFECTIVE date appears in blue when data is
current and in yellow when the current date is before the effective date. The EXPIRES date appears in blue
when data is current and in yellow when expired (Figures 8‑18 and 8-19). NOT AVAILABLE appears in blue
in the REGION field if SafeTaxi data is not available on the database card (Figure 8‑19). An expired SafeTaxi
database is not disabled and will continue to function indefinitely.
APPENDICES
Press the MFD1 DB Softkey a second time. The softkey label will change to PFD1 DB. The DATABASE
window will now be displaying database information for PFD1. As before, scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is shown.
INDEX
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for instructions on revising the SafeTaxi database.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 8-19 illustrates possible SafeTaxi database conditions that may appear on the AUX - System Status
Page. The EFFECTIVE date is the beginning date for this database cycle. If the present date is before the
effective date, the EFFECTIVE date appears in yellow and the EXPIRES date appears in blue. The EXPIRES date
is the revision date for the next database cycle. NOT AVAILABLE indicates that SafeTaxi is not available on the
database card or no database card is inserted.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SafeTaxi Database has Expired
SafeTaxi Database Not Installed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Current Date is before Effective Date
Figure 8-19 AUX – System Status Page, SafeTaxi Expired, SafeTaxi Not Available
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.3 CHARTVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ChartView resembles the paper version of Jeppesen terminal procedures charts. The charts are displayed in full
color with high-resolution. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft position on the moving map in the plan view
of approach charts and on airport diagrams. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta.
The ChartView database subscription is available from Jeppesen, Inc. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Airport Diagrams
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• NOTAMs
EIS
• Approaches
CHARTVIEW SOFTKEYS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ChartView functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, pressing the SHW CHRT Softkey displays the available terminal chart and
advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT OPT, CHRT, INFO, DP, STAR, APR, WX, NOTAM,
and GO BACK. The chart selection softkeys shown below appear on the Airport Information Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pressing the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
Pressing the CHRT OPT Softkey advances to the next level of softkeys: ALL, HEADER, PLAN, PROFILE,
MINIMUMS, FIT WDTH, FULL SCN, and BACK.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
While viewing the CHRT OPT Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
SHW CHRT
AFCS
CHRT OPT
CHRT
INFO
DP
STAR
APR
WX
NOTAM
GO BACK
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey returns
to the top-level softkeys and previous page.
ALL
HEADER
PLAN
PROFILE
MINIMUMS FIT WDTH FULL SCN
BACK
APPENDICES
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns
to the Chart Selection Softkeys.
INDEX
Figure 8-20 ChartView SHW CHRT, Chart Selection, and Chart Option Softkeys
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Nearest Airport Page, or Flight Plan Page, press the SHW CHRT
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the OPTIONS Menu to Show Chart.
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page OPTIONS Menu
Figure 8-21 Option Menus
AFCS
When no terminal procedure chart is available for the nearest airport or the selected airport, the banner
CHART NOT AVAILABLE appears on the screen. The CHART NOT AVAILABLE banner does not refer to
the Jeppesen subscription, but rather the availability of a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a
selected airport.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-22 Chart Not Available Banner
APPENDICES
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the banner
UNABLE TO DISPLAY CHART is then displayed.
INDEX
Figure 8-23 Unable To Display Chart Banner
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
When a chart is not available by pressing the SHW CHRT Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts
may be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, pressing the
SHW CHRT Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is one associated with the WPT – Airport Information page. Usually this is the airport runway
diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are available, that
page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport is shown.
EIS
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Flight Plan Page, or Nearest Airports Page, press the SHW CHRT
Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the Airport Information Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the Approach Box. (Press the APR Softkey
if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Approach Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Chart Scale
Select Desired
Approach Chart
From Menu
INDEX
APPENDICES
Scroll Through
Chart With
the Joystick
Figure 8-24 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
While the APPROACH Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the G950 softkeys are blank. Once the desired
chart is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart page can be scrolled using the Joystick. Pressing
the Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The aircraft symbol is shown on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft position is within
the boundaries of the chart. The aircraft symbol is not displayed when the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears
(Figure 8‑28). If the Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, the aircraft symbol is not shown. The
Aircraft Not Shown Icon may appear at certain times, even if the chart is displayed to scale.
EIS
Pressing the CHRT Softkey switches between the ChartView diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the CHRT Softkey switches between the DeKalb Peachtree (KPDK) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the WPT – Airport Information page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press CHRT Softkey
to Switch Between
ChartView and WPT Airport Information Page
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 8-25 CHRT Softkey, Airport Information Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram chart when the view is on a terminal
procedure chart. If the displayed chart is the airport diagram chart, pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey
returns to the Airport Information Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The aircraft position is shown in magenta on the ChartView diagrams when the location of the aircraft is
within the chart boundaries. In the example shown, the aircraft is turning onto Taxiway Bravo on the Charlotte,
NC (KCLT) airport.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Another source for additional airport information is from the INFO Box above the chart for certain airports.
This information source is not related to the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey. When the INFO Box is selected
using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. The Charlotte, NC airport has five additional charts offering
information: the Airport Diagram, Take-off Minimums, Class B Airspace, Airline Parking Gate Coordinates, and
Airline Parking Gate Location. (The numbers in parentheses after the chart name are Jeppesen designators.)
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Aircraft
Current
Position
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-26 Airport Information Page, INFO View, Full Screen Width
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
In the example shown in Figure 8-26, the Class B Chart is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays the
Charlotte Class B Airspace Chart (Figure 8-27).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-27 Airport Information Page, Class B Chart Selected from INFO View
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pressing the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
Chart Not
To Scale
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
INDEX
Figure 8-28 Departure Information Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Pressing the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Chart Not
To Scale
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Change Range
and Scroll
Through the
Chart With the
Joystick
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-29 Arrival Information Page
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pressing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
INDEX
Figure 8-30 Approach Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pressing the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, and includes weather data such as
METAR and TAF from the XM Data Link Receiver, when available. Weather information is available only when
an XM Data Link Receiver is installed and the XM WX Satellite Weather subscription is current.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
WX Info
When
Available
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
WX Softkey
Selected
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-31 Weather Information Page
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
AFCS
Recent NOTAMS applicable to the current ChartView cycle are included in the ChartView database. Pressing
the NOTAM Softkey shows the local NOTAM information for selected airports, when available. When NOTAMS
are not available, the NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled as shown in Figure 8-31. The
NOTAM Softkey may appear on the Airport Information Page and all of the chart page selections.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTAM
Softkey
Appears for
Selected
Airports
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-32 NOTAM Softkey Available
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Local
NOTAM on
This Airport
NOTAM
Softkey
Selected
INDEX
Figure 8-33 Airport Information Page, Local NOTAMs
Pressing the NOTAM Softkey again removes the NOTAMS information.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pressing the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page, Nearest Pages, or Flight
Plan Page).
CHART OPTIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pressing the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level (Figure 8-20).
Pressing the ALL Softkey shows the complete approach chart on the screen.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Complete
Chart
Shown
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-34 Approach Information Page, ALL View
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pressing the HEADER Softkey shows the header view (approach chart briefing strip) on the screen.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Approach
Chart
Briefing Strip
Figure 8-35 Approach Information Page, Header View
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pressing the PLAN Softkey shows the approach chart two dimensional plan view.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Approach
Chart Plan
View
Figure 8-36 Approach Information Page, Plan View
Pressing the PROFILE Softkey displays the approach chart descent profile strip.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Approach
Chart Descent
Profile Strip
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-37 Approach Information Page, Profile View, Full Screen Width
Pressing the MINIMUMS Softkey displays the minimum descent altitude/visibility strip at the bottom of the
approach chart.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Minimum
Descent
Altitude/
Visibility Strip
APPENDICES
190-01325-01 Rev. A
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INDEX
Figure 8-38 Approach Information Page, Minimums View, Full Screen Width
473
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If the chart scale has been adjusted to view a small area of the chart, pressing the FIT WIDTH Softkey
changes the chart size to fit the available screen width.
Press FIT WDTH
Softkey to Show
Full Chart Width
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 8-39 Airport Information Page, FIT WDTH Softkey Selected
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pressing the FULL SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
Selecting Additional Information:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, press the FULL SCN Softkey to display the information windows
(AIRPORT, INFO).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the AIRPORT, INFO, RUNWAYS, or FREQUENCIES Box (INFO Box shown).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the INFO Box choices. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired
choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
EIS
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Available
Information
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press FULL SCN
Softkey to Switch
Between Full
Screen and Chart
With Info Window
APPENDICES
Figure 8-40 Airport Information Page, Full Screen and Info Window
INDEX
Pressing the BACK Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the FULL SCREEN and COLOR SCHEME Options.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the On and Off Full Screen Options.
Chart Setup Option
Full Screen On/Off Selection
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-41 Page Menus
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ChartView can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a dark
environment. When the CHART SETUP Box is selected the G950 softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-42 Waypoint Information Page, OPTIONS Menu
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the COLOR SCHEME Option (Figure 8‑43).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between Day, Auto, and Night Options.
AFCS
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the Chart Setup Menu.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-43 Arrival Information Page, Day View
INDEX
Figure 8-44 Arrival Information Page, Night View
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CHARTVIEW CYCLE NUMBER AND EXPIRATION DATE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ChartView database is revised every 14 days. Charts are still viewable during a period that extends from the
cycle expiration date to the disables date. ChartView is disabled 70 days after the expiration date and is no
longer available for viewing. When turning on the system, the Power-up Page displays the current status of the
ChartView database. See the table below for the various ChartView Power-up Page displays and the definition
of each.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ChartView Database
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-45 Power-up Page, ChartView Database
Definition
Blank Line. System is not configured for ChartView. Contact a Garminauthorized service center for configuration.
System is configured for ChartView but no chart database is installed.
Contact Jeppesen for a ChartView database.
Normal operation. ChartView database is valid and within current
cycle.
ChartView database is within 1 week after expiration date. A new cycle
is available for update.
ChartView database is beyond 1 week after expiration date, but still
within the 70 day viewing period.
ChartView database has timed out. Database is beyond 70 days after
expiration date. ChartView database is no longer available for viewing.
System time is not available. GPS satellite data is unknown or the
system has not yet locked onto satellites. Check database cycle number
for effectivity.
System is verifying chart database when new cycle is installed for the
first time.
After verifying, chart database is found to be corrupt. ChartView is not
available.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Power-up Page Display
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Table 8-2 ChartView Power-up Page Annunciations and Definitions
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The ChartView time critical information can also be found on the AUX - System Status page. The database
CYCLE number, EXPIRES, and DISABLES dates of the ChartView subscription appear in either blue or yellow
text. When the ChartView EXPIRES date is reached, ChartView becomes inoperative 70 days later. This is
shown as the DISABLES date. When the DISABLES date is reached, charts are no longer available for viewing.
The SHW CHRT Softkey label then appears subdued and is disabled until a revised issue of ChartView is
installed.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
EIS
Press the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the ChartView database information is shown.
The ChartView database cycle number shown in the figure, 1004, is deciphered as follows:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
10 – Indicates the year 2010
04 – Indicates the fourth issue of the ChartView database for the year
The EXPIRES date 05–MAR–10 is the date that this database should be replaced with the next issue.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The DISABLES date 14–MAY–10 is the date that this database becomes inoperative.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
ChartView
Data
Figure 8-46 AUX – System Status Page, ChartView Current and Available
INDEX
The ChartView database is obtained directly from Jeppesen. Refer to Updating Jeppesen Databases in
Appendix B for instructions on revising the ChartView database.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Other possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown in Figure 8-47. The EXPIRES date is the
revision date for the next database cycle. The DISABLES date is the date that this database cycle is no longer
viewable. A date displayed in yellow indicates that date has passed. CYCLE NOT AVAILABLE in light blue,
indicates no ChartView data is available on the database card or no database card is inserted.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
ChartView Database is Disabled
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ChartView has Expired, but is not Disabled
ChartView Database is Not Available
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-47 AUX – System Status Page, ChartView Expired, ChartView Disabled, ChartView Not Available
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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481
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.4 FLITECHARTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FliteCharts resemble the paper version of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts. The charts are
displayed with high-resolution and in color for applicable charts. FliteCharts database subscription is available
from Garmin. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Approaches
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• Airport Diagrams
EIS
FLITECHARTS SOFTKEYS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FliteCharts functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, pressing the SHW CHRT Softkey displays the available terminal chart
and advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT OPT, CHRT, INFO, DP, STAR, APR, WX, and
GO BACK. The chart selection softkeys appear on the Airport Information Page.
Pressing the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pressing the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the available terminal chart and advances to the next level of
softkeys: ALL, FIT WDTH, FULL SCN, and BACK.
While viewing the CHRT OPT Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
NOTAMs are not available with FliteCharts. The NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SHW CHRT
AFCS
CHRT OPT
CHRT
INFO
DP
STAR
WX
APR
GO BACK
Selecting the GO BACK Softkey returns
to the top-level softkeys and previous page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
ALL
FIT WDTH
FULL SCN
BACK
Selecting the BACK Softkey returns
to the Chart Selection Softkeys.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 8-48 FliteCharts SHW CHRT, Chart Selection, and Chart Option Softkeys
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Nearest Airport Page, or Flight Plan Page, press the SHW CHRT
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the OPTIONS Menu to Show Chart.
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page OPTIONS Menu
Figure 8-49 Option Menus
AFCS
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner CHART NOT AVAILABLE appears on the screen.
The CHART NOT AVAILABLE banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability
of a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-50 Chart Not Available Banner
APPENDICES
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the banner
UNABLE TO DISPLAY CHART is then displayed.
INDEX
Figure 8-51 Unable To Display Chart Banner
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
When a chart is not available by pressing the SHW CHRT Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts
may be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, pressing the
SHW CHRT Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is one associated with the WPT – Airport Information page. Usually this is the airport runway
diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are available, that
page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport is shown.
EIS
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Flight Plan Page, or Nearest Airports Page, press the SHW CHRT
Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the Airport Information Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the Approach Box. (Press the APR Softkey
if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Approach Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
AFCS
Chart Not
To Scale
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
APPENDICES
Pan Chart
With the
Joystick
INDEX
Aircraft Not
Shown Icon
Figure 8-52 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
While the APPROACH Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the G950 softkeys are blank. Once the desired
chart is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart can be panned using the Joystick. Pressing the
Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The aircraft symbol is not shown on FliteCharts. The Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, and
the Aircraft Not Shown Icon is displayed in the lower right corner of the screen.
Pressing the CHRT Softkey alternates between the FliteCharts diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the CHRT Softkey switches between the Charlotte, NC (KCLT) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the WPT – Airport Information page.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Press CHRT Softkey
to Switch Between
FliteCharts and
Navigation Map Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-53 CHRT Softkey, Airport Information Page
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram chart when the view is on a terminal
procedure chart. If the displayed chart is the airport diagram chart, pressing the INFO-1 or INFO-2 Softkey
returns to the Airport Information Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Another source for additional airport information is from the INFO Box above the chart (Figure 8-53) or to
the right of the chart (Figure 8-54) for certain airports. This information source is not related to the INFO-1 or
INFO-2 Softkey. When the INFO Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. The Charlotte,
NC airport has three additional charts offering information: the Airport Diagram, Alternate Minimums, and
Take-off Minimums.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Info Box
Selected
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-54 Airport Information Page, INFO View with Airport Information
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
In the example shown in Figure 8-54, TAKE OFF MINIMUMS is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays the
Take-off Minimums and Departure Procedures Chart (Figure 8-55).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-55 Airport Information Page, TAKE OFF MINIMUMS Selected from INFO View
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pressing the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 8-56 Departure Information Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pressing the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
Figure 8-57 Arrival Information Page
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pressing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
INDEX
Figure 8-58 Approach Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pressing the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, when available, and includes
weather data such as METAR and TAF from the XM Data Link Receiver. Weather information is available only
when an XM Data Link Receiver is installed and the XM WX Satellite Weather subscription is current.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting Additional Information:
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, press the WX Softkey to display the information windows (AIRPORT,
INFO).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the INFO Box.
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the INFO Box choices. When the INFO Box is selected the G950 softkeys are
blank. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT
Key to complete the selection.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Info Available
on This Airport
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
WX Info
When
Available
AFCS
Chart Not
To Scale
Figure 8-59 Weather Information Page, WX Softkey Selected
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Softkeys are
Blank during
Info Box
Selection
WX Softkey
Selected
APPENDICES
Pressing the GO BACK Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page or Flight Plan Page).
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CHART OPTIONS
Pressing the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level (Figure 8-48).
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pressing the ALL Softkey shows the complete chart on the screen.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Complete
Chart
Shown
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-60 Airport Information Page, ALL View Selected
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pressing the FIT WIDTH Softkey fits the width of the chart in the display viewing area. In the example
shown, the chart at close range is replaced with the full width chart.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press FIT WDTH
Softkey to Show
Full Chart Width
Figure 8-61 Approach Information Page, FIT WDTH Softkey Selected
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pressing the FULL SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Press FULL SCN
Softkey to Switch
Between Chart on
Full Screen and Chart
with Info Window
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-62 Airport Information Page, Full Screen and Info Window
INDEX
APPENDICES
Pressing the BACK Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the FULL SCREEN and COLOR SCHEME Options.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the On and Off Full Screen Options.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Chart Setup Option
Full Screen On/Off Selection
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-63 Page Menus
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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493
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FliteCharts can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a dark
environment. When the CHART SETUP Box is selected the G950 softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-64 Waypoint Information Page, OPTIONS Menu
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the COLOR SCHEME Option (Figure 8‑65).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between Day, Auto, and Night Options.
AFCS
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
INDEX
APPENDICES
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the Chart Setup Menu.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-65 Approach Information Page, Day View
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-66 Approach Information Page, Night View
INDEX
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495
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLITECHARTS CYCLE NUMBER AND EXPIRATION DATE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FliteCharts data is revised every 28 days. Charts are still viewable during a period that extends from the
cycle expiration date to the disables date. FliteCharts are disabled 180 days after the expiration date and are no
longer available for viewing upon reaching the disables date. When turning on the system, the Power-up Page
displays the current status of the FliteCharts database. See the table below for the various FliteCharts Power-up
Page displays and the definition of each.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
FliteCharts Database
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-67 Power-up Page, FliteCharts Database
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Blank Line. System is not configured for FliteCharts. Contact a
Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
System is configured for FliteCharts but no chart database is installed.
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for the FliteCharts
database.
Normal operation. FliteCharts database is valid and within current
cycle.
FliteCharts database is beyond the expiration date, but still within the
180 day viewing period.
FliteCharts database has timed out. Database is beyond 180 days
after expiration date. FliteCharts database is no longer available for
viewing.
APPENDICES
Table 8-3 FliteCharts Power-up Page Annunciations and Definitions
INDEX
Other possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown in Figure 8-68. ‘FliteCharts Expires’ plus a
date in white, indicates the chart database is current. ‘Chart data is out of date!’ in yellow, indicates charts are
still viewable, but approaching the disable date.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When the 180 day grace period has expired, ‘Chart data is disabled.’ in yellow indicates that the FliteCharts
database has expired and is no longer viewable. ‘Chart Data: N/A’ appears in white if no FliteCharts data is
available on the database card or no database card is inserted.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FliteCharts time critical information can also be found on the AUX - System Status page. The FliteCharts
database REGION, CYCLE number, EFFECTIVE, EXPIRES, and DISABLES dates of the subscription appear in
either blue or yellow text. Dates shown in blue are current data. Dates shown in yellow indicate the data is not
within the current subscription period.
