Garmin | G1000 NXi: Piper PA-46 M500 Meridian | Garmin G1000 NXi: Piper PA-46 M500 Meridian G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the Piper M500

Garmin G1000 NXi: Piper PA-46 M500 Meridian G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the Piper M500
Copyright © 2017 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 2785.02 or later for the G1000 NXi
Piper M500. Some differences in operation may be observed when comparing the information in this
manual to earlier or later software versions.
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Garmin®, G1000® NXi, WATCH®, FliteCharts®, and SafeTaxi® are registered trademarks of Garmin
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are trademarks of Garmin International, Inc. or its subsidiaries. These trademarks may not be used
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Stormscope® is a registered trademark of L-3 Communications. AC-U-KWIK® is a registered
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representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Under no circumstances including
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190–02380–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
the use or inability to use the software or related documentation, even if AOPA or an AOPA authorized
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jurisdictions do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for incidental or
consequential damages so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to licensee.
Printed in the U.S.A.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
WARNING, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for
maintaining separation from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data
from third party sources and cannot independently verify the accuracy of the information.
WARNING: Always refer to current aeronautical charts and NOTAMs for verification of
displayed aeronautical information. Displayed aeronautical data may not incorporate the
latest NOTAM information.
WARNING: Do not use geometric altitude for compliance with air traffic control altitude
requirements. The primary barometric altimeter must be used for compliance with all air
traffic control altitude regulations, requirements, instructions, and clearances.
WARNING: Do not use basemap information (land and water data) as the sole means of
navigation. Basemap data is intended only to supplement other approved navigation data
sources and should be considered only an aid to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all
of the traffic within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception,
and/or inaccurate information from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is
not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around
areas of hazardous weather. Information contained within data link weather products may
not accurately depict current weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of
the weather information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays
inherent in gathering and processing weather data for data link transmission, the weather
information shown by the data link weather product may be older than the indicated
weather product age.
WARNING: The displayed minimum safe altitude (MSAs) are only advisory in nature and
should not be relied upon as the sole source of obstacle and terrain avoidance information.
Always refer to current aeronautical charts for appropriate minimum clearance altitudes.
WARNING: Always obtain qualified instruction prior to operational use of this equipment.
WARNING: Do not use GPS to navigate to any active waypoint identified as a ‘NON WGS84
WPT’ by a system message. ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ waypoints are derived from an unknown
map reference datum that may be incompatible with the map reference datum used by GPS
(known as WGS84) and may be positioned in error as displayed.
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WARNING, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: When using the autopilot to fly an approach with vertical guidance, the
autopilot will not level the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the altitude
preselect.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance
maneuvering. The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories
and does not under any circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see
and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Because of variation in the earth’s magnetic field, do not rely on the accuracy of
attitude and heading indications in the following geographic areas: North of 72° North
latitude at all longitudes; South of 70° South latitude at all longitudes; North of 65° North
latitude between longitude 75° W and 120° W. (Northern Canada); North of 70° North
latitude between longitude 70° W and 128° W. (Northern Canada); North of 70° North
latitude between longitude 85° E and 114° E. (Northern Russia); South of 55° South latitude
between longitude 120° E and 165° E. (Region south of Australia and New Zealand).
WARNING: Do not rely on information from a lightning detection system display as the sole
basis for hazardous weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the
system to display inaccurate or incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the
lightning detection system manufacturer for detailed information about the system.
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and
traffic avoidance. Garmin SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may
not provide either the accuracy or reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan
maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the Garmin SVT
display or may appear as a partial symbol.
WARNING: Do not use the Garmin SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining
the proximity of the aircraft to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path
angle during landing.
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or
objects are within the MPEL boundary.
WARNING: Always position the weather radar gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the
actual intensity of precipitation. Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation
intensity to be displayed as a color not representative of the true intensity.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
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WARNING, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain or obstacle avoidance. TAWS is
intended only to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not use SurfaceWatch™ information as the primary method of flight
guidance during airborne or ground operations. SurfaceWatch does not have NOTAM or ATIS
information regarding the current active runway, condition, or information about the position
of hold lines.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not
operate properly with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height
above mean sea level, or the standard pressure setting, as applicable.
CAUTION: Do not clean display surfaces with abrasive cloths or cleaners containing
ammonia. They will harm the anti-reflective coating.
CAUTION: Repairs should only be made by an authorized Garmin service center.
Unauthorized repairs or modifications could void both the warranty and affect the
airworthiness of the aircraft.
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
information. Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service
Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE: All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen images of the
system panel and displays, are subject to change and may not reflect the most current system
and aviation databases. Depictions of equipment may differ slightly from the actual
equipment.
NOTE: The United States government operates the Global Positioning System and is solely
responsible for its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which
could affect the accuracy and performance of all GPS equipment. Portions of the system
utilize GPS as a precision electronic NAVigation AID (NAVAID). Therefore, as with all
NAVAIDs, information presented by the system can be misused or misinterpreted and,
therefore, become unsafe.
NOTE: This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the
following two conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this
device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operation.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
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WARNING, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: Interference from GPS repeaters operating inside nearby hangars can cause an
intermittent loss of attitude and heading displays while the aircraft is on the ground. Moving
the aircraft more than 100 yards away from the source of the interference should alleviate
the condition.
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the flight displays to appear dim or blank.
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals known to the
State of California to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This notice is being
provided in accordance with California’s Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would
like additional information, please refer to our web site at www.garmin.com/prop65.
NOTE: Operating the system in the vicinity of metal buildings, metal structures, or
electromagnetic fields can cause sensor differences that may result in nuisance miscompare
annunciations during start up, shut down, or while taxiing. If one or more of the sensed
values are unavailable, the annunciation indicates no comparison is possible.
NOTE: The system responds to a terminal procedure based on data coded within that
procedure in the Navigation Database. Differences in system operation may be observed
among similar types of procedures due to differences in the Navigation Database coding
specific to each procedure.
NOTE: The FAA has asked Garmin to remind pilots who fly with Garmin database-dependent
avionics of the following:
• It is the pilot’s responsibility to remain familiar with all FAA regulatory and advisory
guidance and information related to the use of databases in the National Airspace System.
• Garmin equipment will only recognize and use databases that are obtained from Garmin or
Jeppesen. Databases obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen that have a Type 2 Letter of
Authorization (LOA) from the FAA are assured compliance with all data quality
requirements (DQRs). A copy of the Type 2 LOA is available for each applicable database
and can be viewed at http://fly.garmin.com by selecting ‘Aviation Database Declarations.’
• Use of a current Garmin or Jeppesen database in your Garmin equipment is required for
compliance with established FAA regulatory guidance, but does not constitute
authorization to fly any and all terminal procedures that may be presented by the system. It
is the pilot’s responsibility to operate in accordance with established AFM(S) and regulatory
guidance or limitations as applicable to the pilot, the aircraft, and installed equipment.
NOTE: The pilot/operator must review and be familiar with Garmin’s database exclusion list
as discussed in SAIB CE-14-04 to determine what data may be incomplete. The database
exclusion list can be viewed at www.flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Database Exclusions List.’
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
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WARNING, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: The pilot/operator must have access to Garmin and Jeppesen database alerts and
consider their impact on the intended aircraft operation. The database alerts can be viewed
at www.flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Aviation Database Alerts.’
NOTE: If the pilot/operator wants or needs to adjust the database, contact Garmin Product
Support.
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database
information. These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure;
incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles and fixes; or any other displayed item used for
navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go to FlyGarmin.com and select
‘Aviation Data Error Report’.
NOTE: The system supports approval of AC 120-76C Hardware Class 3, Software Type B
Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) electronic aeronautical chart applications. Possible additional
requirements may make a secondary source (traditional paper or additional electronic display)
necessary onboard the aircraft. If the secondary source is a Portable Electronic Device (PED),
its use must be consistent with guidance in AC 120-76C.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of
89º South latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the
system’s ability to process the data representing the affected areas.
NOTE: When using Stormscope, there are several atmospheric phenomena in addition to
nearby thunderstorms that can cause isolated discharge points in the strike display mode.
However, clusters of two or more discharge points in the strike display mode do indicate
thunderstorm activity if these points reappear after the screen has been cleared.
NOTE: Operate G1000NXi system power through at least one cycle in a period of four days
of continuous operation to avoid an autonomous system reboot.
NOTE: The navigation databases used in Garmin navigation systems contain Special
Procedures. Prior to flying these procedures, pilots must have specific FAA authorization,
training, and possession of the corresponding current, and legitimately-sourced chart
(approach plate, etc.). Inclusion of the Special Procedure in the navigation database DOES
NOT imply specific FAA authorization to fly the procedure.
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WARNING, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
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SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
BY USING THE DEVICE, COMPONENT OR SYSTEM MANUFACTURED OR SOLD BY GARMIN
(“THE GARMIN PRODUCT”), YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF
THE FOLLOWING SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT. PLEASE READ THIS AGREEMENT
CAREFULLY. Garmin Ltd. and its subsidiaries (“Garmin”) grants you a limited license to use the
software embedded in the Garmin Product (the “Software”) in binary executable form in the normal
operation of the Garmin Product. Title, ownership rights, and intellectual property rights in and to the
Software remain with Garmin and/or its third-party providers. You acknowledge that the Software is
the property of Garmin and/or its third-party providers and is protected under the United States of
America copyright laws and international copyright treaties. You further acknowledge that the
structure, organization, and code of the Software are valuable trade secrets of Garmin and/or its thirdparty providers and that the Software in source code form remains a valuable trade secret of Garmin
and/or its third-party providers. You agree not to reproduce, decompile, disassemble, modify, reverse
assemble, reverse engineer, or reduce to human readable form the Software or any part thereof or
create any derivative works based on the Software. You agree not to export or re-export the Software to
any country in violation of the export control laws of the United States of America.
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SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
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RECORD OF REVISIONS
Record of Revisions
Part Number
Revision
Date
Page
Range
190–02380-00
A
12/15/17
All
190–02380–00 Rev. A
Description
Production Release with GDU Software
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
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RECORD OF REVISIONS
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 System Description............................
Line Replaceable Units (LRU).....................
1.2 System Controls.................................
PFD/MFD Controls ...................................
PFD/MFD Control Unit..............................
Secure Digital Cards..................................
1
1
4
4
6
8
1.3 System Operation.............................. 10
System Power-up......................................
Normal Operation.....................................
Reversionary Mode...................................
System Annunciations...............................
System Status...........................................
AHRS Operation.......................................
GPS Receiver Operation............................
10
11
11
12
14
15
17
1.4 Accessing System Functionality........ 23
Softkey Function.......................................
Menus......................................................
MFD Page Groups.....................................
Split Screen Functionality..........................
System Settings........................................
System Utilities.........................................
23
31
32
35
37
47
1.5 Display Backlighting.......................... 52
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 Overview............................................ 55
2.2 Flight Instruments.............................. 58
Attitude Indicator.....................................
Airspeed Indicator.....................................
Altimeter..................................................
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI).....................
Vertical Deviation......................................
Vertical Navigation (VNV) Indications.........
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)...............
GPS CDI Scaling (FMS Navigation Source).
OBS Mode................................................
Turn Rate Indicator ..................................
Bearing Pointers and Information
Windows..................................................
DME Information Window........................
58
60
61
65
66
68
69
73
75
78
79
80
81
2.3 Supplemental Flight Data.................. 82
Generic Timer...........................................
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Temperature Displays................................
Wind Data................................................
82
83
2.4 PFD Annunciations and Alerting
Functions............................................ 84
Altitude Alerting.......................................
Low Altitude Annunciation.......................
Marker Beacon Annunciations..................
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision
Height Alerting.........................................
84
84
84
85
2.5 Garmin Synthetic Vision Technology
(SVT).................................................... 87
Garmin SVT (Synthetic Vision Technology).
SVT Operation..........................................
SVT Features.............................................
87
88
90
2.6 Abnormal Operations........................101
Abnormal GPS Conditions........................
Comparator Annunciations.......................
Reversionary Sensor Annunciations...........
SVT Troubleshooting.................................
SVT in Reversionary Mode.........................
Unusual Attitudes.....................................
SVT Unusual Attitudes..............................
101
102
103
104
104
104
105
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.1 Engine Display....................................108
3.2 EIS Display (Reversionary Mode)......112
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 Overview............................................113
Overview.................................................. 113
MFD/PFD Control Unit.............................. 117
4.2 COM Operation..................................119
COM Tuning Boxes...................................
COM Transceiver Manual Tuning...............
Auto-Tuning the COM Frequency..............
Auto-tuning from the MFD.......................
Frequency Spacing....................................
119
120
120
121
123
4.3 NAV Operation...................................125
NAV Tuning Boxes.....................................
NAV Radio Selection and Activation..........
NAV Receiver Manual Tuning....................
Auto-Tuning a NAV Frequency from the
MFD.........................................................
125
126
126
127
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Auto-Tuning NAV Frequencies on
Approach Activation.................................
Marker Beacon Receiver (Optional)...........
ADF/DME Tuning......................................
ADF Tuning...............................................
Selecting ADF Receiver Mode....................
DME Tuning..............................................
129
130
131
131
133
134
4.4 Mode S Transponder..........................135
Transponder Controls................................
Transponder Mode Selection.....................
Entering a Transponder Code....................
Ident Function..........................................
135
136
138
139
4.5 Additional Audio Panel Functions....141
Power-Up.................................................
Mono/Stereo Headsets..............................
Speaker....................................................
Intercom...................................................
Clearance Recorder and Player..................
Split-COM Operation................................
Entertainment Inputs................................
Bluetooth®...............................................
141
141
141
141
144
145
145
146
4.6 Audio Panel Preflight Procedure.......148
4.7 Abnormal Operation..........................149
Stuck Microphone....................................
COM Tuning Failure..................................
Audio Panel Fail-Safe Operation................
Reversionary Mode...................................
149
149
149
149
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
5.1 Introduction........................................151
Navigation Status Box and Data Bar.......... 153
5.2 Using Map Displays............................156
Map Orientation.......................................
Map Range...............................................
Map Panning............................................
Measuring Bearing and Distance...............
Topography..............................................
Map Symbols............................................
Airways....................................................
Additional Navigation Map Items..............
156
159
161
164
165
168
173
175
5.3 Waypoints...........................................179
Airports.................................................... 180
Intersections............................................. 188
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NDB..........................................................
VOR..........................................................
VRP..........................................................
User Waypoints.........................................
190
192
195
197
5.4 Airspaces.............................................204
5.5 Direct-To Navigation..........................210
5.6 Flight Planning...................................216
Flight Plan Creation..................................
Flight Plan Import/Export...........................
Adding Airways to a Flight Plan................
Adding Procedures to a Stored Flight Plan.
Active Flight Plan......................................
Along Track Offsets...................................
Parallel Track.............................................
Flight Plan Views.......................................
Closest Point of FPL..................................
User-Defined Holding Patterns..................
217
221
231
233
244
247
248
251
254
255
5.7 Vertical Navigation............................261
Altitude Constraints.................................. 263
Vertical Situation Display (VSD)................. 267
5.8 Procedures..........................................272
Departures................................................ 274
Arrivals .................................................... 277
Approaches.............................................. 279
5.9 Weight and Fuel Planning.................291
Weight Warning Conditions...................... 291
5.10 Trip Planning.......................................294
Trip Planning............................................. 294
5.11 Abnormal Operation..........................298
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 Overview............................................301
6.2 Data Link Weather.............................302
Activating Data Link Weather Services.......
Weather Product Age...............................
Displaying Data Link Weather Products.....
Weather Data Link (XM) Page Softkeys ....
Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Softkeys .
CONNEXT DATA REQUESTS......................
Weather Product Overview.......................
FIS-B Weather Status................................
Abnormal Operations for Garmin Connext
Weather...................................................
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307
310
311
314
321
324
363
365
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6.3 Stormscope.........................................367
Using The Stormscope Page...................... 367
Setting Up Stormscope On The Navigation
Map......................................................... 369
Cell And Strike On The Navigation Map.... 370
6.4 Airborne Weather Radar...................372
System Description...................................
Principles of Pulsed Airborne Weather
Radar........................................................
NEXRAD and Airborne Weather Radar......
Antenna Beam Illumination.......................
Safe Operating Distance...........................
Basic Antenna Tilt Setup...........................
Weather Mapping and Interpretation........
Ground Mapping and Interpretation.........
Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation
Map Page.................................................
System Status...........................................
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL
SYSTEM
372
373
373
376
377
378
388
7.1 AFCS Overview...................................451
389
391
394
399
399
400
403
406
407
408
411
6.6 TIS........................................................414
Traffic Information Service (TIS).................
Displaying Traffic Data..............................
Traffic Map Page.......................................
TIS Alerts..................................................
System Status...........................................
414
415
417
418
420
6.7 TAS/TCAS I Traffic...............................423
Theory of Operation.................................
System Test...............................................
Operation.................................................
Traffic Map Page.......................................
System Status...........................................
423
427
428
429
432
6.8 ADS-B Traffic.......................................434
ADS-B System Overview............................ 434
ADS-B with TAS/TCAS I............................. 436
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436
439
440
441
447
372
6.5 Terrain Displays..................................393
Relative Terrain Symbology........................
Wire Obstacle Information and Alerting....
Terrain Page..............................................
Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Terrain......
Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B Alerting Displays.
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance...........
Inhibiting FLTA Alerting.............................
Additional TAWS-B Alerting......................
System Status...........................................
Conflict Situational Awareness and
Alerting....................................................
Airborne and Surface Applications............
Traffic Description.....................................
Operation.................................................
ADS-B System Status................................
AFCS Control Unit.................................... 451
Additional AFCS Controls......................... 452
Basic Autopilot Operation......................... 453
7.2 Flight Director Operation..................455
AFCS Status Box....................................... 455
Flight Director Modes............................... 456
Command Bars......................................... 457
7.3 AFCS Modes........................................459
Vertical Modes..........................................
Pitch Hold Mode.......................................
Selected Altitude Capture Mode (ALTS).....
Altitude Hold Mode..................................
Vertical Speed Mode.................................
Flight Level Change Mode........................
Lateral Modes...........................................
Roll Hold Mode (ROL)...............................
Low Bank Mode.......................................
Heading Select Mode (HDG).....................
Navigation Modes (FMS, VOR, LOC)..........
Combination Modes (VNV, APR, NAV, BC,
GA)..........................................................
Vertical Navigation Modes (VPTH, ALTV)....
Vertical Path Tracking Mode......................
VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode (ALTV)
Glidepath Mode (GP)................................
Glideslope Mode (GS)...............................
Approach Modes (FMS, VAPP, LOC)..........
Backcourse Mode (BC)..............................
Takeoff (TO) and Go Around (GA) Modes..
459
459
460
461
463
464
466
466
467
468
469
471
473
473
477
478
480
482
483
485
7.4 Autopilot and Yaw Damper
Operation...........................................487
Pitch Axis and Trim.................................... 487
Roll Axis.................................................... 487
Yaw Axis................................................... 487
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Flight Control...........................................
Engagement.............................................
Control Wheel Steering............................
Disengagement........................................
487
488
488
488
7.5 AFCS Annunciations and Alerts........490
AFCS Alerts..............................................
Overspeed Protection................................
Underspeed Protection.............................
Altitude Critical Modes (ALT, GS, GP, TO,
GA, FLC)...................................................
Non Altitude Critical Modes (VS, VNAV,
IAS)..........................................................
Level Mode...............................................
490
491
492
492
493
494
7.6 Abnormal Operation..........................495
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.1 Overview............................................497
8.2 SafeTaxi...............................................499
8.3 Charts..................................................501
Charts......................................................
ChartView................................................
Chart Options...........................................
FliteCharts................................................
Airport Directory.......................................
IFR/VFR Charts..........................................
501
501
507
512
513
514
8.4 Database Cycle Number and
Revisions.............................................516
8.5 SiriusXM Radio Entertainment..........518
Using SiriusXM Radio................................
Active Channel and Channel List...............
Category..................................................
Presets......................................................
519
519
520
520
8.6 Satellite Telephone and SMS
Messaging..........................................522
Disable/Enable Iridium Transceiver.............
Telephone Communication.......................
Contacts...................................................
Incoming Calls..........................................
Outgoing Calls..........................................
Placing The Cockpit Phone on Hold..........
Text Messaging (SMS)...............................
Viewing a Text Message When Received...
Reply to a Text Message............................
xiv
522
523
524
525
526
529
529
530
532
Sending a Text Message............................
Predefined Text Messages.........................
Text Message Boxes..................................
Managing Text Messages..........................
532
534
536
538
8.7 Flight Data Logging...........................541
8.8 Connext Setup....................................544
8.9 SurfaceWatch.....................................546
SurfaceWatch...........................................
Information Box........................................
Alerts........................................................
Takeoff Alerts...........................................
Landing Alerts..........................................
SurfaceWatch Setup.................................
546
546
547
548
549
550
8.10 Electronic Stability and Protection
(ESP)....................................................554
Roll Engagement......................................
Pitch Engagement.....................................
Angle of Attack Protection........................
High Airspeed Protection..........................
555
556
557
558
8.11 Electronic Checklists...........................559
8.12 Abnormal Operation..........................561
Unusual Attitudes..................................... 561
GDL 69A / GDL 69A SiriusXM Data Link
Receiver Troubleshooting.......................... 561
APPENDICES
Annunciations and Alerts........................ 563
CAS Message Prioritization.......................
CAS Messages..........................................
System Message Annunciations................
System Messages......................................
563
567
570
571
Database Management............................ 597
Loading Updated Databases..................... 597
Magnetic Field Variation Database Update 606
Aviation Terms and Acronyms................. 609
Frequently Asked Questions....................629
Map Symbols............................................ 633
INDEX
Index......................................................... I-1
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
This section provides an overview of the G1000 NXi Integrated Avionics System as installed in the
Piper M500. The system presents flight instrumentation, position, navigation, communication, and
identification information to the pilot through large-format displays.
LINE REPLACEABLE UNITS (LRU)
The system consists of the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
•
GDU 1050 (2) – Each unit is configured as a PFD that features a 10 inch backlit LED screens with
high resolution. The unit installed on the left/pilot side is designated as PFD1, and the one installed
on the right/copilot side is designated as PFD2. These units communicate with each other and the
MFD through a High-Speed Data Bus (HSDB) connection.
•
GDU 1250A (1) – Features a 12-inch backlit LED screen with high resolution and is configured as
an MFD. This unit is linked to both PFDs and GIAs via HSDB connection.
•
GIA 64W (2) – Functions as the main communication hub, linking LRUs to the PFD and MFD.
Each GIA contains a GPS SBAS receiver, VHF COM/NAV/GS receivers, a flight director (FD) and
system integration microprocessors. Each GIA is paired with the PFD and MFD via an HSDB
connection. The GIAs are not paired together and do not communicate with each other directly.
•
GTP 59 (2) – Provides Outside Air Temperature (OAT) data to the on-side GDC.
•
GDC 72 (2) – Processes data from the pitot/static system as well as the OAT probe. This unit
provides pressure altitude, airspeed, vertical speed and OAT information to the system, and
communicates with both GIAs, the on-side PFD, the MFD (GDC#2 only), and the on-side GRS,
using an ARINC 429 digital interface. The GDC is designed to operate in Reduced Vertical
Separation Minimum (RVSM) airspace.
•
GRS 79 (2) – Provides aircraft attitude and heading information via ARINC 429 to both the on-side
PFD, the MFD (GRS#2 only), and both GIAs. The GRS contains advanced sensors (including
accelerometers and rate sensors) and interfaces with the on-side GMU to obtain magnetic field
information, with the GDC to obtain air data, and with both GIAs to obtain GPS information. AHRS
modes of operation are discussed later in this document.
•
GEA 71B (1) – Receives and processes signals from the engine and airframe sensors. This unit
communicates with both GIAs using an RS-485 digital interface.
•
GMU 44 (2) – Measures local magnetic field. Data is sent to the GSU 75 for processing to determine
aircraft magnetic heading. This unit receives power directly from the GSU 75 and communicates
with the GSU 75 using an RS-485 digital interface.
•
GMA 350C (1) – Integrates NAV/COM digital audio, intercom system and marker beacon controls.
This unit features an all-digital audio panel with Bluetooth® capability, and communicates with both
GIAs, using an RS-232 digital interface.
•
GCU 476 (1) – The Control Unit provides MFD/PFD and radio tuning control through an RS-232
digital interface.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
•
GMC 710 (1) – Provides the controls for the Garmin AFCS through an RS-232 digital interface
allowing communication with PFD1 and the MFD.
•
GTX 335R (1)/ GTX 345R (Alternate) (1)/ GTX 33D w/ES (Optional as #2) – The GTX 335R solidstate transponder provides Modes A, C, S and ADS-B Out capability. As an alternative, the GTX
345R provides the same capabilities, plus an ADS-B In/Out capability. The optional GTX 33
Diversity with Extended Squitter may be installed in addition to the GTX 335R/GTX 345R. The
transponder can be controlled from the PFD, and it communicates with the both GIAs through an
RS-232 digital interface.
•
GSR 56 (1) (Optional) – The Iridium Transceiver provides voice communication by means of pilot
and copilot headsets. The unit can also send and receive data over the Iridium satellite network. The
GSR is connected to the #2 GIA with an RS-232 digital interface.
•
Flight Stream 510 (1) (Optional) – Provides wireless Bluetooth® connectivity between a compatible
tablet/mobile device and the avionics system.
•
GWX 68 (1) (Optional) – Provides airborne weather and ground mapped radar data to the MFD via
HSDB connection.
•
GDL 69A SXM (1) (Optional) – A satellite radio receiver that provides data link weather
information to the MFD and PFD map as well as digital audio entertainment. The GDL 69A SXM
communicates with the MFD via an HSDB connection. Subscriptions to the SiriusXM Weather or
SiriusXM Satellite Radio services are required to enable the GDL 69A SXM capability.
•
GTS 800 (1) (Optional) – The GTS 800 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) uses active interrogations of
Mode S and Mode C transponders to provide traffic information to the pilot independent of the air
traffic control system.
The Garmin Automated Flight Control System (AFCS) provides the flight director (FD), autopilot
(AP), and yaw damper (YD) functions of the system. See the AFCS Section for more information.
Figure 1-1 shows interactions between the LRUs and optional equipment. The system is capable of
interfacing with the following optional equipment:
•
GTS 800 Traffic Advisory System
•
Flight Stream 510 Wireless Bluetooth® Gateway
•
GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver
•
GDL 69A SXM Data Link Receiver
•
KN 63 DME
•
RA 3504 ADF
•
WX-500 Lightning Detection
NOTE: For information on non-Garmin equipment, consult the applicable optional interface
user’s guide. This document assumes that the reader is already familiar with the operation of
this additional equipment.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GMC 710
(AFCS
Controller)
GCU 476
(Display
Controller)
#1
GDU 1050
(PFD1)
GDU 1250A
(MFD)
GDL 69A SXM
(SiriusXM
Weather Datalink)
FS 510
Wireless
Bluetooth
Gateway
GTS 800
(TAS)
#2
GDU 1050
(PFD2)
GWX 68
(Weather Radar)
GMA 350C
(Audio Panel)
#1 GMU 44
(Magnetometer)
#1 GIA 64W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
#1 GRS 79
(Attitude & Heading)
VHF COM
GPS/SBAS
#2 GMU 44
(Magnetometer)
#2 GIA 64W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
#2 GRS 79
(Attitude & Heading)
#1 GDC 72
(Air Data
Computer)
#2 GDC 72
(Air Data
Computer)
#1 GTP 59
OAT Probe
#2 GTP 59
OAT Probe
VHF COM
GPS/SBAS
GSA 81 (3)
(Pitch Trim, Roll,
Yaw Servos)
VOR/LOC
G/S
VOR/LOC
G/S
GSA 80 (1)
(High Speed
Servo)
AFCS Mode
Logic
Flight
Director
AFCS Mode
Logic
Flight
Director
GEA 71B
(Engine &
Airframe)
#1 GTX 335R
or
#2 GTX 33D ES
(Transponder)
#1 GTX 345R
(Transponders)
WX-500
(Lightning
Detection)
Garmin Equipment
Non-Garmin
Equipment
Optional
Garmin
Equipment
GSR 56
(Iridium
Transceiver)
KN-63
(DME)
RA-3504
(ADF)
Optional
Non-Garmin
Equipment
FigureFigure
1-1 System
Configuration)
1-1 System(LRU
(LRU Configuration)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.2 SYSTEM CONTROLS
NOTE: The Audio Panel and AFCS controls are described in the Audio & CNS and AFCS
sections respectively.
The system controls are located on the PFD and MFD bezels and audio panel. The controls for the
PFD and MFD are discussed within the following pages of this section.
PFD/MFD CONTROLS
2
1
3
5
4
6
7
8
9
17
10
13
11
14
12
15
16
Figure 1-2 PFD/MFD Controls
Figure 1-2 PFD/MFD Controls
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1
NAV VOL/ID Knob Turn to control NAV audio volume (shown in the NAV Frequency Box as
a percentage). Press to toggle the Morse code identifier audio ON/OFF.
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
3
NAV Knob Turn to tune NAV receiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for
kHz) Press to toggle cyan tuning box between NAV1 and NAV2.
4
Heading Knob Turn to manually select a heading. When operating in Heading Select mode,
this knob provides the heading reference to the flight director. Press to display a digital
heading momentarily to the left of the HSI and synchronize the Selected Heading to the
current heading.
5
Joystick Turn to change map range. Press to activate Map Pointer for map panning.
6
CRS/BARO Knob Turn large knob for altimeter barometric pressure setting Turn the small
knob to set the pilot-selected course on the HSI when the VOR1, VOR2, or OBS/SUSP mode is
selected. Pressing this knob centers the CDI on the currently selected VOR. The pilot-selected
course provides course reference to the pilot-side flight director when operating in Navigation
and Approach modes. Press to re-center the CDI and return course pointer directly TO
bearing of active waypoint/station.
7
COM Knob Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz;
small knob for kHz). Press to switch the tuning box (cyan box) between COM1 and COM2.
The selected COM (green) is controlled with the MIC Key (Audio Panel).
8
COM Frequency Transfer Key (EMERG) Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies.
Press and hold two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically into
the active frequency field.
9
COM VOL/SQ Knob Turn to control COM audio volume level (shown as a percentage in the
COM Frequency Box). Press to turn the COM automatic squelch ON/OFF.
10
Direct-to Key Activates the direct-to function and allows the user to enter a destination
waypoint and establish a direct course to the selected destination (specified by identifier,
chosen from the active route).
11
FPL Key Displays the active Flight Plan Page for creating and editing the active flight plan.
12
CLR Key Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus. Press and hold to display the
MFD Navigation Map Page (MFD only).
13
MENU Key Displays a context-sensitive list of options for accessing additional features or
making setting changes.
14
PROC Key Gives access to IFR Departure Procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs) and
Instrument Approach Procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan or selected airport.
15
ENT Key Validates/confirms a menu selection or data entry.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
16
FMS Knob Press to turn the selection cursor ON/OFF.
Data Entry: With cursor ON, turn to enter data in the highlighted field (large knob moves
cursor location; small knob selects character for highlighted cursor location).
Scrolling: When a list of information is too long for the window/box, a scroll bar appears,
indicating more items to view. With cursor ON, turn large knob to scroll through the list.
Page Selection: Turn knob on MFD to select the page to view (large knob selects a page
group; small knob selects a specific page from the group).
17
ALT Knob Sets the selected altitude in the Selected Altitude Box (the large knob selects the
thousands, the small knob selects the hundreds). In addition to providing the standard system
altitude alerter function, selected altitude provides an altitude setting for the Altitude
Capture/Hold mode of the AFCS.
PFD/MFD CONTROL UNIT
The PFD/MFD Control Unit is a pedestal-mounted user interface allowing for ease of data entry,
PFD/MFD operation, and NAV/COM tuning. Many procedures in this Pilot’s Guide can be performed
using the PFD/MFD Control Unit rather than the display bezel controls. Indicators above the PFD,
MFD, NAV, and COM Keys are illuminated when their respective control mode(s) are selected. The
unit is in MFD control mode by default on system power-up.
NAV/COM radio tuning can be accomplished in either PFD or MFD control mode. The appropriate
frequency box on the selected display is outlined by a cyan selection box, which flashes for a few
seconds to indicate Control Unit activity (refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more
information about NAV/COM tuning). Selection of a different display control or radio tuning mode
results in cancelation of the previous radio tuning mode.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1
2
3
4
5
19
18
17
16
15
6
14
13
7
12
8
11
10
9
1-3 GCU
476MFD/PFD
MFD/PFD Control
Unit Unit
FigureFigure
1-3 GCU
476
Control
1
FPL Key Displays flight plan information.
2
Direct-to Key Activates the direct-to function and allows the user to enter a destination
waypoint and establish a direct course to the selected destination (specified by identifier,
chosen from the active route).
3
Menu Key Displays a context-sensitive list of options for accessing additional features or
making setting changes.
4
PROC Key Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs), and
approach procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan or selected airport.
5
Joystick Turn to change map range. Press to activate Map Pointer for map panning.
6
Alphanumeric Keys Allow data entry (rather than using the FMS Knob to select characters/
numbers).
7
BKSP Key Moves cursor back one character space and removes last character entered.
8
SPC Key Adds a space character.
9
ENT Key Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
10
CLR Key Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus. Press and hold to display the
MFD Navigation Map Page (MFD only).
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7
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
11
SEL Key Arrows move cyan Softkey Selection Box on selected display. Press the center to
activate the selected softkey.
12
Decimal Key Enters a decimal point character.
13
Plus-Minus (±) Key Toggles entry between the + and - characters.
14
NAV Key Selects/deselects NAV radio tuning mode on the PFD/MFD Control Unit.
15
COM Key Selects/deselects COM radio tuning mode on the PFD/MFD Control Unit..
16
COM Frequency Transfer Key (EMERG) Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies.
Press and hold two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically into
the active frequency field.
17
PFD Key When selected, the PFD/MFD Control Unit can be used to access PFD functions.
18
MFD Key When selected, the PFD/MFD Control Unit can be used to access MFD functions
(default display control mode).
19
FMS/NAV-COM Knob NAV/COM Tuning Modes: Acts as the NAV or COM Knob. PFD/MFD
Control Modes: Acts as the FMS Knob.
SECURE DIGITAL CARDS
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for instructions on updating the aviation databases.
NOTE: Ensure that the system is powered off before inserting the SD card.
The GDU data card slots use Secure Digital (SD) cards and are located on the top right portion of the
display bezels. Each display bezel is equipped with two SD card slots. SD cards are used system software
updates. Also, flight plans may be imported or exported from an SD card in the MFD.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SD Card Slots
Figure 1-3 PFD/MFD Display Bezel SD Card Slots
Figure 1-4 PFD/MFD Display Bezel SD Card Slots
Inserting and Removing an SD card:
Insert the SD card in the SD card slot, pushing the card in until the spring latch
engages. The front of the card should remain flush with the face of the display bezel.
To remove, gently press on the SD card to release the spring latch and eject the card.
190–02380–00 Rev. A
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.3 SYSTEM OPERATION
This section discusses powering up the system, normal and reversionary display operation,
annunciations, system status, air data and attitude heading reference system (AHRS) modes of operation,
and GPS receiver operation.
SYSTEM POWER-UP
NOTE: See the Appendices
annunciations and alerts.
for
additional
information
regarding
system-specific
NOTE: See the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for specific procedures concerning avionics
power application and emergency power supply operation.
The system is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical
busses. The PFD, MFD, and supporting sub-systems include both power-on and continuous built-in
test features that exercise the processor, RAM, ROM, and external inputs and outputs to provide safe
operation.
When powering up the system, test annunciations are displayed and key annunciator lights also
become momentarily illuminated on the audio panel and the display bezels. On the PFD, the AHRS
begins to initialize and an alignment message is displayed. All system annunciations should disappear
typically within one minute of power-up.
When the MFD powers up, the MFD Power-up Screen displays the following information:
•
System version
•
Land database name and version
•
Safe Taxi database name and effective dates
•
Terrain database name and version
•
Obstacle database name and effective dates
•
Navigation database name and effective dates
•
Airport Directory name and effective dates
•
FliteCharts/ChartView database information
•
IFR/VFR charts database information
•
Crew Profile
•
Copyright
•
Checklist File
Current database information includes the valid operating dates, cycle number and database type.
When this information has been reviewed for currency (to ensure that no databases have expired), the
pilot is prompted to continue.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
NORMAL OPERATION
NOTE: In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be adjusted from the PFD. In
reversionary mode, it can be adjusted from the remaining display. (See the Display
Backlighting chapter for more information)
PFD
In normal mode, the PFD presents graphical flight instrumentation (attitude, heading, airspeed,
altitude and vertical speed), thereby replacing the traditional flight instrument cluster. The PFD also
offers control for COM and NAV frequency selection.
MFD
In normal mode, the right portion of the MFD displays a full-color moving map with navigation
information, while the left portion of the MFD is dedicated to the Engine Indication System (EIS).
PFD2
PFD1
MFD
Figure 1-5 Normal Operation
REVERSIONARY MODE
NOTE: The system alerts the pilot when backup paths are utilized by the LRUs. Refer to the
Appendices for further information regarding system-specific alerts.
Reversionary mode is a mode of operation in which all important flight information is presented
identically on at least one of the remaining displays. Transition to reversionary mode should be
straightforward for the pilot, for flight parameters are presented in the same format as in normal mode.
In the event of an MFD failure, the system automatically switches to reversionary (backup) mode. In
reversionary mode, all important flight information is presented on the remaining display(s) in the same
format as in normal operating mode:
•
PFD1 failure — MFD and PFD2 remain in normal mode.
•
MFD failure – Both PFDs automatically switch to reversionary mode.
•
PFD2 failure – MFD and PFD1 remain in normal mode.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Figure
1-6 Reversionary
Mode
Figure 1-11
Reversionary Mode
Reversionary mode can be activated manually by pressing a dedicated reversionary switch installed in
the cockpit. Pressing this switch again deactivates reversionary mode.
Each display can be configured to operate in reversionary mode, as follows:
•
PFD1 – By pressing the left reversionary switch.
•
MFD – By pressing the left or right reversionary switch.
•
PFD2 – By pressing the right reversionary switch.
Should the connection between a PFD and the GIA functions become inoperative, the GIA can no
longer communicate with the PFD (refer to Figure 1-1). As a result, the NAV and COM functions
provided to the failed PFD or MFD by the GIA are flagged as invalid (red “X”) on the remaining PFD.
The system reverts to backup paths for the AHRS, ADC, Engine/Airframe Unit, and Transponder, as
required. The change to backup paths is completely automated for all LRUs and no pilot action is
required.
1-8 InoperativeInput
Input (NAV1
Shown)
FigureFigure
1-7 Inoperative
(NAV1
Shown)
SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
NOTE: Upon power-up, certain windows remain invalid as system equipment begins to
initialize. All windows should be operational within one minute of power-up. If any window
continues to remain flagged, the system should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized repair
facility.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red or amber “X” is typically displayed on windows
associated with the failed data. Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for additional
information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
The status of detected LRUs can be checked on the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page. Active LRUs are
indicated by green check marks; failed by red ‘X’s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center or
Garmin-authorized dealer informed.
NOTE: Refer to the POH for additional information regarding pilot responses to these
annunciations.
System Annunciation
Comment
Air Data, Attitude and Heading Reference System is aligning.
Display system is not receiving attitude information from the
AHRS (GRS unit).
AHRS calibration incomplete or configuration module failure.
GPS information is either not present or is invalid for navigation
use. Note that AHRS utilizes GPS inputs during normal operation.
AHRS operation may be degraded if GPS signals are not present
(see POH).
Display system is not receiving airspeed input from the air data
computer.
Display system is not receiving vertical speed input from the air
data computer.
Display system is not receiving valid heading input from the
ADHRS or magnetometer.
Display system is not receiving altitude input from the AHRS or
magnetometer.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Annunciation
Comment
Display system is not receiving valid OAT information from the air
data computer.
Display system is not receiving valid ISA information from the air
data computer.
Display system is not receiving valid transponder information.
Other Various Amber/Red X
Indications
A red or amber ‘X’ through any other display field (such as engine
instrumentation fields) indicates that the field is not receiving
valid data.
Table 1-1 System Annunciations
Viewing LRU Information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page.
2) To place the cursor in the ‘LRU Info’ Box,
Press the LRU Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) With ‘Select LRU’ Window highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to scroll through the box to view LRU status information.
SYSTEM STATUS
The System Status Page displays the status and software version numbers for all detected system
LRUs. Pertinent information on all system databases is also displayed. Active LRUs are indicated by
green check marks and failed LRUs are indicated by red “X”s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a
service center or Garmin dealer informed.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Figure 1-6 Example System Status Page
Figure 1-8 Example System Status Page
The LRU and ARFRM Softkeys on the System Status Page select the applicable list (‘LRU
Information’ or ‘Airframe’ Window) through which the FMS Knob can be used to scroll information
within the selected window.
Pressing the MFD1 DB Softkey (label annunciator turns green indicting the softkey is selected)
places the cursor in the database window. Use the FMS Knob to scroll through database information
for the MFD. Pressing the softkey again will change the softkey label to PFD1 DB. PFD 1 database
information is now displayed in the database window. Pressing the softkey a third time will change the
softkey label back to MFD1 DB. MFD database information is displayed again in the database window.
The ANN Test Softkey, when selected, causes an annunciation test tone to be played.
AHRS OPERATION
In addition to using internal sensors, the AHRS uses GPS information, magnetic field data and air
data to assist in attitude/heading calculations. In normal mode,the AHRS relies upon GPS and
magnetic field measurements. If either of these external measurements is unavailable or invalid, the
AHRS uses air data information for attitude determination. Four AHRS modes of operation are
available and depend upon the combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of air data, GPS, or
magnetometer sensor inputs is communicated to the pilot by message advisory alerts.
The AHRS corrects for shifts and variations in the Earth’s magnetic field by applying the Magnetic
Field Variation Database. The Magnetic Field Variation Database is derived from the International
Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). The IGRF is a mathematical model that describes the Earth’s
main magnetic field and its annual rate of change. The database is updated approximately every 5
years. See the Appendices for information on updating the Magnetic Field Variation Database. The
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
system will prompt you on startup when an update is available. Failure to update this database could
lead to erroneous heading information being displayed to the pilot.
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for specific AHRS system message information.
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering while the AHRS is not operating normally can degrade
ADAHRS accuracy.
GPS Data Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
Mag Data Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
Mag Data AND Air Data
Available and Reliable?
YES
NO
AHRS no-GPS
Mode
AHRS coast-on-gyros
until invalid
Air Data Available and Reliable?
YES
NO
AHRS Normal
Mode
AHRS no-Mag
Mode
AHRS no-Mag/
no-Air Mode
Heading
HeadingInvalid
InvalidAttitude/Heading
Heading Invalid
Invalid
Attitude/Heading
Invalid
Attitude/Heading Invalid
Figure 1-9 AHRS Operation
GPS INPUT FAILURE
NOTE: In-flight initialization of AHRS, when operating without any valid source of GPS data
and at true air speed values greater than approximately 200 knots, is not guaranteed. Under
these rare conditions, it is possible for in-flight AHRS initialization to take an indefinite
amount of time which would result in an extended period of time where valid AHRS outputs
are unavailable.
The system provides two sources of GPS information. If a single GPS receiver fails, or if the
information provided from one of the GPS receivers is unreliable, the AHRS seamlessly transitions to
using the other GPS receiver. An alert message informs the pilot of the use of the backup GPS path.
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If both GPS inputs fail, the AHRS continues to operate in reversionary No-GPS mode so long as the
air data and magnetometer inputs are available and valid.
AIR DATA INPUT FAILURE
A failure of the air data input has no effect on ADAHRS output while operating in normal mode. A
failure of the air data input while the ADAHRS is operating in reversionary No-GPS mode results in
invalid attitude and heading information on the PFD (as indicated by red “X” flags).
MAGNETOMETER FAILURE
If the magnetometer input fails, the ADAHRS transitions to one of the reversionary NoMagnetometer modes and continues to output valid attitude information. However, if the aircraft is
airborne, the heading output on the PFD does become invalid (as indicated by a red “X”).
GPS RECEIVER OPERATION
Each GIA Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU) contains a GPS receiver. Information collected by the
specified receiver (GPS1 for the #1 IAU or GPS2 for the #2 IAU) may be viewed on the ‘Aux - GPS
Status’ Page.
GPS1 provides information to the MFD and GPS2 provides data to the PFD. Internal system
checking is performed to ensure both GPS receivers are providing accurate data to the GDUs. In some
circumstances, both GPS receivers may be providing accurate data, but one receiver may be providing
a better GPS solution than the other receiver. In this case the GPS receiver producing the better
solution will be automatically coupled to both GDUs. “BOTH ON GPS 1” or “BOTH ON GPS 2” will
then be displayed in the Reversionary Sensor Window (see Appendix A) indicating which GPS receiver
is being used. Both GPS receivers are still functioning properly, but one receiver is performing better
than the other at that particular time.
These GPS sensor annunciations are most often seen after system power-up when one GPS receiver
has acquired satellites before the other, or one of the GPS receivers has not yet acquired a SBAS signal.
While the aircraft is on the ground, the SBAS signal may be blocked by obstructions causing one GPS
receiver to have difficulty acquiring a good signal. Also, while airborne, turning the aircraft may result
in one of the GPS receivers temporarily losing the SBAS signal.
If the sensor annunciation persists, check for a system failure message in the ‘Messages’ Window on
the PFD. If no failure message exists, check the GPS Status Page and compare the information for
GPS1 and GPS2. Discrepancies may indicate a problem.
Viewing GPS receiver status information:
1) Use the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group (see Section 1.4 for
information on navigating MFD page groups).
2) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
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Selecting the GPS receiver for which data may be reviewed:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) To change the selected GPS receiver:
Press the desired GPS Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key
b) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the receiver which is not selected and press the ENT
Key.
Satellite Constellation
Diagram
Satellite Signal
Information Status
GPS Receiver
Status
RAIM
Availability
Prediction
EGNOS, MSAS
and WAAS
Selected
Satellite Signal
Strength Bars
GPS Selection RAIM Softkey
Softkeys
Selected
SBAS Softkey Selected
Figure 1-10 GPS Status Page (RAIM or SBAS Selected)
SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DIAGRAM
The GPS Status Page displays satellites currently in view at their respective positions on a sky view
diagram. The sky view is always in a north-up orientation, with the outer circle representing the
horizon, the inner circle representing 45° above the horizon, and the center point showing the
position directly overhead.
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Each satellite is represented by an oval containing the Pseudo-random noise (PRN) number (i.e.,
satellite identification number). Satellites whose signals are currently being used are represented by
solid ovals.
SATELLITE STATUS
This box provides information regarding signal status. The accuracy of the aircraft’s GPS fix is
calculated using Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU), Dilution of Precision (DOP), and horizontal
and vertical figures of merit (HFOM and VFOM). EPU is the radius of a circle centered on an
estimated horizontal position in which actual position has 95% probability of laying. EPU is a
statistical error indication and not an actual error measurement.
DOP measures satellite geometry quality (i.e., number of satellites received and where they are
relative to each other) on a range from 0.0 to 9.9, with lower numbers denoting better accuracy.
HFOM and VFOM, measures of horizontal and vertical position uncertainty, are the current 95%
confidence horizontal and vertical accuracy values reported by the GPS receiver.
The current calculated GPS position, time, altitude, ground speed, and track for the aircraft are
displayed below the satellite signal accuracy measurements.
GPS STATUS
The GPS solution type (ACQUIRING, 2D NAV, 2D DIFF NAV, 3D NAV, 3D DIFF NAV) for the
active GPS receiver (GPS1 or GPS2) is shown in the upper right of the GPS Status Page. When the
receiver is in the process of acquiring enough satellite signals for navigation, the receiver uses
satellite orbital data (collected continuously from the satellites) and last known position to determine
the satellites that should be in view. “Acquiring” is indicated as the solution until a sufficient number
of satellites have been acquired for computing a solution.
When the receiver is in the process of acquiring a 3D differential GPS solution, 3D NAV is
indicated as the solution until the 3D differential fix has finished acquisition. SBAS (Satellite-Based
Augmentation System) indicates “Inactive”. When acquisition is complete, the solution status
indicates 3D DIFF NAV and SBAS indicates “Active”.
RAIM PREDICTION
In most cases performing a RAIM prediction is not necessary. However, in some cases, the selected
approach may be outside the SBAS coverage area, and it may be necessary to perform a RAIM
prediction for the intended approach.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a GPS receiver function that performs a
consistency check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows
the receiver to calculate a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nautical miles for
oceanic and enroute, 1.0 nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During
oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of flight, RAIM is available nearly 100% of the time.
The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a specified date and
time. RAIM computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival date and
time.
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not
available. The system automatically monitors RAIM and warns with an alert message when it is not
available. If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does
not become active, as indicated by the messages, “Approach is not active” and “RAIM not available
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
from FAF to MAP”. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the missed approach procedure
must be flown.
NOTE: The system RAIM prediction capability does not meet all RAIM prediction
requirements. Reference the RAIM/Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE) Prediction Tool at
flygarmin.com as required.
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ Field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window.
5) Enter the desired waypoint:
Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired waypoint by identifier, facility, or city name and
press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display the waypoint selection
submenu.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan, Nearest, Recent, or
User Waypoints, if required.
c) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint. The system
automatically fills in the ‘Ident, Facility, City’ Field with the information for the
selected waypoint.
d) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
8) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM
availability is computed, one of the following is displayed:
20
•
‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date
combination
•
‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress
•
‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and
date
•
‘RAIM Not Available’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint,
time, and date
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Predicting RAIM availability at present position:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ Field is highlighted.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) With ‘Set WPT to Present Position’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
9) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM
availability is computed, one of the following is displayed:
•
‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date
combination
•
‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress
•
‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and
date
•
‘RAIM Not Available’ is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and
date
SBAS SELECTION
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of the SBAS coverage
area, it may be desirable to disable EGNOS, WAAS or MSAS (although it is not recommended).
When disabled, the ‘SBAS’ Field in the ‘GPS Status’ Box indicates Disabled. There may be a small
delay for the ‘GPS Status’ Box to be updated upon WAAS and MSAS enabling/disabling.
Disabling SBAS:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the SBAS Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘EGNOS’, ‘MSAS’ or
‘WAAS’.
4) Press the ENT Key to uncheck the box.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
GPS SATELLITE SIGNAL STRENGTHS
The GPS Status Page can be helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due to poor
satellite coverage or installation problems. As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength
bar is displayed for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite PRN number (01-32 or
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120-138 for WAAS) below each bar. The progress of satellite acquisition is shown in three stages, as
indicated by signal bar appearance:
•
No bar—Receiver is looking for the indicated satellite
•
Hollow bar—Receiver has found the satellite and is collecting data
•
Cyan bar—Receiver has collected the necessary data and the satellite signal can be used
•
Green bar—Satellite is being used for the GPS solution
•
Checkered bar—Receiver has excluded the satellite (Fault Detection and Exclusion)
•
“D” indication—Denotes the satellite is being used as part of the differential computations
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission that must be collected (signal strength bar is
hollow) before the satellite may be used for navigation (signal strength bar becomes solid).
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1.4 ACCESSING SYSTEM FUNCTIONALITY
SOFTKEY FUNCTION
Selection softkeys are located along the bottom of the displays. The softkeys shown depend on the
softkey level previously selected. The bezel keys below the softkey labels can be used to select the
appropriate softkey. There are three types of softkeys. One selects a simple on/off state, indicated by an
annunciator on the softkey label displayed as green (on) or gray (off). The next type of softkey selects
among several options, indicated by the softkey label changing (with the exception of the Map Range
keys) to reflect the name of the chosen option. The last type of softkey, when pressed displays another
set of softkeys available for the selected function. Also, these softkeys revert to the previous level after
45 seconds of inactivity. When a softkey function is disabled, the softkey label is subdued (dimmed).
Softkey On
Bezel-Mounted
Softkeys (press)
Softkey Subdued
Softkey Names (displayed)
Figure 1-8 Softkeys (First-Level PFD Configuration)
Figure 1-11 Softkeys (First-Level PFD Configuration)
PFD SOFTKEYS
The PFD softkeys provide control over the PFD display and some flight management functions,
including GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic, and weather (optional). Each softkey sublevel has a Back
Softkey which can be pressed to return to the previous level. If new messages remain after
acknowledgement, the Messages Softkey will show “Message” in black text with a white
background. The Messages Softkey is visible in all softkey levels. For the top level softkeys and the
transponder (XPDR) levels, the Ident Softkey remains visible.
The following table describes PFD Softkey functions. Softkeys which display another set of
softkeys are indicated in the table by showing the given set as an increased level. For example, the
Map/HSI Softkey is shown in the Level 1 column. When pressed, the Map/HSI Softkey will display
another set of softkeys and these softkeys are explained in the Level 2 column. If a softkey on Level 2
provides yet another set of softkey functions, those new available softkeys are then explained in the
Level 3 column, etc.
Lvl 1
Lvl 2
CAS
190–02380–00 Rev. A
Lvl 3
Lvl 4
Description
Displays the scroll keys. Only
displayed when the number of
CAS messages exceeds the
capacity of the display window.
CAS Up
Scroll up CAS messages
(Accessible only when the CAS
Softkey is displayed).
CAS Dn
Scroll down CAS messages
(Accessible only when the CAS
Softkey is displayed).
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Lvl 1
Lvl 2
Lvl 3
Map/HSI
Lvl 4
Description
Displays the PFD Map display
settings softkeys.
Layout
Displays the PFD Map selection
softkeys.
Map Off
Inset Map
Displays the Inset Map.
HSI Map
Displays the HSI Map.
Inset Trfc
Replaces the Inset Map with a
dedicated traffic display.
HSI Trfc
Detail
Removes the PFD map from
display (Inset or Traffic).
Replaces the HSI Map with a
dedicated traffic display.
Selects desired amount of map
detail:
•
All (No Declutter): All map
features visible.
•
Detail 1: Removes everything
except for the active flight
plan.
•
Detail 2: Declutters land and
SUA data.
Detail 3: Declutters land data.
Displays traffic information on
PFD Map.
•
Traffic
TER
•
Topo: Displays topographical
data (e.g., coastlines, terrain,
rivers, lakes) and elevation
scale on PFD Map.
•
REL: Displays relative terrain
information on the PFD Map.
Off: Removes terrain
Displays/removes the name of
the selected data link weather
provider (SiriusXM) and the
weather product icon and age
box (for enabled weather
products).
•
WX LGND
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Lvl 1
Lvl 2
Lvl 3
Lvl 4
Description
PRECIP
or
NEXRAD
Displays Connext weather and
coverage on PFD Map.
Displays XM NEXRAD weather
and coverage on PFD Map
(subscription optional).
METAR
Displays METAR information on
PFD Map (subscription
optional).
Lightning
Adds/removes the display of
SiriusXM lightning information
on PFD Map (optional).
LTNG Off
Disables lightning function on
PFD Map. The softkey
annunciator is green when the
lightning function is off.
Datalink
Selects the data link weather
source for the PFD Map.
STRMSCP
Adds or removes the display of
Stormscope information on the
PFD Map. The softkey
annunciator is green when the
function is on. When the
function is off, the annunciator
is gray.
TFC Map
Replaces the PFD Map with a
dedicated traffic display. The
default display is the Inset Map.
PFD Opt
Displays second-level softkeys
for additional PFD options.
SVT
Displays additional SVT overlay
softkeys. (optional)
Pathways
Terrain
HDG LBL
190–02380–00 Rev. A
Displays Pathway Boxes on the
Synthetic Vision Display.
Enables synthetic terrain
depiction.
Displays compass heading
along the Zero-Pitch line.
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Lvl 1
Lvl 2
Lvl 3
Lvl 4
APT Sign
Displays position markers for
airports within approximately
15 nm of the current aircraft
position. Airport identifiers are
displayed when the airport is
within approximately 9 nm.
Wire
Displays power lines on the
Synthetic Vision Display.
Wind
Displays the wind option
softkeys.
Off
Wind information not
displayed.
Option 1
Wind direction arrow and
speed.
Option 2
Headwind/Tailwind and
crosswind components and
wind direction arrow.
Option 3
Wind direction arrow with
direction and speed.
DME
Displays DME Information
(optional).
Bearing 1
Cycles the Bearing 1
Information Window through
NAV1, NAV2, GPS/waypoint
identifier and GPS-derived
distance information, ADF/
frequency, and Off.
Sensors
Displays the sensor selection
softkeys.
ADC
Displays ADC selection
softkeys.
ADC 1
Selects the #1 ADC.
ADC 2
Selects the #2 ADC.
AHRS
26
Description
Displays the AHRS selection
softkeys.
AHRS 1
Selects the #1 AHRS.
AHRS 2
Selects the #2 AHRS.
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Lvl 1
Lvl 2
Lvl 3
Lvl 4
Description
Bearing 2
Cycles the Bearing 2
Information Window through
NAV1, NAV2, GPS/waypoint
identifier and GPS-derived
distance information, ADF/
frequency, and Off.
ALT Units
Displays softkeys to select
altitude unit parameters.
Meters
IN
HPA
STD Baro
When enabled, displays
overlays altimeter with meters.
Press to display the BARO
setting as inches of mercury.
Press to display the BARO
setting as hectopascals.
Sets barometric pressure to
29.92 in Hg (1013 hPa if metric
units are selected) and returns
to top-level softkeys.
OBS
Selects OBS mode on the CDI
when navigating by GPS (only
available with active leg). When
OBS is on, the softkey
annunciator is green.
CDI
Cycles through GPS, NAV1, and
NAV2 navigation modes on the
CDI.
ADF/DME
Displays the ADF/DME Tuning
Window, allowing selection and
tuning of the ADF and DME
(optional).
XPDR
190–02380–00 Rev. A
Displays the transponder
selection softkeys.
XPDR 1
Only available when two
transponders are installed.
Selects the #1 transponder as
active.
XPDR 2
Only available when two
transponders are installed.
Selects the #2 transponder as
active.
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Lvl 1
Lvl 2
Lvl 3
Selects transponder Standby
Mode (transponder does not
reply to any interrogations).
On
Activates transponder
(transponder replies to
identification interrogations).
Alt
Altitude Reporting Mode
(transponder replies to
identification and altitude
interrogations).
VFR
Automatically enters the VFR
code (1200 in the U.S.A. only).
Displays transponder code
selection softkeys 0-7.
0–7
Ident
Use numbers to enter code.
Ident
Activates the Special Position
Identification (SPI) pulse for 18
seconds, identifying the
transponder return on the ATC
screen.
BKSP
Removes numbers entered, one
at a time.
Activates the Special Position
Identification (SPI) pulse for 18
seconds, identifying the
transponder return on the ATC
screen.
Activates the Special Position
Identification (SPI) pulse for 18
seconds, identifying the
transponder return on the ATC
screen.
Tmr/Ref
28
Description
Standby
Code
Ident
Lvl 4
Displays Timer ‘References’
Window.
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Lvl 1
Lvl 2
Lvl 3
Lvl 4
Nearest
Description
Displays ‘Nearest Airports’
Window.
Messages or
Message
System generated messages
cause the Messages Softkey
label to change from Messages
to a flashing ‘Message’ label.
Pressing the Message Softkey
opens the ‘Messages’ Window,
acknowledges the message,
and the softkey reverts to the
‘Messages’ label.
Table 1-2 PFD Softkeys
MFD SOFTKEYS
The MFD softkeys provide control over flight management functions, including GPS, NAV, terrain,
traffic, and weather (optional). There are many softkey functions available on the MFD depending on
the page group and screen selected.
The following table provides an example of the MFD Softkey functions accessed from the
Navigation Map screen. Further information concerning softkeys providing more navigation and
flight planning functions may be found in the Flight Management Section. Terrain, traffic, and
weather softkey descriptions may be found in the Hazard Avoidance section. Further description of
optional equipment and corresponding softkey functions may be found in the Additional Features
Section.
Lvl 1
Lvl 2
Lvl 3
Map Opt
Displays second level Map Options
softkeys
Traffic
Displays traffic information on
Navigation Map Page.
Inset
Displays inset window second level
softkeys.
Off
190–02380–00 Rev. A
Description
Removes VSD inset from Navigation
Map Page.
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Lvl 1
Lvl 2
Lvl 3
Description
VSD
Displays VSD profile information of
terrain/obstacles along the current track,
vertical track vector, and selected
altitude.
•
Auto: Automatically displays either
VSD profile information for active
flight plan information or along
current track with no active flight plan.
•
FPL: Displays VSD profile information
for active flight plan.
TRK: Displays VSD profile information
along current track.
Displays terrain on the map; cycles
through the following:
•
TER
•
Off: No terrain information shown on
MFD Map.
•
Topo: Displays topographical data
(e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes)
and elevation scale on MFD Map.
REL:
Displays
relative
terrain
information on the MFD Map.
Displays airways on the map; cycles
through the following:
•
AWY
•
Off: No airways are displayed.
•
On: All airways are displayed.
•
LO: Only low altitude airways are
displayed.
HI: Only high altitude airways are
displayed.
Displays Stormscope information on
Navigation Map Page (optional).
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and
coverage on Navigation Map Page
(optional).
Displays XM lightning information on
Navigation Map Page (optional).
Displays METAR information on PFD
Map (subscription optional).
•
STRMSCP
NEXRAD
XM LTNG
METAR
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Lvl 1
Lvl 2
Legend
Wx Radar
Detail
Lvl 3
Description
Displays legends for the displayed XM
Weather products (optional).
Displays weather information.
Selects desired amount of map detail;
cycles through the following levels:
•
Detail All: All map features visible.
•
Detail-3: Declutters land data.
•
Detail-2: Declutters land and SUA data.
Detail-1: Removes everything except
for the active flight plan.
When available, displays optional airport
and terminal procedure charts
(optional).
Displays chart display settings softkeys
(if available).
Show Map displays the applicable
‘WPT — Airport Information’ Page upon
the map for the chart currently selected.
Chart displays the chart for the ‘WPT —
Airport Information’ Page that is
currently selected and returns to the
Charts Level 2 Softkeys.
Pressing the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey
returns to the airport diagram when the
view is on a different chart.
Displays departure procedure chart.
Displays standard terminal arrival
procedure chart.
Displays approach procedure chart.
Displays weather information.
Displays NOTAM information for
selected airport, when available.
When available, displays optional
checklists.
•
Charts
CHRT Opt
Show Map
or
Chart
Info
DP
STAR
APR
WX
NOTAM
Checklist
Table 1-3 MFD Navigation Map Page Softkeys
MENUS
The system has a MENU Key that, when pressed, displays a context-sensitive list of options. This
options list allows the user to access additional features or make settings changes which specifically
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relate to the currently displayed window/page. There is no all-encompassing menu. Some menus
provide access to additional submenus that are used to view, edit, select, and review options. Menus
display ‘No Options’ when there are no options for the window/page selected. The main controls used
in association with all window/page group operations are described in Section 1.2. Softkey selection
does not display menus or submenus.
No Options with
NRST Window
Displayed on PFD
Options with
FPL Window
Displayed on MFD
Figure 1-12 Page Menu Examples
Navigating the Page Menu Window:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through a list of available options (a scroll bar appears to
the right of the window when the option list is longer than the window).
3) Press the ENT Key to select the desired option.
4) The CLR Key may be pressed to remove the menu and cancel the operation. Pressing
the FMS Knob also removes the displayed menu.
MFD PAGE GROUPS
NOTE: Refer to other supporting sections in this Pilot’s Guide for details on specific pages.
Information on the MFD is presented on pages grouped according to function. The Display Title is
comprised of the page group and active page title and is displayed in the upper center of the screen
below the Navigation Data Bar. In the bottom right corner of the screen, a page group window is
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displayed by turning either FMS Knob. The page group tabs are displayed along the bottom of the
window. The page titles are displayed in a list above the page group tabs.
Page Group
MFD
Active Page Title
Pages in
Current
Group
Page Groups
PageTitle
Title and
Page
Groups
FigureFigure
1-131-14
Page
and
Page
Groups
The main page groups are navigated using the FMS Knob; specific pages within each group can vary
depending on the configuration of optional equipment.
Selecting a page using the FMS Knob:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to display the list of page groups; continue turning the large
FMS Knob until the desired page group is selected.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired page within a specific page group.
There are several pages which may be selected by pressing the appropriate softkey at the bottom of
the page (or from the page menu). In this case, the page title will change when a different page softkey
is pressed, but the page will remain the same, i.e. the Radio and Info Softkeys show different page
titles (“Aux - XM Radio” and “Aux - XM Information” respective) within the same page, “XM Radio”.
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Page Group
Map (Map Page Group)
WPT (Waypoint Page Group)
AUX (Auxiliary Page Group)
34
Pages within Page Group
•
Navigation Map
•
IFR/VFR Charts (optional)
•
Traffic Map
•
Weather Radar(optional)
•
Weather Data Link (optional)
•
TAWS—B (optional)
•
Airport Information
•
Airport Information (Info 1 Softkey)
•
Airport Directory Information (Info 2 Softkey)
•
Departure Information (DP Softkey)
•
Arrival Information (STAR Softkey)
•
Approach Information (APR Softkey)
•
Weather Information (optional) (WX Softkey)
•
NOTAM Information (NOTAM Softkey)
•
Intersection Information
•
NDB Information
•
VOR Information
•
VRP Information
•
User WPT Information
•
Weight Planning
•
Trip Planning
•
Utility
•
GPS Status
•
System Setup 1/2
•
XM Radio (optional)
•
XM Radio (Radio Softkey)
•
XM Information (Info Softkey)
•
System Status
•
ADS-B Status
•
Connext Setup
•
Databases
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Page Group
Pages within Page Group
FPL (Flight Plan Page Group)
•
Active Flight Plan
•
Flight Plan Catalog
•
CHKLST (Checklist Page Group)
NRST (Nearest Page Group)
Stored Flight Plan (New Softkey)
•
SurfaceWatch Setup
•
Checklist
•
Nearest Airports
•
Nearest Intersection
•
Nearest NDB
•
Nearest VOR
•
Nearest VRP
•
Nearest User WPTS
•
Nearest Frequencies
•
Nearest Airspaces
Table 1-4 Page Group and Pages
PROCEDURE PAGES (PROC)
The Procedure Pages may be accessed at any time on the MFD by pressing the PROC Key. A menu
is initialized, and when a departure, approach, or arrival is selected, the appropriate Procedure
Loading Page is opened. Turning the FMS Knob does not scroll through the Procedure pages.
•
Approach Loading
•
Arrival Loading
•
Departure Loading
SPLIT SCREEN FUNCTIONALITY
Chart pages may be viewed in split screen mode with the Navigation Map Page and the Active Flight
Plan Page. When the system is powered-up on the ground, following acknowledgement of the MFD
Power-up Screen, the Navigation Map Page and Active Flight Plan Page will be displayed in normal
page view. To activate the split screen functionality, press the Charts Softkey. Two display panes are
displayed on the MFD. If split screen is activated from the Navigation Map Page, the page title will
show ‘Map - Chart + Navigation Map’. If split screen is activated from the Active Flight Plan Page, the
page title will change to show ‘FPL - Chart + Active Flight Plan’.
See the Additional Features section for more information on Charts, and how to enable Charts Full
Screen.
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MFD in Split Screen Mode
Page Title shows
Map - Chart + Navigation Map
Cyan Pane Selector
shows Charts is
the active display pane
Softkeys for the
active display pane
Figure 1-15 Split Screen Mode
Figure 1-14 Split Screen Mode
CONTROLLING DISPLAY PANES
In split screen mode, the active display pane is outlined by a cyan box called the pane selector.
Softkeys and menu options will automatically change depending on which display pane is active.
Display panes may be displayed vertically in Narrow View, or horizontally in Wide View. In Narrow
View, move the Joystick left or right to move the pane selector. In Wide View, move the Joystick up
and down to move the pane selector. To change between Wide View and Narrow View, push and
hold the Joystick.
For information on viewing Charts and the Active Flight Plan Page with the Flight Plan map, see
the Flight Management Section.
For more information on Charts and how to enable Charts Full Screen, see the Additional Features
section.
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MFD in Split Screen Mode
Pane Selector Box
Cyan Pane Selector
shows Charts
is the active
display pane
- Move Joystick in
direction of cyan
arrows to move
display pane
- Push and hold
Joystick to change
Narrow/Wide view
Softkeys for the
active display pane
Figure 1-16 Split Screen in Wide View
Figure 1-15 Split Screen in Wide View
Enabling/disabling split screen mode:
1) From the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page or the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page press the
Charts Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Chart Mode On’.
2) To disable the split screen mode, press the Charts Softkey again or press the MENU
Key and select ‘Chart Mode Off’. The display returns to the base page, either the
Navigation Map Page or the Active Flight Plan Page.
SYSTEM SETTINGS
System settings and crew profiles are managed from the System Setup Pages. Fields shown in cyan
text may be edited. Managing crew profiles and editing the system time format, display units, arrival
alerts, and audio voice format settings are discussed in this section. For other system settings, see the
reference given to their respective sections.
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Configure System
Time
Fields shown in Cyan may
be edited
Change Display
Unit Settings
Configure settings
- Flight Director Format
- GPS CDI
- Channel Spacing
- Nearest Airport
- CDI/Baro Sync
Configure Alert Settings
BARO Alerts Airspace Alerts Arrival Alerts SurfaceWatch -
Restore System Defaults
Crew Profile
- Choose active profile
- Create new profile
- Edit, rename, and delete
existing profile (other than
default profile)
- Import / Export profile to
SD Card
Other Settings
Stability and Protection Page Navigation Audio Voice Auto Taxi Chart -
Select System Setup Page
- Setup 1
- Setup 2
Figure 1-16 System Setup 1/2 Pages
If desired, the default system settings may be restored at any time.
Restoring system setup defaults:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
2) Press the Defaults Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Restore Page Defaults’,
and press the ENT Key. The message ‘Restore Setup (1 or 2) Page Defaults?’ is
displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
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CREW PROFILES
System settings may be saved under a crew profile. When the system is powered on, the last
selected crew profile is shown on the MFD Power-up Screen. The system can store up to 25 profiles;
the currently active profile, the amount of memory used, and the amount of memory available are
shown at the top of the System Setup Page in the box labeled “Crew Profile”. From here, crew
profiles may be created, selected, renamed, or deleted. Crew profiles may also be exported from the
system to an SD card, or imported from an SD card into the system.
CREW PROFILE IMPORT/EXPORT MESSAGES
In some circumstances, some messages may appear in conjunction with others:
Message
Description
‘No crew profile files found.’
Displayed if the SD card does not have one or
more valid pilot profile filenames.
‘Overwrite existing profile?’
Displayed if the profile name matches the name
of existing profile.
‘Profile name invalid. Enter a different profile
name.’
Displayed if the profile name is invalid.
‘All available crew profiles in use. Delete a
profile before importing another.’
Displayed if the maximum number for pilot
profiles has been reached.
‘Crew profile import failed.’
Displayed if the importing operation fails for any
other reason.
‘Crew profile import succeeded.’
Displayed if the importing operation succeeds.
‘Overwrite existing file?’
Displayed if the filename matches the name of an
existing file on the SD card.
‘Crew profile export failed.’
Displayed if the export operation fails.
‘Crew profile export succeeded.’
Displayed if the export operation succeeds.
Table 1-5 Crew Profile Import/Export Messages
Creating a profile:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Create’ in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Create Profile’ Window is displayed.
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter a profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT
Key. Crew profile names cannot begin with a blank as the first letter.
6) In the next field, use the small FMS Knob to select the desired settings upon which to
base the new profile. Profiles can be created based on Garmin factory defaults, default
profile settings (initially based on Garmin factory defaults unless edited by the pilot), or
other previously created profile settings.
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7) Press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘Create’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to create the profile.
Or:
Use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Create & Activate’ and press the ENT Key to activate
the new profile.
9) To cancel the process, select ‘Cancel’ with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key.
Selecting an active profile:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Active’ profile Field in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the crew profile list and highlight the desired
profile.
5) Press the ENT Key. The system loads and displays the system settings for the selected
profile.
Renaming a profile:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Rename’ in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Rename Profile’ Window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to rename.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter a new profile name up to 16 characters long and press the
ENT Key.
8) With ‘Rename’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
9) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT
Key.
Deleting a profile:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete’ in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Delete Profile’ Window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to delete.
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6) Press the ENT Key.
7) With ‘Delete’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
8) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT
Key.
Importing a profile from an SD card:
1) Insert an SD card containing the crew profile(s) into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
3) Press the Import Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Import Crew Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
4) The system displays the ‘Crew Profile Importing’ Window with ‘Import’ highlighted.
Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Profile Name’ Field, then scroll to the desired
profile name with the large and small FMS Knobs, then press the ENT Key. Then press
the ENT Key with ‘Import’ highlighted.
5) If the imported profile name is the same as an existing profile on the system, the system
displays an ‘Overwrite existing profile? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to
replace profile on the system with the profile imported from the SD card, or turn the
FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to the ‘Crew Profile
Importing’ Window.
6) If successful, the system displays ‘Crew profile import succeeded’ in the Window below.
With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT or CLR Keys or press the FMS Knob to return to
the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page. The imported profile becomes the active profile.
Crew Profile Importing and Import
Results Window
Crew Profiles Available for Import
from SD Card
Import Successful
Figure 1-17 Crew Profile Import on the (Aux - System Setup Page)
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Exporting a profile to an SD card:
1) Insert the SD card for storing the Crew Profile into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
3) Press the Export Softkey. The system displays the ‘Crew Profile Exporting’ Window.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Export Crew Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
4) To export the crew profile using the current selected profile, press the ENT Key with
‘Export’ highlighted. To change the selected profile, turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight the ‘Profile Name’ Field, then scroll to the desired profile name with the large
and small FMS Knobs, then press the ENT Key. Then press the ENT Key with ‘Export’
highlighted.
5) If the selected profile to be exported is the same as an existing profile file name on the
SD card, the system displays an ‘Overwrite existing profile? OK or CANCEL’ prompt.
Press the ENT Key to replace the profile on the SD card with the profile to be exported,
or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to the
‘Crew Profile Exporting’ Window without exporting the profile.
6) If successful, the window displays ‘Crew profile export succeeded.’ With ‘OK’
highlighted, press the ENT or CLR Keys, or press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Aux System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
Crew Profile Exporting Window, Enter
a Name to Use for Exported Profile
Export Successful
Figure 1-18 Crew Profile Export on the (Aux - System Setup Page)
DATE/TIME
The system obtains the current Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) date and time directly from the
GPS satellite signals (shown on the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page). System time (displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD) can be displayed in three formats: local 12-hr, local 24-hr, or UTC. Local
time is set by adding/subtracting an offset (hours:minutes) to/from UTC.
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Figure 1-19 System Time (UTC Format)
Figure 1-20 Date/Time Settings (System Setup 1 Page)
Configuring the system time:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Time Format’ Field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired format and press the ENT Key to confirm
selection. If local time format is selected, the ‘Time Offset’ Field is highlighted.
5) If necessary, use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time offset (±HH:MM) and press
the ENT Key to confirm selection.
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DISPLAY UNITS
Units in which various quantities are displayed on the system screens are listed on the System
Setup Page. The Navigation Angle reference, the Temperature units, and the Position units can be set
from here.
Category
Settings
Affected Quantities
Navigation Angle
Magnetic (North)* Heading
True (North)
Course
Bearing
Track
Desired Track
Wind Direction (Trip Planning Page)
Distance and Speed Metric
Nautical*
Crosstrack error (HSI)
Bearing distances (information windows)
DME distance (information window)
Flight plan distances
Map ranges (some)
DIS, GS, TAS, XTK Fields (Navigation Data Bar)
Most distances on MFD
Altitude buffer distance (System Setup)
Arrival Alert trigger distance (System Setup)
All speeds on MFD
†
Altitude and Vertical Feet*
Speed
Meters
All altitudes on MFD
All elevations on MFD
††
Temperature
Celsius*
Fahrenheit
All temperatures on PFD
Total Air Temperature (Trip Planning Page)
†††
Fuel and Fuel
Flow**
Gallons
Fuel Parameters (Trip Planning Page)
†††
Weight**
Pounds
N/A
Position**
HDDD°MM.MM’
All positions
* Default setting
** Contact a Garmin-authorized service center to change this setting
† Excludes: airspeed indicator, altitude, true airspeed (PFD), wind speed vector, map range (Traffic Map
Page, Terrain Proximity/HTAWS Page), CDI scaling (System Setup), and fuel range calculation (EIS)
†† Excludes: altimeter, Vertical Speed Indicator, and VNV altitudes (Active Flight Plan)
††† Excludes: Engine Indication System (EIS)
Table 1-6 Display Unit Settings (System Setup Page)
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Changing a display unit setting:
1) While on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate
the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Display Units’ Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired units.
4) Press the ENT Key. Press the CLR Key to cancel the action without changing the units.
BARO TRANSITION ALERT
See the Flight Instruments section for a discussion on setting the Baro Transition Alert.
AIRSPACE ALERTS
See the Flight Management section for a discussion on Airspace Alerts settings.
ARRIVAL ALERTS
The ‘Arrival Alert’ Box on the System Setup 1 Page allows the ‘Messages’ Window arrival alerts to
be turned “On/Off” and the alert trigger distance (up to 99.9 units) set for alerts in the ‘Messages’
Window and the PFD Navigation Status Box. An arrival alert can be set to notify the pilot with a
message upon reaching a user-specified distance from the final destination (the direct-to waypoint or
the last waypoint in a flight plan). When Arrival Alerts is set to “On”, and the set distance is reached,
an “Arrival at waypoint” message is displayed in the PFD Navigation Status Box, and a “WPT
ARRIVAL - Arriving at waypoint - [xxxx]” is displayed in the ‘Messages’ Window. When Arrival
Alerts is set to “Off”, only the PFD Navigation Status Box message “Arriving at waypoint” is
displayed, and it is displayed when the time to the final destination is approximately ten seconds.
Figure 1-21 Arrival Alert Settings (System Setup 1 Page)
Enabling/disabling the Arrival Alert:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
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3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘On/Off’ Field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to
turn the alert Off.
Changing the arrival alert trigger distance:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Distance’ Field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
SURFACEWATCH
See the Additional Features section for more information on setting the SurfaceWatch Alerts.
FLIGHT DIRECTOR
See the Flight Instruments section for a discussion setting the Flight Director format.
MFD DATA BAR FIELDS
See the Flight Management section for a discussion on the MFD Data Bar Fields settings.
GPS CDI
See the Flight Instruments section for a discussion on setting the GPS CDI format.
COM CONFIGURATION
See the Audio Panel & CNS section for a discussion on the COM Configuration for channel
spacing.
NEAREST AIRPORT
See the Flight Management section for a discussion on the Nearest Airport settings.
STABILITY AND PROTECTION
See the Additional Features Section for information on enabling and disabling the Stability and
Protection feature.
CDI/BARO SYNCHRONIZATION
See the Flight Instruments Section for information on these settings.
PAGE NAVIGATION
The large FMS Knob displays the Page Group Tabs and navigates through the tabs. The small FMS
Knob navigates through the pages listed within a specific group. The number of clicks it takes to
display the Page Group Tabs and change to the next tab can be controlled from the ‘Page Navigation’
Box on the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page.
Off – Displays the Page Group Window with one click of either FMS Knob.
On – Displays the Page Group Window and navigates to the next page group with one click of
either FMS Knob.
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The pilot can select, from the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page, the amount of time the Page Group
Window is displayed (in the lower right corner of the MFD). The timeout can range from two to ten
seconds.
Selecting page navigation settings:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Change On 1st Click’ Field in the ‘Page
Navigation’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Timeout Seconds’ Field in the ‘Page
Navigation’ Box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired number of seconds.
7) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to remove the flashing cursor.
AUDIO ALERTS
The ‘Audio’ Box on the System Setup 2 Page allows the audio alert voice setting (male or female).
Changing the audio alert voice:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - System Setup 2 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Voice Field in the Audio Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select the desired voice setting and press the ENT Key.
CHARTS
See the Additional Features Section for information on setting up auto taxi chart.
SYSTEM UTILITIES
For flight planning purposes, timers, trip statistics, and a scheduler feature are provided on the ‘Aux
- Utility’ Page. The timers available include a stopwatch-like generic timer, a total time in flight timer,
and a record of the time of departure. Trip statistics—odometer, trip odometer, and average trip and
maximum groundspeeds—are displayed from the time of the last reset.
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Figure 1-17 Utility Page
Figure 1-22 Utility Page
TIMERS
The system timers available on the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page include:
•
Stopwatch-like generic timers
•
Total-time-in-flight timer
•
Time since departure
The generic timer can be set to count up or down from a specified time (HH:MM:SS). When the
countdown on the timer reaches zero the digits begin to count up from zero. If the timer is reset
before reaching zero on a countdown, the digits are reset to the initial value. If the timer is counting
up when reset, the digits return to zero.
The flight timer can be set to count up from zero starting at system power-up or from the time that
the aircraft lifts off; the timer can also be reset to zero at any time.
The system records the time at which departure occurs, depending on whether the pilot prefers the
time to be recorded from system power-up or from aircraft lift off. The displayed departure time can
also be reset to display the current time at the point of reset. The format in which the time is
displayed is controlled from the System Setup Page.
Setting the generic timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
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3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (Up/Dn) and press the
ENT Key.
4) If a desired starting time is desired:
a) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the HH:MM:SS ‘Generic’ Field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Start?’ and press the ENT Key to start the timer.
The field changes to ‘Stop?’.
6) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to
‘Reset?’.
7) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back
to ‘Start?’ and the digits are reset.
Setting the flight timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Flight’ timer Field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (Pwr-On or In-Air) and press the
ENT Key.
Resetting the flight timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Reset Flight Timer’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Setting the departure timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Departure Time’ Field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (Pwr-On or In-Air) and press the
ENT Key.
Resetting the departure time:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Reset Departure Time’ and press the ENT Key.
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TRIP STATISTICS
The odometer and trip odometer record the total mileage traveled from the last reset; these
odometers can be reset independently. Resetting the trip odometer also resets the average trip
groundspeed. Maximum groundspeed for the period of time since the last reset is also displayed.
Resetting trip statistics readouts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key. The following reset options for trip statistics are displayed:
•
Reset Trip ODOM/AVG GS—Resets trip average ground speed readout and odometer
•
Reset Odometer—Resets odometer readout only
•
Reset Maximum Speed—Resets maximum speed readout only
•
Reset All—Resets flight timer, departure timer, odometers, and groundspeed readouts
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired reset option and press the ENT Key. The
selected parameters are reset to zero and begin to display data from the point of reset.
SCHEDULER
The system’s Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., “Switch
fuel tanks”, “Overhaul”, etc.) in the ‘Messages’ Window on the PFD. Messages can be set to display
based on a specific date and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero (one-time; default
setting), or recurrently whenever the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set to
periodic alerting automatically reset to the original timer value once the message is displayed. When
power is cycled, messages are retained until deleted, and message timer countdown is restarted.
Scheduler messages appear in the ‘Messages’ Window on the PFD and cause the Messages Softkey
label to change to a flashing Message label. Pressing the Message Softkey opens the ‘Messages’
Window and acknowledges the scheduler message. The softkey reverts to the Messages label.
Pressing the Messages Softkey again removes the ‘Messages’ Window from the display and the
scheduler message is deleted from the message queue.
Figure 1-23 PFD Alerts Window
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Entering a scheduler message:
1) Select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty field within the ‘Scheduler’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter text within the ‘Message’ Field to be displayed in the
‘Messages’ Window and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the ‘Type’
Field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select set the message alert type:
•
Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
•
One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
•
Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next
field.
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value
(HHH:MM:SS) from which to countdown and press the ENT Key.
9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MMM-YYY) and press the ENT
Key.
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next
field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the
next message.
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Message’ Field of the scheduler message to
be deleted.
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the
message is restored.
5) Press the ENT Key to confirm message deletion.