EIS
FliteCharts becomes inoperative 180 days after the FliteCharts EXPIRES date is reached, and is no longer
available for viewing. This date is shown as the DISABLES date. After the disable date the SHW CHRT Softkey
label appears subdued and is unavailable until a revised issue of FliteCharts is installed.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Press the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the FliteCharts database information is shown.
The FliteCharts database cycle number shown in the figure, 1005, is deciphered as follows:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
10 – Indicates the year 2010
05 – Indicates the fifth issue of the FliteCharts database for the year
The FliteCharts EFFECTIVE date 07–MAY–10 is the first date that this database is current.
The FliteCharts EXPIRES date 04–JUN–10 is the last date that this database is current.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The DISABLES date 01–DEC–10 is the date that this database becomes inoperative.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
FliteCharts
Data
INDEX
Figure 8-68 AUX – System Status Page, FliteCharts Current and Available
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The FliteCharts database is provided from Garmin. Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for
instructions on revising the FliteCharts database.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The other three possible AUX - System Status page conditions are shown here. The EFFECTIVE date is the
beginning date for this database cycle. If the present date is before the effective date, the EFFECTIVE date
appears in yellow and the EXPIRES date appears in blue. The EXPIRES date is the revision date for the next
database cycle. A date displayed in yellow indicates that date has passed. The DISABLES date is the date that
this database cycle is no longer viewable. A date displayed in yellow indicates that date has passed. REGION
and CYCLE NOT AVAILABLE in blue, indicate that FliteCharts database is not available on the database card
or no database card is inserted.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FliteCharts Expired, but is not Disabled
FliteCharts Database is Disabled
FliteCharts Database is Not Available
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-69 AUX – System Status Page, FliteCharts Expired, FliteCharts Disabled, FliteCharts Not Available
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.5 AOPA AIRPORT DIRECTORY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) Airport Directory database offers detailed information
regarding services, hours of operation, lodging options, and more. This information is viewed on the Airport
Information Page by pressing the INFO Softkey until INFO-2 is displayed as shown in Figure 8-70.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-70 AOPA Information on the Airport Information Page
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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499
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
AOPA DATABASE CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The AOPA Airport Directory database is revised four times per year. Check fly.garmin.com for the current
database. The Airport Directory is always available for use after the expiration date. When turning on the
system, the Power-up Page indicates whether the databases are current, out of date, or not available.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
AOPA Database
Figure 8-71 Power-up Page, Airport Directory Database
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Normal operation. AOPA Airport Directory database is valid and within
current cycle.
AOPA Airport Directory database has expired.
AFCS
Database card contains no AOPA Airport Directory data.
Table 8-4 Airport Directory Annunciation Definitions
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Airport Directory Region, Version, Cycle, Effective date and Expires date of the database cycle can also be
found on the AUX - System Status page, as seen in Figure 8-72.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Press the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the DATABASE window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the Airport Directory database information
is shown.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The Airport Directory database cycle number shown in the figure, 10D3, is deciphered as follows:
10 – Indicates the year 2010
D – Indicates the data is for Airport Directory
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3 – Indicates the third issue of the Airport Directory database for the year
The Airport Directory EFFECTIVE date 15–JUL–10 is the beginning date for the current database cycle. The
Airport Directory EXPIRES date 14–OCT–10 is the revision date for the next database cycle.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Airport Directory
Data
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-72 AUX – System Status Page, Airport Directory Current Information
AFCS
Airport Directory information appears in blue and yellow text. The EFFECTIVE date appears in blue when
data is current and in yellow when the current date is before the effective date. The EXPIRES date appears in
blue when data is current and in yellow when expired (Table 8-4). NOT AVAILABLE appears in blue in the
REGION field if Airport Directory data is not available on the database card. An expired Airport Directory
database is not disabled and will continue to function indefinitely.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.5 SATELLITE TELEPHONE AND SMS MESSAGING
NOTE: Separate accounts must be established to access the Iridium satellite network for voice and Garmin
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Connext for data transmission of maintenance reports.
An optional GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver provides Iridium Satellite Telephone service and SMS text messaging.
Iridium telephone and text messaging are available to the flight crew through the Multi-function Display, audio
panel and headset.
EIS
Operation of these features in the cockpit is accomplished through the AUX - TELEPHONE and AUX - TEXT
MESSAGING Pages.
REGISTERING WITH GARMIN CONNEXT
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
A subscriber account must be established prior to using the Iridium Satellite System. Before setting up an
Iridium account, obtain the serial number of the Iridium Transceiver (GSR1) and the System ID by selecting the
AUX - SYSTEM STATUS Page as shown in Figure 8-73. Contact Garmin at 1-866-739-5687 in the United States
or 913-397-8200, ext. 1135.
APPENDICES
Iridium Transceiver Serial Number
System ID Number
INDEX
Figure 8-73 Identification Needed for Iridium Registration
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION
The pilot or copilot can place and answer calls on the Iridium satellite network. Control and monitoring of
telephone functions are accomplished through the AUX - TELEPHONE Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Viewing the Telephone Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select SATELLITE PHONE.
3) If necessary, select the TEL Softkey to display the AUX - TELEPHONE Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Internal
Phone
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Satellite
Signal
Strength
External
Phone
EIS
The PHONE STATUS display, as shown in Figure 8-74, gives a graphical representation of the current
disposition of voice and/or data transmissions. Table 8-5 describes symbology used on Phone Status display.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-74 Phone Status Display
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Internal
Phone
External
Phone
Description
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Phone is Idle
Phone is ringing
EIS
Phone has a dial tone (off hook) or connected to another phone
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Phone dialed is busy
Phone is dialing another phone
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Phone has failed
Phone status not known
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Phone is disabled
Phone is reserved for data transmission
AFCS
Calling other phone or incoming call from other phone
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Other phone is on hold
Phones are connected
INDEX
APPENDICES
Table 8-5 Telephone Symbols
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENABLE/DISABLE THE IRIDIUM TELEPHONE SYSTEM
The Iridium Satellite Telephone System may be turned on or off by using the page menu.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 8-75 Enable Iridium Telephone System
To enable the Iridium telephone system:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) With the AUX - TELEPHONE Page displayed, select the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Enable Iridium Transmission’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
To disable the Iridium telephone system:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) With the AUX - TELEPHONE Page displayed, select the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable Iridium Transmission’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
AFCS
CONTACTS
The names, telephone number, and email addresses can be saved in a list of contacts for easy use when
making telephone calls.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Entering a new contact:
1) With the AUX - TELEPHONE Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) If necessary, turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘NEW ENTRY’ as shown in Figure 8-76.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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505
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-76 Select ‘NEW ENTRY’
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves the ‘NAME’ field of the ‘CONTACT DETAILS’ window, as seen in Figure
8-77.
INDEX
Figure 8-77 Enter Contact Name
4) Enter the desired name of the new contact. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the
MFD Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the MFD.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘PHONE NUMBER’ field.
6) Enter the desired telephone number as shown in Figure 8-78. Entry can be accomplished through the
alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the MFD.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-78 Enter Contact Phone Number
7) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘EMAIL’ field.
8) Enter the desired email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the MFD.
9) Press the ENT Key. The SAVE button is highlighted as in Figure 8-79.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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507
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-79 Save New Contact Entry
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
10) Press the ENT Key. The new contact entry is added to the list of saved contacts. See Figure 8-80.
Figure 8-80 Contact Shown in List
INDEX
Delete a contact:
1) With the AUX - TELEPHONE Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name, as shown in Figure 8-81.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-81 Select Contact to be Deleted
3) Select the DELETE Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed as in Figure 8-82.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-82 Confirm Contact Deletion
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the selected contact.
Edit a contact:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) With the AUX - TELEPHONE Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name, as shown in Figure 8-83.
Figure 8-83 Select Contact to be Edited
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3) Select the EDIT Softkey. The cursor is placed in the ‘NAME’ field, as in Figure 8-84. Enter the desired changes.
Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the
controller or the MFD.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-84 Make the Desired Changes
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the ENT Key when each field is complete. The SAVE Button is now highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key to save the changes.
INCOMING CALLS
AFCS
When viewing MFD pages other than the AUX - TELEPHONE Page, a pop-up alert will be displayed and
an aural alert “Incoming Call” will be heard. If the incoming call is an Iridium network call, IRIDIUM will
be displayed. The pop-up alert may be inhibited at times, such as during takeoff. In addition to the pop-up
alert, a ringing phone symbol will be displayed to the right of the MFD page title as shown in Figure 8-88.
Also, the voice alert “Incoming Call” will be heard on the selected cockpit audio.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Incoming Call Symbol on MFD Page
APPENDICES
Figure 8-85 Incoming Call
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Answering an incoming call in the cockpit:
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Select the ANSWER Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
While viewing the AUX - TELEPHONE Page:
NOTE: The Push-to-Talk switch is not utilized for telephone communication. The microphone is active after
EIS
selecting the ANSWER Softkey, and stays active until the call is terminated.
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Answer Incoming Call’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selecting the IGNORE Softkey will extinguish the pop-up window and leave the current call unanswered.
Selecting the IGNRE ALL Softkey will extinguish the pop-up window for the current and all future incoming
calls and leave the current call unanswered. Selecting the TEL Softkey will display the AUX - TELEPHONE
Page allowing additional call information to be viewed before answering.
Disabling incoming call alerts:
1) With the AUX - TELEPHONE Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable Incoming Call Alerts’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The voice and pop-up alert will not be displayed now when an incoming call is received.
OUTGOING CALLS
AFCS
Voice calls can be made from the cockpit to an external phone through the Iridium Satellite Network.
Making an external call from the cockpit by dialing the number:
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Select the DIAL Softkey on the MFD.
INDEX
APPENDICES
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor has now moved to the phone number entry field.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-86 Enter Phone Number
4) Enter the desired telephone number by selecting the number softkeys on the MFD or by selecting the numeric
keys on the MFD Control Unit. The International dialing sequence is necessary to place a call from the cockpit
to an external phone: Country Code + City/Area Code (if any) + Telephone Number.
Country Code
870
8810 or 8811
8812 or 8813
8816 or 8817
8818 or 8819
AFCS
Satellite System
Inmarsat
ICO
Ellipso
Iridium
Globalstar
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The following country codes may be used when calling other satellite telephone systems.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-87 Make the Call
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Press the ENT Key. The system will begin calling the number, as in Figure 8-88.
Figure 8-88 System is Making the Connection
INDEX
When the phone is answered, the connection is established as shown in Figure 8-89. To exit the call, select
the HANGUP Softkey.
When numeric entries are required while a call is connected, such as selecting menu items like “dial zero to
get an operator”, select the KEYPAD Softkey to access the numeric softkeys.
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OVERVIEW
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INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-89 Phone is Answered, Connection Complete
Making an external call from the cockpit by using the Contact List:
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired contact name in the list of contacts, as seen in Figure 8-90.
4) Select the CALL Softkey. The external call is initiated and the number associated with the contact name is
dialed.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-90 Making a Call from the Contact List
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PLACING THE COCKPIT PHONE ON HOLD
Placing a call on hold:
Select the HOLD Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
AFCS
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Put Current Call On Hold’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The cockpit phone is now isolated from the call as seen in Figure 8-91. This figure illustrates a call between
the cockpit and an external phone in which the cockpit phone has been put on hold. Select the HOLD
Softkey again to resume the call.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-91 Cockpit Phone on Hold
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TEXT MESSAGING (SMS)
The pilot or copilot can send and receive text messages on the Iridium satellite network. Messages may be
sent to an email address or text message capable cellular telephone. Message length is limited to 160 characters,
including the email address.
The text messaging user interface is mainly through the AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page.
AFCS
Viewing the Text Messaging Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the AUX page group.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the SATELLITE PHONE.
3) If necessary, select the SMS Softkey to display the AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page as shown in Figure 8-92.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-92 Text Messaging Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Message Symbol
Description
Received text message that has not been opened
AFCS
Received text message that has been opened
Saved text message, draft not sent
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
System is sending text message
APPENDICES
Text message has been sent
System failed to send text message
Predefined text message
INDEX
Table 8-6 Text Message Symbols
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VIEWING A TEXT MESSAGE WHEN RECEIVED
When viewing MFD pages other than the AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page, a pop-up alert similar to Figure
8-93 will be displayed when a new text message is received.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
New Text Message Pop-up
New Text Message Symbol on MFD Page
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 8-93 New Text Message Received
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Select the VIEW Softkey to view the message. Selecting the IGNORE Softkey will extinguish the pop-up
window and leave the text message unopened. Selecting the IGNR ALL Softkey will extinguish the popwindow and ignore all future incoming text messages. Selecting the SMS Softkey will display the AUX TEXT MESSAGING Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-94 Text Message Displayed from Pop-Up Alert
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INDEX
The pop-up alerts may be enabled or disabled through the Page Menu.
519
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Enabling/disabling incoming text message pop-up alerts:
1) With the AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable New Message Popups’ or ‘Enable New Message Popups’.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key. The pop-up alert will not be displayed when an incoming text message is received.
Figure 8-95 Disabling New Text Message Pop-Ups
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
REPLY TO A TEXT MESSAGE
After reading a text message, a reply may be sent.
Replying to a text message:
AFCS
While viewing the text message, select the REPLY Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Reply To Message’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
SENDING A TEXT MESSAGE
APPENDICES
Text messages may be sent from the AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page.
Sending a new text message:
1) While viewing the AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the NEW Softkey.
Or:
INDEX
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
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INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-96 Composing a New Text Message
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) The TEXT MESSAGE DRAFT Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘TO’ field. Enter the desired
telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used
to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by selecting the NUMBERS Softkey.
Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters. Special characters can be
accessed by selecting the SYMBOLS Softkey.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘MESSAGE’ field.
AFCS
4) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 2.
5) Press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Select the SEND Softkey to send the message immediately, or select the SAVE Softkey to save the message in
Outbox for sending at a later time. Select the CANCEL Softkey to delete the message.
PREDEFINED TEXT MESSAGES
APPENDICES
Time and effort can be saved in typing text messages that are used repeatedly by saving these messages as
a predefined message.
Creating a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
INDEX
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EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 8-97 Creating/Editing Predefined Messages
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select ‘Edit Predefined Messages’ as shown in Figure 8-97.
3) Press the ENT Key. The PREDEFINED MESSAGES view is now displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Select the NEW Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Predefined Message’.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
c) Press the ENT Key. The PREDEFINED SMS TEXT MESSAGE Window is now displayed as shown in Figure 8-98.
Figure 8-98 Composing a Predefined Message
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5) The cursor is displayed in the ‘TITLE’ field. Enter the desired message title. Entry can be accomplished through
the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys
on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD
by selecting the NUMBERS Softkey. Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha
characters. Special characters can be accessed by selecting the SYMBOLS Softkey.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘MESSAGE’ field.
7) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 5.
8) Press the ENT Key.
EIS
9) Select the SAVE Softkey. The new predefined message is now shown in the displayed list. Selecting the
CANCEL Softkey will delete the message without saving.
10) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
11) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Stop Editing Predefined Message’.
12) Press the ENT Key.
Sending a predefined text message:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) While viewing the AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the NEW Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) The TEXT MESSAGE DRAFT Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘TO’ field. Enter the desired
telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used
to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by selecting the NUMBERS Softkey.
Select the CAP LOCK Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters. Special characters can be
accessed by selecting the SYMBOLS Softkey.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘MESSAGE’ field.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-99 Composing a New Text Message
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Select the PREDEFD Softkey. The PREDEFINED MESSAGE MENU Window is displayed as seen in Figure 8-100.
APPENDICES
Figure 8-100 Predefined Message List
5) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired predefined message.
6) Press the ENT Key. The predefined message text is inserted into the message field. If desired, the message can
be edited by using the FMS Knobs.
INDEX
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Select the SEND Softkey to transmit the message.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TEXT MESSAGE BOXES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Received text messages reside in the Inbox as ‘Read’ or ‘Unread’ messages. The Outbox contains ‘Sent” and
‘Unsent’ text messages. Saved messages that are meant to be sent later are stored as Drafts. Each text message
box may be viewed separately, or together in any combination.
Show Inbox messages:
While viewing the AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the INBOX Softkey
(Figure 8-101).
Or:
EIS
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Inbox Messages’.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-101 Text Message Inbox
Show Outbox messages:
APPENDICES
While viewing the AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the OUTBOX
Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Outbox Messages’.
INDEX
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Show Draft messages:
While viewing the AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the DRAFTS
Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Draft Messages’.
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
MANAGING TEXT MESSAGES
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The viewed messages may be listed according to the date/time the message was sent or received, the type of
message (read, unread, sent, unsent, etc.), or by message address.
Viewing messages sorted by message date/time:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
While viewing the AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the TIME Softkey
(Figure 8-115).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Date/Time’.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window (Figure 8-102).
Viewing messages sorted by message type:
While viewing the AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the TYPE Softkey.
Or:
AFCS
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Type’.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
Viewing messages sorted by address:
While viewing the AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the ARRANGE Softkey, then select the ADDRESS
Softkey.
APPENDICES
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Address’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
INDEX
Viewing the content of a text message:
1) While viewing the AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page, select the desired message box.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
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OVERVIEW
3) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
4) Select the VIEW Softkey.
Or:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘View Selected Message’.
EIS
c) Press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 8-102 Viewing Message Content
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) To close the text message, select the CLOSE Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Close Message’.
APPENDICES
c) Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Marking selected message as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Select the MRK READ Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark Selected Message As Read’.
EIS
c) Press the ENT Key.
The message symbol now indicates the message has been opened.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Marking all messages as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark All New Messages As Read’.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed.
4) With cursor highlighting ‘YES’, press the ENT Key. The message symbols now indicate all the message have
been opened.
Delete a message:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) While viewing the Inbox on the AUX - TEXT MESSAGING Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Select the DELETE Softkey.
Or:
AFCS
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Delete Selected Message’.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
c) Press the ENT Key.
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8.6 SIRIUSXM RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section for information about XM WX Satellite Weather products.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment feature of the GDL 69A SXM Data Link Receiver is available
for the pilot’s and passengers’ enjoyment. The GDL 69A SXM can receive SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment
services at any altitude throughout the Continental U.S. Entertainment audio is not available on the GDL 69 SXM
Data Link Receiver.
EIS
SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers a variety of radio programming over long distances without having to constantly
search for new stations. Based on signals from satellites, coverage far exceeds land-based transmissions.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio services are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit
www.siriusxm.com.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ACTIVATING SIRIUSXM SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The service is activated by providing SiriusXM Satellite Radio with either one or two coded IDs, depending on
the equipment. Either the Audio Radio ID or the Data Radio ID, or both, must be provided to SiriusXM Satellite
Radio to activate the entertainment subscription.
It is not required to activate both the entertainment and weather service subscriptions with the GDL 69A SXM.
Either or both services can be activated. SiriusXM Satellite Radio uses one or both of the coded IDs to send
an activation signal that, when received by the GDL 69A SXM, allows it to play entertainment programming.
These IDs are located:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• On the label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
• On the XM Information Page on the MFD (Figure 8-103)
• On the XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit (available at www.garmin.com, P/N
190-00355-04)
AFCS
Contact the installer if the Data Radio ID and the Audio Radio ID cannot be located.
NOTE: The LOCK Softkey on the XM Information Page (Auxiliary Page Group) is used to save GDL 69A
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
SXM activation data when the SiriusXM services are initially set up. It is not used during normal SiriusXM
Satellite Radio operation, but there should be no adverse effects if inadvertently selected during flight.
Refer to the GDL 69/69A XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions (190-00355-04, Rev H or later) for
further information.
APPENDICES
Activating the SiriusXM Satellite Radio services:
1) Contact SiriusXM Satellite Radio through the email address listed on their website (www.siriusxm.com) or by
the customer service phone number listed on the website. Follow the instructions provided by SiriusXM Satellite
Radio services.
2) Select the Auxiliary Page Group.
INDEX
3) Select the next to last page in the AUX Page Group.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
4) Press the INFO Softkey to display the XM Information Page.
5) Verify that the desired services are activated.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
6) Press the LOCK Softkey.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight YES.
8) To complete activation, press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Data
Radio ID
Audio
Radio ID
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Weather
Products
Window
RADIO
and INFO
Softkeys
Figure 8-103 XM Information Page
LOCK Softkey
is Used to Save
Activation Data
During Initial Setup
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
If XMWX Satellite Weather services have not been activated, all the weather product boxes are blank on
the XM Information Page and a yellow Activation Required message is displayed in the center of the Weather
Data Link Page (Map Page Group). The Service Class refers to the groupings of weather products available for
subscription.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
USING SIRIUSXM RADIO
The XM Radio Page provides information and control of the audio entertainment features of the SiriusXM
Satellite Radio.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting the XM Radio Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the displayed AUX - XM Information Page.
3) Press the RADIO Softkey to show the XM Radio Page where audio entertainment is controlled.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Active
Channel
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Channel
List
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Volume
Field
Categories
Field
AFCS
Figure 8-104 XM Radio Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ACTIVE CHANNEL AND CHANNEL LIST
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The Channels List Box of the XM Radio Page shows a list of the available channels for the selected category.
Channels can be stepped through one at a time or may be selected directly by channel number.
The Active Channel Box on the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected channel that the SiriusXM
Radio is using.
Selecting a channel from the channel list:
1) While on the XM Radio Page, press the CHNL Softkey.
EIS
2) Press the CH + Softkey to go up through the list in the Channel Box, or move down the list with the
CH – Softkey.
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press the FMS Knob to highlight the channel list and turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the channels.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
Selecting a channel directly:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) While on the XM Radio Page, press the CHNL Softkey.
2) Press the DIR CH Softkey. The channel number in the Active Channel Box is highlighted.
3) Press the numbered softkeys located on the bottom of the display to directly select the desired channel
number.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CATEGORY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Category Box of the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected category of audio. Categories of
channels such as jazz, rock, or news can be selected to list the available channels for a type of music or other
contents. One of the optional categories is PRESETS to view channels that have been programmed.
Selecting a category:
1) Press the CATGRY Softkey on the XM Radio Page.
2) Press the CAT + and CAT - Softkeys to cycle through the categories.
EIS
Or:
Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Categories list. Highlight the desired category with the small FMS Knob
and press the ENT Key. Selecting All Categories places all channels in the list.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 8-105 Categories List
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
PRESETS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Up to 15 channels from any category can be assigned a preset number. The preset channels are selected by
pressing the PRESETS and MORE Softkeys. Then the preset channel can be selected directly and added to
the channel list for the Presets category.
Setting a preset channel number:
1) On the XM Radio Page, while listening to an Active Channel that is wanted for a preset, press the PRESETS
Softkey to access the first five preset channels (PS1 - PS5).
EIS
2) Press the MORE Softkey to access the next five channels (PS6 – PS10), and again to access the last five
channels (PS11 – PS15). Pressing the MORE Softkey repeatedly cycles through the preset channels.
3) Press any one of the (PS1 - PS15) softkeys to assign a number to the active channel.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the SET Softkey on the desired channel number to save the channel as a preset.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Select PRESETS to
Access the Preset
Channels Softkeys
Select MORE to Cycle
Through the Preset
Channels
Select SET
to Save Each
Preset Channel
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-106 Accessing and Selecting XM Preset Channels
Pressing the BACK Softkey, or waiting during 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, returns the system to the top
level softkeys.
AFCS
VOLUME
Radio volume is shown as a percentage of full volume. Volume level is controlled by pressing the VOL
Softkey, which brings up the MUTE Softkey and the volume increase and decrease softkeys.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Adjusting the volume:
1) With the XM Radio Page displayed, press the VOL Softkey.
2) Press the VOL – Softkey to reduce volume or press the VOL + Softkey to increase volume. (Once the VOL
Softkey is pressed, the volume can also be adjusted using the small FMS Knob.)
INDEX
APPENDICES
3) Press the MUTE Softkey to mute the audio. Press the MUTE Softkey again to unmute the audio.
Figure 8-107 Volume Control
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.7 SCHEDULER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., Change oil, AltimeterTransponder, or Hot Section Inspection or Phase 1 Maintenance Check) in the Messages Window on the PFD.
Messages can be set to display based on a specific date and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero
(one-time; default setting), or recurrently whenever the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set
to periodic alerting automatically reset to the original timer value once the message is displayed. When power is
cycled, all messages are retained until deleted, and message timer countdown is resumed.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-108 Scheduler (Utility Page)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty scheduler message naming field.
AFCS
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the message text to be displayed in the Messages Window and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the field next to Type.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the message type:
• Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
• One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
APPENDICES
• Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MM-YY) and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
EIS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the name field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
5) Press the ENT Key while the message line is cleared to clear the message time.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Scheduler messages appear in the Messages Window on the PFD. When a scheduler message is waiting,
the ALERTS Softkey label changes to ADVISORY. Pressing the ADVISORY Softkey opens the Alerts Window
and acknowledges the scheduler message. The softkey label reverts to ALERTS when selected. Pressing the
ALERTS Softkey again removes the Alerts Window from the display, and the scheduler message is deleted from
the message queue.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 8-109 PFD Messages Window
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.8 FLIGHT DATA LOGGING
NOTE: Some aircraft installations may not provide all aircraft/engine data capable of being logged by the
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
system.
The Flight Data Logging feature will automatically store critical flight and engine data on an SD data card (up
to 16GB) inserted into the top card slot of the MFD. Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each
1GB of available space on the card.
EIS
Data is written to the SD card once each second while the MFD is powered on. All flight data logged on a
specific date is stored in a file named in a format which includes that date (dataYYYY_MM_DD.csv). The file is
created automatically each time the G950 system is powered on, provided an SD card has been inserted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The status of the Flight Data Logging feature can be viewed on the AUX-UTILITY Page. If no SD card has been
inserted, “NO CARD” is displayed. When data is being written to the SD card, “LOGGING DATA” is displayed.
The .csv file may be viewed with Microsoft Excel® or other spreadsheet applications.
The following is a list of data parameters the G950 system is capable of logging.
• Time
• GPS altitude (MSL)
• GPS altitude (WGS84 datum)
• Baro Correction (in/Hg)
• Indicated airspeed (kts)
• Vertical speed (fpm)
• OAT (degrees C)
• True airspeed (knots)
• Roll Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Lateral and Vertical G Force (g)
• Ground Track (degrees
magnetic)
• Magnetic Heading (degrees)
• HSI source
• SBAS GPS horizontal protection
level
• Selected course
• SBAS GPS vertical protection
level
• Com1/Com2 frequency
• Fuel Qty (right & left)(gals)
• Nav1/Nav2 frequency
• Fuel Flow (gph)
• CDI deflection
• Oil Pressure (psi)
• VDI/GP/GS deflection
• Oil Temperature (deg. F)
• Wind Direction (degrees)
• Manifold Pressure
• Wind Speed (knots)
• Propeller RPM
• Active Waypoint Identifier
• Turbine Inlet Temperature
• Distance to next waypoint (nm)
APPENDICES
• Ground Speed (kts)
• GPS vertical alert limit
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Pitch Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Longitude (degrees; geodetic;
+East)
• GPS horizontal alert limit
AFCS
• GPS vertical speed (fpm)
• GPS fix
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Baro-Corrected altitude (feet)
• Latitude (degrees; geodetic;
+North)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Date
• Bearing to next waypoint
(degrees)
• Magnetic variation (degrees)
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INDEX
The file containing the recorded data will appear in the format shown in Figure 8-110. This file can be imported
into most computer spreadsheet applications.
537
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Local Date
YYMMDD
Local 24hr Time
HHMMSS
Nearest Airport
(A blank will be
inserted if no
airport is found)
log_110210_104506_KIXD.csv
EIS
Figure 8-110 Log File Format
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Data logging status can be monitored on the AUX-UTILITY Page.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.9 AUXILIARY VIDEO (OPTIONAL)
The system provides a control and display interface to an optional auxiliary video system.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Images provided on the AUX - VIDEO page are for supplemental use only.
There are four modes of operation of the auxiliary video display: Full-Screen, Full-Screen with Digital Zoom,
Split-Screen with Map, and Split-Screen with Map and Digital Zoom.
Displaying auxiliary video:
EIS
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select VIDEO and display the AUX - VIDEO Page.
The video display softkeys shown below appear on the AUX - VIDEO Page.
MAP
SETUP
VID ZM+
VID ZM-
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ENGINE
MAP ACTV HIDE MAP
VID ACTV
CNTRST +
BRIGHT -
BRIGHT +
SAT -
RESET
SAT +
BACK
Pressing the BACK Softkey returns
to the Previous Level Softkeys.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-111 Video Display Softkeys
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
CNTRST -
Control of the AUX - VIDEO Page can also be accessed through the Page Menu.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-112 AUX - VIDEO Page Menu
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting video menu options:
1) While viewing the AUX - VIDEO Page press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired video adjustment option and press the ENT Key.
Once the ENT key is pressed on any option, the page menu closes and returns to the AUX - VIDEO Page.
VIDEO SETUP
EIS
Video brightness, contrast, and saturation may be adjusted be selecting the setup function. While viewing
the setup function softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the AUX - VIDEO Page
softkeys.
Adjusting the video settings:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) With the AUX - VIDEO Page displayed, press the SETUP Softkey.
2) Press the BRIGHT - or BRIGHT +, to adjust display brightness in five percent increments from 0 to 100%.
3) Press the CNTRST - or CNTRST +, to adjust display contrast in five percent increments from 0 to 100%.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Press the SAT - or SAT +, to adjust display saturationin five percent increments from 0 to 100%.
5) If desired, return the display to the default settings by pressing the RESET Softkey.
6) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the previous softkey level.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
DISPLAY SELECTION
AFCS
Pressing the HIDE MAP Softkey removes the map and displays video on the full screen. The softkey label
changes to grey with black characters. Pressing the HIDE MAP Softkey again restores the map view and the
small video image. The softkey label returns to white characters on a black background.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Video
Display
INDEX
Map
View
Figure 8-113 AUX - Video Split-Screen
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-114 Full Screen Video Display
ZOOM/RANGE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pressing the VID ZM + or VID ZM - Softkeys increases or decreases video display magnification between 1x
and 10x.
AFCS
The RANGE Knob can be used to increase or decrease the range setting on the map display or zoom in and
out on the video display. While in the Split-Screen mode, pressing the MAP ACTV or VID ACTV Softkey
determines which display the RANGE Knob adjusts. Pressing the softkey to display MAP ACTV allows the
RANGE Knob to control the range setting of the map display. Pressing the softkey to display VID ACTV allows
the RANGE Knob to control the zoom setting of the video display.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.10 ABNORMAL OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SVT TROUBLESHOOTING
SVT is intended to be used with traditional attitude, heading, obstacle, terrain, and traffic inputs. SVT is
disabled when valid attitude or heading data is not available for the display. In case of invalid SVT data, the
PFD display reverts to the standard blue-over-brown attitude display.
SVT becomes disabled without the following data resources:
EIS
• Attitude data
• Heading data
• GPS position data
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• 9 Arc-second Terrain data
• Obstacle data
• Terrain-SVT or TAWS function is not available, in test mode, or failed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• The position of the aircraft exceeds the range of the terrain database.
REVERSIONARY MODE
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SVT can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If it is enabled when switching
to Reversionary Mode, SVT will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The standard, non-SVT PFD display will
be shown in the interim.
Figure 8-115 SVT Reversionary Mode
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Unusual attitudes are displayed with red chevrons overlaid on the display indicating the direction to fly to
correct the unusual attitude condition. The display shows either a brown or blue colored bar at the top or
bottom of the screen to represent earth or sky. This is intended to prevent losing sight of the horizon during
extreme pitch attitudes.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-116 Unusual Attitude Display
The blue colored bar is also displayed when terrain gradient is great enough to completely fill the display.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Blue Band
AFCS
Terrain
Completely
Fills Display
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-117 Blue Sky Bar with Full Display Terrain
APPENDICES
GDL 69/69A SXM DATA LINK RECEIVER TROUBLESHOOTING
Some quick troubleshooting steps listed below can be performed to find the possible cause of a failure.
INDEX
• Ensure the owner/operator of the aircraft in which the Data Link Receiver is installed has subscribed to
SiriusXM Satellite Radio
• Ensure the SiriusXM Satellite Radio subscription has been activated
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
• Perform a quick check of the circuit breakers to ensure that power is applied to the Data Link Receiver
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
For troubleshooting purposes, check the LRU Information Box on the AUX - System Status Page for Data Link
Receiver (GDL 69/69A SXM) status, serial number, and software version number. If a failure has been detected
in the GDL 69/69A SXM the status is marked with a red X.
• Ensure that nothing is plugged into the Aux Audio In jack(s) because this would prevent SiriusXM Satellite
Radio from being heard
Selecting the System Status Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page (the last page in the AUX Page Group).
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 8-118 LRU Information Window on System Status Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
If a failure still exists, the following messages may provide insight as to the possible problem:
NO SIGNAL
LOADING
OFF AIR
---
Message Location
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
Weather Datalink Page - center of page
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
Description
Data Link Receiver antenna error; service required
Data Link Receiver updating encryption code
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
CHECK ANTENNA
UPDATING
Loss of signal; signal strength too low for receiver
EIS
Acquiring channel audio or information
Channel not in service
Missing channel information
No communication from Data Link Receiver
WEATHER DATA LINK FAILURE Weather Datalink Page - center of page
within last 5 minutes
DETECTING ACTIVATION
Weather Datalink Page - center of page SiriusXM subscription is not activated
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Table 8-7 w 69/69A SXM Data Link Receiver Error Messages
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Blank Page
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APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
NOTE: The P68 aircraft Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) supersedes information found in this document.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The G950 Alerting System conveys alerts using the following:
EIS
• Annunciation Window: The Annunciation Window displays abbreviated annunciation text. Text color is
based on alert levels described in the following section. The Annunciation Window is located to the right
of the Altimeter and Vertical Speed Indicator. All aircraft annunciations can be displayed simultaneously
in the Annunciation Window. A white horizontal line separates annunciations that are acknowledged from
annunciations that are not yet acknowledged. Higher priority annunciations are displayed towards the top of
the window.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Alerts Window: The Alerts Window displays text messages for up to 64 prioritized alert messages. Pressing
the ALERTS Softkey displays the Alerts Window. Pressing the ALERTS Softkey a second time removes the
Alerts Window from the display. When the Alerts Window is displayed, the FMS Knob can be used to scroll
through the alert message list.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Softkey Annunciation: During certain alerts, the ALERTS Softkey may appear as a flashing annunciation
to accompany an alert. The ALERTS Softkey assumes a new label consistent with the alert level (WARNING,
CAUTION, or ADVISORY). By pressing the softkey when flashing an annunciation, the alert is acknowledged.
The softkey label then returns to ALERTS. If alerts are still present, the ALERTS label is displayed in white
with black text. Pressing the ALERTS Softkey a second time views the alert text messages.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• System Annunciations: Typically, a large red ‘X’ appears over instruments whose information is supplied by
a failed Line Replaceable Unit (LRU). See the G950 System Annunciations Section for more information.
System
Annunciation
(Red ‘X’)
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Annunciation
Window
APPENDICES
Alerts Window
INDEX
Softkey
Annunciation
Figure A-1 G950 Alerting System
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
• Audio Alerting System: The system issues audio alert tones when specific system conditions are met. See the
Alert Level Definitions Section for more information. Should the #1 GIA 63W fail, audio and voice alerts are
not generated. The annunciation tone may be tested from the AUX - System Status Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Testing the system annunciation tone:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
2) Press the ANN TEST Softkey.
Or:
EIS
a) Press the MENU Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
b) Highlight ‘Enable Annunciator Test Mode’ and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
Select to Test
Annunciation Tone
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure A-2 System Status Page, Annunciation Tone Testing
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APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ALERT LEVEL DEFINITIONS
The G950 Alerting System uses four alert levels.
• WARNING: This level of alert requires immediate attention.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Warning alert text is shown in red in the Annunciation Window and is accompanied by a continuous
chime and a flashing WARNING Softkey annunciation (see Figure A-3). Pressing the WARNING Softkey
acknowledges the presence of the warning alert and stops the aural chime.
Warning voice alerts repeat continuously until acknowledged by pressing the WARNING Softkey.
EIS
• CAUTION: This level of alert indicates the existence of abnormal conditions on the aircraft that may require
intervention.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Caution alert text is shown in amber in the Annunciation Window and is accompanied by a single chime and
a flashing CAUTION Softkey annunciation (see Figure A-3). Pressing the CAUTION Softkey acknowledges
the presence of the caution alert.
Caution voice alerts repeat three times or until acknowledged by pressing the CAUTION Softkey.
• ANNUNCIATION OR MESSAGE ADVISORY: This level of alert provides general information.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Annunciation alert text is shown in white in the Annunciation Window; no aural tone is generated. An
annunciation alert is accompanied by a flashing ADVISORY Softkey annunciation (see Figure A-3). Pressing
the ADVISORY Softkey acknowledges the presence of the annunciation alert.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Message advisory alerts do not issue annunciations in the Annunciation Window. Instead, message advisory
alerts only issue a flashing ADVISORY Softkey annunciation (see Figure A-3). Pressing the ADVISORY
Softkey acknowledges the presence of the message advisory alert and displays the alert text message in the
Alerts Window.
Message advisory voice alerts generated when the message advisory is issued do not repeat.
AFCS
Figure A-3 Softkey Annunciation (ALERTS Softkey Labels)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• SAFE OPERATING ANNUNCIATIONS: This level of alert provides general information about conditions
which are safe for operation.
Safe operating annunciation alert text is shown in green in the Annunciation Window; no aural tone is
generated. It is accompanied by a flashing ADVISORY Softkey annunciation (see Figure A-3). Pressing the
ADVISORY Softkey acknowledges the presence of the alert.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
AIRCRAFT ALERTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The following alerts are configured specifically for the the P68 aircraft. See the Pilot’s Operating Handbook
(POH) for information regarding pilot responses.
WARNING ALERTS
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Annunciation Window Text
Alerts Window Message
BATT LO VOLT
Battery voltage is low
ESSENT LO VOLT
Essential bus voltage is low
L&R ENG FIRE*
Left and right engine fire
L&R OIL PRS LO
Left and right engine oil pressure is low
L&R OIL TEMP HI
Left and right engine oil temperature is high
L&R OVERBOOST*
Left and right engine pressure is high
L&R TIT HI*
Left and right engine turbine inlet temperature is high
LH ENG FIRE*
Left engine fire warning.
LH MAIN LO VOLT
Left main bus voltage is low.
LH OIL PRES LO
Left engine oil pressure is low.
LH OIL TEMP HI
Left engine oil temperature is high.
LH OVERBOOST
Left engine pressure is high.
LH TIT HI*
Left engine tubine inlet temperature is high
RH ENG FIRE
Right engine fire warning
RH MAIN LO VOLT
Right main bus voltage is low
RH OIL PRES LO
Right engine oil pressure low
RH OIL TEMP HI
Right engine oil temperature is high
RH OVERBOOST
Right engine pressure is high
RH TIT HI*
Right engine turbine inlet temperature is high
*Annunciation only applies to aircraft equipped with turbo-charged engines.