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1.5 DISPLAY BACKLIGHTING
The PFD and MFD display backlighting, the PFD and MFD bezel, and the Audio Panel keys can be
adjusted manually in one of two ways:
•
Using the individual dimmer bus control for the desired display, or
•
The PFD Setup Menu and procedures below. In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be
adjusted from a PFD. In reversionary mode, adjustments can be made from remaining displays.
Figure 1-24 PFD Setup Menu
Adjusting display backlighting:
1) Press the PFD MENU Key to display the ‘PFD Setup Menu’. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted
next to ‘PFD1 Display’. If desired, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Auto’ next to
‘MFD Display’ or ‘PFD2 Display’.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value
is now highlighted.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting then press the ENT Key.
4) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Adjusting key backlighting:
1) Press the PFD MENU Key to display the ‘PFD Setup Menu’. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted
next to ‘PFD1 Display’.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘PFD1 Display’, ‘MFD Display’, or ‘PFD2 Display’,
as desired.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘PFD1 Key’,
‘MFD Key’, or ‘PFD2 Key’.
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4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Auto’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value
is now highlighted.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 OVERVIEW
NOTE: The Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) provides additional readouts and bugs on
selected flight instruments. Refer to the AFCS Section for details on these bugs and readouts,
as they appear on the display during certain AFCS modes.
The system increases pilot situational awareness by providing and easy-to-scan Primary Flight Display
(PFD) that features a large horizon, airspeed, attitude, altitude, vertical speed, and course deviation
information. In addition to the flight instruments, navigation, communication, terrain, traffic, and
weather information are also presented on the PFD and explained in other sections of this Pilot’s Guide.
The following flight instruments and supplemental flight data are displayed on the PFD:
•
Airspeed Indicator, showing
•
Indicated airspeed
•
True speed
•
Airspeed awareness ranges
•
Vspeed Reference Bugs
•
Attitude Indicator with slip/skid indication
•
Altimeter, showing
•
Trend vector
•
Barometric setting
•
Selected altitude
•
Vertical Deviation, Glideslope, and Glidepath Indicators
•
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
•
Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications
•
Outside air temperature (OAT)
•
International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) temperature deviation
•
Horizontal Situation Indicator, showing
•
•
Turn Rate Indicator
•
Bearing pointers and information windows
•
Navigation Source
•
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
•
DME Information Window (optional)
•
HSI Map
ADF/DME Tuning Window (Optional)
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•
•
Timer/References Window, Showing
•
Generic timer
•
Vspeed values
•
Barometric Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH)
Wind data
The PFD also displays various alerts and annunciations.
17
15
16
14
13
1
12
11
2
10
3
9
4
8
5
6
7
Figure 2-1 Primary Flight Display (Default)
56
1
Airspeed Indicator
10
Barometric Altimeter Setting
2
True Airspeed
11
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
3
Current Heading
12
Selected Altitude Bug
4
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
13
Altimeter
5
ISA Temperature Deviation
14
Selected Altitude
6
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
15
Navigation Status Box
7
Softkeys
16
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Selected Heading Bug
17
Attitude Indicator
9
Turn Rate Indicator
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11
10
9
8
1
2
7
3
4
5
6
Figure 2-2 Additional PFD Information
1
Selected Heading
7
Selected Course
2
Wind Data Box
8
Required Vertical Speed Indicator
3
HSI Map
9
Vertical Deviation Indication
4
Bearing Information Windows
10
VNV Target Altitude
5
Bearing Information Windows
11
Marker Beacon Annunciation
6
Minimum Descent Altitude/ Decision
Height
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2.2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ATTITUDE INDICATOR
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a white horizon
line. The Attitude Indicator displays the pitch, roll, and slip/skid information.
9
1
8
7
2
6
3
4
5
1
Roll Pointer
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
Aircraft Symbol
5
Land Representation
6
Pitch Scale
7
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
Figure 2-3 Attitude Indicator
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Above and below the horizon line, major pitch marks and
numeric labels are shown for every 10˚, up to 80˚. Minor pitch marks are shown for intervening 5˚
increments, up to 25˚ below and 45˚ above the horizon line. Between 20˚ below to 20˚ above the
horizon line, minor pitch marks occur every 2.5˚. When the Synthetic Vision System is activated, the
pitch scale is reduced to 10˚ up and 7.5˚ down; refer to the Additional Features section.
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚ and 60˚ and
minor tick marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the zero. Angle of bank is
indicated by the position of the pointer on the roll scale. When the optional Electronic Stability and
Protection System (Garmin ESP™) system is installed and enabled, additional indications also appear
on the roll scale; refer to the Additional Features Section for more information about Garmin ESP.
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the bar beneath the roll pointer. The indicator bar moves with the roll
pointer and moves laterally away from the pointer to indicate uncoordinated flight. Slip (inside the
turn) or skid (outside the turn) is indicated by the location of the bar relative to the pointer. One bar
displacement is equal to one ball displacement on a traditional Slip/Skid Indicator.
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Figure 2-4 Slip/Skid Indicator
The amber symbolic aircraft on the Attitude Indicator changes appearance based on selection of
AFCS Flight Director Command Bar format (see the AFCS Section for details). The Command Bar
format (single-cue or cross-pointer) may be selected from the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
NOTE: Synthetic Vision System Pathways are disabled if the cross-pointer is displayed.
Cross-pointer
Single-cue
Figure 2-5 Flight Director Format
Changing the Command Bar format:
1) Turn the FMS Knobs to select the ‘Aux’ page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux — System Setup 1’ Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Format Active’ setting in the ‘Flight Director’
box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired format.
’Single Cue’ to display the aircraft symbol and Command Bars as a single cue.
Or:
’X Pointer’ to display the aircraft symbol and Command Bars as a cross-pointer.
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AIRSPEED INDICATOR
NOTE: Refer to the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) for airspeed criteria and Vspeed values.
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The true airspeed
is displayed in knots below the Airspeed Indicator. The numeric labels and major tick marks on the
moving tape are marked at intervals of 10 knots. The minor tick marks on the moving tape are
indicated at intervals of 5 knots. Speed indication starts at 20 knots, with 60 knots of airspeed
viewable at any time. The indicated airspeed is displayed inside the black pointer. The pointer remains
black until reaching never-exceed speed (VNE), then it becomes red.
Airspeed
Trend
Vector
Vspeed
Reference
Bug
Low
Speed
Range
Indicated
Airspeed
Red Pointer with
VNE exceedance
Speed
Ranges
True
Airspeed
Figure 2-6 Airspeed Indicator Ranges
A color-coded (red, white, green, and amber) speed range strip is located on the moving tape. The
colors denote flaps operating range, normal operating range, caution range, and never-exceed speed
(VNE). A red range is also present for low speed awareness.
The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical magenta line that appears to the right of the color-coded
speed range strip when airspeed is either accelerating or decelerating. One end of the magenta line is
anchored to the tip of the airspeed pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down
corresponding to the rate of acceleration or deceleration. For any constant rate of acceleration or
deceleration, the moving end of the line shows approximately what the indicated airspeed value will
be in six seconds. If the trend vector crosses VNE, the number in the indicated airspeed pointer
changes to amber. The trend vector is absent if the speed remains constant or if any data needed to
calculate airspeed is not available due to a system failure.
The pilot can enable/disable the display of Vspeed Reference Bugs. When enabled, the Vspeed
Reference Bugs appear in their respective positions to the right of the airspeed scale. When the
indicated airspeed is below 20 knots, enabled Vspeeds Reference Bugs and their numeric values
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appear in a list at the bottom of the airspeed tape, ordered from highest to lowest. The pilot cannot
change the numeric values of the Vspeed Reference Bugs. The pilot can enable/disable all Vspeed
Reference Bugs as a group.
References Window
References Window Menu
Figure 2-7 References Window and Menu
Enabling/disabling individual Vspeed Reference Bugs:
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the On/Off field for the desired bug.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to On or counterclockwise to Off.
4) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
Enabling/disabling Vspeed Reference Bugs as a group:
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll as needed to highlight the desired selection.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the References Window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
ALTIMETER
The Altimeter displays barometric altitude values on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The pilot
can choose display units format for the Altimeter as feet or meters.
If the altitude is displayed in feet, the Altimeter shows 600 feet of barometric altitude at a time, with
numeric labels and major tick marks displayed at intervals of 100 feet. Minor tick marks are at
intervals of 20 feet.
If the altitude is displayed in meters, the Altimeter shows 180 meters of barometric altitude at a time,
with numeric labels and major tick market displayed at intervals of 50 meters. Minor tick marks are at
intervals of 10 meters.
The Indicated Altitude is displayed in the black pointer.
The Selected Altitude is displayed above the Altimeter in the box indicated by a selection bug
symbol. A bug corresponding to this altitude is shown on the tape; if the Selected Altitude exceeds the
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range shown on the tape, the bug appears at the upper or lower edge of the tape. See the AFCS Section
for more information about the Selected Altitude.
Selected
Altitude
Indicated
Altitude
Altitude
Trend
Vector
Selected
Altitude
Bug
MDA/DH
Altitude
Bug
Barometric
Setting
(in. HG)
Altitude display units
selection
Altimeter in Meters
Altimeter in Feet
Figure 2-8 Altimeter Shows Feet or Meters
Selected Altitude in
Meters Overlay
Selected Altitude in
Feet Overlay
Indicated Altitude in
Meters Overlay
Indicated Altitude in
Feet Overlay
Altimeter in Feet with Metric
Overlays Enabled
Altimeter in Meters with Feet
Overlays Enabled
Figure 2-9 Altimeter with Altitude Units Overlays
Selecting the altitude display units:
1) Turn the FMS Knobs to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
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3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘ALT, VS’ datafield in the ‘Display Units’
Window.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight either ‘Feet(FT,FPM)’ or ‘Meters(MT,MPS)’ and
press the ENT Key. This setting affects altitude displays system-wide, in addition to
those shown on the PFD.
Setting the Selected Altitude:
1) Turn the ALT SEL Knob to set the Selected Altitude. If the Altimeter display units are set
to feet, the Selected Altitude increments are 100 feet. If the Altimeter is set to Metric,
the Selected altitude increments are 50 meters. When the altitude units overlays are
enabled, the increments alternate between a rounded value of feet or meters while
turning the ALT SEL Knob. If set, the Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height
(MDA/DH) value is also available for the Selected Altitude.
2) If set, the Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height (MDA/DH) value is also available
for the Selected altitude.
The pilot can choose to display overlays for the indicated altitude and Selected Altitude using alternate
display units. For example, if the Altimeter is displaying feet, the system can show a metric overlay for
the indicated and selected altitudes without changing the scale or display units of the Altimeter.
Enabling altitude units overlays:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys..
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
3) Press the Meters or Feet Softkeyto enable/disable the altitude overlays.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury (in Hg) or
hectopascals (hPa) when metric units are selected. Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates
discontinuities in VNV vertical deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take
several minutes for the aircraft to re-establish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a
waypoint with a VNV Target Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to
meet the vertical constraint.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not
operate properly with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height
above mean sea level, or the standard pressure setting, as applicable.
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
Turn the BARO Knob to select the desired setting.
Selecting standard barometric pressure (29.92 in Hg):
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the STD Baro Softkey.
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Figure 2-10 Standard Barometric Setting
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
3) Press the IN Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in inches of mercury (in
Hg).
Or:
Press the HPA Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in hectopascals (hPa).
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
If the barometric altimeter settings differ between PFDs by more than 0.02 Hg, the readouts become
amber. The settings can be synchronized from the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD. Once the
settings are synchronized, the readouts change from amber to cyan.
Barometric Settings
not Synchronized on PFDs
Displayed in Amber
Figure 2-11 Barometric Setting on PFDs not Synchronized
Synchronizing the altimeter barometric pressure settings:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘BARO’ in the ‘Synchronization’ box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ‘On’ or counterclockwise to ‘Off’.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Turn the small FMS Knob to change the altitude.
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9) Press the ENT Key.
10) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob.
The Baro Transition Alerts flash the barometric pressure setting to remind the pilot to change the
barometric pressure setting to or from standard. Two alerts are available. The altitude Baro Transition
Alert occurs when climbing through the transition altitude beginning at 200 feet below this altitude. The
flight level Baro Transition Alert occurs when descending through the transition flight level beginning at
200 feet above this flight level. The barometric pressure setting stops flashing after the pilot changes the
barometric pressure setting. The pilot can enable/disable either Baro Transition Alert, and choose the
altitude or flight level used to trigger the alerts.
Setting the Baro Transition Alerts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) To enable/disable the Baro Transition Alert based on altitude, turn the large FMS Knob
to highlight the ‘On’ or ‘Off’ field for the BARO Transition Alert Altitude in the ‘BARO
Transition Alert’ Box.
4) If desired, turn the small FMS Knob to set the BARO Transition Alert Altitude ‘On’ or
‘Off’.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Altitude’ field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to change the altitude and press the ENT Key to accept or press the
CLR Key to return to the previous altitude selection.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘On’ or ‘Off’ field for the BARO Transition
Alert Level.
8) If desired, turn the small FMS Knob to set the BARO Transition Alert Flight Level ‘On’ or
‘Off’.
9) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Flight Level’ field.
10) Use the FMS Knobs to change the Flight Level for the alert and press the ENT Key to
accept or press the CLR Key to return to the previous altitude selection.
11) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator is only available on GPS approaches supporting SBAS vertical
guidance when SBAS is available.
The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) displays the aircraft vertical speed using a non-moving tape. The
current vertical speed is displayed in the pointer along the tape. The pilot can choose the display units
format for the VSI and altimeter as feet or meters.
If the VSI is displayed in feet, numeric labels with major tick marks appear at 1000 and 2000 feet per
minute. Minor tick marks appear for every 500 fpm. If the current vertical speed is at least 100 fpm,
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digits appear in the pointer. If the rate of ascent/descent exceeds 2000 fpm, the pointer appears at the
corresponding edge of the tape while displaying the current vertical speed numerically.
If the VSI is displayed in meters, numeric labels with major tick marks appear at 5 and 10 meters per
second. Minor tick marks appear for every 2.5 meters per second. If the current vertical speed it least
0.5 meters per second, digits appear in the pointer. If the rate of ascent or descent exceeds 10 meters per
second, the pointer appears at the corresponding edge of the tape while displaying the current vertical
speed numerically.
A magenta chevron bug is displayed as the Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) for reaching a
VNV Target Altitude once the “TOD [Top of Descent] within 1 minute” alert has been generated. See the
Flight Management Section for details on VNV features, and refer to the Supplemental Flight Data
discussion later in this section for more information about VNV indications on the PFDs.
VERTICAL DEVIATION
When Vertical Navigation (VNV) is being used, the Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) appears to the
left of the altimeter and is displayed with a magenta ‘V’ at the top of the scale and a magenta chevron
indicating the baro-VNAV vertical deviation. The VDI appears in conjunction with the “TOD within 1
minute” alert. The VDI is removed from the display if vertical deviation becomes invalid. See the Flight
Management Section for details on VNV features, and refer to the Supplemental Flight Data discussion
later in this section for more information about VNV indications on the PFDs.
The Glideslope Indicator appears to the left of the Altimeter whenever an ILS frequency is tuned in
the active NAV field and the selected course and heading are within 107°. A green diamond acts as the
Glideslope Indicator, like a glideslope needle on a conventional indicator. If a localizer frequency is
tuned and there is no glideslope, “NO GS” is displayed in place of the diamond.
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Scale
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Marker
Beacon
Annunciation
Glideslope
Indicator
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Figure 2-12 Vertical Speed and Deviation Indicator (VSI and VDI) and Glideslope Indicator
The Glidepath Indicator is a vertical deviation scale for RNAV GPS approaches supporting SBAS
vertical guidance (LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LPV, LP+V). The Glidepath Indicator, a magenta diamond appears
on the display as soon as the Final Approach Fix (FAF) becomes the active waypoint, and FMS is the
selected navigation source. Full-scale deflection (two dots), is angular with upper and lower limits.
The upper limit is +/-492 feet (150 meters) and lower limits depend on approach service level.
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•
LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V, LP+V is +/- 148 feet (45 meters).
•
LPV is +/- 49 feet (15 meters).
If the approach downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the
diamond.
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator appears on the display as soon as the Final Approach Fix (FAF)
becomes the active waypoint. Depending on procedure design, pilot action, and/or ATC
clearance, the aircraft may be centered on or above the glidepath when the Glidepath
Indicator appears.
While executing an SBAS approach with an LNAV/VNAV approach service level, and between the
FAF and MAP, the Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators appear as vertical white lines indicating the area
where deviation exceeds allowable limits for the glidepath. The Vertical Deviation Limit Indicator
provides a scaled representation of +/- 75 feet of the calculated glidepath. The “window” between the
lines represents the area of acceptable deviation. The length of the lines change while progressing
through the final approach. When the Glidepath Indicator enters an excessive deviation area, the
Glidepath and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators become amber.
Vertical
Deviation
Limit
Indicator
Glidepath
Indicator
Glidepath
Indicator
Vertical
Deviation
Limit
Indicator
(excessive
deviation)
Figure 2-13 Glidepath Indicator (Baro-VNAV) and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators
While executing an LNAV/VNAV approach and SBAS is unavailable or disabled, baro-VNAV
(barometric vertical navigation) is used for vertical guidance. This occurs due to any of the following
conditions:
•
SBAS fails or becomes unavailable prior to the FAF
•
The aircraft is outside of SBAS coverage
•
SBAS is manually disabled on the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
Baro-VNAV is also the source of vertical approach guidance if the LNAV/VNAV procedure does not
support SBAS vertical guidance.
While baro-VNAV is being used, the Glidepath Indicator appears as a magenta pentagon. If the
approach downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the
pentagon.
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Glidepath
Indicator
(BaroVNAV)
Figure 2-14 Glidepath Indicator with Baro-VNAV active
VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNV) INDICATIONS
When a VNV flight plan has been activated, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, RVSI, VDI) appear
on the PFD in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” message and “Vertical track” voice alert. See
the Flight Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features. VNV indications are removed
from the PFD according to the criteria listed in the table.
Top of Descent Message
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Phase of
Flight
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Figure 2-15 Vertical Navigation Indications (PFD)
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VNV Indication Removed
Required
Vertical
Speed
(RSVI)
Vertical
Deviation
(VDI)
VNV Target
Altitude
Aircraft > 1 min before the next TOD due to flight
plan change
X
X
X
VNV cancelled (CNCL VNV Softkey selected on
MFD)
X
X
X
Distance to active waypoint cannot be computed
due to unsupported flight plan leg type (see Flight
Management Section)
X
X
X
Aircraft > 250 feet below active VNV Target
Altitude
X
X
X
Current crosstrack or track angle error has
exceeded limit
X
X
X
Active altitude-constrained waypoint can not be
reached within maximum allowed flight path
angle and vertical speed
X
X
Criteria
Table 2-1 VNV Indication Removal Criteria
HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) displays a rotating compass card in a heading-up
orientation. Letters indicate the cardinal points with numeric labels every 30˚. Major tick marks are at
10˚ intervals and minor tick marks are at 5˚ intervals. A digital reading of the current heading appears
on top of the HSI. The HSI also presents turn rate, course deviation, bearing, and selected navigation
source information. The HSI is available in two formats: a 360˚ compass rose and a 210˚ HSI Map. The
HSI Map is mutually exclusive with the Inset Maps.
The HSI with the HSI map disabled presents a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) with a Course
Pointer, To/From Indicator, and a sliding deviation bar and scale. The Course Pointer is a single line
arrow (GPS, VOR1, and LOC) or a double line arrow (VOR2 and LOC2) which points in the direction
of the set course. The To/From Indicator rotates with the Course Pointer and appears when the system
is receiving the active NAVAID.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
15
14
13
1
12
2
3
11
4
5
10
6
9
7
8
1
Turn Rate Indicator
9
To/From Indicator
2
Current Track Indicator
10
Flight Phase
3
Course Pointer
4
Navigation Source
Course Deviation Indicator
(CDI)
12 Heading Bug
5
Aircraft Symbol
6
Lateral Deviation Scale
Turn Rate and Heading
Trend Vector
14 Current Heading
7
Rotating Compass Card
15
8
OBS Mode Active
11
13
Lubber Line
Figure 2-16 Horizontal Situation Indicator (360˚ HSI)
1
Turn Rate Indicator
9
To/From Indicator
2
Current Track Indicator
10
Flight Phase
3
Course Pointer
11
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
4
Navigation Source
12
Heading Bug
5
Aircraft Symbol
13
Turn Rate and Heading Trend Vector
6
Lateral Deviation Scale
14
Current Heading
7
Rotating Compass Card
15
Lubber Line
8
OBS Mode Active
The HSI Map is a 210 ˚ expanded compass rose which also includes a navigation map with overlay
capabilities such as topographical, weather, traffic, and land information. The HSI Map contains a
Course Pointer, a combined To/From Indicator with a sliding deviation indicator, and a lateral
deviation scale. Upon passing a station, the To/From Indicator points to the tail of the aircraft.
Depending on the navigation source, the CDI on the HSI Map can appear either as an arrowhead
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(GPS, VOR, OBS) as a diamond (LOC). Refer to the Flight Management Section for information about
using HSI Map overlays.
Lateral Deviation Scale
Flight Phase
Annunciation
Navigation Source
Course Deviation
Indicator and To/
From Indicator
Course Pointer
Figure 2-17 HSI Map Enabled
The following information appears above the Current Heading when the HSI Map is enabled:
A sliding deviation indicator (the To/From and deviation
indicators are combined)
OBS Mode/Suspend Mode Status
Deviation scale
Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode Annunciation
Navigation Source
Crosstrack Error (XTK)
Flight Phase
Back Course Annunciation (BC)
For the HSI Map, when a localizer is the active navigation source and the difference between the
selected course and current heading is greater than 107°, a ‘BC’ annunciation appears instead of the
Flight Phase above the selected course readout to indicate backcourse sensing is active. This
annunciation does not apply to the HSI when the HSI Map is disabled. In either case, when the system
detects LOC BC guidance is active, the localizer guidance behaves as if a front course were selected.
The Selected Course is shown to the upper right of the HSI for three seconds after being adjusted.
Enabling/disabling the HSI Map on the PFD:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the HSI Map Softkey to enable the HSI Map.
Or:
Press the Map Off Softkey to disable the HSI Map.
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Adjusting the selected heading:
1) Turn the HDG Knob to set the selected heading.
2) Press the HDG Knob to synchronize the bug to the current heading.
Adjusting the Selected Course:
1) Turn the CRS Knob to set the Selected Course.
2) Press the CRS Knob to re-center the CDI and return the course pointer to the bearing of
the active waypoint or navigation station (see OBS Mode for adjusting a GPS course).
The Selected Course is shown to the upper right of the HSI for 3 seconds after being adjusted.
Current Track Indicator
Current Heading
Selected Heading
Selected Course
Selected Heading Bug
Figure 2-18 Heading and Course Indications
The Current Track Indicator, represented by a magenta diamond on the HSI, is the current over the
ground track the aircraft is flying.
Navigation angles (track, heading, course, bearing) are corrected to the computed magnetic variation
(Mag Var) or referenced to true north (T), set on the ‘AUX - System Setup 1’ Page. When an approach
referenced to true north has been loaded into the flight plan, the system generates a message to change
the navigation angle setting to True at the appropriate time.
Figure 2-19 Heading and Course Indications (True)
Changing the navigation angle true/magnetic setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘AUX - System Setup 1‘ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Nav Angle’ in the ‘Display Units’ box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
72
•
True - References angles to true north (T)
•
Magnetic - Angles corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag Var)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
NOTE: During a heading change of greater than 105˚ with respect to the course, the CDI on
the Arc HSI switches to the opposite side of the deviation scale and displays reverse sensing.
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer along a lateral
deviation scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data is not
valid, the CDI is not displayed.
Navigation
Source
Flight
Phase
Scale
Crosstrack
Error
CDI
Figure 2-20 Course Deviation Indicator
The CDI can display two sources of navigation, GPS or VOR/LOC. Color indicates the current
navigation source, magenta for GPS and green for VOR and LOC. The full scale limits for the CDI are
defined by a GPS-derived distance when coupled to GPS. When navigating using a VOR or localizer
(LOC), the CDI uses the same angular limits as a mechanical CDI. If the CDI exceeds the maximum
deviation on the scale (two dots) while navigating with GPS, the crosstrack error (XTK) is displayed
below the white aircraft symbol.
Figure 2-21 Navigation Sources
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
NAV1 Selected for Tuning
FMS
Selected
LOC1
Selected
NAV2 Selected for Tuning
VOR2
Selected
Pressing the CDI Softkey
Cycles through
Navigation Sources
Figure 2-22 Selecting a Navigation Source
Changing navigation sources:
1) Press the CDI Softkey to change from FMS to VOR1 or LOC1. This places the cyan
tuning box over the NAV1 standby frequency in the upper left corner of the PFD.
2) Press the CDI Softkey again to change from VOR1 or LOC1 to VOR2 or LOC2. This
places the cyan tuning box over the NAV2 standby frequency.
3) Press the CDI Softkey a third time to return to FMS.
The system automatically switches from FMS to LOC navigation source and changes the CDI scaling
accordingly when all of the following occur:
•
A localizer or ILS approach has been loaded into the active flight plan
•
The final approach fix (FAF) is the active waypoint, the FAF is less than 15 nm away, and the aircraft
is moving toward the FAF
•
A valid localizer frequency has been tuned
•
The FMS CDI deviation is less than 1.2 times full-scale deflection
FMS steering guidance is still provided after the CDI automatically switches to LOC until LOC
capture, up to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) for an ILS approach, or until FMS information becomes
invalid. Activating a Vector-to-Final (VTF) also causes the CDI to switch to LOC navigation source.
FMS steering guidance is not provided after this switch.
On some ILS approaches where the glideslope intercept point is at or in close proximity to the fix
prior to the FAF, it is possible to be above the glideslope when the navigation source automatically
switches from FMS to LOC. The probability of this occurring varies based on air temperature.
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Fix Prior to the FAF
Glideslope Intercept Point
Figure 2-23 ILS Approach with Glideslope Intercept Point at Fix Prior to the FAF
If the same VOR/LOC navigation source is selected on both PFDs, the navigation source
annunciation becomes amber on both displays if not synchronized. Once the CDIs are synchronized
(CDI Synchronization turned on), they remain synchronized until the selection is turned off.
Synchronizing the CDIs:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page using the FMS Knob.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the CDI On/Off option in the Synchronization
box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ‘On’ or counterclockwise to ‘Off’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
GPS CDI SCALING (FMS NAVIGATION SOURCE)
When FMS is the selected navigation source, the flight plan legs are sequenced automatically and
annunciations appear on the HSI for the flight phase. Flight phase annunciations are normally shown
in magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the color changes to amber. If the current leg in the
flight plan is a heading leg, ‘HDG LEG’ is annunciated in magenta beneath the aircraft symbol.
The current GPS CDI scale setting is displayed as ‘System CDI’ on the AUX - System Setup Page and
the full-scale deflection setting may also be changed (2.0 nm, 1.0 nm, 0.3 nm, or Auto) from this page.
If the selected scaling is smaller than the automatic setting for enroute and terminal phases, the CDI is
scaled accordingly and the selected setting is be displayed rather than the flight phase annunciation.
When set to Auto (default), the GPS CDI scale automatically adjusts to the desired limits based upon
the current phase of flight.
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75
Refer to accompanying
approach CDI scaling figures
Enroute
Departure
Terminal
(Oceanic if >200 nm
from nearest airport)
Terminal
Approach
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
1.0 nm
0.3 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Missed
Approach
Figure 2-24 Automatic CDI Scaling
•
Once a departure procedure is activated, the CDI is scaled for departure (0.3 nm).
•
The system switches from departure to terminal CDI scaling (1.0 nm) under the following
conditions:
The next leg in the procedure is not aligned with the departure runway
The next leg in the departure procedure is not CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF
(see Glossary for leg type definitions)
After any leg in the departure procedure that is not CA or FA
•
At 30 nm from the departure airport the enroute phase of flight is automatically entered and CDI
scaling changes to 2.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
When navigating with an active departure procedure, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change
until the aircraft arrives at the last departure waypoint (if more than 30 nm from the departure
airport) or the leg after the last departure waypoint has been activated or a direct-to waypoint is
activated.
•
If after completing the departure procedure the nearest airport is more than 200 nm away from the
aircraft and the approach procedure has not yet commenced, the CDI is scaled for oceanic flight (4.0
nm).
•
Within 31 nm of the destination airport (terminal area), the CDI scale gradually ramps down from
2.0 nm to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
Upon reaching the first waypoint of an arrival route that is more than 31 nm from the destination
airport, the flight phase changes to terminal and the CDI scale begins to transition down from 2.0
nm to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm.
•
During approach, the CDI scale ramps down even further (see Figures Below). This transition
normally occurs within 2.0 nm of the final approach fix (FAF). The CDI switches to approach scaling
automatically once the approach procedure is activated or if Vector-to-Final (VTF) is selected.
If the active waypoint is the FAF, the ground track and the bearing to the FAF must be within 45° of
the final approach segment course.
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2 nm
FAF
FAF
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2 nm
angle based
on database
information
course width
angle set
by system
350 ft
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
CDI scale is set to the smaller of 0.3 nm
or an angle set by the system
CDI Full-scale Deflection
CDI Full-scale Deflection
If the active waypoint is part of the missed approach procedure, the active leg and preceding missed
approach legs must be aligned with the final approach segment course and the aircraft must not have
passed the turn initiation point.
Landing
Threshold
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
Figure 2-25 Typical LNAV and LNAV+V Approach CDI Scaling/Typical LNAV/VNAV, LPV and LP
Approach CDI Scaling
•
When a missed approach is activated, the CDI scale changes to 0.3 nm.
•
The system automatically switches back to terminal scaling under the following conditions:
The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not aligned with the final approach path
The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or
TF
After any leg in the missed approach procedure that is not CA or FA
Flight Phase
Annunciation*
Automatic CDI Full-scale Deflection
Departure
DPRT
0.3 nm
Terminal
TERM
1.0 nm
Enroute
ENR
2.0 nm
Oceanic
OCN
4.0 nm
Approach (Nonprecision)
LNAV
1.0 nm decreasing to 350 feet depending on
variables (Figure 2-22)
Approach (Nonprecision with Advisory
Vertical Guidance)
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Flight Phase
Approach (LNAV/
VNAV)
Annunciation*
LNAV
Approach (LPV)
LPV
Approach (Nonprecision with Advisory
Vertical Guidance)
LP+V
Approach (LP)
Missed Approach
Automatic CDI Full-scale Deflection
1.0 nm decreasing to a specified course width,
then 0.3 nm, depending on variables (Figure
2-23)
LP
MAPR
0.3 nm
Table 2-2 Automatic GPS CDI Scaling
Changing the selected FMS CDI setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘AUX - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Format Allowed’ in the ‘GPS CDI’ box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
5) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
OBS MODE
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
Enabling Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode suspends the automatic sequencing of waypoints in a
GPS flight plan (GPS must be the selected navigation source), but retains the current “active-to”
waypoint as the navigation reference even after passing the waypoint. ‘OBS’ is annunciated to the
lower right of the aircraft symbol when OBS Mode is selected.
While OBS Mode is enabled, a course line is drawn through the “active-to” waypoint on the moving
map. If desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled,
the GPS flight plan returns to normal operation with automatic sequencing of waypoints, following the
course set in OBS Mode. The flight path on the moving map retains the modified course line.
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FMS
Selected
Extended
Course
Line
OBS Mode
Enabled
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Enables
OBS Mode
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Again
Disables OBS Mode
Figure 2-26 Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode
SUSP
Softkey
SUSP
Annunciation
Figure 2-27 Suspending Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
As the aircraft crosses the missed approach point (MAP), automatic approach waypoint sequencing is
suspended. ‘SUSP’ appears on the HSI at the lower right of the aircraft symbol. The OBS Softkey label
changes to indicate the suspension is active as shown in the following figure. Selecting the SUSP
Softkey, deactivates the suspension and resumes automatic sequencing of approach waypoints.
Enabling/disabling OBS Mode while navigating a GPS flight plan:
1) Press the OBS Softkey to select OBS Mode.
2) Turn the CRS Knob to select the desired course to/from the waypoint. Press the CRS
Knob to synchronize the Selected Course with the bearing to the next waypoint.
3) Press the OBS Softkey again to return to automatic waypoint sequencing.
TURN RATE INDICATOR
The Turn Rate Indicator is located directly above the rotating compass card. Tick marks to the left
and right of the lubber line denote half-standard and standard turn rates. A magenta Turn Rate Trend
Vector shows the current turn rate. The end of the trend vector gives the heading predicted in 6
seconds, based on the present turn rate. A standard-rate turn is shown on the indicator by the trend
vector stopping at the standard turn rate tick mark, corresponding to a predicted heading of 18˚ from
the current heading. At rates greater than 4 deg/sec, an arrowhead appears at the end of the magenta
trend vector and the prediction is no longer valid.
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Standard
Turn Rate
Arrow Shown
for Turn Rate
> 4 Degrees
per Second
Half Standard
Turn Rate
Figure 2-28 Turn Rate Indicator and Trend Vector
BEARING POINTERS AND INFORMATION WINDOWS
Two bearing pointers and associated information can be displayed on the HSI for NAV and FMS
sources by pressing the PFD Opt Softkey then either the Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey. The bearing
pointers are cyan and are single-line (BRG1) or double-line (BRG2). A pointer symbol is shown in the
information window to indicate the navigation source. The bearing pointers never override the CDI
and are visually separated from the CDI by a white ring. Bearing pointers may be selected but not
necessarily visible due to data unavailability.
Tuning Mode
Frequency
Bearing 1
Pointer
Bearing 2
Pointer
Distance
DME Information Window
Distance to
Bearing Source
Bearing
Source
Station
Pointer
Identifier
Icon
Bearing 1 Information Window
Pointer
Icon
Bearing
Source
Bearing 2 Information Window
Figure 2-29 HSI with Bearing and DME Information
When a bearing pointer is displayed, its associated information window is also displayed. The
Bearing Information windows are displayed to the lower sides of the HSI and display the following
information:
Bearing source (NAV, FMS, ADF)
GPS-derived great circle distance to bearing
source
Pointer icon (BRG1 = single line, BRG2 = double
line)
Frequency (NAV)
Station/waypoint identifier (NAV, FMS)
When the NAV radio is tuned to an ILS frequency the bearing source and the bearing pointer is
removed from the HSI. When NAV1 or NAV2 is the selected bearing source, the frequency is replaced
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by the station identifier when the station is within range. If GPS is the bearing source, the active
waypoint identifier is displayed in lieu of a frequency.
The bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and “NO DATA” is displayed in the information
window if the NAV radio is not receiving the tuned VOR station or if GPS is the bearing source and an
active waypoint is not selected.
Selecting bearing display and changing sources:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey to display the desired bearing pointer and
information window with a NAV source.
3) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey again to change the bearing source to
FMS.
4) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey a third time to change the bearing source
to ADF (note: ADF radio installation is optional).
5) To remove the bearing pointer and information window, press either Bearing 1 or
Bearing 2 Softkey again.
DME INFORMATION WINDOW
The DME Information Window is displayed above the BRG1 Information Window on the 360˚ HSI
and in a box above and along side the Arc HSI. It shows the DME label, tuning mode (NAV1, NAV2, or
HOLD), frequency, and distance. When a signal is invalid, the distance is replaced by –.– – NM Refer to
the Audio Panel and CNS Section for information on tuning the DME.
NOTE: DME installation is optional.
Displaying the DME Information Window:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the DME Softkey to display the DME Information Window above the BRG1
Information Window.
3) To remove the DME Information Window, press the DME Softkey again.
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2.3 SUPPLEMENTAL FLIGHT DATA
In addition to the flight instruments, the PFD also displays various supplemental information,
including temperatures, wind data, and Generic Timer.
GENERIC TIMER
The generic timer can be accessed via softkeys on the PFD and allows for quick access for timing
functions (either counting up or down) for the pilot.
Setting the Generic Timer:
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the timer field (HH:MM:SS).
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time.
4) Press the ENT Key. The Up/Dn field is now highlighted.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the UP/DOWN Window.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Up’ or ‘Dn’.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Start?’ is now highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to ‘Stop?’. If the timer is
counting DOWN, it will start counting UP after reaching zero.
9) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to
‘Reset?’.
10) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back
to ‘Start?’ and the digits are reset.
11) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
TEMPERATURE DISPLAYS
The Outside Air Temperature (OAT) and deviation from International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)
temperature are displayed in the lower left corner of the PFD. Both temperatures are displayed in
degrees Celsius (°C) or Fahrenheit (°F), depending on the selected temperature units on the ‘Aux System Setup 1’ Page.
Figure 2-30 Air Temperatures
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Changing temperature display units:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD using the FMS Knob.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Temperature datafield in the ‘Display Units’
box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight either ‘Celsius’ or ‘Fahrenheit’ and press the ENT
Key to confirm the selection.
5) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
WIND DATA
Wind direction and speed (relative to the aircraft) in knots can be displayed in a window to the
upper left of the HSI. When the window is selected for display, but wind information is invalid or
unavailable, the window shows “NO WIND DATA”. Wind data can be displayed in three different
ways:
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
No Data
Figure 2-31 Wind Data
Displaying wind data:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Wind Softkey to display wind data to the left of the HSI.
3) Press one of the Option Softkeys to change how wind data is displayed:
•
Option 1: Headwind/tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed components
•
Option 2: Wind direction arrow and speed
•
Option 3: Wind direction arrow with headwind/tailwind and crosswind components
To remove the window, press the Off Softkey.
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2.4 PFD ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTING FUNCTIONS
The following annunciations and alerting functions are displayed on the PFD. Refer to the Engine
Indication and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) Section for information on the Crew Alerting System
(CAS) and to Appendix A for more information on alerts and annunciations.
ALTITUDE ALERTING
The Altitude Alerting function provides visual and audio alerts when approaching the Selected
Altitude. Whenever the Selected Altitude is changed, Altitude Alerting is reset. Altitude Alerting is
based on the altitude information shown on the PFD. Altitude Alerting is independent of the AFCS.
The following occur when approaching the Selected Altitude:
•
Upon passing through 1000 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude Box changes to black
text on a cyan background, flashes for 5 seconds, and an aural tone is generated.
•
When the aircraft passes within 200 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude changes to
cyan text on a black background and flashes for 5 seconds.
•
After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the aircraft flies outside the deviation band (±200 feet of the
Selected Altitude), the Selected Altitude Box changes to amber text on a black background, flashes
for 5 seconds, and an aural tone is generated.
Within 1000 ft
Within 200 ft
Deviation of ±200 ft
Figure 2-32 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
LOW ALTITUDE ANNUNCIATION
NOTE: The Low Altitude Annunciation is available only when SBAS is available. This
annunciation is not shown unless HTAWS alerting is inhibited, has failed, or is unavailable.
When the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach using vertical
guidance, a Low Altitude Annunciation may appear if the current aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet
below the prescribed altitude at the FAF. A black-on-amber ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation appears to the
top left of the Altimeter, flashing for several seconds then remaining displayed until the condition is
resolved.
Figure 2-33 Low Altitude Annunciation on PFD
MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATIONS
Marker Beacon Annunciations are displayed on the PFD to the left of the Selected Altitude. Outer
marker reception is indicated in blue, middle in amber, and inner in white. Refer to the Audio Panel
and CNS Section for more information on Marker Beacon Annunciations.
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Outer Marker
Middle Marker
Inner Marker
Altimeter
Figure 2-34 Marker Beacon Annunciations
MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT ALERTING
For altitude awareness, a Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH), based on
barometric altitude, radar altitude, or temperature compensated can be set. When active, the altitude
setting is displayed to the lower left of the altimeter, with a bug at the corresponding altitude along the
altimeter (once the altitude is within the visible range of the tape). The following visual annunciations
alert the pilot when approaching the MDA or DH:
•
When the aircraft altitude descends to within 2500 feet of the MDA/DH setting, the BARO MIN, RA
MIN, or COMP MIN box appears with the altitude in cyan (or magenta for COMP MIN) text. The
bug appears on the altitude tape in cyan (or magenta for COMP MIN) once in range.
•
When the aircraft passes through 100 feet of the MDA/DH, the bug and text turn white.
•
Once the aircraft reaches MDA/DH, the bug and text become amber and the voice alert, “Minimums.
Minimums”, is heard.
Within 2500 ft
Within 100 ft
Altitude Reached
Barometric
Minimum
Bug
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Barometric
Minimum
Box
Figure 2-35 Barometric MDA/DH Alerting Visual Annunciations
Alerting is inhibited while the aircraft is on the ground and until the aircraft reaches 150 feet above
the setting for the alert. If the aircraft proceeds to climb after having reached the MDA/DH, once it
reaches 50 feet above the MDA/DH, alerting is disabled. The function is reset when the power is
cycled.
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Figure 2-36 BARO and TEMP COMP MDA/DH
Setting the Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height and bug:
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Minimums field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP.’ ‘OFF’ is selected by default.
Press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired altitude (from zero to 16,000 feet).
5) If TEMP COMP was selected, press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight the next field and then enter the temperature (-59˚C to 59˚C)
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
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2.5 GARMIN SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY (SVT)
GARMIN SVT (SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY)
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and
traffic avoidance. SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not
provide either the accuracy or reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan
maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
NOTE: Do not use the flight path marker as a flight director.
NOTE: Terrain alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South
latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s ability
to process the data representing the affected areas.
Garmin SVT™ (Synthetic Vision Technology) is an optional visual enhancement to the system. SVT
depicts a forward-looking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The
field of view is 29 degrees to the left and 35.5 degrees to the right. In Reversionary Mode, the field of
view is 21.5 degrees to the left and 35.5 degrees to the right. SVT information is shown on the Primary
Flight Display (PFD), or on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. The depicted
imagery is derived from the aircraft attitude, heading, GPS three-dimensional position, and a 4.9 arcsecond database of terrain, obstacles, and other relevant features. The terrain data resolution is 4.9 arcseconds, meaning that the terrain elevation contours are stored in squares measuring 4.9 arc-seconds
on each side, is required for the operation of SVT. Loss of any of the required data, including
temporary loss of the GPS signal, will cause SVT to be disabled (although the softkeys will still appear
functional) until the required data is restored.
The SVT terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical
map display), large water features, towers, wind turbines, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are
included in the obstacle database. Cultural features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad
tracks, cities, and state boundaries are not displayed even if those features are found on the MFD map.
The terrain display also includes a north–south east–west grid with lines oriented with true north and
spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation relative to the terrain.
Terrain-SVT, which is included with the Garmin-SVT option, or the optional Terrain Awareness and
Warning System (TAWS) provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the presence of terrain and
obstacle threats relevant to the projected flight path. Terrain alerts are displayed in red and yellow
shading on the PFD.
Garmin-SVT can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If SVT is
enabled when switching to Reversionary Mode, it will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The
standard, non-SVT PFD display will be shown in the interim.
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or
fidelity on which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must
not be predicated solely upon the use of the Garmin-SVT or TAWS-B terrain or obstacle data displays.
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Figure 2-37 Synthetic Vision Imagery
SVT OPERATION
SVT is activated from the PFD using the softkeys located along the bottom edge of the display.
Pressing the softkeys turns the related function on or off. When SVT is enabled, the pitch attitude scale
is reduced from 20 degrees up and down to 10 degrees up to 7.5 degrees down.
SVT functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. The PFD Opt Softkey leads into the PFD
function Softkeys, including synthetic vision. Pressing the SVT Softkey displays the SVT feature
softkeys. The softkeys are labeled Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, APT Sign, and Wire. The Back
Softkey returns to the previous level of softkeys. Synthetic Terrain must be active before any other SVT
feature may be activated.
Pathways, HDG LBL, APT Sign, and Wire Softkeys are only available when the Terrain Softkey is
activated (gray with black characters). After activating the Terrain Softkey, the Pathways, HDG LBL,
APT Sign, and Wire softkeys may be activated in any combination to display desired features. When
system power is cycled, the last selected state (on or off) of the Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, and
APT Sign softkeys is remembered by the system.
•
Pathways Softkey enables display of rectangular boxes that represent course guidance.
•
Terrain Softkey enables synthetic terrain depiction.
•
HDG LBL Softkey enables horizon heading marks and digits.
•
APT Sign Softkey enables airport signposts.
•
Wire Softkey enables aerial wire obstruction depiction.
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Activating and deactivating SVT:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Terrain Softkey. The SVT display will cycle on or off with the Terrain Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Pathways:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Pathways Softkey. The Pathway feature will cycle on or off with the
Pathways Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Horizon Headings:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the HDG LBL Softkey. The horizon heading display will cycle on or off with the
HDG LBL Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Airport Signs:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the APT Sign Softkey. Display of airport signs will cycle on or off with the APT
Sign Softkey.
Enabling/Disabling SVT Field of View on the Navigation Map:
1) While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the
‘Page Menu’ Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Map Settings’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Map’ Group options to ‘Field of View’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ page.
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SVT FEATURES
Selected
Altitude
Airport
Runway
Flight
Path
Marker
Airplane
Symbol
Zero
Pitch Line
(ZPL) with
Compass
Heading
Marks
Synthetic
Terrain
SVT
Softkeys
Figure 2-38 SVT on the Primary Flight Display
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude
deviation information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
AIRPORT SIGNS
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic
terrain display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately
15 nm from an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the
identifier until the aircraft is approximately eight nautical miles from the airport. Airport signs are
not shown behind the airspeed or altitude display. Airport signs are activated and deactivated by
pressing the APTSIGNS Softkey.
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Airport
Sign
without
Identifier
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
Airport
Sign with
Identifier
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
Figure 2-39 Airport Signs
FLIGHT PATH MARKER
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at
groundspeeds above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft
accounting for wind speed and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM is always available when the Synthetic Terrain feature is in operation. The FPM
represents the direction of the flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display,
while the airplane symbol represents the aircraft heading.
The FPM works in conjunction with the Pathways feature to assist the pilot in maintaining desired
altitudes and direction when navigating a flight plan. When on course and altitude the FPM is
aligned inside the pathway boxes as shown.
The FPM may also be used to identify a possible conflict with the aircraft flight path and distant
terrain or obstacles. Displayed terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s flight path extending above the
FPM could indicate a potential conflict, even before an alert is issued by TAWS. However, decisions
regarding terrain and/or obstacle avoidance should not be made using only the FPM.
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Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
Wind
Vector
Figure 2-40 Flight Path Marker
HORIZON HEADING
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows approximately 60 degrees of
compass heading in 30 degree increments on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and
digits appearing on the zero pitch line are not visible behind either the airspeed or altitude display.
Horizon Heading is used for general heading awareness, and is activated and deactivated by pressing
the HDG LBL Softkey.
PATHWAYS
Pathways provide a three-dimensional perspective view of the selected route of flight shown as
colored rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active flight plan.
The box size represents 700 feet wide by 200 feet tall during enroute, oceanic, and terminal flight
phases. During an approach, the box width is 700 feet or one half full scale deviation on the HSI,
whichever is less. The height is 200 feet or one half full scale deviation on the VDI, whichever is less.
The altitude at which the pathway boxes are displayed is determined by the higher of either the
selected altitude or the VNV altitude programmed for the active leg in the flight plan.
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude
deviation information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
The color of the rectangular boxes may be magenta, green, or white depending on the route of
flight and navigation source selected. The active GPS or GPS overlay flight plan leg is represented by
magenta boxes that correspond to the Magenta CDI. A localizer course is represented by green boxes
that correspond to a green CDI. An inactive leg of an active flight plan is represented by
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white[[ boxes corresponding to a white line drawn on the PFD maps or MFD map indicating an
inactive leg.
Selected
Altitude
Programmed
Altitudes
Figure 2-41 Programmed and Selected Altitude
Pathways provide supplemental glidepath/glideslope information on an active ILS, LPV, LNAV/
VNAV, and some LNAV approaches. Pathways are intended as an aid to situational awareness and
should not be used independent of the CDI, VDI, glide path indicator, and glide slope indicator.
They are removed from the display when the selected navigation information is not available.
Pathways are not displayed beyond the active leg when leg sequencing is suspended and are not
displayed on any portion of the flight plan leg that would lead to intercepting a leg in the wrong
direction.
DEPARTURE AND ENROUTE
Prior to intercepting an active flight plan leg, pathways are displayed as a series of boxes with
pointers at each corner that point in the direction of the active waypoint. Pathways are not
displayed for the first leg of the flight plan if that segment is a Heading-to-Altitude leg. The first
segment displaying pathways is the first active GPS leg or active leg with a GPS overlay. If this leg
of the flight plan route is outside the SVT field of view, pathways will not be visible until the
aircraft has turned toward this leg. While approaching the center of the active leg and prescribed
altitude, the number of pathway boxes decreases to a minimum of four.
Climb profiles cannot be displayed due to the variables associated with aircraft performance.
Flight plan legs requiring a climb are indicated by pathways displayed at a level above the aircraft
at the altitude selected or programmed.
DESCENT AND APPROACH
During an approach, Pathways be can shown for the programmed descent, level transition flight,
and at the Selected Altitude within the approach segments. When an approach providing vertical
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guidance is activated, the corresponding approach glideslope or glidepath will be displayed using a
color corresponding to the selected navigation source and conditions.
White Pathways represent the next segment of the approach that is not yet active. Magenta
Pathways represent the active segment with GPS as the navigation source. Green Pathways indicate
the ILS/LOC navigation source. During the arrival/approach phases of flight, gray pathways
indicate the anticipated preview glidepath/glideslope. The gray Approach Preview Pathways will be
displayed beginning at the start of the segment leading to the FAF waypoint. With active approach
vertical guidance, the selected altitude will be displayed as a level gray Pathway if the Selected
Altitude is lower than the glidepath/glideslope. The gray Selected Altitude Preview Pathways are
displayed until they converge with the green glideslope or magenta glidepath pathways. If
approach vertical guidance is not yet active, pathways at the Selected Altitude will be displayed in
magenta throughout the arrival/approach.
During an ILS approach, the initial approach segment is displayed in magenta at the segment
altitudes if GPS is the selected as the navigation source on the CDI. When switching to localizer
inbound with the LOC selected as the navigation source on the CDI, pathways are displayed in
green along the localizer and glideslope. VOR, LOC, BC, and ADF approach segments that are
approved to be flown using GPS are displayed in magenta boxes. Segments that are flown using
other than GPS or ILS, such as heading legs or VOR final approach courses are not displayed.
Selected Altitude
set for Enroute
Selected Altitude
set for Departure
Climbs NOT
displayed
by pathway
Non-programmed descents NOT displayed by pathway
TOD
Selected Altitude
for Step Down
Programmed descent
displayed by pathway
Selected Altitude or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
Figure 2-42 SVT Pathways, Enroute and Descent
MISSED APPROACH
Upon activating the missed approach, pathways lead to the Missed Approach Holding Point
(MAHP) and are displayed as a level path at the published altitude for the MAHP, or the selected
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altitude, whichever is the highest. If the initial missed approach leg is a Course-to-Altitude (CA)
leg, the pathways boxes will be displayed level at the altitude published for the MAHP. If the initial
missed approach leg is defined by a course using other than GPS, pathways are not displayed for
that segment. In this case, the pathways displayed for the next leg may be outside the field of view
and will be visible when the aircraft has turned in the direction of that leg.
Pathways are displayed along each segment including the path required to track course reversals
that are part of a procedure, such as holding patterns. Pathways boxes will not indicate a turn to a
MAHP unless a defined geographical waypoint exists between the MAP and MAHP.
FAF
Descent displayed
by pathway
Selected Altitude
or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
MAP Climbs NOT displayed
by pathway
Turn Segment
NOT displayed
by pathway
MAHP
Figure 2-43 SVT Pathways, Approach, Missed Approach, and Holding
RUNWAYS
WARNING: Do not use the Garmin SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining
the proximity of the aircraft to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path
angle during landing.
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these
runways are not displayed.
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Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding
terrain. All runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database.
In some situations, where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be
layered. As runways are displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are displayed in
white. Other runways will be gray in color. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that
runway will appear brighter and be outlined with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation
as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft gets closer to the runway, more detail such as runway
numbers and centerlines will be displayed.
Other
Runway
on Airport
Airport
Runway
Figure 2-44 Airport Runways
TRAFFIC
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the SVT display or
may appear as a partial symbol.
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic
systems. Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting
closer, and smaller when they are further away. Traffic within 250 feet laterally of the aircraft will not
be displayed on the SVT display. Traffic symbols and coloring are consistent with that used for traffic
displayed in the Inset map or MFD traffic page. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not
be displayed on the SVT display. For more details refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard
Avoidance section.
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TERRAIN ALERTING
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward-looking Terrain Avoidance
(FLTA) alerts, and corresponds to the yellow terrain shading for a caution alert and the red shading
for a warning alert on the navigation maps and ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Pages. For
more detailed information regarding Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B, refer to the Hazard Avoidance
Section.
In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on
the synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVT field of view to the left or right of
the aircraft.
Terrain
Annunciation
Potential
Impact
Area
Figure 2-45 Terrain Alert
Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower or
wind turbine symbols found on map displays. Obstacle symbols appear in the perspective view with
relative height above terrain and distance from the aircraft. Unlike the map displays, which color
obstacles relative to the aircraft’s altitude, obstacles on the synthetic terrain display do not change
colors to warm of potential conflict with the aircraft’s flight path until the obstacle is associated with
an actual FLTA alert. Obstacles greater than 1000 feet below the aircraft altitude are not shown.
Obstacles are shown behind the airspeed and altitude displays.
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Obstacle
Cautions
Figure 2-46 SVT with Obstacle Cautions
WIREAWARE POWER LINE OBSTACLES
NOTE: The WireAware obstacle database does not contain all known power lines. And as
such, obstacle avoidance is the sole responsibility of the flight crew.
To enhance safety, SVT incorporates Garmin’s WireAware wire obstacle technology. WireAware
database information mainly includes Hazardous Obstacle Transmission (HOT) power lines which
are typically high voltage transmission lines depicted on the VFR Sectional charts, and are
considered of special interest to pilots. These include power lines which may span rivers, valleys,
canyons, or be in close proximity to airports/heliports. For wire obstacles present in the obstacle
database, the system shows these on the maps as well as the Synthetic Vision display; see Hazard
Avoidance section for more information about WireAware alerting.
ZERO PITCH LINE
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the horizon when the
terrain horizon is difficult to distinguish from other terrain being displayed. It may not align with the
terrain horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or when the aircraft is flown at high
altitudes.
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Potential
Impact
Area
Cautions
Figure 2-47 Wire Caution
FIELD OF VIEW
The PFD field of view can be represented on the MFD ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. Two dashed
lines forming a V-shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map, represent the forward viewing
area shown on the PFD.
The following figure compares the PFD forward looking depiction with the MFD plan view and
Field of View turned on.
Lines
depict
PFD Field
of View
SVT View on the PFD
Field of View on the MFD
Figure 2-48 PFD and MFD Field of View Comparison
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Enabling/Disabling SVT Field of View on the Navigation Map:
1) While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the
‘Page Menu’ Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Map Settings’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Map’ Group options to ‘Field of View’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ page.
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2.6 ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
ABNORMAL GPS CONDITIONS
The annunciations listed in the table below can appear on the HSI when abnormal GPS conditions
occur. Refer to the Flight Management Section for more information on Dead Reckoning Mode.
Annunciation
GPS LOI
GPS
INTEG OK
Location
Description
Right of HSI
Loss of Integrity Monitoring–
GPS integrity is insufficient for
the current phase of flight
Right of HSI
Integrity OK–GPS integrity has
been restored to within normal
limits (annunciation displayed
for 5 seconds)
Lower left of
aircraft
symbol if HSI
Map is
disabled, or
on aircraft
icon if HSI
Map enabled
Dead Reckoning–System is
using projected position rather
than GPS position to compute
navigation data and sequence
active flight plan waypoints
Table 2-3 Abnormal GPS Conditions Annunciated on HSI
Figure 2-49 Example HSI Annunciations
In Dead Reckoning Mode, the CDI is removed (when FMS is the selected navigation source), and the
following items on the PFD are then shown in amber:
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•
Current Track Bug
•
Wind Data
•
Distances in the Bearing Information windows
•
FMS bearing pointers
These items should be verified when operating in Dead Reckoning Mode and they become
increasingly inaccurate over time.
COMPARATOR ANNUNCIATIONS
The Comparator monitors critical values generated by redundant sensors. If differences in the
sensors exceed a specified amount, a miscompare annunciation is displayed in black text on an amber
background. If one or both of the sensed values are unavailable, a no compare annunciation is
displayed with black text on a white background. Refer to the Appendix A for more information on
alerts and annunciations.
Miscompare Annunciations
No Compare
Annunciations
Figure 2-50 Sensor Comparator Annunciations on the PFD
Annunciation
ALT
IAS
HDG
PIT
ROL
102
Condition
Difference in altitude sensors is > 200 ft.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 35 knots, and the difference in sensors is >
10 knots
If either airspeed sensor detects > 80 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 7
knots.
Difference in heading sensors is > 6 degrees.
Difference in pitch sensors is > 5 degrees.
Difference in roll sensors is > 6 degrees.
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Annunciation
ALT
IAS
HDG
PIT
ROL
Condition
No data from one or both altitude sensors.
No data from one or both airspeed sensors.
No data from one or both heading sensors.
No data from one or both pitch sensors.
No data from one or both roll sensors.
Table 2-4 Sensor Comparator Annunciations
REVERSIONARY SENSOR ANNUNCIATIONS
Reversionary sensor selection is annunciated on the upper left center of the PFD. These
annunciations reflect reversionary sensors selected on one or both PFDs. Pressing the PFD Opt Softkey
accesses the Sensors Softkey. Pressing the Sensors Softkey accesses the ADC and AHRS softkeys
These softkeys allow switching of the sensors being viewed on each PFD. With certain types of sensor
failures, the system may make some sensor selections automatically. The FMS sensor cannot be
switched manually.
Figure 2-51 Reversionary Sensor Annunciation
Reversionary Sensor
Window Text
Condition
BOTH ON ADC1
Both PFDs are displaying data from ADC1.
BOTH ON ADC2
Both PFDs are displaying data from ADC2
BOTH ON AHRS1
Both PFDs are displaying data from AHRS1.
BOTH ON AHRS2
Both PFDs are displaying data from AHRS2
BOTH
ON GPS1
BOTH
ON GPS2
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Both PFDs are displaying data from GPS1.
Both PFDs are displaying data from GPS2.
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Reversionary Sensor
Window Text
Condition
USING ADC1
PFD2 is displaying data from ADC1. Shown while PFD1 is displaying
data from ADC2.
USING ADC2
PFD1 is displaying data from ADC2. Shown while PFD2 is displaying
data from ADC1.
USING AHRS1
PFD2 is displaying data from AHRS1. Shown while PFD1 is displaying
data from AHRS2.
USING AHRS2
PFD1 is displaying data from AHRS2. Shown while PFD2 is displaying
data from AHRS1.
USING
GPS1
USING
GPS2
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 GPS.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 GPS.
Table 2-5 Reversionary Sensor Annunciations
SVT TROUBLESHOOTING
SVT is intended to be used with traditional attitude, heading, obstacle, terrain, and traffic inputs.
SVT is disabled when valid attitude or heading data is not available for the display. In case of invalid
SVT data, the PFD display reverts to the standard blue-over-brown attitude display.
SVT becomes disabled without the following data resources:
•
Attitude data
•
Heading data
•
GPS position data
•
4.9 Arc-second Terrain data
•
Obstacle data
•
TAWS function is not available, in test mode, or failed
•
The position of the aircraft exceeds the range of the terrain database.
SVT IN REVERSIONARY MODE
SVT can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If it is enabled
when switching to Reversionary Mode, SVT will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The standard,
non-SVT PFD display will be shown in the interim.
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
When the aircraft enters an unusual pitch attitude, red chevrons pointing toward the horizon warn
of extreme pitch. The chevrons are displayed on the Attitude Indicator, starting at 50˚ above and 30˚
below the horizon line.
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Nose High
Nose Low
Figure 2-52 Pitch Attitude Warnings
If pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚, some information displayed on the PFD is removed.
The Altimeter and Airspeed, Attitude, Vertical Speed, and Horizontal Situation indicators remain on
the display and the Bearing Information, Alerts, and Annunciation windows can be displayed during
such situations. The following information is removed from each PFD and their softkeys are disabled
when the aircraft experiences unusual attitudes:
Traffic Annunciations
System Time
Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height readout
AFCS Annunciations
PFD Setup Menu
Vertical Deviation, Glideslope,
and Glidepath Indicators
Inset Map
Windows displayed in the lower Altimeter Barometric Setting
right corner of the PFD:
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
— References Window
Selected Altitude
ISA temperature deviation
— Nearest Airports
VNV Target Altitude
Wind data
— Flight Plan
Ground Speed
Selected Heading readout
— Messages
True Airspeed
Selected Course readout
— Procedures
Transponder Status Box
SVT UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
During extreme pitch attitudes, the display shows either a brown or blue colored bar at the top or
bottom of the screen to represent earth or sky. The blue colored bar is also displayed when terrain
gradient is great enough to completely fill the display. This is intended to prevent losing sight of the
horizon during extreme pitch attitudes.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Blue Band
Terrain
Completely
Fills Display
Figure 2-53 Blue Sky Bar with Full Display Terrain
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
NOTE: Refer to the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) for limitations.
The Engine Indication System (EIS) displays electrical, fuel, engine, pressurization, flight control, and
landing gear information on the left side of the Multi Function Display (MFD).
EIS Display
Figure 3-1 Multi Function Display — EIS
In the event of a display failure, depending on the failed display(s), the display(s) operating in
Reversionary Mode may be re-configured to present Primary Flight Display (PFD) symbology together
with engine information (refer to the System Overview for more information about Reversionary Mode).
In Reversionary Mode, engine, pressurization, fuel, electrical, flight control, and landing gear data is
presented in an abbreviated format on the left of the display.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.1 ENGINE DISPLAY
1
10
1
2
2
11
3
12
3
13
4
14
4
5
15
6
5
16
6
7
17
10
11
7
18
8
9
8
16
9
Figure 3-2 EIS Display
13
14
15
18
17
Figure 3-3 EIS Display — Reversionary
1
Torque
Displays torque values in ft-lbs
2
Interstage Turbine
Temperature
The Interstage Turbine Temperature (ITT) Gauge ranges differ for
engine off/start and running conditions. Values between 200 and 1200
degrees Celsius (°C) are shown at engine start; values change from 200
to 900 °C when the engine is running. When in start mode the amber
band extends from 770 to 1000 °C. When the engine is running the
amber band extends from 771 to 800 °C and the red band is at
801 °C.
ITT Start
3
108
Propeller Speed
ITT Normal
Displays propeller speed in revolutions per minute (rpm)
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
4
Exhaust Gas
Temperature
Displays generator speed as a percentage of maximum safe operating
speed (rpm).
5
Oil Pressure
Indicator
Displays oil pressure in pounds per square inch (psi)
6
Oil Temperature
Indicator
Displays oil temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (°F)
7
Fuel Quantity
Indicator
Displays the amount of fuel in gallons (gal) for each side of a standard
fuel tank and displays total fuel quantity
8
Fuel Flow Indicator
Displays fuel flow in gallons per hour (gph)
9
Fuel Temperature
Indicator
Displays fuel temperature in degrees Celsius (°C)
10 Cabin Pressure
Cabin altitude (ALT FT) is shown on a color-coded scale labeled 0, 10,
and 15 in 1,000 of feet, with numerical digital values in feet displayed
below. Cabin altitude change rate (FPM) is displayed on a scale of
1,000-ft from plus (+) 1 to minus (-) 1 fpm with numerical digital
values in feet displayed below. (Only displayed in normal mode).
11 Differential Pressure Cabin pressure differential (DIFF PSI) is displayed in pounds per square
inch (psi) on a color-coded scale, with numerical digits in psi.
12 Destination
Elevation
The Destination Elevation is shown on the EIS display and in the ‘PFD
Timer References’ Window. The numeric digits on the EIS display are
shown in green. If data is invalid or not available, the digits are
replaced with a red X
13 Generator/
Alternator Current
Displays generator and alternator current are displayed in amperes
14 Voltage
Displays bus voltage on a horizontal scale
15 Vacuum
The Vacuum Gauge displays the amount of suction in the vacuum
system measured in inches of mercury (in Hg)
16 Rudder Trim
Rudder trim indication is shown along slide bar scales
17 Flaps
Flap position is displayed using a rotating pointer. Flap positions are
labeled 0°, 10°, 20°, and 36°. In Reversionary Mode, there is only a
numerical display shown for flap position.
18 Landing Gear
Displays landing gear position and status. Green dots indicate landing
gear down. White circles indicate landing gear up. Squares with white
cross-hatching indicate landing gear in transition. Red dots indicate
landing gear warning. The graphic presentation changes slightly in
Reversionary mode.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
LANDING FIELD ELEVATION
The Landing Field Elevation (DEST ELV) is shown on the EIS display and in the ‘PFD Timer
References’ Window. The numeric display on the EIS display is shown in green. If data is invalid or
not available, the digits are replaced with a red X
In the ‘PFD Timer References’ Window, cyan dashes are shown until a flight plan destination is
entered. Once a flight plan is entered, the Landing Field Elevation (LFE) is updated to display the
new value.
Setting the Landing Field Elevation (LFE):
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the LFE field.
3) With the LFE field highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to set the desired Landing Field
Elevation and press the ENT Key
4) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
Destination
Elevation
Figure 3-4 Destination Elevation
LFE
Figure 3-5 LFE - TMR/REF Screen
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.2 EIS DISPLAY (REVERSIONARY MODE)
In the event of a PFD or MFD display failure, the display(s) operating in Reversionary Mode are
configured to present PFD symbology together with the EIS Display (refer to the System Overview for
information about display reversionary mode).
EIS Display
Figure 3-6 Reversionary Mode
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 OVERVIEW
OVERVIEW
The Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) system includes the Audio Panel,
communication radios, navigation radios, and Mode S transponder. The System Overview Section
provides a block diagram description of the Audio Panel and CNS system interconnection.
CNS operation in the Bell 407 is performed by the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
•
Primary Flight Display (PFD)
•
Multi Function Display (MFD)
•
Integrated Avionics Unit (2)
•
Audio Panel
•
Mode S Transponder
The MFD/PFD controls are used to tune the communication transceivers and navigation radios.
The Audio Panel provides the traditional audio selector functions of microphone and receiver audio
selection. The Audio Panel includes an intercom system (ICS) between the pilot, copilot, and
passengers, a marker beacon receiver, and a COM clearance recorder.
The Mode-S transponder is controlled with softkeys and the FMS Knob located on the Primary
Flight Display (PFD). The Transponder Data Box is located to the left of the System Time Box. The
data box displays the active four-digit code, mode, and reply status (Figure 4-1).
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
MFD/PFD CONTROLS AND FREQUENCY DISPLAY
1
2
3
5
4
6
7
8
9
10
11
13
12
Figure 4-1 MFD/PFD Controls, NAV/COM Frequency Tuning Boxes, and DME Tuning
Window
114
1
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to turn the Morse code
identifier audio on and off. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a
percentage.
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
3
NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small
knob for kHz). Press to move the tuning box (light blue box) and Frequency Transfer Arrow
between NAV1 and NAV2.
4
NAV Frequency Box – Displays NAV standby and active frequency fields, volume, and
station ID. The frequency of the NAV radio selected for navigation is displayed in green.
5
COM Frequency Box – Displays COM standby and active frequency fields and volume. The
selected COM transceiver frequency is displayed in green.
6
COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz;
small knob for kHz). Press to move the tuning box (light blue box) and Frequency Transfer
Arrow between COM1 and COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies. Press
and hold this key for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz)
automatically into the active frequency field.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Press to turn the COM automatic
squelch on and off. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency field as a percentage.
9
DME Tuning Window – Displays DME frequency pairing mode. Display by selecting the
DME Softkey.
10 ENT Key – Validates or confirms DME mode and Auto-tune selection.
11 FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob, used to select DME modes, enter
transponder codes, and Auto-tune entries when the DME Tuning Window or NRST Window
is present. Press the FMS Knob to turn the selection cursor on and off. The large knob
moves the cursor in the window. The small knob selects individual characters for the
highlighted cursor location.
12 Transponder Data Box – Indicates the selected transponder code, operating mode, reply,
and ident status for the transponder.
AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
1
11
2
3
4
5
12
13
14
15
22
6
7
8
9
16
17
18
19
10
20
21
Figure 4-2 GMA 350c Audio Panel Controls
NOTE: When a key is selected, a triangular annunciator above the key is illuminated.
1
MKR/MUTE – Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker
beacon receiver audio. Deactivates automatically and marker beacon audio is heard when
the next marker beacon signal is received. Also, stops play of recorded COM audio
2
COM1 – When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard. Press and hold to
enable/disable monitored COM muting during primary COM reception.
3
COM2 – When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard. Press and hold to
enable/disable monitored COM muting during primary COM reception.
4
COM3 – When selected, audio from the #3 COM receiver can be heard. Press and hold to
enable/disable monitored COM muting during primary COM reception.
5
NAV1 – When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
6
AUX – When selected, audio from the AUX inputs can be heard.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
116
7
– Selects and deselects audio from a telephone or entertainment device connected to
the Front Panel Jack. Audio from a telephone device connected to the rear of the audio
panel is used if a device is not connected to the Front Panel Jack. Assigns the Bluetooth
audio source. Press the key until the annunciator turns blue. The
key
device to the
annunciator will cycle from OFF to GREEN to BLUE. GREEN selects the wired audio source
and BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source. NOTE: The Bluetooth audio can only be
assigned to one source at a time. Once the Bluetooth audio is assigned to an audio source,
the remaining entertainment audio sources will only cycle between OFF and GREEN.
8
MUS – Selects and deselects music entertainment audio. Assigns the Bluetooth device to
the MUS audio source. Press the MUS Key until the annunciator turns blue. The key
annunciator will cycle from OFF to GREEN to BLUE. GREEN selects the wired audio source
and BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source. NOTE: The Bluetooth audio can only be
assigned to one source at a time. Once the Bluetooth audio is assigned to an audio source,
the remaining entertainment audio sources will only cycle between OFF and GREEN
9
MAN SQ – Manual Squelch annunciator. When lit, intercom squelch is controlled manually.
10
Volume Indicator – Indicates volume/squelch setting relative to full scale.
11
Front Panel Jack – Used for an entertainment or telephone input.
12
MIC1 – Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously selected
when this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM receiver to be heard.
COM2 or COM3 receive can be added by pressing the COM2 or COM3 Key. Selection of a
second MIC button initiates Split-COM mode (using COM1/COM2 or COM1/COM3). When
in Split-COM mode, the pilot is using the lower numbered COM, the copilot is using the
higher numbered COM.
13
MIC2 – Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously selected
when this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM receiver to be heard.
COM1 or COM3 receive can be added by pressing the COM1 or COM3 Key. Selection of a
second MIC button initiates Split-COM mode (using COM1/COM2 or COM2/COM3). When
in Split-COM mode, the pilot is using the lower numbered COM, the copilot is using the
higher numbered COM.
14
MIC3 – Selects the #3 transmitter for transmitting. COM3 receive is simultaneously selected
when this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #3 COM receiver to be heard.
COM1 or COM2 receive can be added by pressing the COM1 or COM2 Key. Selection of a
second MIC button initiates Split-COM mode (using COM1/COM3 or COM2/COM3). When
in Split-COM mode, the pilot is using the lower numbered COM, the copilot is using the
higher numbered COM.
15
NAV2 – When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
16
PILOT – Controls the pilot intercom isolation.
17
COPLT – Controls the copilot intercom system. Press and hold to toggle copilot
configuration between crew and passenger.
18
PASS – Controls the passenger intercom system. Press and hold to enable/disable passenger
muting during reception.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
19
SPKR – Selects and deselects the cabin speaker. COM, NAV, MKR, AUX receiver audio and
playback audio can be heard on the speaker. Press and hold for 2 seconds for Passenger
Address (PA). The SPKR Key flashes during PA.
20
Cursor (CRSR) Control Knob – Turn to move the cursor (flashing green or blue
annunciator) to the desired source.
21
Volume (VOL) Control Knob – Turn the smaller knob to control volume or squelch of the
selected source (indicated by the flashing green or blue annunciator). When the volume
control cursor is not active press to switch to Blue-Select mode. If the volume control cursor
is active, press twice (once to cancel the cursor, once more to activate Blue-Select mode).
Press and hold for two seconds to enable the GMA 350Hc as discoverable for pairing. The
Bluetooth Annunciator with flash to indicate that the unit is discoverable. The unit will
remain discoverable for 90 seconds or until a successful pair is established. Once a successful
pair is established, the audio “Bluetooth paired” is played.
22
Bluetooth® Connection Annunciator – A flashing cyan annunciator indicates the unit is
discoverable. A solid cyan annunciator indicates an active Bluetooth connection.
MFD/PFD CONTROL UNIT
Tuning Selection
Box
1
13
12
11
10
9
2
8
3
7
6
5
4
Figure 4-3 MFD/PFD Control Unit and Frequency Tuning Display on the PFD
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
1
MENU Key – Displays a list of options for accessing additional features or making setting
changes.
2
Alphanumeric Keys – Allows data entry (rather than using the FMS Knob to select characters/
numbers).
3
BKSP Key – Moves cursor back one character space and removes last character entered.
4
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
5
CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus.
6
SEL Key – Arrows move cyan Softkey Selection Box on selected display. Press the center to
activate the selected softkey
7
Decimal Key – Enters a decimal point.
8
NAV Key – Selects NAV radio tuning mode on the MFD/PFD Control Unit. The NAV tuning box
is outlined with a cyan selection line when the NAV frequency is active on the control unit.
9
COM Key – Selects COM radio tuning mode on the MFD/PFD Control Unit. The COM tuning
box is outlined with a cyan selection line when the COM frequency is active on the control
unit.
10 Frequency Transfer Key (EMERG) – Transfers the standby and active COM or NAV frequencies.
Press and hold for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically
into the COM active frequency field.
11 PFD Key – When selected, the control unit is used to access PFD functions.
12 MFD Key – When selected, the control unit is used to access MFD functions (default control
mode).
13 FMS/NAV-COM Knob – NAV/COM Tuning Modes: Acts as the NAV or COM Knob. MFD/PFD
Control Modes: Acts as the FMS Knob.
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4.2 COM OPERATION
COM TUNING BOXES
1
2
3
4
5
7
6
8
Figure 4-4 COM Tuning Box Indications
NOTE: When turning on the system for use, the system remembers the last frequencies used
and the active COM transceiver state prior to shutdown.
1
Active Field – The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies
are on the left. An active COM frequency is displayed in green and indicates that the COM
transceiver is selected on the Audio Panel (MIC1 or MIC2 Key). Both active COM frequencies
appearing in white indicate that no COM radio is selected for transmitting (PA mode is
selected on the Audio Panel).
2
Frequency Transfer Arrow – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields
with the Frequency Tuning Box. Indicates which COM transceiver is selected for frequency
transfer between the Standby and Active fields.
3
Standby Field – The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two standby
frequencies are on the right. Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or
gray. The standby frequency in the tuning box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
4
Frequency Tuning Box – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields with
the Frequency Transfer Arrow. Indicates which COM transceiver is to be tuned in the Standby
Field.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
5
Automatic Squelch Indication – Indicates that Automatic Squelch is disabled. Automatic
Squelch quiets unwanted static noise when no audio signal is received, while still providing
good sensitivity to weak COM signals. When Automatic Squelch is disabled, COM audio
reception is always on. Continuous static noise is heard over the headsets and speaker, if
selected.
6
Transmit and Receive Indications – During COM transmission, a white TX appears by the
active COM frequency replacing the Frequency Transfer Arrow. During COM signal reception,
a white RX appears by the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency Transfer Arrow.
7
Frequency Spacing – The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975
MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel
configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel spacing is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing
frequencies are also available in the complete 3040-channel list.
8
COM Volume – COM radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ
Knob. Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise
decreases volume. When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the standby
frequencies. Volume level indication remains for two seconds after the change.
COM TRANSCEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The COM frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the right side of the MFD and PFD.
Manually tuning a COM frequency:
1) Turn the COM Knob to tune the desired frequency (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz).
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the COM VOL/SQ Knob.
4) Press the COM VOL/SQ Knob to turn automatic squelch on and off.
Manually tuning a COM frequency from the Control Unit:
1) Press the COM Key to select the COM frequency box.
2) Turn the NAV/COM Knob to tune the desired frequency in the COM Tuning Box (large
knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
3) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
AUTO-TUNING THE COM FREQUENCY
COM frequencies can be automatically tuned from the following:
•
Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
•
WPT – Airport Information Page
•
NRST – Nearest Airports Page
•
NRST – Nearest Frequencies Page (ARTCC, FSS, WX)
•
NRST – Nearest Airspaces Page
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE PFD
COM frequencies for the nearest airports can be automatically tuned from the Nearest Airports
Window on the PFD. When the desired frequency is entered, it becomes a standby frequency.
Pressing the Frequency Transfer Key places this frequency into the COM Active Frequency Field.
Press the
Nearest
Softkey to
Open the
‘Nearest
Airports’
Window
Figure 4-5 Nearest Airports Window
Auto-tuning a COM frequency for a nearby airport from the PFD:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey on the PFD to open the Nearest Airports Window. A list of
25 nearest airport identifiers and COM frequencies is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the list and highlight the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the COM Standby Frequency Field.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active
Frequency Field.
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE MFD
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the COM Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or
WPT page group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-6 Nearest Pages Menus
On the WPT - Airport Information Page, the cursor can be placed on the frequency field by pressing
the FMS Knob and scrolling through the list. With the desired frequency highlighted, press the ENT
Key to bring up the ‘Load Frequency’ Options menu. Use the FMS Knobs to select the desired COM
radio field and press the ENT Key to load it.
Selected Airport
Identifier and
Information
Runway
Information
Press ENT Key to load
frequency into PFD
COM Standby Field.
Cursor then advances
to the next frequency.
Select INFO Softkey for
AIRPORT, RUNWAYS,
and FREQUENCIES
Windows
Figure 4-7 WPT - Airport Information Page
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COM frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST - Nearest Airspaces, NRST - Nearest
Frequencies, and NRST - Nearest Airports Pages on the MFD in a similar manner using the
appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
Auto-tuning a COM frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the COM frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by
pressing the FMS Knob or pressing the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected
COM radio.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key on the PFD or MFD to transfer the frequency to the
COM Active Frequency Field.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor on the desired selection.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob or the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected
COM radio.
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active
Frequency Field.
FREQUENCY SPACING
The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing
(118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel
spacing is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in the complete
3040-channel list. COM channel spacing is set on the System Setup 1 Page of the Aux Page Group.
While the COM Configuration Window is selected, the softkeys are blank.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Select 8.33-kHz
or 25.0-kHz
COM Frequency
Channel Spacing
Figure 4-8 AUX - System Setup 1 Page
Changing COM frequency channel spacing:
1) Select the Aux – System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Channel Spacing Field in the COM
Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired channel spacing.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the channel spacing selection.
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4.3 NAV OPERATION
NAV TUNING BOXES
2
1
3
4
5
6
7
Figure 4-9 NAV Tuning Box Indications
1
Standby Fields – The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two standby
frequencies are on the left. Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or
gray. The standby frequency in the tuning box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
2
Frequency Transfer Arrow – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields
with the Frequency Tuning Box. Indicates which NAV transciever is selected for frequency
transfer between the Standby and Active fields.
3
Active Fields – The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies
are on the right. An active NAV frequency is displayed in green. The active NAV radio is
selected by pressing the CDI softkey on the PFD. Both active NAV frequencies appearing in
white indicate that no NAV radio is selected.
4
NAV Tuning Box – Moves between the upper and lower radio standby frequency fields with
the Frequency Transfer Arrow. Indicates which NAV transceiver is to be tuned in the Standby
Field. Moving the Frequency Tuning Box is accomplished by pressing the NAV knob on the
PFD.
5
VOR/LOC Morse Code Audio Indication – When the Morse Code Identifier audio is on for
a NAV radio, a white ID replaces the Frequency Transfer Arrow to the left of the active NAV
frequency. In order to listen to either station identifier, press the NAV1 or NAV2 Key on the
Audio Panel. Pressing the VOL/ID Knob turns on/off the Morse code audio only in the radio
with the NAV Tuning Box. To turn on/off both NAV IDs, transfer the NAV Tuning Box between
NAV1 and NAV2 by pressing the small NAV Knob and pressing the VOL/ID Knob again to
turn the Morse code off in the other radio.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
6
Decoded Morse Code Station Identifier – The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded
Morse Code station identifier that is received from the navigation source. Audio verification of
the selected station identifier is still required, and can be accomplished by selecting the
corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pressing the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
7
NAV VOLUME – NAV radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/ID
Knob. Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise
decreases volume. When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the standby
frequencies. Volume level indication remains for two seconds after the change.
NAV RADIO SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; two standby fields and two active fields. The
active frequencies are on the right side and the standby frequencies are on the left.
A NAV radio is selected for navigation by pressing the CDI Softkey located on the PFD. The active
NAV frequency selected for navigation is displayed in green. Pressing the CDI Softkey once selects
NAV1 as the navigation radio. Pressing the CDI Softkey a second time selects NAV2 as the navigation
radio. Pressing the CDI Softkey a third time activates GPS mode. Pressing the CDI Softkey again cycles
back to NAV1
While cycling through the CDI Softkey selections, the selected NAV standby frequency is selected for
tuning, the Frequency Transfer Arrow is placed in the selected NAV Frequency Field, and the active
NAV frequency color changes to green.
The three navigation modes that can be cycled through are:
•
VOR1 (or LOC1) – If NAV1 is selected, a green single line arrow (not shown) labeled either VOR1 or
LOC1 is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV1 frequency is displayed in green.
•
VOR2 (or LOC2) – If NAV2 is selected, a green double line arrow (shown) labeled either VOR2 or
LOC2 is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV2 frequency is displayed in green.
•
GPS – If GPS Mode is selected, a magenta single line arrow (not shown) appears on the HSI and
neither NAV radio is selected. Both active NAV frequencies are then displayed in white and the
previously selected NAV standby frequency remains selected for tuning.
See the Flight Instruments Section for selecting the DME and Bearing Information windows and
using VOR or ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code station identifier that is received from the
navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station identifier is still required, and can be
accomplished by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pressing the NAV
VOL/ID Knob.
NAV radios are selected for listening by pressing the corresponding keys on the Audio Panel.
Pressing the NAV1, NAV2, or AUX Key selects and deselects the navigation radio source. Selected
audio can be heard over the headset and the speakers (if selected). All radios can be selected
individually or simultaneously.
NAV RECEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The NAV frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the left side of the MFD and PFD.
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Manually tuning a NAV frequency:
1) Rotate the NAV Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box.
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active
Frequency Field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
4) Press the NAV VOL/ID Knob to turn the Morse code identifier audio on and off.
AUTO-TUNING A NAV FREQUENCY FROM THE MFD
NAV frequencies can be selected and loaded from the following MFD pages:
•
WPT – Airport Information
•
WPT – VOR Information
•
NRST – Nearest Airports
•
NRST – Nearest VOR
•
NRST – Nearest Frequencies (FSS, WX)
•
NRST – Nearest Airspaces
The MFD provides auto-tuning of NAV frequencies from waypoint and nearest pages. During
enroute navigation, the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV standby frequency field.
During approach activation the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV active frequency
field.
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or
WPT page group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
Auto-tuning a NAV frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the NAV frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by
pressing the FMS Knob or the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV identifier or NAV frequency.
3) On the Nearest VOR and Nearest Airports pages, press the FREQ Softkey to place the
cursor on the NAV frequency.
4) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV
radio.
5) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active
Frequency Field.
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Press the ENT
Key to load a
highlighted
Frequency into
the NAV Standby
Frequency Box
Turn the FMS Knob to
scroll through a list of
Frequencies
Figure 4-10 NAV Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
Or:
1) When on the NRST pages, press the MENU Key on the MFD control unit to display the
page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor in the desired window.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob or the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV
radio.
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active
Frequency Field.
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest VOR Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-11 Nearest Pages Menu
In the example shown, the VOR list is selected with the VOR Softkey or from the page menu. The
FMS Knob or ENT Key is used to scroll through the list. The cursor is placed on the frequency with the
FREQ Softkey and loaded into the NAV Tuning Box with the ENT Key.
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Press the ENT
Key to Load
the Frequency
into the NAV
Standby Field.
Select the VOR Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Identifier
Select the FREQ Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Frequency
Figure 4-12 Loading the NAV Frequency from the NRST - Nearest VOR Page
While enroute, NAV frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST - Nearest Airports, WPT Airport Information, WPT - VOR Information, and NRST - Nearest Frequencies Pages on the MFD in a
similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
AUTO-TUNING NAV FREQUENCIES ON APPROACH ACTIVATION
NOTE: The primary NAV frequency is auto-tuned upon loading a VOR or ILS/Localizer
approach.
NOTE: When an ILS/LOC approach has been activated while navigating by GPS, the system
automatically switches to LOC as the final approach course is intercepted (within 15 nm of
the FAF). See the Flight Management Section for details.
NAV frequencies are automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box on approach activation.
When loading or activating a VOR or ILS/LOC approach, the approach frequency is automatically
transferred to a NAV frequency field as follows:
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•
If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, the approach frequency is transferred to the NAV1
active frequency field. The frequency that was previously in the NAV1 active frequency field is
transferred to standby.
•
If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, and if the approach frequency is already loaded into the
NAV1 standby frequency field, the standby frequency is transferred to active.
•
If the current CDI navigation source is NAV1 or NAV2, the approach frequency is transferred to the
standby frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
MARKER BEACON RECEIVER (OPTIONAL)
NOTE: The marker beacon indicators operate independently of marker beacon audio and
cannot be turned off.
The marker beacon receiver is used as part of the ILS. The marker beacon receiver is always on and
detects any marker beacon signals within the reception range of the aircraft.
The receiver detects the three marker tones – outer, middle, and inner – and provides the marker
beacon annunciations located to the left of the Altimeter on the PFD.
Figure 4-13 Marker Beacon Key and Annunciator Lights
The Audio Panel provides three different states of marker beacon operation; On, Muted, and
Deselected. Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key selects and deselects marker beacon audio. The key
annunciator indicates when marker beacon audio is selected.
During marker beacon audio reception, pressing the MKR/MUTE Key mutes the audio but does not
affect the marker annunciations. The marker tone is silenced, then waits for the next marker tone. The
MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is illuminated, indicating audio muting. The audio returns when the
next marker beacon signal is received. If the MKR/MUTE Key is pressed during signal reception (O,
M, I indication) while marker beacon audio is muted, the audio is deselected and the MKR/MUTE
Key Annunciator is extinguished.
Pressing the HI SENS Key switches between high and low marker beacon receiver sensitivity. The HI
SENS function (annunciator illuminated) is used to provide an earlier indication when nearing a
marker during an approach. The LO SENS function (annunciator extinguished) results in a narrower
marker dwell while over a station.
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ADF/DME TUNING
NOTE: When another auxiliary window is turned on, the ADF/DME Tuning Window is
replaced on the PFD.
See the Flight Instruments Section for displaying the DME and bearing information windows (ADF)
and using the ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
The system tunes the ADF receiver (optional) and DME transceiver (optional). The ADF is tuned by
entering the frequency in the ADF standby frequency field of the ADF/DME Tuning Window. (The
softkey may be labeled ADF/DME, ADF, or DME, depending on installed equipment.)
The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a VHF NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is
automatic and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
The following ADF/DME information is displayed in the ADF/DME Tuning Window:
•
Active and standby ADF frequencies
•
ADF receiver mode
•
ADF receiver volume
•
DME tuning mode (DME transceiver pairing)
When the ADF/DME Tuning Window is displayed, the selection cursor is placed over the standby
ADF frequency field.
Turning the large FMS Knob moves the selection cursor through the various fields (standby ADF
frequency, ADF receiver mode, ADF radio volume, and DME tuning mode). Pressing the FMS Knob
activates/deactivates the selection cursor in the ADF/DME Tuning Window. The ADF frequency is
entered using the FMS Knob and the ENT Key.
Active ADF Frequency
ADF Mode
Standby ADF Frequency
ADF Volume
DME Tuning Mode
Figure 4-14 ADF/DME Tuning Window
ADF TUNING
ADF frequencies in the 190.0-kHz to 1799.5-kHz range are entered in the standby ADF frequency
field of the ADF/DME Tuning Window. The system does not tune the ADF emergency frequency,
2182.0 kHz.
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Pressing the CLR Key before completing frequency entry cancels the frequency change and reverts
back to the previously entered frequency.
The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a VHF NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is
automatic and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
Pressing the CLR Key when the cursor is flashing, clears the frequency and replaces the standby field
with 0000.0.
Figure 4-15 Entering ADF Standby Frequencies
Press the ENT
Key to Transfer
the ADF
Frequencies
Figure 4-16 Transfer ADF Frequencies
Tuning ADF Frequency:
1) Press the ADF/DME Softkey to display the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the standby ADF frequency
field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to begin data entry and change each digit.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next digit position.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete data entry for the standby frequency.
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Tranferring the active and standby ADF frequencies:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the standby ADF frequency
field.
2) Press the ENT Key to complete the frequency transfer.
SELECTING ADF RECEIVER MODE
The following modes can be selected: (In all modes NDB audio can be heard by selecting the ADF
Key on the Audio Panel.)
•
ANT (Antenna) – The ADF bearing pointer parks on the HSI at 90 degrees. Best mode for listening
to NDB audio.
•
ADF (Automatic Direction Finder) – The ADF pointer points to the relative bearing of the NDB
station.
•
ADF/BFO (ADF/Beat Frequency Oscillator) – The ADF pointer points to the relative bearing of the
NDB station and an audible tone confirms signal reception. This mode allows identification of the
interrupted carrier beacon stations used in various parts of the world.
•
ANT/BFO (Antenna/Beat Frequency Oscillator) – The ADF bearing pointer parks on the HSI at 90
degrees while an audible tone is provided when a signal is received. This mode also allows
identification of the interrupted carrier beacon stations and confirms signal reception.
Turn the Small FMS Knob
to Select the Mode
Figure 4-17 Selecting ADF Receiver Mode
Adjusting ADF receiver volume:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the ADF volume field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust volume as desired.
Selecting ADF Receiver Mode:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the ADF mode field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired ADF receiver mode.
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DME TUNING
NOTE: When turning on the G1000 NXi for use, the system remembers the last frequency
used for DME tuning and the NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD state prior to shutdown.
The system tunes the optional DME transceiver. The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a
VHF NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is automatic and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
The DME Tuning Window is located to the right of the HSI in the lower right corner of the PFD. The
DME transceiver is tuned by selecting NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD in the DME Tuning Window. Pressing
the ADF/DME or DME Softkey switches the DME Tuning Window on and off.
DME
Modes
Figure 4-18 ADF/DME Tuning Window
The following DME transceiver pairing can be selected:
•
NAV1 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV1 frequency.
•
NAV2 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV2 frequency.
•
HOLD – When in the HOLD position, the DME frequency remains paired with the last selected NAV
frequency.
Pressing the CLR Key or FMS Knob while in the process of DME pairing cancels the data entry and
reverts back to the previously selected DME tuning state. Pressing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates
the cursor in the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
See the Flight Instruments Section for displaying the DME information window.
Selecting DME transceiver pairing:
1) Press the ADF/DME or DME Softkey to display the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the DME tuning mode.
3) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
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4.4 MODE S TRANSPONDER
The system is equipped with 1 or 2 Mode S Transponders. The Mode S Transponders provide Mode A,
Mode C, and Mode S interrogation and reply capabilities. Selective addressing or Mode Select (Mode S)
capability includes the following features:
•
Level-2 reply data link capability (used to exchange information between aircraft and ATC facilities)
•
Surveillance identifier capability
•
Flight ID (Flight Identification) reporting – The Mode S Transponder reports aircraft identification as
either the aircraft registration or a unique Flight ID.
•
Altitude reporting
•
Airborne status determination
•
Transponder capability reporting
•
Mode S Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) requirements
•
Acquisition squitter – Acquisition squitter, or short squitter, is the transponder 24-bit identification
address. The transmission is sent periodically, regardless of the presence of interrogations. The purpose
of acquisition squitter is to enable Mode S ground stations and aircraft equipped with a Traffic
Avoidance System (TAS) to recognize the presence of Mode S equipped aircraft for selective
interrogation.
•
Extended squitter – The extended squitter is transmitted periodically and contains information such as
altitude (barometric and GPS), GPS position, and aircraft identification. The purpose of extended
squitter is to provide aircraft position and identification to ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs)
and other aircraft.
The Hazard Avoidance Section provides more details on traffic avoidance systems.
TRANSPONDER CONTROLS
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Mode Selection,
and Code Selection. When the top-level XPDR Softkey is pressed, the following XPDR and Mode
Selection softkeys appear: XPDR1, XPDR2 (Optional),Standby, On, ALT, VFR, Code, Ident, Back.
When the Code Softkey is pressed, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, Ident, BKSP,
Back. The digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Pressing the numbered softkeys in sequence
enters the transponder code. If an error is made, pressing the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection
cursor to the previous digit. Pressing the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous
digit.
Pressing the Back Softkey during code selection reverts to the Mode Selection Softkeys. Pressing the
Back Softkey during mode selection reverts to the top-level softkeys.
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on the PFD. Code entry must be completed with
either the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
Pressing the Ident Softkey while in Mode or Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to
the top-level softkeys.
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
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Figure 4-19 XPDR Softkeys (PFD)
When turning on the system for use, the system activates Transponder 1 as the default unit,
regardless of which transponder was active prior to shutdown. When switching between Transponder
1 and Transponder 2, the code and mode remain the same. If a new code is entered in the active
transponder, switching transponders does not bring back the previous code.
Selecting and Activating Transponder 1 or Transponder 2 (Optional)
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the XPDR1 or XPDR2 Softkey to select and activate the desired transponder.
TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTION
Mode selection can be automatic (Altitude Mode) or manual (Standby, ON, and Altitude Modes).
The Standby, On, and ALT Softkeys can be accessed by pressing the XPDR Softkey.
STANDBY MODE (MANUAL)
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited.
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the Standby Softkey. In Standby, the
transponder is powered and new codes can be entered, but no replies or squitters are transmitted..
When Standby is selected, a white STBY indication and transponder code appear in the mode field
of the Transponder Data Box.
STBY Mode (White
Code Number and
Mode)
Figure 4-20 Standby Mode
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MANUAL ON MODE
On Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the On Softkey. An On indication will appear in
the mode field of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting On mode enables transmission of transponder
replies and squitters, but transmissions will not include altitude information. The On indication and
transponder code in the Transponder Data Box will appear green while airborne and white while on
the ground. When the transponder is operating with an air state of on-ground it will disable replies
to Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call interrogations so the aircraft will not show up on the traffic
systems of other aircraft.
On-Ground On Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
Airborne On Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
Figure 4-21 On Mode
ALTITUDE MODE
ALT Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the ALT Softkey. When ALT mode is selected,
an ALT indication will appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting ALT mode
enables transmission of transponder replies and squitters. Transmissions will include pressure
altitude information. The ALT indication and transponder code in the Transponder Data Box will
appear green while airborne and white while on the ground. When the transponder is operating
with an air state of on-ground it will disable replies to Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call
interrogations so the aircraft will not show up on the traffic systems of other aircraft.
On-Ground ALT Mode
Airborne ALT Mode
Figure 4-22 Altitude Mode
REPLY STATUS
When the transponder sends replies to interrogations, a white R indication appears momentarily in
the reply status field of the Transponder Data Box.
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Reply to Interrogation
Figure 4-23 Reply Indication
Selecting a transponder mode:
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode.
ENTERING A TRANSPONDER CODE
Pressing the CLR Key or small FMS Knob before code entry is complete cancels code entry and
restores the previous code. Waiting for 10 seconds after code entry is finished activates the code
automatically.
VFR CODE
The VFR code can be entered either manually or by pressing the XPDR Softkey, then the VFR
Softkey. When the VFR Softkey is pressed, the pre-programmed VFR code is automatically displayed
in the code field of the Transponder Data Box. Pressing the VFR Softkey again restores the previous
identification code.
The pre-programmed VFR Code is set at the factory to 1200. If a VFR code change is required,
contact a Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
VFR Code
Figure 4-24 VFR Code
Entering a transponder code with softkeys:
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the CODE Softkey to display the Transponder Code Selection Softkeys, for digit
entry.
3) Press the digit softkeys to enter the code in the code field. When entering the code, the
next softkey in sequence must be pressed within 10 seconds, or the entry is cancelled
and restored to the previous code. Pressing the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection
cursor to the previous digit. Five seconds after the fourth digit has been entered, the
transponder code becomes active.
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Entering a Code
Figure 4-25 Entering a Code
Entering a transponder code with the PFD FMS Knob:
1) Press the XPDR and the CODE Softkeys as in the previous procedure to enable code
entry.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob on the PFD to enter the first two code digits.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
Turn the Small
FMS Knob to
Enter Two Code
Digits at a Time
Press the
ENT Key to
Complete
Code Entry
Turn the Large
FMS Knob
to Move the
Cursor to the
Next Code Field
Figure 4-26 Entering a Code with the FMS Knob
Entering a transponder code with the Control Unit FMS Knob
1) Press the XPDR and the Code Softkeys on the PFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the first two code digits.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
IDENT FUNCTION
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the Ident Softkey is inoperative.
Pressing the Ident Softkey sends a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The
indication distinguishes the identing transponder from all the others on the air traffic controller’s
screen. The Ident Softkey appears on all levels of transponder softkeys. When the Ident Softkey is
pressed, a green Ident indication is displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for a
duration of 18 seconds.
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After the Ident Softkey is pressed while in Mode or Code Selection, the system reverts to the toplevel softkeys.
Ident Indication
Select the Ident Softkey to
Initiate the ID Function
Figure 4-27 Ident Softkey and Indication
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4.5 ADDITIONAL AUDIO PANEL FUNCTIONS
POWER-UP
The Audio Panel performs a self-test during power-up. During the self-test all Audio Panel
annunciator lights illuminate for approximately two seconds. Once the self-test is completed, most of
the settings are restored to those in use before the unit was last turned off.
MONO/STEREO HEADSETS
Stereo headsets are recommended for use in this aircraft.
Using a monaural headset in a stereo jack shorts the right headset channel output to ground. While
this does not damage the Audio Panel, a person listening on a monaural headset hears only the left
channel in both ears. If a monaural headset is used at one of the passenger positions, any other
passenger using a stereo headset hears audio in the left ear only.
SPEAKER
All of the radios can be heard over the cabin speaker. Pressing the SPKR Key selects and deselects
the cabin speaker. Speaker audio is muted when the PTT is pressed.
PASSENGER ADDRESS MODE (PA MODE)
Press and hold the SPKR Key for 2 seconds to initiate Passenger Address Mode. PA Mode is
annunciated by a rapid blinking of the SPKR annunciator. When in PA Mode the crew can use the
PTT “Push-to-Talk” button to deliver announcements over the speaker, to the passenger headsets, or
both depending on configuration.
SPLIT-PA MODE
During Split-PA Mode the pilot can continue to use the radio(s) while the copilot delivers PA
announcements. To initiate Split-PA Mode, first enter Split-COM Mode by pressing more than one
MIC Key simultaneously, then press and hold the SPKR Key for 2 seconds.
INTERCOM
The GMA 350 includes a six-position intercom system (ICS), one music input, and one telephone/
entertainment input for the pilot, copilot and passengers. The intercom provides Pilot, Copilot, and
Passenger audio isolation.
Figure 4-28 Intercom Controls
Press the PILOT, COPLT, and/or PASS Keys to distribute as required. If the annunciators are lit,
those positions will share intercom audio. If an annunciator is NOT lit that position is isolated from
the others.
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COPILOT CONFIGURED AS CREW OR PASSENGER
NOTE: When the copilot position is configured as a passenger, the COPLT Key is disabled
and the copilot headset is treated as a ‘passenger’ for intercom and entertainment audio
distribution.
The copilot position can be configured as crew (COPLT Key enabled) or as a passenger (COPLT
Key disabled). Pressing and holding the COPLT Key toggles the copilot position configuration
between passenger and crew. The aural message “Copilot Configured as Passenger” or “Copilot
Configured as Crew” is heard.
INTERCOM MODES
NOTE: In the following modes the copilot position is configured as crew.
ALL INTERCOM MODE
In ‘All Intercom’ mode the Pilot, Copilot, and Passengers hear each other and hear the aircraft
audio.
PILOT ISOLATE MODE
In ‘Pilot Isolate’ mode the Pilot, Copilot, and Passengers hear the aircraft audio. The Copilot and
Passengers also hear each other.
PASSENGER/CREW ISOLATE MODE
In ‘Passenger/Crew Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Copilot hear the aircraft audio and each other.
The Passengers hear each other.
COPILOT ISOLATE MODE
In ‘Copilot Isolate’ mode the Pilot, Copilot, and Passengers hear the aircraft audio. The Pilot and
Passengers also hear each other. The Copilot has the option to use Split-COM mode.
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ALL ISOLATE MODE
In ‘All Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Copilot hear the aircraft audio. The Copilot has the option to
use Split-COM mode. The Passengers hear each other.
PILOT & COPILOT ISOLATE MODE
In ‘Pilot & Copilot Isolate’ mode the Pilot, Copilot, and Passengers hear the aircraft audio. The
Passengers hear each other. The Copilot has the option to use Split-COM mode.
PILOT & PASSENGER ISOLATE MODE
In ‘Pilot & Passenger Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Copilot hear the aircraft audio. The Passengers
hear each other.
COPILOT & PASSENGER ISOLATE MODE
In ‘Copilot & Passenger Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Copilot can hear the aircraft audio. The
Copilot has the option to use Split-COM mode. The Passengers hear each other.
BLUE-SELECT MODE (TELEPHONE/ENTERTAINMENT DISTRIBUTION)
The music (MUSIC) and telephone/entertainment ( ) audio are distributed using the Blue-Select
Mode. The following example indicates that the pilot, copilot, and passengers will all hear the
telephone/entertainment audio.
Figure 4-29 Blue-Select Mode (Telephone/Entertainment Distribution)
The Blue-Select Mode is entered by pressing the small knob when the volume control cursor
(flashing white annunciator) is not active. If the volume control cursor is active, press the small knob
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twice. The first press will cancel the volume control cursor, the second will activate Blue-Select
Mode.
The annunciator over the
Button will be flashing blue. Any combination of the annunciators
over the PILOT, COPLT, and PASS buttons may be blue. Select the desired button to turn the blue
annunciator on or off to distribute the telephone audio to selected crew/passenger positions. Turn
the large knob to select MUS, and select the crew/passenger positions to receive the music audio.
Selecting any button other than PILOT, COPLT, PASS, MUS or
will cancel Blue-Select Mode.
Pressing the small knob will also cancel Blue-Select Mode. After approximately ten seconds with no
input, the Blue-Select Mode will automatically cancel.
ADJUSTING INTERCOM VOLUME
When the cursor is on PILOT, COPLT, or PASS, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the intercom
volume for the listener.
ADJUSTING SPEAKER VOLUME
When the cursor is on SPKR, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the speaker volume of the
selected sources (COM, NAV, AUX, MKR). Alert volumes are not affected by the speaker volume
control knob.
ADJUSTING MKR, AUX,
, AND MUS VOLUME
When the cursor is on MKR, AUX,
, MUS1, or MUS2 the Volume Control Knob adjusts the
individual volume of the selected source.
ADJUSTING MANUAL SQUELCH
When the cursor is on MAN SQ, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the ICS Squelch Threshold
(the volume level that must be exceeded to be heard over the intercom).
Manual Squelch Annunciator; Off for
Automatic Squelch, On for Manual Squelch
Relative Volume/
Squelch Scale
Volume or Manual Squelch
Cursor
Figure 4-30 Volume/Squelch Control
CLEARANCE RECORDER AND PLAYER
The Audio Panel contains a digital clearance recorder that records up to 2.5 minutes of the selected
COM radio signal. Recorded COM audio is stored in separate memory blocks. Once 2.5 minutes of
recording time have been reached, the recorder begins recording over the stored memory blocks,
starting from the oldest block.
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The PLAY Key controls the play function. Pressing the PLAY Key once plays the latest recorded
memory block. Pressing the PLAY Key while audio is playing begins playing the previously recorded
memory block. Each subsequent press of the PLAY Key selects the previously recorded memory
block.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key during play of a memory block stops play. If a COM input signal is
detected during play of a recorded memory block, play is halted.
Powering off the unit automatically clears all recorded blocks.
SPLIT-COM OPERATION
NOTE: Split COM performance is affected by the distance between the COM antennas and
the separation of the tuned frequencies. If the selected COM1 and COM2 frequencies are
too close together, interference may be heard during transmission on the other radio.
During Split COM operation, both the pilot and the copilot can transmit simultaneously over
separate radios. In Split COM mode, the pilot uses COM1 and the copilot uses COM2.
Pressing both MIC Keys simultaneously initiates Split COM Mode (i.e., COM1/COM2). The
respective COM1/MIC1 or COM2/MIC2 annunciators are illuminated indicating Split COM operation.
Split COM operation is cancelled by pressing one of the selected MIC Keys again.
ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS
The audio panel provides three stereo telephone/entertainment inputs:
•
The telephone/entertainment Key ( )controls a telephone or entertainment device connected to the
rear of the audio panel or to the Front Panel Jack. For GSR 56 equipped aircraft, the Iridium phone
audio is connected to the rear input of the audio panel. To use the Iridium phone, ensure there is no
other audio source plugged into the Front Panel Jack.
•
The MUS1 and MUS2 Key controls the Entertainment Music audio input. External audio jacks can
also be used as an entertainment input. GDL 69 (SiriusXM Radio) audio, if equipped, is wired to the
MUS1 and MUS2 inputs. The Front Panel Jack does not disable audio connected to the MUS1 and
MUS2 inputs.
The Front Panel Jack can be used as an entertainment input or a telephone input. Plugging a device
into the Front Panel Jack will disable any audio source connected to the rear telephone/entertainment
jack (i.e. GSR 56, if so equipped). The Front Panel Jack is a 3.5-mm stereo jack that is compatible with
popular portable entertainment devices such as cell phones and other tablet devices. The headphone
outputs of the entertainment devices are plugged into the Front Panel Jack.
Distribution of the entertainment inputs are configured in Blue-Select Mode.
TELEPHONE AND ENTERTAINMENT MUTING
Telephone and entertainment muting can be enabled or disabled by the user, however it is always
muted during alerts.
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ENABLING/DISABLING MUTING
Press and hold the MUS1, MUS2, or ( ) Key for two seconds to toggle muting on and off. The
aural message “Mute Music on Reception Enabled/Disabled” or “Mute Tel and Jack on Reception
Enabled/Disabled” is heard.
SIRIUSXM RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
SiriusXM Radio audio from the Data Link Receiver may be heard by the pilot and passengers
simultaneously (optional: requires subscription to SiriusXM Radio Service). Refer to the Additional
Features Section for more details on the Data Link Receiver.
Connecting a stereo input to the Stereo Input jack removes the SiriusXM Radio Audio from that
input.
BLUETOOTH®
NOTE: Pairing is only necessary during the first attempt to connect a Bluetooth device to the
GMA 350c. Once paired, the GMA 350c and the device will connect automatically.
PAIRING A BLUETOOTH DEVICE WITH THE GMA 350C
Press and hold the inner knob for two seconds. The Bluetooth Annunciator flashes to indicate the
unit is discoverable and the aural message “Bluetooth discoverable” is heard. The GMA 350c will
remain discoverable for 90 seconds or until a successful pair is established. Once paired, the
Bluetooth Annunciator turns steady blue and the aural message “Bluetooth connected/paired” is
heard.
ASSIGNING AN AUDIO SOURCE TO THE BLUETOOTH DEVICE
or MUS key until the annunciator turns blue (the audio from the Bluetooth source
Press the
will not be heard until this step is complete). The key annunciator cycles OFF-WHITE-BLUE.
WHITE selects the wired audio source. BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source. The BLUE source
assignment will persist through Bluetooth audio connection disruptions.
NOTE: The Bluetooth audio can only be assigned to one source at a time. Once the
Bluetooth audio is assigned to an audio source, the remaining entertainment audio sources
will only cycle between OFF and WHITE.
Bluetooth audio will maintain a separate volume level and Blue Select distribution from the wired
audio source. If the Bluetooth connection is supporting a phone call, all intercom positions listening
to that source can also speak on the call through the headset MICs.
ADDITIONAL BLUETOOTH CONTROL FUNCTIONS
In addition to the 2 second press and hold of the inner knob discussed above, the knob has two
additional functions that are intended to be seldom or never used. The following functions are
available if needed for troubleshooting:
•
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Press and hold the inner knob for 5 seconds to turn off the Bluetooth radio. The aural message
“Bluetooth off” is heard. This function electrically turns off the radio, not just the audio source
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selection. In the event that Bluetooth radio interference with communication or navigation
equipment is suspected, the Bluetooth radio can be powered off without powering off the entire
audio panel. A subsequent 5 second press and hold turns the radio back on.
•
Press and hold the inner knob for 10 seconds to clear the memory of paired devices (up to 10 are
stored). Once cleared, the aural message “Bluetooth list cleared” is heard. This function is used as
a troubleshooting method when a device is not pairing, or to remove a device that is no longer
needed.
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4.6 AUDIO PANEL PREFLIGHT PROCEDURE
NOTE: If the pilot and/or copilot are using headsets that have a high/low switch or volume
control knob, verify that the switch is in the high position and the volume control on the
headsets are at maximum volume setting. On single pilot flights, verify that all other headsets
are not connected to avoid excess noise in the audio system.
NOTE: When the MAN SQ Key is pressed, the ICS squelch can be set manually by the pilot
and copilot. If manual squelch is set to full open, background noise is heard in the ICS system
as well as during COM transmissions.
After powering up the system, the following steps aid in maximizing the use of the Audio Panel as well
as prevent pilot and copilot induced issues. These preflight procedures should be performed each time a
pilot boards the aircraft to insure awareness of all audio levels in the Audio Panel and radios.
Once this procedure has been completed, the pilot and copilot can change settings, keeping in mind
the notes above.
Setting the Audio Panel During Preflight:
1) Verify that the PILOT, COPLT and PASS annunciators are lit.
2) Adjust radio volume levels (COM, NAV) to a suitable level.
3) Use the Blue-Select Mode to distribute the telephone/entertainment (
), MUS1, and
MUS2 appropriately.
4) Use the VOL/CRSR Knobs to adjust the intercom volumes to the desired level.
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4.7 ABNORMAL OPERATION
Abnormal operation of the system includes equipment failures of the system components and failure
of associated equipment, including switches and external devices.
STUCK MICROPHONE
If the PTT Key becomes stuck, the COM transmitter stops transmitting after 35 seconds of
continuous operation. An alert appears on the PFD to advise the pilot of a stuck microphone.
The MIC Key Annunciator on the Audio Panel flashes as long as the PTT Key remains stuck.
COM TUNING FAILURE
In case of a COM system tuning failure, the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) is automatically
tuned in the radio in which the tuning failure occurred. Depending on the failure mode, a red X may
appear on the frequency display.
AUDIO PANEL FAIL-SAFE OPERATION
If there is a failure of the Audio Panel, a fail-safe circuit connects the pilot’s headset (left ear only if
stereo) and microphone directly to the COM1 transceiver. Audio is not available on the speaker during
Fail-safe operation.
REVERSIONARY MODE
If PFD1 fails, COM1 and NAV1 display a red X on both remaining displays. NAV1 is unavailable.
COM1 automatically tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM1 emergency
frequency is available to both the copilot and pilot.
If PFD2 fails, COM2 and NAV2 display a red X on the remaining PFD display. NAV2 is unavailable.
COM2 tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM2 emergency frequency is
available to both the copilot and pilot.
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SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The system is an integrated flight, engine, communication, navigation and surveillance system. This
section of the Pilot’s Guide explains flight management using the system.
The most prominent part of the system are the three full color displays: two Primary Flight Displays
(PFDs) and one Multi Function Display (MFD). The information to successfully navigate the aircraft
using the GPS sensors is displayed on the PFDs and the MFD. A brief description of the GPS navigation
data on the PFD and MFD follows.
Navigation mode indicates which sensor is providing the course data (e.g., GPS, VOR) and the flight
plan phase (e.g., Departure (DPRT), Terminal (TERM), Enroute (ENR), Oceanic (OCN), RNAV
Approach (LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV), or Missed Approach (MAPR)). L/VNAV, LP, LP+V,
and LPV approach service levels are only available with SBAS.
The Inset Map and HSI Map are small versions of the Navigation Map. The Inset Map is displayed in
the lower left corner of the PFD (lower right during reversionary mode), and the HSI Map is displayed
in the center of the HSI. The Inset Map and the HSI Map may each be referred to as the PFD Map. A
PFD Map is displayed by pressing the Map/HSI Softkey, pressing the Layout Softkey, then pressing
either the Inset Map or HSI Map Softkey. Pressing the Map Off Softkey removes the PFD Map.
The Navigation Map displays aviation data (e.g., airports, VORs, airways, airspaces), geographic data
(e.g., cities, lakes, highways, borders), topographic data (map shading indicating elevation), and hazard
data (e.g., traffic, terrain, weather). The amount of displayed data for the PFD Map can be reduced by
pressing the Map/HSI Softkey on the PFD, then pressing the Detail Softkey. The amount of displayed
data for the Navigation Map can be reduced by pressing the Detail Softkey on the MFD. The Navigation
Map can be oriented three different ways: North Up (NORTH UP), Track Up (TRK UP), or Heading Up
(HDG UP).
An aircraft icon is placed on the Navigation Map at the location corresponding to the calculated
present position. The aircraft position and the flight plan legs are accurately based on GPS calculations.
The basemap upon which these are placed are from a source with less resolution, therefore the relative
position of the aircraft to map features is not exact. The leg of the active flight plan currently being flown
is shown as a magenta line on the navigation map. The other legs are shown in white.
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. The current range is indicated
in the upper left corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. To
change the map range on any map, turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to zoom in ( -, decreasing), or
clockwise to zoom out (+, increasing).
The ‘Direct To’ Window, the ‘Flight Plan’ Window, the ‘Procedures’ Window, and the ‘Nearest Airports’
Window can be displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Details of these windows are discussed
in detail later in the section.
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Navigation Status Box
Current Track Indicator
Navigation
Mode
Inset Map
Location of:
- Direct To Window
- Flight Plan Window
- Procedures Window
- Nearest Airports
Window
- References Window
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD Inset Map
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD Inset Map
Navigation Mode
Current Track
Indicator
HSI Map
Figure
5-2Navigation
GPS NavigationInformation
Information on the
MapHSI Map
Figure 5-2
GPS
onPFD
theHSI
PFD
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Navigation Data
Bar
Display
Title
Map Orientation
Navigation Map
- Aviation Data
- Geographic Data
- Topographic Data
- Hazard Data
Map Range
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at
Present Position
Figure 5-3 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Page
Figure 5-3 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Page
NAVIGATION STATUS BOX AND DATA BAR
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the PFD contains two fields displaying the following
information:
Figure 5-4 PFD Navigation Status Box
Figure 5-4 PFD Navigation Status Box
•
Active flight plan leg (e.g., ‘D-> KICT’ or ‘KIXD -> KCOS’) or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘Turn
right to 021˚ in 8 seconds’)
•
Distance (DIS) and Bearing (BRG) to the next waypoint or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘TOD
within 1 minute’)
The symbols used in the PFD Status Box are:
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Symbol
Description
Symbol
Description
Active Leg
Left Holding
Pattern
Direct-to
Vector to Final
Right Procedure
Turn
Right DME Arc/
Radius to Fix Leg
Left Procedure
Turn
Left DME Arc/
Radius to Fix Leg
Right Holding
Pattern
Table 5-1 PFD Status Box Symbols
The Navigation Data Bar located at the top of the MFD contains four data fields, each displaying one
of the following items:
BRG
Bearing
FOB
Fuel on Board
DEST
Destination Airport Identifier
FOD
Fuel over Destination
DIS
Distance
GS
Ground Speed
DTG
Distance to Go
ISA
Temperature at Standard Pressure
DTK
Desired Track
LDG
ETA at Final Destination
END
Endurance
MSA
Minimum Safe Altitude
ENR
ETE to Final Destination
TAS
True Airspeed
ESA
Enroute Safe Altitude
TKE
Track Angle Error
ETA
Estimated Time of Arrival
TRK
Track
ETE
Estimated Time Enroute
VSR
Vertical Speed Required
FLT
Flight Timer
XTK
Cross-Track Error
Table 5-2 MFD Data Bar Field Items
Figure 5-5 MFD Navigation Data Bar
Figure 5-5 MFD Navigation Data Bar
The navigation information displayed in the four data fields can be selected on the ‘MFD Data Bar
Fields’ Box on the ‘Aux-System Setup 1’ Page. The default selections (in order left to right) are GS,
DTK, TRK, and ETE.
Changing a field in the MFD Navigation Data Bar:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
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3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the ‘MFD Data Bar
Fields’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the data options list to select the
desired data.
5) Press the ENT Key. Pressing the Defaults Softkey returns all fields to the default setting.
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5.2 USING MAP DISPLAYS
Map displays are used extensively in the system to provide situational awareness in flight. Most system
maps can display the following information:
• Airports, NAVAIDs, airspaces, airways,
land data (highways, cities, lakes, rivers,
borders, etc.) with names
• Map range
• Wind direction and speed
• Map orientation
• Icons for enabled map features
• Aircraft icon (present position)
• Obstacle data
• Map Pointer information (distance and
bearing to pointer, location of pointer,
name, and other pertinent information)
• Fuel range ring
• Flight plan legs
• User waypoints
• Track vector
• Terrain
• Topography scale and data
The information in this section applies to the following maps unless otherwise noted:
• All Map Group Pages (‘Map’)
• All Waypoint Group Pages (‘WPT’)
• Trip Planning Page (‘Aux’)
• Flight Plan Pages (‘FPL’)
• All Nearest Group Pages (‘NRST’)
• Direct To Window
• PFD Maps
• Procedure Loading Pages
MAP ORIENTATION
Maps are shown in one of three different orientation options, allowing flexibility in determining
aircraft position relative to other items on the map (north up) or for determining where map items are
relative to where the aircraft is going (track up or heading up). The map orientation is shown in the
upper left corner of the map.
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Figure5-6
5-6Map
MapOrientation
Orientation
Figure
•
North up (North up) aligns the top of the map display to north (default setting).
•
Track up (Track up) aligns the top of the map display to the current ground track.
•
Heading up (HDG up) aligns the top of the map display to the current aircraft heading.
The Auto North Up setting configures the map to switch automatically to a north up orientation
when the map range reaches a minimum range.
NOTE: When panning or reviewing active flight plan legs in a non-North Up orientation, the
map does not show the map orientation nor the wind direction and speed.
NOTE: Map orientation can only be changed on the Navigation Map Page. Any other
displays that show navigation data reflect the orientation selected for the Navigation Map
Page.
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Map Settings
Selection
Figure 5-7 Navigation Map Page Menu Window
Figure 5-7 Navigation Map Page Menu Window
Map Group Selection
Orientation Field
North Up Above Field
5-8 Map
Settings Window
Window - Map
GroupGroup
FigureFigure
5-8 Map
Settings
- Map
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Changing the Navigation Map orientation:
1) With the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Map Settings’ Window.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob, or press the ENT Key once, to select the ‘Orientation’ Field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired orientation.
7) Press the ENT Key to select the new orientation.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the base page.
Enabling/disabling Auto North Up and selecting the minimum switching range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘North Up Above’ Field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’ using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the
range field.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select the desired range.
9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
MAP RANGE
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. The current range is
indicated in the upper left corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the
map. When the map range is decreased to a point that exceeds the capability of the system to
accurately represent the map, a magnifying glass icon is shown to the left of the map range. To change
the map range turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to decrease the range, or clockwise to increase the
range
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NOTE: Since the PFD Map is much smaller than the MFD navigation maps, items are
removed on the PFD Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the Map
Settings pages (e.g., a setting of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD
navigation maps, while the PFD Map removes the same item at 50 nm).
Auto Zoom On
Figure 5-9 Map Range
Figure 5-9 Map Range
AUTO ZOOM
Auto zoom allows the system to change the map display range to the smallest range clearly
showing the active waypoint. Auto zoom can be overridden by adjusting the range with the Joystick,
and remains until the active waypoint changes, a terrain or traffic alert occurs, the aircraft takes off,
or the manual override times out (timer set on ‘Map Settings’ Window). Auto zoom is suspended
while the map pointer is active.
If a terrain caution or warning occurs, all navigation maps automatically adjust to the smallest map
range clearly showing the potential impact areas If a new traffic advisory alert occurs, any navigation
map displaying traffic advisory alerts automatically adjusts to the smallest map range clearly showing
the traffic advisory. When terrain or traffic alerts clear, the map returns to the previous auto zoom
range based on the active waypoint.
The auto zoom function can be turned on or off independently for the PFD and MFD. Control of
the ranges at which the auto zoom occurs is done by setting the minimum and maximum ‘look
forward’ times (set on the ‘Map Settings’ Window for the ‘Map’ Group). These settings determine the
minimum and maximum distance to display based upon the aircraft’s ground speed.
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•
Waypoints that are long distances apart cause the map range to increase to a point where many
details on the map are decluttered. If this is not acceptable, lower the maximum look ahead time to
a value that limits the auto zoom to an acceptable range.
•
Waypoints that are very short distances apart cause the map range to decrease to a point where
situational awareness may not be what is desired. Increase the minimum look ahead time to a
value that limits the auto zoom to a minimum range that provides acceptable situational
awareness.
•
Flight plans that have a combination of long and short legs cause the range to increase and
decrease as waypoints sequence. To avoid this, auto zoom can be disabled or the maximum/
minimum times can be adjusted.
•
The ‘time out’ time (configurable on the ‘Map Settings’ Window for the Map Group) determines
how long auto zoom is overridden by a manual adjustment of the range knob. At the expiration of
this time, the auto zoom range is restored. Setting the ‘time out’ value to zero causes the manual
override to never time out.
•
When the maximum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the upper limit becomes the maximum
range available (1000 nm).
•
When the minimum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the lower limit becomes 1.5 nm.
Configuring automatic zoom:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Auto Zoom’ On/Off Field, and select ‘Off’ or
‘On’ using the small FMS Knob.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the
‘Auto Zoom’ display selection Field.
7) Select ‘MFD’, ‘PFD’, or ‘All’ using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘Max
Look FWD’ Field. Times are from zero to 999 minutes.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the ‘Max Look FWD’ time. Press the ENT Key.
10) Repeat step 9 for ‘Min Look FWD’ (zero to 99 minutes) and ‘Time Out’ (zero to 99
minutes).
11) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
MAP PANNING
Map panning allows the pilot to:
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•
View parts of the map outside the displayed range without adjusting the map range
•
Highlight and select locations on the map
•
Review information for a selected airport, NAVAID or user waypoint
•
Designate locations for use in flight planning
•
View airspace and airway information
When the panning function is selected by pushing the Joystick, the Map Pointer flashes on the map
display. A window also appears at the top of the map display showing the latitude/longitude position
of the pointer, the bearing and distance to the pointer from the aircraft’s present position, and the
elevation of the land at the position of the pointer.
NOTE: The map is normally centered on the aircraft’s position. If the map has been panned
and there has been no pointer movement for about 60 seconds, the map reverts back to
centered on the aircraft position and the flashing pointer is removed.
Map Pointer Information
Map Pointer
Figure 5-10 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
Figure 5-10 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
When the Map Pointer is placed on an object, the name of the object is highlighted (even if the name
was not originally displayed on the map). When any map feature or object is selected on the map
display, pertinent information is displayed.
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Information about Point
of Interest
Map Pointer on
POI
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
When the Map Pointer crosses an airspace boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace
information is shown. The information includes the name and class of airspace, the ceiling in feet
above Mean Sea Level (MSL), and the floor in feet MSL.
Panning the map:
1) Push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to move the Map Pointer around the map.
3) Push the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and recenter the map on the aircraft’s
current position.
Reviewing information for an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the
Map Pointer and place the Map Pointer on a waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘WPT - Waypoint Information’ Page for the selected
waypoint.
3) Press the Go Back Softkey, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the ‘WPT - Waypoint
Information’ Page and return to the Navigation Map showing the selected waypoint.
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Reviewing information for a special-use or controlled airspace:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the
Map Pointer and place the Map Pointer on an open area within the boundaries of an
airspace. (As the Map Pointer crosses the airspace boundary, the boundary is
highlighted and airspace information is shown.)
2) Press the ENT Key to display an options menu.
3) ‘Review Airspaces’ should already be highlighted, if not select it. Press the ENT Key to
display the ‘Information’ Window for the selected airspace.
4) Press the FMS Knob, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the ‘Information’ Window.
MEASURING BEARING AND DISTANCE
Distance and bearing from the aircraft’s present position to any point on the viewable navigation
map may be calculated using the ‘Measure Bearing and Distance’ selection from Navigation Map page
menu. The bearing and distance tool displays a dashed Measurement Line and a Measure Pointer to
aid in graphically identifying points with which to measure. Lat/Long, distance and elevation data for
the Measure Pointer is provided in a window at the top of the navigation map.
Measurement
Information
Pointer Lat/Long
Measurement Line
Figure
5-12 Navigation
Map-- Measuring
Measuring Bearing
and Distance
Figure 5-12
Navigation
Map
Bearing
and Distance
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Measuring bearing and distance between any two points:
1) Press the MENU Key (with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed).
2) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Measure Bearing/Distance’ Field.
3) Press the ENT Key. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present
position.
4) Move the Joystick to place the reference pointer at the desired location. The bearing
and distance are displayed at the top of the map. Elevation at the current pointer
position is also displayed. Pressing the ENT Key changes the starting point for
measuring.
5) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance option, push the Joystick; or select ‘Stop
Measuring’ from the ‘Page Menu’ Window and press the ENT Key.
TOPOGRAPHY
All navigation maps can display various shades of topography colors representing land elevation,
similar to aviation sectional charts. The topographic data range is the maximum map range on which
topographic data is displayed.
Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following procedures.
Topographic data can also be displayed on the selectable VSD Inset at the bottom of the navigation
map. In addition, the Navigation Map can display a topographic scale (located in the lower right hand
side of the map) showing a scale of the terrain elevation and minimum/maximum displayed elevations.
Navigation Map
Topographic Data
Navigation Map
Black Background
TER SoftkeyOff Selected
TOPO Off
Topographic Data
on VSD Inset
TER SoftkeyTopo Selected
TOPO On
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Topographic Data
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Absolute Terrain On
Terrain Off
Figure 5-14 PFD Inset Map - Terrain Data
Maximum Displayed Elevation
Minimum Displayed Elevation
Figure 5-15 Navigation Map - Topo Scale
Displaying/removing topographic data on all MFD pages displaying navigation
maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Topo’ is shown on the softkey to display topographic data.
3) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Off’ is shown on the softkey to remove topographic data
from the navigation map. When topographic data is removed from the page, all
navigation data is presented on a black background.
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Displaying/removing topographic data on the PFD Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the TER Softkey.
3) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Off’ is shown on the softkey to remove topographic data
from the navigation map. When topographic data is removed from the page, all
navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data using the Navigation Map Page Menu:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ Field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Topo’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Selecting a topographical data range (Terrain Display):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Use the large FMS knob to highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ range field. Ranges are from 1
nm to 1000 nm.
6) To change the Terrain Display range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the
range list.
7) Enter the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Displaying/removing the topographic scale (Topo Scale):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group. Press the ENT Key.
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4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Topo Scale’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
MAP SYMBOLS
This section discusses the types of land and aviation symbols that can be displayed. Each listed type
of symbol can be turned on or off, and the maximum range to display each symbol can be set. The
decluttering of the symbols from the map using the Detail Softkey is also discussed.
LAND SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the land menu:
Land
Symbols
Default
Range (nm)
Max Range
(nm)
User Waypoint
25
40
Highways and
Roads
N/A
N/A
Interstate
Highway
(Freeway)
50
400
International
Highway
(Freeway)
50
400
US Highway
(National
Highway)
15
150
State Highway
(Local
Highway)
2.5
100
4
25
Railroads
(RAILROAD)
7.5
25
Large City (>
200,000)
100
1000
Medium City
(> 50,000)
50
400
Small City (>
5,000)
25
100
State/Province
400
1000
Local Road
(Local Road)
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Land
Symbols
Default
Range (nm)
Max Range
(nm)
River/Lake
75
100
Latitude/
Longitude
(LAT/LON)
1
1000
Symbol
Table 5-3 Land Symbol Information
AVIATION SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the aviation menu:
Default
Range
(nm)
Max
Range
(nm)
Large Airport
(Longest Runway
>8100 ft)
100
1000
Medium Airport
(8100 ft > Longest
Runway >5000 ft,
or Longest Runway
< 5000 ft with
control tower)
50
400
Small Airport
(Longest Runway <
5000 ft without
control tower)
25
150
1.5
5
7.5
150
N/A
N/A
Intersection (INT)
25
40
Non-directional
Beacon (NDB)
25
50
VOR
50
250
N/A
N/A
25
1000
Aviation Symbols
Taxiways (SafeTaxi)
Symbols
See Additional
Features
Runway Extension
Missed Approach
Preview On/Off
(Missed APR)
VOR Compass Rose
On/Off
Visual Reporting
Point (VRP)
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Default
Range
(nm)
Max
Range
(nm)
Temporary Flight
Restriction (TFR)
250
1000
VNAV Constraints
1000
1000
N/A
N/A
Aviation Symbols
(VNAV Constraints)
Show All (show all
constraints within
flight plan if VNAV
Constraints are
‘On’ above)
Symbols
N/A
Table 5-4 Aviation Symbol Information
AIRSPACE SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the airspace menu:
Symbol
Default
Range
(nm)
Max
Range
(nm)
Smart Airspace On/Off
N/A
N/A
N/A
Airspace Altitude Labels
(Airspace ALT LBL) On/
Off:
N/A
N/A
N/A
Class B Airspace
Altitude Label (ceiling/
floor)
N/A
N/A
Class C Airspace
Altitude Label (ceiling/
floor)
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
50
150
50
100
10
100
Airspace Symbols
•
•
Class D Airspace
Altitude
Label
(ceiling)
Class B Airspace/TMA
(CLASS B/TMA)
Class C Airspace/TCA
(CLASS C/TCA)
Class D Airspace (CLASS
D)
•
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Default
Range
(nm)
Max
Range
(nm)
Alert/Prohibited/
Restricted/Warning
Areas (RESTRICTED)
50
100
Military Operations
Area [MOA(MILITARY)]
50
250
Other/Air Defense
Interdiction Zone
(OTHER/ADIZ)
50
250
Airspace Symbols
Symbol
Table 5-5 Airspace Symbol Information
SYMBOL SETUP
All navigation maps can display land, aviation and airspace symbols. Symbol types (e.g. runway
extensions, railroads) can be removed individually. The range sets the maximum range at which
items appear on the display. For example, enabling “Runway Extension” displays a dashed line on
the map extending from each runway of an airport in the flight plan when the range is set at or
below the value of the map settings option.
Setting up the Land, Aviation or Airspace group items:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the
‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired setting (e.g. On/Off or maximum range).
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
8) Repeat steps 5-7 as necessary.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
MAP DECLUTTER
The declutter feature allows the pilot to progressively step through four levels of removing map
information. The declutter level is displayed in the Detail Softkey and next to the Declutter Menu
Option.
The following table lists the items that are decluttered at each map detail level. The ‘X’ represents
map items decluttered for each level of detail.
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Item
Detail 3
Detail 2
Detail 1
Data Link Radar Precipitation
X
Data Link Lightning
X
Graphical METARs
X
Airports
X
Safe Taxi
X
Runway Labels
X
TFRs
X
Restricted
X
MOA (Military)
X
Intersections
X
X
NDBs
X
X
VORs
X
X
VRPs
X
X
User Waypoints
X
X
Latitude/Longitude Grid
X
X
NAVAIDs (does not declutter if used to define airway)
X
X
Intersections (does not declutter if used to define airway)
X
X
Class B Airspaces/TMA
X
X
Class C Airspaces/TCA
X
X
Class D Airspaces
X
X
Other Airspaces/ADIZ
X
X
Obstacles
X
X
Cities
X
X
X
Roads
X
X
X
Railroads
X
X
X
State/Province Boundaries
X
X
X
Table 5-6 Navigation Map Items Decluttered for each Detail Level
Decluttering the MFD Map:
Press the Detail Softkey with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The current declutter
level is shown. With each softkey press, another level of map information is removed.
Or:
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1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Declutter’. The current declutter level is shown.
3) Press the ENT Key to apply the next declutter level and return to the Navigation Map.
Decluttering the PFD Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Detail Softkey. The current declutter level is shown. With each selection,
another level of map information is removed.
AIRWAYS
This airways discussion is based upon the North American airway structure. The airway structure in
places other than North America vary by location, etc. and are not discussed in this guide. Low
Altitude Airways (Victor Airways or T-Routes) start 1,200 feet above ground level (AGL) and extend
up to 18,000 feet mean sea level (MSL). Low Altitude Airways are designated with a “V” or a “T” before
the airway number.
High Altitude Airways (Jet Routes or Q-Routes) start at 18,000 feet MSL and extend upward to
45,000 feet MSL. High Altitude Airways are designated with a “J” or a “Q” before the airway number.
Low Altitude Airways are drawn in gray (the same shade used for roads). High Altitude Airways are
drawn in green. When both types of airways are displayed, High Altitude Airways are drawn on top of
Low Altitude Airways.
When airways are selected for display on the map, the airway waypoints (VORs, NDBs and
Intersections) are also displayed.
High Altitude
Airway
(Jet Route)
Low Altitude
Airway
(Victor Airway)
Low Altitude
Airway
(T-Route)
High Altitude
Airway
(Q-Route)
Figure 5-16 Airways on MFD Navigation Page
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Airways may be displayed on the map at the pilot’s discretion using either a combination of AWY
Softkey presses, or menu selections using the MENU Key from the Navigation Map Page. The Airway
range can also be programmed to only display Airways on the MFD when the map range is at or below
a specific number.
The following items are configured on the airways menu:
Default
Range
(nm)
Maximum
Range (nm)
Low Altitude Airways
(V Routes and T
Routes)
50
100
High Altitude Airways
(J Routes and Q
Routes)
50
100
Airways Symbols
Symbol
Table 5-7 Airways Symbol Information
Displaying/removing airways:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the AWY Softkey. Both High and Low Altitude Airways are displayed (AWY On).
3) Press the softkey again to display Low Altitude Airways only (AWY LO).
4) Press the softkey again to display High Altitude Airways only (AWY HI).
5) Press the softkey again to remove High Altitude Airways. No airways are displayed
(AWY Off).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ Group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ On/Off Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Selecting an airway range (Low ALT Airways or High ALT Airways):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
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3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ Group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ or ‘High ALT Airways’
range field.
5) To change the range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
6) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
ADDITIONAL NAVIGATION MAP ITEMS
Navigation maps can display some additional items. These items (e.g. track vector, wind vector, fuel
range ring, SVT field of view, and selected altitude intercept arc) can be displayed/removed
individually.
TRACK VECTOR
The map can display a track vector that is useful in minimizing track angle error. The track vector
is a solid cyan line segment extended to a predicted location. The track vector look-ahead time is
selectable (30 sec, 60 sec (default), 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min) and determines the length of the
track vector. The track vector shows up to 90 degrees of a turn for the 30 and 60 second time
settings. It is always a straight line for the 2 min, 5 min, 10 min and 20 min settings.
Track Vector
Figure 5-17 Navigation Map -Track Vector
Figure 5-17 Navigation Map -Track Vector
SELECTED ALTITUDE INTERCEPT ARC
The map can display the location along the current track where the aircraft will intercept the
selected altitude. The location will be shown as a cyan arc when the aircraft is actually climbing or
descending.
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Selected
Altitude
Intercept Arc
Figure 5-21 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
WIND VECTOR
The map displays a wind vector arrow in the upper right-hand portion of the screen. Wind vector
information is displayed as a white arrow pointing in the direction in which the wind is moving for
wind speeds greater than or equal to 1 kt.
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
Figure 5-19 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
NOTE: The wind vector is not displayed until the aircraft is moving. It is not displayed on the
Waypoint Information pages.
FUEL RANGE RING
The map can display a fuel range ring which shows the remaining flight distance. A dashed green
circle indicates the selected range to reserve fuel. A solid green circle indicates the total endurance
range. If only reserve fuel remains, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle.
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Total Endurance Range
Time to Reserve Fuel
Range to Reserve Fuel
Figure 5-20 Navigation Map - Fuel Range Ring
FIELD OF VIEW (SVT)
The map can display the boundaries of the PFD Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) lateral field of
view. The field of view is shown as two dashed lines forming a V shape in front of the aircraft symbol
on the map. This is only available if SVT is installed on the aircraft.
Lateral Field
of View
Boundaries
Figure Figure
5-215-20
Navigation
Map
- Field
of View
Navigation Map
- Field
of View
Setting up additional Map group items:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
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3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
Or
If it is a data field, use the FMS Knob to select the range or time value.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
8) Repeat steps 5-7 as necessary.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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5.3 WAYPOINTS
Waypoints are predetermined geographical positions (internal database) or pilot-entered positions,
and are used for all phases of flight planning and navigation.
Communication and navigation frequencies can be tuned “automatically” from various Waypoint
Information (WPT) pages, Nearest (NRST) pages, and the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window (on PFD). This
auto-tuning feature simplifies frequency entry over manual tuning. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS
section for details on auto-tuning.
Waypoints can be selected by entering the ICAO identifier, entering the name of the facility, or by
entering the city name. See the System Overview section for detailed instructions on entering data in the
system. As a waypoint identifier, facility name, or location is entered, the Spell’N’Find feature scrolls
through the database, displaying those waypoints matching the characters which have been entered to
that point. A direct-to navigation leg to the selected waypoint can be initiated by pressing the Direct-to
Key on any of the waypoint pages.
Identifier Entry Field
City Entry Field
Facility
Entry Field
- Waypoint Identifier
- Type (symbol)
- Facility Name
- City
Entered Waypoint on
Map
Map Area Showing
Entered Waypoint
Waypoint Location
Figure 5-22 Waypoint Information Window
If duplicate entries exist for the entered facility name or location, additional entries may be viewed by
continuing to turn the small FMS Knob during the selection process. If duplicate entries exist for an
identifier, a ‘Duplicate Waypoints’ Window is displayed when the ENT Key is pressed.
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Identifier with
Duplicates
Duplicate
Waypoints
Duplicate Message
Figure 5-23 Waypoint Information Window - Duplicate Identifier
AIRPORTS
NOTE: North Up orientation on the Airport Information Page cannot be changed; the pilot
needs to be aware of proper orientation if the Navigation Map orientation is different from
the Airport Information Page Map.
The Airport Information Page is the first page in WPT Page Group and allows the pilot to view
airport information, load frequencies (COM, NAV, and lighting), review runways, and review
instrument procedures that may be involved in the flight plan. See the Audio Panel and CNS Section
for more information on loading frequencies (auto-tuning). After engine startup, the Airport
Information Page defaults to the airport where the aircraft is located. After a flight plan has been
loaded, it defaults to the destination airport. On a flight plan with multiple airports, it defaults to the
airport which is the current active waypoint.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the Airport
Information Page displays airport information in three boxes labeled Airport, Runways, and
Frequencies. For airports with multiple runways, information for each runway is available. This
information is viewed on the Airport Information Page by pressing the Info Softkey until ‘1’ is
displayed.
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Airport Information
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Airport
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
- Lat/Long/Elev
- Fuel Available
- Time Zone (UTC Offset)
Runway Information
- Designation
- Length/Width/Surface
- Lighting Available
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
Airport/Runway
Diagram
- Identification
- Frequency
- Availability
- Additional Information
Figure 5-24 Airport Information Page
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the Airport Information Page:
•
Usage type: Public, Military, Private, or Heliport
•
Runway surface type: Hard, Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft, Unknown, or Water.
•
Runway lighting type: No Lights, Part Time, Full Time, Unknown, or PCL Freq (for pilot-controlled
lighting)
•
COM Availability: TX (transmit only), RX (receive only), PT (part time), i (additional information
available)
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Airport Information
Airport Directory
Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
Softkeys
Figure 5-25 Airport Directory Page Example
The airport directory information is viewed on the Airport Directory Page by pressing the Info
Softkey until ‘2’ is displayed. The following are types of airport directory information shown (if
available) on the Airport Directory Page:
•
Airport: Identifier, Type, Name, City, State, Map
•
Control Tower: Full/Part-time Hours, Days Open
•
Attendance: Annual, weekly, daily, hours
•
Facility Lighting and Beacon: Hours operating, Type and Location, CTAF, beacon colors
•
Noise Abatement: Flying Procedures
•
Pattern Altitudes: Aircraft Class/Altitude
•
Runways: Headings, Length, Width, Facility Obstructions, Surface, Condition, Clearance Slope
•
FBO: Name/Type, Frequencies, Services, Fees, Fuel, Credit Cards, Phone/Fax, Hours Internet,
Courtesy Car
•
Aircraft Businesses/Clubs: Name, Type (sales, training, servicing), Frequencies/Phone/Fax, Credit
Cards, Internet, Services
•
Frequencies: Type/Frequency
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•
Instrument Approaches: Published Approach, Freq.
•
Services Available: Category, Specific Service
•
Frequencies: Type/Frequency
•
Weather Contacts: Service Type and Frequencies/Phone (AWOS/ASOS)
•
Obstructions: General Airport Obstructions
•
Flight Service Station (FSS): FSS Name, Phone Numbers
•
Approaches: Types
•
General Information and/or Notes: Fees, Airport Notes, local area information
•
Special Operations at Airport: Helicopters, etc.
•
Restaurants: On the Field and Nearby
•
Transportation: Taxi Services, Car Rentals, Type and Availability (public, shuttle, limo, etc.)
•
Attractions: Hotels, Museums, Raceways, Golfing, etc.
•
NAVAIDs: Type, Identifier, Frequency, Radial, Distance
•
Charts: VFR Sectional
•
Elevation: Airfield Elevation (feet)
•
Mag Var: Airfield Magnetic Variation (degrees)
•
Airport Manager: Phone
The airport ‘Frequencies’ Box uses the descriptions and abbreviations listed in the following table:
Communication Frequencies
Approach *
Arrival *
ASOS
ATIS
AWOS
Center
Class B *
Class C *
Clearance
Control
CTA *
Departure *
FSS
Gate
Ground
Helicopter
Multicom
Other
Navigation Frequencies
Pre-taxi
Radar
Ramp
Terminal *
TMA *
Tower
TRSA *
Unicom
ILS
LOC
* May include Additional Information
Table 5-8 Airport Frequency Abbreviations
A departure, arrival, or approach can be loaded using the softkeys on the Airport Information Page.
See the Procedures section for details. METARs or TAFs applicable to the selected airport can be
selected for display (see the Hazard Avoidance section for details about weather).
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Selecting an airport for review by identifier, facility name, or location:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey), press the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Selecting a runway:
1) With the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey) displayed, press the FMS
Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Runways’ Box, on the runway
designator.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired runway (if more than one) for the
selected airport.
4) To remove the flashing cursor, press the FMS Knob.
Viewing a destination airport:
From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey) press the MENU Key. Select
‘View Destination Airport’. The Destination Airport is displayed.
The system provides a Nearest Softkey on the PFD, which gives the pilot quick access to nearest
airport information (very useful if an immediate landing is required). The ‘Nearest Airports’ Window
displays a list of up to 25 of the nearest airports (three entries can be displayed at one time). If there
are more than three they are displayed in a scrollable list. If there are no nearest airports available,
“None Within 200nm” is displayed.
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Bearing/Distance to Airport
Airport Identifier/
Type
Approach Available
Length of Longest
Runway
COM Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Additional Airports
(within 200 nm)
Nearest Softkey
Figure 5-26 Nearest Airports Window on PFD
Pressing the ENT Key while the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window is shown displays the PFD ‘Airport
Information’ Window for the highlighted airport. Pressing the ENT Key again returns to the ‘Nearest
Airports’ Window with the cursor on the next airport in the list. Continued presses of the ENT Key
sequences through the information pages for all airports in the Nearest Airports list.
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Airport Information
- ID/Type/City
- Facility
Airport Information
- Usage/Time/Elev
- Region
Airport Information
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-27 Airport Information Window on PFD
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the PFD:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey to display the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport identifier, and press the ENT Key to
display the ‘Airport Information’ Window.
3) To return to the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window press the ENT Key (with the cursor on
‘BACK’) or press the CLR Key. The cursor is now on the next airport in the ‘Nearest
Airports’ Window list. (Repeatedly pressing the ENT Key moves through the airport list,
alternating between the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window and the ‘Airport Information’
Window.)
4) Press the CLR Key or the Nearest Softkey to close the PFD ‘Nearest Airports’ Window.
The ‘Nearest Airports’ Page on the MFD is first in the group of NRST pages because of its potential
use in the event of an in-flight emergency. In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected
airport and surrounding area, the page displays nearest airport information in five boxes labeled
‘Nearest Airports’, ‘Information’, ‘Runways’, ‘Frequencies’, and ‘Approaches’.
The selected airport is indicated by a white arrow, and a dashed white line is drawn on the
navigation map from the aircraft position to the nearest airport. Up to five nearest airports, one
runway, up to three frequencies, and up to four approaches are visible at one time. If there are more
than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. If there are no items for display in a boxed area, text
indicating that fact is displayed. The currently selected airport remains in the list until it is unselected.
See the Audio Panel & CNS Section for frequency selection and the Procedures section for
approaches.
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Nearest Airports
- ID/Type
- Bearing/Distance
Airport Information
- Facility/City/Elevation
Runway Information
- Designation/Surface
- Length/Width
Nearest Airport
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Airport
- Identification
- Frequency
Approaches Available
Figure 5-28 Nearest Airport Page
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST’ page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Nearest Airports’ Page (it is the first page of the
group, so it may already be selected). If there are no Nearest Airports available, ‘None
Within 200nm’ is displayed.
3) Press the APT Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight
‘Select Airport Window’ and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Nearest
Airports’ Box. The first airport in the nearest airports list is highlighted.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport. (Pressing the ENT Key also moves
to the next airport.)
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Viewing runway information for a specific airport:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page displayed, press the RNWY Softkey; or press
the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Runway Window’; and press the ENT Key. The cursor
is placed in the ‘Runways’ Box.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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The ‘Nearest Airports’ Box on the System Setup Page defines the minimum runway length and
surface type used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on the MFD ‘Nearest Airports’
Page. A minimum runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small
runways or runways that are not appropriately surfaced from being displayed. Default settings are
3000 feet (or meters) for runway length and “Hard Only” for runway surface type.
Selecting nearest airport surface and minimum runway length matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Runway Surface’ Field in the ‘Nearest
Airport’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (Any, Hard Only, Hard/
Soft).
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Minimum Length’ Field in the ‘Nearest
Airport’ Box.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the minimum runway length (zero to 25,000 feet) and
press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
INTERSECTIONS
NOTE: The VOR displayed on the Intersection Information Page is the nearest VOR, not
necessarily the VOR used to define the intersection.
The Intersection Information Page is used to view information about intersections. In addition to
displaying a map of the currently selected intersection and surrounding area, the Intersection
Information Page displays information about the VOR which is nearest to the selected intersection.
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Intersection Identifier
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Intersection
Intersection Info
- Region
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
Selected Intersection
Figure 5-29 Intersection Information Page
The Nearest Intersections Page can be used to quickly find an intersection close to the flight path.
The selected intersection is indicated by a white arrow.
NOTE: The list only includes waypoints that are within 200 nm.
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Intersection Information
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Intersection
- Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to
intersection from
aircraft position
Nearest
Intersection
Intersection Lat/Long
Reference VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- VOR Frequency
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
Figure 5-30 Nearest Intersection Page
Selecting an intersection:
1) With the ‘WPT - Intersection Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob. The
cursor is placed in the ‘Intersection’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter an identifier.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest Intersections’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select an identifier in the ‘Nearest INT’ Box, and press the ENT
Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
NDB
The NDB Information Page displays information for the selected NDB and a map of the surrounding
area. This page also provides the NDB Frequency and information for the airport nearest to the NDB.
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NDB Identifier/Type
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
NDB
NDB Information
- Type
- Region
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
Selected NDB
Nearest Airport Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
Figure 5-31 NDB Information Page
NOTE: Compass locator (LOM, LMM): a low power, low or medium frequency radio beacon
installed in conjunction with the instrument landing system. When LOM is used, the locator is
at the Outer Marker; when LMM is used, the locator is at the Middle Marker.
The Nearest NDB Page can be used to quickly find an NDB close to the flight path. A white arrow
before the NDB identifier indicates the selected NDB. In addition to displaying a map of the
surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest NDBs. The list only includes
waypoints that are within 200nm. If there are no NDBs in the list, text indicating that there are no
nearest NDBs is displayed, and the information and frequency fields are dashed.
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NDB Identifier/Symbol
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
NDB
- Bearing/Distance to
NDB from aircraft
position
Nearest NDB
NDB Information
- Facility Name/City
- Type
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
Figure 5-32 Nearest NDB Page
Selecting an NDB:
1) With the ‘WPT - NDB Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob. The cursor is
placed in the ‘NDB’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the NDB identifier, name, or the city in which it’s located.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest NDB’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select an identifier in the ‘Nearest NDB’ Box, and press the ENT
Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
VOR
The VOR Information Page displays information for the selected VOR and a map of the surrounding
area. This page can be used to view information about VOR and ILS navigation signals, or to quickly
auto-tune a VOR or ILS frequency.
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Localizer information cannot be viewed on the VOR Information Page. If a VOR station is combined
with a TACAN station, it is listed as a VORTAC on the VOR Information Page, and if it includes only
DME, it is displayed as VOR-DME.
VOR Identifier/Type
Navigation Map
Showing
Selected VOR
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
VOR Information
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Region
- Lat/Long
VOR Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
Selected VOR
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
Figure 5-33 VOR Information Page
The Nearest VOR Page can be used to quickly find a VOR station close to the aircraft. A white arrow
before the VOR identifier indicates the selected VOR. Also, a NAV frequency from a selected VOR
station can be loaded from the Nearest VOR Page. In addition to displaying a map of the surrounding
area, the Nearest VOR Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VOR stations. The list only
includes waypoints that are within 200 nm. If there are no nearest VORs in the list, the information is
dashed.
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Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
VOR
VOR Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
from aircraft position
VOR Information
- Facility Name/City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR
VOR Frequency
Figure 5-34 Nearest VOR Page
Selecting a VOR:
1) With the ‘WPT - VOR Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob. The cursor is
place in the ‘VOR’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the VOR identifier, name, or the city in which it’s located.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob; or press the VOR
Softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select an identifier in the ‘Nearest VOR’ Box, and press the ENT
Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Select VOR Window’, and press the ENT Key.
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3) Turn the FMS Knob to select an identifier in the ‘Nearest VOR’ Box, and press the ENT
Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
VRP
The VRP Information Page dispays information about the selected visual reporting point (VRPs) and
a map of the surrounding area.
Selected VRP
Navigation Map Showing Selected VRP
VRP Identifier/Symbol
- VRP Name
VRP Information
- Country
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-36 VRP Information Page
Figure 5-35 VRP Information Page
The Nearest VRP Page can be used to quickly find a VRP close to the aircraft. A white arrow before
the VRP identifier indicates the selected VRP. In addition to displaying a map of the surrounding area,
the Nearest VRP Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VRPs. The list only includes VRPs that
are within 200 nm. If there are no nearest VRPs in the list, the information is dashed.
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Navigation Map Showing Nearest VRP
Nearest VRP
VRP Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
VRP Information
- VRP Name
- Country
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-37 Nearest VRP Page
Figure 5-36 Nearest VRP Page
Selecting a VRP:
1) With the ‘WPT - VRP Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob. The cursor is
placed in the ‘VRP’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the VRP identifier or name.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest VRP’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select an identifier in the ‘Nearest VRP’ Box, and press the ENT
Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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USER WAYPOINTS
The system can create and store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. User waypoints can be created
from any map page (except PFD Maps, Aux-Trip Planning Page, or Procedure Pages) by selecting a
position on the map using the Joystick, or from the User Waypoint Information Page by referencing a
bearing/distance from an existing waypoint, bearings from two existing waypoints, or a latitude and
longitude. Once a waypoint has been created, it can be renamed, deleted, or moved. Temporary user
waypoints are erased upon system power down.
User Waypoint Info
- Identifier
- Temporary/Normal
- Waypoint Type
User Wpt Comment
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
User Waypoint
Reference Wpt/Info
Selected User
Waypoint
User Waypoint List
- Identifier/Rad/Dist or
- Identifiers/Radials or
- Region/Lat/Long
- Identifier
- Comment
# User Wpts Used
Figure 5-37 User Waypoint Information Page
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Nearest User Wpt List
- Identifier
- Bearing/Distance from
aircraft position
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
User Waypoint
Selected User
Waypoint
User Waypoint Info
- Comment
- Lat/Long
Reference Wpt Info
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
Figure 5-38 Nearest User Waypoint Page
Selecting a User Waypoint:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob. The
cursor is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or use the large FMS
Knob to scroll to the desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest User WPTS’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select an identifier in the ‘Nearest User’ Box, and press the ENT
Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Creating user waypoints from the User WPT Information Page:
1) Press the New Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Create New User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
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3) Press the ENT Key. The current aircraft position is the default location of the new
waypoint.
4) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two
reference waypoint identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Box using the
FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the
reference waypoint identifier, the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference
Waypoints’ Box using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude
and longitude into the ‘Information’ Box using the FMS Knobs.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
6) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary by moving the
cursor to ‘Temporary’ and selecting the ENT Key to check the box.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Are you sure you want to create the new user
waypoint AAAAAA?’ is displayed.
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two
reference waypoint identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Box using the
FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the
reference waypoint identifier, the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference
Waypoints’ Box using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude
and longitude into the ‘Information’ Box using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
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7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary by moving the
cursor to ‘Temporary’ and selecting the ENT Key to check the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Creating user waypoints from map pages:
1) Push the Joystick to activate the panning function and pan to the map location of the
desired user waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page is displayed with the
captured position.
NOTE: If the pointer has highlighted a map database feature, one of three things happens
upon pressing the ENT Key: 1) information about the selected feature is displayed instead of
initiating a new waypoint, 2) a menu pops up allowing a choice between ‘Review Airspaces’
or ‘Create User Waypoint’, or 3) a new waypoint is initiated with the default name being the
selected map item.
3) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected name. The first reference waypoint box is
highlighted.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two
reference waypoint identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Box using the
FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the
reference waypoint identifier, the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference
Waypoints’ Box using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude
and longitude into the ‘Information’ Box using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary or normal by
moving the cursor to ‘Temporary’ and selecting the ENT Key to check or uncheck the
box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
9) Press the Go Back Softkey to return to the map page.
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EDITING USER WAYPOINTS
Once a user waypoint has been created, it may be edited, renamed, or deleted. A system generated
comment for a user waypoint incorporates the reference waypoint identifier, bearing, and distance. If
a system generated comment has been edited, a new comment can be generated.
The default type of user waypoint (normal or temporary) can be changed using the ‘WPT — User
Waypoint Information’ Page Menu. Temporary user waypoints are automatically deleted upon the
next power cycle.
Editing a user waypoint comment or location:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate
the cursor. The cursor is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or turn the large FMS
Knob and scroll to the desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the desired field.
5) Use the FMS Knobs to make any changes.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Renaming user waypoints:
1) With the ‘WPTS - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob. The
cursor is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or turn the large FMS
Knob and scroll to the desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
3) Press the Rename Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Rename User Waypoint’,
and press the ENT Key.
4) Enter a new name.
5) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Do you want to rename the user waypoint AAAAAA
to BBBBBB?’ is displayed.
6) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing the location of an existing waypoint to the aircraft present position:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate
the cursor. The cursor is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or turn the large FMS
Knob and scroll to the desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
3) Press the MENU Key.
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4) Select ‘Use Present Position’.
5) Press the ENT Key twice. The new waypoint’s location is saved.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Resetting the comment field to the system generated comment:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate
the cursor. The cursor is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or turn the large FMS
Knob and scroll to the desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Select ‘Auto Comment’.
5) Press the ENT Key. The generated comment is based on the reference point used to
define the waypoint.
Changing the user waypoint storage duration default setting:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The
cursor is placed on ‘Waypoint Setup’ in the ‘Options’ Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Normal’ or ‘Temporary’ as desired, and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor and return to the ‘WPT - User WPT
Information’ Page.
Deleting a single user waypoint:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate
the cursor. The cursor is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or turn the large FMS
Knob and scroll to the desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
3) Press the Delete Softkey or press the CLR Key. ‘YES’ is highlighted in the confirmation
window.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate
the cursor. The cursor is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or turn the large FMS
Knob and scroll to the desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
3) Press the MENU Key.
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4) Select ‘Delete User Waypoint’.
5) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting all user waypoints:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate
the cursor. The cursor is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or turn the large FMS
Knob and scroll to the desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete All User Waypoints’.
5) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
NOTE: The option to ‘Delete All User Waypoints’ is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
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5.4 AIRSPACES
The system can display the following types of airspaces: Class B/TMA, Class C/TCA, Class D,
Restricted, MOA (Military), Other Airspace, Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ), and Temporary
Flight Restriction (TFR). For detailed information concerning TFRs, see the Hazard Avoidance Section.
Display settings for airspace altitude labels and airspace boundaries are selected from the ‘Airspace’
Group in the ‘Map Settings’ Window.
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Class D Airspace
MOA (Military)
Class B Airspace
Restricted Area
Airspace Altitude Label
Class C Airspace
Alert Area
ADIZ
Warning Area
Figure 5-39 Airspace
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A selected frequency associated with the airspace can be loaded from the ‘Nearest Airspaces’ Page. In
addition to displaying a map of airspace boundaries and surrounding area, the ‘Nearest Airspaces’ Page
displays airspace information in four boxes labelled ‘Airspace Alerts’, ‘Airspace Agency’, ‘Vertical Limits’,
and ‘Frequencies’. Airspace alerts and associated frequencies are shown in scrollable lists on the ‘Nearest
Airspaces’ Page. The Alerts and FREQ Softkeys place the cursor in the respective list. The FREQ Softkey
is enabled only if one or more frequencies exist for a selected airspace.
Airspace Alerts Info
- Name
- Proximity (Ahead, Inside,
Ahead < 2nm, Within 2nm)
- Time till Intercept (only if
Ahead or Ahead < 2nm)
Airspace 1
Airspace/Agency Info
- Airspace Type
- Controlling Agency
Airspace Vertical Limits
- Ceiling
- Floor
Associated Frequencies
- Type
- Availability/Info
- Frequency
Airspace 2
Airspace 3
Figure 5-40 Nearest Airspace Page
The ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box (Aux - System Setup 1 Page) on the MFD allows the pilot to turn the
controlled/special-use airspace message alerts on or off. This does not affect the alerts listed on the
‘Nearest Airspaces’ Page or the airspace boundaries depicted on the ‘Navigation Map’ Page. It simply
turns on/off the message provided in the ‘Messages’ Window on the PFD when the aircraft is
approaching or near an airspace. An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range
above or below an airspace. For example, if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500
feet above/below an airspace, an alert message is not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet
above/below an airspace and projected to enter it, the pilot is notified with an alert message. The default
setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
Pressing the PFD Message Softkey displays the ‘Messages’ Window on the PFD. The following airspace
alerts are displayed in the ‘Messages’ Window:
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Message
Comments
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead – less
than 10 minutes.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft
penetrates the airspace within 10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and
ahead.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft
position.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less than Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft
position.
2 nm.
Table 5-9 PFD Airspace Messages
Displaying and removing airspace altitude labels:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airspace’ Group, if necessary, and press the ENT
Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Airspace ALT LBL’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ to display labels and ‘Off’ to remove labels.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Altitude Buffer’ Field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’
Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Turning an airspace alert on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to
turn the alert Off.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Selecting and viewing an airspace alert with its associated information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’ Page.
2) Press the Alerts Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight
‘Select Alerts’ Window, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Airspace
Alerts’ Box.
3) Select the desired airspace.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The Smart Airspace function de-emphasizes airspaces above or below the current aircraft altitude. The
function does not require the aircraft present position or flight path to enter the lateral boundaries of the
airspace. If the current aircraft altitude is within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace, the
airspace boundary is shown normally. If the current aircraft altitude is not within 1100 feet of the
vertical boundaries of the airspace, the airspace boundary is shown subdued.
Smart Airspace Off
Smart Airspace On
Figure 5-41 Smart Airspace
Turning smart airspace on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Group’ Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Airspace’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Smart Airspace’ Field.
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5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn smart airspace On or counterclockwise to
turn smart airspace Off.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.5 DIRECT-TO NAVIGATION
The Direct-to method of navigation, initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key, is quicker to use than a
flight plan when the desire is to navigate to a single point such as a nearby airport.
Once a direct-to is activated, the system establishes a point-to-point course line from the present
position to the selected direct-to destination. Course guidance is provided until the direct-to is replaced
with a new direct-to or flight plan, or cancelled.
A vertical navigation (VNV) direct-to creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the
path) from the current altitude to a selected altitude at the direct-to waypoint. Vertical navigation is
based on barometric altitudes, not on GPS altitude, and is used for cruise and descent phases of flight.
The ‘Direct-to’ Window allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation. The ‘Direct To’ Window
displays selected direct-to waypoint data on the PFD and the MFD.
Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/Region
- Facility Name
- City
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Map of Selected Point
Location of Destination
- Bearing/Distance
Desired Course
Figure 5-42 Direct To Window - MFD
Figure 5-46 Direct-to Window - MFD
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Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/City
- Facility Name
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Direct-to Point Info
- Bearing/Distance
- Desired Course
Activation Command
Figure 5-43 Direct-to Window - PFD
Figure 5-43 Direct To Window - PFD
Any waypoint can be entered as a direct-to destination from the ‘Direct To’ Window. Also, any
waypoint contained in the active flight plan can be selected as a direct-to waypoint from the ‘Direct To’
Window, the ‘Active Flight Plan’ Page, or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window.
NOTE: In some cases, Origin and Destination airports may not be displayed in the PFD “Flight
Plan” or “Recent” submenu or the MFD ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page until the airport
waypoint is loaded into the flight plan.
Waypoint Submenu
- Flight Plan Waypoints
- Nearest Airports
- Recent Waypoints
- User Waypoints
Figure 5-44 Waypoint Submenu
The ‘Direct To’ Window can be displayed from any page and allows selection and activation of directto navigation. If the direct-to is initiated from any page except the WPT pages, the default waypoint is
the active flight plan waypoint (if a flight plan is active) or a blank waypoint field. Direct-to requests on
any WPT page defaults to the displayed waypoint.
When navigating a direct-to, the system sets a direct great circle course to the selected destination. The
course to a destination can also be manually selected using the ‘CRS’ or ‘Course’ Field on the ‘Direct To’
Window.
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Entering a waypoint identifier, facility name, or city as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed (with the active flight plan
waypoint as the default selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it
counter-clockwise brings up the waypoint selection submenu - press the CLR Key to
remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Ident, Facility, City’ Field and turn
the small FMS Knob to begin entering an identifier, facility, or city. If duplicate entries
exist, additional entries can be viewed by turning the small FMS Knob during the
selection process.
3) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate?’ is highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the direct-to.
Selecting an active flight plan waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) While navigating an active flight plan, press the Direct-to Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window
is displayed with the active flight plan waypoint as the default selection.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints
(turning the knob counter-clockwise displays the waypoint submenu window).
3) Select the desired waypoint.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Or:
1) Select the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD, or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window on
the PFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on PFD), and turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint.
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a Nearest, Recent or User waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display the waypoint submenu window.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Nearest, Recent or User waypoints.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
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Selecting any waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Select the page or window containing the desired waypoint type and select the desired
waypoint.
2) Press the Direct-to Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window with the selected waypoint as
the direct-to destination.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
4) Press ENT again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey on the PFD; or turn the FMS Knob to display the ‘NRST -
Nearest Airports’ Page on the MFD and press the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knob to select the desired airport (the nearest one is already selected).
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a manual direct-to course:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed (with the active flight plan
waypoint as the default selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it
counter-clockwise brings up the waypoint selection submenu - press the CLR Key to
remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Ident, Facility, City’ Field and turn
the small FMS Knob to begin entering an identifier, facility name, or city. If duplicate
entries exist, additional entries can be viewed by turning the small FMS Knob during
the selection process.
3) Highlight the ’CRS’ or Course’ Field.
4) Enter the desired course.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Reselecting the direct course from the current position:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed with the cursor flashing in
the ‘Ident, Facility, City’ Box.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
3) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Direct-to destinations may also be selected by using the pointer on the navigation map pages. If no
airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint exists at the desired location, a temporary waypoint named
‘MAPWPT’ is automatically created at the location of the map arrow.
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Selecting a waypoint as a direct-to destination using the pointer:
1) From the ‘Navigation Map’ Page, push the Joystick to display the pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to place the pointer at the desired destination location.
3) If the pointer is placed on an existing airport, NAVAID, VRP, or user waypoint, the
waypoint name is highlighted.
4) Press the Direct-to Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window with the selected point
entered as the direct-to destination.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Cancelling a Direct-to:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. If a flight plan is still active,
the system resumes navigating the flight plan along the closest leg.
A direct-to with altitude constraints creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path)
from the aircraft’s current altitude to the altitude of the direct-to waypoint. The altitude is reached at the
waypoint, or at the specified distance along the flight path if an offset distance has been entered. All
VNV altitudes prior to the direct-to destination are removed from the active flight plan upon successful
activation of a direct-to destination that is part of the active flight plan. All VNV altitudes following the
direct-to waypoint are retained. See the section on Vertical Navigation for more information regarding
the use and purpose of VNV altitudes and offset distances.
Entering a VNV altitude and along-track offset for the waypoint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor over the ‘VNV’ Box altitude Field.
3) Enter the desired altitude using the FMS Knob.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an
airport, an additional choice is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or
‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
5) The cursor is now flashing in the ‘VNV’ offset distance Field.
6) Enter the desired along-track distance before the waypoint.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to activate.
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Removing a VNV altitude constraint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Clear Vertical Constraints’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
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5.6 FLIGHT PLANNING
Flight planning on the system consists of building a flight plan by entering waypoints one at a time,
adding waypoints along airways, and inserting departures, airways, arrivals, or approaches as needed.
The system allows flight planning information to be entered from either the MFD or PFD. The flight
plan is displayed on maps using different line widths, colors, and types, based on the type of leg and the
segment of the flight plan currently being flown (departure, enroute, arrival, approach, or missed
approach).
Flight Plan Leg Type
Symbol
Active Course Leg*
Active Heading Leg*
Active Roll Steering Path*†
Course Leg in the current flight segment
Course Leg not in the current flight segment
Heading Leg
Roll Steering Path †
Future Roll Steering Path ‡
Turn Anticipation Arc
* The active leg or path is the one currently being flown, and is shown in magenta.
† A roll steering path is a computed transition between two disconnected legs.
‡ A roll steering path in the flight plan that is beyond the next leg appears as a future roll steering
path. When a future roll steering path becomes the next leg in the flight plan, it appears as a roll
steering path.
Table 5-10 Flight Plan Leg Symbols
Up to 99 flight plans with up to 100 waypoints each can be created and stored in memory. Upon
power up, the previously active flight plan is retained and automatically repopulated if the aircraft
position is at the origin airport and the aircraft is on the ground. If, however, the aircraft is not at the
origin, on the ground, or if more than 12 hours have passed since the last active flight plan modification,
the previously active flight plan is not retained. One flight plan can be activated at a time and becomes
the active flight plan. The active flight plan is overwritten when another flight plan is activated. When
storing flight plans with an approach, departure, or arrival, the system uses the waypoint information
from the current database to define the waypoints. If the database is changed or updated, the system
automatically updates the information if the procedure has not been modified. If an approach,
departure, or arrival procedure is no longer available, the procedure is deleted from the affected stored
flight plan(s), and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A) advising that one or
more stored flight plans need to be edited.