Audio Alert
Repeating Tone
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
CAUTION ALERTS
INDEX
APPENDICES
Annunciation Window Text
12VDC FAIL
LH ALT OUT
INVERTER FAIL
LH FUEL PRES HI
LH FUEL PRES LO
MFD FAN FAIL
PFD FAN FAIL
PROP DE ICE FLD
RH ALT OUT
RH FUEL PRES HI
RH FUEL PRES LO
550
Alerts Window Message
12VDC is faulty
Left alternator failed.
AC inverter is faulty
Left engine fuel pressure is high
Left engine fuel pressure is low
MFD cooling fan is inoperative
PFD cooling fan is inoperative
Propeller de ice system is failing
Right alternator failed
Right engine fuel pressure is high
Right engine fuel pressure is low
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
Audio Alert
Single Chime
190-01325-01 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SAFE OPERATING ANNUNCIATIONS
Audio Alert
None
EIS
Alerts Window Message
Landing light switch is on.
Left fuel pump is on.
Pitot heating switch is on.
Propeller de-ice switch is on.
Right fuel pump is on.
Stall heating switch is on.
Strobe light switch is on.
De-ice system is on.
Taxi light switch is on.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Annunciation Window Text
LDG LIGHT ON
LH FUEL PUMP
PITOT HEAT ON
PROP DE-ICE
RH FUEL PUMP
STALL HEAT ON
STROBE LIGHT ON
SURF DE-ICE
TAXI LIGHT ON
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
551
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
G950 SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
NOTE: Upon power-up, certain windows remain invalid as G950 equipment begins to initialize. All windows
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red ‘X’ is typically displayed on windows associated with the
failed data (refer to Figure A-4 for all possible flags and the responsible LRUs). Refer to the Pilot’s Operating
Handbook (POH) for additional information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
GDC 74A Air
Data Computer
GRS 77 AHRS
OR
GMU 44
Magnetometer
GEA 71 Engine
Airframe Unit
OR
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Unit
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
should be operational within one minute of power-up. If any window continues to remain flagged, the
system should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized repair facility.
AFCS
GDC 74A Air
Data Computer
Figure A-4 G950 System Failure Annunciations
GTX 33 Transponder
OR
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
The status of detected LRUs can be checked on the AUX - System Status Page (Figure A-2). Active LRUs
are indicated by green check marks; failed, by red ‘X’s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center or
Garmin-authorized dealer informed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Viewing LRU information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
2) To place the cursor in the ‘LRU Info’ Box,
APPENDICES
a) Press the LRU Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) With ‘Select LRU Window’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
INDEX
3) Use the FMS Knob to scroll through the box to view LRU status information.
552
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Comment
System Annunciation
Display system is not receiving
vertical speed input from the
air data computer.
Display system is not receiving
attitude information from the
AHRS.
EIS
Display system is not receiving
valid heading input from AHRS.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Other Various Red X
Indications
Display system is not receiving
valid true airspeed information
from air data computer.
Display system is not receiving
valid OAT information from air
data computer.
Display system is not receiving
valid transponder information.
A red ‘X’ through any other
display field (such as engine
instrumentation fields)
indicates that the field is not
receiving valid data.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
GPS information is either
not present or is invalid for
navigation use. Note that
AHRS utilizes GPS inputs
during normal operation.
AHRS operation may be
degraded if GPS signals are not
present (see POH).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Display system is not receiving
altitude input from the air data
computer.
AHRS calibration incomplete or
configuration module failure.
Display system is not receiving
airspeed input from air data
computer.
Comment
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Attitude and Heading
Reference System is aligning.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
System Annunciation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table A-1 G950 System Annunciations
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
553
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
G950 SYSTEM MESSAGE ADVISORIES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
This section describes various G950 system message advisories. Certain messages are issued due to an LRU
or an LRU function failure. Such messages are normally accompanied by a corresponding red ‘X’ annunciation
as shown previously in the G950 System Annunciation section.
NOTE: This Section provides information regarding G950 message advisories that may be displayed by the
EIS
system. Knowledge of the aircraft, systems, flight conditions, and other existing operational priorities must
be considered when responding to a message. Always use sound pilot judgment. The Pilot’s Operating
Handbook (POH) takes precedence over any conflicting guidance found in this section.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Message
ABORT APR – Loss of GPS navigation.
Abort approach.
ADC1 ALT EC – ADC1 altitude error
correction is unavailable.
ADC1 AS EC – ADC1 airspeed error
correction is unavailable.
ADC1 SERVICE – GDC1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
AHRS1 CAL – AHRS1 calibration version
error. Srvc req’d.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
any GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
backup GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 operating
exclusively in no-GPS mode.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 using backup
GPS source.
AHRS1 SRVC – AHRS1 Magnetic-field
model needs update.
AHRS1 TAS – AHRS1 not receiving
airspeed.
INDEX
APPENDICES
APPR INACTV – Approach is not
active.
APR DWNGRADE – Approach
downgraded.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead less
than 10 minutes.
554
Comments
Abort approach due to loss of GPS navigation.
GDC1 is reporting that the altitude error correction is unavailable.
GDC1 is reporting that the airspeed error correction is unavailable.
A failure has been detected in the GDC1. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS calibration version error. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving any or any useful GPS information. Check AFMS
limitations. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS information. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is operating exclusively in no-GPS mode. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is using the backup GPS path. Primary GPS path has failed. The system
should be serviced when possible.
The #1 AHRS earth magnetic field model is out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS
relies on GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The system should be
serviced.
The system notifies the pilot that the loaded approach is not active. Activate approach
when required.
Vertical guidance generated by SBAS is unavailable, use LNAV only minimums.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft will penetrate the airspace within
10 minutes.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Comments
CHECK CRS – Database course for
LOC1 / [LOC ID] is [CRS]°.
CHECK CRS – Database course for
LOC2 / [LOC ID] is [CRS]°.
CNFG MODULE – PFD1 configuration
module is inoperative.
COM1 CONFIG – COM1 config error.
Config service req’d.
COM1 PTT – COM1 push-to-talk key
is stuck.
Selected course for LOC1 differs from published localizer course by more than 10
degrees.
Selected course for LOC2 differs from published localizer course by more than 10
degrees.
The PFD1 configuration module backup memory has failed. The system should be
serviced.
The COM1 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
G950 system should be serviced.
The COM1 external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or “pressed”) position.
Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation.
If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The COM1 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”) position. Press the
transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system should
be serviced.
The system has detected a failure in COM1. COM1 may still be usable. The system
should be serviced when possible.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in COM1. The transmitter
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The COM2 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
G950 system should be serviced.
The COM2 external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or “pressed”) position.
Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation.
If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The COM2 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”) position. Press the
transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system should
be serviced.
The system has detected a failure in COM2. COM2 may still be usable. The system
should be serviced when possible.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in COM2. The transmitter
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
The pilot profile data was lost. System reverts to default pilot profile and settings. The
pilot may reconfigure the MFD & PFD with preferred settings, if desired.
This occurs when a stored flight plan contains an airway that is no longer consistent
with the navigation database. This alert is issued only after an navigation database
update. Verify use of airways in stored flight plans and reload airways as needed.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
DATA LOST – Pilot stored data was
lost. Recheck settings.
DB CHANGE – Database changed.
Verify stored airways.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
COM2 SERVICE – COM2 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
COM2 TEMP – COM2 over temp.
Reducing transmitter power.
The GDC 74B has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
COM2 RMT XFR – COM2 remote
transfer key is stuck.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
EIS
COM1 SERVICE – COM1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
COM1 TEMP – COM1 over temp.
Reducing transmitter power.
COM2 CONFIG – COM2 config error.
Config service req’d.
COM2 PTT – COM2 push-to-talk key
is stuck.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
COM1 RMT XFR – COM1 remote
transfer key is stuck.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Message
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less
than 2 nm.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and
ahead.
AUDIO MANIFEST - Audio software
mismatch, communication halted.
555
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
Comments
This occurs when a stored flight plan contains an airway that is no longer consistent
with the navigation database. This alert is issued only after an navigation database
update. Verify that the user-modified procedures in stored flight plans are correct and
up to date.
DB MISMATCH – Navigation
The PFD and MFD have different navigation database versions or regions installed.
database mismatch. Xtalk is off.
Crossfill is off. Check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or regions.
Also, check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization function
not completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Obstacle database The PFD and MFD have different obstacle database versions or regions installed.
mismatch.
Check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or regions. Also,
check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization function not
completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Standby Navigation The PFD and MFD have different standby navigation database versions or regions
database mismatch.
installed. Check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or regions.
Also, check the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization function
not completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Terrain database
The PFD and MFD have different terrain database versions or regions installed. Check
mismatch.
the AUX-SYSTEM STATUS Page to determine versions or regions. Also, check the AUXSYSTEM STATUS Page for a database synchronization function not completed. After
synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DIG GMA1 MANIFEST – DIG GMA
The digital audio controller has incorrect software installed. The system should be
1 software mismatch, communication serviced.
halted.
DME CHECK RANGE – DME range
A failure or disagreement has been detected in a DME receiver. Check position
disagreement. Check position sensors. sensors.
DOC VIEWER MISMATCH – See
The documents on the database cards do not match. Ensure the aircraft manufacturer
Document Viewer Page for detailed
installed documents on the bottom card of each display match.
info.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
DB CHANGE – Database changed.
Verify user modified procedures.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
FAILED PATH – A data path has
failed.
FPL TRUNC – Flight plan has been
truncated.
A data path connected to the GDU, GDL 69A, or the GIA 63/W has failed.
INDEX
APPENDICES
This occurs when a newly installed navigation database eliminates an obsolete
approach or arrival used by a stored flight plan. The obsolete procedure is removed
from the flight plan. Update flight plan with current arrival or approach.
FPL WPT LOCK – Flight plan waypoint Upon power-up, the system detects that a stored flight plan waypoint is locked. This
is locked.
occurs when an navigation database update eliminates an obsolete waypoint. The
flight plan cannot find the specified waypoint and flags this message. This can also
occur with user waypoints in a flight plan that is deleted.
Remove the waypoint from the flight plan if it no longer exists in any database,
Or
Update the waypoint name/identifier to reflect the new information.
FPL WPT MOVE – Flight plan
The system has detected that a waypoint coordinate has changed due to a new
waypoint moved.
navigation database update. Verify that stored flight plans contain correct waypoint
locations.
556
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
GDL MANIFEST – GDL software
mismatch, communication halted.
The GDL 69 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
GDL69 CONFIG – GDL 69 config
error. Config service req’d.
GDL69 FAIL – GDL 69 has failed.
GDL 69 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GDL 69. The receiver is unavailable. The system
should be serviced
The GEA1 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The system should be serviced.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The #1 GEA 71 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GEA2 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The system should be serviced.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The #2 GEA 71 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The aircraft is outside geographical limits for approved AHRS operation. Heading is
flagged as invalid.
The GIA1 has an error in the audio configuration. The system should be serviced.
AFCS
The GIA1 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The GIA1 temperature is too high. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The GIA1 temperature is too low to operate correctly. Allow units to warm up to
operating temperature.
The GIA1 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
APPENDICES
The GIA1 self-test has detected a problem in the unit. The system should be serviced.
The GIA1 has an error in the audio configuration. The system should be serviced.
The GIA2 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
The GDC 74A has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
EIS
GEA1 CONFIG – GEA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GEA1 MANIFEST – GEA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GEA2 CONFIG – GEA2 config error.
Config service req’d.
GEA2 MANIFEST – GEA2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GEO LIMITS – AHRS1 too far North/
South, no magnetic compass.
GIA1 CONFIG – GIA1 audio config
error. Config service req’d.
GIA1 CONFIG – GIA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GIA1 COOLING – GIA1 over
temperature.
GIA1 COOLING – GIA1 temperature
too low.
GIA1 MANIFEST – GIA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GIA1 SERVICE – GIA1 needs service.
Return the unit for repair.
GIA2 CONFIG – GIA2 audio config
error. Config service req’d.
GIA2 CONFIG – GIA2 config error.
Config service req’d.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Comments
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 1. The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 1. The receiver may still be
available. The system should be serviced when possible.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 2. The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in glideslope 2. The receiver may still be available. The
system should be serviced when possible.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Message
G/S1 FAIL – G/S1 is inoperative.
G/S1 SERVICE – G/S1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
G/S2 FAIL – G/S2 is inoperative.
G/S2 SERVICE – G/S2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GDC1 MANIFEST – GDC1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
557
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
GIA2 COOLING – GIA2 over
temperature.
GIA2 COOLING – GIA2 temperature
too low.
GIA2 MANIFEST – GIA2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GIA2 SERVICE – GIA2 needs service.
Return the unit for repair.
GMA1 CONFIG – GMA1
configuration error. Config service
req’d.
GMA1 FAIL – GMA1 is inoperative.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
GMA1 MANIFEST – GMA1 software
mismatch. Communication halted.
GMA1 SERVICE – GMA1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
GMU1 MANIFEST – GMU1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. GPS fail.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. Insufficient satellites.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. Position error.
GPS1 SERVICE – GPS1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GPS2 SERVICE – GPS2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GRA1 CAL – GRA1 calibration.
Service req’d.
GRA1 CONFIG – GRA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GRA1 MANIFEST – GRA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GRA1 SERVICE – GRA1 needs service.
Return unit for repair
GRA1 TEMP – GRA1 over
temperature.
GRS1 MANIFEST – GRS1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GSR1 FAIL – GSR1 has failed.
558
Comments
The GIA2 temperature is too high. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The GIA2 temperature is too low to operate correctly. Allow units to warm up to
operating temperature.
The GIA 2 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GIA2 self-test has detected a problem in the unit. The system should be serviced.
The audio panel configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory.
The system should be serviced.
The audio panel self-test has detected a failure. The audio panel is unavailable. The
system should be serviced.
The audio panel has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The audio panel self-test has detected a problem in the unit. Certain audio functions
may still be available, and the audio panel may still be usable. The system should be
serviced when possible.
The GMU 44 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
Loss of GPS navigation due to GPS failure.
Loss of GPS navigation due to insufficient satellites.
Loss of GPS navigation due to position error.
A failure has been detected in the GPS1 and/or GPS2 receiver. The receiver may still
be available. The system should be serviced.
GRA1 has improper calibration. The system should be serviced.
The GRA and GDU have incompatible configurations.
The GRA has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GRA self-test has detected a problem in the unit. The system should be serviced.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in GRA1.
The #1 AHRS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GSR 56 Iridium Tranceiver has failed.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Comments
The GTS and GDU have different copies of the GTS configuration, or the Mode S
address is invalid. The system should be serviced.
The GTS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The transponder has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
EIS
GWX 68/GWX 70 configuration settings do not match those of the GDU
configuration. The system should be serviced.
The GDU is not recieving status packet from the GWX 68/GWX 70 or the GWX 68/
GWX 70 is reporting a fault. The GWX 68/GWX 70 radar system should be serviced.
The GWX 68/GWX 70 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
A failure has been detected in the GWX 68/GWX 70. The GWX 68/GWX 70 may still
be usable.
A fault has occurred in the #1 GMU 44. Heading is flagged as invalid. The AHRS uses
GPS for backup mode operation. The system should be serviced.
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
INVALID ADM – Invalid ADM: ATN
communication halted.
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
Data link avionics were not configured correctly and therefore will not be able to
communicate with the ground network.
GPS integrity is insufficient for the current phase of flight.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
This occurs when the pilot attempts to activate a stored flight plan that contains
locked waypoint. Remove locked waypoint from flight plan. Update flight plan with
current waypoint.
The GDU’s internal model cannot determine the exact magnetic variance for
geographic locations near the magnetic poles. Displayed magnetic course angles may
differ from the actual magnetic heading by more than 2°.
APPENDICES
The MFD has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
INDEX
MANIFEST – MFD1 software
mismatch. Communication halted.
MANIFEST – PFD1 software
mismatch. Communication halted.
MFD1 CONFIG – MFD1 configuration
error. Config service req’d.
AFCS
LRG MAG VAR – Verify all course
angles.
A GIA mismatch has been detected, where only one is SBAS capable.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
LOI – GPS integrity lost. Crosscheck
with other NAVS.
LOCKED FPL – Cannot navigate
locked flight plan.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HDG FAULT – AHRS1 magnetometer
fault has occurred.
HW MISMATCH – GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA1 communication
halted.
HW MISMATCH – GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA2 communication
halted.
190-01325-01 Rev. A
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
GWX MANIFEST – GWX software
mismatch, communication halted.
GWX SERVICE – Needs service.
Return unit for repair.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Message
GTS CONFIG – GTS Config error.
Config service req'd.
GTS MANIFEST – GTS software
mismatch, communication halted.
GTX1 MANIFEST – GTX1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GWX CONFIG – GWX config error.
Config service req’d.
GWX FAIL – GWX is inoperative.
The PFD has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The MFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
559
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
MFD1 COOLING – MFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
MFD1 KEYSTK – MFD [keyname] Key
is stuck.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Airport
Directory database error exists.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 basemap
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Chartview
database error exists.
The MFD PFD detected a failure in the basemap database.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 FliteCharts
database error exists.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 multiple
database errors exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 navigation
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
database error exists.
AFCS
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
database missing.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain
database error exists.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain
database missing.
MFD1 SERVICE – MFD1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
MFD1 VOLTAGE – MFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage.
Comments
The MFD is overheating and is reducing power consumption by dimming the display.
If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
A key is stuck on the MFD bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it several
times. The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
The MFD detected a failure in the Airport Directory database. Ensure that the data
card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the ChartView database (optional feature). Ensure that
the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the FliteCharts database (optional feature). Ensure that
the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in more than one database. If problem persists, the
system should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the navigation database. Attempt to reload the
navigation database. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the obstacle database. Ensure that the data card
is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
The obstacle database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The MFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Ensure that the terrain card is
properly inserted in display. Replace terrain card. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The MFD self-test has detected a problem. The system should be serviced.
The MFD voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
NAV DB UPDATED – Active
navigation database updated.
NAV1 RMT XFR – NAV1 remote
transfer key is stuck.
INDEX
APPENDICES
System has updated the active navigation database from the standby navigation
database.
The remote NAV1 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”) state. Press
the transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
NAV1 SERVICE – NAV1 needs service. A failure has been detected in the NAV1 and/or NAV2 receiver. The receiver may still
Return unit for repair.
be available. The system should be serviced.
NAV2 RMT XFR – NAV2 remote
The remote NAV2 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”) state. Press
transfer key is stuck.
the transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
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APPENDIX A
PFD1 CONFIG – PFD1 configuration
error. Config service req’d.
PFD1 COOLING – PFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
The PFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The PFD is overheating and is reducing power consumption by dimming the display.
If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the basemap database.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The PFD detected a failure in more than one database. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the navigation database. Attempt to reload the
navigation database. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the obstacle database. Ensure that the data card is
properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 obstacle
database missing.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
The obstacle database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
A key is stuck on the PFD bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it several
times. The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
APPENDICES
The SD card in the top card slot of the PFD contains invalid data.
The SD card was removed from the top card slot of the PFD. The SD card needs to be
reinserted.
The SD card in the bottom card slot of the specified PFD contains invalid data.
INDEX
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 terrain
database missing.
PFD1 KEYSTK – PFD1 [keyname] Key
is stuck.
[PFD1, or MFD1] CARD 1 ERR –
Card 1 is invalid.
[PFD1, or MFD1] CARD 1 REM –
Card 1 was removed. Reinsert card.
[PFD1, or MFD1] CARD 2 ERR –
Card 2 is invalid.
[PFD1, or MFD1] CARD 2 REM –
Card 2 was removed. Reinsert card.