Whenever an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of
approach, departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan along with a header line
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describing the instrument procedure the pilot selected. The original enroute portion of the flight plan
remains active (unless an instrument procedure is activated) when the procedure is loaded.
When the database is updated, the airways need to be reloaded also. Each airway segment is reloaded
from the database given the entry waypoint, the airway identifier and the exit waypoint. This reloads the
sequence of waypoints between the entry and exit waypoints (the sequence may change when the
database is updated). The update of an airway can fail during this process. If that happens, the airway
waypoints are changed to regular (non-airway) flight plan waypoints, and an alert is displayed (see
Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A).
The following could cause the airway update to fail:
•
Airway identifier, entry waypoint or exit waypoint not found in the new database.
•
Airway entry/exit waypoint is not an acceptable waypoint for the airway – either the waypoint is no
longer on the airway, or there is a new directional restriction that prevents it being used.
•
Loading the new airway sequence would exceed the capacity of the flight plan.
FLIGHT PLAN CREATION
There are three methods to create or modify a flight plan:
•
Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
•
‘Flight Plan’ Window on the PFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
•
Flight Plan Catalog Page on the MFD (create/modify a stored flight plan)
Active FPL Waypoint List
- Comment
- Procedure Header
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Vertical Navigation Profile
- Active Vertical WPT Alt/ID
- Time to Top of Descent
- Vertical Speed Target
- Flight Path Angle
- Vertical Speed Required
- Vertical Deviation
Turn Anticipation
Arc
Non-Active,
Flight Plan Leg
Figure 5-45 Active Flight Plan Page
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Active Flight Plan Comment
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Waypoint List
- Waypoint ID
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Airway Identifier
Active
Flight Plan
on PFDon PFD
Figure Figure
5-46 5-46
Active
Flight
PlanWindow
Window
Catalog Contents
- # Used
- # Empty
Flight Plan List
- Comment
Selected
Flight Plan
Map
Selected FPL Info
- Departure Waypoint
- Destination Waypoint
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Figure 5-47 Flight Plan Catalog Page
The active flight plan is listed on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, and in the ‘Flight Plan’
Window on the PFD. It is the flight plan to which the system is currently providing guidance, and is
shown on the navigation maps. Stored flight plans are listed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page on the
MFD, and are available for activation (becomes the active flight plan).
NOTE: The system supports AFCS lateral guidance for all leg types (using NAV or GPS APR
mode). The system does not support course deviation for any heading leg types (VA, VD, VI,
VM, or VR).
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Auto-designation will determine the most likely airport of origin and auto-populate the active flight
plan. Once determined, the airfield identifier automatically appears in the ‘Origin’ Field and the line
immediately below ‘Origin’ while keeping the runway (‘RW’) Field empty. The line below the Origin
line serves as the first point in the flight plan.
Auto-designation occurs between 15 and 60 seconds after display power-up under the following
conditions:
•
Aircraft position is known
•
Aircraft is on the ground
•
Nearest airport is within 200NM
•
Flight plan is empty
If the pilot manually enters the origin, or any other leg of the flight plan before auto-designation
occurs, nothing gets inserted automatically. The automatic insertion logic only runs once, so the pilot
can edit the origin if the nearest airport is not the desired origin.
If the pilot enters a different airport into the first point of the flight plan, the Origin will change to
this entry, and the pilot will be prompted to enter the departure runway.
Both the Origin airport/runway and the first point of the flight plan will be the same unless a
departure is entered and a manual leg is inserted at the beginning of the loaded departure. Loading a
departure locks in the origin information.
NOTE: In some cases, Origin and Destination airports may not be displayed in the PFD “Flight
Plan” or “Recent” submenu or the MFD ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page until the airport
waypoint is loaded into the flight plan.
Creating an active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key. Press the small FMS Knob to activate the cursor (only on MFD).
2) Select the origin airport and runway.
a) Highlight the field below the Origin header to enter the origin airport identifier
using the FMS Knob.
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city
name of the departure waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Set Runway’ Window is displayed with the ‘Runway’ Field
highlighted.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway, and press the ENT Key.
e) Press the ENT Key again to add the origin airport/runway to the flight plan.
3) Repeat step number 2 for the destination airport and runway.
4) Select the enroute waypoints.
a) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute
header is selected, the new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute
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waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new waypoint will be placed ahead of the
selected item).
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city
name of the waypoint. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is
entered.
5) Repeat step number 4 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
6) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor (if
required).
Creating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the New Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create New Flight Plan’, and
press the ENT Key to display a blank flight plan for the first empty storage location.
4) Select the origin airport and runway.
a) Highlight the field below the Origin header to enter the origin airport identifier
using the FMS Knob, or by moving the Quick Select Box (MFD only) with the
Joystick (the waypoint will be inserted at the insertion point indicator).
b) Use the FMS Knob, alphanumeric keypad, or the waypoint submenu to enter the
identifier, facility, or city name of the origin waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Set Runway’ Window is displayed with the ‘Runway’ Field
highlighted.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway, and press the ENT Key.
e) Press the ENT Key again to add the origin airport/runway to the flight plan.
5) Repeat step number 4 for the destination airport and runway.
6) Select the enroute waypoints.
a) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute
header is selected, the new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute
waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new waypoint will be placed ahead of the
selected item.)
b) Use the FMS Knob, alphanumeric keypad, or the waypoint submenu to enter the
identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key. The stored flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
7) Repeat step number 6 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
8) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
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FLIGHT PLAN IMPORT/EXPORT
Flight plans can be imported from an SD Card or exported to an SD Card from the ‘Stored Flight
Plan’ Page.
Under certain conditions, the following messages may appear when a flight plan is imported or
exported from or to an SD card. Some messages may appear in conjunction with others.
Flight Plan Import/
Export Results
Description
‘Flight plan successfully
imported.’
A flight plan file stored on the SD
card was successfully imported as a
stored flight plan.
‘File contained user
waypoints only. User
waypoints imported
successfully. No stored
flight plan data was
modified.’
The file stored on the SD card did
not contain a flight plan, only user
waypoints. These waypoints have
been saved to the system user
waypoints. No flight plans stored in
the system have been modified.
‘No flight plan files found
to import.’
The SD card contains no flight plan
data.
‘Flight plan import failed.’ Flight plan data was not successfully
imported from the SD card.
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‘Flight plan partially
imported.’
Some flight plan waypoints were
successfully imported from the SD
card, however others had errors and
were not imported. A partial stored
flight plan now exists in the system.
‘File contained user
waypoints only.’
The file stored on the SD card did
not contain a flight plan, only user
waypoints. One or more of these
waypoints did not import
successfully.
‘Too many points. Flight
plan truncated.’
The flight plan on the SD card
contains more waypoints than the
system can support. The flight plan
was imported with as many
waypoints as possible.
‘Some waypoints not
loaded. Waypoints
locked.’
The flight plan on the SD card
contains one or more waypoints that
the system cannot find in the
navigation database. The flight plan
has been imported, but must be
edited within the system before it
can be activated for use.
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Flight Plan Import/
Export Results
Description
‘User waypoint database
full. Not all loaded.’
The flight plan file on the SD card
contains user waypoints. The
quantity of stored user waypoints
has exceeded system capacity,
therefore not all the user waypoints
on the SD card have been imported.
Any flight plan user waypoints that
were not imported are locked in the
flight plan. The flight plan must be
edited within the system before it
can be activated for use.
‘One or more user
waypoints renamed.’
One or more imported user
waypoints were renamed when
imported due to naming conflicts
with waypoints already existing in
the system.
‘Flight plan successfully
exported.’
The stored flight plan was
successfully exported to the SD card.
‘Flight plan export failed.’
The stored flight plan was not
successfully exported to the SD card.
The SD card may not have sufficient
available memory or the card may
have been removed prematurely.
Table 5-11 Flight Plan Import/Export Messages
Importing a Flight Plan from an SD Card:
1) Insert the SD card containing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight an empty or existing flight plan.
6) Press the Import Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Import Flight Plan”, and
press the ENT Key.
If an empty slot is selected, a list of the available flight plans on the SD card will be
displayed.
Or:
If an existing flight plan is selected, an ‘Overwrite existing flight plan? OK or CANCEL’
prompt is displayed. Press the ENT Key to choose to overwrite the selected flight plan
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and see the list of available flight plans on the SD card. If overwriting the existing flight
plan is not desired, select ‘CANCEL’ using the FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, select
another flight plan slot, and press the Import Softkey again.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan for importing.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the import.
9) Press the ENT Key again to confirm the import.
NOTE: If the imported flight plan contains a waypoint with a name that duplicates the name
of a waypoint already stored on the system, the system compares the coordinates of the
imported waypoint with those of the existing waypoint. If the coordinates are different, the
imported waypoint is automatically renamed by adding characters to the end of the name.
Exporting a Flight Plan to an SD Card:
1) Insert the SD card into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be exported.
6) Press the Export Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Export Flight Plan’.
7) If desired, change the name for the exported file by turning the large FMS Knob to the
left to highlight the name, then use the FMS Knobs to enter the new name, and press
the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the export.
9) Press the ENT Key to confirm the export.
NOTE: The exported flight plan will not contain any procedures or airways.
Flight plans can be transferred to or from a mobile device via the Flight Stream 510 Bluetooth
wireless connection. Transfer of a flight plan to a mobile device is controlled by the mobile device.
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Pending Flight Plan
Pending Flight Plan
Pop-Up Alert
Ignore Softkey
Preview Softkey
Figure 5-48 Pending Flight Plan Transfer
Pending Flight Plan
Store? or Activate?
Selection
Delete Softkey
Activate Softkey
Store Softkey
Figure 5-49 Preview Flight Plan Page
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Previewing a pending flight plan transfer from a wireless connection:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a Pending Flight
Plan pop-up alert appears in the lower right corner of the MFD, and a Connext
annunciation appears to the right of the MFD page name.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Or:
Press the Preview Softkey to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key,
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Preview Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Ignoring a pending flight plan transfer from a wireless connection:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a Pending Flight
Plan pop-up alert appears in the lower right corner of the MFD, and a Connext
annunciation appears to the right of the MFD page name.
2) Press the CLR Key to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The
pending flight plan will still be available on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Or:
Press the Ignore Softkey to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight
plan. The pending flight plan will still be available on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
Storing a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
5) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
6) Press the Store Softkey to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and
the pending annunciation is removed.
Or:
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a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store?’.
c) Press the ENT Key to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the
pending annunciation is removed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the
pending annunciation is removed.
Activating a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight
Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
pending flight plan.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page.
4) Press the Activate Softkey. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ Window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate?’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ Window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ Window is displayed.
5) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to activate the pending flight plan. The
pending flight plan becomes the active flight plan and is removed from the Flight Plan
Catalog Page. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
Deleting a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired pending flight plan.
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5) Press the Delete Softkey. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ Window is displayed.
Or:
Press the CLR Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ Window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ Window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the pending flight plan. The
pending flight plan is removed from the Flight Plan Catalog Page. To cancel the request,
press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting all pending flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete All Pending’.
5) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all pending flight plans?’ confirmation Window is
displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all pending flight plans. To cancel
the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
ADDING WAYPOINTS TO AN EXISTING FLIGHT PLAN
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose the flight plan,
select the desired point of insertion, enter the waypoint, and it is added in front of the selected
waypoint. Flight plans are limited to 100 waypoints (including waypoints within airways and
procedures). If the number of waypoints in the flight plan exceeds 100, the message “Flight plan is
full. Remove unnecessary waypoints.” appears and the new waypoint(s) are not added to the flight
plan.
NOTE: Manually adding waypoints to a flight plan after a MANSEQ leg creates a lateral gap
in the flight plan. Time, fuel, and distance values for legs beyond the gap do not include the
distance across the gap.
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Stored Flight Plan Selected
- Memory Slot
- Comment
- Procedure Identifier
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Softkeys
Figure 5-50 Stored Flight Plan Page
Adding a waypoint to a stored flight plan:
1) On the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to
select “EDIT” and press the ENT Key. The Stored Flight Plan Page is displayed.
4) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed
directly in front of the highlighted waypoint.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window. (Turning it
clockwise displays a blank ‘Waypoint Information’ Window, turning it counter-clockwise
displays the ‘Waypoint Information Window’ with a waypoint selection submenu
allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
6) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the
submenu of waypoints and press the ENT Key. The new waypoint now exists in the
flight plan.
NOTE: If the identifier entered in the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window has duplicates, a
‘Duplicate Waypoint’ Window is displayed. Use the FMS Knob to select the correct waypoint.
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NOTE: If the flight plan is successfully edited in the ‘Flight Plan’ Window from PFD while the
MFD Active Flight Plan Page is in the process of being edited, the ‘Flight Plan Modified By
Other User’ Window will appear on the MFD. Press the ENT key to return to the Active Flight
Plan Page with the accepted changes.
Adding a waypoint to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed
prior to the highlighted waypoint.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window. (Turning it
clockwise displays a blank ‘Waypoint Information’ Window, turning it counter-clockwise
displays the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window with a waypoint selection submenu
allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the
submenu of waypoints and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each
waypoint is entered.
Creating and adding user waypoints to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob on the MFD to activate the cursor.
3) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint.
4) Push the Joystick on the MFD to activate the panning function on the ‘FPL - Active
Flight Plan’ Page and pan to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
5) Press the LD WPT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Waypoint’, and press
the ENT Key. The user waypoint is created with a name of USRxxx (using the next
available in sequence) and is added to the active flight plan.
Waypoints entered in the enroute segment of the flight plan may be treated as fly-by waypoints,
unless otherwise designated. A fly-by waypoint is a waypoint that marks the intersection of two
straight paths, with the transition from one path to another being made by the aircraft using a
precisely calculated turn that “flies by” but does not vertically cross the waypoint. A fly-over
waypoint is a waypoint that must be crossed vertically by the aircraft.
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Active Leg to TOP
TOP as Fly-By Waypoint -
Figure 5-51 TOP Fly-By Waypoint
Active Leg to TOP
Fly-Over
Waypoint Symbol
TOP as Fly-Over Waypoint -
Figure 5-52 TOP Fly-Over Waypoint
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Designating a fly-over waypoint:
1) For the active flight plan, press the FPL Key and press the FMS Knob to activate the
cursor (not required on the PFD).
Or:
For a stored flight plan, highlight the desired flight plan on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog
Page’ and press the Edit Softkey.
2) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Fly-Over Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Set
[waypoint] to be a fly-over waypoint?’ Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
5) To change the waypoint back to a fly-by waypoint, highlight the desired waypoint. Press
the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Fly-By Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Set
[waypoint] to be a fly-by waypoint?’ Window is displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press
the ENT Key.
ADDING AIRWAYS TO A FLIGHT PLAN
Airways can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose a flight plan (add the
desired airway entry point if not already in the flight plan), select the waypoint after the desired airway
entry point, select the airway, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. An airway can only be
loaded if there is a waypoint in the flight plan that is part of the desired airway and is not part of an
arrival or approach procedure. The system also anticipates the desired airway and exit point based on
loaded flight plan waypoints.
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Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Airways Available at TOP
Airway Waypoint
Sequence
Preview of
Selected Airway
Figure 5-53 Select Airway Page - Selecting Airway
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Selected Exit Point
Preview of
Selected Airway
Selected Airway Exit
Point
Airway Exit Points
Available
Figure 5-54 Select Airway Page - Selecting Exit Point
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Some airways have directional restrictions on all or part of the route. Airway A2 in Europe has a
directional restriction over the whole route such that it can be flown only one direction.
For example, airway UR975 in North Africa has more complicated directional restrictions within the
list of airway waypoints. That is, each waypoint may have its own conditional route in relation to
another waypoint.
In the US, airways that are one-way for specified hours of operation are not uncommon. These
airways are always bidirectional in the system database.
The system only allows correct airway sequences to be inserted. If the pilot subsequently inverts the
flight plan, the system inverts the airway waypoint sequence and removes the airway header.
Adding an airway to a flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint after the desired airway entry point.
If this waypoint is not a valid airway entry point, a valid entry point should be entered at
this time.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and press the LD AIRWY Softkey, or press
the MENU Key and select ‘Load Airway’. The ‘FPL — Select Airway’ Page is displayed.
The LD AIRWY Softkey or the ‘Load Airway’ menu item is available only when a valid
airway entry waypoint has been chosen (the waypoint ahead of the cursor position).
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the
ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
7) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway
inserted.
ADDING PROCEDURES TO A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
The system allows the pilot to insert pre-defined instrument procedures from the navigation
database into a flight plan. The procedures are designed to facilitate routing of traffic leaving an airport
(departure), arriving at an airport (arrival), and landing at an airport (approach). See the procedures
section for more details.
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Flight Plan Name
Flight Plan Waypoint
List
Softkeys
Load Departure Load Arrival Load Approach Activate Flight Plan
Figure 5-55 Stored Flight Plan Page
DEPARTURE
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one
departure can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of a departure,
the transition waypoints, and a runway.
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Departure Airport
Selected
Departure
Departures Available at
KMKC
Preview of
Selected
Departure
Departure Waypoint
Sequence
Figure 5-56 Departure Loading Page - Selecting the Departure
Figure 5-56 Departure Loading Page - Selecting the Departure
Departure Airport
Selected
Departure
Selected Runway
Preview of
Selected
Departure
Selected Transition
Departure Transition Points
Available
Figure 5-57 Departure Loading Page - Selecting Transition
Figure 5-57 Departure Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
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Loading a departure procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD DP Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Departure’, and press the
ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Departure Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Select a departure. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a runway served by the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition for the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected departure procedure.
ARRIVAL
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) is loaded at the destination airport in the flight plan. Only one
arrival can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
Destination Airport
Selected Arrival
Arrivals Available at KCOS
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
Preview of
Selected Arrival
Figure 5-58 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Arrival
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Destination Airport
Selected Arrival
Selected Transition
Transitions Available with
DBRY3
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
Preview of
Selected Arrival
Figure 5-59 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
Loading an arrival procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD STAR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Arrival”, and press the
ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Arrival Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Select an arrival. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a transition for the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway served by the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected arrival procedure.
APPROACH
An Approach Procedure (APR) can be loaded at any airport that has an approach available. Only
one approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route for a selected approach is defined by
designating transition waypoints.
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Destination Airport
Approaches Available at
KCOS
Selected
Approach
Preview of
Selected
Approach
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Figure 5-60 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Approach
Destination Airport
Selected
Approach
Selected Transition
Transitions Available with
Selected Approach
Preview of
Selected
Approach
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Load?
Figure 5-61 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
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Loading an approach procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Approach’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS
Knob to move the cursor to the ‘Approach Channel’ Field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key
to accept the approach channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
5) Select a transition for the selected approach. Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the selected approach procedure.
STORED FLIGHT PLAN
The system can store up to 99 flight plans, numbered 1 through 99. The active flight plan is erased
when the system is powered off or when another flight plan is activated. Details about each stored
flight plan can be viewed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page and on the Stored Flight Plan Page.
A stored flight plan may be viewed or edited. The system also allows copying a flight plan into a
new flight plan memory slot, allowing editing, etc., without affecting the original flight plan. This
can be used to duplicate an existing stored flight plan for use in creating a modified version of the
original stored flight plan.
Activating a stored flight plan erases the active flight plan and replaces it with the flight plan being
activated. Inverting a stored flight plan reverses the waypoint order, erases the active flight plan, and
replaces it with the flight plan being activated (the stored flight plan is not changed).
Lastly, individual or all stored flight plans can be deleted from the system memory.
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Preview of Selected
Flight Plan
Flight Plan Name
(Comment)
Stored Flight Plan Info
- Departure Airport
- Destination Airport
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Stored FPL Editing
Softkeys
Figure 5-62 Stored Flight Plan Information
Storing an active flight plan from the Active Flight Plan Page or the ‘Active Flight
Plan’ Window:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. The flight plan is stored in the next available
position in the flight plan list on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Viewing information about a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
desired flight plan.
4) The ‘Flight Plan Info’ Box displays departure, destination, total distance, and enroute
safe altitude information for the selected flight plan.
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5) Press the Edit Softkey to open the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page and view the
waypoints in the flight plan.
6) Press the FMS Knob to exit the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page.
Activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
desired flight plan.
3) Press the Activate Softkey; or press the ENT Key twice; or press the MENU Key,
highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘activate stored flight plan?’
Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
desired flight plan.
3) Press the Invert Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and
press the ENT Key. The ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Copying a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
desired flight plan.
3) Press the Copy Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Copy Flight Plan’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘Copy to flight plan XX?’ Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to copy the flight plan. The flight plan is
stored in the next available position in the flight plan list on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan
Catalog’ Page. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
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Deleting an individual waypoint from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ Window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire airway from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the airway to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove [airway name] from flight plan?’ Window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
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5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the procedure to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove [procedure name] from flight plan?’ Window is
displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight
‘Remove [procedure]’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove [procedure name] from flight plan?’ Window is
displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing a stored flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Deleting a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
desired flight plan.
3) Press the Delete Softkey; press the CLR Key; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete
Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete flight plan XX?’ Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the flight plan. To cancel the
request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
NOTE: The option to delete all stored flight plans is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all stored flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete All’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all flight
plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all flight plans. To cancel the
request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
The active flight plan can be edited by adding or removing flight plan items. The edits made to the
active flight plan affect navigation as soon as they are entered. The system allows deleting an active
flight plan. Deleting the active flight plan suspends navigation by the system. Individual waypoints,
entire airways, and entire procedures can be deleted from a flight plan. Some waypoints in the final
approach segment (such as the FAF or MAP) can not be deleted individually. Attempting to delete a
waypoint that is not allowed results in a window displaying ‘Invalid flight plan modification’.
The comment field (or name) of each flight plan can be changed to something that is useful for
identification and sorting.
The flight plan leg which is currently being used for navigation guidance is referred to as the ‘active
leg’. The system automatically sequences from one active leg to the next as defined by the active flight
plan. Any leg in the active flight plan successive to the leg currently being flown may be selected to
become the new active leg.
Lastly, the active flight plan may be inverted (reversed) for navigation back to the original departure
point.
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Activating a flight plan leg:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the destination waypoint for the desired leg.
3) Press the ACT Leg Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Leg’,
and press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed with ‘Activate’ highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan leg. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Inverting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. An ‘Invert
active flight plan?’ confirmation window is displayed.
3) Select ‘OK’.
4) Press the ENT Key to invert and activate the active flight plan. To cancel, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete
all waypoints in flight plan?’ Window is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the active flight plan. To cancel the
request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting an individual waypoint from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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NOTE: If removal of a flight plan item (waypoint, procedure, etc.) results in deletion of the
end waypoint of the active leg, an off-route direct-to to the deleted waypoint is created and
activated.
Deleting an entire airway from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the header of the airway to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove [airway name] from flight plan?’ Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the header of the procedure to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove [procedure name] from flight plan?’ Window is
displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight
‘Remove [procedure]’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove [procedure name] from flight plan?’ Window is
displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
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Changing the active flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the comment field.
3) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ALONG TRACK OFFSETS
A waypoint having an “along track offset” distance from an existing waypoint can be entered into a
flight plan. Along track offset waypoints lie along the path of the existing flight plan, and can be used
to make the system reach a specified altitude before or after reaching the specified flight plan
waypoint. Offset distances can be entered from 1 to 999 nm in increments of 1 nm. Entering a
negative offset distance results in an along track offset waypoint inserted before the selected waypoint,
whereas entering a positive offset distance results in an along track offset waypoint inserted after the
selected waypoint. Multiple offset waypoints are allowed.
A waypoint must be adjacent to its parent waypoint in the flight plan, so the system limits the alongtrack distance to less than the length of the leg before or after the selected waypoint. If the selected
waypoint is the active waypoint, the distance is limited to less than the distance to go to the active
waypoint. Assigning an along track offset to a leg with indeterminate length is not permitted. An along
track offset is not allowed at or after the final approach fix of an approach.
An along track offset distance cannot be modified once entered. If the along track offset distance
must be changed, the existing along track offset waypoint must be deleted and a new one created with
the new offset distance.
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Along Track Offset
Waypoint and
Distance from Flight
Plan Waypoint
Along Track
Offset Waypoint
and Distance
Figure 5-63 Along Track Offset
Figure 5-63 Along Track Offset
Entering an along track offset distance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint for the along track offset.
3) Press the ATK OFS Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create ATK
Offset Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a positive or negative offset distance in the range of
+/- 1 to 999 nm (limited by leg distances).
5) Press the ENT Key to create the offset waypoint.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
PARALLEL TRACK
The Parallel Track (PTK) feature allows creation of a parallel course offset of 1 to 50 nm left or right
of the current flight plan. When Parallel Track is activated, the course line drawn on the map pages
shows the parallel course, and waypoint names have a lower case “p” placed after the identifier.
Activation of parallel track will apply from the current position along the flight plan until a leg that
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does not meet the criteria for parallel track. Guidance will be computed to return to the original track
at the beginning of that leg.
If the parallel track proposed by the offset direction and distance is not allowed by the system, the
activation prompt is displayed, but disabled.
The following will inhibit activation of a parallel track:
•
Initiating a direct-to, to the selected waypoint.
•
If an approach leg is active, the status indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track
with the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable Approach Leg Active’.
•
If the offset direction and distance results in an unreasonable route geometry (e.g., there is a sharp
turn of more than 120 degrees), the status indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel
track because of invalid geometry (‘Parallel Track Unavailable Invalid Route Geometry’).
•
If the active leg is not a track between two fixes (TF) or a course to a fix (DF) leg, the status indicates
that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because parallel track is not available for the
active leg type (‘Parallel Track Unavailable Not Allowed for Active Leg’).
•
If there are no legs remaining in the flight plan after the given leg, or OBS mode is active.
The following will cancel the parallel track:
•
Initiating a direct-to, to a waypoint.
•
Initiating a hold at the present position.
•
If a course change occurs greater than 120° or the parallel tracks overlap as a result of the course
change.
•
No legs are remaining in the flight plan after the given leg, or OBS mode is active.
Initiating a hold at a waypoint will result in the aircraft flying the parallel track until a turn is
required to fly to the hold waypoint. If the hold is removed prior to reaching the hold waypoint, the
parallel track will be resumed. Once the holding pattern is active, the parallel track will not be
resumed upon exiting the hold.
NOTE: Vertical navigation is unavailable while the Parallel Track feature is active.
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Offset Direction
Offset Distance
Activation Prompt
Figure 5-64
TrackTrack
WindowWindow
Figure
5-64Parallel
Parallel
Parallel Track Waypoints
- TIFTO-p
- TOP-p
- ...
- LAA-p
Parallel Track
Original Track
Figure 5-65 Parallel Track Active
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Activating parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Parallel
Track’ Window is displayed with the ‘Direction’ Field highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘LEFT’ or ‘RIGHT’ and press the ENT Key. The
‘Distance’ Field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a distance from 1-99 nm and press the ENT Key.
‘Activate Parallel Track’ is highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key to activate parallel track. Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to
cancel the parallel track activation.
Cancelling parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Parallel
Track’ Window is displayed with ‘Cancel Parallel Track?’ highlighted.
3) Press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
Information about flight plans can be viewed in more than one way. The active flight plan can be
configured to show cumulative distance over the length of the flight plan or the distance for each leg of
the flight plan, and the active flight plan can be viewed in a narrow or wide view. In the wide view,
additional information is displayed: Fuel Remaining (FUEL REM), Estimated Time Enroute (ETE),
Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA), and Bearing to the waypoint (BRG).
Changing the flight plan view:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the View Softkey to display the Wide, Narrow, Leg-Leg, and CUM Softkeys.
3) Press the CUM Softkey to view cumulative waypoint distance, or press the Leg-Leg
Softkey to view leg-to-leg waypoint distance.
4) Press the Wide Softkey to display the wide view, or select the Narrow Softkey to
display the narrow view.
5) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
Charts may also be viewed alongside the active flight plan in split screen mode. With an active flight
plan loaded into the system, the Charts Page can be set to automatically display a chart depending on
the active flight plan leg. For more information on Charts, see the Additional Features section.
Activating split screen mode from the active flight plan displays the Charts Page which removes the
Flight Plan Map. The Flight Plan Map can be re-displayed on the active flight plan page. However,
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replacing the Flight Plan Map on the active flight plan page in split screen mode limits the flight plan
content which can be displayed. For example, displaying the Flight Plan Map while in split screen
narrow view removes the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box. See the following figures below depicting the
different split screen displays with the active flight plan.
Display Title shows ‘Chart + Active Flight Plan
- AUTO indicates the chart shown automatically corresponds to the phase of flight
Split Screen Narrow View
Split Screen Wide View
Figure 5-66 Split Screen Narrow and Wide View
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Split Screen Narrow View with Flight Plan Map
Split Screen Wide View with Flight Plan Map
Figure 5-67 Split Screen Mode with Flight Plan Map
Viewing charts and active flight plan page in split screen mode:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the Charts Softkey. Split screen mode is now enabled showing the Charts Page
alongside the Active Flight Plan Page, and Charts Page is bordered by a cyan box
indicating it is the active display pane.
3) To quickly view the chart corresponding to the active flight plan leg, press the AUTO
Softkey.
Displaying the flight plan map on the active flight plan page in split mode:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the Charts Softkey. Split screen mode is now enabled showing the Charts Page
alongside the active flight plan, and the Charts Page is bordered by a cyan box
indicating it is the active display pane.
3) Move the Joystick to select the Active Flight Plan page as the active display pane.
4) Press the MENU Key. ‘Show Flight Plan Map’ is highlighted. Press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the Flight Plan Map, press the MENU Key and select ‘Hide Flight Plan Map’.
Press the ENT Key.
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COLLAPSING AIRWAYS
The system allows airways on the active flight plan to be collapsed or expanded from the Stored or
Active Flight Plan Page/Window. When airways have been collapsed, it is indicated on the airway
heading.
When airways are collapsed, leg-to-leg computed values such as DIS or ETE shown for the exit
waypoint reflect the total of all the legs on the airway that have been hidden in the collapsed display.
The DTK value is inhibited because it is not usable in this context.
The Active Flight Plan Page always keeps the following three waypoints visible: “From” waypoint,
“To” waypoint, and “Next” waypoint. To prevent one or more of these waypoints from being hidden
in a collapsed airway segment, the airway segment that contains either the “To” or the “Next”
waypoint is automatically expanded. When an airway is loaded, airways are automatically expanded
to facilitate flight plan review.
V4.SLN Airway
Expanded View
All Airways
Collapsed View
Figure 5-68 Expanded/Collapsed Airways
Collapsing/expanding the airways in the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Collapse Airways’ or ‘Expand Airways’, and press the
ENT Key. The airways are collapsed/expanded.
CLOSEST POINT OF FPL
‘Closest Point of FPL’ calculates the bearing and closest distance at which a flight plan passes a
reference waypoint, and creates a new user waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to a
chosen reference waypoint.
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Determining the closest point along the active flight plan to a selected waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Closest Point Of FPL’, and press the ENT Key. A window
appears with the reference waypoint field highlighted.
3) Enter the identifier of the reference waypoint. The system displays the bearing (BRG)
and distance (DIS) to the closest point along the flight plan to the selected reference
waypoint and creates a user waypoint at this location. Press the ENT Key. The name for
the new user waypoint is derived from the identifier of the reference waypoint.
USER-DEFINED HOLDING PATTERNS
A holding pattern can be defined at any active flight plan waypoint, at the aircraft present position,
or at a direct-to waypoint.
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Hold At
Waypoint
Menu
Selection
Waypoint
Selected
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
Inbound or Outbound
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time or Distance)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(Right or Left)
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further Clearance Time
Load Hold in Active Flight Plan
Figure 5-69 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at an Active Flight Plan Waypoint
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Waypoint
Selected
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
(Inbound or Outbound)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or
Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(Right or Left)
Leg Length Mode
Button
(Time or Distance)
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further
Clearance Time
Load Hold and
Activate Direct To
Hold At Direct To Waypoint Selection
Figure 5-70 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at a Direct To Waypoint
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Creating a user-defined hold at an active flight plan waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint for the hold.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold
at’ Window appears with the ‘Course’ Field highlighted.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press
the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT
Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the
ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘Load?’ is highlighted to insert the hold into the flight plan.
Creating a user-defined hold at the aircraft present position:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Present Position’, and press the ENT Key. The
‘Hold at’ Window appears with the ‘Course’ Field highlighted.
3) If desired, use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press
the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT
Key.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the
ENT Key.
9) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to create an Offroute Direct-to hold
waypoint at the aircraft present position and activate the hold.
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Creating a user-defined hold at a direct-to waypoint:
1) Press a Direct-to Key and set up the direct-to waypoint as desired, but select ‘Hold?’
instead of ‘Activate?’ when finished.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press
the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT
Key.
5) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the
ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to activate the direct-to with the user-
defined hold defined at the direct-to waypoint. (If the direct-to waypoint is part of the
active flight plan, the hold is inserted into the active flight plan. If the direct-to
waypoint is not part of the active flight plan, an off-route direct-to hold is created.)
Editing a user-defined hold:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint for the hold.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Edit Hold’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold at’
Window appears with the ‘Course’ Field highlighted.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press
the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT
Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the
ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘Update?’ is highlighted to update the hold.
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Exiting a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
Press the SUSP Softkey. The system will provide guidance to follow the holding pattern
to the inbound course and resume automatic waypoint sequencing.
Removing a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the ‘HOLD’ waypoint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove Holding Pattern?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed from the active
flight plan. Select ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to cancel the removal of the
holding pattern.
Removing a user-defined hold at an off-route direct-to:
1) Press a Direct To Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window (PFD or MFD).
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu with the cursor on the ‘Cancel Direct-To
NAV’ selection.
3) Press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed.
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5.7 VERTICAL NAVIGATION
NOTE: The system supports vertical path guidance and altitude constraints for the following
leg types: AF, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FC, FD, PI, RF, and TF. Altitude constraints are not retained in
stored flight plans.
The system Vertical Navigation (VNV) feature provides vertical profile guidance during the enroute
and terminal phases of flight. Guidance based on specified altitudes at waypoints in the active flight plan
or to a direct-to waypoint is provided. It includes vertical path guidance to a descending path, which is
provided as a linear deviation from the desired path. The desired path is defined by a line joining two
waypoints with specified altitudes or as a vertical angle from a specified waypoint/altitude. The vertical
waypoints are integrated into the active flight plan. Both manual and autopilot-coupled guidance are
supported.
Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ),
and time to top of descent/bottom of descent (TOD/BOD) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator
(VDI) and Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) on the PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ,
and TOD items displayed in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box are dashed. VNV remains disabled until
manually enabled. Vertical guidance in reversionary mode can only be enabled for a direct-to waypoint.
The system allows a vertical navigation direct-to for any waypoint in the active flight plan with an
altitude constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV Direct-to Softkey on the Active
Flight Plan Page allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude
constraint at the VNV direct-to waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is
spread along the flight plan from current position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the
leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with altitude constraint activated by pressing the Direct-to Key
also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass flight plan waypoints between the current position in
the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent (TOD) point is computed based on the
default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached.
The vertical navigation profile can be modified by directly entering a vertical speed target (VS TGT)
and/or flight path angle (FPA) in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box.
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Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Disabled (fields dashed)
ENBL VNV Softkey
Enabled (valid data)
Cncl VNV Softkey
Figure 5-71 Enabling/Disabling Vertical Navigation
Enabling and Disabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL- Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the ENBL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Enable VNV’, and press
the ENT Key. Vertical navigation is enabled, and vertical guidance begins with the
waypoint shown in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box (defaults first waypoint in the active
flight plan with an altitude enabled for vertical navigation).
3) To Disable VNV guidance, press the Cncl VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key,
highlight ‘Cancel VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical navigation is disabled.
Activating a vertical navigation direct-to:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
desired waypoint.
NOTE: The selected waypoint must have a designated altitude constraint (cyan number) to
be used. If not, the first waypoint in the flight plan with a designated altitude constraint is
selected.
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3) Press the VNV Direct-To Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘VNV Direct-To’,
and press the ENT Key. An ‘Activate vertical Direct-to to: NNNNNFT at XXXXXX?’
confirmation window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. Vertical guidance begins to the altitude constraint for the selected
waypoint.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Modifying the VS TGT and FPA:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the VNV Prof Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select VNV Profile
Window’, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is now located in the ‘Active VNV Profile’
Box.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs as needed to edit the values.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ALTITUDE CONSTRAINTS
The system can use altitude constraints associated with lateral waypoints to give guidance for vertical
navigation. These altitudes are, depending on the specific instance, manually entered or retrieved from
the published altitudes in the navigation database.
Altitudes associated with arrival and approach procedures are “auto-designated”. This means the
system automatically provides descending vertical speed and deviation guidance to an altitude(s)
chosen by the system for any waypoint prior to the FAF. These altitudes are displayed as cyan text.
Additionally, altitudes can be manually designated prior to the FAF. The FAF can be manually
designated if the selected approach provides no vertical guidance (i.e. glidepath). Manually designated
altitudes are displayed as cyan text and pencil icon. For all designated altitudes, the system will
automatically calculate altitude constraints prior to the designated altitude, which are displayed as
white text.
Altitudes that have been designated for use in vertical guidance can be “un-designated” using the
CLR Key. The altitude is now displayed only as a reference (white text). It is not used to give vertical
guidance. Other displayed altitudes may change due to re-calculations or be rendered invalid as a
result of manually changing an altitude to a non-designated altitude.
Altitude constraints are displayed and entered in feet mean sea level (MSL) values to the nearest
hundred. An altitude constraint in feet above ground level (AGL) format is supported for airports.
When a database altitude restriction is displayed, the system allows entry of a different altitude when
creating a waypoint, effectively overriding the database restriction (only before the FAF). When a
database altitude restriction of type “AT or ABOVE” or “AT or BELOW” is activated, the system uses
the “AT” portion of the restriction to define the vertical profile.
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Altitude Constraint
Examples
Displayed Text
Examples
System Calculated Altitude
(White Text)
Cross AT or ABOVE
5,000 ft
Edited Altitude Constraint
(Cyan Text with Pencil Icon)
Designated Altitude Constraint
(Cyan Text)
Cross AT 2,300 ft
White Text with
Altitude Restriction Bar
Cross AT or BELOW
3,000 ft
Temperature
Compensated
Figure 5-72 Waypoint Altitude Constraints
White Text
Cyan Text
5OOOFT
Altitude calculated by the system estimating
the altitude of the aircraft as it passes over the
navigation point. No white line above or
below to indicate a potential constraint.
Altitude is designated for use in determining
vertical guidance. A pencil icon indicates manual
designation or manually edited data entry.
5OOOFT
The system cannot use this altitude in determining
Altitude retrieved from the navigation
database. White line above or below indicates vertical guidance because of an invalid constraint
condition.
the type of constraint, as shown in the
preceding figure. These altitudes are provided
as a reference, and are not designated to be
used in determining vertical guidance.
Table 5-12 Altitude Constraint Color Coding
NOTE: All designated altitudes (cyan text) will be displayed in the Active Flight Plan Page and
Flight Plan Window without restriction bars regardless of what is shown on the published
procedure.
Manually designating a waypoint altitude to be used for vertical guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint
altitude field.
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3) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the desired altitude.
4) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical
guidance.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Manually designating a procedure waypoint altitude to be used for vertical
guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint
altitude field.
3) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the desired altitude
4) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical
guidance.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
An altitude constraint is invalid if:
•
Meeting the constraint requires the aircraft to climb
•
Meeting the constraint requires the maximum flight path angle or maximum vertical speed to be
exceeded
•
The constraint is within a leg type for which altitude constraints are not supported
•
The altitude constraint is added to the FAF of an approach that provides vertical guidance (i.e., ILS
or GPS SBAS approach)
•
The altitude constraint is added to a waypoint past the FAF
Altitude constraints can be modified or deleted after having been added to the flight plan. In the
event an altitude constraint is deleted and the navigation database contains an altitude restriction for
the lateral waypoint, the system displays the altitude restriction from the database provided no
predicted altitude can be provided. The system also provides a way to reinstate a published altitude
constraint that has been edited.
Entering/modifying an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Enter an altitude constraint value using the FMS Knobs. To enter altitudes as a flight
level, turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise past zero or clockwise past 9 on the
first character, and the system automatically changes to show units of Flight Level. Turn
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the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight the first zero and enter the three digit flight
level.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an
airport without a runway selected, an additional choice is displayed. Turn the small FMS
Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
Deleting an altitude constraint provided by the navigation database:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove VNV altitude?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting an altitude constraint that has been manually entered:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’
confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘REMOVE’ and press the ENT Key. The manually entered altitude is deleted (it is
replaced by a system calculated altitude, if available).
Reverting a manually entered altitude constraint back to the navigation database
value:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’
confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘REVERT’ and press the ENT Key. The altitude is changed to the navigation
database value.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Modifying a system calculated altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. An ‘Edit or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’
confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘EDIT’ and press the ENT Key.
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5) Edit the value using the FMS Knobs, and press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY (VSD)
A Vertical Situation Display (VSD) can be shown on the bottom of the Navigation Map Page. The
terrain, obstacles, vertical track vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information (active
flight plan information consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current VNAV profile,
TOD/BOD, and destination runway) can be displayed on the VSD, depending on the selected mode.
See the Hazard Avoidance section for information about winds aloft, obstacles, and relative terrain on
the VSD.
NOTE: Certain leg types (e.g. holds, heading legs) do not support VNAV PATH descents
because the lateral distance of those legs in unknown. The VSD will not show a VNAV profile
for any legs that have no vertical path guidance.
The VSD horizontal range is equal to the navigation map indicated range when the VSD is in Track
mode. When the VSD is in Flight Plan mode, the horizontal range is the lower of twice the navigation
map indicated range or the lowest range the displays all of the remaining active flight plan. The VSD
altitude range automatically changes when the navigation map range is changed to keep a constant
ratio of altitude range to horizontal range, until both minimum and maximum display limits have been
met. At ranges above the maximum, the altitude range remains constant at the maximum.
The aircraft symbol is displayed on the left side of the VSD. The position of the aircraft symbol on
the vertical scale is close to the top for a descent phase and in the middle for a cruise phase or if the
phase is unknown.
If two waypoints are close together, and their labels or constraint values overlap enough to obscure
any text, one waypoint label/constraint value is removed and the vertical dashed line for that waypoint
is displayed as darker gray. The priority for which waypoint remains displayed is: (1) the current TO
waypoint, (2) waypoint with an altitude constraint, and (3) waypoint closer to the aircraft.
Terrain/obstacles are available on the VSD, and will be shown if the aircraft altitude is low enough
for the terrain/obstacles to be in view (terrain will be shown in gray if the terrain is selected Off on the
Navigation Map). The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of
the terrain based upon the highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the
terrain database resolution, within a predefined width along the active flight plan between the aircraft
present position and the end of the map range or active flight plan. The predefined width is
determined by the flight phase.
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Vertical Situation
Display (VSD)
FPL Waypoints
VSD Mode (FPL)
Selected Alt. (9200 FT)
Altitude Constraints
Current VNAV Profile
VSD Mode Buttons
Destination Runway
Absolute Terrain
Obstacle
- FPL, TRK, or Auto
Figure 5-75 Vertical Situation Display (VSD)
Figure 5-73 Vertical Situation Display (VSD)
VSD Mode
Button
Displayed
Mode
Track
Items available on VSD
AUTO FPL
Terrain/obstacles along the active
Available active FPL & aircraft flight plan route, vertical track
within FPL swath
vector, selected altitude, and
active flight plan information
AUTO TRK
(1) Active FPL available &
Terrain/obstacles along the
aircraft not within FPL swath, current track, vertical track
or (2) Active FPL not available vector, and selected altitude
Auto
Flight Plan
FPL Criteria
Active FPL available
Terrain/obstacles along the active
flight plan route, vertical track
vector, selected altitude, and
active flight plan information
Active FPL not available
Only shows message 'Flight Plan
Not Available'
FPL
TRK
NA
Terrain/obstacles along the
current track, vertical track
vector, and selected altitude
Active flight plan information consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current
VNAV profile, TOD/BOD, and destination runway
Table 5-13 VSD Modes
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Flight Phase
Width of Swath
Approach, Departure
0.6 nm
Terminal
2.0 nm
En Route, Oceanic
4.0 nm
Table 5-14 VSD Width of Swath
VSD MESSAGES
Under certain conditions, some messages may appear in conjunction with others.
Message
Description
‘Loading...’
VSD is loading data due to a range
change, full/half switch, or first being
selected for display
‘Flight Plan Not Available’
Flight Plan mode is selected and there
is not a flight plan loaded with at
least one leg
All of the following are true:
‘Flight Plan mode unavailable
because aircraft off course and
active leg over 200 NM’
•
Flight Plan mode is selected
•
The active leg is greater than 200
NM
The aircraft is outside the swath
Flight Plan mode is selected and the
aircraft’s position, as projected on the
flight plan, is past the end of the
active leg
Flight Plan mode is selected and the
aircraft’s position, as projected on the
flight plan, is prior to the beginning
of the active leg
•
‘Aircraft Beyond Active Leg’
‘Active Leg Begins Beyond
Aircraft Position’
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Message
Description
At least one of the following is true:
•
Valid terrain database not available
•
GPS MSL altitude not available
•
Current barometric
available
•
Neither current track nor current
heading available
•
GPS position not available
‘VSD Not Available’
altitude
not
Map range setting is less than 1 nm
VSD data has failed to update for 2
seconds or more
•
‘VSD Data Old. Deselect and
Reselect VSD’
Table 5-15 VSD System Messages
Enabling the Vertical Situation Display:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable the Vertical Situation Display.
5) Press the VSD [Mode] Softkey to choose between Auto, FPL, or TRK.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
5) Press the Inset Softkey.
6) Press the VSD [Mode] Softkey to choose between Auto, FPL, or TRK.
Disabling the Vertical Situation Display:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey
4) Press the Off Softkey.
Or:
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1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
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5.8 PROCEDURES
The system can access the whole range of instrument procedures available. Departures (DPs), arrivals
(STARs), and non-precision and precision approaches (APRs) are stored within the database and can be
loaded using any Procedures (PROC) Key.
The selected procedure for the departure or arrival airport is added to the active flight plan. No
waypoints are required to be in the active flight plan to load procedures; however, if the origin and
destination airport are already loaded, the procedure loading window defaults to the appropriate airport,
saving some time selecting the correct airport on the Procedure Loading Page.
The system adds terminal procedures to the flight plan based on leg types coded within that procedure
in the navigation database. If the terminal procedure in the flight plan contains an identifier like ‘6368ft’,
that indicates a leg that terminates when the specified altitude (6368 feet) has been exceeded. A heading
leg in the flight plan displays ‘hdg’ preceding the DTK (e.g. ‘hdg 008°’). A flight plan leg requiring the
pilot to manually initiate sequencing to the next leg displays ‘MANSEQ’ as the identifier.
Manually Sequenced Heading Leg
Heading Leg Terminating at the
Specified Altitude
Figure 5-74 Procedure Leg Identifiers
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Viewing available procedures at an airport:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page:
Press the DP Softkey. The ‘WPT - Departure Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to
the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
Or:
Press the STAR Softkey. The ‘WPT - Arrival Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to
the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
Or:
Press the APR Softkey. The ‘WPT - Approach Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting
to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor. To select another airport, enter an identifier/
facility name/city, and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the procedure in its respective box. The
procedure is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the list of available procedures. Press the ENT Key to
select the procedure. The cursor moves to the next box (runway or transition). The
procedure is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs, as required, to highlight a runway or transition. Press the ENT Key
to select the runway or transition. The cursor moves to the next box. The procedure is
previewed on the map.
6) Repeat Step 5, until desired information has been viewed for the chosen procedure.
7) Press the Info 1 Softkey or the Info 2 Softkey to return to the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page.
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Loading a procedure into the active flight plan from the [Procedure] Information
Page:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page:
Press the DP Softkey. The ‘WPT - Departure Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to
the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
Or:
Press the STAR Softkey. The ‘WPT - Arrival Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to
the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
Or:
Press the APR Softkey. The ‘WPT - Approach Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting
to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor. To select another airport, enter an identifier/
facility name/city, and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the procedure in its respective box. The
procedure is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the list of available procedures, and turn the FMS
Knob to move the cursor. Press the ENT Key to select the procedure. The cursor moves
to the next box (runway or transition). The procedure is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the list of available runways or transitions, and turn
the FMS Knob to move the cursor. Press the ENT Key to select the runway or transition.
The cursor moves to the next box.
6) Repeat Step 5, until the cursor moves to the ‘Sequence’ Box or the ‘Minimums’ Box.
7) Press the MENU Key to display the [Procedure] Information Page Menu.
8) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load [procedure]’.
9) Press the ENT Key to load the procedure into the active flight plan.
DEPARTURES
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If a departure is loaded when another departure is already in
the active flight plan, the new departure replaces the previous departure. The route is defined by
selection of a departure, the transition waypoints, and a runway.
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Departure Airport
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Departure Preview
Departure Choices
Figure 5-75 Departure Selection
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Selected Departure
Loaded Departure
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-76 Departure Loading
Loading a departure into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Select Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Departure Loading Page/Window is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
5) Select a departure from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure.
Removing a departure procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Departure’.
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3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the departure header in the active flight
plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ARRIVALS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available. Only one
arrival can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an arrival is loaded when another arrival is already in
the active flight plan, the new arrival replaces the previous arrival. The route is defined by selection of
an arrival, the transition waypoints, and a runway.
Destination Airport
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Arrival Preview
Arrival and Transition
Choices
Figure 5-77 Arrival Selection
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Selected Arrival
Loaded Arrival
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-78 Arrival Loading
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Select Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Arrival Loading Page/Window is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
5) Select an arrival from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure.
Removing an arrival from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Arrival’.
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3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the arrival header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
APPROACHES
NOTE: If certain GPS parameters (SBAS, RAIM, etc.) are not available, some published
approach procedures for the desired airport may not be displayed in the list of available
approaches.
An Approach Procedure (APR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available, and provides
guidance for non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach
procedures. Only one approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an approach is loaded when
another approach is already in the active flight plan, the new approach replaces the previous approach.
The route is defined by selection of an approach and the transition waypoints.
When selecting an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure name indicates the
procedure can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures do not have this designation,
meaning the GPS receiver can be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. If the GPS receiver
cannot be used for primary guidance, the appropriate navigation receiver must be used for the selected
approach (e.g., VOR or ILS). The final course segment of ILS approaches, for example, must be flown
by tuning the NAV receiver to the proper frequency and selecting that NAV receiver on the CDI.
The SBAS GPS allows for flying LNAV, LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service
levels according to the published chart. LNAV+V is an LNAV with advisory vertical guidance provided
for assistance in maintaining a constant vertical glidepath similar to an ILS glideslope on approach.
This guidance is displayed on the system PFD in the same location as the ILS glideslope using a
magenta diamond. In all cases where LNAV+V is indicated by the system during an approach, LNAV
minima are used. The active approach service level is annunciated on the HSI as shown in the
following table:
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HSI
Annunciation
LNAV
Description
Example on HSI
RNAV GPS approach using
published LNAV minima
LNAV+V
RNAV GPS approach using
published LNAV minima.
Advisory vertical guidance is
provided
L/VNAV
(available only
if SBAS
available)
RNAV GPS approach using
published LNAV/VNAV
minima (downgrades to
LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
LP (available
only if SBAS
available)
RNAV GPS approach using
published LP minima
(downgrades to LNAV if
SBAS unavailable)
Approach Service Level
- LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV
LP+V (available RNAV GPS approach using
only if SBAS published LP minima.
available)
Advisory vertical guidance is
provided (downgrades to
LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
LPV (available
only if SBAS
available)
RNAV GPS approach using
published LPV minima
(downgrades to LNAV if
SBAS unavailable)
Table 5-16 Approach Service Levels
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Destination Airport
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Approach Preview
Approach Choices
Figure 5-79 Approach Selection
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Selected Approach
Loaded Approach
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys LOAD or ACTIVATE? Annunciation
Figure 5-80 Approach Loading
Loading an approach into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Select Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The
Approach Loading Page/Window is displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS
Knob to move the cursor to the ‘Approach Channel’ Field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key
to accept the approach channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
4) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
5) Minimums
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a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’, and
press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the
ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the ‘TEMP At’ [airport] Field. Turn
the small FMS Knob to select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the
large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the
approach procedure.
NOTE: When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT
APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must
to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
NOTE: If there is no arrival procedure in the active flight plan, loading an approach after a
destination airport has already been entered will result in a duplicate destination airport
waypoint being added to the end of the enroute segment.
Loading an approach into the active flight plan from the Nearest Airport Page:
1) Select the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired nearest
airport. The airport is previewed on the map.
3) Press the APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Approach Window’,
and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired approach.
5) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Load Approach’, and
press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page is displayed with the
‘Transition’ Field highlighted.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired transition, and press the ENT Key.
7) Minimums
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a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’, and
press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the
ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the ‘TEMP At’ [airport] Field. Turn
the small FMS Knob to select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the
large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the
approach procedure. The system continues navigating the current flight plan until the
approach is activated. When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach
course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to
the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course
of the approach.
Removing an approach from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’
and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the approach header in the active flight
plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’
and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ACTIVATING AN APPROACH
Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either ‘Load’ or ‘Activate’ is given. ‘Load’ adds the
approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This
allows continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps the
procedure available for quick activation when needed. ‘Activate’ also adds the procedure to the end
of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in the approach.
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In many cases, it may be easiest to ‘load’ the full approach while still some distance away, enroute
to the destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, use the steps below to select ‘Activate Vector-ToFinal’ — which makes the inbound course to the FAF waypoint active.
Activating a previously loaded approach:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed with ‘Activate Approach’
highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
Activating a previously loaded approach with vectors to final:
1) Press the PROC Key to display the ‘Procedures’ Window.
2) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Vector-to-Final’ and press the ENT Key.
Loading and activating an approach using the MENU Key:
1) From the ‘WPT - Approach Information’ Page, press the MENU Key on the MFD. The
page menu is displayed with ‘Load & Activate Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course,
the message ‘NOT APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the
approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course of
the approach.
Or:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Select Approach’ and press the ENT Key.
3) From the ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page, press the MENU Key on the MFD. The page
menu is displayed with ‘Load & Activate Approach’ highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key. When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course,
the message ‘NOT APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the
approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course of
the approach.
MISSED APPROACH
In this missed approach procedure (see figure below), the altitude immediately following the MAP
(in this case ‘6600ft’) is not part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA)
leg which guides the aircraft along the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make
the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded. This altitude is provided by the navigation database,
and may be below, equal to, or above the published minimums for this approach. In this case, if the
aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,600 feet) after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is
established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of 6,600 feet is reached. After
reaching 6,600 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case ADANE). If the
aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to the
published fix (ADANE) to begin the missed approach procedure.
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Course to Altitude Leg
Figure 5-83 Course to Altitude
Figure 5-81 Course to Altitude
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published
procedure. For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to
the Missed Approach Hold Point (MAHP). In either case, the Course to Altitude leg is portrayed by
the system in the list of waypoints. Again, if the aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude,
a direct-to is established on a Course to Altitude leg when the missed approach procedure is
activated.
Activating a missed approach in the active flight plan:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Missed Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Or:
Press the Go-Around Button. Prior to the MAP, the aircraft will continue to laterally
navigate to the MAP before executing the missed approach. Otherwise, the aircraft
automatically sequences to the MAHP.
Or:
Fly past the MAP, and press the SUSP Softkey on the PFD.
VISUAL APPROACH
The system provides a visual approach feature. Unlike instrument approaches, visual approaches
are not defined in the navigation database and do not follow a precise prescribed path. Instead, the
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system calculates the lateral and vertical path for the chosen runway and creates visual approach
waypoints based on runway position and course as specified in the navigation database.
Each visual approach will have two transitions, the straight in transition (STRAIGHT) and the
Vectors-to-Final transition (VECTORS). The visual approach waypoints (fixes) consist of the initial
fix (STRGHT), the final approach fix (FINAL), and the missed approach point (RWxx). A 3 degree
glide path is calculated from the missed approach point up to each waypoint along the extended
straight-in path.
For visual approaches, the pilot is responsible for avoiding terrain, obstacles and traffic. Therefore,
when a visual approach is selected, the message “Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual
approaches” is displayed on the approach selection page and must be acknowledged before the
visual approach is loaded into the flight plan.
Figure 5-82 Loading Visual Approach
Loading and Activating a visual approach using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The Approach Loading Page is
displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
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a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
b) Select a visual approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
4) Select a transition and press the ENT Key.
5) Minimums
a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’, and
press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the
ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the ‘TEMP At’ [airport] Field. Turn
the small FMS Knob to select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure (‘Load?’ is
only available if there is a previous approach already loaded in the flight plan); or turn
the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate?’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate
the approach procedure. The message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual
approaches’ is displayed. Press ENT to continue.
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED ALTITUDE
If desired, the system can compensate the loaded approach altitudes based on a pilot-supplied
temperature at the destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C,
the system increases the approach altitudes accordingly. A temperature compensated altitude is
displayed in white text with a snowflake icon next to it.
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Selected
Temperature
FAF Altitude
Compensated
Altitude
Temperature
Compensation
Selected
Figure 5-83 Temperature Compensation
Compensated
Altitudes
Uncompensated
Altitudes
Figure 5-84 Temperature Compensation in the Active Flight Plan
Manually activating temperature compensated altitude:
1) From the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, press the MENU Key on the MFD. The ‘Page
Menu’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window is displayed with the
temperature highlighted.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to change the ‘TEMP At’ [airport] Field. The compensated
altitude is computed as the temperature is selected.
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NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered in the ‘Temperature
Compensation’ Window on the MFD, or in the ‘References’ Window on the PFD. There is
only one compensation temperature for the system, therefore, changing the temperature will
affect both the loaded approach altitudes and the minimums. Refer to the Flight Instruments
section for information about applying temperature compensation to the MDA/DH.
5) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate Compensation?’ is highlighted.
6) Press the ENT Key. The compensated altitudes for the approach are shown in the flight
plan.
Cancelling temperature compensated altitude:
1) From the Active Flight Plan Page, press the MENU Key. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is
displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘Cancel Compensation?’ is highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key. The temperature compensated altitude at the FAF is cancelled.
NOTE: Activating/cancelling temperature compensation for the loaded approach altitudes
does not select/deselect temperature compensated minimums (MDA/DH), nor does selecting/
deselecting temperature compensated minimums activate/cancel temperature compensated
approach altitudes.
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5.9 WEIGHT AND FUEL PLANNING
The ‘Aux - Weight and Fuel Planning’ Page is available to manage actual weight, estimated weight, and
fuel quantity.
A/C Payload Calculator
Fuel Weight Calculator
Basic Empty Weight Entry Pilot and Stores Weight Entry BOW Calculation Passenger(s) Weight Entry Cargo Weight Entry Zero Fuel Weight Calculation -
- Zero Fuel Weight Calculation
- Fuel on Board Entry
- Aircraft Weight Calculation
- Est. Landing Weght Calculation
- Est. Landing Fuel Calculation
- Fuel Reserve Entry
- Excess Fuel Calculation
Fuel Calculations
Fuel Remaining Fuel Used Range Time to Destination Fuel Over Destination
Endurance -
Empty Weight Softkey
(selects Basic Empty Weight)
Figure 5-85 Weight and Fuel Planning Page
The following three fuel calculations can be completed when a destination waypoint has been entered
into the flight plan and one of the following has occurred: 1) the aircraft is in the air, or 2) the aircraft is
on the ground with the Trip Planning Page Fields completed in Manual Mode. Otherwise, these three
fuel fields will display invalid values consisting of four dashes:
•
Est Landing Weight = Zero Fuel Weight + Estimated Landing Fuel Weight.
•
Est Landing Fuel = Fuel on Board Weight - (fuel flow x ETE)
•
Excess Fuel = Estimated Landing Fuel Weight - Fuel Reserves Weight
WEIGHT WARNING CONDITIONS
If the zero fuel weight is greater than the maximum allowable zero fuel weight, then the zero fuel
weight is displayed in amber.
If the aircraft weight is greater than the maximum allowable takeoff weight, then the aircraft weight
is displayed in amber.
If the estimated landing weight is greater than the maximum allowable landing weight, then the
estimated landing weight is displayed in amber.
If the estimated landing fuel weight is positive, but less than or equal to the fuel reserves weight, the
following values are displayed in amber:
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•
Est Landing Fuel
•
Excess Fuel
If the estimated landing fuel weight is zero or negative, then the following values are displayed in
red:
•
Est Landing Fuel
•
Excess Fuel
Entering basic empty weight:
1) From the ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page, press the Config Softkey; or press the MENU
Key, highlight ‘Set Basic Empty Weight’, and press the ENT Key to select the ‘Basic
Empty Weight’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the basic empty weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering pilot and stores weight:
1) From the ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and
highlight the ‘Pilot & Stores’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the pilot and stores weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering the number of passengers:
1) From the ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and
highlight the ‘Passengers #’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the number of passengers.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering the average passenger weight:
1) From the ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and
highlight the passenger weight (‘at’) field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the average passenger weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Entering the cargo weight:
1) From the ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and
highlight the ‘Cargo’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the cargo weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering a fuel on board weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Fuel on Board’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel on board.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering fuel reserves weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Fuel Reserves’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel reserves amount.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Synchronizing the fuel on board with the actual measured fuel on board:
Press the FOB Sync Softkey on the ‘Aux - Weight and Fuel Planning’ Page; or press the
MENU and highlight ‘Synchronize Fuel on Board’, and press the ENT Key. The actual
measured fuel on board is displayed in the ‘Fuel On Board’ Field.
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5.10 TRIP PLANNING
The system allows the pilot to view trip planning information, fuel information, and other information
for a specified flight plan or flight plan leg based on automatic data, or based on manually entered data.
TRIP PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the statistics is done on the Trip
Planning Page located in the Aux Page Group.
Selected Flight Plan Segment
- FPL Number/Cumulative Legs (CUM or REM) or Leg Number (NN)
- Waypoints Defining Selected Flight Plan/Flight Plan Leg
Trip Planning Page Mode
- Automatic/Manual
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan/
Flight Plan Leg
Input Data (sensor/pilot)
- Departure Time (local)
- Ground Speed
- Fuel Flow
- Fuel On Board Aircraft
- Calibrated Airspeed
- Indicated Altitude
- Barometric Pressure
- Total Air Temperature
Trip Statistics
Desired Track Distance Est. Time Enroute Est. Time of Arrival Enroute Safe Alt Sunrise Time (local) Sunset Time (local) -
Other Statistics
- Density Altitude
- True Airspeed (TAS)
Fuel Statistics
Efficiency Total Endurance Remaining Fuel RemainingEndurance
Fuel Required Total Range -
Softkeys
- Auto/Manual Page Mode
- Flight Plan/Waypoint Mode
Figure 5-88
TripTrip
Planning
Page Page
Figure
5-86
Planning
The trip planning inputs are based on sensor inputs (automatic page mode) or on pilot inputs
(manual page mode). Some additional explanation of the sources for some of the inputs is as follows:
•
Departure Time - This defaults to the current time in automatic page mode. The computations are
from the aircraft present position, so the aircraft is always just departing.
•
Calibrated Airspeed - The primary source is from the air data system, and the secondary source of
information is GPS ground speed.
•
Indicated Altitude - The primary source is the barometric altitude, and the secondary source of
information is GPS altitude.
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TRIP STATISTICS
The trip statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip
planning inputs.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and the entire flight plan (CUM)
selected, the waypoints are the starting and ending waypoints of the selected flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and a specific leg (NN) selected,
the waypoints are the endpoints of the selected leg.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and the remaining flight plan
(REM) selected, the ‘from’ waypoint is the present position of the aircraft and the ‘to’ waypoint is the
endpoint of the active flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and a specific leg (NN) selected,
the ‘from’ waypoint is the current aircraft position and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the
selected leg.
In waypoint (WPTs) mode these are manually selected waypoints (if there is an active flight plan,
these default to the endpoints of the active leg).
Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has
already been flown.
- Desired Track - Desired Track is shown as nnn° and is the desired track between the selected
waypoints. It is dashed unless only a single leg is selected.
- Distance - The distance is shown in tenths of units up to 99.9, and in whole units up to 9999.
- Estimated time enroute (ETE) - ETE is shown as hours:minutes until less than an hour, then it is
shown as minutes:seconds.
- Estimated time of arrival (ETA) - ETA is shown as hours:minutes and is the local time at the
destination.
•
If in waypoint mode then the ETA is the ETE added to the departure time.
•
If a flight plan other than the active flight plan is selected it shows the ETA by adding to the
departure time all of the ETEs of the legs up to and including the selected leg. If the entire flight
plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
•
If the active flight plan is selected the ETA reflects the current position of the aircraft and the
current leg being flown. The ETA is calculated by adding to the current time the ETEs of the
current leg up to and including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA
is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
- Enroute safe altitude (ESA) - The ESA is shown as nnnnnFT
- Destination sunrise and sunset times (SUNRISE, SUNSET) - These times are shown as
hours:minutes of the time at the destination.
FUEL STATISTICS
The fuel statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip
planning inputs. Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active
flight plan has already been flown.
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•
Fuel efficiency (Efficiency) - This value is calculated by dividing the current ground speed by the
current fuel flow.
•
Time of fuel endurance (Total Endurance) - This time is shown as hours:minutes. This value is
obtained by dividing the amount of fuel on board by the current fuel flow.
•
Fuel on board upon reaching end of selected leg (Remaining Fuel) - This value is calculated by
taking the amount of fuel onboard and subtracting the fuel required to reach the end of the
selected leg.
•
Fuel endurance remaining at end of selected leg (Remaining Endurance) - This value is calculated
by taking the time of fuel endurance and subtracting the estimated time enroute to the end of the
selected leg.
•
Fuel required for trip (Fuel Required) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time to go by
the fuel flow.
•
Total range at entered fuel flow (Total Range) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time of
fuel endurance by the ground speed.
OTHER STATISTICS
These statistics are calculated based on the system sensor inputs or the manual trip planning
inputs.
•
Density Altitude
•
True Airspeed
The pilot may select Automatic or Manual page mode, and flight plan (FPL) or waypoint (WPTs)
mode. In automatic page mode, only the FPL, LEG, or waypoint IDs are editable (based on FPL/
WPTs selection). In manual page mode, the other eight trip input data fields must be entered by the
pilot, in addition to flight plan and leg selection.
Selected Leg(s)
Selected Flight Plan NN 00 is Active FPL
01-99 are Stored FPLs
Starting and Ending Waypoint of
Selected Flight Plan Segment
Stored Flight Plan
- CUM: Beginning to End of FPL
- NN: Beginning to End of Selected Leg
Active Flight Plan
- REM: Pres. Pos. to End of FPL
- NN: Pres. Pos. to End of Selected Leg
Figure 5-89 Trip Planning Page - Flight Plan Mode
Figure 5-87 Trip Planning Page - Flight Plan Mode
Selected Flight Plan
Selected Leg(s)
Not Available
Not Available
Selected Starting and Ending Waypoints
Figure 5-90 Trip Planning Page - Waypoint Mode
Figure 5-88 Trip Planning Page - Waypoint Mode
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Selecting automatic or manual page mode:
From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the Auto Softkey or the Manual Softkey; or
press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Auto Mode’ or ‘Manual Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting flight plan or waypoint mode:
From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the FPL Softkey or the WPTs Softkey; or
press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Flight Plan Mode’ or ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the
ENT Key.
Selecting a flight plan and leg for trip statistics:
1) From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the
‘FPL’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired flight plan number.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CUM’ or ‘REM’. The statistics for each leg can be
viewed by turning the small FMS Knob to select the desired leg. The Trip Planning Map
also displays the selected data.
Selecting waypoints for waypoint mode:
1) From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the WPTs Softkey; or press the MENU Key,
highlight ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is positioned in the
waypoint field directly below the ‘FPL’ Field.
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to select the desired waypoint (or select from the Page Menu ‘Set
WPT to Present Position’ if that is what is desired), and press the ENT Key. The cursor
moves to the second waypoint field.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs to select the desired waypoint, and press the ENT Key. The
statistics for the selected leg are displayed.
Entering manual data for trip statistics calculations:
1) From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the Manual Softkey or select ‘Manual Mode’
from the Page Menu, and press the ENT Key. The cursor may now be positioned in any
field within the ‘Input Data’ Box.
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to move the cursor onto the ‘Departure Time’ Field and enter the
desired value. Press the ENT Key. The statistics are calculated using the new value and
the cursor moves to the next entry field. Repeat until all desired values have been
entered.
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5.11 ABNORMAL OPERATION
This section discusses the Dead Reckoning mode of operation and the subsequent indications.
NOTE: Dead Reckoning Mode only functions in Enroute (ENR) or Oceanic (OCN) phase of
flight. In all other phases, an invalid GPS solution produces a “NO GPS POSITION”
annunciation on the map and the system stops using GPS.
While in Enroute or Oceanic phase of flight, if the system detects an invalid GPS solution or is unable
to calculate a GPS position, the system automatically reverts to Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode. In DR
Mode, the system uses its last-known position combined with continuously updated airspeed and
heading data (when available) to calculate and display the aircraft’s current estimated position.
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the system in DR Mode may become
increasingly unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. If while in DR Mode
airspeed and/or heading data is also lost or not available, the DR function may not be capable of
accurately tracking estimated position and, consequently, the system may display a path that is different
than the actual movement of the aircraft. Estimated position information displayed by the system
through DR while there is no heading and/or airspeed data available should not be used for navigation.
DR Mode is inherently less accurate than the standard GPS/SBAS Mode due to the lack of satellite
measurements needed to determine a position. Changes in wind speed and/or wind direction compound
the relative inaccuracy of DR Mode. Because of this degraded accuracy, other navigation equipment must
be relied upon for position awareness until GPS-derived position data is restored.
DR Mode is indicated on the system by the appearance of the letters ‘DR’ superimposed in amber over
the ‘own aircraft’ symbol. In addition, ‘DR’ is prominently displayed in amber on the HSI slightly below
and to the left of the aircraft symbol on the CDI. The CDI deviation bar remains, but is removed from
the display after 20 minutes in DR Mode. The autopilot will remain coupled in DR mode as long as the
deviation info is available (20 min.) Furthermore, a ‘GPS NAV LOST’ alert message appears on the PFD.
Normal navigation using GPS/SBAS source data resumes automatically once a valid GPS solution is
restored.
As a result of operating in DR Mode, all GPS-derived data is computed based upon an estimated
position and is displayed as amber text on the display to denote degraded navigation source information
as shown in the following figure. If the VSD Inset is selected on the MFD, ‘VSD Not Available’ will be
displayed.
Also, while the system is in DR Mode, some terrain functions are not available. Additionally, the
accuracy of all nearest information (airports, airspaces, and waypoints) is questionable. Finally, airspace
alerts continue to function, but with degraded accuracy.
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Distance &
Bearing
Current
Track
Indicator
Course Deviation
Indicator
GPS Navigation
Lost Message
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Nav Data Bar
All data except
Active Leg, TAS,
and DTK are in
amber
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Figure 5-91 Dead Reckoning Mode - GPS Derived Data Shown in Amber
Figure 5-89 Dead Reckoning Mode - GPS Derived Data Shown in Amber
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SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 OVERVIEW
Hazard avoidance features available for the G1000 NXi are designed to aid situational awareness and
provide advisory information with regard to potential hazards to flight safety associated with weather,
terrain, and air traffic.
Weather
•
GDL 69/69A or 69/69A SXM SiriusXM Weather (Subscription Optional)
•
GSR 56 Garmin Connext Weather (Optional)
•
Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) Weather (Optional)
•
L-3 Stormscope® WX-500 Lightning Detection System (Optional)
•
GWX 68 Airborne Color Weather Radar (optional)
Terrain Avoidance
•
Terrain Proximity
•
Terrain SVT (included with the Garmin SVT option)
•
Terrain Awareness and Warning System Class B (TAWS-B) (Optional)
Traffic
•
Traffic Information Service (TIS)
•
GTS 800 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) (Optional)
•
GTS 825 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (Optional)
•
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Traffic (Optional)
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6.2 DATA LINK WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around
areas of hazardous weather. Information contained within data link weather products may
not accurately depict current weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of
the weather information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays
inherent in gathering and processing weather data for data link transmission, the weather
information shown by the data link weather product may be older than the indicated
weather product age.
The Data Link Weather feature enables the system to receive weather information from a variety of
weather sources, depending on the equipment installed in the aircraft. These sources may include
SiriusXM Weather and Garmin Connext Weather. For each source, a ground-based system processes the
weather information collected from a network of sensors and weather data providers.
The SiriusXM Weather service, available with the Garmin GDL 69A and 69A SXM data link receiver
and an active service subscription, updates its weather data periodically and automatically, and transmits
this information to the aircraft’s receiver via satellite on the S-Band frequency. This service provides
continuous reception capabilities at any altitude throughout North America. Differences in performance
between the GDL 69A and 69A SXM data link receiver models, where relevant, are discussed where
applicable in this section.
The FIS-B Weather service, available when equipped with a capable transponder or data link receiver
which can receive 978 MHz Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) data, delivers subscription-free weather
information periodically and automatically to the aircraft. FIS-B uses a network of FAA-operated
Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) to transmit the information to the aircraft’s receiver. Reception is
limited to line-of-sight, and is available below 24,000 feet MSL in the United States. FIS-B broadcasts
provide weather data in a repeating cycle which may take approximately ten minutes to transmit all
available weather data. Therefore, not all weather data may be present immediately upon initial FIS-B
signal acquisition. FIS-B is a component of the Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS-B) system,
which offers both weather and traffic data; refer to the ADS-B Traffic discussion later in this section for a
more detailed discussion of the ADS-B system and its capabilities.
The Garmin Connext Weather service, available when equipped with the Garmin GSR 56 Iridium
Satellite Transceiver and an active service subscription, provides data link weather information to the
aircraft after the pilot defines a geographic area and subsequently selects a manual or automatically
recurring Connext Data Request. The transceiver then contacts the Garmin Connext Weather service
using the Iridium Satellite telephone system and retrieves the weather data for the specified area. The
Garmin Connext Weather service offers worldwide weather coverage, but the availability of individual
weather products, such as radar precipitation, varies by region.
NOTE: To check the availability of Garmin Connext weather products offered in a particular
region, visit http://sites.garmin.com/connext.
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ACTIVATING DATA LINK WEATHER SERVICES
ACTIVATING THE SIRIUSXM WEATHER SERVICE
NOTE: Not all weather products offered by SiriusXM are supported for display on this
system. This pilot’s guide only discusses supported weather products.
Before SiriusXM Weather can be used, the service must be activated by providing SiriusXM’s
customer service the coded ID(s) unique to the installed data link receiver. The Data Radio ID
must be provided to activate the weather service. A separate Audio Radio ID, if present, enables the
receiver to provide SiriusXM Radio entertainment. To view this information, refer to the following
locations:
•
The Aux - XM Information Page on the MFD
•
The SiriusXM Activation Instructions included with the Data Link Receiver
•
The label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
SiriusXM uses the coded IDs to send an activation signal that allows the system to display
weather data and/or provide audio entertainment programming through the data link receiver.
Establishing an account for SiriusXM services:
1) Select the XM Radio Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) If necessary, press the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
3) Note the Data Radio ID (for SiriusXM Weather data) and/or the Audio Radio ID (for
SiriusXM Satellite Radio).
4) Contact SiriusXM customer service through the phone number listed on its website,
www.siriusxm.com.
5) Provide SiriusXM customer service the Data Radio ID and/or Audio Radio ID, in addition
to payment information, and the desired weather product subscription package.
After SiriusXM has been contacted, it may take approximately 15 minutes until the activation occurs.
Verifying the SiriusXM Weather service activation:
1) Once a SiriusXM Weather account has been established, select the XM Radio Page in
the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) If necessary, press the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
3) View the list of supported Weather Products. A white empty box appears next to an
unavailable weather product; a green filled box appears next to an available weather
product. During activation, it may take several minutes for weather products in the
selected subscription package to become available.
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Audio Radio ID
(for SiriusXM Satellite
Radio)
Data Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Weather)
Weather Products
(Available products
for Service Class show
green checks)
Select to display XM
Information Page
Figure 6-1 XM Information Page
ACTIVATING GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
Garmin Connext weather requires an active Iridium satellite network account and an active
subscription to the Garmin Connext Weather service.
A subscriber account must be established for the Iridium transceiver prior to using the Iridium
Satellite System for telephone services. Before setting up an Iridium account, obtain the serial
number of the Iridium Transceiver (GSR1) and the System ID by selecting the ‘Aux - System Status’
Page. Then Contact Garmin through the phone number listed at its website, www.flygarmin.com.
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System ID Number
Iridium Transceiver
Serial Number
Figure 6-2 Identification Needed for Iridium Registration
When an account is established, Garmin provides an Access Code which must be entered on the
system in order to complete the registration process.
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Figure 6-3 Enter Access Code
Registering the system to receive Garmin Connext Weather:
1) With the aircraft outside and having a clear view of the sky, turn the large FMS Knob
on the MFD to select the Map page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page. If
another data link weather source such as ‘XM’ or ‘FIS-B’ is displayed in the page title, it
will be necessary to change the data link weather source to CNXT before continuing.
Refer to ‘Viewing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page’ procedure to change the data
link source to prior to registration.
3) If the system displays the Connext Registration Window, proceed to step 6. Otherwise,
press the MENU Key. The page menu window is now displayed.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Register With Connext’ in the menu list.
5) Press the ENT Key. The Connext Registration Window appears as shown in the figure
below.
6) Enter the access code provided by Garmin in the ‘Access Code’ field.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Register’ is highlighted as in the figure below.
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8) Press the ENT Key. The system contacts Garmin through the Iridium network. System
registration is complete when the Current Registration Window displays the correct
information for the Airframe, Tail Number, Airframe Serial Number, and Iridium Serial
Number.
9) When finished, push the FMS Knob to remove the Connext Registration Window.
WEATHER PRODUCT AGE
Unlike real-time weather information collected directly from weather sensors on-board an aircraft,
such as an airborne weather radar or a lightning detection system, data link weather by contrast relies
on service providers to collect, process, and transmit weather information to the aircraft. This
information can come from a variety of sources such as government agencies. Due to the time it takes
to collect, process, and distribute data link weather information, it is imperative for pilots to
understand that data link weather information is not real-time information and may not accurately
depict the current conditions.
For each data link weather product which can be displayed as a map overlay, such as radar
precipitation, the system can also show a weather product age. This age represents the elapsed time, in
minutes, since the weather service provider compiled the weather product and the current time. It
does not represent the age of the information contained within the weather product itself. For
example, a single mosaic of radar precipitation is comprised data from multiple radar sites providing
data at differing scan rates or intervals. The weather service provider periodically compiles this data to
create a single composite image, and assigns one time to this image which becomes the basis of the
product age. The service provider then makes this weather product available for data link transmission
at the next scheduled update time. The actual age of the weather data contained within the mosaic is
therefore older than its weather product age and should never be considered current.
SiriusXM and FIS-B weather products are broadcast automatically on a repeating cycle without pilot
intervention.
Each data link weather product age has an expiration time. The weather product age is shown in
white if it is less than half of this expiration time, otherwise it is shown in amber until reaching its
expiration time. After a weather product has expired, the system removes the expired weather product
from the displays, and shows white dashes instead of the age. If the data link receiver has not yet
received a weather product ‘N/A’ appears instead of the age to show the product is currently not
available for display. This may occur, for example, after powering on the system but before the data
link receiver has received a complete weather data transmission. It could also indicate a possible
outage of a weather product.
The weather product age is shown automatically for weather products displayed on MFD maps. For
PFD maps, the pilot can manually enable/disable the age information.
Enabling/disabling the weather product age for PFD Maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
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3) Press the WX LGND to show/remove the weather product age information for PFD
maps.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
The following tables show the weather product symbols, the expiration times and the broadcast rates
for SiriusXM Weather and FIS-B Weather, respectively. The broadcast rate represents the interval at
which the SiriusXM Weather service transmits new signals that may or may not contain updated weather
product information. It does not represent the rate at which the weather information is updated or when
the Data Link Receiver receives new data. The service provider and its weather data suppliers define and
control the data update intervals, which are subject to change.
SiriusXM Weather Product
Symbol
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
NEXRAD
30
5 (U.S.)
10 (Canada)
Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
60
15 (69/69A)
30 (69/69A SXM)
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
30
7.5
SiriusXM Lightning (LTNG)
30
5
Cell Movement
30
1.25
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
12
METARs
90
12
City Forecast
90
12
Surface Analysis
60
12
Freezing Levels
120
12
Winds Aloft
90
12
County Warnings
60
5
Cyclone Warnings
60
12
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD)
90
22
Pilot Weather Report (PIREP)
90
12
Air Report(AIREP)
90
12
Turbulence
180
12
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SiriusXM Weather Product
Symbol
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
Radar Coverage Not Available
No product image
30
5
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
No product image
60
12
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)
No product image
60
12
Table 6-1 SiriusXM Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
FIS-B Weather Product
Symbol
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
NEXRAD Composite (US)
30
15
NEXRAD Composite (Regional)
30
2.5
METARs
90
5
Pilot Weather Report (PIREP)
90
10
Winds Aloft
90
10
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
5
No Radar Coverage
no product image
30
2.5
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)
no product image
60
10
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR
no product image
10
Table 6-2 FIS-B Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
The following table shows the Garmin Connext Weather product symbols, the expiration times and
the refresh rates. The refresh rate represents the interval at which Garmin Connext weather service
makes available the most current known weather data. It does not necessarily represent the rate at
which the service receives new data from various weather sources. The pilot chooses how often to
contact the Garmin Connext weather service in order to retrieve weather data through the Connext
Data Request.
Garmin
Connext
Weather
Product
Symbol
Expiration
Time
(Minutes)
Refresh Rate
(Minutes)
U.S.: 3*
Radar
Precipitation
30
Canada: 3*†
Europe: 15
Australia: 15^
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Garmin
Connext
Weather
Product
Expiration
Time
(Minutes)
Refresh Rate
(Minutes)
Infrared
Satellite
60
30
Datalink
Lightning
30
Continuous
SIGMETs/
AIRMETs
60
Continuous
METARs
90
Continuous
Winds Aloft
90
Continuous
Pilot
Weather
Report
(PIREPs)
90
Continuous
Symbol
Temporary
Flight
Restrictions
(TFRs)
no product
image
60
Continuous
Terminal
Aerodrome
Reports
TAFs)
no product
image
60
Continuous
* The composite precipitation image is updated every 3
minutes, but individual radar sites may take between 3 and
10 minutes to provide new data.
† Canadian radar precipitation data provided by Environment
Canada.
^ Australian radar precipitation data provided by the
Australian Bureau of Meteorology.
Table 6-3 Garmin Connext Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
DISPLAYING DATA LINK WEATHER PRODUCTS
WEATHER DATA LINK PAGE
The ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM/CNXT)’ Page is the principal map page for viewing data link
weather information. This page provides the capability for displaying the most data link weather
products of any map on the system. The ‘Map - Weather Data Link’ Page also provides system-wide
controls for selecting the data link weather source, if more than one source has been installed. The
page title indicates the selected data link weather source (e.g., “XM”, “CNXT”).
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NEXRAD Weather
Product Selected for
Display
Figure 6-4 Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Viewing the Weather Data Link Page and changing the data link weather source, if
applicable:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT) Page. The
currently selected data link weather source appears in the page title.
3) If the page title does not contain the desired weather source, press the MENU Key.
a) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display XM Weather’, or ‘Display Connext
Weather’ (choices may vary depending on the installed equipment).
b) Press the ENT Key.
WEATHER DATA LINK (XM) PAGE SOFTKEYS
NOTE: Only softkeys pertaining to data link weather features are shown in the following
tables.
The system presents the softkeys for the selected source on the Weather Data Link Page, and for
map overlays used throughout the system. The following figures show the softkeys for the Weather
Data Link Page based on the selected source.
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Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
NEXRAD
Enables/disables the NEXRAD weather
product overlay.
Echo Top
Enables/disables the Echo Tops weather
product overlay.
CLD Top
Enables/disables the Cloud Tops weather
product overlay.
XM LTNG
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Lightning
weather product overlay.
Cell MOV
Enables/disables the Cell Movement
weather product overlay.
SIG/AIR
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET
weather product overlay.
METAR
Enables/disables the graphical METAR
weather product overlay.
Legend
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather
Legends Window. Softkey available for
selection when at least one SiriusXM
Weather product is enabled.
More WX
Displays second-level SiriusXM Weather
product softkeys.
Enables/disables the Cyclone weather
product overlay.
Cyclone
Displays third level softkey for enabling/
disabling the Surface Analysis and City
Forecast weather product and selecting a
forecast period.
SFC
Off
Current
12 HR, 24 HR, 36
HR, 48 HR
Legend
Back
FRZ LVL
312
Description
Disables the Surface Analysis and City
Forecast weather product overlay.
Displays the Surface Analysis for the current
time period overlay.
These softkeys display a Surface Analysis
and City Forecast overlay for the selected
future time period.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather
Legends Window. Softkey available for
selection when at least one SiriusXM
Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Enables/disables the Freezing Level weather
product overlay.
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Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/
disabling the Winds Aloft weather product
and selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Wind
PREV
Shows the previous level of winds aloft
altitude softkeys.
Off
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product
overlay.
Softkeys available
for selecting winds
from the Surface to
42,0000 feet
Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather
product for the surface (SFC) through
15,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000
foot increments of altitude.
Next
Legend
Back
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude
softkeys.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather
Legends Window. Softkey available for
selection when at least one SiriusXM
Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Displays altitude softkeys for the Icing
weather product overlay.
ICNG
PREV
Off
Softkeys available
for selecting winds
from the Icing
altitude from to
1,000 to 30,000
feet
Shows the previous level of Icing altitude
softkeys.
Disables the Icing weather product.
Enables/disables the Icing weather product
overlay from 1,000 feet to 30,000 feet.
Softkeys available for 3,000 foot
increments of altitude.
Next
Shows the next level of Icing weather
product softkeys.
Legend
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather
Legends Window. Softkey available for
selection when at least one SiriusXM
Weather product is enabled.
Displays softkeys for enabling/disabling the
Turbulence weather product overlay.
TURB
PREV
Off
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Description
Shows the previous level of Turbulence
altitude softkeys.
Disables the Turbulence weather product
overlay.
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Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Description
Softkeys available
for selecting
Turbulence altitude
from 21,000 feet
to 45,000 feet
Enables/disables the Icing weather product
overlay from 21,000 feet to 45,000 feet.
Softkeys available for 3,000 foot
increments of altitude.
Next
Shows the next level of Icing weather
product softkeys.
Legend
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather
Legends Window. Softkey available for
selection when at least one SiriusXM
Weather product is enabled.
Back
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
AIREPS
Enables/disables the AIREPs weather
product overlay.
PIREPS
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather
product overlay.
County
Enables/disables the County Warnings
weather product overlay.
Back
Returns to the first level softkeys.
WEATHER DATA LINK (CNXT) PAGE SOFTKEYS
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
PRECIP
Enables/disables the Precipitation weather
product overlay.
IR SAT
Enables/disables the infrared Satellite weather
product overlay.
SIG/AIR
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather
product overlay.
METAR
Enables/disables the graphical METAR weather
product overlay.
Legend
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
More WX
Displays second-level Connext Weather product
softkeys.
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/
disabling the Winds Aloft weather product and
selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Wind
PREV
314
Description
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude
softkeys.
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Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Off
Softkeys available
for selecting winds
from the Surface to
42,0000 feet
Next
Legend
Back
Description
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product
overlay.
Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather
product for the surface (SFC) through 15,000
feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot
increments of altitude.
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude
softkeys.
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product
overlay.
PIREPs
Back
Returns to the first level softkeys.
WEATHER DATA LINK (FIS-B) PAGE SOFTKEYS
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Description
Cycles through NEXRAD display modes:
NEXRAD (annunciator disabled): No NEXRAD
shown.
US: Displays NEXRAD for Continental US
(CONUS).
RGNL: Displays regional NEXRAD data.
US/RGNL: Displays regional NEXRAD data where
available, and CONUS NEXRAD data in other
coverage areas.
NEXRAD
or
US
or
RGNL
or
US/RGNL
IR SAT
Enables/disables the Infrared Satellite weather
product overlay.
SIG/AIR
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather
product overlay.
METAR
Enables/disables the METAR weather product
overlay.
Legend
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
More WX
Displays second-level Connext Weather product
softkeys.
Wind
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Displays third level softkeys for enabling/
disabling the Winds Aloft weather product and
selecting a winds aloft altitude.
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Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
PREV
Off
Softkeys available
for selecting winds
from the Surface to
42,0000 feet
Next
Legend
Back
PIREPs
Back
Description
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude
softkeys.
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product
overlay.
Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather
product for the surface (SFC) through 15,000
feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot
increments of altitude.
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude
softkeys.
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product
overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
The Weather Data Link Page can display a legend for each enabled weather product.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products on the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the Legend Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the
window.
4) To remove the Weather Legends Window, press the Legend Softkey, the ENT or the
CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
Additional information about the following weather products can be displayed by panning the Map
Pointer over the following products on the Weather Data Link Page:
Echo Tops
METARs
Cloud Tops
County Warnings
Cell Movement
TFRs
SIGMETs
AIREPs
AIRMETs
PIREPs
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The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning
the Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map
Pointer.
METAR Flag selected
with Map Pointer
Additional
information for
selected METAR
Figure 6-5 Panning on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Certain weather products, such as METARs or TFRs have associated full text. When a weather
product is selected with the Map Pointer, press the ENT Key. The system displays the full text for the
selected weather product in a window. To remove the window, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
The Weather Data Link Page also has a page menu that can be accessed by pressing the MENU Key.
It has controls for enabling/disabling the weather products as an alternative to using the softkeys.
CUSTOMIZING THE WEATHER DATA LINK PAGE
The Weather Data Link Page includes controls for selecting the maximum map range to display
each weather product on the page. If the pilot increases the map range beyond this selected
maximum range, the system removes the weather product from the map. If more than one data
link weather source has been installed, the system uses the same maximum map range for the
comparable weather product of another source.
NOTE: Product Group 2’ is only applicable to SiriusXM and Garmin Connext Weather.
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
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4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Product Group 1’ or ‘Product Group 2’, and press
the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range
settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the
changed settings.
The pilot can select a map orientation for the Weather Data Link Page, or choose to synchronize the
map orientation to the same orientation used on the Navigation Map Page.
Selecting a map orientation for the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Group options.
5) If SiriusXM is the selected data link weather source, turn the small FMS Knob to
highlight the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
Or:
If FIS-B or Garmin Connext is the selected data link weather source, turn the large FMS
Knob to highlight the ‘Orientation ‘ field at the bottom of the Product Group 1 list.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired map orientation: North up, Track up,
HDG up, or SYNC, then press the ENT Key.
Restoring default Weather Data Link Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
4) Press the MENUKey.
5) Highlight the desired default(s) to restore (all or for selection) and press ENT Key.
6) When finished, press the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
WEATHER PRODUCTS MAP OVERLAYS
Other PFD and MFD maps and pages can display a smaller set of data link weather products. The
following table shows which data link weather products can be displayed on specific maps, indicated
with a ‘+’ symbol.
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Data Link
Weather
Product
PFD
MAPS
NEXRAD/
Radar
Precipitati
on
+
Navigatio Weather Weather Aux - Trip
n Map
Data Link Informati Planning
Page
Page
on Page
Page
+
+
Cloud Top
+
Echo Top
+
Infrared
Satellite
+
Data Link
Lightning
+
Cell
Movement
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Surface
Analysis &
City
Forecast
+
Freezing
Levels
+
Winds
Aloft
+*
+
+
County
Warnings
+
Cyclone
Warnings
+
Icing
Potential
+
PIREPs
+
+
AIREPs
+
+
Turbulence
(TURB)
+
No Radar
Coverage
+
+
+
TFRs
+
+
+
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Flight
Plan
Pages
+
SIGMETs/
AIRMETs
METARs
Nearest
Page
Group
+
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Data Link
Weather
Product
PFD
MAPS
Navigatio Weather Weather Aux - Trip
n Map
Data Link Informati Planning
Page
Page
on Page
Page
TAFs
+
Nearest
Page
Group
Flight
Plan
Pages
+
* Winds Aloft data is available inside the VSD when VSD is enabled on the Navigation Map Page.
Table 6-4 Weather Product Display Maps
Displaying Data Link Weather Products on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the softkey to enable/disable the desired weather product.
The Navigation Map Page also can display legends for weather products enabled on this map with
the Legend Softkey. This softkey is subdued if no weather products are enabled.
Showing/removing the weather legend on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Legend Softkey to show the weather legends window.
4) When finished, press the Legend Softkey again, or press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key
to remove the window.
The ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page also allows the pilot to select the maximum map range to display
weather products. If the pilot increases the map range beyond this selected maximum range, the
system removes the weather product from the map. The system uses this setting for all navigation
maps, including those displayed on the PFD.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the navigation maps:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range
settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the
changed settings.
The system can also display data link weather information on the PFD navigation maps.
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Displaying Data Link Weather products on the PFD:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the desired weather product softkey(s) to enable/disable the display of data link
products on the PFD map.
On the MFD maps, the weather product icon and age appear automatically when a weather is
enabled and the range is within the maximum display limits. On PFD maps, this information is
available using the PFD softkeys.
Enabling/disabling the weather product icon and age display (PFD maps):
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the WX LGND Softkey to enable/disable the weather product age, source, and
icon box display on PFD Maps.
The setup menus for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page and the Weather Data Link Page control the
map range settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range
larger than the weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed
from the map. The page menus also provide an alternative to using the softkeys to enable/disable data
link weather product overlays on maps.
CONNEXT DATA REQUESTS
NOTE: Data requests are not applicable to the SiriusXM Weather or FIS-B Weather services.
The Connext Data Request Menu provides the pilot with the options to define the requested weather
coverage area(s), choose automatic weather update intervals (if desired), and the ability to send or cancel
weather data requests. A Request Status Window inside the menu shows the status of the Connext Data
Request.
Before a Connext Data Request can occur, a valid request coverage area must be defined from which all
currently available Garmin Connext Weather products will be retrieved. At a minimum, either the
aircraft’s present position or a waypoint (as part of a flight plan or entered directly in the ‘WAYPOINT’
coverage field) must be part of the request coverage area, otherwise the request status window indicates
‘INVALID COVERAGE AREA’ and the system will not allow a request to occur.
It is not necessary for a destination (based on an active flight plan), a flight plan, or waypoint to be
specified prior to enabling these coverage areas; however no weather data will be retrieved for these
option(s) until a flight plan or waypoint is provided, respectively.
Manually Requesting Garmin Connext Weather information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
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4) urn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired coverage option(s) and press the ENT
Key to show or hide a green check mark to select one of more of the following
coverage selections:
•
Present Position – Requests data based on current location.
•
Destination – Requests data based on the active flight plan destination (Direct-To
destinations excluded). See the Flight Management section for more information about
entering and activating flight plans.
•
FPL – Requests data along an active flight plan, if one currently exists. Turn the small FMS
Knob to select the desired flight plan look-ahead distance option (or choose ‘Remaining
FPL’ to request weather data for the remainder of the flight plan), then press the ENT Key.
•
Waypoint – Requests data based on a waypoint (which may be off-route). Turn the large
and small FMS Knobs to enter a waypoint, then press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob highlight to the ‘Diameter / Route Width’ distance field and
turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired diameter and route width of the request,
then press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob until the ‘Send Request’ field is highlighted. Press the ENT
Key to initiate the request immediately or press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather
Data Link (CNXT) Page without requesting weather data.
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Present Position Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Next 80 nm of Flight Plan
Selected, 200 nm Route
Width Requested
Destination Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Off-Route Waypoint
Selected, 200 nm Diameter
Requested
Figure 6-6 Garmin Connext Weather Data Request Results with Precipitation Data Displayed
During a Connext Data Request, the Request Status Window initially displays “Contacting Connext...”.
Once a connection is established, the Request Status Window displays “Receiving Wx Data... Time
Remaining:” with an estimated data transfer time (either minutes or seconds). If desired, the Connext
Data Request Menu may be removed while the data request is processing by pressing the FMS Knob; the
data request will continue to process in the background. Connext Data Requests typically take between
1 to 4 minutes to complete depending on the size of the selected weather coverage area, the amounts of
weather activity present, and the Iridium signal strength.
The system retrieves all available Garmin Connext Weather products within the selected coverage area
during an initial Connext Data Request, regardless of which products (if any) are currently enabled for
display. On subsequent requests, the system retains previously retrieved textual data (such as METARs
and TAFS) if it has not expired, while new textual weather data matching the current coverage area and
all graphical weather data is transferred to the aircraft during every data request.
At the completion of a successful weather data request, the Request Status Window indicates ‘OK’ if
the Connext Data Request menu is still within view.
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Cancelling a Connext Data Request in Progress:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Cancel Request’ field and press the ENT Key.
The request status box indicates ‘Request Cancelled’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
The flight crew can schedule Connext Data Requests to recur automatically. Automatic requests remain
enabled until the flight crew them, or the system power is removed. The Request Status Window
indicates the number of minutes or seconds until the next automatic data request occurs.
NOTE: If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to the system
entering Reversionary Mode, the automatic weather data requests will continue in
Reversionary Mode, however the Connext Data Request Window and its associated
options will not be available in Reversionary Mode.
Enabling/disabling automatic Connext Data Requests:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Choose the desired weather coverage options.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Update Rate’ field. Then turn the small FMS
Knob to highlight the desired automatic update frequency (Off, 5 Min, 10 Min, 15 Min,
20 Min, 30 Min, 45 Min, or 60 Min), then press the ENT Key
6) The ‘Send Request’ field is highlighted and a countdown timer is displayed in the
‘Request Status’ Window based on the currently selected update rate. Press the ENT
Key to immediately send an immediate Connext Data Request.
Or:
Press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
WEATHER PRODUCT OVERVIEW
The following is an overview of data link weather products the system can display.
NEXRAD (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Data link weather radar information cannot be displayed at the same time as relative
terrain, echo tops, icing, or turbulence data.
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The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation
RADar) system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD
network provides centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and
selected overseas locations. The maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar
site may arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider
compiles the available individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and
assigns a single time to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD
weather product. Individual images--gathered from each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always
older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The data provider then sends the NEXRAD
data to the SiriusXM Weather service, whose satellites transmit this information during the next
designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the
displayed weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the
current radar synopsis and may not depict the current weather conditions. The NEXRAD weather
product should never be used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather regardless of the information it contains.
Figure 6-7 Weather Data Link (XM) Page
For radar sites in the United States, the NEXRAD weather product shows a composite reflectivity
image. This shows the highest radar energy received from multiple antenna tilt angles at various
altitudes. For radar sites based in Canada, the NEXRAD weather product shows radar returns from
the lowest antenna tilt angle, known as base reflectivity. The display of the information is colorcoded to indicate the intensity of the echoes and the type of precipitation, if known.
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Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on the Weather Data Link (XM)
Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on PFD maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
A mosaic of data from all the available NEXRAD radar sites is shown for the selected region (US or
Canada). The pilot can change the region on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
Changing the NEXRAD coverage region:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Region datafield.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘US’ or ‘CNDA’ (Canada) and press the ENT Key.
The display of No Radar Coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is selected.
Areas where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is not
being collected are indicated in gray shade of purple.
The pilot can select either the United States or Canada region for the desired NEXRAD coverage area
on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page. NEXRAD information is shown for the selected region, while a
gray shade of purple is shown for the region which is not selected.
The NEXRAD weather product age display indicates either ‘US’ or ‘CN’ for the selected coverage
region.
The system can animate a loop of NEXRAD information. The animated view is available on the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page, and on navigation maps with the exception of the HSI Map. Animation
begins after the system has received at least two recent NEXRAD images since the avionics power cycle.
When NEXRAD animation is enabled, a timeline appears in the upper-right corner of the map, except
for the PFD Inset Map. A pointer on the timeline indicates the relative position of the displayed frame of
animation, from oldest to newest. The NEXRAD weather product age corresponds to the displayed
frame. The system can show up to six frames of NEXRAD animation when the USA coverage option is
selected, and up to three frames of animation when Canada is selected.
The pilot enables/disables the NEXRAD animation feature for navigation maps from the Navigation
Map Page.
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Enabling/disabling animated SiriusXM NEXRAD on the Weather Data Link (XM)
Page:
1) Press the Menu Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
3) With ‘Product Group 1’ Selected, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD
Animation On/Off field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’, then press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
Displaying Time-Lapse NEXRAD Animation on navigation maps:
1) Select the ‘Map — Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Animation On/Off field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ or ‘Off’ and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
REFLECTIVITY
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the
NEXRAD display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates
to hazardous weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of
weather reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an
indication of the weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection,
while dry hail does not. Both wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z).
NEXRAD measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver
(designated by the letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
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No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-8 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
NEXRAD LIMITATIONS
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
328
•
Undetermined precipitation types may be displayed as mixed.
•
An individual NEXRAD site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no
information about storms directly over the site.
•
Precipitation may be occurring below the lowest antenna tilt angle (0.5º), and therefore the radar
beam overshoots the precipitation. For example, at a distance of 124 miles from the radar site,
the radar beam is approximately 18,000 feet above the radar site. The radar cannot detect any
precipitation occurring below the beam at this distance and altitude.
•
At smaller map ranges, the smallest square block on the display represents an area of
approximately four square kilometers. The intensity level reflected by each square represents the
highest level of radar reflectivity sampled within the area.
•
Unknown precipitation below 52ºN is displayed as rain regardless of actual precipitation type.
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Block represents
approximately 4 km2
Figure 6-9 NEXRAD Weather Product with 30 NM Map Range
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
•
Ground clutter
•
Strobes and spurious radar data
•
Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
•
Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
•
Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
NEXRAD LIMITATIONS (CANADA)
•
Radar coverage extends to 55ºN.
•
ny precipitation displayed between 52ºN and 55ºN is displayed as mixed precipitation regardless
of actual precipitation type.
•
If the precipitation type is unknown, the system displays the precipitation as rain, regardless of
actual precipitation type.
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No radar coverage
above 55°N
Precipitation above
52°N always displays
as mixed
Figure 6-10 NEXRAD Weather Product - Canada
NEXRAD (FIS-B)
NOTE: The NEXRAD weather product cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation
RADar) system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD
network provides centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and
selected overseas locations. The maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar
site may arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider to
FIS-B compiles the available individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and
assigns a single time to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD
weather product. Individual images--gathered from each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always
older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The data provider then sends the NEXRAD
data to the FIS-B GBTs, which transmit this information during the next designated broadcast time
for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the
displayed weather information contained within the product may be older than the current radar
synopsis and may not depict the current weather conditions. NEXRAD information should never be
used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the
information it contains.
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Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
Boundary
of Regional
NEXRAD Data
No radar coverage
within coverage
boundary
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-11 Regional NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
The FIS-B NEXRAD weather product may be displayed for a region around the GBT (higher
resolution, updated more frequently) or for across the continental United States (lower resolution,
updated less frequently). A combined version of both weather products is also available for display
on the same map. When the combined NEXRAD is selected, regional NEXRAD takes display
precedence where data is available, and continental US NEXRAD is displayed outside of the regional
NEXRAD coverage area.
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No radar coverage
Continental US NEXRAD
Weather Product enabled
Figure 6-12 Continental US (CONUS) NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link
(FIS-B) Page
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page.
2) Press the NXRD Softkey. Each selection cycles though a coverage option as the softkey
name changes (Each selection cycles though a coverage option displayed in cyan on the
softkey (‘Off’, ‘US’, or ‘REG’, or ‘All’)..
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
3) To enable/disable the display of NEXRAD informations, turn the small FMS Knob to
highlight the NEXRAD On/Off field.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ to enable the display of NEXRAD or ‘Off’
to disable.
b) Press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Region’ field..
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following options: ‘CONUS’ for the
continental United States, ‘Regional’ for regional NEXRAD, or ‘Combined’ to show
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regional NEXRAD where data is available, and continental NEXRAD outside of the
regional coverage area.
b) Press the ENT Key.
5) When finished, push the FMS Knob.
Displaying the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Select the NEXRAD Softkey.
3) To change the type of NEXRAD displayed, press the MENU Key.
4) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group, then press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Data Region field.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘CONUS’ (continental United States), ‘RGNL’
(regional), or ‘Combined’, then press the ENT Key. This selection also affects display of
NEXRAD on the PFD Maps.
8) When finished, press the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
Displaying the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product on PFD maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey to enable/disable the display of NEXRAD information.
The regional NEXRAD weather product coverage area varies, as it is determined by the data received
from ground-based sources. When the regional NEXRAD weather product is enabled, a white spiked
boundary encloses this area to indicate the geographic limits of the regional NEXRAD coverage being
displayed. The system shows composite radar data from all available NEXRAD sites inside of this
boundary area.
If the continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product is shown (US Softkey
enabled), the coverage boundary is not shown on the map.
This data is composed of the maximum reflectivity from the individual radar sweeps. The display of
the information is color-coded to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can be
viewed on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page. For the NEXRAD legend, select the Legend Softkey
when the NEXRAD weather product is enabled.
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No Radar Coverage
Regional NEXRAD
Coverage Boundary
Figure 6-13 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend (FIS-B)
The display of no radar coverage is enabled when NEXRAD is selected for display. Areas where radar
data is not currently available, has not yet been received, or is not being collected are indicated in gray
shade of purple.
NOTE: If the system has not received all available NEXRAD weather data (such as during
initial FIS-B signal acquisition or in areas of marginal or poor signal reception), the system
may display areas of no radar coverage which are subsequently removed as radar data is
received. It may take up to approximately ten minutes to receive all FIS-B data, when
adequate reception is available.
REFLECTIVITY
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the
NEXRAD display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates
to hazardous weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of
weather reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an
indication of the weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection,
while dry hail does not. Both wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z).
NEXRAD measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver
(designated by the letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
NEXRAD LIMITATIONS
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
•
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At smaller map ranges, individual blocks of NEXRAD weather data are viewable. For the regional
version of the NEXRAD weather product, the smallest block represents 1.5 nm wide by 1 nm
tall. For the continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product, each block is 7.5
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nm wide by 5 nm wide. The color of each block represents the highest radar reflectivity detected
within that area.
•
The continental US version of the NEXRAD weather product is not available above 60º of
latitude.
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
•
Ground clutter
•
Strobes and spurious radar data
•
Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
•
Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
•
Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
PRECIPITATION (GARMIN CONNEXT)
NOTE: Precipitation data cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain data.
The Precipitation weather product provides radar precipitation information in selected radar
coverage areas. This information comes from individual weather radar sites and weather data sources
such as government agencies. Each radar site or source may provide weather data at differing rates
and times. Periodically, the Garmin Connext Weather service compiles the available information to
form a composite image, and assigns a single time to indicate when it created the image. This image
becomes the Precipitation weather product. Individual images--gathered from each radar site--differ
in age, and are always older than the displayed Precipitation weather product age.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the Precipitation weather product,
the displayed weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the
current radar synopsis and may not depict the current weather conditions. The Precipitation weather
product should never be used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather regardless of the information it contains.
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Precipitation
Weather Product
Icon and Age
Boundary of
weather data
request
Precipitation
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-14 Precipitation Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Displaying Precipitation weather information:
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey (for PFD maps, press the Map/HSI or Map Opt Softkey).
This step is not necessary on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Select the PRECIP Softkey.
The system displays either base or composite radar imagery, depending on the region.
Region
Radar Reflectivity Type
United States
Composite Reflectivity
Canada, Europe, Australia
Base Reflectivity
The base reflectivity precipitation weather product shows the radar returns from the perspective of a
single antenna tilt angle. The composite reflectivity precipitation weather product shows the highest
radar energy received from multiple antenna tilt angles. The display of the information is color-coded to
indicate the intensity of the echoes and the type of precipitation.
All weather product legends can be viewed on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page. For the
Precipitation legend, press the Legend Softkey when Precipitation is selected for display.
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No radar coverage
Boundary of
weather data
request
Figure 6-15 Precipitation Weather Product Legend (Garmin Connext)
The display of radar coverage is enabled active when Precipitation is selected for display. Areas where
precipitation radar coverage is not currently available or is not being collected are indicated in gray
shade of purple. A white boundary line depicting the selected coverage area of the Connext Data
Request encloses the precipitation data when this weather product is displayed.
REFLECTIVITY
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the
Precipitation display directly correlate to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to
hazardous weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of
weather reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an
indication of the weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection,
while dry hail does not. Both wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different radar echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z).
Weather radars measure the reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver
(designated by the letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
PRECIPITATION LIMITATIONS
Radar images may have certain limitations:
•
Radar composite reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet
snow, wet hail, and rain.
•
An individual radar site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information
about storms directly over the site.
•
At smaller map ranges, individual blocks of radar data are viewable. Each block of radar
information represents approximately four square kilometers and depicts the highest level of
reflectivity detected within that area.
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Block represents
approximately 4 km2
Figure 6-16 Precipitation Weather Product at 10 NM Map Range
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed radar images:
•
Ground clutter
•
Strobes and spurious radar data
•
Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
•
Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
•
Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
ECHO TOPS (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time as Cloud Tops or NEXRAD data is
displayed.
The Echo Tops weather product shows the location, elevation, and direction of the highest radar
echo. The highest radar echo does not indicate the top of a storm or clouds; rather it indicates the
highest altitude at which precipitation is detected. Information is derived from NEXRAD data.
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Figure 6-17 Echo Tops Weather Product
Figure 6-18 Echo Tops Legend
Displaying Echo Tops information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the Echo Top Softkey.
Since Echo Tops and Cloud Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Echo Tops is activated, NEXRAD and Cloud Tops data are
removed.
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CLOUD TOPS (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Cloud Tops and Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time.
NOTE: If a GDL 69/69A SXM receiver is installed, the broadcast rate for Cloud Tops is 30
minutes. As with all SiriusXM Weather products, the product age becomes amber when it
reaches half of the expiration time, which is 60 minutes for Cloud Tops. Therefore, this
weather product age may be amber during routine operation.
The Cloud Tops weather product depicts cloud top altitudes as determined from satellite imagery.
Figure 6-19 Cloud Tops Weather Product
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Figure 6-20 Cloud Tops Legend
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the CLD Top Softkey.
Since Cloud Tops and Echo Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Cloud Tops is activated, Echo Tops data is removed.
DATA LINK LIGHTNING (SIRIUSXM, GARMIN CONNEXT)
NOTE: Lightning from a data link source cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same
map as information from an optional on-board lightning detection system.
The Data Link Light weather product shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground lightning
strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. The exact
location of the lightning strike is not displayed.
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Lightning Strikes
Figure 6-21 Data Link Lightning Weather Product
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on Weather Data Link Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the XM LTNG or DL LTNG Softkey.
To display the Lightning legend on the Weather Data Link Page, select the Legend Softkey when Data
Link Lightning is selected for display.
Figure 6-22 Data Link Lightning Legend
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Select the XM LTNG or DL LTNG Softkey.
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on PFD maps:
1) Select the ‘Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
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3) Press the ICNG Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired altitude level: 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet. Press the
Next or PREV Sofktey to cycle through the altitude softkeys. The ICNG SOftkey label
changes to indicate the icing altitude selected.
CELL MOVEMENT (SIRIUSXM)
The Cell Movement weather product shows the location and movement of storm cells as identified
by the ground-based system. Cells are represented by yellow squares, with direction of movement
indicated with short, orange arrows.
Additional
information for
selected storm cell
Storm cells
Figure 6-23 Cell Movement Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
On the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, the Cell Movement weather product has a dedicated CEL
MOV softkey for enabling/disabling this weather product on this page.
NOTE: The Storm Cell base height is not available if a GDL 69 SXM or 69A SXM data link
receiver is installed. In this case, the Storm Cell base height is displayed as 0 feet when the
map pointer selects a storm cell.
Figure 6-24 Cell Movement Legend
Displaying Cell Movement information on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page using the FMS Knob.
2) Select the Cell MOV Softkey.
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For navigation maps, the pilot can enable/disable the Cell Movement weather product using the
NEXRAD Softkey. For this to occur, the pilot must first enable the ‘Cell Movement’ option in the Map
Settings menu of the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up the system to display Cell Movement with NEXRAD on navigation
maps:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to ‘On’ or ‘Off’ for the Cell Movement menu option. When
set to ‘On’, Cell Movement is enabled/disabled with the NEXRAD weather product on
navigation maps. When set to ‘Off’, Cell Movement is not displayed on navigation
maps.
6) When finished, push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to remove the menu.
After the ‘Cell Movement’ option is set to ‘On’, refer to the previous procedures for enabling/disabling
the NEXRAD weather product to control both products simultaneously on navigation maps using the
NEXRAD Softkey.
INFRARED SATELLITE (GARMIN CONNEXT)
The Infrared Satellite (IR SAT) weather product depicts cloud top temperatures from satellite
imagery. Brighter cloud top colors indicate cooler temperatures occurring at higher altitudes.
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Figure 6-25 Infrared Satellite Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Figure 6-26 Infrared Satellite Legend
Displaying Infrared Satellite Information:
1) Select the ‘Map — Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the IR SAT Softkey.
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
SIGMET (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMET (AIRmen’s METeorological
Information) are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for
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hazardous convective weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET is a
significant weather condition occurring at a localized geographical position.
NOTE: If SiriusXM Weather is the active data link weather source and a GDL 69A SXM
receiver installed, the SIGMET and AIRMET weather products are not available unless at least
one SIGMET or AIRMET has been received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no
SIGMET or AIRMET is available.
NOTE: For Garmin Connext Weather only, the entire SIGMET or AIRMET is shown on the
map as long as any portion of it is issued within the selected coverage area of the Connext
Data Request.
AIRMET for
mountain
obscuration
Convective SIGMET
Figure 6-27 SIGMET/AIRMET Weather Product
Convective SIGMET Text
SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
Figure 6-28 Example text for selected SIGMET and SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
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Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the ‘Map- Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT or FIS-B)’ Page.
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map
Pointer over the icon.
4) Press the ENT key. The following figure shows sample SIGMET text.
METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure as reported for METARs is given in hectopascals (hPa), except
for in the United States, where it is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are
reported in Celsius.
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service
area.
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the
temperature, dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric
pressure at an airport or observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation
amounts, lightning, and other critical data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates
include the code “SPECI” in the report. METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide
them.
METAR flag
selected with
Map Pointer
Additional information
on METAR flag selected
with Map Pointer
Figure 6-29 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link Page
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24hour period, and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather
phenomena, and sky conditions using METAR codes.
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METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR and TAF data is
displayed first in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain
additional information not found in the decoded version.
Displaying METAR and TAF text on the MFD:
1) On the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT)’ Page, press the METAR
Softkey.
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR
text must be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link Page.
Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Select the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that
the METAR text must be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF
text.
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Decoded
METAR,
followed by full
original text
Decoded TAF,
followed by full
original text
Figure 6-30 METAR and TAF Text on the Weather Information Page
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, select the Legend Softkey when
METARs are enabled for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. The system displays a gray
METAR flag when the system cannot determine the METAR category based on the information available.
Figure 6-31 METAR Legend
The system also shows METAR flags and their associated text on the Active Flight Plan Page on the
MF.D. The system shows a METAR flag next to waypoints in the flight plan with an available METAR.
Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
1) Select the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
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3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight a waypoint with an available METAR (indicated
with a METAR flag next to it). The METAR text will appear in the ‘Selected Waypoint
Weather’ Window below.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit
the Active Flight Plan Page.
Original METAR text is also accessible on navigation maps displaying METAR flags. When the map
pointer is panned over a METAR flag, the METAR text is shown in a box near the flag.
Displaying original METAR text information on the PFD Inset Map:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the METAR Softkey.
3) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired METAR flag. Original METAR text appears on
the map.
4) When finished, press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer.
SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CITY FORECAST (SIRIUSXM)
Surface Analysis and City Forecast information is available for current and forecast weather
conditions. Forecasts are available for intervals of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours.
Figure 6-32 Surface Analysis and City Forecast with a 12–Hour Forecast Selected
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Figure 6-33 Surface Analysis and City Forecast Legend
Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the SFC Softkey.
4) Press the softkey for the desired forecast time: Current, 12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, or 48
HR. The SFC Softkey label changes to show the forecast time selected.
Or:
Press the Off Softkey to disable the display of the weather product.
FREEZING LEVEL (SIRIUSXM)
The Freezing Level weather product shows the color-coded contour lines for the altitude and
location at which the first isotherm is found. When no data is displayed for a given altitude, the data
for that altitude has not been received, or is out of date and has been removed from the display. New
data appears when it becomes available.
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Figure 6-34 Freezing Level Weather Product
Figure 6-35 Freezing Level Legend
Displaying Freezing Level information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the FRZ LVL Softkey.
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WINDS ALOFT
The Winds Aloft weather product shows the forecast wind speed and direction at the surface and
at selected altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3000-foot increments beginning at the surface up
to 42,000 feet MSL.
If the FIS-B option is installed and FIS-B is the active data link weather source, the Winds Aloft
weather product also displays temperatures aloft next to the winds aloft arrows on the Weather Data
Link (FIS-B) Page.
Figure 6-36 Winds and Temperatures Aloft Data at 9,000 Feet on the Weather Data Link
(FIS-B) Page
Figure 6-37 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
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Displaying the Winds Aloft weather product:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the Wind Softkey.
4) Select a softkey for the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Select the
Next or Prev Softkey to cycle through the altitude softkeys. The Wind Softkey label
changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Vertical Situation Display (VSD) on
the Navigation Map Page. The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track,
but not to aircraft speed.
Wind Component
Velocity and
Direction Arrows
Figure 6-38 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data on Profile View
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the
right, as shown in the following table.
Headwind Symbol
Tailwind Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
5 knots
10 knots
50 knots
Table 6-5 VSD Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
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Enabling/disabling the Vertical Situation Display (containing winds aloft data):
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable/disable the Vertical Situation Display.
Or:
a) Select the Navigation Map Page.
b) Press the MENU Key.
c) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
Winds Aloft data inside the VSD is enabled by default when the VSD is displayed on the Navigation
Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display for the VSD:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Winds on/off field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the
changed settings.
COUNTY WARNINGS (SIRIUSXM)
The County warning weather product provides specific public awareness and protection weather
warnings from the National Weather Service (NWS). This can include information on tornadoes,
severe thunderstorms, and flood conditions.
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Tornado Warning
selected with Map
Pointer
Flood Warning
Severe Thunderstorm
Warning
Figure 6-39 County Warnings on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Figure 6-40 County Warnings Legend
Displaying County Warning information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WXSoftkey.
3) Press the County Softkey.
CYCLONE (SIRIUSXM)
The Cyclone weather product shows the current location of cyclones (hurricanes), tropical storms,
and their projected tracks. The system displays the projected track information in the form of DD/
HH:MM.
NOTE: If a GDL 69/69A SXM receiver is installed, the Cyclone weather product is not
available unless at least one cyclone or tropical storm has been received. The weather
product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no cyclone or tropical storm has been received.
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Cyclone
Figure 6-41 Cyclone Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Figure 6-42 Cyclone Legend
Displaying cyclone (hurricane) track information:
1) Select the ‘Map — Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the Cyclone Softkey.
ICING (CIP & SLD) (SIRIUSXM)
The Current Icing Product (CIP) weather product shows a graphical view of the current icing
environment. Icing severity is displayed in four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extreme (not
specific to aircraft type). The CIP product is not a forecast, but a presentation of the current
conditions at the time of the analysis.
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing conditions are characterized by the presence of relatively
large, super cooled water droplets indicative of freezing drizzle and freezing rain aloft. SLD threat
areas are depicted as magenta dots over the CIP colors.
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SLD Threat Area
Icing
Figure 6-43 Icing Potential Weather Product
Figure 6-44 Icing Potential Legend
Displaying icing information:
1) Select the ‘Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the ICNG Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired altitude level: 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet. Press the
Next or PREV Sofktey to cycle through the altitude softkeys. The ICNG SOftkey label
changes to indicate the icing altitude selected.
TURBULENCE (SIRIUSXM)
The Turbulence weather product identifies the potential for erratic movement of high-altitude air
mass associated winds. Turbulence is classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme, at altitudes
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between 21,000 and 45,000 feet. Turbulence information is intended to supplement AIRMETs,
SIGMETs, and PIREPs.
Figure 6-45 Turbulence Weather Product at 21,000 Feet
Figure 6-46 Turbulence Legend
Displaying turbulence information:
1) Select the ‘Map — Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the TURB Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired altitude: 21,000 up to 45,000 feet. Press the Next or
PREV Softkey to cycle though the available softkeys. The TURB Softkey label changes
to indicate the turbulence altitude selection.
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PIREPS AND AIREPS
NOTE: AIREPs are only available with the SiriusXM Weather service.
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) are in-flight weather observations collected from pilots. When
significant weather conditions are reported or forecast, Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities are
required to solicit PIREPs. A PIREP may contain adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight
visibility, icing conditions, wind shear, and turbulence. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or
Urgent (UUA).
Another type of PIREP is an Air Report (AIREP). Commercial airlines typically generate AIREPs.
Urgent PIREP
selected with Map
Pointer
PIREP
AIREP
Figure 6-47 PIREPs and AIREPS on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
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Figure 6-49 PIREP/AIREP Legend
Decoded PIREP text
Original full PIREP text
Figure 6-48 Text for selected PIREP
Displaying PIREP and AIREP text:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the PIREPS or AIREPS Softkey. (Note the AIREPS Softkey is only available with the
SiriusXM Weather service.)
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear
around the weather report when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with PIREP or AIREP text.
The data is first displayed in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the
original text may contain additional information not present in the decoded version.
6) Turn the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP or AIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
TFRS
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
information. Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service
Stations or Air Traffic Control.
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In the United States, the FAA issues Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) to designate areas where
flight is restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including national
security, law enforcement, natural disasters, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued at any
time, and TFR data displayed on the system is only intended to supplement official TFR information
obtained from Flight Service Stations (FSS), and air traffic control.
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system
displays ‘TFR N/A’ in the upper-left corner of maps on which TFRs can be displayed.
Information for selected TFR
Figure 6-50 TFR Information on the Weather Data Link Page
Figure 6-51 Full Text for TFRs
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Displaying TFR Data:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT)’ Page or Navigation Map
Page.
2) Press the Joystick and pan the map pointer over a TFR to highlight it. The system
displays TFR summary information above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Review Airspaces’ and press the ENT Key.
The system displays the TFR Information window.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the TFR Information window.
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page control the map range settings above which TFR data
is decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is
selected, the TFR product data is removed from the map.
Maps other than the Navigation Map Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation
Map Page.
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be
displayed:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aviation’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product range settings.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the
changed settings.
FIS-B WEATHER STATUS
Additional information about the status of FIS-B weather products is available on the ‘Aux - ADS-B
Status Page’.
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Figure 6-52 Viewing FIS-B Weather Status on the ‘Aux — ADS-B Status’ Page
ADS-B Status Page Item
Status
Message
Description
FIS-B Weather Status: FIS-B
Processing
ENABLED
The FIS-B weather feature is enabled to process
and display FIS-B weather products.
DISABLED
---------------Weather Products: AIRMET
CONUS NEXRAD METAR METAR
GRAPHICAL NOTAM/TFR PIREP
REGIONAL NEXRAD SIGMET TAF
WINDS/TEMPS ALOFT
AVAILABLE
NOT AVAILABLE
AWAITING
DATA
The FIS-B weather feature is disabled
No FIS-B weather data received from the
transponder.
FIS-B weather data is available for display for
the weather product.
FIS-B weather data is not available for the
weather product, and/or the system is not
receiving the FIS-B weather service.
The system is receiving the FIS-B weather
service, and is waiting to receive the weather
product from the FIS-B data broadcast.
Table 6-6 Aux-ADS-B Status Page Messages for FIS-B Weather
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Viewing FIS-B status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page.
On the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) page, the pilot can enable/disable the FIS-B weather feature,
which includes all FIS-B weather products and related softkeys on various maps.
Enabling/disabling the FIS-B weather feature:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Enable FIS-B Weather’ or ‘Disable FIS-B
Weather’, and press the ENT Key. The system will not receive FIS-B weather information
when FIS-B Weather is disabled.
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS FOR GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
If the system cannot complete a Connext Data Request, one or more messages will appear in the
Request Status Window.
Weather Request Status
Message
Auto requests inhibited Send
manual request to reset.
Description
The system has disabled automatic weather data requests due to
excessive errors. Automatic weather data requests have stopped.
Send a manual weather data request to resume automatic
updates.
Auto update retry: ## Seconds The system will attempt another automatic weather data request
after an error occurred during the previous request. Timer counts
down until the next automatic request occurs.
Connext Comm Error [1]
A general error has occurred. If the error persists, the system
should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [2]
A communications error has occurred. The system should be
serviced if this error persists.
Connext Comm Error [3]
A general error has occurred. If the error persists, the system
should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [4]
This occurs if multiple automatic weather data requests have
recently failed, or the an LRU is off-line.
Connext Comm Error [5]
This can occur if an LRU is off-line or not configured, or the Iridium
or Garmin Connext services are not accessible. Check Iridium
signal strength. If this error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [6]
A communications error has occurred. It this error persists, the
system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [7]
A weather data transfer has timed out. Check Iridium signal
strength and re-send the data request.
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Weather Request Status
Message
Description
Connext Comm Error [8]
A server error has occurred or invalid data received.
Connext Comm Error [9]
An error occurred while reading or writing data. If the error
persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Login Invalid
There is a problem with the Garmin Connext registration. Contact
Garmin through the phone number listed at its website,
www.flygarmin.com..
Connext Server Temp Inop
The Garmin Connext Weather data server is temporarily out of
service, but is expected to return to service in less than 30 minutes.
Connext Server Inop
The Garmin Connext Weather data server will be out of service for
at least 30 minutes.
Invalid Coverage Area
The weather data request coverage area does not contain at least
one of the following: a waypoint, a flight plan, or a flight plan
destination. Verify at least one of the coverage options is enabled
(checked) and contains required criteria, then re-send the data
request.
No Connext Subscription
The system is not be currently subscribed to Garmin Connext
services or the access code is incorrect. Verify the access code.
Contact Garmin via the phone number listed on its website at
www.flygarmin.com..
Reduce Request Area
The size of the received weather data has exceeded system
memory limits. Reduce the size of the coverage area and issue
another Connext Data Request to ensure all available weather data
has been received.
Request Canceled
The user has cancelled a Connext Data Request.
Request Failed - Try Again
The weather data request timed-out. Re-send data request.
Table 6-7 Abnormal Garmin Connext Data Request Status Messages
When the system is operating in Reversionary Mode, only those weather products which can be
displayed on the PFD maps will be available for display. f manual Connext Data Requests were enabled
prior to entering Reversionary Mode, no new weather data will be retrieved while operating in
Reversionary Mode. If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to Reversionary Mode
operation, the system will continue the automatic data requests in Reversionary Mode (provided
automatic requests have not been inhibited due to a system error).
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6.3 STORMSCOPE
WARNING: Do not rely on information from the lightning detection system display as the
sole basis for hazardous weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause
the system to display inaccurate or incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the
lightning detection system manufacturer for detailed information about the system.
NOTE: Stormscope lightning information cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same
map as lightning information from data link lightning sources.
The system can display L-3 WX-500 Stormscope lightning detection system information on the
Stormscope Page, and as an overlay on navigation maps. The system uses the symbols shown in the
following table to depict lightning strikes and cells based on the age of the information.
Lightning Age
Symbol
Strike is less than 6 second old
Strike is between 6 and 60 seconds old
Strike is between 1 and 2 minutes old
Strike is between 2 and 3 minutes old
Table 6-8 Lightning Age and Symbols
USING THE STORMSCOPE PAGE
On the Stormscope Page, lightning information can be displayed at the ranges of 25 NM, 50 NM,
100 NM, and 200 NM.
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Stormscope Mode
Lightning Strike
Rate Per Minute
Figure 6-53 Stormscope Page with Cell Mode Selected
Adjusting the Stormscope Map Range:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Stormscope Page.
3) Turn the Joystick clockwise to increase the map range or counter-clockwise to decrease
the map range.
Selecting ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode on the Stormscope Page:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Select the Mode Softkey. The Cell and Strike Softkeys are displayed.
3) Press the Cell Softkey to display cell data or press the Strike softkey to display strike
data. ‘Cell’ or ‘Strike’ is annunciated in the mode box in the top-right corner of the
Stormscope Page.
4) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top level softkeys for the Stormscope Page.
Or:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Stormscope Page Menu. Either ‘Cell Mode’ or
‘Strike Mode’ is highlighted in cyan to indicate the mode to be selected.
3) Press the ENT Key to select the highlighted mode and remove the menu. To remove the
menu without changing the modes, press the MENU Key or the CLR Key, or push the
FMS Knob.
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If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each
turn. This is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the
nose of the aircraft. Clearing Stormscope lightning on any map clears this information from all displays
on the system.
Manually clearing Stormscope cell or strike information:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the Clear Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Lightning Data’, then press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) Select the Navigation Map Page.
b) Press the MENU Key.
c) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Stormscope Lightning’, then press the ENT
Key.
Displaying Stormscope information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the STRMSCP Softkey.
Displaying Stormscope information on PFD maps:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Lightning Softkey.
3) Press the STRMSCP Softkey.
SETTING UP STORMSCOPE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
•
Stormscope On/Off field – Enables/disables the display of Stormscope lightning symbols.
•
Stormscope maximum display range – Selects the maximum map range to display Stormscope
symbols. Stormscope data is removed when a map range greater than the STRMSCP SMBL value is
selected.
•
Stormscope Mode – Selects the Cell or Strike mode of lightning activity. Cell mode identifies
clusters or cells of electrical activity. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning
strikes.
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Setting up Stormscope options on the Navigation Map:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ selected, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the group selection window. Turn the small FMS
Knob to select ‘Weather’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight and move the cursor among the product
selections.
5) When an item is highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the option.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
CELL AND STRIKE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
On the Navigation Map, cell mode identifies cells of lightning activity. Stormscope identifies
clusters of electrical activity that indicate cells. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of
lightning strikes.
Setting up Stormscope options on the Navigation Map Page:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press theMENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Map Settings’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the group selection window. Turn the small FMS
Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Stormscope On/Off field. Turn the small FMS
Knob to enable/disable the Stormscope overlay.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Stormscope maximum display range field.
Turn the small FMS Knob to choose the maximum map range to display Stormscope
lightning symbols, then press the ENT Key. If the pilot selects a map range greater than
this distance, the system removes lightning symbols from the map.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Stormscope Mode field. Turn the small FMS
Knob to select ‘Cell’ Mode to display clusters of electrical activity, or ‘Strike’ Mode to
show the approximate location of individual lightning strikes. With the desired mode
highlighted, press the ENT Key.
7) When finished, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the menu.
Selecting a Stormscope range on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group, and press the ENT Key.
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4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Stormscope maximum map display range
distance.
5) Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
To change the display range on the Navigation Map Page, turn the Joystick clockwise to increase the
map range or counter-clockwise to decrease the map range.
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each
turn. This is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the
nose of the aircraft. Clearing Stormscope lightning on any map clears this information from all displays
on the system.
Manually clearing Stormscope data on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Stormscope Lightning’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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6.4 AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The optional Garmin GWX 68 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a 4-color digital pulsed radar with
6.5 kilowatts of output power. It combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with a
high-definition display. The pulse width is four microseconds (µs) on all ranges except the 2.5 nm
range. The weather radar uses a one µs pulse width at this range to reduce the targets smearing
together on the display for better target definition at close range.
This aircraft uses a 10-inch phased array antenna that is fully stabilized to accommodate 30º of pitch
and roll.
To focus radar scanning on specific areas, Sector Scanning offers pilot-adjustable horizontal scan
angles of 20º, 40º, 60º, or 90º. A vertical scanning function helps to analyze storm tops, gradients, and
cell buildup activity at various altitudes.
Radar features include:
•
Extended Sensitivity Time Constant (STC) logic that automatically correlates distance of the return
echo with intensity, so cells do not suddenly appear to get larger as they get closer.
•
WATCH® (Weather ATtenuated Color Highlight) helps identify possible shadowing effects of shortrange cell activity, identifying areas where radar return signals are weakened or attenuated by intense
precipitation (or large areas of lesser precipitation) and may not fully reflect the weather behind a
storm.
•
Weather Alert that looks ahead for intense cell activity in the 80-320 nm range, even if these ranges
are not being displayed.
PRINCIPLES OF PULSED AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
The term “RADAR” is an acronym for RAdio Detecting And Ranging. Pulsed radar locates targets by
transmitting a microwave pulse beam that, upon encountering a target, is reflected back to the radar
receiver as a return echo. The microwave pulses are focused and radiated by the antenna, with the
most intense energy in the center of the beam and decreasing intensity near the edge. The same
antenna is used for both transmitting and receiving. The returned signal is then processed and
displayed on the system.
Radar detection is a two-way process that requires 12.36 µs for the transmitted microwave pulses to
travel out and back for each nautical mile of target range. It takes 123.6 µs for a transmitted pulse to
make the round trip if a target is ten nautical miles away.
Airborne weather radar information should be used to avoid severe weather, not as a basis for
penetrating severe weather. The decision to fly into an area of radar targets depends on target intensity,
spacing between the targets, aircraft capabilities, and pilot experience. Pulse type weather radar detects
only precipitation, not clouds or turbulence. The display may indicate clear areas between intense
returns, but this does not necessarily mean it is safe to fly between them. Only Doppler radar can
detect turbulence.
Airborne weather radar has other capabilities beyond weather detection. It also has the ability to
detect and provide distance to cities, mountains, coastlines, rivers, lakes, and oceans.
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NEXRAD AND AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
Both Airborne Weather Radar and NEXRAD measure weather reflectivity in decibels (dB). A decibel
is a logarithmic expression of the ratio of two quantities. Airborne Weather Radar measures the ratio of
power against the gain of the antenna, while NEXRAD measures the energy reflected back to the radar,
or the radar reflectivity ratio.
Both systems use colors to identify the different echo intensities, but the colors are not
interchangeable. Airborne color radar values used by Garmin Airborne Color Weather Radar should
not be confused with NEXRAD radar values.
ANTENNA BEAM ILLUMINATION
The radar beam is much like the beam of a spotlight. The further the beam travels, the wider it
becomes. The radar is only capable of seeing what is inside the boundaries of the beam. The figure
below depicts a radar beam’s characteristics. The figure illustrates vertical dimensions of the radar
beam, although the same holds true for the horizontal dimensions. In other words, the beam is as wide
as it is tall. Note that it is possible to miss areas of precipitation on the radar display because of the
antenna tilt setting. With the antenna tilt set to zero in this illustration, the beam overshoots the
precipitation at 15 nautical miles.
Altitude (x1000 ft.)
80
Antenna at Zero Tilt
18,000 ft.
10°
15
Sidelobes
Max Power at Beam Center
18,000 ft.
0
0
Beam
Half Power at
30
45
60
75
90
Range (nautical miles)
Figure 6-54 Radar Beam from a 10–inch Antenna
The curvature of the Earth can also be a factor in missing areas of precipitation, especially at range
settings of 150 nautical miles or more. Here the beam overshoots the precipitation at less than 320
nautical miles.
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320 nm
Figure 6-55 Radar Beam in Relation to the Curvature of the Earth
RADAR SIGNAL ATTENUATION
The phenomenon of radar signal attenuation affects the operation of weather radar. When the
radar signal is transmitted, it is progressively absorbed and scattered, making the signal weaker. This
weakening, or attenuation, is caused by two primary sources, distance and precipitation.
Attenuation because of distance is due to the fact that the radar energy leaving the antenna is
inversely proportional to the square of the distance. The reflected radar energy from a target 40 miles
away that fills the radar beam is one fourth the energy reflected from an equivalent target 20 miles
away. This would appear to the operator that the storm is gaining intensity as the aircraft gets closer.
Internal signal processing within the system compensates for much of this distance attenuation.
Attenuation due to precipitation is not as predictable as distance attenuation. It is also more
intense. As the radar signal passes through moisture, a portion of the radar energy is reflected back
to the antenna. However, much of the energy is absorbed. If precipitation is very heavy, or covers a
large area, the signal may not reach completely through the area of precipitation. The weather radar
system cannot distinguish between an attenuated signal and an area of no precipitation. If the signal
has been fully attenuated, the radar displays a radar shadow. This appears as an end to the
precipitation when, in fact, the heavy rain may extend much further. A cell containing heavy
precipitation may block another cell located behind the first, preventing it from being displayed on
the radar. Never fly into these shadowed areas and never assume that all of the heavy precipitation is
being displayed unless another cell or a ground target can be seen beyond the heavy cell. The
WATCH® feature of the system can help in identifying these shadowed areas. Areas in question
appear as shadowed or gray on the radar display. Proper use of the antenna tilt control can also help
detect radar shadows.
Attenuation can also be due to poor maintenance or degradation of the radome. Even the smallest
amount of wear and scratching, pitting, and pinholes on the radome surface can cause damage and
system inefficiency.
RADAR SIGNAL REFLECTIVITY
PRECIPITATION
Precipitation or objects more dense than water, such as the surface of the Earth or solid
structures, are detected by the weather radar. The weather radar does not detect clouds,
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thunderstorms, or turbulence directly. It detects precipitation associated with clouds,
thunderstorms, and turbulence. The best radar signal reflectors are raindrops, wet snow, or wet
hail. The larger the raindrop, the better the reflectivity. The size of the precipitation droplet is the
most important factor in radar reflectivity. Because large drops in a small concentrated area are
characteristic of a severe thunderstorm, the radar displays the storm as a strong return. Ice crystals,
dry snow, and dry hail have low levels of reflectivity as shown in the illustration, and often not
displayed by the radar. Additionally, a cloud that contains only small raindrops, such as fog or
drizzle, does not reflect enough radar energy to produce a measurable target return.
Figure 6-56 Precipitation Type and Reflectivity
GROUND RETURNS
The intensity of ground target returns depends upon the angle at which the radar beam strikes
the ground target (Angle of Incidence) and the reflective properties of that target. The gain can be
adjusted so shorelines, rivers, lakes, and cities are well defined. Increasing the gain too much
causes the display to fill in between targets, thus obscuring some landmarks.
Cities normally provide a strong return signal. While large buildings and structures provide good
returns, small buildings can be shadowed from the radar beam by the taller buildings. As the
aircraft approaches and shorter ranges are selected, details become more noticeable as the highly
reflective regular lines and edges of the city become more defined.
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Bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, and oceans are not good reflectors and normally do not
provide good returns. The energy is reflected in a forward scatter angle with inadequate energy
being returned. They can appear as dark areas on the display. However, rough or choppy water is a
better reflector and provides stronger returns from the downwind sides of the waves.
Mountains also provide strong return signals to the antenna, but also block the areas behind.
However, over mountainous terrain, the radar beam can be reflected back and forth in the
mountain passes or off canyon walls, using up all or most of the radar energy. In this case, no
return signal is received from this area, causing the display to show a dark spot which could
indicate a pass where no pass exists.
Angle of Incidence
The angle at which the radar beam strikes the target is called the Angle of Incidence. The figure
illustrates the incident angle (‘A’). This directly affects the detectable range, the area of
illumination, and the intensity of the displayed target returns. A large incident angle gives the radar
system a smaller detectable range and lower display intensity due to minimized reflection of the
radar energy.
Figure 6-57 Angle of Incidence
A smaller incident angle gives the radar a larger detectable range of operation and the target
display shows a higher intensity. Since more radar energy is reflected back to the antenna with a
low incident angle, the resulting detectable range is increased for mountainous terrain.
SAFE OPERATING DISTANCE
The following information establishes a minimum safe distance from the antenna for personnel near
operating weather radar. The minimum safe distance is based on the FCC’s exposure limit at 9.3 to 9.5
GHz for general population/uncontrolled environments, which is 1 mW/cm2. See Advisory Circular
20-68B for more information on safe distance determination.
Maximum Permissible Exposure Level (MPEL)
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The zone in which the radiation level exceeds the US Government standard of 1 mW/cm2 is the
semicircular area of approximately 10 feet from the 10-inch antenna. All personnel must remain
outside of this zone. With a scanning or rotating beam, the averaged power density at the MPEL
boundary is significantly reduced.
Approximate MPEL
Boundary
10 ft. for 10”
antenna
Figure 6-58 Approximate MPEL Boundary
BASIC ANTENNA TILT SETUP
The following discussion is a simple method for setting up the weather radar antenna tilt for most
situations. It is not to be considered an all encompassing setup that works in all situations, but this
method does provide good overall parameters for the monitoring of threats. Ultimately, it is desired to
have the antenna tilted so that the bottom of the radar beam is four degrees below parallel with the
ground. The following example explains one way of achieving this.
With the aircraft flying level, adjust the antenna tilt so ground returns are displayed at a distance that
equals the aircraft’s current altitude (AGL) divided by 1,000. For example, if the aircraft is at 14,000
feet, adjust the tilt so the front edge of ground returns are displayed at 14 nautical miles. Note this
antenna tilt angle setting. Now, raise the antenna tilt 6 degrees above this setting. The bottom of the
radar beam is now angled down 4º from parallel with the ground.
Practical Application Using the Basic Tilt Setup
With the antenna tilt set as previously described, any displayed target return should be scrutinized
when flying at altitudes between 2,000 and 30,000 feet AGL. If the displayed target advances on the
screen to within five nautical miles of the aircraft, avoid it. This may be either weather or ground
returns that are 2,000 feet or less below the aircraft. Raising the antenna tilt 4 degrees can help
separate ground returns from weather returns in relatively flat terrain. This aligns the bottom of the
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4000
3000
Change in Antenna Tilt
2000
+4°
+3°
+2°
+1°
0°
-1°
-2°
-3°
-4°
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
10 nm
Vertical Change of Radar Beam (feet)
radar beam parallel with the ground. Return the antenna tilt to the previous setting after a few
sweeps.
If the aircraft is above 29,000 feet, be cautious of any target return that gets to within 30 nautical
miles. This is likely a thunderstorm that has a top high enough that the aircraft cannot fly over it
safely.
If the aircraft altitude is 15,000 feet or lower, setting the displayed range to 60 miles may be more
helpful. Closely monitor anything that enters the display.
Also, after setting up the antenna tilt angle as described previously, ground returns can be
monitored for possible threats. The relationship between antenna tilt angle, altitude, and distance is
one degree of tilt equals 100 feet of altitude for every one nautical mile.
Figure 6-59 Vertical Change in Radar Beam per Nautical Mile
Therefore, with the antenna tilt set so that the bottom of the beam is four degrees below parallel
with the ground, a target return at 10 nm is approximately 4,000 feet below the aircraft; at 20 nm,
8,000 feet; at 50 nm, 20,000 feet. In other words, at this tilt setting, a ground return (such as a
mountain peak) being displayed at 10 nm would have a maximum distance below the aircraft of
4,000 feet. A ground target return being displayed at 5 nm would have a maximum distance below
the aircraft of 2,000 feet.
This setup provides a good starting point for practical use of the airborne weather radar system.
There are many other factors to consider in order to become proficient at using weather radar in all
situations.
WEATHER MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
WEATHER DISPLAY INTERPRETATION
When evaluating various target returns on the weather radar display, the colors denote
precipitation intensity and rates shown in the table.
Weather Mode Color
378
Intensity
Approximate Precipitation
Rate (in/hr.)
Black
< 23 dBZ
< .01.
Green
23 dBZ to < 32 dBZ
.01 - 0.1.
Yellow
32 dBZ to < 41 dBZ
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Weather Mode Color
Intensity
Approximate Precipitation
Rate (in/hr.)
Red
41 dBZ to < 50 dBZ
0.5 - 2
Magenta
50 dBZ and greater
>2
Table 6-9 Precipitation Intensity Levels in Weather Mode (GWX 68)
THUNDERSTORMS
Updrafts and downdrafts in thunderstorms carry water through the cloud. The more severe the
drafts, the greater the number and size of the precipitation droplets. With this in mind, the
following interpretations can be made from what is displayed on the weather radar. Avoid these
areas by an extra wide margin.
•
In areas where the displayed target intensity is red or magenta (indicating large amounts of
precipitation), the turbulence is considered severe.
•
Areas that show steep color gradients (intense color changes) over thin bands or short distances
suggest irregular rainfall rate and strong turbulence.
•
Areas that show red or magenta are associated with hail or turbulence, as well as heavy
precipitation. Vertical scanning and antenna tilt management may be necessary to identify areas
of maximum intensity.
Along squall lines (multiple cells or clusters of cells in a line) individual cells may be in different
stages of development. Areas between closely spaced, intense targets may contain developing
clouds not having enough moisture to produce a return. However, these areas could have strong
updrafts or downdrafts. Targets showing wide areas of green are generally precipitation without
severe turbulence.
Irregularities in the target return may also indicate turbulence, appearing as hooks, fingers, or
scalloped edges. These irregularities may be present in green areas with no yellow, red, or magenta
areas and should be treated as highly dangerous areas. Avoid these areas as if they are red or
magenta.
Squall Line
Steep Gradient
Hook or Finger
Scalloped Edge
Figure 6-60 Cell Irregularities
hunderstorm development is rapid. A course may become blocked within a short time. When
displaying shorter ranges, periodically select a longer range to see if problems are developing
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further out. That can help prevent getting trapped in a blind alley or an area that is closed at one
end by convective weather.
Figure 6-61 The Blind Alley — Horizontal Scan
In areas of multiple heavy cells, use the Vertical Scan feature along with antenna tilt management
to examine the areas. Remember to avoid shadowed areas behind targets.
The Blind Alley at Close Range
The Large Storm Behind
Figure 6-62 The Blind Alley
TORNADOES
There are no conclusive radar target return characteristics which identify a tornado. However,
tornadoes may be present if the following characteristics are observed:
•
A narrow, finger-like portion extends and in a short time curls into a hook and closes on itself.
•
A hook, which may be in the general shape of the numeral 6 (numeral 9 in the southern
hemisphere), especially if bright and projecting from the southwest quadrant (northeast quadrant
in the southern hemisphere) of a major thunderstorm.
•
V-shaped notches.
•
Doughnut shapes.
These shapes do not always indicate tornadoes, and tornado returns are not limited to these
characteristics. Confirmed radar observations of tornadoes most often have not shown shapes
different from those of a normal thunderstorm display.
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HAIL
Hail results from updrafts carrying water high enough to freeze. Therefore, the higher the top of
a thunderstorm, the greater the probability that it contains hail. Vertically scanning the target
return can give the radar top of a thunderstorm that contains hail. Radar top is the top of a storm
cell as detected by radar. It is not the actual top, or true top of the storm. The actual top of a storm
cell is seen with the eyes in clear air and may be much higher than the radar top. The actual top
does not indicate the top of the hazardous area.
Hail can fall below the minimum reflectivity threshold for radar detection. It can have a film of
water on its surface, making its reflective characteristics similar to a very large water droplet.
Because of this film of water, and because hail stones usually are larger than water droplets,
thunderstorms with large amounts of wet hail return stronger signals than those with rain. Some
hail shafts are extremely narrow (100 yards or less) and make poor radar targets. In the upper
regions of a cell where ice particles are dry (no liquid coating), target returns are less intense.
Hail shafts are associated with the same radar target return characteristics as tornados. U-shaped
cloud edges three to seven miles across can also indicate hail. These target returns appear quite
suddenly along any edge of the cell outline. They also change in intensity and shape in a matter of
seconds, making vigilant monitoring essential.
OPERATION IN WEATHER MODE
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or
objects are within the MPEL boundary.
CAUTION: In Standby mode, the antenna is parked at the center line. It is always a good
idea to put the radar in Standby mode before taxiing the aircraft to prevent the antenna
from bouncing on the bottom stop and possibly causing damage to the radar assembly.
When the weather radar system is in the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby mode on landing. In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system automatically
switches to Standby mode. The system remains in Standby mode until both displays are restored.
In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system cannot be controlled.
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Antenna
Stabilization Status
Radar Mode
Scan Line
Figure 6-63 Horizontal Scan Display
Scan Line
Bearing Line
Figure 6-64 Bearing Line on Horizontal Scan
Displaying weather on the Weather Radar Page:
1) Select the ‘Map — Weather Radar’ Page.
2) Press the Mode Softkey.
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3) If on the ground, press the Standby Softkey. A one-minute warm-up period begins
with a countdown displayed on the screen. After the warm-up is complete, the weather
radar enters Standby Mode.
4) Press the Weather Softkey. If the on the ground, a confirmation window appears. Turn
the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Yes’ to confirm activation or ‘No’ to cancel activation
5) Turn the Joystick to select the desired map range.
6) The horizontal scan is initially displayed. If desired, press the Vertical Softkey to change
to vertical scan mode.
Vertically scanning a storm cell:
NOTE: Vertical scanning of a storm cell should be done with the aircraft’s wings level to
avoid the need to constantly adjust the position of the Bearing Line.
1) While in Horizontal Scan view, press the BRG Softkey. This places the cursor in the
‘Bearing’ field and displays the Bearing Line.
Or:
Press the Menu Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Show Bearing Line’. Then
press the ENT Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob or move the Joystick left or right to position the Bearing Line
on the desired storm cell or area to be vertically scanned.
3) Press the VerticalSoftkey. A vertical scan of the selected area is displayed.
4) With the cursor still in the ‘Bearing’ field, turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the
bearing as needed.
5) To remove the cursor from the ‘Bearing’ field, press the FMS Knob.
6) Turn the Joystick as needed to adjust the range.
7) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, press the Horizon Softkey to return to
the Horizontal scan mode and repeat the previous steps.
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Tilt Line
Scan Line
Figure 6-65 Tilt Line on Vertical Scan Display
ADJUSTING ANTENNA TILT ANGLE
In order to make an accurate interpretation of a storm cell, the radar beam should be pointed at the
wet part of the weather cell to record the proper rainfall intensity (color level). The ideal aiming point is
just below the freezing level of the storm. The best way to find this point is to use the Vertical Scan
feature. The antenna tilt angle can be centered on the strongest return area in the vertical scan to get a
more accurate view of the coverage and intensity of the target in the horizontal scan.
Adjusting antenna tilt angle on the Horizontal Scan display:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the ‘Tilt’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob or press the Joystick up or down to select the desired
antenna tilt angle.
3) Press the ENT Key to accept the setting.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Vertically scanning a storm cell:
1) While in Horizontal Scan mode, press the BRG Softkey to display the bearing line. The
cursor highlights the setting in the ‘Bearing’ field.
2) Move the Joystick left or right or turn the small FMS Knob to position the bearing line
over the storm cell or area to be vertically scanned.
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3) Press the Vertical Softkey, and the system displays a vertical scan.
4) If desired, move the Joystick left or right or turn the small FMS Knob to make
additional adjustments to the ‘Bearing’ field.
5) Turn the Joystick as needed to adjust the range.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor from the ‘Bearing’ field.
7) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, press the Horizon Softkey to return to
the Horizontal Scan mode, then repeat the previous steps.
Adjusting weather radar gain:
WARNING: Always position the weather radar gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the
actual intensity of precipitation. Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation
intensity to be displayed as a color not representative of the true intensity.
1) Press the Gain Softkey to activate the cursor in the ‘Gain’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the gain for the desired level. The gain setting is
visible in the ‘Gain’ field as a moveable horizontal bar in a flashing box. A pointer with
a solid bar represents the calibrated gain setting in the field.
3) With the gain set at the desired level, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
4) To return to the calibrated gain setting, press the Gain Softkey again. ‘Calibrated’
appears in the ‘Gain’ field.
Enabling/disabling Sector Scanning:
1) While in horizontal scan mode, press the BRG Softkey to display the Bearing Line,
which also places the cursor in the ‘Bearing’ field.
2) Move the Joystick left or right or turn the small FMS Knob to position the Bearing Line
to the position which will define the center of the sector scan.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Sector Scan’ field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the sector scan width in 20 degree increments, or
select ‘Full’ to select the full scan width.
5) If desired, move the Joystick left or right to move the center position of the sector
scan.
6) To remove the Bearing Line and cursor, press the BRG Softkey again. The bearing
reference is reset to zero degrees.
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Manual Gain Set Below Calibrated
Calibrated Gain
Figure 6-66 Gain Calibration
Figure 6-67 Selecting a Sector Scan Position
Figure 6-68 20° Sector Scan
ANTENNA STABILIZATION
When radar stabilization is active, the radar tilt is corrected for pitch and roll, and therefore is
kept steady with respect to the horizon. The commanded tilt angle is kept constant with respect to
the Earth. When the stabilization is disabled, corrections are no longer made for pitch and roll,
and the radar tilt angle is kept constant with respect to the aircraft reference system.
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Enabling/disabling Antenna Stabilization:
1) Press the Features Softkey.
2) Press the STAB Softkey to enable/disable antenna stabilization. The current stabilization
status is shown in the upper right on the Weather Radar Page.
WEATHER ATTENUATED COLOR HIGHLIGHT (WATCH®)
WATCH® identifies deceptively strong or unknown intensity parts of a storm. While in horizontal
scan mode, this feature can be used as a tool to determine areas of possible inaccuracies in displayed
intensity due to weakening of the radar energy. This weakening is known as attenuation. The radar
energy weakens as it passes through areas of intense precipitation, large areas of lesser precipitation, and
distance. Issues with the radome attenuates the radar energy. All these factors have an effect on the
return intensity. The more energy that dissipates, the lesser the displayed intensity of the return.
Accuracy of the displayed intensity of returns located in the shaded areas are suspect. Make
maneuvering decisions with this information in mind. Proper antenna tilt management should still be
employed to determine the extent of attenuation in a shaded area.
To enable or disable the WATCH® feature, press the Watch Softkey.
Areas of
attenuated signal
Figure 6-69 Horizontal Scan with WATCH Shading of Attenuated Areas
Enabling/disabling the WATCH feature:
1) Press the Features Softkey.
2) Press the WATCH Softkey to enable/disable the WATCH feature.
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WEATHER ALERT TARGET BANDS AND WEATHER ALERT PFD MESSAGE
The Weather Alert feature indicates the presence of heavy precipitation between the ranges of 80
and 320 nm regardless of the currently displayed range. Weather Alert targets appear as red bands
along the outer range ring at the approximate azimuth of the detected returns.
If a Weather Alert is detected within ±10° of the aircraft heading, and the WX ALRT Softkey is
enabled on the Weather Radar Page, the system also displays ‘WX ALERT - Possible severe weather
ahead.’ on the PFD in the Messages Window.
Weather
Alert Band
Figure 6-70 Weather Alert Bands and Weather Alert PFD Message
If the antenna tilt is adjusted too low, a weather alert can be generated by ground returns. To
prevent weather alerts from appearing on the PFD in the Messages Window, deselect the WX ALRT
Softkey on the Weather Radar Page on the MFD. The system continues to display weather alert
target bands on the Weather Radar Page even if the PFD weather alert message is disabled.
Figure 6-71 Weather Alert Message on the PFD
GROUND MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
A secondary use of the weather radar system is for the presentation of terrain. This can be a useful tool
for verifying aircraft position. A picture of the ground is represented much like a topographical map that
can be used as a supplement to the navigation map on the MFD.
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Ground Map mode uses a different gain range than Weather mode. Different colors are also used to
represent the intensity levels. The displayed intensity of ground target returns are defined in the table
below. Use of the Gain and Tilt controls help improve contrast so that specific ground targets can be
recognized more easily. As previously discussed, the type and orientation of the target in relation to the
aircraft affects the intensity displayed.
When the weather radar system is in either the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system
automatically switches to Standby mode upon landing.
Ground Map Mode Color
Intensity
Black
0 dB
Cyan
> 0 dB to < 9 dB
Yellow
9 dB to < 18 dB
Magenta
18 dB to < 27 dB
Blue
27 dB and greater
Table 6-10 Ground Target Return Intensity Levels
Operating the Weather Radar in Ground Map Mode on the Weather Radar Page:
1) Press the Mode Softkey.
2) Press the Ground Softkey to place the weather radar in Ground Map mode.
3) Press the Back softkey to return to the top-level Weather Radar Page Softkeys.
4) To adjust the antenna tilt angle, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Tilt’ field.
6) Adjust the antenna tilt angle by turning the small FMS Knob to display ground returns
at the desired distance.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
WEATHER RADAR OVERLAY ON THE NAVIGATION MAP PAGE
The Map - Weather Radar Page is the principal map page for viewing airborne weather radar
information. Weather radar information may also be shown as an overlay on the Navigation Map Page
on the MFD as an additional reference.
When the airborne weather radar overlay is enabled, a weather radar information box appears in the
upper-right corner of the Navigation Map Page. It indicates the selected weather mode, radar bearing,
and antenna tilt angle. The overlay is capable of showing radar information while the radar is in
horizontal scan mode. If the radar is operating in vertical scan mode while the overlay is enabled, the
system indicates ‘N/A’ in the information box to indicate the airborne weather radar overlay is not
available until the horizontal scan mode is selected on the Weather Radar Page.
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Weather Radar Range, Tilt,
and Gain information
Figure 6-72 Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page
Enabling/disabling the airborne weather radar overlay on the Navigation Map
Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the WX RadarSoftkey.
4) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top-level MFD softkeys.
Or:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through product selections, and highlight the
Weather Radar overlay selection ‘On’ or ‘Off’. Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the
desired selection.
5) To remove the menu, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
Weather radar controls on the Navigation Map Page are limited to adjustment of the radar range,
bearing, and antenna tilt angle. The airborne weather radar overlay is viewable at Navigation Map
Ranges between five and 800 nautical miles (ten to 1,500 kilometers). At map ranges beyond these
limits, the system removes the weather radar information from the map. Adjusting the range on the
Navigation Map Page simultaneously adjusts the range of the weather radar proportionally. This radar
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range is annunciated on the range arc that appears when the overlay is enabled and a radar scan is
active. When the radar range is adjusted on the Navigation Map Page, system synchronizes the same
range to the Weather Radar Page.
The radar bearing is adjustable in one degree increments on the Navigation Map Page by pushing the
Joystick left or right when the overlay is enabled. A left or right arrow next to the bearing readout
indicates the direction of the selected bearing. The cyan radar bearing line is only viewable on the
Weather Radar Page. While the bearing line is not shown on the Navigation Map Page, adjusting the
bearing on the Navigation Map Page while Sector Scan is enabled centers the radar scan on the
selected bearing, and the radar scan boundaries adjust accordingly on the Navigation Map Page.
Radar antenna tilt angle is adjustable in 0.25 degree increments on the Navigation Map Page. Push
the Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward. Push the Joystick down to adjust the
antenna tilt angle upward. An up or down arrow next to the antenna tilt angle setting indicates the
direction of the antenna tilt angle.
The weather radar overlay uses the same colors as those shown on the Weather Radar Page to
indicate the intensity of radar returns. However, the display of gray WATCH radar attenuation and red
weather alert target bands is exclusive to the Weather Radar Page. Because data link radar precipitation
and terrain present information using similar colors, enabling the airborne weather radar overlay on
the Navigation Map Page disables the display of the data link radar and terrain information for this
page.
SYSTEM STATUS
The system displays the radar mode annunciation in the upper left corner of the Weather Radar Page.
It also appears in the upper right corner of the Navigation Map Page when the Weather Radar overlay is
enabled. Additional information may be displayed in the center of the Weather Radar Page as a banner
annunciation.
Radar Mode
Radar Mode Annunciation
Box (Weather Radar Page
and Navigation Map Page)
Weather Radar Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Standby
Standby
STANDBY
Standby (During
Warm-Up)
Standby
WARM-UP
xx
(xx indicates number of seconds remaining in
warm-up
Weather
Weather
None
Ground Mapping
Ground Mapping
None
Radar Failed
FAIL
RADAR FAIL
Table 6-11 Radar Modes on the Weather Radar Page
See the following tables for additional failure annunciations.
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Radar Antenna Stabilization Status
Description
STAB On
Antenna stabilization is selected on.
STAB OFF
Antenna stabilization is selected off.
STAB INOP
The radar is not receiving pitch and roll information. The
antenna stabilization feature is inoperative.
Table 6-12 Antenna Stabilization Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
Weather Radar Page Center Banner Annunciation
Description
BAD CONFIG
The radar configuration is invalid. The radar
should be serviced.
RDR FAULT
The radar unit is reporting a fault. The radar
should be serviced.
RADAR FAIL
The system is not receiving valid data from
the radar unit. The system should be
serviced.
Table 6-13 Abnormal Radar Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
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6.5 TERRAIN DISPLAYS
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for
maintaining separation from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data
from third party sources and cannot independently verify the accuracy of the information.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain
database coverage area.
Terrain and obstacle alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º
South latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s
ability to process the data representing the affected areas.
Terrain and obstacle alerting requires the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B option. No terrain or
obstacle alerting occurs for the Terrain Proximity feature.
The terrain system increases situational awareness and aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain
(CFIT) and obstacles.
One of the following terrain systems is installed on this aircraft:
•
Terrain Proximity
•
Terrain-SVT (included with the Garmin SVT option when the Terrain Awareness and Warning
System Class-B (TAWS-B) is not installed; refer to the Flight Instruments section for more
information about Garmin SVT.)
•
TAWS-B (optional)
The installed terrain system provides color indications on map displays when terrain or obstacles,
including certain power lines, are within a certain altitude threshold from the aircraft. Terrain-SVT and
TAWS-B furthermore provide advisory visual annunciations and voice alerts to indicate the presence of
threatening terrain or obstacles relevant to the projected flight path. This alerting capability is not
present in the Terrain Proximity feature. Compared to Terrain-SVT alerting, TAWS-B uses more
sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles. The TAWS-B system
includes more alerting capabilities than the Terrain-SVT system.
The terrain system requires the following for proper operation:
•
Valid 3-D GPS position
•
Valid terrain and obstacle databases
The terrain system uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government and other sources.
Terrain information is based on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain
inaccuracies. Individual obstructions, such as towers or power lines, may be shown if available in the
database. Garmin verifies the data to confirm accuracy of the content. However, the displayed
information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and data may still contain inaccuracies.
The terrain and obstacle databases used by the terrain system are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS
position and GSL altitude, terrain system displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and
obstacles relative to the position and altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, for the Terrain-SVT or
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TAWS-B systems, the system uses the GPS position and GSL altitude to calculate and “predict” the
aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this manner, the TerrainSVT or TAWS-B systems can provide advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain conditions.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local
atmospheric conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently
updating the altimeter setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because
actual atmospheric conditions seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International
Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it
is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read from the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude.
This variation results in the aircraft’s GSL altitude differing from the baro-corrected altitude.
RELATIVE TERRAIN SYMBOLOGY
The terrain system uses colors and symbols to represent terrain and point obstacles (with heights
greater than 200 feet above ground level, AGL) present in the databases relative to aircraft altitude. The
system dynamically adjusts these colors as the aircraft altitude changes, and after takeoff and landing.
While the aircraft is on the ground, the system displays relative terrain 400 feet or more above the
aircraft altitude using red, and terrain at less than 400 feet above aircraft altitude using black, as shown
on the On-Ground Legend. When the aircraft is in the air, the system displays relative terrain
information using red, yellow, green, and black, as shown on the In-Air Legend. As the aircraft
transitions from on-ground to in-air, or from in-air to on-ground, the display of relative terrain
momentarily fades into the corresponding colors. For Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems, if an alert
occurs, the relative terrain colors transition to the In-Air Legend if the On-Ground Legend was shown
in order to provide the pilot with the most information possible.
On-Ground Legend
In-Air Legend
Figure 6-73 Relative Terrain Legend
The following figure shows the relative terrain coloring for the Terrain Proximity system.
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100 ft Threshold
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-74 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain Proximity
The following figure shows relative terrain coloring for the Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems.
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-75 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B Systems
NOTE: The Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Inset Window shows terrain at least 2000 feet
below the aircraft altitude as gray.
The following tables show the relative obstacle coloring used by the terrain systems.
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Unlighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL
Lighted Obstacle
> 1000’ AGL
< 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
> 1000’ AGL
Red point obstacle is at or
above the aircraft altitude
Yellow point obstacle is
between the aircraft altitude to
within 250 feet below the
aircraft altitude
White point obstacle is more
than 250 ft below the aircraft
altitude
Table 6-14 Relative Point Obstacle Symbols and Colors
Wire Obstacle
Wire Obstacle Location
Red wire obstacle is at or above the aircraft altitude
Yellow wire obstacle is between the aircraft altitude to
within 250 feet below the aircraft altitude
White wire obstacle is more than 250 ft below the aircraft
altitude
Table 6-15 Relative Wire Obstacles and Colors
Unlighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Lighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Wind Turbine Obstacle Location
Red wind turbine obstacle is at or above the
aircraft altitude
Yellow wind turbine obstacle is between the
aircraft altitude to within 250 feet below the
aircraft altitude
White wind turbine obstacle is more than 250 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Table 6-16 Relative Wind Turbine Obstacles and Colors
The Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems show potential impacts areas for terrain and obstacles using
yellow and red as shown in the following table.
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Potential Impact Area Examples
Alert Type
Warning
or
Example Annunciation
TAWS-B Warning:
Terrain-SVT Warning:
Caution
or
Table 6-17 Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B Potential Impact Area with Annunciations
The ‘Map - Terrain Proximity’ or ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page is the principal map
page for viewing terrain information. Terrain and obstacle information can be displayed on the
following maps and pages:
PFD Maps
Trip Planning Page
‘Map - Navigation Map Page’
Flight Plan Page
Terrain Proximity/Terrain-SVT/TAWS-B Page
Displaying relative terrain information (MFD maps other than the terrain page)
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the Map/HSI Softkey).
2) Press the TER Softkey as needed to cycle through the terrain options, with the current
selection displayed in cyan on the softkey (‘Off’, ‘Topo’ or ‘REL’). ‘REL’ indicates relative
terrain is selected.
When relative terrain is shown on maps other than the terrain page, a relative terrain icon appears
on the map. A relative terrain legend appears with the icon on the Navigation Map Page. The legend
appears by itself on the terrain page.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/
disabling the display of relative terrain, point obstacles (such as towers), and wire obstacles (such as
power lines). The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and obstacle
data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD,
while the maximum range setting also affects the PFD maps.
The pilot can display relative terrain information independently of point or wire obstacle
information; however, obstacles for which Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B warnings and cautions are issued
are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting limit.
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Maps besides the terrain page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The
maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the
Navigation Map.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
•
Terrain Display – Enables the display of relative (‘REL’) terrain data or select ‘Off’ to disable;
also sets maximum map range at which terrain is shown.
•
Point Obstacle – Enables/disables the display of point obstacle data and sets maximum
range at which point obstacles are shown
•
Wire Obstacle – Enables/disables the display of wire obstacle data and sets maximum range
at which wire obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range
settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the
changed settings.
Additional information about obstacles can be displayed by panning over the display on the map.
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning
the Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map
Pointer.
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Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ below
the aircraft
altitude)
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
altitude
Red Terrain
(Above or within
100’ below the
aircraft altitude)
Yellow Lighted Obstacles
(Between 100’ and 1000’
below aircraft altitude)
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or within
100’ below aircraft
altitude)
Terrain Legend
Figure 6-76 Terrain Information on the Navigation Map Page
WIRE OBSTACLE INFORMATION AND ALERTING
For additional safety, the terrain system incorporates Garmin’s WireAware™ wire obstacle
information. For wire obstacles such as power lines present in the obstacle database, the system shows
these on the maps as well as the Synthetic Vision display; see the Flight Instruments section for more
information about Synthetic Vision displays of power lines. For the Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B only, this
system can also issue cautions or warnings for potential impact with wire obstacles.