AFCS
The PFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi database. Ensure that the data card is
properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Ensure that the terrain card is
properly inserted in display. Replace terrain card. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 terrain
database error exists.
190-01325-01 Rev. A
The position of the selected waypoint [xxxx] is not calculated based on the WGS84
map reference datum and may be positioned in error as displayed. Do not use GPS to
navigate to the selected non-WGS84 waypoint.
EIS
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 basemap
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 multiple
database errors exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 navigation
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 obstacle
database error exists.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Comments
A failure has been detected in the NAV1 and/or NAV2 receiver. The receiver may still
be available. The system should be serviced.
Navigation angle is not set to MAGNETIC at power-up.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Message
NAV2 SERVICE – NAV2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
NON-MAG UNITS– Non-magnetic
NAV ANGLE display units are active.
NON WGS84 WPT – Do not use GPS
navigation to [xxxx].
The SD card was removed from the bottom card slot of the PFD. The SD card needs to
be reinserted.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
561
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
562
Message
PFD1 SERVICE – PFD1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
PFD1 VOLTAGE – PFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
bad geometry.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
invalid leg type.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
past IAF.
Comments
The PFD self-test has detected a problem. The system should be serviced.
RAIM UNAVAIL – RAIM not available
from FAF to MAP waypoints.
REGISTER CONNEXT – Data services
are inoperative, register w/Connext.
GPS satellite coverage is insufficient to perform Receiver Autonomous Integrity
Monitoring (RAIM) from the FAF to the MAP waypoints.
The GDL 59 is not registered with Garmin Connext, or its current registration data has
failed authentication.
SCHEDULER [#] – <message>.
SLCT FREQ – Select appropriate
frequency for approach.
SLCT MAG– Select MAGNETIC NAV
ANGLE display units.
SLCT NAV – Select NAV on CDI for
approach.
SLCT NON-MAG– Select alternate
NAV ANGLE display units.
STEEP TURN – Steep turn ahead.
STRMSCP FAIL – Stormscope has
failed.
SVT – SVT DISABLED: Out of available
terrain region.
SVT – SVT DISABLED: Terrain DB
resolution too low.
SW MISMATCH – GDU software
version mismatch. Xtalk is off.
Message criteria entered by the user.
The system notifies the pilot to load the approach frequency for the appropriate NAV
receiver. Select the correct frequency for the approach.
The system notifies the pilot to set the Nav Angle units on the Avioncs Settings Screen
to Magnetic.
The system notifies the pilot to set the CDI to the correct NAV receiver. Set the CDI to
the correct NAV receiver.
The system notifies the pilot to set the Nav Angle units on the Avioncs Settings Screen
to True.
A steep turn is 15 seconds ahead. Prepare to turn.
TERRAIN AUD CFG – Trn Awareness
audio config error. Service req’d.
TERRAIN DISABLED – Terrain
Awareness DB resolution too low
TERRAIN DSP – [PFD1 or MFD1]
Terrain awareness display unavailable.
TIMER EXPIRD – Timer has expired.
TAWS is disabled because the audio configuration is invalid. The system should be
serviced.
TAWS is disabled because a terrain database of sufficient resolution (9 arc-second or
better) is not currently installed.
One of the terrain or obstacle databases required for TAWS in the PFD or MFD is
missing or invalid.
The system notifies the pilot that the timer has expired.
The PFD1 voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
Bad parallel track geometry.
Invalid leg type for parallel offset.
IAF waypoint for parallel offset has been passed.
Stormscope has failed. The system should be serviced.
Synthetic Vision is disabled because the aircraft is not within the boundaries of the
installed terrain database.
Synthetic Vision is disabled because a terrain database of sufficient resolution (9 arcsecond or better) is not currently installed.
The MFD and PFD have different software versions installed. The system should be
serviced.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Message
TRAFFIC FAIL – Traffic device has
failed.
Comments
The system is no longer receiving data from the traffic system. The traffic device
should be serviced.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
UNABLE V WPT – Can’t reach current The current vertical waypoint can not be reached within the maximum flight path
vertical waypoint.
angle and vertical speed constraints. The system automatically transitions to the next
vertical waypoint.
Excessive
The current crosstrack exceeds the limit, causing vertical deviation to go invalid.
Excessive track
The current track angle error exceeds the limit, causing the vertical deviation to go
invalid.
Unsupported leg
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Parallel course
EIS
VNV – Unavailable.
crosstrack error.
VNV – Unavailable.
angle error.
VNV – Unavailable.
selected.
VNV – Unavailable.
type in flight plan.
A parallel course has been selected, causing the vertical deviation to go invalid.
The lateral flight plan contains a procedure turn, vector, or other unsupported leg
type prior to the active vertical waypoint. This prevents vertical guidance to the active
vertical waypoint.
Arriving at waypoint [xxxx], where [xxxx] is the waypoint name.
XPDR1 ADS-B FAIL – XPDR1 unable
to transmit ADS-B messages.
XPDR1 CONFIG – XPDR1 config error.
Config service req’d.
XPDR1 SRVC – XPDR1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
XPDR1 FAIL – XPDR1 is inoperative.
XTALK ERROR – A flight display
crosstalk error has occurred.
ADS-B is inoperative. Other transponder functions may be available. Transponder
should be serviced when possible.
The transponder configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration
memory. The system should be serviced.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
WPT ARRIVAL – Arriving at waypoint
-[xxxx]
WX ALERT – Possible severe weather
ahead.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The GWX 68/GWX 70 indicates severe weather within ±10 degrees of the aircraft
heading at a range of 80 to 320 nm.
AFCS
The #1 transponder should be serviced when possible.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
There is no communication with the #1 transponder.
The MFD and PFD are not communicating with each other. The system should be
serviced.
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
563
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
FLIGHT PLAN IMPORT/EXPORT MESSAGES
In some circumstances, some messages may appear in conjunction with others.
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Flight Plan Import/Export Results
‘Flight plan successfully imported.’
‘File contained user waypoints only. User
waypoints imported successfully. No stored
flight plan data was modified.’
‘No flight plan files found to import.’
‘Flight plan import failed.’
‘Flight plan partially imported.’
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
‘File contained user waypoints only.’
‘Too many points. Flight plan truncated.’
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
‘Some waypoints not loaded. Waypoints
locked.’
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
‘User waypoint database full. Not all loaded.’
‘One or more user waypoints renamed.’
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
‘Flight plan successfully exported.’
‘Flight plan export failed.’
Description
A flight plan file stored on the SD card was successfully imported as a stored flight plan.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints. These
waypoints have been saved to the system user waypoints. No flight plans stored in the
system have been modified.
The SD card contains no flight plan data.
Flight plan data was not successfully imported from the SD card.
Some flight plan waypoints were successfully imported from the SD card, however others
had errors and were not imported. A partial stored flight plan now exists in the system.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints. One or
more of these waypoints did not import successfully.
The flight plan on the SD card contains more waypoints than the system can support. The
flight plan was imported with as many waypoints as possible.
The flight plan on the SD card contains one or more waypoints that the system cannot find
in the navigation database. The flight plan has been imported, but must be edited within
the system before it can be activated for use.
The flight plan file on the SD card contains user waypoints. The quantity of stored user
waypoints has exceeded system capacity, therefore not all the user waypoints on the SD
card have been imported. Any flight plan user waypoints that were not imported are
locked in the flight plan. The flight plan must be edited within the system before it can be
activated for use.
One or more imported user waypoints were renamed when imported due to naming
conflicts with waypoints already existing in the system.
The stored flight plan was successfully exported to the SD card.
The stored flight plan was not successfully exported to the SD card. The SD card may not
have sufficient available memory or the card may have been removed prematurely.
564
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
VOICE ALERTS
Voice alerts are provided to the system by the #1 GIA 63W; should this unit fail, audio and voice alerts are
not generated.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Voice Alert
Alert Trigger
“Minimums, minimums”
The aircraft has descended below the preset barometric minimum descent altitude.
“Vertical track”
The aircraft is one minute from Top of Descent. Issued only when vertical navigation is enabled.
“Traffic”
Played when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is issued (TIS).
The aircraft is outside the Traffic Information Service (TIS) coverage area.
“TIS Not Available”
“Traffic, Traffic”
Played when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is issued (TAS system).
“TAS System Test Passed”
Played when the TAS system passes a pilot-initiated self test.
“TAS System Test Failed”
Played when the TAS system fails a pilot-initiated self test.
The gender of the voice used to announce audio alerts may be set to male or female on the System Setup Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Changing the audio alert voice:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the voice in the Audio Alert Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and highlight the desired voice and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure A-5 System Setup Page, Alert Voice Settings
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
565
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
TAS ALERTS AND ANNUNCIATIONS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
TAS System Test
Initiated
TEST
(also shown in white in center of page)
TAS Operating
OPERATING
TAS Standby
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TAS Failed*
FAIL
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Mode
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Traffic Map Page Center
Description
Annunciation
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
DATA FAILED
Data is being received from the TAS unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure
FAILED
Incorrect data format received from the TAS unit
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
AFCS
TA X.X ± XX ↕
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and altitude
trend arrow (climbing/descending).
TAS unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
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190-01325-01 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TIS ALERTS AND ANNUNCIATIONS
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
TIS Operating
OPERATING
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TIS Failed*
FAIL
EIS
TIS Standby
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Mode
UNAVAILABLE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
FAILED
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Traffic Map Page Center
Description
Banner Annunciation
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the transponder*
Data is being received from the transponder, but a failure is detected in the data
DATA FAILED
stream*
The transponder has failed*
TIS is unavailable or out of range
* Contact a service center or Garmin dealer for corrective action
TA OFF SCALE
TRFC COAST
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
TRFC UNAVAIL
Traffic is removed because it is too old for coasting (12 to 60 seconds since last message)
Traffic may exist within the selected display range, but it is not displayed
APPENDICES
TRFC RMVD
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending)
Appears if traffic data is not refreshed within 6 seconds
If after another 6 seconds data is not received, traffic is removed from the display
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced as the age increases
The displayed data is not current (6 to 12 seconds since last message)
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced when this message is displayed
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AGE MM:SS
Description
AFCS
TA X.X ± XX ↕
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
Traffic data has failed
Traffic has not been detected
The traffic service is unavailable or out of range
INDEX
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
567
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
TAWS-B ALERTS AND ANNUNCIATIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Alert Type
PFD/MFD**
Alert
Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert
(except TAWS-B Page)
Aural Message
Excessive Descent Rate
Warning (EDR)
“Pull Up”
*
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Warning (RTC)
EIS
or
*
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Imminent Terrain Impact
Warning (ITI)
or
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Warning (ROC)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Caution (IOI)
APPENDICES
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
or
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Caution (ROC)
INDEX
*
or
Imminent Terrain Impact
Caution (ITI)
Negative Climb Rate
Caution (NCR)
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
or
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Caution (RTC)
Premature Descent Alert
Caution (PDA)
Altitude Callout “500”
Excessive Descent Rate
Caution (EDR)
*
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Warning (IOI)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up’
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
“Sink Rate”
*
or
“Don’t Sink”*
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
* Alerts with multiple messages are configurable at installation and are installation-dependent. Alerts for the default
configuration when more than one option is available are indicated with asterisks.
** Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
TAWS-B Alerts Summary
568
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190-01325-01 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
System Test in progress
None
TAWS-B FLTA Alerting Inhibited
No GPS position
TAWS TEST
None
None
“TAWS System Test Test OK”
None
None
NO GPS POSITION
“TAWS Not Available”
None
“TAWS Not Available”
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
EIS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
None
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Excessively degraded GPS signal;
or Out of database coverage
area
TAWS-B System Test Fail; Terrain
or Obstacle database unavailable
or invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or invalid.
TAWS operating with PFD Terrain
or Obstacle databases
Voice Alert
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
System Test pass
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PFD/MFD* Alert TAWS-B Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Annunciation
Alert Type
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
† Annunciation is shown on TAWS-B Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
* “TAWS Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is reestablished, or Terrain database coverage area reentered.
TAWS-B System Status Annunciations
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
569
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
SVS TERRAIN ALERTS
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Alert Type
MFD
Pop-Up Alert (except
Terrain-SVS Page)
Aural Message
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning (IOI)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution (IOI)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Terrain-SVS Alerts Summary
PFD/MFD† Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
System Test in Progress
System Test Pass
None
AFCS
Terrain Alerting Inhibited
No GPS position
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Excessively degraded GPS signal;
or Out of database coverage area
Terrain System Test Fail; Terrain
or Obstacle database unavailable
or invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid, and
Terrain-SVS operating with PFD
Terrain or Obstacle databases
None
Terrain-SVS Page Center
Banner Annunciation
TERRAIN TEST
Aural Message
None
None
“Terrain System Test OK”
None
None
NO GPS POSITION
“Terrain System Not Available”*
None
“Terrain System Not Available”*
TERRAIN FAIL
“Terrain System Failure”
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
INDEX
† Annunciation is shown on Terrain-SVS Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
* “Terrain System Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is restored, or Terrain database coverage area reentered.
Terrain-SVS System Status Annunciations
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APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
WEATHER RADAR ALERTS AND ANNUNCIATIONS
Standby
STANDBY
STANDBY
Standby (During Warm-Up),
applicable to GWX 68 only
STANDBY
WARM-UP
XX
(XX indicates number of seconds
remaining in warm-up)
Weather
WEATHER
None
Ground Mapping
Off
Radar Failed*
GROUND MAPPING
OFF
FAIL
None
OFF
RADAR FAIL
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Center Banner Annunciation
EIS
Radar Mode Annunciation Box
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Radar Mode
Radar Modes on the Weather Radar Page
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Radar Antenna
Description
Stabilization Status
STAB ON
Antenna stabilization is selected on.
STAB OFF
Antenna stabilization is selected off.
The radar is not receiving pitch and roll information. The antenna stabilization feature
STAB INOP
is inoperative.
Antenna Stabilization Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
AFCS
Weather Radar
Page Center Banner
Description
Annunciation
BAD CONFIG
The radar configuration is invalid. The radar should be serviced.
RDR FAULT
The radar unit is reporting a fault. The radar should be serviced.
RADAR FAIL
The system is not receiving valid data from the radar unit. The system should be serviced.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Abnormal Radar Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
APPENDICES
INDEX
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
571
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
GDL 69A/GDL 69A SXM DATA LINK RECEIVER MESSAGES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
CHECK ANTENNA
UPDATING
NO SIGNAL
LOADING
OFF AIR
---
Message Location
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
Weather Datalink Page - center of page
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
Description
Data Link Receiver antenna error; service required
Data Link Receiver updating encryption code
Loss of signal; signal strength too low for receiver
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Acquiring channel audio or information
Channel not in service
Missing channel information
No communication from Data Link Receiver
WEATHER DATA LINK FAILURE Weather Datalink Page - center of page
within last 5 minutes
DETECTING ACTIVATION
Weather Datalink Page - center of page SiriusXM subscription is not activated
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
GDL 69A/69A SXM Data Link Receiver Error Messages
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APPENDIX B
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DATABASE MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
CAUTION: Never disconnect power to the system when loading a database. Power interuption during the
database loading process could result in maintenance being required to reboot the system.
The system uses Secure Digital (SD) cards to load and store various types of data. For basic flight operations,
SD cards are required for database storage as well as navigation updates. Not all SD cards are compatible with
the G950.
NOTE: Loading a database in the system prior to its effective date will result in the expiration date on the
EIS
power-up screen and the effective date on the AUX-System Status Page being displayed in amber.
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles
and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go
to FlyGarmin.com and select “Aviation Data Error Report.
NAVIGATION DATABASES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The navigation database is updated on a 28-day cycle. There are two possible methods for updating the
navigation database. If the 28-day cycle of your navigation database has already ended, you must update the
active navigation database. However, if the expiration date of the navigation database hasn’t already been
reached, you may load a standby navigation database. The system will then automatically update the active
database at the first aircraft power-on when the new navigation becomes effective.
The navigation database must be installed from the Jeppesen or user supplied SD data card. Go to www.
flygarmin.com or www.jeppesen.com for subscription and update information.
NOTE: To do this procedure, use a blank SD card to copy the navigation database. Garmin SD Cards (bottom
AFCS
SD card slots) must NOT be used. The use of SanDisk SD Card is recommended to update the navigation
database file. Before utilization, it is recommended to format the SD Card with the FAT32 file system so that
displays will read it.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: After the navigation database is installed, the card may be removed.
Updating the active navigation database (not using the Dual Navigation Database or Automatic
Database Synchronization Features):
APPENDICES
1) Go to www.flygarmin.com or www.jeppesen.com. Download the applicable software and install the navigation
database on a blank SD card.
2) With the system OFF, insert the SD card containing the new navigation database version into the top card slot of the
display (label of SD card facing left).
3) Turn the system ON. A prompt similar to the following is displayed in the upper left corner of the display:
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX B
Figure B-1 Standby Navigation Database Prompt
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
4) Press the NO Softkey to proceed to loading only the active database.
5) A prompt similar to the following is displayed, press the YES Softkey to update the active navigation database.
Figure B-2 Database Update Confirmation
6) After the update completes, the display starts in normal mode. Do not remove power while the display is
starting.
AFCS
7) Turn the system OFF and remove the SD card from the top card slot.
8) Repeat steps 2 through 7 for the other display. Remove the SD card when finished.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
9) Apply power to the system and press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on the MFD to acknowledge the startup
screen.
10) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page group on the MFD.
11) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page.
APPENDICES
12) Press the Display Database Selection Softkey (Figure B-3) to show active navigation database information for each
display.
Unselected
MFD1 DB Selected PFD1 DB Selected
Figure B-3 Display Database Softkey
INDEX
13) Verify the correct navigation database cycle information is shown for each display (Figure B-4).
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APPENDIX B
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Figure B-4 Check Database Cycle Number (MFD shown)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: Make sure that no messages related to database errors are displayed in the Messages window of the
PFD.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
14) Remove power from the system.
DUAL NAVIGATION DATABASE FEATURE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The dual navigation database feature allows each display to store an upcoming navigation database on the
bottom SD card so that the system can automatically load it to replace the active database when the new
database becomes effective (the next cycle becomes available seven days prior to its effective date).
AFCS
If a navigation database loader card is inserted into the top SD card slot of a display, and an SD card is in the
bottom slot, the system will prompt the user (upon on-ground power up) as to whether the database should
be stored on the bottom SD card as the standby database. If the user responds affirmatively, the system will
copy the navigation database from the top SD card to the bottom SD card. As long as the bottom SD card
remains in the card slot, this standby navigation database will be available for the system to use as the active
database as soon as it becomes effective.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The system checks the active and standby databases upon (on-ground only) power-up. If the standby
database is current and the active database is out of date, the display will upload the standby database into
the active internal database location. Loading the standby database to the active location takes approximately
45-55 seconds. During the loading process ‘Please Wait. Navigation Database Update in Progress. Do Not
Remove Power from Displays’ will be displayed on screen. After startup is complete, the pilot is alerted that
the update is complete by a system alert message, ‘NAV DB UPDATED’.
APPENDICES
In some situations, such as an overnight flight in which departure date is prior to the effective date
of the standby database and arrival date is after the effective date, it may be desired to force the loaded
standby database into active service earlier than the system would otherwise make the change. This can be
accomplished by selecting the STBY DB Softkey on the AUX-System Status Page. Turn system power off,
then on to complete the database change.
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INDEX
NOTE: After the standby navigation database is installed, the card must be removed.
575
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX B
Loading a standby navigation database:
NOTE: To do this procedure, use a blank SD card to copy the navigation database. Garmin SD Cards (bottom
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SD card slots) must NOT be used. The use of SanDisk SD Card is recommended to update the navigation
database file. Before utilization, it is recommended to format the SD Card with the FAT32 file system so that
displays will read it.
1) Go to www.flygarmin.com or www.jeppesen.com. Download the applicable software and install the navigation
database on a blank SD card.
EIS
2) With the system OFF, insert the SD card containing the new navigation database version into the top card slot
of the display.
3) Verify that an SD card is inserted in the bottom slot of each display.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Turn the system ON. A prompt similar to the following is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure B-5 Standby Navigation Database Prompt
5) Press the YES softkey. The navigation database is copied to the SD card in the bottom of the display.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
6) After the navigation database files are copied to the bottom SD card, the display will appear as shown in Figure
B-6.
Figure B-6 Standby Navigation Database Update Complete
INDEX
7) As instructed on the display, press any key to continue. The display will now appear as shown in Figure B-7.
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APPENDIX B
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure B-7 Navigation Database Verification Prompt
8) Press any key to continue. The display will now appear as shown in Figure B-8.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure B-8 Active Navigation Database Prompt
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
9) Press the NO Softkey. The display now starts in normal mode. Since the database effective date is not yet valid,
it should not be loaded as the active database. The display now starts in normal mode. Do not remove power
while the display is starting.
10) Turn the system OFF and remove the SD card from the top card slot.
11) Repeat steps 2 through 10 for the other display.
12) Apply power to the system and press the ENT Key on the MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
13) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page group on the MFD.
14) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page.
15) Press the Display Database Selection Softkey (Figure B-9) to show standby navigation database information for
each display.
AFCS
Unselected
MFD1 DB Selected PFD1 DB Selected
Figure B-9 Display Database Softkey
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX B
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
16) Verify the correct standby navigation database cycle information is shown for each display (Figure B-10).
Figure B-10 Check Database Cycle Number (MFD shown)
NOTE: Make sure that no messages related to database errors are displayed in the Messages window of the
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
PFD.
17) Remove power from the system.
GARMIN DATABASES/JEPPESEN CHARTVIEW DATABASE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The following databases are stored on Supplemental Data Cards provided by Garmin:
• Expanded basemap
• Obstacle
• Terrain
• FliteCharts or ChartView
• Airport Directory (AOPA or
AC-U-KWIK)
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
After subscribing to the desired database product, these database products will be downloaded and ultimately
stored on three Supplemental Data Cards (with the exception of FliteCharts and ChartView, which are loaded
on only one card). Each Supplemental Data Card resides in the bottom card of each display as shown in Figure
B-11. These cards must not be removed except to update the databases stored on each card.
MFD
INDEX
PFD
Figure B-11 Correct Database Locations
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APPENDIX B
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Since these databases are not stored internally in the displays, a Supplemental Data Card containing identical
database versions must be kept in each display unit.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The basemap database contains data for the topography and land features, such as rivers, lakes, and towns.
It is updated only periodically, with no set schedule. There is no expiration date.
The terrain database contains the terrain mapping data. These databases are updated periodically and have
no expiration date.
EIS
The obstacle database contains data for obstacles, such as towers, that pose a potential hazard to aircraft.
Obstacles 200 feet and higher are included in the obstacle database. It is very important to note that not all
obstacles are necessarily charted and therefore may not be contained in the obstacle database. This database is
updated on a 56-day cycle.
NOTE: The data contained in the terrain and obstacle databases comes from government agencies. Garmin
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
accurately processes and cross-validates the data, but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of
the data.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The AOPA or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory provides detailed information about airports and heliports,
along with the names and phone numbers of thousands of FBOs. The AOPA Airport Directory covers U.S.
airports, while the AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory coverage area may be worldwide or regional, depending on
the database purchased. Both AOPA and AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory databases are updated every 56 days.
The SafeTaxi database contains detailed airport diagrams for selected airports. These diagrams aid in following
ground control instructions by accurately displaying the aircraft position on the map in relation to taxiways,
ramps, runways, terminals, and services. This database is updated on a 56-day cycle.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The FliteCharts database contains procedure charts for the United States, Canada, and Europe. This database
is updated on a 28-day cycle. If not updated within 180 days of the expiration date, FliteCharts will no longer
function.
AFCS
The ChartView database should be copied to the Garmin supplied Supplemental Data Card which will reside
in the bottom card slot on the MFD. Contact Jeppesen (www.jeppesen.com) for subscription and update
information.
AUTOMATIC DATABASE SYNCHRONIZATION FEATURE
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The automatic database synchronization feature automatically transfers the database from a single
SD database card to the SD cards on the PFD and the MFD to ensure that all databases are synchronized
throughout the system. After power-up, the system compares all copies of each applicable database. If similar
databases do not match, the most recent valid database is automatically copied to each card in the system that
does not already contain that database.
APPENDICES
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
INDEX
The following databases are checked and synchronized: Basemap, Safetaxi, Obstacle, Airport Directory
(AOPA or AC-U-KWIK), Chartview, FliteCharts and Terrain. This feature applies only to databases that
are stored on the SD card that resides in the bottom slot of each display. This feature does not apply to the
navigation database which is stored internally in each display, or to the charts databases (FliteCharts and
ChartView) which are only required to be present on the MFD. The typical procedure would be to download
new databases to the MFD card, then synchronize the data to the PFD.
579
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX B
NOTE: The 9-arc second terrain database may take as long as 100 minutes to synchronize using this method.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Therefore the user may want to transfer the data using a PC, or connect the system to a ground power
source while performing the database synchronization.
EIS
The synchronization progress may be monitored on the AUX-System Status Page in the Sync Status section
of the Database Window (Figure B-12). This section shows the synchronization status of each applicable
database, including the percent complete, time remaining, and to which displays the databases are being
copied. When the synchronization is complete, the status is listed as ‘Complete’, followed by the displays to
which the databases were copied. This sub-section is only present when a sync is occurring or has occurred
on the current power-up.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
An indication of ‘Complete’ still requires a power cycle before the synchronized databases will be used by
the system.
Figure B-12 AUX-System Status Page, Database Window
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The Display Database Softkey (Figure B-15) is used to place the cursor in the Database Window. Upon
first press of the Display Database Softkey, the softkey will change to a selected state (black text on gray
background) and the cursor will appear in the Database Window. At this point the user can scroll through
all databases in the Database Window to view status information. If the Display Database Softkey is pressed
repeatedly, the softkey will switch between PFD1 and MFD1. Database status information in the Database
Window will reflect the database of the selected PFD or MFD. After a successful sync and restart, verify that
the proper databases are now in use on the AUX–System Status Page (Figure B-12).
INDEX
APPENDICES
If an error occurs during the synchronization, an error message will be displayed, followed by the affected
display in the Sync Status section of the Database Window (Figure B-13). If a synchronization completes
on one display, but an error occurs on another, the error message will be displayed with the affected diaplay
listed after it. When an error message (Table B-1) is displayed, the problem must be corrected before the
synchronization can be completed. A power cycle is required to restart synchronization when ‘Card Full’ or
‘Err’ is shown.
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APPENDIX B
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Database
Synchronization
Error Message
Figure B-13 Synchronization Error Message
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Error Message
Description
Canceled
Database synchronization has been canceled by removing the bottom SD card in
display being updated
Card Full
SD card does not contain sufficient memory
Err
Displayed for all other errors that may cause the synchronization process to be halted
Timeout
System timed-out prior to the database transfer completing
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Table B-1 Database Synchronization Error Messages
UPDATING GARMIN DATABASES/JEPPESEN CHARTVIEW DATABASE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Garmin database updates can be obtained by following the instructions detailed in the ‘Aviation
Databases’ section of the Garmin website (fly.garmin.com). Jeppesen Chartview can be download from
the Garmin website but operators must contact Jeppesen to subscribe. Once the updated files have been
downloaded from the website, a PC equipped with an appropriate SD card reader is used to unpack and
program the new databases onto an existing Supplemental Data Card. Equipment required to perform the
update is as follows:
• Windows-compatible PC computer (running Windows XP, Vista, or Windows 7)
AFCS
• SD Card Reader: SanDisk SDDR-93, SanDisk SDDR-99, Verbatim #96504, or equivalent
• Updated database obtained from the Garmin website
• Existing Supplemental Database SD Cards from the PFD and MFD
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
In some cases it may be necessary to obtain an unlock code from Garmin in order to make the database
product functional. It may also be necessary to have the system configured by a Garmin authorized service
facility in order to use some database features.
Updating Basemap, SafeTaxi, Obstacle, Airport Directory, Chartview and Flitecharts Databases
APPENDICES
1) With the system OFF, remove the Garmin SD Cards from the bottom SD card slot of each flight display unit.
NOTE: Label the SD cards for each display.
INDEX
2) Go to www.flygarmin.com. Download the applicable software and install the databases on the Garmin SD card
for each display. (The FliteChart database must only be installed on the MFD SD Card).
3) Put the Garmin SD Cards back in the bottom SD card slots of each flight display unit.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX B
4) Turn the system ON.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5) During MFD power-up, check the MFD Power-Up screen and make sure that the database is initialized and
shown on the database information (Figure B-14).
Figure B-14 Database Information on the Power-up Screen
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
6) Press the ENT Key on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page group on the MFD.
8) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
9) Press the Display Database Selection Softkey (Figure B-15) to show database information for each display.
Unselected
MFD1 DB Selected PFD1 DB Selected
Figure B-15 Display Database Softkey
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
10) Verify the correct database cycle information is shown for each display (Figure B-16).
INDEX
Figure B-16 Check Database Cycle Number (MFD shown)
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APPENDIX B
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MAGNETIC FIELD VARIATION DATABASE UPDATE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A copy of the current magnetic field variation database (MV DB) is included with the navigation database.
At startup, the system compares this version of the MV DB with that presently being used by the AHRS (GRS).
If the system determines the MV DB needs to be updated, a prompt is displayed on the Navigation Map Page.
EIS
Figure B-17 GRS Magnetic Field Variation Database Update Prompt
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Loading the magnetic field variation database update:
1) With ‘OK’ highlighted, as shown in Figure B-17, press the ENT Key on the MFD. A progress monitor is displayed
as shown in Figure B-18.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure B-18 Uploading Database to GRS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) When the upload is complete, the system is ready for use.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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583
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX B
Blank Page
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APPENDIX C
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
GARMIN AVIATION GLOSSARY
ACARS
APPENDICES
INDEX
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Degrees Celsius
Center Runway
Course to Altitude Leg
Calibrated
AFCS
°C
C
CA
CAL
BFO
BKSP
Bluetooth
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
BOC
BOD
BRG
Both Runways
Barometric Altitude
Barometer, Barometric
Battery
Backcourse
The compass direction from the present
position to a destination waypoint.
Beat Frequency Oscillator
Backspace
Wireless standard for data exchange over
short distances
Bottom of Climb
Bottom of Descent
see also Bearing
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
B
B ALT
BARO
BATT
BC
Bearing
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airport, Aerodrome
Airport Signs
Aeronautical Radio Incorporated
Airspace
Air Route Traffic Control Center
Arrival
Airspeed
Aviation Support Branch
Automated Surface Observing System
Air Traffic Control
ATC Radar Beacon System
Automatic Terminal Information Service
Along Track
Automatic Sequence
Auxiliary
Average
Aviation VHF Link Control
Automated Weather Observing System
EIS
190-01325-01 Rev. A
APT
APTSIGNS
ARINC
ARSPC
ARTCC
ARV
AS
ASB
ASOS
ATC
ATCRBS
ATIS
ATK
AUTOSEQ
AUX
AVG
AVLC
AWOS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Airborne Communications Addressing
and Reporting System
ACC
Accuracy
ACT, ACTV
Active, Activate, Altitude Compensated
Tilt
ADC
Air Data Computer
ADF
Automatic Direction Finder
ADI
Attitude Direction Indicator
ADIZ
Air Defense Identification Zone
ADS-B
Automatic Dependent SurveillanceBroadcast
ADS-R
Automatic Dependent SurveillanceRebroadcast
AF
Arc to Fix Leg
AFCS
Automatic Flight Control System
AFM
Airplane Flight Manual
AFMS
Airplane Flight Manual Supplement
AFRM
Airframe
AGL
Above Ground Level
AHRS
Attitude and Heading Reference System
AIM
Aeronautical Information Manual
AIRB
Airborne
AIRMET
Airman’s Meteorological Information
AIRREP
Air Reports
ALRT
Alert
ALT
Altitude
ALT, ALTN
Alternator
ALTS
Selected Altitude Capture Mode
ALTV
VNAV Altitude Capture Mode
AMPS
Amperes
ANNUNC/ANN Annunciation/Annunciator
ANT
Antenna
AOA
Angle of Attack, ACARS Over AVLC
AOC
Aeronautical Operational Control
AOG
Aircraft On Ground
AOPA
Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association
AP
Autopilot
AP DISC
Autopilot Disconnect
APPR, APR
Approach
585
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX C
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
CALC
Calibrated
Airspeed
CAS
CD
CDI
CDU
CF
CG
CH, CHNL
CHT
CHKLIST
CI
CLD
CLR
CM
CMC
CN
CNS
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
CO
COM
CONFIG
COOL
COPLT
Course
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Course to
Steer
INDEX
APPENDICES
CPDLC
CPL
CR
CRG
CRNT
Crosstrack
Error
CRS
CRSR
586
Calculator
Indicated airspeed corrected for
installation and instrument errors.
Crew Alerting System
Course to DME Distance Leg
Course Deviation Indicator
Control Display Unit
Course to Fix Leg
Center of Gravity
Channel
Cylinder Head Temperature
Checklist
Course to Intercept Leg
Cloud
Clear
Centimeter
Central Maintenance Computer
Canada
Communication, Navigation, &
Surveillance
Carbon Monoxide
Communication Radio
Configuration
Coolant
Copilot
The line between two points to be
followed by the aircraft.
The recommended direction to steer
in order to reduce course error or stay
on course. Provides the most efficient
heading to get back to the desired course
and proceed along the flight plan.
Controller Pilot Datalink Communications
Couple
Course to Radial Leg
Cockpit Reference Guide
Current
The distance the aircraft is off a desired
course in either direction, left or right.
see also Course, Course to Steer
Cursor
CSA
CSC
CTA
CTR
CTRL
Cumulative,
CUM
CVDR
CVR
CVRG
CWS
CYL
Conflict Situational Awareness
Current Speed Control
Control Area
Center
Control
The total of all legs in a flight plan.
D ALT
D-ATIS
DB, DBASE
dBZ
DCL
DCLTR, DECLTR
DEC FUEL
DEG
DEIC, DEICE
DEP
Desired Track
Density Altitude
Digital Automatic Terminal Info Service
Database
Decibels ‘Z’ (Radar Return)
Departure Clearance
Declutter
Decrease Fuel
Degree
De-icing
Departure
The desired course between the active
“from” and “to” waypoints.
Destination
Deviation
Direct to Fix Leg
Default
Directional Gyro
Degrade
Decision Height
A measure of GPS satellite geometry
quality on a scale of one to ten (lower
numbers equal better geometry, where
higher numbers equal poorer geometry).
Direction
Distance
DEST
DEV
DF
DFLT
DG
DGRD
DH
Dilution of
Precision
DIR
DIS
Cockpit Voice Data Recorder
Cockpit Voice Recorder
Coverage
Control Wheel Steering
Cylinder
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Degrees Fahrenheit
Course From Fix to Altitude Leg
Federal Aviation Administration
Full Authority Digital Engine Control
Final Approach Fix
Failure
Fixed Base Operator
Course From Fix to Distance Leg
Federal Communication Commission
Forecast
Flight Director, Course From Fix to DME
Distance Leg
Fault Detection and Exclusion
see also Fuel Flow
Flight Information Services-Broadcast
Flight Information Service Data Link
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
AFCS
FDE
FF, FFLOW
FIS-B
FISDL
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
190-01325-01 Rev. A
°F
FA
FAA
FADEC
FAF
FAIL
FBO
FC
FCC
FCST
FD
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Empty, East
Engine and Airframe Systems
Engine Control Unit
Emergency Descent Mode
Expected Further Clearance
A measure of fuel consumption,
expressed in distance per unit of fuel.
EGNOS
European Geostationary Navigation
Overlay Service
EGT
Exhaust Gas Temperature
EICAS
Engine Indication and Crew Alerting
System
EIS
Engine Indication System
ELEV
Elevation, Elevator
ELT
Emergency Locator Transmitter
EMER, EMERG, Emergency
EMERGCY
EMI
Electromagnetic Interference
END, ENDUR
Endurance
Endurance
Flight endurance, or total possible flight
time based on available fuel on board.
ENG
Engine
ENGD
Engaged
ENR
Enroute; ETE to Final Destination
EIS
E
EAS
ECU
EDM
EFC
Efficiency
Enroute Safe Uses Grid MORAs to determine a safe
Altitude (ESA) altitude within ten miles left or right of
the desired course on an active flight
plan or direct-to.
ENT
Enter
EPE
see also Estimated Position Error
EPU
Estimated Position Uncertainty
ERR
Error
ES
Extended Squitter
ESA
see also Enroute Safe Altitude
ESP
Electronic Stability and Protection
Estimated
A measure of horizontal GPS position
Position Error error derived by satellite geometry
(EPE)
conditions and other factors.
Estimated
The estimated time at which the aircraft
Time of Arrival should reach the destination waypoint,
(ETA)
based upon current speed and track.
Estimated
The estimated time it takes to reach
Time Enroute the destination waypoint from the
(ETE)
present position, based upon current
groundspeed.
ETA
see also Estimated Time of Arrival
ETE
see also Estimated Time Enroute
EVS
Enhanced Vision System
EXPIRD
Expired
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
DL LTNG
DME
DN
DOP
DP
DPRT
DR
DSBL
DTK
DQR
The ‘great circle’ distance from the
present position to a destination
waypoint.
Datalink Lightning
Distance Measuring Equipment
Down
see also Dilution of Precision
Departure Procedure
Departure
Dead Reckoning
Disabled
see also Desired Track
Data Quality Requirements
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Distance
587
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX C
FL
FLC
FLTA
FM
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Flight Level
Flight Level Change
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
Course From Fix to Manual Termination
Leg
FMS
Flight Management System
FOB
see also Fuel On Board
FOD
see also Fuel Over Destination
FPA
Flight Path Angle
FPL
Flight Plan
FPM
Feet Per Minute, Flight Path Marker
FREQ
Frequency
FRMT
Format
FRZ
Freezing
FSM
Flight System Messages
FSS
Flight Service Station
FT
foot/feet
Fuel Flow
The fuel flow rate, expressed in units of
fuel per hour.
Fuel On Board The total amount of usable fuel on board
the aircraft.
Fuel Over
The estimated fuel remaining when the
Destination
aircraft reaches the destination waypoint,
based upon current fuel flow.
FWD
Forward
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
G/S
GA
GAL, GL
GBOX
GBT
GCU
GCS
GDC
GDL
GDR
GDU
GEA
GEO
GFC
588
Glideslope
Go-Around
Gallon(s)
Gearbox
Ground Based Transceiver
Garmin Control Unit
Ground Clutter Suppression
Garmin Air Data Computer
Garmin Satellite Data Link
Garmin Data Radio
Garmin Display Unit
Garmin Engine/Airframe Unit
Geographic
Garmin Flight Control
GIA
GLONASS
GLS
GMA
GMC
GMT
GMU
GND
GPH
GPN
GPS
GPWS
Grid MORA
(Minimum
Off—Route
Altitude)
Groundspeed
Ground Track
GRS
GS
GSA
GSD
GSL
GSR
GTC
GTS
GTX
GWX
HA
HDG
HDOP
Heading
Garmin Integrated Avionics Unit
Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite
Landing System
Global Navigation Satellite Landing
System
Garmin Audio Panel System
Garmin Mode Controller
Greenwich Mean Time
Garmin Magnetometer Unit
Ground
Gallons per Hour
Garmin Part Number
Global Positioning System
Ground Proximity Warning System
One degree latitude by one degree
longitude in size and clears the highest
elevation reference point in the grid by:
a) 1,000 feet where the highest elevation
is <5001MSL or b) 2,000 feet where the
highest elevation is >5000MSL
The velocity that the aircraft is travelling
relative to a ground position.