WireAware database information mainly includes Hazardous Obstacle Transmission (HOT) power
lines which are typically high voltage transmission lines depicted on VFR Sectional charts, and are
considered of special interest to fixed-wing pilots. These include power lines which may span rivers,
valleys, canyons, or be in close proximity to airports.
It is important to note the obstacle database does not contain all power lines. In fact, WireAware
database coverage is mostly limited to HOT power lines, such as the especially tall transmission lines
and their associated support structures. It does not typically have information for the more prevalent
smaller utility poles or lines, such as those found in residential areas. Furthermore, WireAware
obstacle database coverage exists mainly in the United States; with limited coverage in portions of
Canada and Mexico. In addition, the height of the wire obstacles is commonly estimated and should
not be relied upon for maneuvering decisions.
TERRAIN PAGE
The ‘Map - Terrain Proximity’, or ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’, or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page is specialized to show
terrain, and obstacle in relation to the aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. This
page is the principal page for viewing terrain information. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other
NAVAIDs) can be enabled for reference.
For Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems only, this page also shows potential impact areas. If terrain or
obstacles (including wire obstacles) and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the display
automatically adjusts to a map range if necessary to emphasize the display of the potential impact area.
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Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading, in which case
the orientation is track up. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 250 feet to 1000 nm, which is
indicated on the map range arc.
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
altitude
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ below
the aircraft
altitude)
Red Terrain
(Above or within
100’ below the
aircraft altitude)
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or within
100’ below aircraft
altitude)
Yellow Lighted Obstacles
(Between 100’ and 1000’
below aircraft altitude)
Terrain Legend
Figure 6-77 Terrain Proximity Page
Displaying the terrain page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Map page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain Proximity/Terrain-SVT/TAWS-B Page.
Showing/hiding aviation information on the terrain page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice
dependent on the current state), then press the ENT Key.
VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY (VSD) TERRAIN
The system offers a Vertical Situation Display (VSD), which includes a profile of terrain and obstacles
in an inset window on the bottom of the Navigation Map Page. Although the VSD does not display
Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B alerts and potential impact areas, the VSD does use many of the same colors and
symbols as these systems to depict relative terrain and obstacles within the VSD.
Enabling/disabling the Vertical Situation Display (VSD):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable/disable the VSD.
Or:
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1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ (choice dependent on
current state) and press the ENT Key.
VSD DISPLAY
The same controls which enable/disable the display of relative terrain and obstacles on the
Navigation Map Page also control the display of this information in the VSD.
When the VSD is enabled, terrain and obstacles in the VSD will be shown if the aircraft altitude is
low enough or the VSD altitude range is high enough for the terrain to be in view (absolute terrain
will be shown in gray if the TER Softkey is selected off on the Navigation Map Page).
The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of the terrain
based upon the highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the terrain
database resolution, within a predefined width along the aircraft track between the aircraft present
position and the end of the map range. The predefined width is determined by the flight phase, as
annunciated on the HSI, and is widest during enroute or oceanic phases.
Flight Phase
Total VSD Width
Approach
0.6 NM
Departure
0.6 NM
Terminal
2.0 NM
Enroute
4.0 NM
Oceanic
4.0 NM
Table 6-18 VSD Terrain Width Varies According to Flight Phase
The forward looking swath of terrain is based on the selected VSD Mode, annunciated in the topleft corner of the VSD Inset Window. In Flight Plan Mode, the contour follows the active flight plan,
and if no active flight plan is present, the VSD Inset Window displays ‘Flight Plan Not Available’. In
Track Mode, the contour is based on the aircraft ground track. In Auto Mode, the contour is based
on the active flight plan, when available, otherwise, it is based on the ground track.
Selecting a VSD Mode:
1) Select the Navigation MapPage.
2) Press the Inset Softkey.
3) Press the VSD Softkey, which displays the VSD mode in cyan. Each press of the softkey
selects a mode: FPL (Flight Plan), TRK (track), or Auto.
When the Navigation Map range is adjusted with the Joystick, the horizontal distance of the VSD is
adjusted to match the distance shown on the map range arc, down to one nautical mile. If the
Navigation Map range is adjusted below one nautical mile, the VSD range remains at one nautical
mile. When Navigation Map range is adjusted to remove altitude-correlated colored terrain data (as
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shown in the Terrain Legend) or obstacles from the Navigation Map, these items are also removed
from the VSD; only an outline of the terrain will be displayed in black in the VSD Inset Window.
Track Mode
Boundary enabled
Altitude Scale
VSD Total Distance
Figure 6-78 VSD on the Navigation Map Page with Relative Terrain Information
Obstacles with heights greater than 200 feet AGL appear relative to aircraft altitude along the altitude
scale. The top of the obstacle symbol on the scale represents the obstacle’s height AGL. If the obstacle’s
height AGL is higher than can be represented by the obstacle symbol itself (e.g. for especially tall
obstacles), a vertical line appears below the obstacle symbol in order to depict the top of the obstacle
symbol at its height AGL, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 6-79 VSD with Tall Obstacles
TRACK MODE BOUNDARY
The Track Mode Boundary represents the horizontal and lateral boundaries of the VSD. The
boundary is shown as a white rectangle on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page and is only available
when the VSD is enabled in Track Mode. White range markers on both edges of the Track Mode
Boundary rectangle match the range markers along the distance scale inside the VSD Inset Window
whenever the profile range is at least four nautical miles (or 7.5 km if configured for metric units).
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The Track Mode Boundary may be enabled/disabled, and the Navigation Map range at which the
Profile Path is removed from map display can be changed.
Customizing the Track Mode Boundary display on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’
Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘VSD’ group, then press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Track Mode Boundary ‘On’ or ‘Off’ field. Turn
the small FMS Knob if needed to change this setting.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the maximum map range to display the Track
Mode Boundary. Turn the small FMS Knob to select a maximum range, then press the
ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the
changed settings.
TERRAIN-SVT AND TAWS-B ALERTING DISPLAYS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B
software algorithms. Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B alerts typically employ a caution or a warning alert
severity level, or both. When an alert is issued, visual annunciations are displayed and voice alerts are
simultaneously issued.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The terrain alert annunciation
appears to the left of the Selected Altitude box on the PFD, and bottom on the MFD. If the terrain page
is not displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up alert:
•
Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
•
Press the ENT Key (accesses the ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page)
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Pop-up
Alert
Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-80 TAWS-B Alert Annunciations
Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-81 TAWS-B Page with Annunciation (After MFD Pop-up Alert Acknowledgment)
Alert Type
PFD/Terrain—SVT
Page Alert
Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert
(except Terrain-SVT
Page)
Voice Alert
Reduced Required
Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required
Line Clearance (RLC)
Warning
“Warning; Wire, Wire”
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Alert Type
PFD/Terrain—SVT
Page Alert
Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert
(except Terrain-SVT
Page)
Voice Alert
Imminent Terrain
Impact Warning (ITI)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required
Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
“Warning; Obstacle,
Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle
Impact Warning (IOI)
“Warning; Obstacle,
Obstacle”
Reduced Required
Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Line
Impact Caution (ILI)
“Caution, Wire, Wire”
Imminent Terrain
Impact Caution (ITI)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required
Line Clearance
Caution (RLC)
“Caution, Wire, Wire”
Reduced Required
Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
“Caution; Obstacle,
Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle
Impact Caution (IOI)
“Caution; Obstacle,
Obstacle”
Table 6-19 Terrain-SVT Alerts Summary
Alert Type
PFD/TAWS—B
Page Alert
Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert
Voice Alert
(except TAWS-B Page)
Excessive Descent
Rate Warning (EDR)
“Pull Up”
Reduced Required
Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull
Up”
Imminent Line
Impact Warning (ILI)
“Wire Ahead; Pull Up, Pull
Up”
Reduced Required
Line Clearance
Warning (RLC)
“Wire, Wire; Pull Up, Pull Up”
Imminent Terrain
Impact Warning (ITI)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull
Up”
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Alert Type
PFD/TAWS—B
Page Alert
Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert
Voice Alert
(except TAWS-B Page)
Reduced Required
Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up,
Pull Up”
Imminent Obstacle
Impact Warning (IOI)
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up,
Pull Up”
Reduced Required
Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
“Caution, Terrain; Caution,
Terrain”
Imminent Terrain
Impact Caution (ITI)
“Caution, Terrain; Caution,
Terrain”
Required Reduced
Line Clearance (RLC)
Impact Caution
“Caution, Wire; Caution,
Wire”
Imminent Line
Clearance Impact
Caution (ILI)
“Wire Ahead; Wire Ahead”
Reduced Required
Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution,
Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle
Impact Caution (IOI)
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution,
Obstacle”
Premature Descent
Alert Caution (PDA)
“Too Low, Terrain”
Altitude Voice
None
Callout (VCO) “500”
None
“Five-Hundred”
Excessive Descent
Rate Caution (EDR)
“Sink Rate”
Negative Climb Rate
Caution (NCR)
“Don’t Sink”
Table 6-20 TAWS-B Alerts Summary
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B compares the
projected flight path as derived from GPS data with terrain features and obstacles from the terrain and
obstacle databases. The system issues FLTA alerts when the projected flight path conflicts with terrain
or obstacles.
The projected flight path is a calculated area ahead of, to the sides, and below the aircraft. The size of
the projected flight path varies based on factors including ground speed (the path ahead is larger when
the ground speed is higher), whether the aircraft is level, turning, or descending, and the proximity to
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the nearest runway along the current track. As the aircraft approaches the runway, the projected flight
path becomes narrower until the system automatically disables FLTA alerts or the pilot manually
inhibits them.
There are two types of FLTA alerts, Reduced Required Terrain/Obstacle/Line Clearance
(RTC /ROC/RLC respectively) and Imminent Terrain/Obstacle/Line Impact (ITI/IOI/ILI respectively).
Level (FT)
Descending (FT)
800
Required
Clearance
(FT)
Required Terrain
Clearance (FT)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
Distance From Runway (NM)
25
30
Figure 6-82 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
The system automatically disables FLTA alerts when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the
destination runway elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between
runway ends.
INHIBITING FLTA ALERTING
The pilot can manually inhibit FLTA alerts. If TAWS-B is installed, PDA alerts are also inhibited with
FLTA alerts.
Terrain-SVT System
TAWS-B System
Figure 6-83 FLTA Inhibited Annunciations for Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B
Inhibiting/enabling FLTA Alerting (Terrain SVT and TAWS-B only):
1) Select the terrain page.
2) Press the Inhibit Softkey. FLTA alerting is inhibited when softkey annunciator is green.
Or:
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1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired inhibit or enable option, then press the
ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL TAWS-B ALERTING
In addition to the FLTA alerting discussed previously, TAWS-B provides the following additional
types of alerts.
EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
The purpose of theExcessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide notification when the aircraft
is determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain a rate that is calculated to be excessive relative
to height above terrain. Figure 6-59 shows the parameters for the alert.
6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
4000
i
Caut
3500
SINK
on: “
”
RATE
3000
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
Descent Rate (FPM)
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
500
Figure 6-84 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway.
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination
airport and ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
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800
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
600
500
400
300
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-85 PDA Alerting Threshold
NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT (NCR)
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After
Takeoff”) provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon
terrain) after takeoff. The voice alert “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by visual
annunciations. NCR alerting is only active when departing from an airport and when the following
conditions are met:
•
Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
•
Distance from the departure airport is 5 nm or less
•
Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
NCR alerts can be triggered by either altitude loss or sink rate.
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1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-86 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-87 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
FIVE-HUNDRED VOICE ALERT
The purpose of the TAWS-B “Five-hundred” voice alert is to provide an advisory alert of when the
aircraft descends to within 500 feet above the terrain or runway threshold. When the aircraft is
within 5 nm of an airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the nearest runway threshold
elevation. When the aircraft is more than 5 nm of the nearest airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert
is based on the height above terrain (as determined by the GPS altitude and Terrain Database).
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There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the voice alert.
SYSTEM STATUS
TERRAIN-SVT
During power-up, Terrain-SVT conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts. An
voice alert is issued at test completion. Terrain-SVT continually monitors several system-critical
items such as database validity, hardware status, and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is
not available, the system issues the voice alert “Terrain System Failure” along with the ‘TER FAIL’
alert annunciation. Terrain-SVT requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical
accuracy minimums. Should the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the
database coverage area, the annunciation ‘TER N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on
the ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ Page. The voice alert “Terrain System Not Available” is generated. When
sufficient GPS signal is returns and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the voice alert
“Terrain System Available” is generated.
Alert Type
PFD/Terrain-SVT
Page Annunciation
Terrain-SVT Page
Center Banner
Annunciation
Voice Alert
TERRAIN TEST
None
None
“Terrain System
Test OK”
Terrain Alerting Inhibited
None
None
No FMS Position
NO FMS POSITION
“Terrain System
Not Available”*
Excessively degraded GPS
signal; or Out of
database coverage area
None
“Terrain System
Not Available”*
Terrain System Test Fail;
Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or
invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System
audio fault
TERRAIN FAIL
“Terrain System
Failure”
TERRAIN DATABASE
FAILURE
None
System Test in Progress
System Test Passed
None
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or
invalid, and Terrain-SVT
operating with PFD
Terrain or Obstacle
databases
None
Table 6-21 Terrain-SVT System Status Annunciations
* “Terrain System Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database
coverage area re-entered.
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TAWS-B
During power-up, TAWS-B conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts. An
voice alert is issued at test completion. The pilot can also manually select a TAWS-B system test. The
system test option is unavailable when the ground speed exceeds 30 knots.
TAWS-B continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware
status, and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert “TAWS System
Failure” is generated along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
TAWS-B requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums.
Should the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage
area, the system displays the ‘TAWS N/A’ annunciation, and issues the “TAWS Not Available” voice
alert. When the GPS signal integrity returns and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the
system issues the voice alert, “TAWS Available”
* “Terrain System Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database
coverage area re-entered.
TERRAIN-SVT
During power-up, Terrain-SVT conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts.
An voice alert is issued at test completion. Terrain-SVT continually monitors several system-critical
items such as database validity, hardware status, and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is
not available, the system issues the voice alert “Terrain System Failure” along with the ‘TER FAIL’
alert annunciation. Terrain-SVT requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical
accuracy minimums. Should the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the
database coverage area, the annunciation ‘TER N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and
on the ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ Page. The voice alert “Terrain System Not Available” is generated.
When sufficient GPS signal is returns and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the
voice alert “Terrain System Available” is generated.
Alert Type
PFD/TAWS-B Page
Annunciation
System Test in Progress
System Test Passed
Terrain Alerting Inhibited
No FMS Position
Excessively degraded
GPS signal; or Out of
database coverage area
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None
TAWS-B Page Center
Banner Annunciation
Voice Alert
TAWS TEST
None
None
“TAWS System
Test OK”
None
None
NO FMS POSITION
“TAWS Not
Available”*
None
“TAWS Not
Available”*
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Alert Type
PFD/TAWS-B Page
Annunciation
TAWS-B System Test Fail;
Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or
invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System
audio fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or
invalid, and TAWS—B
operating with PFD
Terrain or Obstacle
databases
None
TAWS-B Page Center
Banner Annunciation
Voice Alert
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System
Failure”
TERRAIN DATABASE
FAILURE
None
Table 6-22 TAWS—B System Status Annunciations
* “TAWS Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database coverage
area re-entered.
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6.6 TIS
TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE (TIS)
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance
maneuvering. The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories
and does not under any circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see
and avoid other aircraft.
NOTE: TIS is available only when the aircraft is within the service volume of a TIS-capable
terminal radar site. Aircraft without an operating transponder are invisible to both Traffic
Advisory Systems (TAS), Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS) and TIS. Aircraft
without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude separation data or climb
descent indication.
NOTE: Mode S TIS is disabled if another traffic system such as TAS or Automatic Dependent
Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is installed.
Traffic Information Service (TIS) is designed to help in detection and avoidance of other aircraft. TIS
uses the Modeâ¯S transponder for the traffic data link. TIS receives traffic information from ground
stations, and is updated every five seconds. The system displays up to eight traffic symbols within a
7.5-nm radius, from 3000 feet below to 3500 feet above the requesting aircraft. The system displays
TIS traffic with the symbology shown in the following table.
TIS Symbol
Description
Non-Threat Traffic
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-23 TIS Traffic Symbols
Traffic Advisories (TA) alert the crew to intruding aircraft. When traffic meets the advisory criteria for
the TA, a solid amber circle symbol appears. A TA which is detected but is outside the range of the
map on which traffic is displayed are indicated with a message in the lower left corner of the map.
TIS also provides a vector line showing the direction in which the traffic is moving, to the nearest
45°. Traffic information for which TIS is unable to determine the bearing (non-bearing traffic) is
displayed in the center of the Traffic Map Page or in a banner at the lower left corner of maps other
than the Traffic Map Page on which traffic can be displayed.
The altitude difference between the requesting aircraft and other intruder aircraft is displayed above/
below the traffic symbol in hundreds of feet. If the other aircraft is above the requesting aircraft, the
altitude separation appears above the traffic symbol; if below, the altitude separation appears below.
Altitude trend is displayed as an up/down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in either direction)
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to the right of the target symbol. Traffic symbols for aircraft without altitude reporting capability
appear without altitude separation or climb/descent information.
DISPLAYING TRAFFIC DATA
The Map - Traffic Map Page is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Traffic
information can also be displayed on the following other maps for additional reference on the MFD
when the traffic TIS is operating:
•
PFD Maps
•
Navigation Map Page
•
Traffic Map Page
•
Trip Planning Page
•
Nearest Pages
•
Active Flight Plan Page
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Terrain-SVT option is installed and
enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Enabling/disabling traffic overlays (MFD navigation maps):
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Select the Traffic Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the navigation map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, an icon is shown to indicate the
feature is enabled for display.
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Traffic Advisory,
500’ Below,
Climbing
Non-Threat
Traffic, Not
Reporting
Altitude
TA Off Scale
Banner
Annunciation
Traffic System
Status Banner
Annunciations
Figure 6-88 TIS Traffic on Navigation Map Page
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/
disabling display of traffic. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which traffic
data (symbols and labels) are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range
setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use settings
based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Enabling/disabling traffic information on the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the TrafficSoftkey to enable/disable the display traffic information on the Inset
Map or HSI Map.
Customizing traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Traffic’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
416
•
Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
•
Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
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•
All Traffic - Displays all traffic
•
TA Only - Displays Traffic Alerts only
•
Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
•
Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown (with the
option to turn off)
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range
settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with the
changed settings.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The Traffic Map Page is specialized to show surrounding TIS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s
current position and altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aircraft orientation on this map is
always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 2
to 12 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is
on the ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. Once the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches
from Standby to Operating Mode and the system begins to display traffic information. Refer to the
System Status discussion for more information.
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Traffic Advisory,
200’ above,
climbing
Traffic Advisory,
without bearing,
2.0 away, 600’
above, descending
Other Non-Threat
traffic, no relative
altitude information
available
Press to mute “TIS
Not Available” Voice
Alert
Figure 6-89 Traffic Map Page (TIS)
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Confirm TIS is in Operating Mode:
Press the TIS OPER Softkey to begin displaying traffic.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ (shown if TIS is in Standby Mode) and press the ENT Key.
TIS ALERTS
When the number of TAs on the Traffic Map Page increases from one scan to the next, the following
occur:
•
A single “Traffic” voice alert is generated.
•
A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears to the right of the airspeed tape, flashes for five seconds, and
remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
•
The PFD Inset Map or HSI Map is automatically displayed with traffic.
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To reduce the number of nuisance alerts due to proximate aircraft, the “Traffic” voice alert is
generated only when the number of TAs increases. For example, when the first TA is displayed, a voice
and visual annunciation are generated. As long as a single TA remains on the display, no additional
voice alerts are generated. If a second TA appears on the display or if the number of TAs initially
decreases and then subsequently increases, another voice alert is generated.
Figure 6-90 Traffic Annunciation on the PFD
A “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert is generated when the TIS service becomes unavailable or is
out of range. TIS may be unavailable in the radar coverage area due to the following:
•
Radar site TIS Mode S sensor is not operational or is out of service
•
Traffic or requesting aircraft is beyond the maximum range of the TIS-capable Mode S radar site.
•
Traffic or requesting aircraft is above the radar site in the cone of silence and out of range of an
adjacent site.
•
Traffic or requesting aircraft is below radar coverage. In flat terrain, the coverage extends from about
3000 feet upward at 55 miles. Terrain and obstacles around the radar site can further decrease radar
coverage in all directions.
•
Traffic does not have an operating transponder.
The “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert can be manually muted to reduce nuisance alerting. TNA
muting status is shown in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Muting the “TIS Not Available” voice alert:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the TNA Mute Softkey. The status is displayed in the upper left corner of the
Traffic Map Page.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘‘’Not Available” Mute On’ (shown if TNA muting is currently off) and press
the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM STATUS
The system performs an automatic test of TIS during power-up. If TIS passes the test, TIS enters
Standby Mode (on the ground) or Operating Mode (in the air). If TIS fails the power up test, an
annunciation is shown in the center of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Map Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Description
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the transponder*
DATA FAILED
Data is being received from the transponder, but a failure
is detected in the data stream*
FAILED
The transponder has failed*
FAILED
TIS is unavailable or out of range
* Contact a service center or Garmin dealer for corrective action
Table 6-24 TIS Failure Annunciations
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft
is on the ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. If traffic is selected for display on another
map while Standby Mode is selected, the traffic display enabled icon is crossed out (also the case
whenever TIS has failed). Once the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches to Operating Mode and traffic
information is displayed. The mode can be changed manually using softkeys or the page menu.
420
Traffic Map Mode
Annunciation
Traffic Map Center
Banner Annunciation
Traffic Overlay
Status Icon
(Navigation Maps
DATA FAILED
TRFC FAIL
Data is being
received from the
transponder, but a
failure is detected
in the data
stream*
NO DATA
TRFC FAIL
Data is not being
received from the
transponder*
OPERATING
NONE
TIS is operating
and is receiving
traffic data from a
data link.
OPERATING
UNAVAILABLE
TIS is operating,
but the traffic
service is currently
unavailable or is
out of reception
range.
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Traffic Map Mode
Annunciation
Traffic Map Center
Banner Annunciation
Traffic Overlay
Status Icon
(Navigation Maps
Description
STANDBY
STANDBY
TIS is in Standby
Mode.
UNIT FAILED
TRFC FAIL
The transponder
has failed*
* Contact a service center or Garmin dealer for corrective action
Table 6-25 TIS Modes and Status Annunciations
Switching between TIS modes:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the Standby or Operate Softkey to switch between modes. The mode is
displayed in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ or ‘Standby Mode’ (choice dependent on current state) and
press the ENT Key.
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left
corner of maps on which traffic can be displayed, as shown in the following table.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected
display range
TA X.X ± XX
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory** Annunciation
indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending)
AGE MM:SS
Appears if traffic data is not refreshed within 6 seconds If after
another 6 seconds data is not received, traffic is removed from the
display The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced as the
age increases
TRFC COAST
The displayed data is not current (6 to 12 seconds since last
message) The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced
when this message is displayed
TRFC RMVD
Traffic is removed because it is too old for coasting (12 to 60 seconds
since last message) Traffic may exist within the selected display
range, but it is not displayed
TRFC FAIL
Traffic data has failed
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Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
Description
NO TRFC DATA
Traffic has not been detected
TRFC UNAVAIL
The traffic service is unavailable or out of range
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-26 TIS Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.7 TAS/TCAS I TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance
maneuvering. The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories
and does not under any circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see
and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all
of the traffic information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal
reception, and/or inaccurate information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not
represented on the display.
NOTE: Mode-S TIS is disabled when another traffic system such as TAS or TCAS I is installed.
NOTE: Refer to the ADS-B Traffic discussion for more information about ADS-B traffic
displays.
The optional Garmin GTS 825 is a Traffic Advisory System (TAS). The optional Garmin GTS 855 is a
Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System I (TCAS I). Differences between TAS and TCAS I are
discussed where applicable. The traffic system enhances flight crew situational awareness by displaying
traffic information for transponder-equipped aircraft. The traffic system also provides visual
annunciations and voice traffic alerts to assist in visually acquiring traffic.
The TAS/TCAS I system is capable of tracking up to 75 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode A, C,
or S transponders in order to issue alerts if warranted. The system can display up to 30 aircraft with
the highest threat potential simultaneously. No TAS/TCAS I surveillance is provided for aircraft
without operating transponders.
THEORY OF OPERATION
When the traffic system is in Operating Mode, the system interrogates the transponders of other
aircraft in the vicinity while monitoring for transponder replies. The system uses this information to
derive the distance, relative bearing, and if reported, the altitude and vertical trend for each aircraft
within its surveillance range. The traffic system then calculates a closure rate to each intruder based on
the projected Closest Point of Approach (CPA). If the closure rate meets the threat criteria for a Traffic
Advisory (TA), the traffic system provides visual annunciations and voice alerts.
TAS/TCAS I SURVEILLANCE VOLUME AND SYMBOLOGY
The TAS/TCAS I surveillance system monitors the airspace within ±10,000 feet of own altitude.
Under ideal conditions, the TAS system scans transponder traffic up to 22 NM in the forward
direction. The TCAS I system scans for transponder traffic up to 40 NM in the forward direction.
The range is somewhat reduced to the sides and aft of own aircraft due to the directional
interrogation signal patterns. In areas of greater transponder traffic density, the on-board traffic
system automatically reduces its interrogation transmitter power (and therefore range) in order to
limit potential interference from other signals.
The system can display the symbols shown in the following table.
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Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the
intruder aircraft track.
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range with directional
information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range without directional
information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Proximity Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of
the aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
Other Non-Threat traffic with directional information. Points in the
direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Other Non-Threat traffic without directional information.
Traffic located on the ground with directional information. Points in the
direction of the aircraft track. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B
is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Ground traffic without directional information. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the
ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is
in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Table 6-27 Traffic Symbology
A Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as a amber circle or triangle, alerts the crew to a potentially
hazardous intruding aircraft, if the closing rate, distance, and vertical separation meet TA criteria. A
TA that is beyond the selected display range (off scale) is indicated by a half TA symbol at the edge of
the screen at the relative bearing of the intruder.
A Proximity Advisory (PA), displayed as a solid white diamond or triangle, indicates the intruding
aircraft is within ±1200 feet and is within a 6 nm range, but is still not considered a TA threat. A
Non-threat Advisory, shown as an open white diamond or triangle, is displayed for traffic beyond 6
nm that is neither a TA or PA.
Relative altitude, when available, is displayed above or below the corresponding intruder symbol
in hundreds of feet . When this altitude is above own aircraft, it is preceded by a ‘+’ symbol; a minus
sign ‘-’ indicates traffic is below own aircraft. The system displays the altitude vertical trend as an up/
down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in either direction) to the right of the intruder symbol.
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Relative Altitude
Vertical trend arrow
Figure 6-91 Intruder Altitude and Vertical Trend Arrow
If the intruding aircraft is providing ADS-B track information, a motion vector line extending
beyond the traffic symbol in the direction of the track may also be displayed when either absolute or
relative motion vectors are enabled; refer to the ADS-B Traffic discussion for more information..
TA ALERTING CONDITIONS
The TAS/TCAS I system automatically reduces its TA sensitivity level to reduce the likelihood of
nuisance TA alerting during certain flight conditions.
Level A (reduced) TA sensitivity normally applies when the aircraft is less than 2,000 feet above
ground level. If the system cannot determine this height, then level A sensitivity applies when the
landing gear is extended. If the system also cannot determine the landing gear position, then level A
TA sensitivity applies when the groundspeed is less than 120 knots.
In all other conditions, the system uses level B (increased) sensitivity in order to determine TA
threats.
Sensitivity
Level
Intruder Altitude
Available
TA Alerting Conditions
A
Yes
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of
vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of
horizontal separation and vertical separation is within 600
feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 nm and vertical separation is
within 600 feet.
A
No
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of
separation.
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Sensitivity
Level
Intruder Altitude
Available
TA Alerting Conditions
B
Yes
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of
vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of
horizontal separation and vertical separation is within 800
feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 nm and vertical separation is
within 800 feet.
B
No
Intruder range is less than 20 seconds.
Table 6-28 TA Sensitivity Level and TA Alerting Criteria
TAS/TCAS I ALERTS
When the TAS/TCAS I system detects a new TA, the following occur:
•
The system issues a single “Traffic!” voice alert, followed by additional voice information about the
bearing, relative altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table
6-28). For example, the announcement “Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the
traffic is in front of own aircraft, above own altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
•
A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears at the right of the airspeed tape on the PFD, flashes for five
seconds, and remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area
•
The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with TA traffic.
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, a yellow text banner will be displayed in the center
of the Traffic Map Page and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA symbol. The text
will indicate “TA” followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA
traffic, if known. A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that
initially triggered the TA are no longer present.
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Figure 6-92 Traffic Annunciation on the PFD
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Approximate Distance
(nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock” or “No
Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”, “One
Mile” through “Ten Miles”,
or “More than ten miles”
Table 6-29 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
SYSTEM TEST
NOTE: Traffic surveillance is not available during the system test. Use caution when
performing a system test during flight.
The traffic provides a system test mode to verify normal operation. The test takes ten seconds to
complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols appears on the Traffic Map
Page. If the system test passes, the system announces, “TAS System Test Passed” or “TCAS One
System Test Passed.” Otherwise the system announces, “TAS System Test Failed” or “TCAS One
System Test Failed.” When the system test is complete, the traffic system enters Standby Mode.
The appearance of the pattern of traffic symbols is dependent on whether ADS-B In capability is
installed in the aircraft.
If ADS-B In capability is present, test pattern corresponds to the current aircraft heading. A climbing
TA is shown to the west, level Other Non-Threat traffic is shown to the northwest, and a descending
Proximity Advisory is in the northeast, relative to own aircraft.
If ADS-B In capability is not installed, a climbing TA is displayed at 9 o’clock, Other Non-Threat
traffic is displayed at 11 o’clock and is level, and a descending Proximity Advisory is displayed at 1
o’clock.
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Testing the Traffic System:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Turn the Joystick to adjust the map range to 2 NM for the inner range ring, and 6 NM
for the outer range ring. This ensures the full traffic test pattern is depicted on the map.
3) If the traffic system is Operating Mode, press the Standby or TAS Standby Softkey.
4) Press the Test Softkey.
Or:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, press the MENU Key and turn the FMS Knob highlight ‘Test
Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key.
TAS/TCAS I Test Mode
Figure 6-93 System Test in Progress with a Test Pattern
OPERATION
NOTE: The traffic system automatically transitions from Standby to Operating mode eight
seconds after takeoff. The system also automatically transitions from Operating to Standby
mode 24 seconds after landing.
After power-up, the traffic system is in Standby Mode. The system must be in Operating Mode for
traffic to be displayed and for TAs to be issued.
Selecting the Operate Softkey allows the traffic unit to switch from Standby Mode to Operating
Mode as necessary. Selecting the Standby Softkey forces the unit into Standby Mode.
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Selecting a TAS/TCAS I Operating Mode:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) To select Standby Mode, press the Standby or TAS STBY Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired mode and press the ENT Key.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current
position and altitude, without basemap clutter. It is the principal map page for viewing traffic
information. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is
adjustable with the Joystick (up to 40 nm) as indicated by the map range rings.
The system annunciates the traffic mode and altitude display mode in the upper right corner of the
‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
TAS/TCAS I Test
Mode
Other Non-Threat Traffic
without directional
information, 4000’
above, level
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, 1000
below, climbing
Proximity
Advisory,
1200’ below,
descending
No-bearing Traffic
Advisory, 2.0 nm
away, 600’ above,
descending
Traffic Map
Range Rings
Off-Scale Traffic
Advisory, 500’ Above,
Climbing
Figure 6-94 Traffic Map Page
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Press the Operate or TAS OPER Softkey to select Operating Mode.
4) Press the Standby or TAS STBY Softkey to select Standby Mode.
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ALTITUDE DISPLAY MODE
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory
traffic is displayed. TAs occurring outside of these limits will always be shown regardless of the
chosen mode.
Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections.
•
Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
•
Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
•
All Traffic - Displays all traffic
•
TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
•
TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only
•
All Traffic - Displays all traffic
•
TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
•
TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only
•
Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
•
Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the
option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
TRAFFIC MAP DISPLAY RANGE
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable
with the Joystick, and rings on the map denote the ranges.
Selecting a display range on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Turn the Joystick clockwise to increase the map range or counter-clockwise to decrease
the map range.
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ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Traffic
information can also be displayed on the following other maps for additional reference on the MFD
when the traffic unit is operating:
Navigation Map Page
Nearest Page
Active Flight Plan Page
Trip Planning Page
IFR/VFR Charts Page
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Garmin Synthetic Vision
Technology (SVT) option is installed and enabled. See the Flight Instruments section for details.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, the system shows a traffic status
icon to indicate traffic is enabled for display.
Enabling/disabling traffic information (MFD navigation maps):
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the traffic overlay.
3) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections.
•
Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
•
Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
•
All Traffic - Displays all traffic
•
TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
•
TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only
•
All Traffic - Displays all traffic
•
TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
•
TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only
•
Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
•
Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the
option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
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7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
The ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu
controls the map range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display.
If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps
besides the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page use settings based on those selected for the ‘Map - Navigation
Map’ Page.
A Traffic Map is available on the PFD by pressing the TFC Map Softkey. A traffic map will appear
in heading up orientation. Traffic information can also be overlaid with navigation, topographic and
optional data link weather information on navigation maps.
Enabling/disabling traffic information on PFD navigation maps:
1) With the Inset Map or HSI Map displayed, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the traffic overlay.
3) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top-level PFD softkeys.
SYSTEM STATUS
Mode
Traffic Mode Annunciation (Traffic Map
Page)
Traffic System Test Initiated
Traffic Display
Status Icon
(Other Maps)
TEST (‘TEST MODE’ shown in center of page)
Operating
OPERATING
Standby
STANDBY(also shown in center of page)
Traffic System Failed*
FAIL
* See for the following table for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-30 Traffic Modes
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the
‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Traffic Map Page Center Annunciation
Description
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
DATA FAILED
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but
the unit is self-reporting a failure
FAILED
Incorrect data format received from the traffic
unit
Table 6-31 TAS/TCAS I Failure Annunciations
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The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left
corner of maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the
selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in
hundreds of feet, and altitude trend arrow (climbing/
descending).
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending
incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-32 TAS/TCAS I Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.8 ADS-B TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance
maneuvering. The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories
and does not under any circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see
and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all
of the traffic information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal
reception, and/or inaccurate information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not
represented on the display.
The optional Garmin GTX 345R transponder sends and receives Automatic Dependent SurveillanceBroadcast (ADS-B) traffic information on the 1090 MHz Extended Squitter (1090 ES) frequency. It
receives ADS-B traffic and data link weather information on the 978 MHz Universal Access Transceiver
(UAT) frequency. The system provides visual annunciations and voice traffic alerts to help the pilot
visually acquire potentially conflicting traffic. This discussion covers the traffic features of the GTX
transponder; refer to the Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B) Weather section for more
information about the UAT data link weather features of the GTX 345.
ADS-B SYSTEM OVERVIEW
ADS-B is a core technology in the FAA NextGen air traffic control system and is comprised of three
segments: ADS-B (Broadcast), ADS-R (Rebroadcast), and Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TISB).
ADS-B is the automatic broadcast of position reports by aircraft, surface vehicles, and transmitters
on fixed objects. These broadcasts contain information such as GPS position, identity (Flight ID, Call
Sign, Tail Number, ICAO registration number, etc), ground track, ground speed, pressure altitude,
and emergency status.
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1090 ES
UAT
RADAR
Composite
GPS
1090 ES
18,000 FT
10,000 FT
Mode A/C
RADAR
ATC
UAT
UAT
UAT
1090 ES
ADS-B Ground Station (ADS-R,
TIS-B, FIS-B)
Figure 6-95 ADS-B System
For the purpose of distinguishing between levels of ADS-B service, there are three classifications of
aircraft or system capability: ADS-B In, ADS-B Out, and ADS-B participating. ADS-B In refers to the
capability to receive ADS-B information. ADS-B Out refers to the capability to transmit ADS-B
information. ADS-B participating refers to the capability to both send and receive ADS-B
information. Aircraft lacking either ADS-In, ADS-B Out, or both ADS-B capabilities may also be
referred to as ADS-B nonparticipating aircraft.
AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE-REBROADCAST (ADS-R)
Because it is not required that ADS-B In capable aircraft be able to receive ADS-B data on both the
1090 MHz and 978 MHz data links, a method exists to get data from one data link to the other.
ADS-R is the rebroadcast of ADS-B data by FAA ground stations, which provide this service by
taking data from one link and rebroadcasting it on the other. For example, two aircraft are in the
service volume for a ground station, and one is transmitting on 1090 MHz and the other on 978
MHz, the ground station retransmits the data from each aircraft on the other link to ensure the two
aircraft can “see” each other.
Because the GTX 345R transponder sends and receives ADS-B traffic reports on the 1090 ES
frequency, but only receives traffic reports on the 978 MHz UAT frequency, the presence of an ADS-R
ground station is necessary for an aircraft with only UAT-capabilities to ‘see’ the aircraft with the GTX
345R transponder.
TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE-BROADCAST (TIS-B)
TIS-B provides the bridge between the radar-based ATC system and the ADS-B-based system.
When an ADS-B In or Out capable aircraft is within the service volume of an FAA ADS-B ground
station, the ground station broadcasts a portion of the ATC radar data to the aircraft. This aircraft is
then included in the list of aircraft being provided TIS-B service and is then considered a “TIS-B
participant.”
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TIS-B coverage is available when the aircraft is within ground station coverage, in Secondary
Surveillance Radar coverage, and the other aircraft is also in Secondary Surveillance Radar coverage,
and is transmitting its altitude.
The ground station provides ATC radar information for other aircraft within ±3,500 feet and 15
NM of the participant, to include altitude, position, ground speed, and ground track. TIS-B
broadcasts occur once every three to thirteen seconds, depending on the characteristics of the
ground station providing the TIS-B service.
The following table describes the aircraft that are observed by a GTX 345R-equipped aircraft
according to the level of equipment installed in the other aircraft.
Other Aircraft Equipment
Viewable by GTX 345R Equipped Aircraft
1090ES Out Equipped
Yes
UAT Receive Only Capable
No
UAT Transmit Equipped
Yes
No Transponder, No ADS-B
No
Non ADS-B Equipped, but with Mode C or S
Transponder
Yes*
*Only when in ADS-B ground station coverage and when the other aircraft is in ATC radar
coverage, or own aircraft is equipped with a TAS/TCAS I system and traffic is within the TAS/
TCAS I surveillance range.
Table 6-33 Aircraft Available for Viewing by an ADS-B Equipped Own Aircraft
ADS-B WITH TAS/TCAS I
When an optional active traffic system, such as a Traffic Advisory System (TAS) or Traffic Alert and
Collision Avoidance System I (TCAS I) is insalled and operating with an optional GTX 345R
transponder, the transponder receives traffic from the active traffic system and attempts to match (or
“correlate”) this traffic with ADS-B traffic the transponder is tracking. When a correlation is made,
the only the traffic with the most accurate information is displayed to the flight crew. Any traffic that
is not correlated (i.e., only detected by one system but not the other) is also displayed for the flight
crew. This correlation of traffic by the transponder improves the accuracy of the traffic displayed,
while reducing the occurrence of the same aircraft being displayed twice.
NOTE: When operating on the edges of ATC radar coverage or when using an optional
active traffic system providing intermittent traffic data, a single aircraft may be briefly or
periodically depicted as two aircraft on the display.
CONFLICT SITUATIONAL AWARENESS AND ALERTING
Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA) is an alerting algorithm which provides ADS-B traffic alerting
similar to the TAS/TCAS I system discussed previously.
The system issues a voice alert when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is displayed, for example “Traffic! Two
O’clock, Low, Two Miles.”
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The own aircraft altitude above terrain determines the sensitivity of the CSA algorithm to minimize
nuisance alerts. Height Above Terrain, and Geodetic Sea Level (GSL) altitude are used to adjust the
sensitivity of the CSA algorithm in accordance with the following table:
Lookahead
time (sec)
Vertical
Threshol
d for
Alert
(feet)
Protected
Volume
(NM)
Any
20
850
0.2
Any
Any
20
850
0.2
Unavailabl
e
Approach
Any
20
850
0.2
Any
Any
Any
25
850
0.2
Any
Any
25
850
0.2
Terminal
Any
25
850
0.2
<=5000
30
850
0.35
40
850
0.55
45
850
0.8
Sensitivit
y Level
Height
Above
Terrain
(HAT)
GPS
Phase of
Flight
Own
Altitude
(Feet)
4
Any
Any
4
Any
4
5
5
>1000
<=2350
5
Unavailabl
e
6
Not
approach
Unavailabl and not
e or
Terminal
>2350
(including
unavailabl
e)
7
Not
approach
Unavailabl and not
e or
Terminal
>2350
(including
unavailabl
e)
8
Not
approach
Unavailabl and not
e or
Terminal
>2350
(including
unavailabl
e)
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Height
Above
Terrain
(HAT)
GPS
Phase of
Flight
Own
Altitude
(Feet)
>20,000
9
Not
approach
Unavailabl and not
e or
Terminal
>2350
(including
unavailabl
e)
10
Not
approach
Unavailabl and not
e or
Terminal
>2350
(including
unavailabl
e)
Sensitivit
y Level
<=42,000
> 42,000
Lookahead
time (sec)
Vertical
Threshol
d for
Alert
(feet)
Protected
Volume
(NM)
48
850
1.1
48
1200
1.1
Table 6-34 CSA Alerting Thresholds for ADS-B Traffic
When the system detects a new Traffic Advisory (TA), the following occur:
•
The system issues a single “Traffic!” voice alert, followed by additional voice information about the
bearing, relative altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table
6-34). For example, the announcement “Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the
traffic is in front of own aircraft, above own altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
•
A ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears to the right of the Airspeed Indicator on the PFD, flashes for five
seconds, and remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
•
If the PFD Inset Map was already displayed, the traffic is shown on the displayed map. Otherwise
the Traffic Map is shown on the PFD.
•
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, a yellow text banner will be displayed in the center
of the Traffic Map and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA symbol. The text will
indicate ‘TA’ followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA traffic, if
known.
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Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-96 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Approximate Distance
(nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock” or “No
Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude”
(if within 200 feet of own
altitude), or “Altitude not
available”
“Zero miles”, “Less than one
mile”, “One Mile” through
“Ten Miles”, or “More than
ten miles”
NOTE: ADS-B traffic voice alerts are suppressed when below 500 feet.
AIRBORNE AND SURFACE APPLICATIONS
ADS-B can help the pilot visually acquire traffic both in the air and on-the-ground. There are two
ADS-B applications or modes: Airborne Situational Awareness (AIRB) and Surface Situational
Awareness (SURF). The system automatically selects the appropriate application based on conditions.
The AIRB application is on when the aircraft is more than five nautical miles and 1,500 feet above
the nearest airport. When the AIRB application is active, the system only displays traffic which is
airborne.
The SURF application is on when the aircraft is within five nautical miles and less than 1,500 feet
above field elevation. When the SURF applications is on, the system displays airborne and on the
ground traffic. At a Traffic Map Page range of one nautical mile or less, the airport environment
(including taxiways and runways) appears in addition to traffic. The airport displays are derived from
the SafeTaxi database. Refer to the Additional Features section for more information about SafeTaxi
displays.
NOTE: Do not rely on the solely on the traffic display to determine the runway alignment of
traffic, especially when runways are in close proximity to each other.
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Due to the varying precision of the data received via ADS-B, ADS-R, and TIS-B services, not all traffic
symbols may not be depicted on the traffic display. Because higher data precision is required for traffic
to be displayed in the SURF environment, some traffic eligible for AIRB will not be displayed while
SURF is on. Availability for AIRB and SURF is depicted on the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page, discussed
later in this section.
SURF Application
On
Ground-based
vehicle
Aircraft on the
ground
Figure 6-97 ADS-B with the Surface Application on the Traffic Map Page
TRAFFIC DESCRIPTION
The symbols used to display ADS-B traffic are shown in the table below. Above or below the traffic
symbol is the traffic identifier, and altitude. A small up or down arrow next to the traffic symbol
indicates that the traffic is climbing or descending at a rate of at least 500 feet per minute.
Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the
intruder aircraft track
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range with directional information.
Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range without directional information.
Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Proximity Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the
aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
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Symbol
Description
Other Non-Threat traffic with directional information. Points in the direction of
the intruder aircraft track.
Other Non-Threat traffic without directional information.
Traffic located on the ground with directional information. Points in the direction
of the aircraft track. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface
(SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Ground traffic without directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed
when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in
Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
OPERATION
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current
position and altitude, without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there
is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner of the page.
TAS/TCAS I Test
Mode
Other Non-Threat Traffic
without directional
information, 4000’
above, level
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, 1000
below, climbing
Proximity
Advisory,
1200’ below,
descending
No-bearing Traffic
Advisory, 2.0 nm
away, 600’ above,
descending
Traffic Map
Range Rings
Off-Scale Traffic
Advisory, 500’ Above,
Climbing
Figure 6-98 Traffic Map Page
Enabling/disabling the display of ADS-B traffic:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the ADS-B Softkey.
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Or:
a) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘ADS-B On’ or ‘ADS-
B Off’.
b) Press the ENT Key.
Testing the display of ADS-B traffic:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) If necessary, turn the Joystick to select a map range of 2 and 6 nm to ensure full test
pattern display.
3) Ensure the the ADS-B Softkey is disabled.
4) If the optional TAS/TCAS I is installed, ensure the TAS STBY Softkey is enabled.
5) Press the Test Softkey.
Or:
Press the MENU Key.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Test Mode’.
b) Press the ENT Key.
The traffic system provides a system test mode to verify normal operation. The test takes about ten
seconds to complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols appears on
any displayed traffic maps. The test pattern corresponds to the current aircraft heading. A climbing
TA is shown to the west, level Other Non-Threat traffic is shown to the northwest, and a descending
Proximity Advisory is in the northeast, relative to own aircraft. The voice alert “Traffic System Test”
indicates the traffic system test is complete, and the system enters Standby Mode.
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TAS/TCAS I Test
Mode
Figure 6-99 Testing the Traffic System on the Traffic Map Page (ADS-B)
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity traffic is
displayed. TAs occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, press the ALT Mode Softkey.
2) Select one of the following softkeys:
•
Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 9000 feet above the aircraft
to 2700 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
•
Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft
to 2700 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
•
Below:Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to
9000 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below
the aircraft.
3) To return to the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, select the Back Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight one of the following options (see softkey
description in step 2 above):
•
Above
•
Normal
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•
Below
•
Unrestricted
3) Press the ENT Key.
DISPLAYING MOTION VECTORS
When Absolute Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors extending from the traffic symbols depict
the traffic’s reported track and speed over the ground. When Relative Motion Vectors are selected,
the vectors extending from the traffic symbols display how the traffic is moving relative to own
aircraft. These vectors are calculated using the traffic’s track and ground speed and own aircraft’s
track and ground speed. These two values are combined to depict where the traffic is moving purely
with respect to own aircraft, and provide a forecast of where the traffic will be, relative to own
aircraft, in the near future.
Absolute Motion
Vectors
Figure 6-100 Traffic Map Page with Absolute Motion Vectors Enabled
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Relative Motion
Vectors
Figure 6-101 Traffic Map Page with Relative Motion Vectors Enabled
Enabling/disabling the Motion Vector display:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the Motion Softkey.
3) Press one of the following softkeys:
•
Absolute: Displays the motion vector pointing in the absolute direction.
•
Relative: Displays the motion vector relative to own aircraft
•
Off: Disables the display of the motion vector.
4) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
5) Press the MENU Key.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Relative Motion’, ‘Absolute Motion’ or ‘Motion
Vector Off’.
7) Press the ENT Key.
Adjusting the duration for the Motion Vector projected time:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the Motion Softkey.
3) Press the Duration Softkey.
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4) Press a softkey for the desired duration (30 SEC, 1 MIN, 2 MIN, 5 MIN).
5) When finished, press the Back Softkey to return to the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
DISPLAYING ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC INFORMATION
The Traffic Map Page can display additional information for a selected aircraft symbol. This may
include the aircraft tail number/Flight ID, type of aircraft (e.g., glider, small/medium/large aircraft,
service vehicle, unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV)), course, track, groundspeed), and other
information.
Showing additional traffic information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. The first selected traffic symbol is highlighted in cyan. Additional
information appears in a window in the upper-right corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’
Page.
3) To select a different aircraft symbol, turn the FMS Knob until the selected aircraft traffic
symbol is highlighted.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob again to disable the traffic selection.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE DISPLAY RANGE
The display range on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page can be changed at any time. Map range is
adjustable with the Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
NOTE: ADS-B traffic can be displayed as an overlay to navigation maps. Refer to the previous
TAS/TCAS I discussions for information about these additional traffic displays.
Changing the display range on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the Joystick.
2) The following range options are available:
446
•
500 feet
•
500 feet and 1000 feet
•
1000 feet and 2000 feet
•
2000 feet and 1 nm
•
1 and 2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm
•
24 and 40 nm
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ADS-B SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
ADS-B Mode
Traffic Mode
Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Traffic Map Page
Center Banner
Annunciation
ADS-B System Test
Initiated
ADS-B: TEST
TEST MODE
ADS-B Operating in
Airborne Mode
ADS-B: AIRB
NONE
ADS-B Operating in
Surface Mode
ADS-B: SURF
NONE
ABS-B Traffic Off
ADS-B: OFF
ADS-B TRFC OFF
ADS-B Traffic Not
Available
ADS-B: N/A
NO TRK/HDG
ADS-B Failed*
ADS-B: FAIL
ADS-B TRFC FAIL
Traffic Display Status
Icon (Other Maps)
* See ‘Traffic Failure Annunciations’ Table for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-35 ADS-B Modes
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the
‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Traffic Map Page Center Annunciation
Description
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
DATA FAILED
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but
the unit is self-reporting a failure
FAILED
Incorrect data format received from the traffic
unit
Table 6-36 Traffic Failure Annunciations
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left
corner of maps on which traffic can be displayed.
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Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
Description
TA OFF SCALE
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected
display range.
TA X.X±XX
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in
hundreds of feet, and altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending).
TRFC FAIL
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending
incorrectly formatted data)
NO TRFC DATA
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-37 Traffic Status Annunciations
Additional information about the status of ADS-B traffic products is available on the ‘Aux - ADS-B
Status’ Page.
Figure 6-102
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Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page.
ADS-B Status
Page Item
Traffic Application
Status: Airborne
(AIRB), Surface
(SURF), Airborne
Alerts (CSA)
Status Message
Description
On
Traffic application is currently on. Required input data is
available, and it meets performance requirements.
Available to Run
Traffic application is not currently active, but application
is ready to run when condition(s) determine the
application should be active. Required input data is
available, and it meets performance requirements.
Not Available
Traffic application is not available. Required input data
is available, but it does not meet performance
requirements.
Fault
Traffic application is not available. Required input data
is not available or the application has failed
Not Configured
---------------TIS-B/ADS-R
Coverage
Available
Not Available
GPS Status: GPS
Source
Traffic application status is invalid or unknown.
The system is receiving the ADS-R coverage from an
FAA ground station.
The system is not receiving the ADS-R coverage from an
FAA ground station.
--------------
ADS-R coverage is invalid or unknown.
External #1
The GTX 345R is using the #1 GPS receiver for the GPS
position source.
External #2
The GTX 345R is using the #2 GPS receiver for the GPS
position source.
--------Ground Uplink
Status: Last Uplink
Traffic application is not available, because it has not
been configured. If this annunciation persists, the
system should be serviced.
The GPS source is invalid or unknown.
Number of minutes, Displays the number of minutes since the last uplink
or ‘------’
from a ground station occurred. If no uplink has been
received, or the status is invalid, dashes appear instead
of a number of minutes.
Table 6-38 ‘Aux-ADS-B Status’ Page Messages for ADS-B Traffic
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BLANK PAGE
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 AFCS OVERVIEW
NOTE: The approved Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) always supersedes this Pilot’s Guide.
The Garmin AFCS is a digital Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), fully integrated within the
system avionics architecture. The System Overview section provides a block diagram to support this
system description.
The Garmin AFCS can be divided into these main operating functions:
•
Flight Director (FD) — The aircraft has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU and referred
to as pilot-side and copilot-side. Commands for the selected flight director are displayed on both
PFDs. The flight director provides:
•
Command Bars showing pitch/roll guidance
•
Vertical/lateral mode selection and processing
•
Autopilot communication
•
Autopilot (AP) — Autopilot operation occurs within the pitch, roll, and pitch trim servos. It also
provides servo monitoring and automatic flight control in response to flight director steering
commands, Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) attitude and rate information, and
airspeed.
•
Yaw Damper (YD) — The yaw servo is self-monitoring and provides Dutch roll damping and turn
coordination in response to yaw rate, roll angle, lateral acceleration, and airspeed.
•
Manual Electric Pitch Trim (MEPT) — The pitch trim servo provides manual electric pitch trim
capability when the autopilot is not engaged.
AFCS CONTROL UNIT
The AFCS Control Unit is positioned above the MFD, and has the following controls:
NOTE: With the exception of the FD and SPD Keys all keys have a corresponding LED light.
1
HDG Key
Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode
2
APR Key
Selects/deselects Approach Mode
3
NAV Key
Selects/deselects Navigation Mode
4
FD Key
Activates/deactivates the flight director only Pressing once turns on the
selected flight director in the default vertical and lateral modes. Pressing
again deactivates the flight director and removes the Command Bars. If the
autopilot is engaged, the key is disabled.
5
XFR Key
Transfers between the pilot and copilot flight directors and controls which
flight director the autopilot is tracking
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6
ALT Key
Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode
7
VS Key
Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode
8
FLC Key
Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode
CRS Knobs
Adjust the Selected Course (while in VOR, LOC, or OBS Mode) in 1°
increments on the Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) of the corresponding
PFD Press to re-center the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) and return
course pointer directly TO the bearing of the active waypoint/station
10
SPD Key
No function on M500
11
NOSE
UP/DN
Wheel
Adjusts the reference in Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change
modes
12
VNV Key
Selects/deselects Vertical Path Tracking Mode for Vertical Navigation flight
control
13
ALT SEL
Knob
Controls the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments (a finer resolution of 10
feet is available under approach conditions)
14
YD Key
Engages/disengages the yaw damper
15
AP Key
Engages/disengages the autopilot
16
BANK Key
Manually selects/deselects Low Bank Mode
18
BC Key
Selects/deselects Backcourse Mode
19
HDG Knob
Adjusts the Selected Heading and bug in 1° increments on the HSI (both
PFDs) Press to synchronize the Selected Heading to the current heading on
the pilot-side PFD
9
17
1
2
3
4
19
18
17
16
5
15
14
6
7
13
12
8
11
10
Annunciator
Light
9
Figure 7-1 AFCS Control Unit
ADDITIONAL AFCS CONTROLS
The following AFCS controls are located separately from the AFCS Control Unit:
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AP DISC
Switch
(Autopilot
Disconnect)
Disengages the autopilot, yaw damper, and interrupts pitch trim operation An AP
DISC Switch is located on each control wheel. This switch may be used to
acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the associated aural tone.
CWS Button
(Control
Wheel
Steering)
While pressed, allows manual control of the aircraft while the autopilot is engaged
and synchronizes the flight director’s Command Bars with the current aircraft pitch
(if not in a Vertical Navigation, Glideslope, or Glidepath Mode) and roll (if in Roll
Hold Mode) A CWS Button is located on each control wheel. Upon release of the
CWS Button, the flight director may establish new pitch and roll references,
depending on the current vertical and lateral modes. CWS operation details are
discussed in the respective mode sections of this manual.
Disengages the autopilot and selects flight director Takeoff (on ground) or Go
GA Button
Around
(in air) Mode If an approach procedure is loaded this button also activates
(Go Around)
the missed approach when the selected navigation source is FMS or when the
navigation source is VOR/LOC and a valid frequency has been tuned. The GA
Button is located on the throttle.
MEPT
Switch
(Manual
Electric Pitch
Trim)
Used to command manual electric pitch trim An MEPT Switch is located on each
control wheel. The aircraft uses a four direction switch. Pushing down on the
switch and operating the switch forward and backward adjusts pitch trim down
(forward) and up (rearward). Pushing the switch in either direction disengages the
autopilot, if currently engaged, but does not affect yaw damper operation.
BASIC AUTOPILOT OPERATION
This section provides an overview for autopilot engagement and disengagement. A more detailed
description follows in Section 7.4.
•
Autopilot Engagement — The autopilot may be engaged by pushing the AP Key on the AFCS
Control Unit. Annunciations regarding the engagement are indicated on the PFD.
•
Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director Off — Upon engagement, the autopilot will be set to
hold the current attitude of the airplane, if the flight director was not previously on. In this case,
‘PIT’ and ‘ROL’ will be annunciated.
•
Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director On — If the flight director is on, the autopilot will
smoothly pitch and roll the airplane to capture the FD command bars. The prior flight director
modes remain unchanged
•
Autopilot Disengagement — One way to disconnect the autopilot is to press and release the AP
DISC Switch, which is located on the control stick. An autopilot disconnect tone will be heard and
annunciated on the PFD. Other ways to disconnect the autopilot include:
•
Pressing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit
•
Pressing the GA Switch (located on the left throttle)
•
Operating the MEPT Switch (located on each control wheel)
•
Pulling the autopilot circuit breaker
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In the event of unexpected autopilot behavior, pressing and holding the AP DISC Switch will
disconnect the autopilot and remove all power to the servos.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.2 FLIGHT DIRECTOR OPERATION
The flight director function provides pitch and roll commands to the AFCS and displays them on the
PFDs. With the flight director active, the aircraft can be hand-flown to follow the path shown by the
Command Bars. Maximum commanded pitch (15°, +25°) and roll (25°) angles, vertical acceleration, and
roll rate are limited to values established during AFCS certification. The flight director also provides
commands to the autopilot.
Activating The Flight Director
An initial press of a key listed in the table below (when the flight director is not active)
activates the pilot-side flight director in the listed modes. The flight director may be
turned off and the Command Bars removed from the displays by pressing the FD Key
again. The FD Key is disabled when the autopilot is engaged.
Control Pressed
Modes Selected
Lateral
Vertical
FD Key
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
AP Key
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Roll Hold (default)
PIT
CWS Button
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Roll Hold (default)
PIT
GA Button
Takeoff (on ground)
Go Around (in air)
TO
GA
Takeoff (on Ground)
Go Around (in air)
TO
GA
ALT Key
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Altitude Hold
ALT
VS Key
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Vertical Speed
VS
VNV Key
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Vertical Path Tracking*
VPTH
NAV Key
Navigation**
FMS
VOR
LOC
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
BC Key
Backcourse***
BC
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
APR Key
Approach**
FMS
VOR
LOC
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
HDG Key
Heading Select
HDG
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
*Valid VNV flight plan must be entered before VNV Key press activates flight director.
**The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active FMS course
before NAV or APR Key press activates flight director.
***The selected navigation receiver must have a valid LOC signal before BC Key press
activates flight director.
AFCS STATUS BOX
Flight director mode annunciations are displayed on the PFDs when the flight director is active.
Flight director selection and autopilot and yaw damper statuses are shown in the center of the AFCS
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Status Box. Lateral flight director modes are displayed on the left and vertical on the right. Armed
modes are displayed in white and active in green.
Lateral Modes
Armed
Active
Yaw
Autopilot Damper
Status Status
Flight Director
Indicator Arrow
Vertical Modes
Active
Mode
Reference
Armed
AFCS Status Box
Selected
Altitude
Command
Bars
FMS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Figure 7-2 PFD AFCS Display
FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODES
Flight director modes are normally selected independently for the pitch and roll axes. Unless
otherwise specified, all mode keys are alternate action (i.e., press on, press off). In the absence of
specific mode selection, the flight director reverts to the default pitch and/or roll modes. Mode keys on
the AFCS controller are accompanied by annunciator lights which are illuminated when their
respective modes are armed or active. Armed modes are annunciated in white and active in green in
the AFCS Status Box. Under normal operation, when the control for the active flight director mode is
pressed, the flight director reverts to the default mode(s) for the axis(es). Automatic transition from
armed to active mode is indicated by the white armed mode annunciation moving to the green active
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mode field and flashing for 10 seconds. If the information required to compute a flight director mode
becomes invalid or unavailable, the flight director automatically reverts to the default mode for that
axis. A flashing yellow mode annunciation and annunciator light indicate loss of sensor (ADC) or
navigation data (VOR, LOC, GPS, VNV, SBAS) required to compute commands. When such a loss
occurs, the system automatically begins to roll the wings level (enters Roll Hold Mode) or maintain the
pitch angle (enters Pitch Hold Mode), depending on the affected axis. The flashing annunciation stops
when the affected mode key is pressed or another mode for the axis is selected. If after 10 seconds no
action is taken, the flashing annunciation stops.
Figure 7-3 Loss of GPS Signal
The flight director is automatically disabled if the attitude information required to compute the
default flight director modes becomes invalid or unavailable.
Switching Flight Directors
The aircraft has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU. The autopilot
follows the selected flight director only, indicated by an arrow pointing toward either
the pilot or copilot side, in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Flight directors may be
switched by pressing the XFR Key. The annunciator light arrow for the selected flight
director is also illuminated beside the XFR Key. When the flight directors are switched,
the vertical and lateral modes revert to default.
Pilot-side Flight Director Selected
Copilot-side Flight Director Selected
Figure 7-4 Flight Director Selection Indications
COMMAND BARS
Upon activation of the flight director, Command Bars are displayed in magenta on the PFDs as a
single cue. The Aircraft Symbol (in yellow) changes to accommodate the Command Bar format; the
Command Bars do not override the Aircraft Symbol. The single-cue Command Bars move together
vertically to indicate pitch commands and bank left or right to indicate roll commands.
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Command Bars
Aircraft Symbol
Figure 7-5 Single-cue Command Bars
If the attitude information being sent to the flight director becomes invalid or unavailable, the
Command Bars are removed from the display. The flight director Command Bars also disappear if the
pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚
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7.3 AFCS MODES
The AFCS is capable of operating in a variety of independent Lateral Modes, Vertical Modes and
Combination of both the Lateral and Vertical Modes.
VERTICAL MODES
The following table lists the vertical modes with their corresponding controls and annunciations.
The mode reference is displayed next to the active mode annunciation for Altitude Hold, Vertical
Speed, and Flight Level Change modes. The NOSE UP/DN Wheel can be used to change the vertical
mode reference while operating under Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode.
Increments of change and acceptable ranges of values for each of these references using the NOSE
UP/DN Wheel are also listed in the table.
Vertical Mode
Description
Control
Annunciation
Reference
Range
Reference
Change
Increment
PIT
-15° to
+25°
0.5°
Pitch Hold
Holds the current
(default)
aircraft pitch attitude;
may be used to climb/
descend to the
Selected Altitude
Selected Altitude
Capture
Captures the Selected
Altitude
Altitude Hold
Holds the current
Altitude Reference
ALT Key
ALT
nnnnn
ft
Vertical Speed
Maintains the current
aircraft vertical speed;
may be used to climb/
descend to the
Selected Altitude
VS Key
VS
nnnn
fpm
-4000 to
+3000 fpm
100 fpm
Flight Level
Change, IAS Hold
Maintains the current FLC Key
aircraft airspeed while
the aircraft is
climbing/descending
to the Selected
Altitude
FLC
nnn kt
80 to 265
kt
1 kt
*
ALTS
PITCH HOLD MODE
When the flight director is activated (the FD Key is pressed) or switched (the XFR Key is pressed),
Pitch Hold Mode is selected by default. Pitch Hold Mode is indicated as the active vertical mode by the
‘PIT’ annunciation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above
the Altimeter), since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Pitch Hold Mode is
activated. In Pitch Hold Mode, the flight director maintains a constant pitch attitude, the pitch
reference. The pitch reference is set to the aircraft pitch attitude at the moment of mode selection. If
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the aircraft pitch attitude exceeds the flight director pitch command limitations, the flight director
commands a pitch angle equal to the nose-up/down limit.
Changing the Pitch Reference:
When operating in Pitch Hold Mode, the pitch reference can be adjusted by:
•
Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
•
Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new pitch reference, then
releasing the CWS Button
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
Command Bars Maintain
Desired Pitch Reference
Figure 7-6 Pitch Hold Mode
SELECTED ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTS)
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed with activation of the following modes:
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•
Pitch Hold
•
Vertical Speed
•
Flight Level Change
•
Takeoff/Go Around (if the Selected Altitude is at least 400 feet above the current aircraft altitude)
•
Vertical Path Tracking (if the Selected Altitude is to be captured instead of the VNV Target Altitude)
The white ‘ALTS’ annunciation indicates Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed (see previous
figure for example). The ALT SEL Knob is used to set the Selected Altitude (shown above the
Altimeter) until Selected Altitude Capture Mode becomes active. As the aircraft nears the Selected
Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude
Hold Mode armed (next figure). This automatic transition is indicated by the green ‘ALTS’
annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation. The
Selected Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTS’ annunciation. At 50 feet from
the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from Selected Altitude Capture to
Altitude Hold Mode and holds the Selected Altitude (shown as the Altitude Reference). As Altitude
Hold Mode becomes active, the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and
flashes green for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic transition.
Altitude Reference
(in this case, equal to
Selected Altitude)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-7 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
Changing the Selected Altitude:
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in Selected Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel
the mode.
Use of the ALT SEL Knob to change the Selected Altitude while Selected Altitude
Capture Mode is active causes the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode with
Selected Altitude Capture Mode armed for the new Selected Altitude.
ALTITUDE HOLD MODE
Altitude Hold Mode can be activated by pressing the ALT Key; the flight director maintains the
current aircraft altitude (to the nearest 10 feet) as the Altitude Reference. The flight director’s Altitude
Reference, shown in the AFCS Status Box, is independent of the Selected Altitude, displayed above the
Altimeter. Altitude Hold Mode active is indicated by a green ‘ALT’ annunciation in the AFCS Status
Box. Altitude Hold Mode is automatically armed when the flight director is in Selected Altitude
Capture Mode. Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically transitions to Altitude Hold Mode when
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the altitude error is less than 50 feet. In this case, the Selected Altitude becomes the flight director’s
Altitude Reference.
Changing the Altitude Reference
NOTE: Turning the ALT SEL Knob while in Altitude Hold Mode changes the Selected
Altitude, but not the flight director’s Altitude Reference, and does not cancel the mode.
With the CWS Button depressed, the aircraft can be hand-flown to a new Altitude
Reference. When the CWS Button is released at the desired altitude, the new altitude is
established as the Altitude Reference.
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Altitude
Reference
Selected
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
to Maintain Altitude Reference
Figure 7-8 Altitude Hold Mode
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VERTICAL SPEED MODE
In Vertical Speed Mode, the flight director acquires and maintains a Vertical Speed Reference.
Current aircraft vertical speed (to the nearest 100 fpm) becomes the Vertical Speed Reference at the
moment of Vertical Speed Mode activation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the
Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter) since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically
armed when Vertical Speed Mode is selected. When Vertical Speed Mode is activated by pressing the
VS Key, ‘VS’ is annunciated in green in the AFCS Status Box along with the Vertical Speed Reference.
The Vertical Speed Reference is also displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator. A Vertical Speed
Reference Bug corresponding to the Vertical Speed Reference is shown on the indicator.
Changing the Vertical Speed Reference
The Vertical Speed Reference (shown both in the AFCS Status Box and above the
Vertical Speed Indicator) may be changed by:
•
Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
•
Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Vertical Speed Reference,
then releasing the CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is
not changed. To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed
again after the Selected Altitude is reached.
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Vertical Speed
Mode Active
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb to
Attain Vertical Speed Reference
Figure 7-9 Vertical Speed Hold Mode
FLIGHT LEVEL CHANGE MODE
NOTE: The Selected Altitude should be set before selecting Flight Level Change Mode.
Flight Level Change Mode is selected by pressing the FLC Key. This mode acquires and maintains
the Airspeed Reference in IAS while climbing or descending to the Selected Altitude (shown above the
Altimeter). When Flight Level Change Mode is active, the flight director continuously monitors
Selected Altitude, airspeed, and altitude. The Airspeed Reference is set to the current airspeed upon
mode activation. Flight Level Change Mode is indicated by a green ‘FLC’ annunciation beside the
Airspeed Reference in the AFCS Status Box. The Airspeed Reference is also displayed directly above
the Airspeed Indicator, along with a bug corresponding to the Airspeed Reference along the tape.
Engine power must be adjusted to allow the autopilot to fly the aircraft at a pitch attitude
corresponding to the desired flight profile (climb or descent) while maintaining the Airspeed
Reference. The flight director maintains the current altitude until either engine power or the Airspeed
Reference are adjusted and does not allow the aircraft to climb or descend away from the Selected
Altitude.
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Changing the Airspeed Reference
The Airspeed Reference (shown in both the AFCS Status Box and above the Airspeed
Indicator) may be adjusted by:
•
Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
•
Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Airspeed Reference, then
releasing the CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Airspeed Reference
is not changed. To adjust the Airspeed Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be
pressed again after the Selected Altitude is reached.
Flight Level
Change Mode
Active
Selected
Airspeed Altitude Capture
Reference Mode Armed
Airspeed
Reference
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to Attain Selected Altitude
Figure 7-10 Flight Level Change Mode (IAS)
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LATERAL MODES
The following table relates each Garmin AFCS lateral mode to its respective control and
annunciation. Refer to the combination modes section for information regarding Go Around and
Takeoff modes.
Lateral Mode
Description
Control
Annunciatio
n
Maximum
Roll
Command
Limit
Roll Hold
Holds the current aircraft
roll attitude or rolls the
wings level, depending
on the commanded
bank angle
(default)
ROL
25°
Low Bank
Limits the maximum
commanded roll angle
BANK Key
*
15°
Heading Select
Captures and tracks the
Selected Heading
HDG Key
HDG
25°
Navigation, FMS Arm/
Capture/Track
Captures and tracks the
selected navigation
source (FMS, VOR, LOC)
NAV Key
FMS
25°
Navigation, VOR Enroute
Arm/Capture/Track
Captures and tracks the
selected navigation
source (FMS, VOR, LOC)
NAV Key
VOR
25°
Navigation, LOC Arm/
Capture/Track (No
Glideslope)
Captures and tracks the
selected navigation
source (FMS, VOR, LOC)
NAV Key
LOC
25°
* No annunciation appears in the AFCS Status Box. The acceptable bank angle range is indicated in
green along the Roll Scale of the Attitude Indicator.
The CWS Button does not change lateral references for Heading Select, Navigation, Backcourse, or
Approach Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading/Course upon release of
the CWS Button.
ROLL HOLD MODE (ROL)
NOTE: If Roll Hold Mode is activated as a result of a mode reversion, the flight director rolls
the wings level.
When the flight director is activated or switched, Roll Hold Mode is selected by default. This mode is
annunciated as ‘ROL’ in the AFCS Status Box. The current aircraft bank angle is held, subject to the
bank angle condition.
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Figure 7-11 Roll Hold Mode Annunciation
Bank Angle
Flight Director Response
<6°
Rolls wings level
6 to 30°
Maintains current aircraft roll attitude
>30°
Limits bank to 25°
Changing the Roll Reference
The roll reference can be changed by pressing the CWS Button, establishing the desired
bank angle, then releasing the CWS Button.
LOW BANK MODE
When in Low Bank Mode, the flight director limits the maximum commanded roll angle to 15°. Low
bank arc limits are displayed in green along the Roll Scale. Low Bank Mode can be manually selected/
deselected by pressing the BANK Key while in Heading Select or Navigation Modes (FMS and VOR).
Low Bank Mode is activated automatically above 25,000 feet (FL250). The flight director deactivates
Low Bank Mode when descending through 25,000 feet. The annunciator light next to the BANK Key
illuminates while Low Bank Mode is selected.
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Low Bank Arc
Figure 7-12 Low Bank Mode Limits
HEADING SELECT MODE (HDG)
Heading Select Mode is activated by pressing the HDG Key. Heading Select Mode acquires and
maintains the Selected Heading. The Selected Heading is shown by a light blue bug on the HSI and in
the box to the upper left of the HSI.
Changing the Selected Heading
NOTE: Pressing the HDG Knob synchronizes the Selected Heading to the current heading.
The Selected Heading is adjusted using the HDG Knob on either PFD. Pressing the CWS
Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Heading. The
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autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading upon release of the CWS
Button.
Turns are commanded in the same direction as Selected Heading Bug movement, even
if the bug is turned more than 180° from the present heading (e.g., a 270° turn to the
right). However, Selected Heading changes of more than 330° at a time result in turn
reversals.
Heading Select
Mode Active
Selected
Heading
Bug
Command Bars Track
Selected Heading
Figure 7-13 Heading Select mode
NAVIGATION MODES (FMS, VOR, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active FMS
course for the flight director to enter Navigation Mode.
Pressing the NAV Key selects Navigation Mode. Navigation Mode acquires and tracks the selected
navigation source (FMS, VOR, LOC). The flight director follows FMS roll steering commands when
FMS is the selected navigation source. When the navigation source is VOR or LOC, the flight director
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creates roll steering commands from the Selected Course and deviation. Navigation Mode can also be
used to fly non-precision FMS and LOC approaches where vertical guidance is not required. If the
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) shows greater than one dot when the NAV Key is pressed, the
selected mode is armed. If the CDI shows less than one dot, Navigation Mode is automatically
captured when the NAV Key is pressed. The armed annunciation appears in white to the left of the
active lateral mode.
Figure 7-14 FMS Navigation Mode Armed
When the CDI has automatically switched from FMS to LOC during a LOC/ILS approach, FMS
Navigation Mode remains active, providing FMS steering guidance until the localizer signal is
captured. LOC Navigation Mode is armed automatically when the navigation source switch takes place
if the APR Key is not pressed prior to the automatic source switch.
If Navigation Mode is active and either of the following occur, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold
Mode (wings rolled level):
•
Different VOR tuned while in VOR Navigation Mode (VOR Navigation Mode reverts to armed)
•
Navigation source manually switched (with the CDI Softkey)
•
During a LOC/ILS approach, the FAF is crossed while in FMS Navigation Mode after the automatic
navigation source switch from FMS to LOC
Changing the Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using
FMS, the Selected Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the
selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected
Course while in Navigation Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected
Course (or FMS flight plan) when the CWS Button is released.
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FMS Navigation
Mode Active
FMS is Selected
Navigation Source
Command Bars Indicate Left
Turn to Track FMS Course
Figure 7-15 Navigation Mode
COMBINATION MODES (VNV, APR, NAV, BC, GA)
The following table lists the modes that operating by using both Vertical and Lateral Modes with
their corresponding controls and annunciations.
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Mode
Description
Control
Maximum Referenc
Roll
e Range
Annunciation
Command
Limit
Vertical Path
Tracking
Captures and tracks
descent legs of an
active vertical profile
VNV Key
VPTH
VNV Target
Altitude Capture
Captures the Vertical
Navigation (VNV)
Target Altitude
*
ALTV
Glidepath
Captures and tracks
the SBAS glidepath on
approach
Glideslope
Captures and tracks
the ILS glideslope on
approach
Backcourse Arm/
Capture/Track
Captures and tracks a
localizer signal for
backcourse approaches
GP
APR Key
GS
BC
25°
Capture 10
Track
Approach, FMS
Arm/Capture/Track
FMS
25°
Approach, VOR
Arm/Capture/Track
VAPP
Captures and tracks
the selected navigation
Approach, ILS Arm/ source (FMS, VOR,
Capture/Track
LOC)
(Glideslope Mode
automatically
armed)
BC Key
APR Key
25°
Capture 10
Track°
LOC
Takeoff
Disengages the
autopilot and
commands a constant
pitch angle and wings
level on the ground in
preparation for takeoff
GA Button
TO
10°
Go Around
Disengages the
autopilot and
commands a constant
pitch angle and wings
level in the air
GA Button
GA
10°
* ALTV is armed automatically under VPTH when VNV Target Altitude is to be captured instead of
Selected Altitude.
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VERTICAL NAVIGATION MODES (VPTH, ALTV)
NOTE: VNV is disabled when parallel track or Dead Reckoning Mode is active. Refer to the
Flight Management Section for more information on VNV flight plans
NOTE: The Selected Altitude takes precedence over any other vertical constraints.
Vertical Navigation (VNV) flight control is available for enroute/terminal cruise and descent
operations any time that VNV flight planning is available. Refer to the FMS Navigation Section for
more information on VNV flight plans. Conditions for availability include, but are not limited to:
•
The selected navigation source is FMS.
•
A VNV flight plan (with at least one altitude-constrained waypoint) or vertical direct-to is active.
•
VNV is enabled (VNV ENBL Softkey pressed on the MFD)
•
Crosstrack error is valid and within certain limits.
•
Desired/actual track are valid or track angle error is within certain limits.
•
The VNV Target Altitude of the active waypoint is no more than 250 ft above the current aircraft
altitude
The flight director may be armed for VNV at any time, but no target altitudes are captured during a
climb. The Command Bars provide vertical profile guidance based on specified altitudes (entered
manually or loaded from the database) at waypoints in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to. The
appropriate VNV flight control modes are sequenced by the flight director to follow the path defined
by the vertical profile. Upon reaching the last waypoint in the VNV flight plan, the flight director
transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and cancels any armed VNV modes.
VERTICAL PATH TRACKING MODE
NOTE: If another vertical mode key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is selected,
Vertical Path Tracking Mode reverts to armed.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active does not cancel
the mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the descent path upon release of the
CWS Button.
When a vertical profile (VNV flight plan) is active and the VNV Key is pressed, Vertical Path
Tracking Mode is armed in preparation for descent path capture. ‘VPTH’ (or ‘/V’ when Glidepath or
Glideslope Mode is concurrently armed) is annunciated in white in addition to previously armed
modes. If applicable, the appropriate altitude capture mode is armed for capture of the next VNV
Target Altitude (ALTV) or the Selected Altitude (ALTS), whichever is greater.
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Figure 7-16 Vertical Path Tracking Armed Annunciations
Prior to descent path interception, the Selected Altitude must be set below the current aircraft
altitude by at least 75 feet. For the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path
Tracking Mode, acknowledgment is required within five minutes of descent path interception by:
•
Pressing the VNV Key
•
Adjusting the Selected Altitude
If acknowledgment is not received within one minute of descent path interception, the white ‘VPTH’
annunciation starts to flash. Flashing continues until acknowledged or the descent path is intercepted.
If the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed
and the descent is not captured.
In conjunction with the “TOD [top of descent] within 1 minute” annunciation in the PFD Navigation
Status Box and the “Vertical track” voice message, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, vertical
deviation, and vertical speed required) appear on the PFDs in magenta.
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Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Vertical Path Tracking
Armed (Flashing Indicates
Acknowledgment Required
VNV Target
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
FMS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Enroute
Phase of
Flight
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Figure 7-17 Vertical Path Capture
When a descent leg is captured (i.e., vertical deviation becomes valid), Vertical Path Tracking
becomes active and tracks the descent profile (next figure). An altitude capture mode (‘ALTS’ or
‘ALTV’) is armed as appropriate.
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Vertical Path
Tracking Active
VNV Target Altitude
Capture Armed
VNV Target
Altitude
FMS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Terminal
Phase of
Flight
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Command Bars Indicate Descent to
Maintain Required Vertical Speed
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
Figure 7-18 ICN-GRMNC-PP05-15207C23-A-0TRC3-00002-A-001-01
If the altimeter barometric setting is adjusted while Vertical Path Tracking is active, the flight director
increases/decreases the descent rate by up to 500 fpm to re-establish the aircraft on the descent path
(without commanding a climb). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in
VNV vertical deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes
for the aircraft to re-establish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with
a VNV Target Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical
constraint.
AUTOMATIC REVERSION TO PITCH HOLD MODE
Several situations can occur while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active which cause the flight
director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode:
•
Vertical deviation exceeds 200 feet during an overspeed condition.
•
Vertical deviation experiences a discontinuity that both exceeds 200 feet in magnitude and results
in the vertical deviation exceeding 200 feet in magnitude. Such discontinuities are usually caused
by flight plan changes that affect the vertical profile.
•
Vertical deviation becomes invalid (the Vertical Deviation Indicator is removed from the PFD).
•
A display enters Reversionary Mode (this does not apply to an active vertical direct-to).
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Unless VNV is disabled, Vertical Path Tracking Mode and the appropriate altitude capture mode
become armed following the reversion to Pitch Hold Mode to allow for possible profile recapture.
NON-PATH DESCENTS
Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes can also be used to fly non-path
descents while VNV flight control is selected. If the VS or FLC Key is pressed while Vertical Path
Tracking Mode is selected, Vertical Path Tracking Mode reverts to armed along with the appropriate
altitude capture mode to allow profile re-capture.
Figure 7-19 Flight Level Change VNV Non-Path Descent
To prevent immediate profile re-capture, the following must be satisfied:
•
At least 10 seconds have passed since the non-path transition was initiated
•
Vertical deviation from the profile has exceeded 250 feet, but is now less than 200 feet Pressing the
VNV Key twice re-arms Vertical Path Tracking for immediate profile re-capture.
VNV TARGET ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTV)
NOTE: Armed VNV Target Altitude and Selected Altitude capture modes are mutually
exclusive. However, Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed implicitly (not annunciated)
whenever VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode is armed.
VNV Target Altitude Capture is analogous to Selected Altitude Capture Mode and is armed
automatically after the VNV Key is pressed and the next VNV Target Altitude is to be intercepted
before the Selected Altitude. The annunciation ‘ALTV’ indicates that the VNV Target Altitude is to be
captured. VNV Target Altitudes are shown in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to, and can be
entered manually or loaded from a database (see the FMS Navigation Section for details). At the same
time as “TOD within 1 minute” is annunciated in the Navigation Status Box, the active VNV Target
Altitude is displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator.
As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to VNV
Target Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic transition is indicated
by the green ‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’
annunciation. The VNV Target Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTV’
annunciation and remains displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator. The Required Vertical Speed
Indication (RSVI) is removed once VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
At 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from VNV
Target Altitude Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and tracks the level leg. As Altitude Hold Mode
becomes active, the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes green
for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic transition. The flight director automatically arms Vertical Path
Tracking, allowing upcoming descent legs to be captured and subsequently tracked.
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Altitude Reference (In This Case,
Equal To VNV Altitude Target)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-20 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
Changing The VNV Target Altitude
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel
the mode.
Changing the current VNV Target Altitude while VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode is
active causes the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode. Vertical Path Tracking and
the appropriate altitude capture mode are armed in preparation to capture the new
VNV Target Altitude or the Selected Altitude, depending on which altitude is to be
intercepted first.
VNV target altitudes can be changed while editing the active flight plan (see the FMS
Navigation Section for details).
GLIDEPATH MODE (GP)
Glidepath Mode is used to track the SBAS-based glidepath. When Glidepath Mode is armed, ‘GP’ is
annunciated in white in the AFCS Status Box.
Upon reaching the glidepath, the flight director transitions to Glidepath Mode and begins to capture
and track the glidepath.Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured
•
A FMS approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V) is loaded into the active flight
plan.
•
The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF).
•
Vertical deviation is valid.
•
The CDI is at less than full-scale deviation
•
Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
NOTE: Some RNAV (GPS) approaches provide a vertical descent angle as an aid in flying a
stabilized approach. These approaches are NOT considered Approaches with Vertical
Guidance (APV). Approaches that are annunciated on the HSI as LNAV or LNAV+V should be
flown to an MDA, until visual with the landing surface, even though vertical glidepath (GP)
information may be provided.
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WARNING: When flying an LNAV approach (with vertical descent angle) with the autopilot
coupled, the aircraft will not level off at the MDA even if the MDA is set in the altitude
preselect.
Upon reaching the glidepath, the flight director transitions to Glidepath Mode and begins to capture
and track the glidepath.
Figure 7-21 Glidepath Mode Armed
Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured:
•
A FMS approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V) is loaded into the active flight
plan.