See Track
Garmin Reference System
Ground Speed, Glideslope
Garmin Servo Adapter
Garmin Data Concentrator
Geodetic Sea Level
Garmin Satellite Radio
Garmin Touchscreen Controller
Garmin Traffic System
Garmin Transponder
Garmin Weather Radar
Hold Terminating at Altitude Leg
see also Heading
Horizontal Dilution of Precision
The direction an aircraft is pointed,
based upon indications from a magnetic
compass or a properly set directional
gyro.
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
Key Stuck
Kilogram
Kilohertz
Kilometer
Knot
L
LAT
LBL
LB
LCD
LCL
LDA
LDG
LED
Left Over Fuel
On Board
Left, Left Runway
Latitude
Label
Pound
Liquid Crystal Display
Local
Landing Distance Available
ETA at Final Destination
Light Emitting Diode
The amount of fuel remaining on board
after the completion of one or more legs
of a flight plan or direct-to.
Left Over Fuel The amount of flight time remaining,
Reserve
based on the amount of fuel on board
after the completion of one or more legs
of a flight plan or direct-to, and a known
consumption rate.
Leg
The portion of a flight plan between two
waypoints.
LGND
Legend
LIFR
Low Instrument Flight Rules
LMM
Location Middle Marker
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Inner Marker
Initial Approach Fix
Indicated Air Speed
Indicated Air Temperature
Integrated Avionics Unit
International Civil Aviation Organization
Intercom System
Identification/Morse Code Identifier
Identification
Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers
Initial Fix
Instrument Flight Rules
Imperial Gallon
Instrument Landing System
Instrument Meteorological Conditions
Inch
Inactive
Increase Fuel
Indicator, Indicated
KEYSTK
KG
kHz
KM
KT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
ITT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Hectopascal
Horizontal Protection Level
Hour
Horizon Heading
High-Speed Data Bus
Horizontal Situation Indicator
Heat
Horizontal Uncertainty Level
Hertz (cycles per second)
INFO
IN Hg
INS
INT
INTEG
IrDA, IRDA
ISA
Information provided by properly
calibrated and set instrumentation on the
aircraft panel.
Information
Inches of Mercury
Inertial Navigation System
Intersection(s)
Integrity (RAIM unavailable)
Infrared Data Association
International Standard Atmosphere; ISA
Relative Temperature
Interstage Turbine Temperature, InterTurbine Temperature
EIS
I
IAF
IAS
IAT
IAU
ICAO
ICS
ID
IDENT, IDNT
IEEE
IF
IFR
IG
ILS
IMC
IN
INACTV
INC FUEL
IND
Indicated
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
HFOM
Hg
HI
HI SENS
HM
HNS
Horizontal
Figure of
Merit
hPa
HPL
HR
HRZN HDG
HSDB
HSI
HT
HUL
Hz
High Frequency, Hold Terminating at Fix
Leg
see also Horizontal Figure of Merit
Mercury
High
High Sensitivity
Hold with Manual Termination Leg
Hybrid Navigation System
A measure of the uncertainty in the
aircraft’s horizontal position.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HF
589
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX C
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
LNAV
LO
LOA
LOC
LOI
LOM
LON
LP
LPV
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
LRU
LT
LTNG
LVL
Lateral Navigation
Low
Letter of Authorization
Localizer
Loss of Integrity (GPS)
Location Outer Marker
Longitude
Localizer Performance
Localizer Performance with Vertical
Guidance
Line Replaceable Unit
Left
Lightning
Level
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
M
Meter, Middle Marker, Mach
MMO (VMO)
Maximum Speed
Mach Number Mach number is the ratio of the true
airspeed to the speed of sound.
MAG
Magnetic
MAG VAR
Magnetic Variation
MAHP
Missed Approach Hold Point
MAN IN
Manifold Pressure (inches Hg)
MAN SQ
Manual Squelch
MAP
Missed Approach Point
MASQ
Master Avionics Squelch
MAX
Maximum
MAXSPD
Maximum Speed (overspeed)
MB
Marker Beacon
MDA
Barometric Minimum Descent Altitude
MEPT
Manual Electric Pitch Trim
MET
Manual Electric Trim
METAR
Aviation Routine Weather Report
MFD
Multi Function Display
MFW
Multi Function Window
MGRS
Military Grid Reference System
MHz
Megahertz
MIC
Microphone
MIN
Minimum
590
Minimum Safe Uses Grid MORAs to determine a safe
Altitude (MSA) altitude within ten miles of the aircraft
present position.
MKR
Marker Beacon
MOA
Military Operations Area
MON
Monitor
MOV
Movement
MORA
Minimum Off-Route Altitude
MPEL
Maximum Permissible Exposure Level
MPM
Meters per Minute
MSA
see also Minimum Safe Altitude
MSAS
Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation
System
MSG
Message
MSL
Mean Sea Level
MT, M
Meter
mV
Millivolt(s)
MVFR
Marginal Visual Flight Rules
N
NAV
NAVAID
NDB
NEXRAD
NM
NoPT
NOTAM
NRST
O
OAT
OBS
OFST
OOOI
North
Navigation
Navigation Aid
Non-Directional Beacon
Next Generation Radar
Nautical Mile(s)
No Procedure Turn Required (procedure
shall not be executed without ATC
clearance)
Notice To Airman
Nearest
OXY
Outer Marker
Outside Air Temperature
Omni Bearing Selector
Offset
Out of the gate, Off the ground, On the
ground, and In the gate
Oxygen
P ALT
PA
PASS
Pressure Altitude
Passenger Address, Proximity Advisory
Passenger(s)
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
APPENDICES
INDEX
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
190-01325-01 Rev. A
SID
SIG/AIR
SIGMET
SIM
SLD
SLP/SKD
SMBL
AFCS
RAM
RAT
RCVR
REF
REM
REQ
South
Selective Availability
Search and Rescue
Static Air Temperature
Satellite-Based Augmentation System
Storm Cell Identification and Tracking
Secure Digital
Second(s)
Select
Selective Calling
Sense
Surface
Standard Instrument Approach
Procedures
Standard Instrument Departure
SIGMET/AIRMET
Significant Meteorological Information
Simulator
Supercooled Large Droplet
Slip/Skid
Symbol
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Right, Right Runway
Resolution Advisory, Radio Altimeter
Radial
Radio Altimeter
Receiver Autonomous Integrity
Monitoring
Random Access Memory
Ram Air Temperature
Receiver
Reference
Remaining (fuel remaining), Reminder
Required
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
R
RA
RAD
RAD ALT
RAIM
S
SA
SAR
SAT
SBAS
SCIT
SD
SEC
SEL, SLCT
SELCAL
SENS
SFC
SIAP
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Field Elevation Pressure
Sea Level Pressure
Quantity
RMI
RMT
RNAV
RNG
RNP
RNWY, RWY
ROL
ROM
RPM
RST FUEL
RSV
RT
RVRSNRY
RVSM
RX
Reserve (fuel reserve entered by pilot)
Reverse, Revision, Revise
Radio Frequency, Constant Radius Turn to
Fix Leg
Radio Magnetic Indicator
Remote
Area Navigation
Range
Required Navigation Performance
Runway
Roll
Read Only Memory
Revolutions Per Minute
Reset Fuel
Reserve (fuel reserve entered by pilot)
Right
Reversionary
Reduced Vertical Separation Minimums
Receive
EIS
QFE
QNH
QTY
RES
REV
RF
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Personal Computer
Pre-Departure Clearance
Primary Flight Display
Pilot’s Guide
Procedure Turn to Course Intercept Leg
Pilot Report
Pitch
Plain Old ACARS
Pilot’s Operating Handbook
Pilot’s Operating Handbook Supplement
Position
Pounds per Hour
Parts per Million
Present Position
Pressure
Procedure(s), Procedure Turn
Propeller
Proximity
Pounds per Square Inch
Procedure Turn
Parallel Track
Push-to-Talk
Power
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PC
PDC
PFD
PG
PI
PIREP
PIT, PTCH
POA
POH
POHS
POS, POSN
PPH
PPM
P. POS
PRES, PRESS
PROC
PROP
PROX
PSI
PT
PTK
PTT
PWR
591
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX C
592
SMS
SNGL
SPC
SPD
SPI
SPKR
SQ
SRVC, SVC
SSID
STAB
STAL
STAR
STATS
STBY
STD
STRMSCP
SUA
SURF
SUSP
SVT
SW
SYNC
SYN TERR
SYN VIS
SYS
Short Message System
Single
Space
Speed
Special Position Identification
Speaker
Squelch
Service
Wi-Fi Service Set Identifier
Stabilization
Stall
Standard Terminal Arrival Route
Statistics
Standby
Standard
Stormscope
Special Use Airspace
Surface
Suspend
Synthetic Vision Technology
Software
Synchronize
Synthetic Terrain
Synthetic Vision
System
T
TA
TACAN
TAF
TAS
TAT
TAWS
TCA
TCAS
TEL
TEMP
TERM
TF
TFR
True
Traffic Advisory
Tactical Air Navigation System
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
True Airspeed, Traffic Advisory System
Total Air Temperature
Terrain Awareness and Warning System
Terminal Control Area
Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System
Telephone
Temperature
Terminal
Track Between Two Fixes Leg
Temporary Flight Restriction
TGT
T HDG
TIS
TIS-B
TIT
TKE
TMA
TMR/REF
TOC
TOD
TOGA, TO/GA
TOLD
TOPO
TORA
TOT
TPA
Track
Track Angle
Error
TRK
TRSA
TRUNC
TTL
TURB
TURN
TWIP
TX
Target
True Heading
Traffic Information Service
Traffic Information Service-Broadcast
Turbine Inlet Temperature
see also Track Angle Error
Terminal Maneuvering Area
Timer/Reference
Top of Climb
Top of Descent
Take-Off, Go-Around
Takeoff and Landing Data
Topographic
Takeoff Run Available
Total
Traffic Pattern Altitude
Direction of aircraft movement relative to
a ground position; also ‘Ground Track’.
The angle difference between the desired
track and the current track.
see also Track
Terminal Radar Service Area
Truncated
Total
Turbulence
Procedure Turn
Terminal Weather Information for Pilots
Transmit
UAT
UHF
UNAVAIL
US
USR
UTC
UTM/UPS
Universal Access Transceiver
Ultra-High Frequency
Unavailable
United States
User
Coordinated Universal Time
Universal Transverse Mercator/ Universal
Polar Stereographic Grid
V
V, Vspeed
V1
Volts
Velocity (airspeed)
Takeoff Decision Speed
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
Yaw Damper
INDEX
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
APPENDICES
YD
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Transfer
SiriusXM Lightning
Transponder
Cross-Talk
Cross-Track, Crosstrack Error
AFCS
XFER, XFR
XM LTNG
XPDR
XTALK
XTK
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
WOW
WPT
WT
WW
WX
Watt(s), West
Wide Area Augmentation System
Warning
Weather Attenuated Color Highlight
World Geodetic System - 1984
Wireless Local Area Network based on
IEEE 802.11
Weight on Wheels
Waypoint(s)
Weight
World Wide
Weather
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
W
WAAS
WARN
WATCH
WGS-84
WI-FI
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
VPATH, VPTH
VPL
VPROF
VR
VRP
VS
VSD
VSI
VSR, VS REQ
VTF
Visual Meteorological Conditions
Vertical Navigation
Volume
VHF Omnidirectional Range
VHF Omnidirectional Range Station and
Tactical Air Navigation
Vertical Path
Vertical Protection Level
VNAV Profile, Vertical Profile
Heading Vector to Radial Leg
Visual Reporting Point
Vertical Speed
Vertical Situation Display
Vertical Speed Indicator
see also Vertical Speed Required
Vector to Final
EIS
190-01325-01 Rev. A
VMC
VNAV, VNV
VOL
VOR
VORTAC
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Takeoff Safety Speed
Maneuvering Speed
Approach Climb Speed
Maximum Flap Extended Speed
Maximum Landing Gear Extended Speed
Approach Speed (Flaps at x°)
Maximum Landing Gear Operating Speed
Minimum Control Speed
Maximum Operating Speed
Never-Exceed Speed
Takeoff Rotate Speed
Landing Approach Speed, Reference
Landing Speed
VSB
Maximum Speedbrake Speed
VSR
Stall Speed
VT
Takeoff Flap Retraction Speed
VTIRE
Maximum Tire Speed
VX
Best Angle of Climb Speed
VY
Best Rate of Climb Speed
VYSE
Best Single-Engine Rate of Climb Speed
V DEV
Vertical Deviation
VA
Heading Vector to Altitude Leg
VAC
Volts Alternating Current
VAPP
VOR Approach
VAR
Variation
VD
Heading Vector to DME Distance Leg
VDC
Volts Direct Current
VDL
VHF Datalink
VERT
Vertical
Vertical Figure A measure of the uncertainty in the
of Merit
aircraft’s vertical position.
Vertical Speed The vertical speed necessary to descend/
Required
climb from a current position and altitude
to a defined target position and altitude,
based upon current groundspeed.
VFOM
see also Vertical Figure of Merit
VFR
Visual Flight Rules
VHF
Very High Frequency
VI
Heading Vector to Intercept Leg
VLOC
VOR/Localizer Receiver
VM
Heading Vector to Manual Termination
Leg
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
V2
VA
VAPP , VAC
VFE
VLE
VLNDx
VLO
VMC
VMO (MMO)
VNE
VR
VREF
593
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX C
Blank Page
594
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
APPENDIX D
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If a particular aspect of G950 operational capability is not addressed by these commonly asked questions or in
the index, contact Garmin (see the copyright page or back cover for contact information) or a Garmin-authorized
dealer. Garmin is dedicated to supporting its products and customers.
What is SBAS?
EIS
The Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) uses a system of ground stations to correct any GPS signal
errors. These ground stations correct for errors caused by ionospheric disturbances, timing, and satellite
orbit errors. It also provides vital integrity information regarding the health of each GPS satellite. The signal
correction is then broadcast through geostationary satellites. This correction information can then be received
by any SBAS-enabled GPS receiver.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SBAS is designed to provide the additional accuracy, availability, and integrity necessary to enable users to rely
on GPS for all phases of flight.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
There are several SBAS systems serving different parts of the world. The Wide Area Augmentation System
(WAAS) is currently available in the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. The European Geostationary
Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) offers coverage of Europe, parts of the middle east and northern Africa.
The Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS) covers mainly Japan and parts of northern Australia.
How does SBAS affect approach operations?
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Both LNAV/VNAV and LPV approaches use the accuracy of SBAS to include vertical (glide path) guidance
capability. The additional accuracy and vertical guidance capability allows improved instrument approaches to
an expanded number of airports throughout the U.S.
AFCS
The implementation of LPV approaches further improves precision approach capabilities. LPV approaches
are designed to make full use of the improved GPS signal from the SBAS. This approach combines the LNAV/
VNAV vertical accuracy with lateral guidance similar to the typical Instrument Landing System (ILS). LPV
approaches allow lower approach minimums.
What is RAIM and how does it affect approach operations?
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
RAIM is an acronym for Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring. RAIM is a GPS receiver function that
performs the following functions:
• Monitors and verifies integrity and geometry of tracked GPS satellites
• Notifies the pilot when satellite conditions do not provide the necessary coverage to support a certain phase
of flight
APPENDICES
• Predicts satellite coverage of a destination area to determine whether the number of available satellites is
sufficient to satisfy requirements
NOTE: If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
INDEX
active, as indicated by the “RAIM not available from FAF to MAP” message and the LOI annunciation
flagging on the HSI.
595
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX D
For RAIM to work correctly, the GPS receiver must track at least five satellites. A minimum of six satellites is
required to allow RAIM to eliminate a single corrupt satellite from the navigation solution.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
RAIM ensures that satellite geometry allows for a navigation solution calculation within a specified protection
limit (2.0 nm for oceanic and en route, 1.0 nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). The
G950 System monitors RAIM and issues an alert message when RAIM is not available (see Appendix A). Without
RAIM, GPS position accuracy cannot be monitored. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the pilot
must fly the missed approach procedure.
Why are there not any approaches available for a flight plan?
EIS
Approaches are available for the final destination airport in a flight plan or as a direct-to (keep in mind
that some VOR/VORTAC identifiers are similar to airport identifiers). If a destination airport does not have a
published approach, the G950 indicates “NONE” for the available procedures.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
What happens when an approach is selected? Can a flight plan with an approach, a departure, or an
arrival be stored?
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When an approach, departure, or arrival is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach, departure,
or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan, along with a header line showing the title of the selected
instrument procedure. The original en route portion of the flight plan remains active, unless the instrument
procedure is activated. This may be done either when the procedure is loaded or at a later time.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Flight plans can also be stored with an approach, a departure, or an arrival. Note that the active flight plan
is erased when the system is turned off. Also, the active flight plan is overwritten when another flight plan is
activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, a departure, or an arrival, the G950 uses the waypoint
information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the database is changed or updated, the
G950 System automatically updates the information, provided the procedure has not been modified. Should
an approach, departure, or arrival procedure no longer be available, the flight plan becomes locked until the
procedure is deleted from the flight plan.
AFCS
Can “slant Golf” (“/G”) be filed using the G950?
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
“/G” may be filed for a flight plan. The G950 System meets the requirements of TSO-C145a Class 3 and
ETSO-C145 Class 3 installations. GPS approaches are not to be flown with an expired database. See the
approved AFM/POH as well as the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) for more information.
What does the OBS Softkey do?
APPENDICES
The OBS Softkey is used to select manual sequencing of waypoints. Activating OBS mode sets the current
active-to waypoint as the primary navigation reference and prevents the system from sequencing to the next
waypoint in a flight plan. When OBS mode is cancelled, automatic waypoint sequencing is continued, and the
G950 automatically activates the next waypoint in the flight plan once the aircraft has crossed the present active
waypoint.
INDEX
•
•
•
•
596
Normal (OBS not activated)
Automatic sequencing of waypoints
Manual course change on HSI not possible
Always navigates ‘TO’ the active waypoint
Must be in this mode for final approach course
•
•
•
•
OBS
Manual sequencing - ‘holds’ on selected waypoint
Manually select course to waypoint from HSI
Indicates ‘TO’ or ‘FROM’ waypoint
Cannot be set for final approach course or published holding patterns
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
APPENDIX D
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When OBS mode is active, the G950 allows the pilot to set a desired course to/from a waypoint using the
CRS/BARO Knob and HSI (much like a VOR).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The most common application for using the OBS Softkey is the missed approach. The G950 suspends
automatic waypoint sequencing (indicated by a ‘SUSP’ annunciation placed on the HSI) when the missed
approach point (MAP) is crossed. This prevents the G950 from automatically sequencing to the missed approach
holding point (MAHP). During this time, the OBS Softkey designation changes to SUSP. Pressing the SUSP
Softkey reactivates automatic waypoint sequencing. The OBS Softkey then resumes its normal functionality.
Why does the G950 not automatically sequence to the next waypoint?
EIS
The G950 only sequences flight plan waypoints when automatic sequencing is enabled (i.e., no “OBS” or
‘SUSP’ annunciation). For automatic sequencing to occur, the aircraft must also cross the “bisector” of the turn
being navigated. The bisector is a line passing through the waypoint common to two flight plan legs at an
equal angle from each leg.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
How can a waypoint be skipped in an approach, a departure, or an arrival?
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The G950 allows the pilot to manually select any approach, departure, or arrival leg as the active leg of the
flight plan. This procedure is performed on the MFD from the Active Flight Plan Page by highlighting the
desired waypoint and selecting the ACT LEG Softkey then the ENT Key to approve the selection. The GPS
then provides navigation along the selected flight plan leg.
When does turn anticipation begin?
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The G950 smooths adjacent leg transitions based on a normal 15° bank angle (with the ability to roll up to
30°) and provides three pilot cues for turn anticipation:
• A waypoint alert (‘Next DTK ###° in # seconds’ or ‘Next HDG ###° in # seconds’) appears on the PFD 10
seconds before the turn point and flashes as it counts down to zero.
AFCS
• A flashing turn advisory (‘Turn [right/left] to ###° in # seconds’) appears on the PFD 10 seconds before the
turn and flashes as it counts down to zero. ‘Turn [right/left] to ###° now’ or ‘Next [DTK/HDG] to ###° now’
is displayed when the pilot is to begin the turn and the HSI (GPS mode) automatically sequences to the next
DTK or HDG value.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• The To/From indicator on the HSI flips momentarily to indicate that the midpoint of the turn has been
crossed.
When does the CDI scale change?
APPENDICES
Once a departure is activated, the G950 Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) full scale deflection is set to 0.3
nm. The CDI scale changes to 1.0 nm (terminal mode) then ramps up to 2.0 nm (enroute mode) at 30 nm
from the departure airport. When 31 nm from the destination, the CDI scale smoothly transition from 2.0 nm
back to 1.0 nm (terminal mode). At 2.0 nm before the FAF during an active approach, the CDI scale transitions
down further based on the type of approach activated (LNAV, LNAV/VNAV, LPV). When a missed approach is
activated, the CDI is set to 0.3 nm. See the Flight Instruments Section for more details on CDI scaling.
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
597
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX D
Why does the HSI not respond like a VOR when OBS mode is active?
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Unlike a VOR, the CDI scale used on GPS equipment is based on the crosstrack distance to the desired
course, not on the angular relationship to the destination. Therefore, the CDI deflection on the GPS is constant
regardless of the distance to the destination and does not become less sensitive when further away from the
destination.
What is the correct missed approach procedure? How is the missed approach holding point selected?
EIS
To comply with TSO specifications, the G950 does not automatically sequence past the MAP. The first
waypoint in the missed approach procedure becomes the active waypoint when the SUSP Softkey is selected
after crossing the MAP. All published missed approach procedures must be followed, as indicated on the
approach plate.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
To execute the missed approach procedure prior to the MAP (not recommended), select the Active Flight Plan
Page and use the ACT LEG Softkey to activate the missed approach portion of the procedure.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
After a missed approach, how can the same approach be re-selected? How can a new approach be
activated?
NOTE: Do not attempt to reactivate the current approach prior to crossing the missed approach point
(MAP). If an attempt to do so is made, an alert message “Are you sure you want to discontinue the current
approach?” appears. The G950 directs the pilot back to the transition waypoint and does not take into
consideration any missed approach procedures, if the current approach is reactivated.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
After flying the missed approach procedure, the pilot may reactivate the same approach for another attempt by
pressing the PROC Key. Once the clearance is given for another attempt, activate the approach by highlighting
‘ACTIVATE APPROACH’ using the large FMS Knob and pressing the ENT Key. The G950 provides navigation
along the desired course to the waypoint and rejoins the approach in sequence from that point.
AFCS
To activate a new approach for the same airport, select the new procedure by pressing the PROC Key. Choose
‘SELECT APPROACH’, select the desired approach from the list shown, and press the ENT Key. Select the
desired transition, then activate the approach using the ENT Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To activate a new approach to a different airport, press the Direct-to Key and select the desired airport using
the FMS Knobs. Press the ENT Key to accept the selected airport, then follow the steps in the preceding
paragraph to select an approach for the new airport.
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APPENDIX E
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
GENERAL TIS INFORMATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Aircraft without an operating transponder are invisible to TIS.
NOTE: TIS is not intended to be used as a collision avoidance system and does not relieve the pilot of the
responsibility to “see and avoid” other aircraft. TIS should not be used for avoidance maneuvers during
instrument meterorlogical conditions (IMC) or when there is no visual contact with the intruder aircraft.
EIS
The Traffic Information Service (TIS) provides traffic advisory information to non-TAS/TCAS-equipped aircraft.
TIS is a ground-based service providing the relative locations of all ATCRBS Mode-A and Mode-C transponder
equipped aircraft within a specified service volume. The TIS ground sensor uses real-time track reports to
generate traffic notification. The system displays TIS traffic information on the Traffic Map Page of the MFD. TIS
information may also be displayed for overlay on the MFD Navigation Map Page, as well as on the PFD Inset Map.
Surveillance data includes all transponder-equipped aircraft within the coverage volume. The system displays up
to eight traffic targets within a 7.5-nm radius, from 3,000 feet below, to 3,500 feet above the requesting aircraft.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The main difference between the Traffic Information System (TIS) and Traffic Advisory (TAS) or Traffic Collision
Avoidance Systems (TCAS) is the source of surveillance data. TAS/TCAS uses an airborne interrogator with a halfsecond update rate, while TIS utilizes the terminal Mode-S ground interrogator and accompanying data link to
provide a five-second update rate. TIS and TAS/TCAS have similar ranges.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TIS relies on surveillance of the Mode-S radar system, which is a “secondary surveillance” radar system similar
to that used by ATCRBS. Many limitations are inherent in secondary radar surveillance. Information provided by
TIS is neither better nor more accurate than the information used by ATC. TIS is intended only to assist in visual
acquisition of other aircraft in visual meteorological conditions (VMC). While TIS is a useful aid for visual traffic
avoidance, system limitations must be considered to ensure proper use. No recommended avoidance maneuvers
are given, nor authorized, as a direct result of a TIS intruder display or TIS advisory.
• TIS operation may be intermittent during turns or other maneuvering.
AFCS
• TIS is dependent on two-way, line-of-sight communications between the aircraft and the Mode-S radar antenna.
Whenever the structure of the aircraft comes between the transponder antenna and the ground-based radar
antenna, the signal may be temporarily interrupted.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: Refer to the TIS Limitations section of the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) for a more
comprehensive explanation of limitations and anomalies associated with TIS.
APPENDICES
NOTE: TIS is unavailable at low altitudes in many areas of the United States. This is often the case in
mountainous regions.
INDEX
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599
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX E
WARNING: Garmin is not responsible for Mode S geographical coverage. Operation of the ground stations
is the responsibility of the FAA. Refer to the AIM for a Terminal Mode S radar site map.
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TIS information is collected during a single radar sweep. Collected information is then sent through the Mode
S uplink on the next radar sweep. Because of this, the surveillance information is approximately five seconds old.
TIS ground station tracking software uses prediction algorithms to compensate for this delay. These algorithms
use track history data to calculate expected intruder positions consistent with the time of display. Occasionally,
aircraft maneuvering may cause variations in this calculation and create slight errors on the Traffic Map Page which
affect relative bearing information and the target track vector and may delay display of the intruder information.
However, intruder distance and altitude typically remain relatively accurate and may be used to assist in spotting
traffic. The following errors are common examples:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• When the client or intruder aircraft maneuvers excessively or abruptly, the tracking algorithm may report
incorrect horizontal position until the maneuvering aircraft stabilizes.
• When a rapidly closing intruder is on a course that intercepts the client aircraft course at a shallow angle
(either overtaking or head-on) and either aircraft abruptly changes course within 0.25 nm, TIS may display the
intruder aircraft on the incorrect side of the client aircraft.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
These are rare occurrences and are typically resolved within a few radar sweeps once the client/intruder aircraft
course stabilizes.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pilots using TIS can provide valuable assistance in the correction of malfunctions by reporting observations
of undesirable performance. Reports should identify the time of observation, location, type and identity of the
aircraft, and describe the condition observed. Reports should also include the type of transponder and transponder
software version. Since TIS performance is monitored by maintenance personnel, not ATC, malfunctions should
be reported in the following ways:
• By telephone to the nearest Flight Service Station (FSS) facility
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
• By FAA Form 8000-7, Safety Improvement Report (postage-paid card can be obtained at FAA FSSs, General
Aviation District Offices, Flight Standards District Offices, and General Aviation Fixed Base Operators)
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Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
190-01325-01 Rev. A
APPENDIX F
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MAP SYMBOLS
AIRPORTS
BASEMAP
Symbol
Item
Interstate Highway
Non-towered, Non-serviced Airport
State Highway
Towered, Non-serviced Airport
US Highway
Symbol
EIS
Unknown Airport
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Item
National Highway
Non-towered, Serviced Airport
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
City
Towered, Serviced Airport
State/Province Border
Restricted (Private) Airport
Heliport
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
International Border
Road
NAVAIDS
Railroad
Symbol
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Item
Latitude/Longitude
Intersection
LOM (compass locator at outer marker)
AIRSPACE BOUNDARIES
VOR/ILS
Warning Area Prohibited Area
Alert Area
Restricted Area
Caution Area Training Area
Danger Area
Unknown Area
Class C
Terminal Radar Service Area
Mode C Area
VORTAC
TACAN
APPENDICES
Mode C Tower Area
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
VOR/DME
Symbol
AFCS
VOR
Item
ICAO Control Area
Class B Airspace
NDB (non-directional radio beacon)
Military Operations Area (MOA)
INDEX
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601
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX F
HAZARD AVOIDANCE FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Feature
EIS
Item
Non-threat Traffic
Traffic display enabled
Proximity Advisory
NEXRAD display enabled
Traffic Advisory, Out of Range
Echo Top display enabled
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Symbol
Terrain display enabled
Cloud Top display enabled
XM Lightning display enabled
Cell Movement display enabled
SIGMETs/AIRMETs display enabled
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TRAFFIC
METARs display enabled
Symbol
Traffic Advisory
Traffic Advisory (TA) arrow with ADS-B
directional information.
Proximity Advisory (PA) arrow with ADS-B
directional information.
Non-threat traffic arrow with ADS-B
directional information.
PA or Non-threat traffic arrow with ADS-B
directional information
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
City Forecast display enabled
Surface Analysis display enabled
Freezing Levels display enabled
AFCS
Winds Aloft display enabled
County Warnings display enabled
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Cyclone Warnings display enabled
Loss of hazard avoidance feature
(loss of GPS position)
APPENDICES
Turbulence
Icing Potential
PIREPs
INDEX
AIREPs
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APPENDIX F
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MISCELLANEOUS
Item
Symbol
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ARTCC Frequency or FSS Frequency
Map Pointer (when panning)
Elevation Pointer
(on Topography Scale when panning)
EIS
Measuring Pointer
Wind Vector
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Overzoom Indicator
User Waypoint
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Vertical Navigation Along Track Waypoint
Parallel Track Waypoint
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Unanchored Flight Path Waypoint
Top of Descent (TOD)
AFCS
Bottom of Descent (BOD)
Navigating using Dead Reckoning
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
603
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX F
OBSTACLE DATABASE
Potential Impact Point
Terrain above or
within 100 ft
below the aircraft
altitude
Projected Flight Path
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
100 ft Threshold
Unlighted Obstacle
1000 ft
EIS
Terrain between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the
aircraft altitude
Terrain more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
On the TAWS-B Page only, a gray shade of purple indicates no terrain data is available.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure F-1 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Gray obstacle is more than 1000 ft
below aircraft altitude
AFCS
Table F-1 Terrain/Obstacle Colors and Symbology
Potential Impact
Point Symbol
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Warning
Caution
INDEX
APPENDICES
Table F-2 Potential Impact Point Symbols with Alert Types
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INDEX
EIS
B
Backlighting-------------------------------------------------- 49
Barometric Altimeter Setting---------------------------52, 57
Basic Empty Weight----------------------------------------255
Basic Operating Weight------------------------------------255
Bearing/distance, measuring------------------------------145
Bearing Information-------------------------------------53, 64
Bearing Line------------------------------------------ 368, 372
Bearing Pointer----------------------------------------------- 63
Bearing Source----------------------------------------------- 64
Bus voltage--------------------------------------------------- 91
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
C
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Calibrated Airspeed-----------------------------------------251
Cargo---------------------------------------------------------256
CAUTION-----------------------------------------------------549
Caution alerts-----------------------------------------------550
CDI---------------------------- 243, 262, 273, 281, 288, 562
Cell Movement----------------------------------------------311
Chart Not Available---------------------------------- 463, 483
Chart options----------------------------------------- 471, 490
Chart setup box-------------------------------------- 477, 494
ChartView--------------------------------------- 441, 462, 480
ChartView plan view---------------------------------------472
ChartView profile view-------------------------------------473
Closest Point-------------------------------------------------225
Cloud Tops-------------------------------------------- 309, 343
COM channel spacing--------------------------------------107
COM Frequency Box----------------------------------------100
Communication (COM) Frequency Box------------------- 52
Comparator Window---------------------------------------- 76
COM Tuning Failure-----------------------------------------131
Connext Data Request-------------------------------------336
Controls
PFD/MFD------------------------------------------20–21, 30
Softkeys------------------------------------------------ 22–25
Coolant temperature------------------------------------87, 91
Copy a Flight Plan------------------------------------------212
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)------------43–44, 65–69
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Garmin G950 Pilot’s Guide for the Vulcanair P68
AFCS
190-01325-01 Rev. A
Audio Panel----------------------------------------------------- 2
Audio Panel Fail-Safe Operation--------------------------131
Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B)-426
Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)----------------439
Automatic squelch------------------------------------------108
Auto-tuning, COM------------------------------------------103
Auto-tuning, NAV------------------------------------ 112, 116
Auto Zoom---------------------------------------------------138
Auxiliary Pages (AUX)--------------------------------------- 33
AUX - system status page-459, 461, 480, 481, 496, 497,
498, 500
Aviation Symbols------------------------------------- 150, 193
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Airport Directory--------------------------------------------578
Access Code-------------------------------------------------329
Activate a Flight Plan---------------------------------------212
Active database-------------------------------------- 574, 575
Active frequency------------------------------------- 100, 109
AC-U-KWIK------------------------------------------- 578, 579
ADS-B---------------------------------------------------------426
AHRS---------------------------------------- 14, 554, 557, 559
Air Data Computer (ADC)------------------------------------ 3
Airport
Information-----------------------------------------------170
Nearest----------------------------------------------------- 44
Airspace Alerts--------------------------------- 185, 186, 290
Airspeed indicator---------------------------------------52, 54
Airways
Collapsed--------------------------------------------------225
Expanded--------------------------------------------------225
Alerting system----------------------------------------------547
Alerts---------------------------------------------------------547
Aircraft-----------------------------------------------------550
Airspace---------------------------------------------------- 40
Audio voice------------------------------------------ 42, 565
Levels------------------------------------------------------549
Alerts Window------------------------------------------------ 75
Along Track Offset----------------------------------- 216, 217
ALT------------------------------------------------------------286
Altimeter--------------------------------------------------52, 56
Altitude
Buffer------------------------------------------------------- 41
Constraints------------------------------------------------232
Altitude constraints-----------------------------------------273
Annunciations
System------------------------------------------------ 11, 552
Test tone---------------------------------------------- 13, 548
Annunciation Window-------------------------------------- 53
Annunciator lights------------------------------------------124
Antenna Stabilization--------------------------------------373
Antenna Tilt--------------------------------------------------370
AOPA-------------------------------------------------- 578, 579
AOPA Airport Directory----- 328, 441, 499, 500, 501, 502
Approach-----------------------------------------------------596
Activating-------------------------------------------------247
Loading--------------------------------------- 209, 244, 246
Removing--------------------------------------------------247
Approach box-----------------------------------------------485
Approach channel----------------------------------- 209, 244
APR softkey------------------------------------------- 246, 254
Arrival Alerts-------------------------------------------------- 41
Arrival procedure------193, 207, 240, 242, 271, 273, 282
Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS)----- 3, 9,
------------------------------------------------------------ 14–15
Attitude Indicator----------------------------------------52, 55
Audio alerting system--------------------------------------548
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
A
I-1
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
INDEX
D
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Databases----------------------------------------------- 8, 9, 13
Database synchronization-------------------------- 579, 580
Database Synchronization---------------------------------573
Data entry------------------------------------------------ 29–30
Data link-------------------------------------------------------- 1
Datalink receiver troubleshooting------------------------543
Data logging-------------------------------------------------538
Date, time----------------------------------------------------- 39
Day/Night views-------------------------------------- 477, 494
Day view----------------------------------477, 478, 494, 495
DCLTR---------------------------------------------------------- 27
Dead Reckoning---------------------------------------------- 83
DEC FUEL softkey-------------------------------------------- 92
Decision Height (DH)---------------------------------------- 80
Declutter, Display-------------------------------------------- 84
Delete
Entire airway--------------------------------------- 214, 215
Entire procedure----------------------------------- 214, 215
Flight plan items-----------------------------------------213
Flight plans------------------------------------------------212
Individual waypoint------------------------------- 213, 214
Density Altitude---------------------------------------------253
Departure
Procedure------------------------------205, 219, 237, 239
Select------------------------------------237, 240, 244, 247
Time--------------------------------------------------------251
Digital audio entertainment---------------------------------- 4
Dilution of Precision (DOP)--------------------------------- 19
Direct-to-- 163, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 230, 231, 271,
273, 288
Display backup----------------------------------------------- 99
Display controls----------------------------------------- 20–27
DME Information--------------------------------------------- 64
Dual navigation database---------------------------------575
E
F
Failure
Input-------------------------------------------------------- 15
Field of View (SVS)------------------------------------------161
Flight ID----------------------------------------------- 118, 123
Flight Instruments-------------------------------------- 51–66
Flight plan
Storing-----------------------------------------------------596
Flight Plan
Closest point to reference------------------------------225
FliteCharts-------------------------------------------- 441, 482
FliteCharts®-------------------------------------------------441
FliteCharts cycle---------------------------------------------497
FliteCharts expiration--------------------------------------497
FliteCharts functions---------------------------------------482
FPA----------------------------------------------------- 232, 278
Frequency
Nearest----------------------------------------------------183
Frequency spacing------------------------------------------107
Fuel
Calculations------------------------------------------------ 92
Efficiency--------------------------------------------------253
Endurance-------------------------------------------------253
Flow--------------------------------------------------------- 87
Quantity---------------------------------------------------- 87
Remaining-------------------------------------------------253
Required---------------------------------------------------253
Statistics---------------------------------------------------253
Temperature----------------------------------------------- 87
Fuel on Board---------------------------------- 253, 256, 257
G
Gain-----------------------------------------------------------371
Garmin Connext Weather---------------------------------327
GDL 69/69A----------------------------------------------1, 294
GEA 71---------------------------------------------------------- 1
Geodetic Sea Level (GSL)--------------------- 386, 395, 404
Glidepath-----------------------------------------------------286
Glideslope----------------------------------------------------286
Glideslope Indicator----------------------------------------- 59
GPS receiver--------------------------------------------- 15–17
GPS Window-------------------------------------------------581
Ground Based Transceiver (GBT)-------------------------427
Ground Mapping--------------------------------------------376
GTX 33---------------------------------------------------------- 1
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Echo Tops----------------------------------------------------308
Emergency Frequency-------------------------