•
The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF)
•
Vertical deviation is valid.
•
The CDI is at less than full-scale deviation
•
Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glidepath Mode is active does not cancel the mode.
The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the glidepath upon release of the CWS Button.
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FMS Approach
Mode Active
FMS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Glidepath
Mode Active
LPV Approach
Active
Glidepath
Indicator
Figure 7-22 Glidepath Mode
Selecting Glidepath Mode
1) Ensure a FMS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must
be part of the flight plan (cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that FMS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
navigation sources if necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
GLIDESLOPE MODE (GS)
Glideslope Mode is available for LOC/ILS approaches to capture and track the glideslope. When
Glideslope Mode is armed (annunciated as ‘GS’ in white), LOC Approach Mode is armed as the lateral
flight director mode.
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Figure 7-23 Glideslope Mode Armed
Once LOC is the navigation source, the localizer and glideslope can be captured. Upon reaching the
glideslope, the flight director transitions to Glideslope Mode and begins to capture and track the
glideslope.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glideslope Mode is active does not cancel the mode.
The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the glideslope upon release of the CWS Button.
Approach
Mode Active
Active ILS
Frequency Tuned
NAV2 (localizer) is Selected
Navigation Source
Glideslope
Mode Active
Glideslope
Indicator
Figure 7-24 Glideslope Mode
Selecting Glideslope Mode
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
navigation sources if necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or
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1) Ensure that FMS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
navigation sources if necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
APPROACH MODES (FMS, VAPP, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active FMS
course for the flight director to enter Approach Mode.
Approach Mode is activated when the APR Key is pressed. Approach Mode acquires and tracks the
selected navigation source (FMS, VOR, or LOC), depending on loaded approach. This mode uses the
selected navigation receiver deviation and desired course inputs to fly the approach. Pressing the APR
Key when the CDI is greater than one dot arms the selected approach mode (annunciated in white to
the left of the active lateral mode). If the CDI is less the 1 dot, the LOC is automatically captured when
the APR Key is pressed.
VOR Approach Mode (VAPP) provides greater sensitivity for signal tracking than VOR Navigation
Mode.
When FMS Approach Mode is armed, Glidepath Mode is also armed.
Figure 7-25 Approach Mode Armed
LOC Approach Mode allows the autopilot to fly a LOC/ILS approach with a glideslope. When LOC
Approach Mode is armed, Glideslope Mode is also armed automatically. LOC captures are inhibited if
the difference between aircraft heading and localizer course exceeds 105°.
If the following occurs, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level)
•
Approach Mode is active and a Vectors-To-Final is activated
•
Approach Mode is active and Navigation source is manually switched
•
During a LOC/ILS approach, FMS Navigation Mode is active and the FAF is crossed after the
automatic navigation source switch from FMS to LOC
Selecting VOR Approach Mode
1) Ensure a valid VOR frequency is tuned
2) Ensure that VOR is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
navigation sources if necessary).
3) Press he APR Key.
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Selecting FMS Approach Mode
1) Ensure a FMS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must
be part of the flight plan (cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that FMS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
navigation sources if necessary).
3) Press the APR Key
Selecting LOC Approach Mode
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
navigation sources if necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or
1) Ensure that FMS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
navigation sources if necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
Changing The selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using
FMS, the Selected Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the
selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected
Course while in Approach Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected
Course (or FMS flight plan) when the CWS Button is released.
BACKCOURSE MODE (BC)
NOTE: When making a backcourse approach, set the Selected Course to the localizer front
course.
Backcourse Mode captures and tracks a localizer signal in the backcourse direction. The mode may be
selected by pressing the BC Key. Backcourse Mode is armed if the CDI is greater than one dot when the
mode is selected. If the CDI is less than one dot, Backcourse Mode is automatically captured when the
BC Key is pressed. The flight director creates roll steering commands from the Selected Course and
deviation when in Backcourse Mode.
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Backcourse
Mode Active
LOC2 is Selected Navigation Source
Figure 7-26 Backcourse Mode
Changing The Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using
FMS, the Selected Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the
selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not reset any reference data
while in Backcourse Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected
Course when the CWS Button is released.
Intercepting and Flying a DME Arc
The AFCS will intercept and track a DME arc that is part of the active flight plan
provided that FMS Navigation Mode is engaged, FMS is the active navigation source on
the CDI, and the DME arc segment is the active flight plan leg. It is important to note
that automatic navigation of DME arcs is based on GPS. Thus, even if the APR key is
pressed and LOC or VOR Approach Mode is armed prior to reaching the Initial
Approach Fix (IAF), Approach Mode will not activate until the arc segment is completed.
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If the pilot decides to intercept the arc at a location other than the published IAF (i.e.
ATC provides vectors to intercept the arc) and subsequently selects Heading Mode or
Roll Mode, the AFCS will not automatically intercept or track the arc unless the pilot
activates the arc leg of the flight plan and arms FMS Navigation Mode. The AFCS will
not intercept and fly a DME arc before reaching an IAF that defines the beginning of
the arc segment. Likewise, if at any point while established on the DME arc the pilot
deselects FMS Navigation Mode, the AFCS will no longer track the arc.
TAKEOFF (TO) AND GO AROUND (GA) MODES
Go Around and Takeoff modes are coupled pitch and roll modes and are annunciated as both the
vertical and lateral modes when active. In these modes, the flight director commands a constant set
pitch attitude and wings level. The GA Button is used to select both modes. The mode entered by the
flight director depends on whether the aircraft is on the ground.
Takeoff Mode provides an attitude reference during rotation and takeoff. This mode can be selected
only while on the ground by pushing the GA Button. The flight director Command Bars assume a
wings-level, pitch-up attitude.
Pressing the GA Button while in the air activates the flight director in wings level, pitch-up attitudes,
allowing the execution of a missed approach or a go around. Go Around Mode disengages the autopilot
and arms Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically. Subsequent autopilot engagement is allowed.
Attempts to modify the aircraft attitude (i.e., with the NOSE UP/DN Wheel or CWS Button) result in
reversion to Pitch and Roll Hold modes.
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Go Around
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate Climb
Takeoff Mode Active
Figure 7-27 Takeoff (TO) and Go Around (GA) Modes
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7.4 AUTOPILOT AND YAW DAMPER OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the POH for specific instructions regarding emergency procedures.
The autopilot and yaw damper operate the flight control surface servos to provide automatic flight
control. The autopilot controls the aircraft pitch and roll attitudes following commands received from
the flight director. Pitch autotrim provides trim commands to the pitch trim servo to relieve any
sustained effort required by the pitch servo. Autopilot operation is independent of the yaw damper.
The yaw damper reduces Dutch roll tendencies and coordinates turns. It can operate independently of
the autopilot and may be used during normal hand-flight maneuvers. Yaw rate commands are limited to
6 deg/sec by the yaw damper.
PITCH AXIS AND TRIM
The autopilot pitch axis uses pitch rate to stabilize the aircraft pitch attitude during flight director
maneuvers. Flight director pitch commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with pitch
damper control, and sent to the pitch servo motor. The pitch servo measures the output effort (torque)
and provides this signal to the pitch trim servo. The pitch trim servo commands the motor to reduce
the average pitch servo effort.
When the autopilot is not engaged, the pitch trim servo may be used to provide manual electric
pitch trim (MEPT). This allows the aircraft to be trimmed using a control wheel switch rather than the
trim wheel. Manual trim commands are generated only when both halves of the MEPT Switch are
operated simultaneously. Trim speeds are scheduled with airspeed to provide more consistent
response.
ROLL AXIS
The autopilot roll axis uses roll rate to stabilize aircraft roll attitude during flight director maneuvers.
The flight director roll commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with roll damper control,
and sent to the roll servo motor.
YAW AXIS
The yaw damper uses yaw rate and roll attitude to dampen the aircraft’s natural Dutch roll response.
It also uses lateral acceleration to coordinate turns. Yaw damper operation is independent of autopilot
engagement.
When the YD Key is pressed, the system engages the yaw damper independently of the autopilot.
When the AP Key is pressed, the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director (if not already active) are
activated and the annunciator lights on the AFCS controller for the autopilot and yaw damper are
illuminated. The flight director engages in Pitch and Roll Hold Modes when initially activated.
FLIGHT CONTROL
Pitch and roll commands are provided to the servos based on the active flight director modes. Yaw
damping is provided by the yaw servo. Servo motor control limits the maximum servo speed and
torque. The servo gearboxes are equipped with slip-clutches set to certain values. This allows the
servos to be overridden in case of an emergency.
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ENGAGEMENT
NOTE: Autopilot engagement/disengagement is not equivalent to servo engagement/
disengagement. Use the CWS Button to disengage the pitch and roll servos while the
autopilot remains active.
When the YD Key is pressed, the system engages the yaw damper independently of the autopilot.
When the AP Key is pressed, the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director (if not already active) are
activated and the annunciator lights on the AFCS controller for the autopilot and yaw damper are
illuminated. The flight director engages in Pitch and Roll Hold Modes when initially activated.
Autopilot
Engaged
Yaw Damper
Engaged
Figure 7-28 Engagement
CONTROL WHEEL STEERING
During autopilot operation, the aircraft may be hand-flown without disengaging the autopilot.
Pressing and holding the CWS Button disengages the pitch and roll servos from the flight control
surfaces and allows the aircraft to be hand-flown. At the same time, the flight director is synchronized
to the aircraft attitude during the maneuver. CWS activity has no effect on yaw damper engagement.
The ‘AP’ annunciation is temporarily replaced by ‘CWS’ in white for the duration of CWS
maneuvers.
Control Wheel Steering
Figure 7-29 CWS Annunciation
In most scenarios, releasing the CWS Button reengages the autopilot with a new reference. Refer to
flight director mode descriptions for specific CWS behavior in each mode.
DISENGAGEMENT
The autopilot may be manually disengaged by pushing the AP DISC, GA, MEPT Switch, or the AP
Key on the AFCS Control Unit. Manual disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow
‘AP’ annunciation and a three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert. The AP DISC or MEPT Switch
may be used to cancel the aural alert.
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Figure 7-30 Manual Autopilot Disengagement
The YD Key and AP DISC Switches can be used to disengage the yaw damper (the autopilot, if
engaged, also disengages when the AP DISC Switch is pressed). The ‘YD’ and ‘AP’ annunciations turn
yellow and flash for 5 seconds upon disengagement.
Figure 7-31 Yaw Damper Disengagement
Automatic autopilot disengagement is indicated by a flashing red and white ‘AP’ annunciation and by
the autopilot disconnect aural alert, which continue until acknowledged by pushing the AP DISC or
MEPT Switch. Automatic autopilot disengagement occurs due to:
•
System failure
•
Invalid sensor data
•
Inability to compute default flight director modes (FD also disengages automatically)
•
Stall warning (YD also disengages)
•
Inability to compute default flight director modes (FD also disengages automatically)
Yaw damper disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow ‘YD’ annunciation.
Automatic yaw damper disengagement occurs when autopilot disengagement is caused by failure in a
parameter also affecting the yaw damper. This means the yaw damper can remain operational in some
cases where the autopilot automatically disengages. A localized failure in the yaw damper system or
invalid sensor data also cause yaw damper disengagement.
Figure 7-32 Automatic Autopilot and Yaw Damper Disengagement
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7.5 AFCS ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
AFCS ALERTS
System Status Field
Figure 7-33 AFCS System Status Field
The following alert annunciations appear in the AFCS System Status field on the PFD.
Condition
Annunciation Description
Pitch Failure
Pitch axis control failure. AP is inoperative.
Roll Failure
Roll axis control failure. AP is inoperative.
MEPT Switch
Stuck, or Pitch
Trim Axis
Control Failure
If annunciated when AP is engaged, take control of the aircraft and
disengage the autopilot. If annunciated when AP is not engaged,
move each half of the MEPT switch separately to check if a stuck
switch is causing the annunciation.
Yaw Damper
Failure
YD control failure; AP also inoperative
System Failure
A condition has developed causing the pitch servo to provide a
sustained force. Be prepared to apply nose up control wheel force
upon autopilot disconnect.
Elevator
Mistrim Up
A condition has developed causing the pitch servo to provide a
sustained force. Be prepared to apply nose up control wheel force
upon autopilot disconnect.
Elevator
Mistrim Down
A condition has developed causing the pitch servo to provide a
sustained force. Be prepared to apply nose down control wheel
force upon autopilot disconnect.
Aileron Mistrim
Left
A condition has developed causing the roll servo to provide a
sustained left force. Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and
observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
Aileron Mistrim
Right
A condition has developed causing the roll servo to provide a
sustained right force. Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and
observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
Rudder Mistrim
Left
A condition has developed causing the yaw servo to provide a
sustained force. Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and
observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
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Condition
Annunciation Description
Rudder Mistrim
Right
A condition has developed causing the yaw servo to provide a
sustained force. Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and
observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
Preflight Test
Performing preflight system test; aural alert sounds at completion.
Do not press the AP DISC Switch during servo power-up and
preflight system tests as this may cause the preflight system test to
fail or never to start (if servos fail their power-up tests). Power must
be cycled to the servos to remedy the situation.
Preflight system test has failed.
OVERSPEED PROTECTION
NOTE: Overspeed protection is not active in ALT, GS or GP modes.
While Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, Flight Level Change, Vertical Path Tracking, or an altitude capture
mode is active, airspeed is monitored by the flight director. Overspeed protection is provided to limit
the flight director’s pitch command in situations where the flight director cannot acquire and maintain
the mode reference for the selected vertical mode without exceeding Vmo.
When Overspeed Protection is active, the Airspeed Reference appears in a box above the Airspeed
Indicator, flashing a yellow ‘MAXSPD’ annunciation. Engine power should be reduced and/or the pitch
reference adjusted to slow the aircraft. The annunciation disappears when the overspeed condition is
resolved.
Figure 7-34 Overspeed Annunciation
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UNDERSPEED PROTECTION
Underspeed Protection is available when the optional Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) system
is installed and the autopilot is on. It is designed to discourage aircraft operation below minimum
established airspeeds.
When the aircraft reaches a predetermined airspeed (specific to each flap setting), a yellow MINSPD
annunciation will appear above the airspeed indicator. When aircraft angle of attack is within four
degrees of stall warning, the Pitch Limit Indicator will be displayed approximately four degrees above
the aircraft symbol on the pitch attitude indicator. If deceleration continues, the Pitch Limit Indicator
will move downward on the pitch attitude indicator until coincident with the aircraft symbol at stall
warning angle of attack.
Flaps
MINSPD Annunciation and Airspeed Alerts
0%
88 kts
Takeoff
84 kts
100%
74 kts
Pitch Limit
Indicator
Airspeed
Indicator
Figure 7-35 MINSPD Annunciation and Pitch Limit Indication
If the aircraft continues to decelerate, Underspeed Protection functionality depends on which vertical
flight director mode is selected. For the purpose of this discussion, the vertical flight director modes can
be divided into two categories: Those in which it is important to maintain altitude for as long as possible
(altitude-critical modes), and those in which maintaining altitude is less crucial (non-altitude critical
modes).
ALTITUDE CRITICAL MODES (ALT, GS, GP, TO, GA, FLC)
If the aircraft decelerates to stall warning, the lateral and vertical flight director modes will change
from active to armed, and the autopilot will provide input causing the aircraft to pitch down and the
wings to level.
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Lateral and
Vertical FD
Modes Armed
Figure 7-36 Lateral and Vertical Flight Director Modes Armed
An aural “AIRSPEED” alert will sound every five seconds and a red “UNDERSPEED PROTECT
ACTIVE” annunciation (next figure) will appear to the right of the vertical speed indicator. The pitch
down force will continue until the aircraft reaches a pitch attitude at which IAS equals the IAS at
which stall warning turns off, plus two knots.
Figure 7-37 Underspeed Protect Active Annunciation
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to above the IAS at which stall warning
turns off, plus two knots, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical
reference. The vertical and lateral flight director modes will change from armed to active, and when
aircraft angle of attack reaches approximately five degrees below stall warning angle of attack, the Pitch
Limit Indicator will be removed.
NON ALTITUDE CRITICAL MODES (VS, VNAV, IAS)
When the airspeed trend vector (specific to each flap setting) reaches a predetermined airspeed, a
single aural “AIRSPEED” will sound, alerting the pilot to the impending underspeed condition. If the
aircraft decelerates to an IAS below the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed, a red
“UNDERSPEED PROTECT ACTIVE” annunciation (previous figure) will appear to the right of the
vertical speed indicator. The vertical flight director mode will change from active to armed (next figure),
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and the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch down until reaching a pitch attitude at which IAS equals
the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed.
Vertical FD
Mode Armed
Figure 7-38 Vertical Flight Director Mode Armed
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to an IAS above the minimum
commandable autopilot airspeed, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the
vertical reference. The vertical flight director mode will change from armed to active, and when aircraft
angle of attack reaches approximately five degrees below stall warning angle of attack, the Pitch Limit
Indicator will be removed.
LEVEL MODE
Level Mode is coupled pitch and roll modes and is annunciated as both the vertical and lateral
modes when active. When engaged the autopilot and Yaw Damper (if the autopilot is disengaged and
the aircraft is within the autopilot engagement limitations) in level vertical and lateral modes. Level
Mode does not track altitude or heading. When engaged all armed and active modes are cancelled and
the autopilot and flight director revert to LVL mode for pitch and roll. While in level mode, all other
modes are available by pressing the corresponding button.
Level mode becomes active as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the
Additional Features section for a detailed discussion of the ESP feature.
Roll
Pitch
Figure 7-39 Level Mode Annunciation
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7.6 ABNORMAL OPERATION
Suspected Autopilot Malfunction
NOTE: Consult the aircraft documentation for the location of circuit breakers as well as
specifics that may supplement or amplify this procedure.
If an autopilot failure or trim failure is suspected to have occurred, perform the
following steps:
1) Firmly grasp the control wheel.
2) Press and hold the AP DISC Switch. The autopilot will disconnect and power is removed
from the trim motor. Power is also removed from all primary servo motors and engaged
solenoids. Note the visual and aural alerting indicating autopilot disconnect.
3) Retrim the aircraft as needed. Substantial trim adjustment may be needed.
4) Pull the appropriate circuit breaker(s) to electrically isolate the servo and solenoid
components.
5) Release the AP DISC Switch.
Overpowering Autopilot Servos
In the context of this discussion, “overpowering” refers to any pressure or force applied
to the pitch controls when the autopilot is engaged. A small amount of pressure or
force on the pitch controls can cause the autopilot automatic trim to run to an out-oftrim condition. Therefore, any application of pressure or force to the controls should be
avoided when the autopilot is engaged.
Overpowering the autopilot during flight will cause the autopilot’s automatic trim to
run, resulting in an out-of-trim condition or cause the trim to hit the stop if the action is
prolonged. In this case, larger than anticipated control forces are required after the
autopilot is disengaged.
The following steps should be added to the preflight check:
1) Check for proper autopilot operation and ensure the autopilot can be overpowered.
2) Note the forces required to overpower the autopilot servo clutches.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.1 OVERVIEW
NOTE: With the availability of SafeTaxi, ChartView, or FliteCharts in electronic form, it is still
advisable to carry another source of charts on board the aircraft.
Additional features of the system include the following:
•
SafeTaxi® diagrams
•
ChartView, FliteCharts®, and IFR/VFR electronic charts
•
AOPA™ or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory
•
Satellite Telephone and SMS
•
SiriusXM® Satellite Radio entertainment
•
Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™)
•
Flight Data Logging
•
Electronic Checklist
•
Connext®
SafeTaxi diagrams provide detailed taxiway, runway, and ramp information at more than 700 airports
in the United States. By decreasing range on an airport that has a SafeTaxi diagram available, a close up
view of the airport layout can be seen.
The optional ChartView, FliteCharts and IFR/VFR electronic charts provides on-board electronic
terminal procedures charts. Electronic charts offer the convenience of rapid access to essential
information.
The AOPA or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory offers detailed information for a selected airport, such as
available services, hours of operation, and lodging options.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment audio feature of the GDL 69A / GDL 69A
SiriusXM Data Link Receiver handles more than 170 channels of music, news, and sports.
Iridium Telephone, SMS messaging, and Data Link Services is an optional subscription service offered
through Garmin Connext™ and Iridium Satellite LLC.
Connext allows for setting up the installed optional Flight Stream device for a Bluetooth connection
between the system and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™ application. The optional Flight
Stream 510 device provides a Bluetooth® connection between the system and a mobile device running
the Garmin Pilot™ application. GPS and AHRS data can then be shared with the mobile device. Also,
flight plans can be transferred from the mobile device to the system.
The Flight Data Logging feature automatically stores critical flight and engine data on an SD data card.
Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each 1GB of available space on the card.
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The Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) system discourages aircraft operation outside the
normal flight envelope.
Electronic checklists allow a pilot to quickly find the proper procedure for a particular phase of flight.
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8.2 SAFETAXI
SafeTaxi is an enhanced feature that gives greater map detail when viewing airports at close range.
The maximum map ranges for enhanced detail are pilot configurable. When viewing at ranges close
enough to show the airport detail, the map reveals taxiways with identifying letters/numbers, airport
Hot Spots, and airport landmarks including ramps, buildings, control towers, and other prominent
features. Resolution is greater at lower map ranges. When the MFD display is within the SafeTaxi
ranges, the airplane symbol on the airport provides enhanced position awareness.
Designated Hot Spots are recognized at airports with many intersecting taxiways and runways,
and/or complex ramp areas. Airport Hot Spots are outlined to caution pilots of areas on an airport
surface where positional awareness confusion or runway incursions happen most often. Hot Spots are
defined with a magenta circle or outline around the region of possible confusion.
Any map page that displays the navigation view can also show the SafeTaxi airport layout within the
maximum configured range. The following is a list of pages where the SafeTaxi feature can be seen:
- Navigation Map Page
- PFD Maps
- Weather Datalink Page
- Airport Information Page
- Intersection Information Page
- NDB Information Page
- VOR Information Page
- User Waypoint Information Page
- Trip Planning Page
- Nearest Pages
- Active and Stored Flight Plan Pages
During ground operations the aircraft’s position is displayed in reference to taxiways, runways, and
airport features. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta. When panning over the airport, features
such as runway holding lines and taxiways are shown at the cursor.
The Detail Softkey (declutter) label advances to Detail All, Detail 3, Detail 2 and Detail 1 each time
the softkey is selected for easy recognition of decluttering level. Pressing the Detail All Softkey
removes the taxiway markings and airport feature labels. Pressing the Detail 3 Softkey removes VOR
station ID, the VOR symbol, and intersection names if within the airport plan view. Pressing the Detail
2 Softkey removes the airport runway layout, unless the airport in view is part of an active route
structure. Pressing the Detail 1 Softkey cycles back to the original map detail. Refer to Map Declutter
Levels in the Flight Management Section.
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Configuring SafeTaxi Range
1) While viewing the ‘Map-Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the
‘Page Menu.’
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Map Settings’ Menu Option and press the
ENT Key.
3) Turn the smallFMS Knob to select the ‘Aviation’ Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Aviation’ Group options to SafeTaxi.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the range of distances.
6) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired distance for maximum SafeTaxi display
range.
7) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map-Navigation Map’ Page.
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8.3 CHARTS
CHARTS
Electronic charts that resemble the paper versions of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts
(FliteCharts) and Jeppesen terminal procedures charts (ChartView) can be displayed on the MFD.
When the databases for both chart types are purchased and loaded in the system, the desired charts
brand, or source, can be selected for viewing. The active chart source for a particular procedure is
shown on the information pane under Source.
CHARTVIEW
ChartView resembles the paper version of Jeppesen terminal procedures charts. The charts are
displayed in full color with high-resolution. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft position on the
moving map in the planview of approach charts and on airport diagrams. Airport Hot Spots are
outlined in magenta.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when
the current position is within the boundaries of the chart. Inset boxes are not considered within the
chart boundaries. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol reaches a chart boundary line, or inset box, the
aircraft symbol is removed from the display.
The following figure shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, the grey
shading is for illustrative purposes only and will not appear on the published chart or MFD display.
These off-scale areas appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted
geographical position of this information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual
geographic position. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft
position indicated is relative to the chart planview, not to the off-scale area.
Inset Box
Off-Scale
Area
Off-Scale
Areas
Figure 8-1 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
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The ChartView database subscription is available from Jeppesen, Inc. Available data includes:
•
Arrivals (STAR)
•
Departure Procedures (DP)
•
Approaches
•
Airport Diagrams
•
NOTAMs
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts
While viewing the ‘Map-Navigation Map’ Page, ‘NRST-Nearest Airport’ Page, or ‘FPLActive Flight Plan’ Page, press the Charts Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu.’
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Options’ Menu to Charts.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
Navigation Map Page Options Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page Options Menu
Figure 8-2 Option Menus
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner No Available Charts appears
on the screen. The No Available Charts banner does not refer to the FliteCharts
subscription, but rather the availability of a particular airport chart selection or
procedure for a selected airport.
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Figure 8-3 Chart Not Available Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an
individual chart), the banner Unable To Display Chart is then displayed.
Figure 8-4 Unable To Display Chart Banner
When a chart is not available by pressing the Charts Softkey or selecting a Page Menu
Option, charts may be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan
Pages.
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active
flight plan, the chart appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not
flying to a direct-to destination, pressing the Charts Softkey displays the chart for the
nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is one associated with the ‘WPT–Airport Information’ page. Usually
this is the airport runway diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off
Minimums or Alternate Minimums are available, that page appears. If Airport
Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport is shown.
Selecting a chart
1) While viewing the ‘Map-Navigation Map’ Page, ‘FPL-Active Flight Plan’ Page, or ‘NRST-
Nearest Airports’ Page, press the Chart Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart
is displayed on the ‘WPT-Airport Information’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the ‘Approach’
Box. (Press the APR Softkey if the ‘Approach’ Box is not currently shown).
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Approach’ Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
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Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
Chart Scale
Figure 8-5 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
While the Approaches Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank.
Once the desired chart is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart page
can be scrolled using the Joystick. Pressing the Joystick centers the chart on the
screen.
The aircraft symbol is shown on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft
position is within the boundaries of the chart. The aircraft symbol is not displayed when
the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears. If the Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO
SCALE, the aircraft symbol is not shown. The Aircraft Not Shown Icon may appear at
certain times, even if the chart is displayed to scale.
Pressing the Chart Softkey switches between the ChartView diagram and the
associated map in the WPT page group. In the example shown, the Chart Softkey
switches between the Gainesville, FL (KGNV) Airport Diagram and the navigation map
on the ‘WPT–Airport Information’ page.
Pressing the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram when the view is
on a different chart. If the displayed chart is the airport diagram, the Info 1 or Info 2
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Softkey has no effect. The aircraft position is shown in magenta on the ChartView
diagrams when the location of the aircraft is within the chart boundaries.
Another source for additional airport information is from the Info Box above the chart
for certain airports. This information source is not related to the Info 1 or Info 2
Softkey. When the Info Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. The
Charlotte, NC airport has five additional charts offering information; the Airport
Diagram, Take-off Minimums, Class B Airspace, Airline Parking Gate Coordinates, and
Airline Parking Gate Location. (The numbers in parentheses after the chart name are
Jeppesen designators.)
Aircraft
Current
Position
Figure 8-6 Airport Information Page, Info View, Full Screen Width
In the example shown in following figure, the Class B Chart is selected. Pressing the
ENT Key displays the Charlotte Class B Airspace Chart.
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Figure 8-7 Airport Information Page, Class B Chart Selected from Info View
- Pressing the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
- Pressing the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
- Pressing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
- Pressing the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, and
includes weather data such as METAR and TAF from the SiriusXM Data Link Receiver,
when available. Weather information is available only when a SiriusXM Data Link
Receiver is installed and the SiriusXM Weather subscription is current.
- Recent NOTAMS applicable to the current ChartView cycle are included in the
ChartView database. Pressing the NOTAM Softkey shows the local NOTAM information
for selected airports, when available. When NOTAMS are not available, the NOTAM
Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled. The NOTAM Softkey may appear on the
Airport Information Page and all of the chart page selections. Pressing the NOTAM
Softkey again removes the NOTAMS information.
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NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
NOTE: Only NOTAMs applicable to specific information conveyed on the displayed Jeppesen
chart are available when the NOTAM Softkey is pressed. There may be other NOTAMs
available pertaining to the flight that may not be displayed. Contact Jeppesen for more
information regarding Jeppesen database published NOTAMs.
CHART OPTIONS
Pressing the CHRTOpt Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level.
Pressing the All Softkey shows the complete approach chart on the screen.
Complete
Chart
Shown
Figure 8-8 Approach Information Page, All View
Pressing the Header Softkey shows the header view (approach chart briefing strip) on the screen.
Pressing the Plan Softkey shows the approach chart two dimensional plan view.
Pressing the Profile Softkey displays the approach chart descent profile strip.
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Pressing the Minimums Softkey displays the minimum descent altitude/visibility strip at the bottom
of the approach chart.
If the chart scale has been adjusted to view a small area of the chart, pressing the Fit WDTH Softkey
changes the chart size to fit the available screen width.
Pressing the Full SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the
right.
Selecting Additional Information
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, press the Full SCN Softkey to display the
information windows (Airport, Info).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Airport, Info, Runways, or Frequencies Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Info Box choices. If multiple choices are
available, scroll to the desired choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key
to complete the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
Pressing the Back Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection
softkeys. The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’
Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu Option and press the
ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the ‘Full Screen’ and ‘Color Scheme’
Options.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the ‘On’ and ‘Off’ ‘Full Screen’ Options.
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Chart Setup Option
Full Screen On/Off Selection
Figure 8-9 Page Menus
Day/Night View
ChartView can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing.
The Day View offers a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View
gives a better presentation for viewing in a dark environment. When the Chart Setup
Box is selected the MFD softkeys are blank.
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’
Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu Option and press the
ENT Key.
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Figure 8-10 Page Menu Chart Setup
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the ‘Color Scheme’ Option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between ‘Day’, ‘Auto’, and ‘Night’ Options.
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use
the small FMS Knob to change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/
night crossover point based on the percentage of backlighting intensity. For example, if
the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display backlight
reaches 15% of full brightness.
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may
be accomplished by selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu.
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Figure 8-11 Arrival Information Page, Day View
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Figure 8-12 Arrival Information Page, Night View
FLITECHARTS
FliteCharts resemble the paper version of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts. The charts
are displayed with high-resolution and in color for applicable charts.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when
the current position is within the boundaries of the chart. Not all charts are geo-referenced. These
charts will display an Aircraft Not Shown Icon in the lower right corner of the MFD.
Figure 8-13 Aircraft Not Shown Icon
An aircraft symbol may be displayed within an off-scale area depicted on some charts. Off-scale areas
are indicated by the grey shading. Note, these areas are not shaded on the published chart. These offscale areas appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted
geographical position of this information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual
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geographic position. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft
position indicated is relative to the chart planview, not to the off-scale area.
The FliteCharts database subscription is available from Garmin. Available data includes:
- Arrivals (STAR)
- Departure Procedures (DP)
- Approaches
- Airport Diagrams
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
AIRPORT DIRECTORY
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) and optional AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory
databases offer detailed information regarding services, hours of operation, lodging options, and more.
This information is viewed on the Airport Information Page by pressing the Info Softkey until Info 2 is
displayed.
Both Airport Directories are available for downloading at flygarmin.com. However, copy only one of
the databases to the Supplemental Data Card. The system cannot recognize both databases
simultaneously.
Selecting the Airport Directory Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT’ page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Airport Information Page. Initially, information
for the airport closest to the aircraft’s present position is displayed.
3) If necessary, press the Info softkey until Info 2 is displayed.
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Figure 8-14 AOPA Information on the Airport Information Page
IFR/VFR CHARTS
IFR/VFR charts resemble the paper version and are displayed with high-resolution and in color for
applicable charts.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when
the current position is within the boundaries of the chart. Not all charts are geo-referenced. IFR/VFR
charts may be viewed by selecting the ‘Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page.
Modifying the Chart Settings:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Display VFR’ Field, the ‘Display IFR Low’ Field, or
the ‘Display IFR High’ Field.
3) Press the ENT Key. The selected chart is displayed.
Selecting IFR Low, IFR High, VFR Charts:
Select the ‘Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page.
Press the VFR, IFR Low, or IFR High Softkey to display the desired chart.
Or:
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1) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu.’
2) Select ‘Display VFR’, ‘Display IFR Low’ or ‘Display IFR High’ to display the desired chart.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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8.4 DATABASE CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISIONS
Databases that may be available include FliteCharts, Obstacle, Terrain, IFR/VFR, Navigation,
ChartView, SafeTaxi, Airport Directory. Data is revised and expiration dates vary. Data is still viewable
during a period that extends from the cycle expiration date to the disables date. When turning on the
system, the Power-up Page displays the current status of the databases. As an example, see the table
below for the various FliteCharts Power-up Page displays and the definition of each. The expiration date
and disables date varies for each database.
Example Power-up Page Display Text
Table 8-1 Database Power-up Page Annunciations
White text, such as ‘FliteCharts Data Expires’ plus a date, indicates the chart database is current.
Yellow text, such as ‘Chart data is out of date!’ or ‘FliteCharts Data: Disabled”, indicates charts are no
longer viewable and have expired.
Database time critical information can also be found on the ‘Aux - System Status’ page. The database
Region, Cycle number, Effective, Expires, and Disables dates of the subscription appear in either blue or
yellow text. Dates shown in blue are current data. Dates shown in yellow indicate the data is not within
the current subscription period.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
Press the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the Database window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the applicable database
information is shown.
Database cycle numbers are in a format such as YYTI or YYII, which are deciphered as follows:
YYTI
YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
T – Indicates the database type (ex. S is for SafeTaxi, D is for Airport Directory)
I – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 5 is the fifth issue of the year)
YYII
YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
II – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 05 is the fifth issue of the year)
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix for instructions on revising databases.
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Example Power-up Page Display Text Database Cycle Number Format Revision Cycle
YYII
28 days
YYMI
Not Applicable
YYTI
Not Applicable
YYBI
56 days
YYSI
56 days
YYDI
56 days
YYII
28 days
YYII
14 days
YYII
28 days
Table 8-2 Database Cycle Number and Revision
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8.5 SIRIUSXM RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
NOTE: Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section for information about SiriusXM Weather
products.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment feature of the GDL69A SiriusXM Data Link
Receiver is available for the pilot’s and passengers’ enjoyment. The GDL 69A SiriusXM can receive
SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment services at any altitude throughout the Continental U.S.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers a variety of radio programming over long distances without having to
constantly search for new stations. Based on signals from satellites, coverage far exceeds land-based
transmissions. SiriusXM Satellite Radio services are subscription-based. For more information on specific
service packages, visit www.SiriusXM.com.
Activating SiriusXM Satellite Radio Services:
The service is activated by providing SiriusXM Satellite Radio with either one or two
coded IDs, depending on the equipment. Either the Audio Radio ID or the Data Radio
ID, or both, must be provided to SiriusXM Satellite Radio to activate the entertainment
subscription.
It is not required to activate both the entertainment and weather service subscriptions
with the GDL 69A SiriusXM. Either or both services can be activated. SiriusXM Satellite
Radio uses one or both of the coded IDs to send an activation signal that, when
received by the GDL 69A SiriusXM, allows it to play entertainment programming.
These IDs are located:
•
On the label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
•
On the XM Information Page on the MFD
•
On the XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit (available at
www.garmin.com, P/N 190-00355-04)
Contact Cirrus Aircraft Customer Service if the Data Radio ID and the Audio Radio ID
cannot be located.
1) Contact SiriusXM Satellite Radio. Follow the instructions provided by SiriusXM Satellite
Radio services.
2) Select the Auxiliary Page Group.
3) Select the ‘Aux - XM Radio’ page.
4) Press the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux-XM Information’ Page.
5) Verify that the desired services are activated.
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Audio
Radio ID
Data
Radio ID
Weather
Products
Window
Figure 8-15 XM Information Page
6) If SiriusXM Weather services have not been activated, all the weather product boxes are
blank on the XM Information Page and a yellow Activation Required message is
displayed in the center of the Weather Data Link Page (Map Page Group). The Service
Class refers to the groupings of weather products available for subscription.
USING SIRIUSXM RADIO
The XM Radio Page provides information and control of the audio entertainment features of the
SiriusXM Satellite Radio.
Selecting the XM Radio Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the displayed ‘Aux — XM Information’ Page.
3) Press the Radio Softkey to show the ‘Aux — XM Radio’ Page where audio
entertainment is controlled.
ACTIVE CHANNEL AND CHANNEL LIST
The Active Channel Box on the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected channel that the
SiriusXM Radio is using.
The Channels List Box of the XM Radio Page shows a list of the available channels for the selected
category. Channels can be stepped through one at a time or may be selected directly by channel
number.
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Selecting a channel from the channel list:
1) While on the ‘Aux-XM Radio’ Page, press the Channel Softkey.
2) Press the CH+Softkey to go up through the list in the ‘Channels’ Box, or move down
the list with the CH–Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to highlight the channel list and turn the large FMS Knob to scroll
through the channels.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
Selecting a channel directly:
1) While on the ‘Aux-XM Radio’ Page, press the Channel Softkey.
2) Press the Direct CH Softkey. The channel number in the ‘Active Channel’ Box is
highlighted.
3) Press the numbered softkeys located on the bottom of the display to directly select the
desired channel number.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
CATEGORY
The Category Box of the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected category of audio. Categories
of channels such as jazz, rock, or news can be selected to list the available channels for a type of music
or other contents. One of the optional categories is Presets to view channels that have been
programmed.
Selecting a category:
1) Press the Category Softkey on the ‘Aux-XM Radio’ Page.
2) Press the CAT + and CAT - Softkeys to cycle through the categories.
Or:
Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Categories list. Highlight the desired category
with the small FMS Knob and press the ENT Key. Selecting All Categories places all
channels in the list.
PRESETS
Up to 15 channels from any category can be assigned a preset number. The preset channels are
selected by pressing the Presets and More Softkeys. Then the preset channel can be selected directly
and added to the channel list for the Presets category.
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Setting a preset channel number:
1) On the ‘Aux-XM Radio’ Page, while listening to an ‘Active Channel’ that is wanted for a
preset, press the Presets Softkey to access the first five preset channels (Preset 1 Preset 5).
2) Press the More Softkey to access the next five channels (Preset 6 – Preset 10), and
again to access the last five channels (Preset 11 – Preset 15). Pressing the More
Softkey repeatedly cycles through the preset channels.
3) Press any one of the (Preset 1 - Preset 15) softkeys to assign a number to the active
channel.
4) Press the Set Softkey on the desired channel number to save the channel as a preset.
Pressing the Back Softkey, or 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, returns the system to the
top level softkeys.
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8.6 SATELLITE TELEPHONE AND SMS MESSAGING
NOTE: An account must be established to access the Iridium satellite network for voice/SMS.
The GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver provides an airborne low speed data link, Iridium Satellite Telephone
service, and Short Message Service (SMS).
The telephone is available to the flight crew through the audio panel and headsets.
A subscriber account must be established prior to using the Iridium Satellite System. Before setting up
an Iridium account, obtain the serial number of the Iridium Transceiver (GSR1) and the System ID by
selecting the Aux- System Status Page. Garmin contact information can be found at
www.flyGarmin.com.
DISABLE/ENABLE IRIDIUM TRANSCEIVER
Iridium telephone and data communications may be turned on or off by performing these simple
steps.
Disabling/enabling telephone and low speed data services:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page.
3) Press the MENU Key. The Page Menu window is now displayed.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Disable Iridium Transmission’ in the menu list.
Figure 8-16 Select Disable Iridium Transmission
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5) Press the ENT Key. The Iridium transceiver is now disabled.
6) To enable the Iridium transceiver, repeat steps 1 through 3, then select ‘Enable Iridium
Transceiver’.
TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION
The pilot or copilot can place and answer calls on the Iridium satellite network. Control and
monitoring of telephone functions are accomplished through the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page.
Viewing the Telephone Page:
The phone status display gives a graphical representation of the current disposition of
voice and/or data transmissions.
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Telephone’ or ‘Aux - Text Messaging’
Page.
3) If necessary, press the Phone Softkey to display the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page.
Internal Phone External Phone
Description
Phone is Idle
Phone is ringing
Phone has a dial tone (off hook) or connected to another
phone
Phone dialed is busy
Phone is dialing another phone
Phone has failed
Phone status not known
Phone is disabled
Phone is reserved for data transmission
Calling other phone or incoming call from other phone
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Internal Phone External Phone
Description
Other phone is on hold
Phones are connected
Table 8-3 Telephone Symbols
CONTACTS
The names, telephone number, and email addresses can be saved in a list of contacts for easy use
when making telephone calls.
Entering a new contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) If necessary, turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘New Entry’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves the ‘Name’ field of the ‘Contact Details’ window.
4) Enter the desired name of the new contact. Entry can be accomplished through the
alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the
MFD.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Phone Number’ field.
6) Enter the desired telephone number. Entry can be accomplished through the
alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the
MFD.
7) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Email’ field.
8) Enter the desired email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric
keys on the MFD Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the MFD.
9) Press the ENT Key. The Save button is highlighted.
10) Press the ENT Key. The new contact entry is added to the list of saved contacts.
Deleting a contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name.
3) Select the Delete Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the selected contact.
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Figure 8-17 Editing a Contact
Editing a contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name.
3) Select the Edit Softkey. The cursor is placed in the ‘Name’ field. Enter the desired
changes. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the MFD.
4) Press the ENT Key when each field is complete. The Save Button is now highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key to save the changes.
INCOMING CALLS
When viewing MFD pages other than the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page, a pop-up alert will be displayed and
an aural alert “Incoming Call” will be heard. If the incoming call is an Iridium network call, Iridium
will be displayed. The pop-up alert may be inhibited at times, such as during takeoff. In addition to
the pop-up alert, a ringing phone symbol will be displayed to the right of the MFD page title. Also, the
voice alert “Incoming Call” will be heard on the selected cockpit audio.
Answering an incoming call in the cockpit:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page
2) Press the Phone Key on the appropriate audio panel.
3) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
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4) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Answer Incoming Call’.
5) Press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the Phone Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Press the Answer Softkey on the MFD.
Pressing the Ignore Softkey will extinguish the pop-up window and leave the call
unanswered. Pressing the Phone Softkey will display the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page allowing
additional call information to be viewed before answering.
Muting incoming call alerts:
1) With the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display
the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable Incoming Call Alerts’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The voice and pop-up alert will not be displayed now when an
incoming call is received.
OUTGOING CALLS
Making an external call:
1) Press the Phone Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Press the Dial Softkey on the MFD.
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Figure 8-18 Enter Phone Number
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Iridium’.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor has now moved to the phone number entry field.
The International dialing sequence is necessary to place a call from the cockpit to an
external phone: Country Code + City/Area Code (if any) + Telephone Number. The
following country codes may be used when calling other satellite telephone systems.
Satellite System Country Code
Inmarsat
870
ICO
8810 or 8811
Ellipso
8812 or 8813
Iridium
8816 or 8817
Globalstar
8818 or 8819
5) Enter the desired telephone number (country code first) by pressing the number
softkeys on the MFD.
6) Press the ENT Key. ‘OK’ is highlighted.
7) Press the ENT Key. The system will begin calling the number.
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Figure 8-19 System is Making the Connection
When the phone is answered, the connection is established. To exit the call, press the
Hangup Softkey.
Figure 8-20 Phone is Answered, Connection Complete
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Making an external call from the cockpit by using the Contact List:
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired contact name in the list of contacts.
4) Select the Call Softkey. The external call is initiated and the number associated with the
contact name is dialed.
PLACING THE COCKPIT PHONE ON HOLD
Placing a call on hold:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Put Current Call On Hold’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Or:
Press the Hold Softkey on the MFD.
The cockpit phone is now isolated from the call. This figure illustrates a call between
the cockpit and an external phone in which the cockpit phone has been put on hold.
Press the Hold Softkey again to resume the call.
TEXT MESSAGING (SMS)
The pilot or copilot can send and receive text messages on the Iridium satellite network. Messages
may be sent to an email address or text message capable cellular telephone. Message length is limited
to 160 characters, including the email address. Senders should address text messages to aircraft by
entering [aircraft Iridium phone number]@msg.iridium.com.
The text messaging user interface is mainly through the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page.
Viewing the Text Messaging Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux-Telephone’ or ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page.
3) If necessary, press the SMS Softkey to display the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page.
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Figure 8-21 Text Messaging Page
Message Symbol
Description
Received text message that has not been opened
Received text message that has been opened
Saved text message, draft not sent
System is sending text message
Text message has been sent
System failed to send text message
Predefined text message
Table 8-4 Text Message Symbols
VIEWING A TEXT MESSAGE WHEN RECEIVED
When viewing MFD pages other than the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, a pop-up alert will be
displayed when a new text message is received.
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New Text Message Pop-up
New Text Message Symbol on MFD Page
Figure 8-22 New Text Message Received
Press the View Softkey to view the message. Pressing the Ignore Softkey will extinguish the pop-up
window and leave the text message unopened. Pressing the Ignore All Softkey will extinguish the popwindow and ignore all future incoming text messages. Pressing the SMS Softkey will display the ‘AuxText Messaging’ Page.
Figure 8-23 Text Message Displayed from Pop-Up Alert
The pop-up alerts may be enabled or disabled through the Page Menu.
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Enabling/disabling incoming text message pop-up alerts:
1) With the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to
display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable New Message Popups’ or ‘Enable
New Message Popups’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The pop-up alert will not be displayed when an incoming text
message is received.
Figure 8-24 Disabling New Text Message Pop-Ups
REPLY TO A TEXT MESSAGE
After reading a text message, a reply may be sent.
Replying to a text message:
While viewing the text message, press the Reply Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Reply To Message’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
SENDING A TEXT MESSAGE
Text messages may be sent from the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page.
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Sending a new text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the New Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-25 Composing a New Text Message
2) The SMS Text Message Draft Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘To’ field.
Enter the desired telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished
through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or combination of the FMS
Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to enter letters
and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by pressing the Numbers
Softkey. Press the CapsLock Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters.
Special characters can be accessed by pressing the Symbols Softkey.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘Message’ field.
4) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step
2.
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5) Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the Send Softkey to send the message immediately, or press the Save Softkey to
save the message in Outbox for sending at a later time. Press the Cancel Softkey to
delete the message.
Sending a New Text Message/Email to a Saved Contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name.
3) Select either the Text Email Softkey to send to the email address saved for the contact
or Text Phone Softkey to send to the phone number saved for the contact. The cursor
is placed in the ‘To’ field. Confirm the contact you wish to send a message to by
pressing the ENT Key.
4) Enter the desired message, then press the ENT Key.
5) Confirm you wish to send the message by pressing the ENT Key with ‘Yes’ highlighted.
Select ‘No’ to return to the message entry field and either select the Cancel Softkey to
delete the message or select the Save Softkey to save the message as a draft.
PREDEFINED TEXT MESSAGES
Time and effort can be saved in typing text messages that are used repeatedly by saving these
messages as a predefined message.
Creating a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page
Menu.
Figure 8-26 Creating/Editing Predefined Messages
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select ‘Edit Predefined Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Predefined Messages view is now displayed.
4) Press the New Softkey.
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Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Predefined Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The Predefined SMS Text Message Window is now displayed.
Figure 8-27 Composing a Predefined Message
5) The cursor is displayed in the ‘Title’ field. Enter the desired message title. Entry can be
accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or combination of
the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to
enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by pressing the
Numbers Softkey. Press the CapsLock Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha
characters. Special characters can be accessed by pressing the Symbols Softkey.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘Message’ field.
7) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step
5.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Press the Save Softkey. The new predefined message is now shown in the displayed list.
Pressing the Cancel Softkey will delete the message without saving.
10) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
11) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Cancel Drafting Message’.
12) Press the ENT Key.
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Sending a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the New Softkey.
2) The Predefined SMS Text Message Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘To’
field. Enter the desired telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished
through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or combination of the FMS
Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to enter letters
and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by pressing the Numbers
Softkey. Press the CapsLock Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters.
Special characters can be accessed by pressing the Symbols Softkey.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘Message’ field.
4) Press the Predefined Softkey. The Predefined Message Menu Window is displayed.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired predefined message.
6) Press the ENT Key. The predefined message text is inserted into the message field. If
desired, the message can be edited by using the FMS Knobs.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the Send Softkey to transmit the message.
TEXT MESSAGE BOXES
Received text messages reside in the Inbox as ‘Read’ or ‘Unread’ messages. The Outbox contains
‘Sent” and ‘Unsent’ text messages. Saved messages that are meant to be sent later are stored as Drafts.
Each text message box may be viewed separately, or together in any combination.
Show Inbox messages:
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press
the Inbox Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Inbox Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left
of the list window.
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Figure 8-28 Text Message Inbox
Show Outbox messages:
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press
the Outbox Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Outbox Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left
of the list window.
Show Draft messages:
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press
the Drafts Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Draft Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left
of the list window.
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MANAGING TEXT MESSAGES
The viewed messages may be listed according to the date/time the message was sent or received, the
type of message (read, unread, sent, unsent, etc.), or by message address.
Viewing messages sorted by message date/time:
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press
the Time Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Date/Time’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list
window.
Viewing messages sorted by message type:
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press
the Type Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Type’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list
window.
Viewing messages sorted by address:
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press
the Address Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Address’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list
window..
Viewing the content of a text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, select the desired message box.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
4) Press the View Softkey.
Or:
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Press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘View Selected Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Message content is displayed.
5) To close the text message, press the Close Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Close Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Marking selected message as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the FMS Knob to
activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Press the MRK Read Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark Selected Message As Read’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
The message symbol now indicates the message has been opened.
Marking all messages as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the MENU Key to
display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark All New Messages As Read’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed.
4) With cursor highlighting ‘YES’, press the ENT Key. The message symbols now indicate
all the message have been opened.
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Deleting a message:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the FMS Knob to
activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Press the Delete Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu.’
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Delete Selected Message’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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8.7 FLIGHT DATA LOGGING
NOTE: Some aircraft installations may not provide all aircraft/engine data capable of being
logged by the system.
The Flight Data Logging feature will automatically store critical flight and engine data on an SD data
card (up to 16GB) inserted into the top card slot of the MFD. Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be
recorded for each 1GB of available space on the card.
Data is written to the SD card once each second while the MFD is powered on. All flight data logged
on a specific date is stored in a file named in a format which includes the date, time, and nearest airport
identifier. The file is created automatically each time the system is powered on, provided an SD card has
been inserted.
The status of the Flight Data Logging feature can be viewed on the ‘Aux-Utility’ Page. If no SD card has
been inserted, “NO CARD” is displayed. When data is being written to the SD card, “LOGGING DATA”
is displayed.
The .csv file may be viewed with Microsoft Excel® or other spreadsheet applications.
The following is a list of data parameters the system is capable of logging.
•
Local Date (YYYY-MM-DD)
•
Local Time (HH:MM:SS)
•
Active Waypoint Distance (nm)
•
Active Waypoint Bearing (degrees mag.)
•
UTC Offset (HH:MM)
•
Mag. Variation (degrees)
•
Active Waypoint Identifier
•
Voltage 1 (volts)
•
Voltage 2 (volts)
•
Amps 1 (amps)
•
Amps 2 (amps)
•
AFCS On ( 0 – false, 1 – true)
•
Latitude (degrees)
•
AFCS Roll Mode (e.g. HDG, LOC, GPS, VOR, ROL)
•
Longitude (degrees)
•
Right Fuel Qty (gals or lbs)
•
Left Fuel Qty (gals or lbs)
•
Center Fuel Qty (gals or lbs)
•
AFCS Pitch Mode (e.g. ALT, GS, GP, VS)
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•
Barometric Altitude (feet)
•
Altimeter Setting (in. Hg.)
•
GPS Altitude (ft)
•
Pitch Commanded (degrees)
•
Roll Commanded (degrees)
•
OAT (deg. C)
•
True Airspeed (kts)
•
Selected Vertical Speed (fpm)
•
Vertical Speed (fpm)
•
HSI Selection (GPS,NAV1/2)
•
GPS Fix (e.g. 2D, 3D, 3DDiff)
•
Indicated Airspeed (kts)
•
Horizontal Alert Limit (HAL, meters)
•
Gnd Speed (kts)
•
Vertical Alert Limit (VAL, meters)
•
Vertical Speed (fpm)
•
NAV1 Frequency (MHz)
•
NAV2 Frequency (MHz)
•
Horizontal Protection Level (HPLWAS, meters)
•
Pitch (degrees)
•
Roll (degrees)
•
Horizontal Protection Level (HPLFD, meters)
•
Vertical Protection Level (VPLWAS, meters)
•
COM1 Frequency (MHz)
•
COM2 Frequency (MHz)
•
Lateral Acceleration (g)
•
CDI Deflection (0.0 to 1.0)
•
VDI Deflection (0.0 to 1.0)
•
Normal Acceleration (g)
•
Heading (degrees magnetic)
•
Course (deg)
•
Wind Direction (degrees mag.)
•
Wind Speed (kts)
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•
Gnd Trk (degrees magnetic)
•
Fuel Flow (gph)
•
Fuel Press. (psi)
•
Oil Temperature (deg. F)
•
Oil Pressure (psi)
•
Engine Speed (rpm)
•
Power (%)
•
Torque (ft. lbs.)
•
Np (rpm)
•
Ng (%)
•
ITT (deg. C)
The file containing the recorded data will appear in the format shown in the following figure. This file
can be imported into most computer spreadsheet applications.
Local Date
YYMMDD
Local 24hr Time
HHMMSS
Nearest Airport
(A blank will be
inserted if no
airport is found)
log_170610_104506_KIXD.csv
Figure 8-29 Log File Format
Data logging status can be monitored on the ‘Aux-Utility’ Page.
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8.8 CONNEXT SETUP
The Connext Setup Page allows for setting up the installed optional Flight Stream device for a
Bluetooth connection between the system and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™ application.
The mobile device must be ‘paired’ with the system in order to use the various functions. Pairing is
accomplished by first placing the system in pairing mode by displaying the Connext Setup Page. The
system is ‘discoverable’ whenever this page is displayed. The pairing operation is completed from the
mobile device and the Garmin Pilot application. See the device Bluetooth pairing instructions and the
connection instructions in the Garmin Pilot application.
Viewing the Connext Setup Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Connext Setup page.
Changing the Bluetooth Name:
1) While viewing the Connext Setup Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Bluetooth Name’ field.
3) Enter the desired name by using the large FMS Knob to select the character field, and
the small FMS Knob select the desired alphanumeric character for that field.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is removed and the new name is displayed.
Enabling/Disabling Flight Plan Importing from Garmin Pilot:
1) While viewing the Connext Setup Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Flight Plan Import’ field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Enabling/Disabling WiFi Database Importing from Garmin Pilot:
1) While viewing the Connext Setup Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘WiFi Database Import’ field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Enabling/Disabling Automatic Reconnection of a Specific Paired Device:
1) While viewing the Connext Setup Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired paired device.
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3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’. Selecting ‘Enabled’ allows
the system to automatically connect to a previously paired device when detected.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Remove a Specific Paired Device from the List of Paired Devices:
1) While viewing the Connext Setup Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired paired device.
3) Press the Remove Softkey. A confirmation screen is displayed.
4) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Yes’.
5) Press the ENT Key to remove the device from the list of paired devices.
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8.9 SURFACEWATCH
SURFACEWATCH
NOTE: The SafeTaxi database must be available to provide information regarding taxiways,
aprons and other objects in the airport environment.
The SurfaceWatch™ feature provides visual annunciations to help the flight crew maintain
situational awareness and avoid potential runway incursions and excursions during ground and air
operations in the airport environment. The SurfaceWatch feature is comprised of the following key
components:
•
Alert Annunciations
Taxiway Takeoff
Runway Too Short (during takeoff or landing)
Check Runway (during takeoff or landing)
Taxiway Landing
•
Runway distance remaining
•
Provides information on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) that contains runway and taxiway
information that changes as the aircraft moves through the airport environment
The SurfaceWatch feature is not available in Reversionary Mode.
Inhibit/Uninhibit SurfaceWatch:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the SurfaceWatch field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to toggle the SurfaceWatch alerts on or off.
INFORMATION BOX
The SurfaceWatch™ Information Box is displayed on the PFD. It contains runway and taxiway
information that dynamically changes as the aircraft moves through the airport environment. The
information that is displayed in the Information Box is the aircraft’s relative position to nearby aprons,
taxiways, and runways.
There are three components to the SurfaceWatch™ Information Box. These components are
Currently Occupied, Approaching, and Crossing Runways.
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Crossing Runways
Currently Occupied
Approaching
Figure 8-30 Information Types Displayed in the Information Box
CURRENTLY OCCUPIED
This component indicates the aircraft is ‘ON’ the indicated apron, taxiway, or runway. The aircraft
is currently ‘ON’ runway 04 right (RWY 04R). The remaining runway distance is also shown when
the aircraft is situated on and aligned with a runway.
If the aircraft is airborne and approaching an airport, ‘AIRBORNE TO’ and the destination airport
identifier will be displayed.
Information regarding non-manuevering areas not labeled on the SafeTaxi diagram will not be
displayed.
APPROACHING COMPONENT
This component indicates the aircraft is ‘APPROACHING’ the indicated apron, taxiway, or runway.
In the following figure, the aircraft is currently ‘APPROACHING’ taxiway E (TWY E). The distance to
the taxiway is also shown.
When the aircraft is taxiing and approaching an intersection of multiple taxiways, the taxiway
identifiers will be listed in order of proximity and the distance to the nearest is displayed.
When the aircraft is taxiing and crossing an intersection of multiple taxiways, ‘CROSSING’ will be
displayed and no distance will be shown.
CROSSING RUNWAYS
This component lists the runways, from closest to furthest, that are ‘CROSSING’ the runway the
aircraft currently occupies. The distance to each runway is also shown in order of closest distance.
Runways behind the aircraft are not depicted.
The Crossing Runways component is shown in conjunction with the Currently Occupied
component of the Information Box.
ALERTS
The SurfaceWatch alert annunciations are displayed in the central portion of the PFD. The alert
annunciations are accompanied by a corresponding voice alert.
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SufaceWatch Annunciation
Associated Voice Alert
Description
“Taxiway”
Issued when the aircraft is
taking off from a non-runway
(e.g. a taxiway)
“Runway too Short”
Issued when the aircraft is
taking off from, or landing on,
a runway with a length less
than needed as entered by the
crew.
“Check Runway”
Issued when the aircraft is
taking off from, or landing on,
a runway different than that
entered by the crew.
“Taxiway”
Issued when the aircraft is
landing on a non-runway (e.g.
a taxiway).
Table 8-5 SuraceWatch Alert Annunciations
TAKEOFF ALERTS
The Takeoff phase-of-flight, as determined by the system, must be valid in order for the system to
issue Takeoff Alerts.
TAXIWAY TAKEOFF
The Taxiway Takeoff alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a non-runway (e.g. a
taxiway) or the aircraft is not aligned with a runway.
In addition to the visual and voice alerts, the Information Box contains a textual description of the
currently occupied taxiway (or other maneuvering area) and potentially the next area (apron or
maneuvering area) to be occupied (based on aircraft heading and the airport geometry) and the
distance to that area.
Figure 8-31 Typical Taxiway Information Displayed in the Information Box
RUNWAY TOO SHORT
The Runway Too Short (during takeoff) alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a
runway and the remaining runway length is less than the required length. The insufficient runway
length condition is determined based on aircraft current position during the takeoff roll and the
required takeoff distance information entered on the Takeoff Data Screen.
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Note that while the Runway Too Short alert may be issued for any runway from which the aircraft
is taking off, the system will always calculate the runway length for the specific runway entered in
the Takeoff Data.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will contain a textual description of
the currently occupied runway and the remaining runway length as shown in the following figure.
Figure 8-32 Typical Runway Information Displayed in the Information Box
CHECK RUNWAY
The Check Runway alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a runway that does
not match the departure runway entered in the Takeoff Data Screen.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box contains a textual description of the
currently occupied runway.
LANDING ALERTS
The On-Final phase-of-flight, as determined by the system, must be valid in order for the system to
issue Landing Alerts.
TAXIWAY LANDING
The Taxiway Landing alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a non-runway (e.g. a
taxiway) or the aircraft is not aligned with a runway.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will display the destination airport
identifier and the text “APPROACHING TWY” to indicate a non-runway landing is being attempted.
Figure 8-33 Typical Information Displayed During a Taxiway Landing Alert
RUNWAY TOO SHORT
The Runway Too Short alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a runway where the
remaining runway length is less than the required landing runway length entered in the Landing
Data Screen.
Note that while the Runway Too Short alert may be issued for any runway with which aircraft is
aligned, the system will always calculate the runway length for the specific runway entered in
entered in the Landing Data Screen.
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In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will display the destination airport
identifier and the text “APPROACHING REMAINING” to indicate a the remaining runway length as
indicated in following figure.
Figure 8-34 Typical Information Displayed During a Runway Too Short Alert
CHECK RUNWAY
The Check Runway alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a runway that does not
match the arrival runway specified in the Landing Data.
Additionally, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier, the runway with
which the aircraft is aligned, and the distance to the runway see following figure.
Figure 8-35 Typical Information Displayed During a Check Runway Alert
SURFACEWATCH SETUP
Origin/destination airport, runway and distance data entered integrates with SurfaceWatch
technology to alert the flight crew to a runway too short for takeoff/landing, or to advise of a potential
taxiway takeoff/landing. The runway selected in SurfaceWatch Setup appears on the airport diagram in
cyan, and appears outlined in cyan on the synthetic vision representation of the runway on the PFD.
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Figure 8-36 SurfaceWatch Setup Page (MFD)
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Figure 8-37 SurfaceWatch Info and Cyan Runway Outline (PFD)
Entering Origin/Destination Airport:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
2) Press the FMSKnob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the Origin or Destination Airport
field.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to input the desired Origin or Destination Airport.
Selecting Origin/Destination Runway:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
2) Press the FMSKnob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the Runway or Landing Runway field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired available Runway or Landing Runway. As
the small FMS Knob is turned, the preview of the selected runway or landing runway is
also displayed.
Selecting Required Takeoff/Landing Distance:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
2) Press the FMSKnob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
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3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the ‘REQD Takeoff DIS’ or ‘REQD
Landing DIS’ field.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the required takeoff or landing distance. Upon pressing
the FMS Knob and committing the required takeoff or landing distance, the Runway
Length field will turn amber if an insufficient runway length exists.
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8.10 ELECTRONIC STABILITY AND PROTECTION (ESP)
Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) is an optional feature that is intended to discourage the
exceedance of attitude, established airspeed and angle of attack parameters. This feature will only
function when the aircraft is above 200 feet AGL and the autopilot is not engaged.
ESP engages when the aircraft exceeds one or more conditions (pitch, roll, Vmo, Mmo, and/or angle of
attack) beyond the normal flight parameters. Enhanced stability for each condition is provided by
applying a force to the appropriate control surface to return the aircraft to the normal flight envelope.
This is perceived by the pilot as resistance to control movement in the undesired direction when the
aircraft approaches a steep attitude, high airspeed, or when a stall is imminent.
As the aircraft deviates further from the normal attitude, angle of attack, or airspeed continues to
increase, the force increases (up to an established maximum) to encourage control movement in the
direction necessary to return to the normal attitude and/or airspeed range. Except in the case of high
airspeed, when maximum force is reached, force remains constant up to the maximum engagement
limit. Above the maximum engagement limit, forces are no longer applied. There is no maximum
engagement related to a high airspeed condition.
When ESP has been engaged for more than ten seconds (cumulative; not necessarily consecutive
seconds) of a 20-second interval, the autopilot is automatically engaged with the flight director in Level
Mode, bringing the aircraft into level flight. An aural “Engaging Autopilot” alert is played and the flight
director mode annunciation will indicate ‘LVL’ for vertical and lateral modes.
The pilot can interrupt ESP by pressing and holding either the Control Wheel Steering (CWS) or
Autopilot Disconnect (AP/YD DISC TRIM INTRPT) switch. Upon releasing the CWS or AP/YD DISC
TRIM INTRPT switch, ESP force will again be applied, provided aircraft attitude, angle of attack and/or
airspeed are within their respective engagement limits. ESP can also be overridden by overpowering the
servo’s mechanical torque limit.
ESP can be enabled or disabled on the ‘Aux-System Setup 2’ Page on the MFD.
ESP is automatically enabled on system power up.
Enabling/Disabling ESP:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, select the SETUP 2 Softkey to display the Aux-System Setup 2 Page. If the
Aux-System Setup 2 is already displayed, proceed to step 4.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Stability & Protection field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
ROLL ENGAGEMENT
Roll Limit Indicators are displayed on the roll scale at 45° right and left, indicating where ESP will
engage. As roll attitude exceeds 45°, ESP will engage and the on-side Roll Limit Indicator will move to
30°. The Roll Limit Indicator is now showing where ESP will disengage as roll attitude decreases.
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45°)
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45°)
Figure 8-38 ESP Roll Engagement Indication (ESP NOT Engaged)
ESP Engage (45°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 44°
Before ESP Engage
ESP Disengage (30°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 46°
After ESP Engage
Figure 8-39 Roll Increasing to ESP Engagement
Once engaged, ESP force will be applied between 30° and 75°. The force increases as roll attitude
increases and decreases as roll attitude decreases. The applied force is intended to encourage pilot
input that returns the airplane to a more normal roll attitude. As roll attitude decreases, ESP will
disengage at 30°.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
º
30
20º
10º
0º
10º
20º
90º
90º
75º
75º
º
60
60
º
º
45
º
45
30
º
Figure 8-40 ESP Roll Operating Range When Engaged(Force Increases as Roll Increases &
Decreases as Roll Decreases)
ESP is automatically disengaged if the aircraft reaches the autopilot roll engagement attitude limit of
75°.
ESP Upper Disengage Limit (75°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 74°
Figure 8-41 Roll Attitude Autopilot Engagement Limit (ESP Engaged)
PITCH ENGAGEMENT
ESP engages at 20° nose-up and 17° nose-down. Once ESP is engaged, it will apply opposing force
between 15° and 50° nose-up and between 12° and 50° nose-down. Maximum opposing force is
applied between 25° and 50° nose-up and between 22° and 50° nose-down.
The opposing force increases or decreases depending on the pitch angle and the direction of pitch
travel. This force is intended to encourage movement in the pitch axis in the direction of the normal
pitch attitude range for the aircraft.
There are no indications marking the pitch ESP engage and disengage limits in these nose-up/nosedown conditions.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
50˚
45˚
45˚
40˚
40˚
35˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
50˚
25˚
20˚
20˚
15˚
15˚
10˚
10˚
5˚
5˚
0˚
0˚
5˚
5˚
10˚
10˚
15˚
15˚
20˚
20˚
25˚
25˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
25˚
35˚
40˚
40˚
45˚
45˚
50˚
50˚
Figure 8-42 ESP Pitch Operating Range When Engaged(Force Increases as Pitch Increases &
Decreases as Pitch Decreases)
ANGLE OF ATTACK PROTECTION
When a compatible lift computer is installed with the G1000NXi retrofit, angle of attack protection
is provided as part of the ESP feature. ESP force may be applied if the lift computer determines a stall
warning condition is imminent. In this condition, the Pitch Limit Indicator will be initially displayed
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
4° below this computed pitch attitude. When pitch attitude equals that indicated by the Pitch Limit
Indicator, ESP will engage, applying a force in the direction necessary to lower the nose of the aircraft.
Pitch Limit Indicator
Figure 8-43 Pitch Limit Indicator
HIGH AIRSPEED PROTECTION
Exceeding Vmo or Mmo will result in ESP applying force to raise the nose of the aircraft. When the
high airspeed condition is remedied, ESP force is no longer applied.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.11 ELECTRONIC CHECKLISTS
NOTE: The optional checklists presented here are for example only and may differ from
checklists available for the airframe. The information described in this section is not intended
to replace the checklist information described in the POH or the Pilot Safety and Warning
Supplements document.
NOTE: Garmin is not responsible for the content of checklists. Checklists are created by the
aircraft manufacturer. Modifications or updates to the checklists are coordinated through the
aircraft manufacturer. The user cannot edit these checklists.
The MFD is able to display optional electronic checklists which allow a pilot to quickly find the proper
procedure on the ground and during each phase of flight. The system accesses the checklists from an SD
card inserted into the bezel slot. If the SD card contains an invalid checklist file or no checklist, the
Power-up Page messages display ‘Checklist File: Invalid’ or ‘Checklist File: N/A’ (not available) and the
ChecklistSoftkey is not available.
Accessing and Navigating Checklist
1) From any page on the MFD (except the EIS Pages), press the Checklist Softkey or turn
the large FMS Knob to select the Checklist Page.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Group’ field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired procedure and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Checklist’ field.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired checklist and press the ENT Key. The selected
checklist item is indicated with white text surrounded by a white box.
6) Press the ENT Key or Check Softkey to check the selected checklist item. The line item
turns green and a checkmark is placed in the associated box. The next line item is
automatically selected for checking.
Either FMS Knob can be used to scroll through the checklist and select the desired
checklist item.
Press the CLR Key or Uncheck Softkey to remove a check mark from an item.
7) When all checklist items have been checked, ‘*Checklist Finished*’ is displayed in green
text at the bottom left of the checklist window. If all items in the checklist have not be
checked, ‘*Checklist Not Finished*’ will be displayed in yellow text.
8) Press the ENT Key. ‘Go To Next Checklist?’ will be highlighted by the cursor.
9) Press the ENT Key to advance to the next checklist.
10) Press the Exit Softkey to exit the Checklist Page and return to the page last viewed.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Accessing Emergency Checklist
1) From any page on the MFD (except the EIS Pages), press the Checklist Softkey or turn
the large FMS Knob to select the Checklist Page.
2) Press the EMER Softkey.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired emergency checklist and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the ENT Key or Check Softkey to check the selected emergency checklist item.
The line item turns green and a checkmark is placed in the box next to it. The next line
item is automatically highlighted for checking.
Either FMS Knob can be used to scroll through the checklist and select the desired
checklist item.
Press the CLR Key or Uncheck Softkey to remove a check mark from an item.
5) When all checklist items have been checked, ‘*Checklist Finished*’ is displayed in green
text at the bottom left of the checklist window. If all items in the checklist have not be
checked, ‘*Checklist Not Finished*’ will be displayed in yellow text.
6) Press the ENT Key. ‘Go To Next Checklist?’ will be highlighted by the cursor.
7) Press the ENT Key to advance to the next checklist.
8) Press the Return Softkey to return to the previous checklist.
9) Press the Exit Softkey to exit the Checklist Page and return to the page last viewed.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.12 ABNORMAL OPERATION
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
Unusual attitudes are displayed with red chevrons overlaid on the display indicating the direction to
fly to correct the unusual attitude condition. The display shows either a brown or blue colored bar at
the top or bottom of the screen to represent earth or sky. This is intended to prevent losing sight of the
horizon during extreme pitch attitudes.
The blue colored bar is also displayed when terrain gradient is great enough to completely fill the
display.
Figure 8-44 Unusual Attitude Display
GDL 69A / GDL 69A SIRIUSXM DATA LINK RECEIVER
TROUBLESHOOTING
Some quick troubleshooting steps listed below can be performed to find the possible cause of a
failure.
•
Ensure the owner/operator of the aircraft in which the Data Link Receiver is installed has subscribed
to SiriusXM
•
Ensure the SiriusXM subscription has been activated
•
Perform a quick check of the circuit breakers to ensure that power is applied to the Data Link
Receiver
For troubleshooting purposes, check the LRU Information Box on the ‘Aux - System Status Page’ for
Data Link Receiver (GDL 69A / GDL 69A SiriusXM) status, serial number, and software version
number. If a failure has been detected in the GDL 69A / GDL 69A SiriusXM the status is marked with
a red X.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the System Status Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux —System Status’ Page (the last page in the
Aux Page Group).
If a failure still exists, the following messages may provide insight as to the possible problem:
Message
Message Location
Description
CHECK ANTENNA
XM Information Page (MFD)
Data Link Receiver antenna error; service
required
UPDATING
XM Information Page (MFD)
Data Link Receiver updating encryption
code
NO SIGNAL
XM Information Page Weather Loss of signal; signal strength too low for
Datalink Page (MFD)
receiver
LOADING
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Acquiring channel audio or information
OFF AIR
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Channel not in service
--------
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Missing channel information
WEATHER DATA LINK
FAILED
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
No communication from Data Link
Receiver within last 5 minutes
ACTIVATION REQUIRED
XM Information Page (MFD)
SiriusXM subscription is not activated
DETECTION
ACTIVATION
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
SiriusXM subscription is activating
WAITING FOR DATA...
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
SiriusXM subscription confirmed
downloading weather data
Table 8-6 Data Link Receiver Messages
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APPENDIX A
ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
NOTE: The Piper M500 Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) supersedes information found in
this document.
The Alerting System conveys alerts using the following:
•
CAS Window: The CAS Window displays abbreviated annunciation text. Text color is based on alert
levels described in the following section. The CAS Window is located to the right of the Altimeter and
Vertical Speed Indicator. A white horizontal line separates annunciations that are acknowledged from
annunciations that are not yet acknowledged. Higher priority annunciations are displayed towards the
top of the window.
•
Messages Window: The Messages Window displays text messages for up to 64 prioritized messages.
Pressing the Messages Softkey displays the Messages Window. Pressing the Message Softkey a second
time removes the Messages Window from the display. When the Messages Window is displayed, the
FMS Knob can be used to scroll through the message list.
•
Softkey Annunciation: When a new system message is issued, the Messages Softkey flashes to alert the
flight crew of a new message. It continues to flash until acknowledged by pressing the softkey. Active
messages are displayed in white text. Messages that have become inactive change to gray text. The
Messages Softkey flashes if the state of a displayed message changes or a new message is displayed.
The inactive messages can be removed from the Alerts Window by pressing the flashing Messages
Softkey.
•
System Annunciations: Typically, a large red ‘X’ appears over instruments whose information is
supplied by a failed Line Replaceable Unit (LRU). See the System Annunciations Section for more
information.
CAS MESSAGE PRIORITIZATION
NOTE: Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for corrective pilot actions.
NOTE: Any CAS messages that are generated when the system is first powered on are
considered already acknowledged. They do not flash or trigger the Warning or Caution
softkeys.
The Alerting System uses three alert levels. Messages are grouped by criticality (warning, caution,
advisory) and sorted by order of appearance (most recent messages on top). The color of the message
is based on its urgency and on required action:
The Crew Alerting System (CAS) Window is located on the right side of the PFD. Warning messages
cannot be scrolled through and remain at the top of the CAS display. The scroll bar appears if more
caution and advisory messages exist than can be displayed at once or if messages have been scrolled off
the display. The CAS softkeys also become available.
•
Warning: This level of alert requires immediate attention. When a new warning CAS message
appears in the CAS Window, it flashes (inversely red on white) in conjunction with the Warning
Softkey (see Figure A-3) and is accompanied by a repeating triple chime. Pressing the Warning
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APPENDIX A
Softkey acknowledges all flashing warning messages and extinguishes the softkey. Once
acknowledged, warning messages are shown in red text and are displayed until the issue is
corrected. Warning voice alerts repeat continuously until acknowledged by pressing the Warning
Softkey.
•
Caution: This level of alert indicates the existence of abnormal conditions on the aircraft that may
require intervention. When a new caution message appears in the CAS Window, it is shown in black
on amber inverse video in conjunction with the Caution Softkey (see Figure A-3) and is
accompanied by a double chime. Pressing the Caution Softkey Indicator acknowledges all amber
messages and extinguishes the softkey. Once acknowledged, caution messages are displayed until the
issue is corrected.
•
Advisory: This level of alert provides general information. When a new white advisory appears on
the CAS display, it is shown in black on white inverse video in conjunction with the Advisory
Softkey (see Figure A-3) and may be accompanied by a single chime.
Some CAS messages can be display in more than one alert level group. For example, a message
might display as both a warning and a caution, but cannot appear more than once at any given time
(unless the CAS is being tested). If the received signals justify multiple priorities for a certain message,
the message is displayed for the higher priority condition. When graduating to a higher priority, the
message flashes and requires new acknowledgment. When degrading to a lower priority condition, the
message moves to the top of the appropriate grouping, but does not require new acknowledgment
DISPLAY INHIBITS
Inhibits prevent certain CAS messages from being displayed during the following conditions:
•
If two alert levels of the same message are active simultaneously (e.g., FUEL IMBALANCE warning
and FUEL IMBALANCE caution) only the higher alert level is displayed.
•
If a GEA or GIA fails, all CAS messages depending on sensors associated with that LRU are
automatically inhibited. Inhibits cannot be activated by invalid sensor data.
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APPENDIX A
System
Annunciation
(Red ‘X’)
System
Annunciation
(Amber ‘X’)
CAS
Window
Messages
Window
Softkey
Annunciation
Figure A-1 Alerting System
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APPENDIX A
CAS
Window
CAS
Scrollbar
Softkey
Annunciation
CAS Scrolling
Softkeys
Figure A-2 CAS Message Prioritization
Figure A-3 Softkey Annunciation (Message Softkey Labels)
AUDIO ALERTING SYSTEM
The system issues audio alert tones when specific system conditions are met. See the Alert Level
Definitions Section for more information. The annunciation tone may be tested from the AUX System Status Page.
Testing the system annunciation tone:
1) Press the ANN Test Softkey.
2) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Highlight ‘Enable Annunciator Test Mode’ and press the ENT Key.
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APPENDIX A
CAS MESSAGES
The following annunciations are configured specifically for the Piper M500. Red annunciation
window text signifies warnings, amber signifies cautions, and white signifies advisories. See the POH
for recommended pilot actions.
Message
Description
ALTERNATOR FAIL
Alternator has failed
BLEED OVERTEMP
Bleed over temperature
CABIN ALT 12K
Cabin altitude above 12,000 feet
CHECK GEAR
Landing gear not down and locked
DOOR AJAR
Cabin door is not closed
ENGINE FIRE
Engine fire
FLAP FAIL
A flap system failure has occurred
FUEL IMBALANCE
Fuel imbalance (left wing versus right wing
quantity)
FUEL PRESS LOW
Fuel pressure is low
FUEL QTY
Fuel quantity is in the warning range
GEAR SYS
A component of the gear system has
failed.
GENERATOR FAIL
Generator has failed
HYDR PUMP ON
Hydraulic pump is running when it should
not be running
PITOT HEAT FAIL
Both left and right pitot heat have failed
PROP HEAT FAIL
Propeller heat failure
SURF DEICE FAIL
Surface de-ice fail
T/O CONFIG
Aircraft is not configured for takeoff
USP ACTIVE
Underspeed protection is active
WDSHLD
OVRTMP
Windshield heater over-temperature or
controller malfunction
Table A-1 Warning Messages
Message
190–02380–00 Rev. A
Description
BETA
Propeller is operating in Beta mode
CABIN ALT 10K
Cabin altitude is above 10,000 feet
CHECK GEAR
Landing gear not down and locked
CHIP DETECT
Chip detected. Engine oil is contaminated.
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APPENDIX A
Message
CPCS FAIL
CPCS FAULT
FEATHER
Description
Cabin Pressure Controller has failed or lost
ARINC communication on the ground
Cabin Pressure Controller has lost ARINC
communication
Propeller is feathered or a failure has
occurred in the feather system
FIRE DTECT FAIL
Fire detection system has failed
FUEL FILTER
The fuel filter is contaminated
FUEL IMBALANCE
Fuel imbalance (left wing versus right wing
quantity)
FUEL QTY
Fuel quantity is in the caution range
GEAR SYS
A component of the gear system has failed
HYDR PUMP ON
Hydraulic pump is running when it should
not be running. Caution has 15 sec. delay
L PITOT HT FAIL
Left pitot heat has failed
OXYGEN
Oxygen system has been turned on
PITOT HEAT OFF
Pitot heat is off
PROP HEAT FAIL
Propeller heat failure
R PITOT HT FAIL
Right pitot heat has failed
STALL HEAT FAIL
The stall heater has been selected on and
OAT ≤ 5ºC
STALL WARN FAIL
Failure detected in stall warning system
START ENGAGED
Starter motor energized when engine is
running
SURF DEICE FAIL
Surface de-ice fail
Table A-2 Caution Messages
Message
AV1 FAN FAIL
The #1 cooling fan for remote avionics has
failed
AV2 FAN FAIL
The #2 cooling fan for remote avionics has
failed
BETA
DOOR AJAR
EMER BLEED ON
568
Description
Propeller is operating in Beta mode
Cabin door is not closed
Prop is feathered
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APPENDIX A
Message
Description
Propeller is feathered or a failure has
occurred in the feather system
FEATHER
Fuel temperature is low
FUEL TEMP
IGNITION ON
Engine ignition is on
L FUEL PUMP ON
Left fuel pump is on.
MAINTENANCE
MODE ON
Maintenance mode is ON.
MFD FAN FAIL
The cooling fan for the MFD has failed
OXYGEN
Oxygen system has been turned on
PFD1 FAN FAIL
The cooling fan for PFD1 has failed
PFD2 FAN FAIL
The cooling fan for PFD2 has failed
R FUEL PUMP ON
Right fuel pump is on.
STALL HEAT INHIB
Stall heat is inhibited
START ENGAGED
Starter motor energized
Aircraft is not configured for takeoff
T/O CONFIG
Table A-3 Advisory Messages
VOICE ALERTS
Voice Alert
Alert Trigger
“Airspeed”
Airspeed has exceeded VMO.
“Check Gear”
“Minimums,
Minimums”
The aircraft has descended below the
preset minimum descent altitude or
decision altitude.
“Stall”
Imminent stall is sensed by the stall vane(s).
“Timer Expired”
Countdown timer on the PFD has reached
zero.
“Traffic”
The Traffic Information Service (TIS) has
issued a Traffic Advisory alert.
“TIS not available”
The aircraft is outside the TIS coverage
area (not available with TAS installed).
“Traffic”
Played when first Traffic Advisory (TA) is
issued with an optional TAS System.
“Traffic” for each subsequent TA.
“TAS System Test
Passed”
190–02380–00 Rev. A
The ‘CHECK GEAR’ CAS message has been
triggered.
Played when the optional TAS system
passes a pilot-initiated self test.
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Voice Alert
“TAS System Test
Fail”
Alert Trigger
Played when the optional TAS system fails
a pilot-initiated self test.
“TCAS One System
Test Passed”
Played when the optional TCAS system
passes a pilot-initiated self test.
“TCAS One System
Test Failed”
Played when the optional TCAS system
fails a pilot-initiated self test.
“Vertical track”
The aircraft is one minute from Top of
Descent (only if vertical navigation is
enabled).
“Incoming Call”
There is an active, incoming call.
SYSTEM MESSAGE ANNUNCIATIONS
System Messages convey messages to the flight crew regarding problems with the system. When a
new message is issued, the Message Softkey flashes to alert the flight crew. It continues to flash until
acknowledged by pressing the softkey; the softkey returns to its previous Messages label. Pressing the
Messages Softkey removes the Messages Window from the display. Active messages are displayed in
the Messages window in white text. Messages that have become inactive change to gray text. The
Message Softkey flashes again if the state of a displayed message changes or a new message is
displayed. Typically, a large red or amber ‘X’ appears in a window when a related LRU fails or detects
invalid data.
Messages
Window
Message Annunciation
(Prior to softkey being
pressed)
Messages Annunciation
(After softkey is
pressed)
Figure A-4 Message/Messages Softkey Annunciation
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APPENDIX A
SYSTEM MESSAGES
This section describes various system messages. Certain messages are issued due to an LRU or an LRU
function failure. Such messages are normally accompanied by a corresponding red ‘X’ annunciation as
shown previously in the System Annunciation section.
NOTE: his section provides information regarding system messages that may be displayed by
the system. Knowledge of the aircraft, systems, flight conditions, and other existing
operational priorities must be considered when responding to a message. Always use sound
pilot judgment. The POH takes precedence over any conflicting guidance found in this
section.
Message
Comments
ABORT APR – Loss
of GPS navigation.
Abort approach.
Abort approach due to loss of GPS
navigation.
ADC1 ALT EC –
ADC1 altitude error
correction is
unavailable.
GDC1 is reporting that the altitude error
correction is unavailable.
GDC1 is reporting that the airspeed error
ADC1 AS EC –
ADC1 airspeed error correction is unavailable.
correction is
unavailable.
The GDC1 should be serviced.
ADC1 SERVICE –
ADC1 needs service.
Return unit for
repair.
ADC2 ALT EC –
ADC2 altitude error
correction is
unavailable.
GDC2 is reporting that the altitude error
correction is unavailable.
GDC2 is reporting that the airspeed error
ADC2 AS EC –
ADC2 airspeed error correction is unavailable.
correction is
unavailable.
The GDC2 should be serviced.
ADC2 SERVICE –
ADC2 needs service.
Return unit for
repair.
AFT AV FAN FAIL – The cooling fan for the aft remote avionics
The cooling fan for has failed.
aft avionics has
failed.
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APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
AHRS MAG DB –
AHRS magnetic
model database
version mismatch.
The #1 AHRS and #2 AHRS magnetic
model database versions do not match.
AHRS1 CAL –
AHRS1 calibration
version error. Srvc
req’d.
The #1 AHRS calibration version error. The
system should be serviced.
AHRS configuration settings do not match
AHRS1 CONFIG –
AHRS1 config error. those of backup configuration memory.
Config service req’d. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving any or any
AHRS1 GPS –
AHRS1 not receiving useful GPS information. Check AFMS
limitations. The system should be serviced.
any GPS
information.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS
AHRS1 GPS –
AHRS1 not receiving information. The system should be
serviced.
backup GPS
information.
The #1 AHRS is operating exclusively in noAHRS1 GPS –
GPS mode. The system should be serviced.
AHRS1 operating
exclusively in no-GPS
mode.
The #1 AHRS is using the backup GPS
AHRS1 GPS –
AHRS1 using backup path. Primary GPS path has failed. The
system should be serviced when possible.
GPS source.
AHRS1 SERVICE –
AHRS1 needs
service. Return unit
for repair.
A failure has been detected in the #1
AHRS. The system should be serviced.
AHRS1 SRVC –
AHRS1 Magneticfield model needs
update.
The #1 AHRS earth magnetic field model is
out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed
AHRS1 TAS –
AHRS1 not receiving from the air data computer. The AHRS
relies on GPS information to augment the
valid airspeed.
lack of airspeed. The system should be
serviced.
AHRS2 CAL –
AHRS2 calibration
version error. Srvc
req’d.
572
The #2 AHRS calibration version error. The
system should be serviced.
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APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
AHRS configuration settings do not match
AHRS2 CONFIG –
AHRS2 config error. those of backup configuration memory.
Config service req’d. The system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving any or any
AHRS2 GPS –
AHRS2 not receiving useful GPS information. Check AFMS
limitations. The system should be serviced.
any GPS
information.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS
AHRS2 GPS –
AHRS2 not receiving information. The system should be
serviced.
backup GPS
information.
The #2 AHRS is operating exclusively in noAHRS2 GPS –
GPS mode. The system should be serviced.
AHRS2 operating
exclusively in no-GPS
mode.
The #2 AHRS is using the backup GPS
AHRS2 GPS –
AHRS2 using backup path. Primary GPS path has failed. The
system should be serviced when possible.
GPS source.
AHRS2 SERVICE –
AHRS2 needs
service. Return unit
for repair.
A failure has been detected in the #2
AHRS. The system should be serviced.
AHRS2 SRVC –
AHRS2 Magneticfield model needs
update.
The #2 AHRS earth magnetic field model is
out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed
AHRS2 TAS –
from
the air data computer. The AHRS
AHRS2 not receiving
relies on GPS information to augment the
valid airspeed.
lack of airspeed. The system should be
serviced.
APR ADVISORY –
SBAS VNAV not
available.
SBAS VNAV not available. Check GPS
sensor.
APR DWNGRADE – Vertical guidance generated by SBAS is
unavailable, use LNAV only minimums.
Apr downgraded.
190–02380–00 Rev. A
APR INACTV –
Approach is not
active.
The system notifies the pilot that the
loaded approach is not active. Activate
approach when required.
ARSPC AHEAD –
Airspace ahead less
than 10 minutes.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft.
The aircraft will penetrate the airspace
within 10 minutes.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
573
APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
ARSPC NEAR –
Airspace near – less
than 2 nm.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the
aircraft position.
ARSPC NEAR –
Airspace near and
ahead.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of
the aircraft position.
AUDIO MANIFEST
- Audio software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The GMA has incorrect software installed.
The system should be serviced.
CHECK CRS –
Database course for
LOC1 / [LOC ID] is
[CRS]°.
Selected course for LOC1 differs from
published localizer course by more than 10
degrees.
CHECK CRS –
Database course for
LOC2 / [LOC ID] is
[CRS]°.
Selected course for LOC2 differs from
published localizer course by more than 10
degrees.
CHECK ARRIVAL
SPEED – [Arrival
Speed] KT AT [LOC
ID] exceeds MMO.
The arrival speed loaded exceeds MMO.
CHECK ARRIVAL
SPEED – [Arrival
Speed] KT AT [LOC
ID] exceeds VMO
The arrival speed loaded exceeds VMO.
The departure speed loaded exceeds VMO.
CHECK
DEPARTURE SPEED
– [Departure Speed]
KT AT [LOC ID]
exceeds VMO
CNFG MODULE –
PFD1 configuration
module is
inoperative.
The PFD1 configuration module backup
memory has failed. The system should be
serviced.
COM #[1, 2] INOP – COM 1 and/or COM 2 calibration version
CAL – Check COM error. Check COM calibration.
calibration.
COM #[1, 2] INOP – COM 1 and/or COM 2 current is low.
CRNT – Check COM Check COM current.
current.
574
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
COM #[1, 2] INOP – COM 1 and/or COM 2 has an internal
fault.
INTRL – Com
internal fault.
COM #[1, 2] INOP – The COM 1 and/or COM 2 has a
synthesizer lock fault.
SYNTH – COM
synthesizer lock
fault.
DIG GMA1
MANIFEST – DIG
GMA 1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The digital audio controller has incorrect
software installed. The system should be
serviced.
FS510 Card Error
— FS510 not
detected in MFD
Bottom Slot.
The SD card was removed from the bottom
card slot of the MFD. The SD card needs to
be reinserted
GCU 1 CNFG – GCU GCU #1 configuration settings do not
Config error. Config match those of backup configuration
memory. The system should be serviced.
service req’d.
GCU 1 FAIL – GCU
is inoperative
A failure has been detected in the GCU #1.
The GCU #1 is unavailable.
GCU1 KEYSTK –
GCU [keyname] Key
is stuck
A key is stuck on the GCU #1 bezel.
Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it
several times. The system should be
serviced if the problem persists.
GCU 1 MANIFEST – The GCU #1 has incorrect software
installed. The system should be serviced.
GCU software
mismatch,
ommunication
halted.
GDC1 MANIFEST –
GDC1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The GDC has incorrect software installed.
The system should be serviced.
GDL 69/69A SXM configuration settings
GDL69 CONFIG –
do not match those of backup
GDL 69 config error.
configuration memory. The system should
Config service req’d.
be serviced.
GDL69 FAIL – GDL
69 has failed
190–02380–00 Rev. A
A failure has been detected in the GDL
69/69A SXM. The receiver is unavailable.
The system should be serviced
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
575
APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
GDL69 MANIFEST
– GDL software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The GDL 69/69A SXM has incorrect
software installed. The system should be
serviced.
GDC1 MANIFEST –
GDC1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The GDC1 has incorrect software installed.
The system should be serviced.
GDU ZOOM
LIMITED – Map
zoom has been
automatically
limited.
Increases in map range are automatically
limited at > 68 degrees 35 minutes north
or south.
GEA #1 CM INOP – There is a problem with the GEA config
module connection. Check the connection.
COMM – Check
GEA config module
connection.
GEA #1 CM INOP – The GEA configuration module has
TEMP – Check GEA insufficient cooling. If the problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
config module
cooling.
GEA #1 INOP – CAL There is a problem with the GEA rigging.
Check the rigging.
– Check GEA
rigging.
576
GEA #1 INOP –
CNFG – Check GEA
software and
configuration.
There is a problem with the GEA software
configuration. Check the configuration. If
the problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
GEA #1 INOP –
INTRL – GEA
internal fault.
The GEA has an internal fault. The system
should be serviced.
GEA #1 INOP –
SENS – Check GEA
configuration.
There is an error in the GEA configuration.
Check the configuration. If the problem
persists, the system should be serviced.
GEA #1 INOP –
VOLT – Check GEA
voltages.
The GEA voltage is low. Check GEA
voltages.
GEA1 TEMP –
Check GEA cooling
arrangement.
There is a problem with the GEA cooling
arrangement. If the problem persists, the
system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
The GEA configuration settings do not
GEA1 CONFIG –
match those of backup configuration
GEA1 config error.
Config service req’d. memory. The system should be serviced.
GEA1 MANIFEST –
GEA1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The GEA has incorrect software installed.
The system should be serviced.
GEO LIMITS –
AHRS1 too far
North/South, no
magnetic compass.
The aircraft is outside geographical limits
for approved AHRS operation. Heading is
flagged as invalid.
GEO LIMITS –
AHRS2 too far
North/South, no
magnetic compass.
The aircraft is outside geographical limits
for approved AHRS operation. Heading is
flagged as invalid.
GFC MANIFEST –
GFC software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
Incorrect servo software is installed, or gain
settings are incorrect.
GIA #[1, 2] INOP –
CRNT – Check GIA
current.
The GIA 1 and/or GIA 2 current is low. The
current should be checked.
GIA #[1, 2] INOP – Loss of GIA 1 and/or GIA 2 serial
SERIAL – Check GIA communication. Check GIA serial
communication.
serial
communication.
GIA #[1, 2] INOP –
VOLT – Check GIA
voltage.
GIA 1 and/or GIA 2 low voltage. Check
voltage.
GIA1 CONFIG –
GIA1 audio config
error. Config service
req’d.
The GIA 1 have an error in the audio
configuration. The system should be
serviced.
The GIA 1 configuration settings do not
GIA1 CONFIG –
match backup configuration memory. The
GIA1 config error.
Config service req’d. system should be serviced.
GIA1 COOLING –
GIA1 over
temperature.
190–02380–00 Rev. A
The GIA 1 temperature is too high. If
problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
577
APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
GIA1 COOLING –
GIA1 temperature
too low.
The GIA 1 temperature is too low to
operate correctly. Allow units to warm up
to operating temperature.
GIA1 MANIFEST –
GIA1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The GIA 1 has incorrect software installed.
The system should be serviced.
GIA1 SERVICE –
GIA1 needs service.
Return unit for
repair.
The GIA 1 self-test has detected a problem
in the unit. The system should be serviced.
GIA2 CONFIG –
GIA2 audio config
error. Config service
req’d.
The GIA 2 have an error in the audio
configuration. The system should be
serviced.
The GIA 2 configuration settings do not
GIA2 CONFIG –
match backup configuration memory. The
GIA2 config error.
Config service req’d. system should be serviced.
GIA2 COOLING –
GIA2 over
temperature.
The GIA 2 temperature is too high. If
problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
GIA2 COOLING –
GIA2 temperature
too low.
The GIA 2 temperature is too low to
operate correctly. Allow units to warm up
to operating temperature.
GIA2 MANIFEST –
GIA2 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The GIA 2 has incorrect software installed.
The system should be serviced.
GIA2 SERVICE –
GIA2 needs service.
Return unit for
repair.
The GIA 2 self-test has detected a problem
in the unit. The system should be serviced.
The audio panel configuration settings do
GMA1 CONFIG –
GMA1 config error. not match backup configuration memory.
Config service req’d. The system should be serviced.
GMA1 FAIL –
GMA1 is
inoperative.
578
The audio panel self-test has detected a
failure. The audio panel is unavailable. The
system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
GMA1 MANIFEST – The audio panel has incorrect software
installed. The system should be serviced.
GMA1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
GMA1 SERVICE –
GMA1 needs
service. Return unit
for repair.
The audio panel self-test has detected a
problem in the unit. Certain audio may still
be available, and the audio panel may still
be usable. The system should be serviced
when possible.
Error in the configuration of the GMC 710.
GMC CONFIG –
GMC Config error.
Config service req’d.
GMC FAIL – GMC is A failure has been detected in the GMC
710. The GMC 710 is unavailable.
inoperative.
GMC KEYSTK –
GMC [key name]
Key is stuck.
A key is stuck on the GMC 710 bezel.
Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it
several times. The system should be
serviced if the problem persists.
GMC MANIFEST –
GMC software
mismatch.
Communication
halted.
The GMC 710 has incorrect software
installed. The system should be serviced.
GMU1 MANIFEST – The GMU 44 has incorrect software
installed. The system should be serviced.
GMU1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
GMU2 MANIFEST – The GMU 44 has incorrect software
installed. The system should be serviced.
GMU2 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
GPS NAV LOST –
Loss of GPS
navigation. GPS fail.
Loss of GPS navigation due to GPS failure.
Loss of GPS navigation due to insufficient
GPS NAV LOST –
satellites.
Loss of GPS
navigation.
Insufficient satellites.
190–02380–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
579
APPENDIX A
Message
GPS NAV LOST –
Loss of GPS
navigation. Position
error.
Comments
Loss of GPS navigation due to position
error.
GPS1 FAIL – GPS1 is A failure has been detected in GPS1
receiver. The system should be serviced.
inoperative.
GPS1 SERVICE –
GPS1 needs service.
Return unit for
repair.
A failure has been detected in the GPS1
receiver. The receiver may still be available.
The system should be serviced.
GPS2 FAIL – GPS1 is A failure has been detected in GPS2
receiver. The system should be serviced.
inoperative.
580
GPS2 SERVICE –
GPS2 needs service.
Return unit for
repair.
A failure has been detected in the GPS2
receiver. The receiver may still be available.
The system should be serviced.
GRS1 MANIFEST –
GRS1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The #1 AHRS has incorrect software
installed. The system should be serviced.
GRS2 MANIFEST –
GRS2 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The #2 AHRS has incorrect software
installed. The system should be serviced.
GSR1 FAIL – GSR1
has failed.
A failure has been detected in the #1 GSR
56. The system should be serviced.
GTS CONFIG – GTS
Config error. Config
service req’d.
The GTS and GDU have different copies of
the GTS configuration, or the Mode S
address is invalid. The system should be
serviced.
GTS MANIFEST –
GTS software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The GTS has incorrect software installed.
The system should be serviced.
GTX1 MANIFEST –
GTX1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The transponder has incorrect software
installed. The system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Message
GTX2 MANIFEST –
GTX2 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
Comments
The transponder has incorrect software
installed. The system should be serviced.
GWX 68 configuration settings do not
GWX CONFIG –
match those of the GDU configuration.
GWX config error.
Config service req’d. The system should be serviced.
GWX FAIL – GWX is The GDU is not receiving status packet
from the GWX 68 is reporting a fault. The
inoperative.
GWX 68 radar system should be serviced.
190–02380–00 Rev. A
GWX MANIFEST –
GWX software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The GWX 68 has incorrect software
installed. The system should be serviced.
GWX SERVICE –
GWX needs service.
A failure has been detected in the GWX
68. The GWX 68 may still be usable.
HDG FAULT –
AHRS1
magnetometer fault
has occurred.
A fault has occurred in the #1 GMU 44.
Heading is flagged as invalid. The AHRS
uses GPS for backup mode operation. The
system should be serviced.
HDG FAULT –
AHRS2
magnetometer fault
has occurred.
A fault has occurred in the #2 GMU 44.
Heading is flagged as invalid. The AHRS
uses GPS for backup mode operation. The
system should be serviced.
HOLD EXPIRED –
Holding EFC time
expired.
Expect Further Clearance (EFC) time has
expired for the User Defined Hold.
HW MISMATCH –
GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA1
communication
halted.
A GIA mismatch has been detected, where
only one is SBAS capable.
HW MISMATCH –
GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA2
communication
halted.
A GIA mismatch has been detected, where
only one is SBAS capable.
INSIDE ARSPC –
Inside airspace.
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
581
APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
INVALID ADM –
Invalid ADM: ATN
communication
halted.
Data link avionics were not configured
correctly and therefore will not be able to
communicate with the ground network.
LOCKED FPL –
Cannot navigate
locked flight plan.
This occurs when the pilot attempts to
activate a stored flight plan that contains
locked waypoint. Remove locked waypoint
from flight plan. Update flight plan with
current waypoint.
LOI – GPS integrity
lost. Crosscheck
with other NAVS.
GPS integrity is insufficient for the current
phase of flight.
Low Bank mode is active. Disengage to
LOW BANK
ACTIVE – Disengage continue approach.
for approach.
Low Bank mode is active. Disengage to
LOW BANK
ACTIVE – Disengage continue RNP 1.0.
for RNP less than
1.0.
LRG MAG VAR –
Verify all course
angles.
The GDU’s internal model cannot
determine the exact magnetic variance for
geographic locations near the magnetic
poles. Displayed magnetic course angles
may differ from the actual magnetic
heading by more than 2°.
MFD1 BACKLIGHT The specified GDU’s backlight calibration
cannot be found or found or is invalid. The
CALIBRATION –
MFD1 bklt cal lost or system should be serviced.
mismatch. Return
for repair.
MFD1 CARD 1 ERR
– MFD1 card 1 is
invalid.
The SD card in the top card slot of the
specified MFD contains invalid data.
MFD1 CARD 1 REM The SD card was removed from the top
– MFD1 card 1 was card slot of the specified MFD. The SD card
needs to be reinserted.
removed. Reinsert
card.
MFD1 CARD 2 ERR
– MFD1 card 2 is
invalid.
582
The SD card in the bottom card slot of the
specified MFD contains invalid data.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
MFD1 CARD 2 REM The SD card was removed from the bottom
– MFD1 card 2 was card slot of the specified MFD. The SD card
needs to be reinserted.
removed. Reinsert
card.
The MFD configuration settings do not
MFD1 CONFIG –
match backup configuration memory. The
MFD1 config error.
Config service req’d. system should be serviced.
190–02380–00 Rev. A
MFD1 COOLING –
MFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing
power usage.
The MFD is overheating and is reducing
power consumption by dimming the
display. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 Airport
Directory database
error exists.
The MFD detected a failure in the Airport
Directory database. Ensure the data card is
properly programmed if present. If
problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 basemap
database error
exists.
The MFD detected a failure in the basemap
database.
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 Chartview
database error
exists.
The MFD detected a failure in the
ChartView database (optional feature).
Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 FliteCharts
database error
exists.
The MFD detected a failure in the
FliteCharts database (optional feature).
Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 multiple
database errors
exists.
The MFD detected a failure in more than
one database. If problem persists, the
system should be serviced.
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 navigation
database error
exists.
The MFD detected a failure in the
navigation database. Attempt to reload the
navigation database. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 obstacle
database missing.
The obstacle database is present on
another LRU, but is missing on the
specified LRU.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
583
APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 Safe Taxi
database error
exists.
The MFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi
database. Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 terrain
database error
exists.
The MFD detected a failure in the terrain
database. Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
A key is stuck on the MFD bezel. Attempt
MFD1 KEYSTK –
MFD [key name] Key to free the stuck key by pressing it several
times. The system should be serviced if the
is stuck.
problem persists.
MFD1 MANIFEST – The MFD has incorrect software installed.
The system should be serviced.
MFD1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The MFD self-test has detected a problem.
MFD1 SERVICE –
MFD1 needs service. The system should be serviced.
Return unit for
repair.
MFD1 SOFTWARE
– MFD1 mismatch,
communication
halted.
The specified GDU has different software
versions installed. The system should be
serviced.
MFD1 TERRAIN
DSP – MFD1 Terrain
awareness display
unavailable.
One of the terrain or obstacle databases
required for TAWS in MFD1 is missing or
invalid.
MFD1 VOLTAGE –
MFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing
power usage
The MFD voltage is low. The system should
be serviced.
NAV #[1, 2] INOP – NAV 1 and/or NAV 2 calibration version
CAL — Check COM error. Check COM calibration.
calibration.
NAV #[1, 2] INOP – NAV 1 and/or NAV 2 current is low. Check
COM current.
CRNT — Check
COM current.
NAV #[1, 2] INOP – NAV 1 and/or NAV 2 has an internal fault.
INTRL — Com
internal fault.
584
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
NAV #[1, 2] INOP – Loss of NAV 1 and/or NAV 2 serial
communication. Check NAV serial
SERIAL – Check
communication.
NAV serial
communication.
NAV #[1, 2] INOP – NNAV 1 and/or NAV 2 has a synthesizer
lock fault.
SYNTH LOCK –
COM synthesiser
lock fault.
NAV1 MANIFEST –
NAV1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
NAV1 software mismatch. The system
should be serviced.
The remote NAV1 transfer switch is stuck
NAV1 RMT XFR –
in the enabled (or “pressed”) state. Press
NAV1 remote
transfer key is stuck. the transfer switch again to cycle its
operation. If the problem persists, the
system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the NAV1
NAV1 SERVICE –
NAV1 needs service. receiver. The receiver may still be available.
The system should be serviced.
Return unit for
repair.
NAV2 MANIFEST –
NAV2 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
NAV2 software mismatch. The system
should be serviced.
The remote NAV2 transfer switch is stuck
NAV2 RMT XFR –
in the enabled (or “pressed”) state. Press
NAV2 remote
transfer key is stuck. the transfer switch again to cycle its
operation. If the problem persists, the
system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the NAV2
NAV2 SERVICE –
NAV2 needs service. receiver. The receiver may still be available.
The system should be serviced.
Return unit for
repair.
NON WGS84 WPT
– Do not use GPS
for navigation to
[xxxx]
190–02380–00 Rev. A
The position of the selected waypoint
[xxxx] is not calculated based on the
WGS84 map reference datum and may be
positioned in error as displayed. Do not use
GPS to navigate to the selected nonWGS84 waypoint.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
585
APPENDIX A
586
Message
Comments
PFD POSITIONS
DIFFERENT – PFD
positions mismatch.
Check position
sensors.
There is a mismatch in the position sensed
by the PFDs. Check position sensor
settings. If message persists the system
should be serviced.
PFD1 BACKLIGHT
CALIBRATION –
PFD1 bklt cal lost or
mismatch. Return
for repair.
The specified GDU’s backlight calibration
cannot be found or found or is invalid. The
system should be serviced.
PFD1 CARD 1 REM
– PFD1 card 1 was
removed. Reinsert
card.
The SD card was removed from the top
card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The
SD card needs to be reinserted.
PFD1 CARD 2 REM
– PFD1 card 2 was
removed. Reinsert
card.
The SD card was removed from the bottom
card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The
SD card needs to be reinserted.
PFD1 COOLING –
PFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing
power usage.
The PFD is overheating and is reducing
power consumption by dimming the
display. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 Airport
Directory database
error exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the Airport
Directory database. Ensure the data card is
properly programmed if present. If
problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 basemap
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the basemap
database.
PFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 Chartview
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the
ChartView database (optional feature).
Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 FliteCharts
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the
FliteCharts database (optional feature).
Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
PFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 multiple
database errors
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in more than
one database. If problem persists, the
system should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR –
PFD1 navigation
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the
navigation database. Attempt to reload the
navigation database. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR –
PFD1 obstacle
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the obstacle
database. Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR –
PFD1 obstaPFD1cle
database missing.
The obstacle database is present on
another LRU, but is missing on the
specified LRU.
PFD 1DB ERR –
PFD1 Safe Taxi
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi
database. Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 terrain
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the terrain
database. Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
PFD1 KEYSTK –
PFD1 [key name]
Key is stuck.
A key is stuck on the PFD bezel. Attempt
to free the stuck key by pressing it several
times. The system should be serviced if the
problem persists.
PFD1 MANIFEST –
PFD1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The PFD has incorrect software installed.
The system should be serviced.
PFD1 SERVICE –
PFD1 needs service.
Return unit for
repair.
The PFD a self-test has detected a problem.
The system should be serviced.
PFD1 SOFTWARE – The specified GDU has different software
versions installed. The system should be
PFD1 mismatch,
serviced.
communication
halted.
190–02380–00 Rev. A
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APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
PFD1 TERRAIN DSP One of the terrain or obstacle databases
required for TAWS in PFD1 is missing or
– PFD1 Terrain
invalid.
awareness display
unavailable.
PFD1 VOLTAGE –
PFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing
power usage
The PFD1 voltage is low. The system should
be serviced.
PFD2 BACKLIGHT
CALIBRATION –
PFD2 bklt cal lost or
mismatch. Return
for repair.
The specified GDU’s backlight calibration
cannot be found or found or is invalid. The
system should be serviced.
PFD2 CARD 1 ERR
– PFD2 card 1 is
invalid.
The SD card in the top card slot of the
specified PFD contains invalid data.
PFD2 CARD 1 REM
– PFD2 card 1 was
removed. Reinsert
card.
The SD card was removed from the top
card slot of the specified PFD. The SD card
needs to be reinserted.
PFD2 CARD 2 ERR
– PFD2 card 2 is
invalid.
The SD card in the bottom card slot of the
specified PFD contains invalid data.
PFD2 CARD 2 REM
– PFD2 card 2 was
removed. Reinsert
card.
The SD card was removed from the bottom
card slot of the specified PFD. The SD card
needs to be reinserted.
The PFD configuration settings do not
PFD2 CONFIG –
match backup configuration memory. The
PFD2 config error.
Config service req’d. system should be serviced.
PFD2 COOLING –
PFD2 has poor
cooling. Reducing
power usage.
The PFD is overheating and is reducing
power consumption by dimming the
display. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
PFD2 DB ERR –
MFD1 Airport
Directory database
error exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the Airport
Directory database. Ensure the data card is
properly programmed if present. If
problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
PFD2 DB ERR –
MFD1 basemap
database error
exists.
588
The PFD detected a failure in the basemap
database.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
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APPENDIX A
Message
190–02380–00 Rev. A
Comments
PFD2 DB ERR –
MFD1 Chartview
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the
ChartView database (optional feature).
Ensure that the data card is properly
inserted. Replace data card. If problem
persists, the system should be serviced.
PFD2 DB ERR –
MFD1 FliteCharts
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the
FliteCharts database (optional feature).
Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
PFD2 DB ERR –
MFD1 multiple
database errors
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in more than
one database. If problem persists, the
system should be serviced.
PFD2 DB ERR –
PFD1 navigation
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the
navigation database. Attempt to reload the
navigation database. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
PFD2 DB ERR –
PFD1 obstacle
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the obstacle
database. Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
PFD2 DB ERR –
PFD1 obstacle
database missing.
The obstacle database is present on
another LRU, but is missing on the
specified LRU.
PFD2 DB ERR –
PFD1 Safe Taxi
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi
database. Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
PFD2 DB ERR –
MFD1 terrain
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the terrain
database. Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
PFD2 KEYSTK –
PFD2 [key name]
Key is stuck.
A key is stuck on the PFD bezel. Attempt
to free the stuck key by pressing it several
times. The system should be serviced if the
problem persists.
PFD2 MANIFEST –
PFD2 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The PFD has incorrect software installed.
The system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
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APPENDIX A
Message
PFD2 SERVICE –
PFD2 needs service.
Return unit for
repair.
Comments
The PFD self-test has detected a problem.
The system should be serviced.
PFD2 SOFTWARE – The specified GDU has different software
versions installed. The system should be
PFD2 mismatch,
serviced.
communication
halted.
PFD2 TERRAIN DSP One of the terrain, or obstacle databases
required for TAWS in PFD2 is missing or
– PFD2 Terrain
invalid.
awareness display
unavailable.
PFD2 VOLTAGE –
PFD2 has low
voltage. Reducing
power usage
The PFD2 voltage is low. The system should
be serviced.
PTK FAIL – Parallel
track unavailable:
bad geometry.
Bad parallel track geometry.
PTK FAIL – Parallel
track unavailable:
invalid leg type.
Invalid leg type for parallel offset.
PTK FAIL – Parallel
track unavailable:
past IAF.
IAF waypoint for parallel offset has been
passed.
SCHEDULER [#] –
<message>.
Message criteria entered by the user.
SLCT FREQ – Select
appropriate
frequency for
approach.
The system notifies the pilot to load the
approach frequency for the appropriate
NAV receiver. Select the correct frequency
for the approach.
SLCT MAG – Select The system notifies the pilot to set the Nav
Angle units on the Avionics Settings Screen
MAGNETIC NAV
ANGLE display units. to Magnetic.
SLCT NAV – Select
NAV on CDI for
approach.
The system notifies the pilot to set the CDI
to the correct NAV receiver. Set the CDI to
the correct NAV receiver.
SLCT NON-MAG – The system notifies the pilot to set the Nav
Select alternate NAV Angle units on the Avionics Settings Screen
ANGLE display units. to True.
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APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
SPD KEY
DISABLED – The
SPD key is disabled
for this model
aircraft.
The SPD Key on GMC has no function in
this aircraft model.
STEEP TURN –
Steep turn ahead.
A steep turn is 15 seconds ahead. Prepare
to turn.
STRMSCP FAIL –
Stormscope has
failed.
Stormscope has failed. The system should
be serviced.
SURFACEWATCH
DISABLED - Too far
north/south.
The SurfaceWatch system has been
disabled.
SURFACEWATCH
FAIL - Invalid audio
configuration.
The SurfaceWatch system has failed due to
an invalid audio configuration.
SURFACEWATCH
FAIL - Invalid
configurable alerts
The SurfaceWatch system has failed due to
invalid configurable alerts.
SURFACEWATCH
FAIL - One or more
inputs invalid.
The SurfaceWatch system has failed due to
one or more invalid inputs.
SURFACEWATCH
INHIBITED Surfacewatch
inhibited
The SurfaceWatch system has been
inhibited.
SVT DISABLED –
Out of available
terrain region.
Synthetic Vision is disabled because the
aircraft is not within the boundaries of the
installed terrain database.
Synthetic Vision is disabled because a
SVT DISABLED –
terrain database of sufficient resolution
Terrain DB resolution
(4.9 arc-second or better) is not currently
too low.
installed.
190–02380–00 Rev. A
SW MISMATCH –
GDU software
version mismatch.
Xtalk is off.
The MFD and PFDs have different software
versions installed. The system should be
serviced.
TCAS FAIL – TCAS
system is
inoperative.
The TCAS system has failed. The system
should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
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APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
TERRAIN AUD CFG Terrain audio alerts are not configured
properly. The system should be serviced
– Trn Awareness
audio config error.
Service req’d.
TERRAIN
DISABLED – Terrain
Awareness DB
resolution too low.
TAWS is disabled because a terrain
database of sufficient resolution (9 arcsecond or better) is not currently installed.
TIMER EXPIRD –
Timer has expired.
The system notifies the pilot that the timer
has expired.
TRAFFIC FAIL –
Traffic device has
failed.
The is no longer receiving data from the
traffic system. The traffic device should be
serviced.
The audio source for terrain awareness is
TRN AUD FAIL –
Trn Awareness audio offline. Check GIA1 or GIA 2.
source unavailable.
UNABLE V WPT –
Can’t reach current
vertical waypoint.
The current vertical waypoint can not be
reached within the maximum flight path
angle and vertical speed constraints. The
system automatically transitions to the next
vertical waypoint.
VNV –
UNAVAILABLE:
Excessive crosstrack
error.
The current crosstrack exceeds the limit,
causing vertical deviation to go invalid.
The current track angle error exceeds the
VNV –
limit, causing the vertical deviation to go
UNAVAILABLE:
Excessive track angle invalid.
error.
VNV –
UNAVAILABLE:
Parallel course
selected.
A parallel course has been selected,
causing the vertical deviation to go invalid.
VNV –
UNAVAILABLE:
Unsupported leg
type in flight plan.
The lateral flight plan contains a procedure
turn, vector, or other unsupported leg type
prior to the active vertical waypoint. This
prevents vertical guidance to the active
vertical waypoint.
Arriving at waypoint [xxxx], where [xxxx] is
WPT ARRIVAL –
Arriving at waypoint the waypoint name.
-[xxxx]
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APPENDIX A
Message
WX ALERT –
Possible severe
weather ahead.
Comments
The GWX 68 indicates severe weather
within ±10 degrees of the aircraft heading
at a range of 80 to 320 nm.
XPDR1 ADS-B 1090 A failure has been detected in the 1090
receiver.
– Datalinik: ADS-B
1090 receiver has
failed.
XPDR1 ADS-B FAIL
– Transponder:
XPDR1 is unable to
transmit ADS-B
messages.
ADS-B is inoperative. The transponder may
not be receiving a valid GPS position.
Other transponder functions may be
available. Service when possible.
XPDR1 ADS-B NO
POS – Transponder:
ADS-B is not
transmitting
position.
The transponder is not able to receive
position information.
XPDR1 ADS-B TRFC The Transponder is incapable of processing
– Transponder: ADS- traffic information.
B traffic has failed
XPDR1 ADS-B UAT A failure has been detected in the UAT
– Datalink: ADS-B in receiver.
UAT receiver has
failed.
The transponder configuration settings do
XPDR1 CONFIG –
XPDR1 config error. not match those of backup configuration
Config service req’d. memory. The system should be serviced.
190–02380–00 Rev. A
XPDR1 CSA FAIL Traffic: ADS-B In
traffic alerting has
failed.
ADS-B Conflict Situational Awareness
(CSA) is unavailable.
XPDR1 FAIL –
XPDR1 is
inoperative.
There is no communication with the #1 or
#2 transponder.
XPDR1 FAULT –
Datalink: ADSB-B in
has failed.
The transponder is unable to receive ADS-B
information.
XPDR1 FIS-B WX –
Datalink: FIS-B
Weather has failed.
The transponder is unable to receive FIS-B
weather information.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
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APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
XPDR1 OVER TEMP
- Transponder:
Transponder over
temp.
The system has detected an over
temperature condition in XPDR1. The
transmitter operates at reduced power. If
the problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
XPDR1 PRES ALT – Unable to provide pressure altitude
Transponder: ADS-B information.
no pressure altitude.
XPDR1 SRVC –
XPDR1 needs
service. Return unit
for repair.
The #1 transponder should be serviced
when possible.
XPDR1 UNDER
TEMP Transponder:
Transponder under
temp.
The system has detected an under
temperature condition in XPDR1. The
transmitter operates at reduced power. If
the problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
XPDR2 ADS-B 1090 A failure has been detected in the 1090
receiver.
– Datalinik: ADS-B
1090 receiver has
failed.
XPDR2 ADS-B FAIL
– XPDR2 is unable to
transmit ADS-B
messages.
ADS-B is inoperative. The transponder may
not be receiving a valid GPS position.
Other transponder functions may be
available. Service when possible.
XPDR2 FIS-B WX –
Datalink: FIS-B
Weather has failed.
The transponder is unable to receive FIS-B
weather information.
XPDR2 ADS-B NO
POS – Transponder:
ADS-B is not
transmitting
position.
The transponder is not able to receive
position information.
XPDR2 ADS-B TRFC The Transponder is incapable of processing
– Transponder: ADS- traffic information.
B traffic has failed
XPDR2 ADS-B UAT A failure has been detected in the UAT
– Datalink: ADS-B in receiver.
UAT receiver has
failed.
The transponder configuration settings do
XPDR2 CONFIG –
XPDR2 config error. not match those of backup configuration
Config service req’d. memory. The system should be serviced.
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APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
XPDR2 CSA FAIL Traffic: ADS-B In
traffic alerting has
failed.
ADS-B Conflict Situational Awareness
(CSA) is unavailable.
XPDR2 FAIL –
XPDR2 is
inoperative.
There is no communication with the #2
transponder.
XPDR2 FAULT –
Datalink: ADSB-B in
has failed.
The transponder is unable to receive ADS-B
information.
XPDR2 PRES ALT – Unable to provide pressure altitude
Transponder: ADS-B information.
no pressure altitude.
190–02380–00 Rev. A
XPDR2 SRVC –
XPDR2 needs
service. Return unit
for repair.
The #2 transponder should be serviced
when possible.
XPDR2 UNDER
TEMP Transponder:
Transponder under
temp.
The system has detected an under
temperature condition in XPDR2. The
transmitter operates at reduced power. If
the problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
XTALK ERROR – A
flight display
crosstalk error has
occurred.
The MFD and PFDs are not communicating
with each other. The system should be
serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
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APPENDIX A
BLANK PAGE
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APPENDIX B
DATABASE MANAGEMENT
Database information is obtained from third party sources. Inaccuracies in the data may be discovered
from time to time. Garmin communicates this information by issuing a Database Alert. These
notifications are available on flygarmin.com.
Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information.
These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain,
obstacles and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on
the ground. Go to flygarmin.com and select Aviation Data Error Report.
The system uses Secure Digital (SD) cards to load various types of data. For basic flight operations, SD
cards are required for database updates. Not all SD cards are compatible with the system.
NOTE: Loading a database in the system prior to its effective date will result in the expiration
date on the power-up screen and the effective date on the Aux – Databases Page being
displayed in amber.
LOADING UPDATED DATABASES
CAUTION: Never disconnect power to the system when loading a database. Power
interruption during the database loading process could result in maintenance being required
to reboot the system.
NOTE: When loading database updates, the ‘DB Mismatch’ system messages will be
displayed until database synchronization is complete, followed by turning system power off,
then on. Synchronization can be monitored on the Aux - Database Page.
Databases may be loaded through Garmin Pilot and Flight Stream 510. When loading databases
through Garmin Pilot and the Flight Stream 510, it must be enabled on the system and the multimedia
card inserted in the bottom SD slot of the MFD.
The cycles and dates for both standby and active databases are displayed on the “Aux – Databases”
page on the MFD. Any active databases with expiration dates in the past will be highlighted with
amber text. When an expired active database has a standby database that is ready to become effective,
a cyan double-sided arrow will be displayed between the database cycles. When this arrow is visible, it
indicates that the standby and active databases in that row will be switched on the next power cycle,
activating the current standby database. Databases can also be manually selected (or deselected) by
highlighting a list item and pressing the ENT key, provided a valid, verified standby database is
present.
In some cases it may be necessary to obtain an unlock code from Garmin in order to make the
database product functional. It may also be necessary to have the system configured by a Garmin
authorized service facility in order to use some database features.
The navigation database contains the aeronautical data used by the system for the flight management
and flight planning functions. Included is detailed data for waypoints, procedures (arrivals, departures,
approaches), and airways. The navigation database is updated every 28 days.
190–02380–00 Rev. A
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597
APPENDIX B
The basemap database contains data for the topography and land features, such as rivers, lakes, and
towns. It is updated only periodically, with no set schedule. There is no expiration date.
The terrain database contains the terrain mapping data. These databases are updated periodically
and have no expiration date.
The obstacle database contains data for obstacles, such as towers, that pose a potential hazard to
aircraft. Obstacles 200 feet and higher are included in the obstacle database. It is very important to
note that not all obstacles are necessarily charted and therefore may not be contained in the obstacle
database. This database is updated on a 56-day cycle.
NOTE: The data contained in the terrain and obstacle databases comes from government
agencies. Garmin accurately processes and cross-validates the data, but cannot guarantee
the accuracy and completeness of the data.
The AOPA or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory provides data on airports and heliports throughout the
U.S. or worldwide, respectively. The AOPA Directory offers detailed information for over 5,300 U. S.
airports, along with the names and phone numbers of thousands of FBOs. These databases are
updated every 56 days. The AC-U-KWIK Directory offers detailed information for more than 8,000
airports with runways longer than 3,000 feet worldwide.
The SafeTaxi database contains detailed airport diagrams for selected airports. These diagrams aid in
following ground control instructions by accurately displaying the aircraft position on the map in
relation to taxiways, ramps, runways, terminals, and services. This database is updated on a 56-day
cycle.
The FliteCharts database contains procedure charts for the United States only. This database is
updated on a 28-day cycle. If not updated within 180 days of the expiration date, FliteCharts will no
longer function.
The ChartView database is updated on a 14-day cycle. If the ChartView database is not updated
within 70 days of the expiration date, ChartView will no longer function. The ChartView database
must be purchased directly from Jeppesen, but can be update d at jeppesen.com or flygarmin.com.
The IFR/VFR charts database contains VFR and IFR raster charts. The VFR Charts are digital
representations of the Sectional Aeronautical Charts and Terminal Area Charts. The IFR Charts include
both IFR High (designed for navigation at or above 18,000 ft) and IFR Low (designed for navigation
below 18,000 ft). IFR/VFR Charts are updated every 28 days except for Canadian IFR/VFR Charts
which are updated every 56 days.
DATABASE UPDATES USING A SUPPLEMENTAL DATA (SD) CARD
All databases are updated through a single SD card in the bottom slot of the MFD. When the card
is inserted, the databases on the card will be copied to standby and synchronized across all powered,
configured units. After update, the card is removed and the databases are stored on the system.
When in standby, databases are not immediately available for use, but stored to be activated at a later
time.
Database updates can be obtained by following the instructions detailed in the ‘Aviation Databases’
section of the Garmin website (flygarmin.com). Once the updated files have been downloaded from
the website, a PC equipped with an appropriate SD card reader is used to unpack and program the
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APPENDIX B
new databases onto an existing Supplemental Data Card. Equipment required to perform the update
is as follows:
•
Windows-compatible PC computer
•
SD Card Reader: SanDisk SDDR-93, SanDisk SDDR-99, Verbatim #96504, or equivalent
•
Updated database obtained from the Garmin website
•
Supplemental SD Cards
In some cases it may be necessary to obtain an unlock code from Garmin in order to make the
database product functional. It may also be necessary to have the system configured by a Garmin
authorized service facility in order to use some database features.
Updating Databases using an SD Card:
1) With the system OFF, remove an SD Card from the bottom SD card slot of the MFD.
2) Download the databases and install them on an SD card.
3) Put the SD Card in the bottom SD card slot of the MFD.
4) Turn the system ON.
5) Press the ENT Key or the right most softkey on the MFD display to acknowledge the
startup screen.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux page group on the MFD.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Database page group on the MFD.
8) Monitor the Sync Status on the Database page. Wait for all databases to complete
syncing, indicated by ‘Sync Complete’ being displayed. A cyan double arrow will appear
between the Standby and Active columns to show which Standby databases will be
transferred to Active at the next power cycle.
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APPENDIX B
Figure B-1 Databases Page before Activation of Standby Databases
9) Verify the correct database cycle information is shown in the Standby Database column.
10) Remove power from the system.
11) Remove the SD card from the bottom slot of the MFD.
12) After restarting the system, turn the large FMS Knob and select the Aux page group on
the MFD.
13) Turn the small FMS Knob and select the Databases page.
14) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the active database
column.
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APPENDIX B
Figure B-2 Databases Page with Updated Databases
15) To view database information for an individual display, press and then turn the FMS
Knob to select the database, and then press the Details Softkey. Press the ENT Key or
the FMS Knob to exit.
16) To manually activate any databases that did not transfer to the active column:
a) Press the FMS Knob. The first database title on the screen will be selected.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob as necessary to select the database title.
c) Press the ENT Key. A cyan double-sided arrow will appear indicating that the
standby database will become active.
d) Remove and reapply power to the system.
e) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the active database
column.
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601
APPENDIX B
DATABASES UPDATES USING FLIGHT STREAM 510
In order to load databases through Garmin Pilot and the Flight Stream 510, the Flight Stream 510
must be enabled on the system with the Multimedia card inserted in the bottom SD slot of the MFD.
A mobile device with Garmin Pilot must be paired with the Flight Stream 510 over Bluetooth (refer
to the Additional Features section). When there is at least one paired device available to connect, the
Flight Stream 510 will automatically connect to the system’s preferred mobile device. The preferred
device can be selected on the Aux – Databases page from a menu list of paired devices.
Once a connection to the paired mobile device is made, Garmin Pilot makes available databases
that can be transferred to the Flight Stream 510. If any of these databases is more recent than the
respective standby database on the system, (or if there is no standby database on the system) those
databases will be automatically selected to load. The database updates may be initiated from the Aux
- Databases page, or from other pages on the MFD.
Updating Databases from any MFD page (except the Aux - Databases page):
1) Insert the Flight Stream Multimedia Card in the bottom slot of the MFD.
2) Press the Update softkey when the Database Update screen appears.
Figure B-3 Database Update Available
3) The Flight Stream 510 will enter WI-FI mode. The following screen will appear.
Figure B-4 Starting Database Transfer
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APPENDIX B
4) Put the mobile device in WI-FI mode (refer to the Additional Features section).
5) Connect the mobile device to the Flight Stream 510 WI-FI (refer to the Additional
Features section). The ‘WI-FI Not Connected’ screen will close when the WI-FI
connection is established.
6) When the transfer is complete, the following screen will appear.
Figure B-5 Database Transfer Complete
7) Press the Close softkey.
8) When an existing database is expired and a new one is ready to become active, a
‘Database Expired’ window will appear. Continue to the next step to restart the system.
9) Remove power from the system.
10) After restarting the system, turn the large FMS Knob and select the Aux page group on
the MFD.
11) Turn the small FMS Knob and select the Databases page.
12) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the active database
column.
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APPENDIX B
Figure B-6 Databases Page with Updated Databases
13) To view database information for an individual display, press and then turn the FMS
Knob to select the database, and then press the Details Softkey. Press the ENT Key or
the FMS Knob to exit.
14) To manually activate any databases that did not transfer to the active column:
a) Press the FMS Knob. The first database title on the screen will be selected.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob as necessary to select the database title.
c) Press the ENT Key. A cyan double-sided arrow will appear indicating that the
standby database will become active.
d) Remove and reapply power to the system.
e) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the active database
column.
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APPENDIX B
Updating Databases from the Aux - Databases page:
1) With the system OFF, insert the Flight Stream Multimedia Card in the bottom slot of the
MFD.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux page group on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Database page group on the MFD.
4) Press the Device Softkey.
5) The Aux - Databases page will show the databases connected to the mobile device in
place of the active databases on the system. Databases selected to load will be
indicated by a cyan arrow.
6) Press the Update softkey. The Flight Stream 510 will enter WI-FI mode.
7) Put the mobile device in WI-FI mode (refer to the Additional Features section).
8) Connect the mobile device to the Flight Stream 510 WI-FI (refer to the Additional
Features section).
9) The Database Update status will appear in the Status window at the top of the page.
10) Remove power from the system.
11) After restarting the system, turn the large FMS Knob and select the Aux page group on
the MFD.
12) Turn the small FMS Knob and select the Databases page.
13) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the active database
column.
14) To view database information for an individual display, press and then turn the FMS
Knob to select the database, and then press the Details Softkey. Press the ENT Key or
the FMS Knob to exit.
15) To manually activate any databases that did not transfer to the active column:
a) Press the FMS Knob. The first database title on the screen will be selected.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob as necessary to select the database title.
c) Press the ENT Key. A cyan double-sided arrow will appear indicating that the
standby database will become active.
d) Remove and reapply power to the system.
e) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the active database
column.
190–02380–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
605
APPENDIX B
Figure B-7 Databases Page with Updated Databases
MAGNETIC FIELD VARIATION DATABASE UPDATE
A copy of the current magnetic field variation database (MV DB) is included with the navigation
database. At startup, the system compares this version of the MV DB with that presently being used by
each AHRS (GRS1 and GRS2). If the system determines the MV DB needs to be updated, a prompt is
displayed on the Navigation Map Page, as shown in Figure B-12. Note, in the following example,
GRS1 is the first AHRS to indicate an update is available. In actuality, this is dependent on which
AHRS is the first to report status to the system. GRS2 may be displayed before GRS1. The order is not
important, only that both AHRS be updated.
Figure B-8 GRS1 Magnetic Field Variation Database Update Prompt
606
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
APPENDIX B
Loading the magnetic field variation database update:
1) With ‘OK’ highlighted, as seen Figure B-8, press the ENT Key on the MFD. A progress
monitor is displayed as shown in Figure B-9.
Figure B-9 Uploading Database to GRS1
2) When the upload is complete, the prompt for the next GRS upload is displayed, as seen
in Figure B-10
Figure B-10 GRS2 Magnetic Field Variation Database Update Prompt
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key on the MFD. A progress monitor is displayed
as shown in Figure B-11. When the upload is complete, the system is ready for use.
190–02380–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
607
APPENDIX B
Figure B-11 Uploading Database to GRS2
608
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
AVIATION TERMS AND ACRONYMS
Term/Acronym
A
AC
ACARS
ACC
ACT, ACTV
ADAHRS
Definition
Amps
Advisory Circular, Alternating Current
Airborne Communications Addressing and Reporting System
Accuracy
Active, Activate, Altitude Compensated Tilt
Air Data, Attitude and Heading Reference System
ADC
Air Data Computer
ADF
Automatic Direction Finder
ADI
Attitude Direction Indicator
ADIZ
Air Defense Identification Zone
ADS-B
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast
ADS-R
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Rebroadcast
AEA
AF
Aircraft Electronic Association
Arc to Fix Leg
AFCS
Automatic Flight Control System
AFM
Airplane Flight Manual
AFMS
Airplane Flight Manual Supplement
AFRM
Airframe
AGL
AHRS
Above Ground Level
Attitude and Heading Reference System
AIM
Aeronautical Information Manual
AIRB
Airborne
AIRMET
Airman’s Meteorological Information
AIRREP
Air Reports
ALRT
ALT
ALT, ALTN
Alert
Altitude
Alternator, Alternate
ALTS
Selected Altitude Capture Mode
ALTV
VNAV Altitude Capture Mode
AMPS
Amperes
ANNUNC/ANN
Annunciation/Annunciator
ANT
Antenna
AOA
Angle of Attack, ACARS Over AVLC
190–02380–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
609
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
AOC
Aeronautical Operational Control
AOG
Aircraft On Ground
AOPA
Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association
AP
AP DISC
APPR, APR
APT
APTSIGNS
Autopilot
Autopilot Disconnect
Approach
Airport, Aerodrome
Airport Signs
ARINC
Aeronautical Radio Incorporated
ARSPC
Airspace
ARTCC
Air Route Traffic Control Center
ARV
AS
ASB
ASOS
AT
ATC
ATCRBS
Arrival
Airspeed
Aviation Support Branch
Automated Surface Observing System
Auto Throttle
Air Traffic Control
ATC Radar Beacon System
ATIS
Automatic Terminal Information Service
ATK
Along Track
AUTOSEQ
Automatic Sequence
AUX
Auxiliary
AVG
Average
AVLC
Aviation VHF Link Control
AWOS
Automated Weather Observing System
B
Both Runways
B ALT
Barometric Altitude
BARO
Barometer, Barometric
BATT
Battery
BC
Bearing
Backcourse
The compass direction from the present position to a destination
waypoint.
BFO
Beat Frequency Oscillator
BKSP
Backspace
Bluetooth
610
Definition
Wireless standard for data exchange over short distances
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
Definition
BOC
Bottom of Climb
BOD
Bottom of Descent
BRG
see also Bearing
°C
Degrees Celsius
C
Center Runway
CA
Course to Altitude Leg
CAL
Calibrated
CALC
Calculator
Calibrated Airspeed
Indicated airspeed corrected for installation and instrument errors.
CAS
Crew Alerting System
CD
Course to DME Distance Leg
CDI
Course Deviation Indicator
CDU
Control Display Unit
CF
Course to Fix Leg
CG
Center of Gravity
CH, CHNL
CHT
CHKLIST
CI
Channel
Cylinder Head Temperature
Checklist
Course to Intercept Leg
CLD
Cloud
CLR
Clear
CM
Centimeter
CMC
Central Maintenance Computer
CN
Canada
CNS
Communication, Navigation, & Surveillance
CO
Carbon Monoxide
COM
CONFIG
Communication Radio
Configuration
COOL
Coolant
COPLT
Copilot
Course
The line between two points to be followed by the aircraft.
Course to Steer
CPDLC
CPL
190–02380–00 Rev. A
The recommended direction to steer in order to reduce course error
or stay on course. Provides the most efficient heading to get back to
the desired course and proceed along the flight plan.
Controller Pilot Datalink Communications
Couple
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
611
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
CR
Course to Radial Leg
CRG
Cockpit Reference Guide
CRNT
Current
Crosstrack Error
CRS
The distance the aircraft is off a desired course in either direction,
left or right.
see also Course, Course to Steer
CRSR
Cursor
CSA
Conflict Situational Awareness
CSC
Current Speed Control
CTA
Control Area
CTR
Center
CTRL
Control
Cumulative, CUM
CVDR
CVR
The total of all legs in a flight plan.
Cockpit Voice Data Recorder
Cockpit Voice Recorder
CVRG
Coverage
CWS
Control Wheel Steering
CYC CTR
CYL
Cyclic Centering
Cylinder
D ALT
Density Altitude
D-ATIS
Digital Automatic Terminal Info Service
DB, DBASE
Database
dBZ
Decibels ‘Z’ (Radar Return)
DCL
Departure Clearance
DCLTR, DECLTR
DEC FUEL
Declutter
Decrease Fuel
DEG
Degree
DEIC, DEICE
De-icing
DEP
Desired Track
DES, DEST
DEV
DF
DFLT
DG
612
Definition
Departure
The desired course between the active “from” and “to” waypoints.
Destination
Deviation
Direct to Fix Leg
Default
Directional Gyro
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
Definition
DGRD
Degrade
DH
Decision Height
Dilution of Precision
A measure of GPS satellite geometry quality on a scale of one to ten
(lower numbers equal better geometry, where higher numbers equal
poorer geometry).
DIR
Direction
DIS
Distance
Distance
The ‘great circle’ distance from the present position to a destination
waypoint.
DL LTNG
Datalink Lightning
DLS
Data Link System
DME
Distance Measuring Equipment
DN
Down
DOD
Department of Defense
DOP
see also Dilution of Precision
DP
Departure Procedure
DPRT
Departure
DR
Dead Reckoning
DSBL
Disabled
DTG
Distance To Go, Remaining distance to last active FPL waypoint
DTK
see also Desired Track
DQR
Data Quality Requirements
E
Empty, East
EAS
Engine and Airframe Systems
ECU
Engine Control Unit
EDM
Emergency Descent Mode
EFC
Expected Further Clearance
Efficiency
A measure of fuel consumption, expressed in distance per unit of
fuel.
EGNOS
European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service
EGT
Exhaust Gas Temperature
EICAS
Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System
EIS
Engine Indication System
ELEV
Elevation, Elevator
ELT
Emergency Locator Transmitter
EMER, EMERG, EMERGCY
190–02380–00 Rev. A
Emergency
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
613
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
EMI
END, ENDUR
Endurance
ENG
ENGD
ENR
Definition
Electromagnetic Interference
Endurance
Flight endurance, or total possible flight time based on available fuel
on board.
Engine
Engaged
Enroute; ETE to Final Destination
Enroute Safe Altitude (ESA) Uses Grid MORAs to determine a safe altitude within ten miles left
or right of the desired course on an active flight plan or direct-to.
ENT
Enter
EPE
see also Estimated Position Error
EPU
Estimated Position Uncertainty
ERR
Error
ES
ESA
see also Enroute Safe Altitude
ESP
Electronic Stability and Protection
Estimated Position Error
(EPE)
Estimated Time of Arrival
(ETA)
Estimated Time Enroute
(ETE)
A measure of horizontal GPS position error derived by satellite
geometry conditions and other factors.
The estimated time at which the aircraft should reach the destination
waypoint, based upon current speed and track.
The estimated time it takes to reach the destination waypoint from
the present position, based upon current groundspeed.
ETA
see also Estimated Time of Arrival
ETE
see also Estimated Time Enroute
EVS
Enhanced Vision System
EXPIRD
Expired
°F
Degrees Fahrenheit
FA
Course From Fix to Altitude Leg
FAA
Federal Aviation Administration
FADEC
Full Authority Digital Engine Control
FAF
Final Approach Fix
FAIL
Failure
FANS
Future Air Navigation System
FAR
Federal Aviation Regulations
FBO
Fixed Base Operator
FC
614
Extended Squitter
Course From Fix to Distance Leg
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
Definition
FCC
Federal Communication Commission
FCST
Forecast
FD
Flight Director, Course From Fix to DME Distance Leg
FDE
Fault Detection and Exclusion
FF, FFLOW
see also Fuel Flow
FIS-B
Flight Information Services-Broadcast
FISDL
Flight Information Service Data Link
FL
Flight Level
FLC
Flight Level Change
FLT
Flight Timer
FLTA
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
FM
Course From Fix to Manual Termination Leg
FMS
Flight Management System
FOB
see also Fuel On Board
FOD
see also Fuel Over Destination
FPA
Flight Path Angle
FPL
Flight Plan
FPM
Feet Per Minute, Flight Path Marker
FREQ
Frequency
FRMT
Format
FRZ
Freezing
FSM
Flight System Messages
FSS
Flight Service Station
FT
foot/feet
Fuel Flow
The fuel flow rate, expressed in units of fuel per hour.
Fuel On Board
The total amount of usable fuel on board the aircraft.
Fuel Over Destination
The estimated fuel remaining when the aircraft reaches the
destination waypoint, based upon current fuel flow.
FWD
Forward
G/S
Glideslope
GA
Go-Around
GAL, GL
Gallon(s)
GBOX
Gearbox
GBT
Ground Based Transceiver
GCU
Garmin Control Unit
190–02380–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
615
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
GCS
Ground Clutter Suppression
GDC
Garmin Air Data Computer
GDL
Garmin Satellite Data Link
GDR
Garmin Data Radio
GDU
Garmin Display Unit
GEA
Garmin Engine/Airframe Unit
GEN
Generator
GEO
Geographic
GFC
Garmin Flight Control
GIA
Garmin Integrated Avionics Unit
GLONASS
GLS
Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite Landing System
Global Navigation Satellite Landing System
GMA
Garmin Audio Panel System
GMC
Garmin Mode Controller
GMT
Greenwich Mean Time
GMU
Garmin Magnetometer Unit
GND
Ground
GPH
Gallons per Hour
GPN
Garmin Part Number
GPS
Global Positioning System
GPWS
Grid MORA (Minimum Off
—Route Altitude)
616
Definition
Ground Proximity Warning System
One degree latitude by one degree longitude in size and clears the
highest elevation reference point in the grid by: a) 1,000 feet where
the highest elevation is <5001MSL or b) 2,000 feet where the
highest elevation is >5000MSL
Groundspeed
The velocity that the aircraft is travelling relative to a ground
position.
Ground Track
See Track
GRS
Garmin Reference System
GS
Ground Speed, Glideslope
GSA
Garmin Servo Adapter
GSD
Garmin Data Concentrator
GSL
Geodetic Sea Level
GSR
Garmin Satellite Radio
GSU
Garmin Sensor Unit
GTC
Garmin Touchscreen Controller
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
Definition
GTS
Garmin Traffic System
GTX
Garmin Transponder
GW
Gross Weight
GWX
Garmin Weather Radar
HA
Hold Terminating at Altitude Leg
HDG
see also Heading
HDOP
Horizontal Dilution of Precision
Heading
The direction an aircraft is pointed, based upon indications from a
magnetic compass or a properly set directional gyro.
HF
High Frequency, Hold Terminating at Fix Leg
HFOM
see also Horizontal Figure of Merit
Hg
Mercury
HI
High
HI SENS
High Sensitivity
HM
Hold with Manual Termination Leg
HNS
Hybrid Navigation System
Horizontal Figure of Merit
HOV
HOV-P
A measure of the uncertainty in the aircraft’s horizontal position.
Hover
Hover Prediction
hPa
Hectopascal
HPI
Hover Power Indicator
HPL
Horizontal Protection Level
HR
Hour
HRZN HDG
HSDB
Horizon Heading
High-Speed Data Bus
HSI
Horizontal Situation Indicator
HT
Heat
HUL
Hz
I
Horizontal Uncertainty Level
Hertz (cycles per second)
Inner Marker
IAF
Initial Approach Fix
IAS
Indicated Air Speed
IAT
Indicated Air Temperature
IAU
Integrated Avionics Unit
ICAO
190–02380–00 Rev. A
International Civil Aviation Organization
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
617
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
ICS
Intercom System
ID
Identification/Morse Code Identifier
IDENT, IDNT
IEEE
IF
Identification
Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers
Initial Fix
IFR
Instrument Flight Rules
IG
Imperial Gallon
IGE
In Ground Effect
ILS
Instrument Landing System
IMC
Instrument Meteorological Conditions
IN
INACTV
INC FUEL
IND
Indicated
Inch
Inactive
Increase Fuel
Indicator, Indicated
Information provided by properly calibrated and set instrumentation
on the aircraft panel.
INFO
Information
IN Hg
Inches of Mercury
INS
Inertial Navigation System
INT
Intersection(s)
INTEG
IrDA, IRDA
Integrity (RAIM unavailable)
Infrared Data Association
ISA
International Standard Atmosphere; ISA Relative Temperature
ISO
International Standards Organization
ITT
Inter-Turbine Temperature, Interstage Turbine Temperature
KEYSTK
Key Stuck
KG
Kilogram
kHz
Kilohertz
KM
Kilometer
KT
Knot
L
Left, Left Runway
LAT
Latitude, Lateral
LBL
Label
LB
Pound
LCD
618
Definition
Liquid Crystal Display
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
Definition
LCL
Local
LDA
Landing Distance Available
LDG
ETA at Final Destination
LED
Light Emitting Diode
Left Over Fuel On Board
The amount of fuel remaining on board after the completion of one
or more legs of a flight plan or direct-to.
Left Over Fuel Reserve
The amount of flight time remaining, based on the amount of fuel
on board after the completion of one or more legs of a flight plan or
direct-to, and a known consumption rate.
Leg
LGND
The portion of a flight plan between two waypoints.
Legend
LIFR
Low Instrument Flight Rules
LMM
Location Middle Marker
LNAV
Lateral Navigation
LO
Low
LOA
Letter of Authorization
LOC
Localizer
LOI
Loss of Integrity (GPS)
LOM
Location Outer Marker
LON
Longitude, Longitudinal
LP
Localizer Performance
LPV
Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance
LRU
Line Replaceable Unit
LT
LTNG
LVL
M
MMO (VMO)
Mach Number
MAG
MAG VAR
Left
Lightning
Level
Meter, Middle Marker, Mach
Maximum Speed
Mach number is the ratio of the true airspeed to the speed of sound.
Magnetic
Magnetic Variation
MAHP
Missed Approach Hold Point
MAN IN
Manifold Pressure (inches Hg)
MAN SQ
Manual Squelch
MANSEQ
Manual Sequence
MAP
190–02380–00 Rev. A
Missed Approach Point
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
619
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
MASQ
MAX
MAXSPD
Master Avionics Squelch
Maximum
Maximum Speed (overspeed)
MB
Marker Beacon
MCP
Maximum Continuous Power
MDA
Barometric Minimum Descent Altitude
MEPT
Manual Electric Pitch Trim
MET
Manual Electric Trim
METAR
MFD
MGRS
Aviation Routine Weather Report
Multi Function Display
Military Grid Reference System
MGT
Measured Gas Temperature
MHz
Megahertz
MIC
Microphone
MIN
Minimum
Minimum Safe Altitude
(MSA)
Uses Grid MORAs to determine a safe altitude within ten miles of
the aircraft present position.
MKR
Marker Beacon
MOA
Military Operations Area
MON
Monitor
MOV
Movement
MORA
Minimum Off-Route Altitude
MPEL
Maximum Permissible Exposure Level
MPM
Meters per Minute
MSA
see also Minimum Safe Altitude
MSAS
Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System
MSG
Message
MSL
Mean Sea Level
MT, M
mV
MVFR
N
NAV
NAVAID
NDB
620
Definition
Meter
Millivolt(s)
Marginal Visual Flight Rules
North
Navigation
Navigation Aid
Non-Directional Beacon
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
NEXRAD
Definition
Next Generation Radar
NG
Gas Producer Rotation Speed
NM
Nautical Mile(s)
NoPT
NOTAM
No Procedure Turn Required (procedure shall not be executed
without ATC clearance)
Notice To Airman
NP
Power Turbine Speed
NR
Rotor Speed
NRST
O
Nearest
Outer Marker
OAT
Outside Air Temperature
OBS
Omni Bearing Selector
OFST
Offset
OGE
Out of Ground Effect
OOOI
Out of the gate, Off the ground, On the ground, and In the gate
OXY
Oxygen
P ALT
Pressure Altitude
PA
PASS
PC
Passenger Address, Proximity Advisory
Passenger(s)
Personal Computer
PDC
Pre-Departure Clearance
PFD
Primary Flight Display
PG
Pilot’s Guide
PI
Procedure Turn to Course Intercept Leg
PIREP
PIT, PTCH
Pilot Report
Pitch
POA
Plain Old ACARS
POH
Pilot’s Operating Handbook
POHS
Pilot’s Operating Handbook Supplement
POS, POSN
Position
PPH
Pounds per Hour
PPM
Parts per Million
P. POS
Present Position
PRES, PRESS
PROC
190–02380–00 Rev. A
Pressure
Procedure(s), Procedure Turn
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
621
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
PROP
Propeller
PROX
Proximity
PSI
Pounds per Square Inch, Power Situation Indicator
PT
Procedure Turn
PTK
Parallel Track
PTT
Push-to-Talk
PWR
Power
Q
Engine Torque
QFE
Field Elevation Pressure
QNH
Sea Level Pressure
QTY
Quantity
R
RA
RAD
RAD ALT
Right, Right Runway
Resolution Advisory, Radio Altimeter
Radial
Radio Altimeter
RAIM
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring
RAM
Random Access Memory
RAT
Ram Air Temperature
RCVR
Receiver
REF
Reference
REM
Remaining (fuel remaining), Reminder
REQ
Required
RES
Reserve (fuel reserve entered by pilot)
REV
Reverse, Revision, Revise
RF
Radio Frequency, Constant Radius Turn to Fix Leg
RFM
Rotorcraft Flight Manual
RMI
Radio Magnetic Indicator
RMT
Remote
RNAV
Area Navigation
RNG
Range
RNP
Required Navigation Performance
RNWY, RWY
622
Definition
Runway
ROL
Roll
ROM
Read Only Memory
RPM
Revolutions Per Minute
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
Definition
RST FUEL
Reset Fuel
RSV
RT
RVRSNRY
RVSM
RX
S
Reserve (fuel reserve entered by pilot)
Right
Reversionary
Reduced Vertical Separation Minimums
Receive
South
SA
Selective Availability
SAR
Search and Rescue
SAT
Static Air Temperature
SBAS
Satellite-Based Augmentation System
SCIT
Storm Cell Identification and Tracking
SD
Secure Digital
SEC
Second(s)
SEL, SLCT
SELCAL
SENS
Select
Selective Calling
Sense
SFC
Surface
SIAP
Standard Instrument Approach Procedures
SID
Standard Instrument Departure
SIG/AIR
SIGMET/AIRMET
SIGMET
Significant Meteorological Information
SIM
Simulator
SLD
Supercooled Large Droplet
SLP/SKD
Slip/Skid
SMBL
Symbol
SMS
Short Message System
SNGL
Single
SPC
Space
SPD
Speed
SPI
Special Position Identification
SPKR
Speaker
SQ
Squelch
SRVC, SVC
Service
SSID
190–02380–00 Rev. A
Wireless Service Set Identifier
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
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APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
Definition
STAB
Stabilization
STAL
Stall
STAR
Standard Terminal Arrival Route
STATS
Statistics
STBY
Standby
STD
Standard
STRMSCP
SUA
Special Use Airspace
SURF
Surface
SUSP
Suspend
SVT
Synthetic Vision Technology
SW
Software
SYNC
Synchronize
SYN TERR
Synthetic Terrain
SYN VIS
Synthetic Vision
SYS
T
TA
System
TRUE
Traffic Advisory
TACAN
Tactical Air Navigation System
TAF
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
TAS
True Airspeed, Traffic Advisory System
TAT
Total Air Temperature
TAWS
Terrain Awareness and Warning System
TCA
Terminal Control Area
TCAS
Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System
TEL
Telephone
TEMP
Temperature
TERM
Terminal
TF
Track Between Two Fixes Leg
TFR
Temporary Flight Restriction
TGT
Target
T HDG
TIS
TIS-B
TIT
624
Stormscope
True Heading
Traffic Information Service
Traffic Information Service-Broadcast
Turbine Inlet Temperature
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
190–02380–00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
Definition
TKE
see also Track Angle Error
TMA
Terminal Maneuvering Area
TMR/REF
Timer/Reference
TOC
Top of Climb
TOD
Top of Descent
TOGA, TO/GA
Take-Off, Go-Around
TOLD
Takeoff and Landing Data
TOPO
Topographic
TORA
Takeoff Run Available
TOT
Total
TPA
Traffic Pattern Altitude
Track
Track Angle Error
TRK
TRSA
TRUNC
TTL
Direction of aircraft movement relative to a ground position; also
‘Ground Track’.
The angle difference between the desired track and the current
track.
see also Track
Terminal Radar Service Area
Truncated
Total
TURB
Turbulence
TURN
Procedure Turn
TWIP
Terminal Weather Information for Pilots
TX
Transmit
UAT
Universal Access Transceiver
UHF
Ultra-High Frequency
UNAVAIL
US
Unavailable
United States
USR
User
UTC
Coordinated Universal Time
UTM/UPS
V
V, Vspeed
Universal Transverse Mercator/ Universal Polar Stereographic Grid
Volts
Velocity (airspeed)
V1
Takeoff Decision Speed
V2
Takeoff Safety Speed
VA
Maneuvering Speed
190–02380–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M500
625
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
VAPP , VAC
Definition
Approach Climb Speed
VFE
Maximum Flap Extended Speed
VLE
Maximum Landing Gear Extended Speed
VLNDx
Approach Speed (Flaps at x°)
VLO
Maximum Landing Gear Operating Speed
VMC
Minimum Control Speed
VMO (MMO)
Maximum Operating Speed
VNE
Never-Exceed Speed
VR
Takeoff Rotate Speed
VREF
Landing Approach Speed, Reference Landing Speed
VSB
Maximum Speedbrake Speed
VSR
Stall Speed
VT
VTIRE
Takeoff Flap Retraction Speed
Maximum Tire Speed
VX
Best Angle of Climb Speed
VY
Best Rate of Climb Speed
VYSE
Best Single-Engine Rate of Climb Speed
V DEV
Vertical Deviation
VA
Heading Vector to Altitude Leg
VAC
Volts Alternating Current
VAPP
VOR Approach
VAR
Variation
VD
Heading Vector to DME Distance Leg
VDC
Volts Direct Current
VDL
VHF Datalink
VERT
Vertical
Vertical Figure of Merit
A measure of the uncertainty in the aircraft’s vertical position.
Vertical Speed Required
The vertical speed necessary to descend/climb from a current
position and altitude to a defined target position and altitude, based
upon current groundspeed.
VFOM
626
see also Vertical Figure of Merit
VFR
Visual Flight Rules
VHF
Very High Frequency
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APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
VI
VLOC
VM
VMC
VNAV, VNV
Definition
Heading Vector to Intercept Leg
VOR/Localizer Receiver
Heading Vector to Manual Termination Leg
Visual Meteorological Conditions
Vertical Navigation
VOL
Volume
VOR
VHF Omnidirectional Range
VORTAC
VPATH, VPTH
VPL
VHF Omnidirectional Range Station and Tactical Air Navigation
Vertical Path
Vertical Protection Level
VPROF
VNAV Profile, Vertical Profile
VR
Heading Vector to Radial Leg
VRP
Visual Reporting Point
VS
Vertical Speed
VSD
Vertical Situation Display
VSI
Vertical Speed Indicator
VSR, VS REQ
see also Vertical Speed Required
VTF
Vector to Final
W
Watt(s), West
WAAS
Wide Area Augmentation System
WARN
Warning
WATCH
Weather Attenuated Color Highlight
WGS-84
World Geodetic System - 1984
WI-FI, WIFI
Wireless Local Area Network based on IEEE 802.11
WOG
Weight on Gear
WOW
Weight on Wheels
WPT
Waypoint(s)
WT
Weight
WW
World Wide
WX
Weather
XFER, XFR
Transfer
XM LTNG
SiriusXM Lightning
XMSN
Transmission
XPDR
Transponder
XTALK
Cross-Talk
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APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
628
Definition
XTK
Cross-Track, Crosstrack Error
YD
Yaw Damper
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APPENDIX D
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
If a particular aspect of system operational capability is not addressed by these commonly asked
questions or in the index, contact Garmin (see the copyright page or back cover for contact
information) or a Garmin-authorized dealer. Garmin is dedicated to supporting its products and
customers.
WHAT IS SBAS?
The Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) uses a system of ground stations to correct any
GPS signal errors. These ground stations correct for errors caused by ionospheric disturbances,
timing, and satellite orbit errors. It also provides vital integrity information regarding the health of
each GPS satellite. The signal correction is then broadcast through geostationary satellites. This
correction information can then be received by any SBAS-enabled GPS receiver.
SBAS is designed to provide the additional accuracy, availability, and integrity necessary to enable
users to rely on GPS for all phases of flight.
There are several SBAS systems serving different parts of the world. The Wide Area
Augmentation System (WAAS) is currently available in the United States, including Alaska and
Hawaii. The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) offers coverage of
Europe, parts of the middle east and northern Africa. The Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation
System (MSAS) covers mainly Japan and parts of northern Australia.
HOW DOES SBAS AFFECT APPROACH OPERATIONS?
The implementation of LPV approaches further improves precision approach capabilities. LPV
approaches are designed to make full use of the improved GPS signal from the SBAS. This
approach combines the LNAV/VNAV vertical accuracy with lateral guidance similar to the typical
Instrument Landing System (ILS). LPV approaches allow lower approach minimums.
Both LNAV/VNAV and LPV approaches use the accuracy of SBAS to include vertical (glide path)
guidance capability. The additional accuracy and vertical guidance capability allows improved
instrument approaches to an expanded number of airports throughout the U.S.
WHAT IS RAIM AND HOW DOES IT AFFECT APPROACH OPERATIONS?
RAIM is an acronym for Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring. RAIM is a GPS receiver
function that performs the following functions:
•
Monitors and verifies integrity and geometry of tracked GPS satellites
•
Notifies the pilot when satellite conditions do not provide the necessary coverage to support a
certain phase of flight
•
Predicts satellite coverage of a destination area to determine whether the number of available
satellites is sufficient to satisfy requirements
NOTE: If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach
does not become active, as indicated by the “RAIM not available from FAF to MAP” message
and the LOI annunciation flagging on the HSI.
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APPENDIX D
For RAIM to work correctly, the GPS receiver must track at least five satellites. A minimum of six
satellites is required to allow RAIM to eliminate a single corrupt satellite from the navigation
solution.
RAIM ensures that satellite geometry allows for a navigation solution calculation within a
specified protection limit (2.0 nm for oceanic and en route, 1.0 nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for
non-precision approaches). The system monitors RAIM and issues an alert message when RAIM
is not available (see Appendix A). Without RAIM, GPS position accuracy cannot be monitored. If
RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the pilot must fly the missed approach procedure.
WHY MIGHT THERE BE NO APPROACHES AVAILABLE FOR A FLIGHT PLAN?
Approaches are available for the final destination airport in a flight plan or as a direct-to (keep in
mind some VOR/VORTAC identifiers are similar to airport identifiers). If a destination airport does
not have a published approach, the system indicates “NONE” for the available procedures.
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN AN APPROACH IS SELECTED? CAN A FLIGHT PLAN WITH AN
APPROACH, A DEPARTURE, OR AN ARRIVAL BE STORED?
When an approach, departure, or arrival is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach,
departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan, along with a header line showing
the title of the selected instrument procedure. The original enroute portion of the flight plan
remains active, unless the instrument procedure is activated. This may be done either when the
procedure is loaded or at a later time.
Flight plans can also be stored with an approach, a departure, or an arrival. Note the active flight
plan is erased when the system is turned off. Also, the active flight plan is overwritten when
another flight plan is activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, a departure, or an
arrival, the system uses the waypoint information from the current database to define the
waypoints. If the database is changed or updated, the system automatically updates the
information, provided the procedure has not been modified. Should an approach, departure, or
arrival procedure no longer be available, the flight plan becomes locked until the procedure is
deleted from the flight plan.
CAN “SLANT GOLF” (“/G”) BE FILED USING THE SYSTEM?
“/G” may be filed for a flight plan. GPS approaches are not to be flown with an expired database.
See the approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) as well as the Aeronautical Information Manual
(AIM) for more information.
WHAT DOES THE OBS SOFTKEY DO?
630
Normal (OBS not activated)
OBS
• Automatic sequencing of waypoints
• Manual sequencing - ‘holds’ on selected waypoint
• Manual course change on HSI not
possible
• Manually select course to waypoint from HSI
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APPENDIX D
Normal (OBS not activated)
OBS
• Always navigates ‘TO’ the active
waypoint
• Indicates ‘TO’ or ‘FROM’ waypoint
• Must be in this mode for final
approach course
• Cannot be set for final approach course or
published holding patterns
The OBS Softkey is used to select manual sequencing of waypoints. Activating OBS mode sets
the current active-to waypoint as the primary navigation reference and prevents the system from
sequencing to the next waypoint in a flight plan. When OBS mode is cancelled, automatic
waypoint sequencing is continued, and the system automatically activates the next waypoint in the
flight plan once the aircraft has crossed the present active waypoint.
WHY MIGHT THE SYSTEM NOT AUTOMATICALLY SEQUENCE TO THE NEXT WAYPOINT?
The system only sequences flight plan waypoints when automatic sequencing is enabled (i.e., no
‘OBS’ or ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI). For automatic sequencing to occur, the aircraft must
also cross the bisector of the turn being navigated. The bisector is a line passing through the
waypoint common to two flight plan legs at an equal angle from each leg.
WHEN DOES TURN ANTICIPATION BEGIN?
The system smooths adjacent leg transitions based on a normal 15° bank angle (with the ability
to roll up to 30°) and provides three pilot cues for turn anticipation:
•
A waypoint alert (‘Next DTK ###° in # seconds’ or ‘Next HDG ###° in # seconds’) appears on the
PFD 10 seconds before the turn point and flashes as it counts down to zero.
•
A flashing turn advisory (‘Turn [right/left] to ###° in # seconds’) appears on the PFD 10 seconds
before the turn and flashes as it counts down to zero. ‘Turn [right/left] to ###° now’ or ‘Next
[DTK/HDG] to ###° now’ is displayed when the pilot is to begin the turn and the HSI (GPS
mode) automatically sequences to the next DTK or HDG value.
•
The To/From indicator on the HSI flips momentarily to indicate the midpoint of the turn has
been crossed.
WHEN DOES THE CDI SCALE CHANGE?
Once a departure is activated, the system Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) full scale deflection is
set to 0.3 nm. The CDI scale changes to 1.0 nm (terminal mode) then ramps up to 2.0 nm
(enroute mode) at 30 nm from the departure airport. When 31 nm from the destination, the CDI
scale smoothly transition from 2.0 nm back to 1.0 nm (terminal mode). At 2.0 nm before the FAF
during an active approach, the CDI scale transitions down further based on the type of approach
activated (LNAV, LNAV/VNAV, LPV). When a missed approach is activated, the CDI is set to 0.3
nm. See the Flight Instruments Section for more details on CDI scaling.
WHY DOES THE HSI NOT RESPOND LIKE A VOR WHEN OBS MODE IS ACTIVE?
Unlike a VOR, the CDI scale used on GPS equipment is based on the crosstrack distance to the
desired course, not on the angular relationship to the destination. Therefore, the CDI deflection on
the GPS is constant regardless of the distance to the destination and does not become less sensitive
when further away from the destination.
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APPENDIX D
HOW DO I ACTIVATE A MISSED APPROACH PROCEDURE?
To comply with TSO specifications, the system does not automatically sequence past the MAP.
The first waypoint in the missed approach procedure becomes the active waypoint when the SUSP
Button is selected after crossing the MAP. All published missed approach procedures must be
followed, as indicated on the published approach.
To execute the missed approach procedure prior to the MAP (not recommended), touch the
PROC Button on the Home Screen or the Active Flight Plan Screen. Touch the Activate Missed
Approach Button to activate the missed approach portion of the procedure.
AFTER A MISSED APPROACH, HOW CAN THE SAME APPROACH BE RE-SELECTED? HOW
CAN A NEW APPROACH BE ACTIVATED?
NOTE: Do not attempt to reactivate the current approach prior to crossing the missed
approach point (MAP). If an attempt to do so is made, an alert message “Are you sure you
want to discontinue the current approach?” appears. The system directs the pilot back to the
transition waypoint and does not take into consideration any missed approach procedures, if
the current approach is reactivated.
After flying the missed approach procedure, the pilot may reactivate the same approach for
another attempt by touching the PROC Button on the Home Screen, followed by the Activate
Approach Button. The system provides navigation along the desired course to the waypoint and
rejoins the approach in sequence from that point.
To activate a new approach for the same airport, select the new procedure by touching the PROC
Button, then touch the Approach Button to access the Approach Selection Screen. Then touch the
Approach Button. The Touchscreen Controller displays a list of approaches as buttons. Scroll as
needed and touch the desired approach button, then touch a transition button. The Touchscreen
Controller returns to the Approach Selection Screen. To activate the selected approach, touch the
Load & Activate Button.
To activate a new approach to a different airport, touch the Direct To Button to access the Direct
To Screen. Then touch the waypoint point and enter the desired airport using the keypad or large
and small right knobs. Touch the Enter Button or push the Right Knob to accept the selected
airport, then follow the steps in the preceding paragraph to select an approach for the new airport.
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APPENDIX E
MAP SYMBOLS
Item
Symbol
ARTCC Frequency or FSS Frequency
Map Pointer (when panning)
Measuring Pointer
User Waypoint
Vertical Navigation Along Track Waypoint
Parallel Track Waypoint
Unanchored Flight Path Waypoint
Displayed when aircraft GPS location is valid, but heading is
invalid.
Top of Descent (TOD)
Bottom of Descent (BOD)
Navigating using Dead Reckoning
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APPENDIX E
BLANK PAGE
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INDEX
A
Abnormal GPS Conditions.................................. 101
Abnormal Operations for Garmin Connext Weather
.......................................................................... 365
Acquisition Squitter............................................ 135
Activating Data Link Weather Services................ 303
Establishing an account................................... 303
SiriusXM Weather activation............................303
Activating Garmin Connext Weather.................. 304
Registering the system.....................................306
Active Frequency
COM...............................................................119
NAV........................................................ 114, 126
Additional TAWS-B Alerting................................408
Additional Traffic Displays...................................431
ADS-B................................................................ 434
ADS-B Traffic
ADS-B Traffic Status.........................................449
Altitude range................................................. 443
Changing the display range.............................446
Display of ADS-B traffic................................... 441
Motion Vector................................................. 445
Motion Vector display......................................445
Showing additional traffic............................... 446
Testing............................................................ 442
ADS-B with TAS/TCAS I...................................... 436
Air Data Failure.................................................... 17
Airborne and Surface Applications......................439
Airborne Color Weather Radar System
Airborne weather radar overlay....................... 390
Antenna Stabilization...................................... 387
Antenna tilt angle........................................... 384
Displaying weather..........................................382
Ground Map Mode......................................... 389
Radar gain.......................................................385
Sector Scanning.............................................. 385
Vertically scanning...................................383, 384
WATCH........................................................... 387
Airport
Information Page.............................................180
Information Window....................................... 186
Nearest........................................................... 184
Nearest Airport Information on MFD................187
Nearest Airport Information on PFD................. 186
Nearest Surface/Runway Length Match............188
Select & Review by ID, name, or location......... 184
Viewing Destination........................................ 184
Viewing Runway Information.......................... 187
Airport Signs........................................................ 90
Airspace............................................................. 204
Alerts/Messages.............................................. 207
Changing altitude buffer distance................... 207
Displaying/Removing Alt Labels....................... 207
Reviewing Information.................................... 164
Selecting and Viewing Alert Information..........208
Smart Airspace................................................ 208
Turning On or Off Alert................................... 207
Turning Smart Airspace On/Off........................ 208
Airspeed Indicator................................................ 60
Airway............................................................... 173
Adding to Flight Plan...............................231, 233
Adding t