Garmin | G5 Electronic Flight Instrument for Experimental/LSA Aircraft | Garmin G5 Electronic Flight Instrument for Experimental/LSA Aircraft G5 EFI Pilot's Guide for Non-Certified Aircraft

Garmin G5 Electronic Flight Instrument for Experimental/LSA Aircraft G5 EFI Pilot's Guide for Non-Certified Aircraft
G5 Electronic Flight Instrument
Pilot's Guide
for Non-Certified Aircraft
(includes the GFC 500)
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
AFCS
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
INDEX
Blank Page
© 2019 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 6.10 or later. Some differences
in operation may be observed when comparing the information in this manual to earlier or later
software versions.
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Garmin AT, Inc.,2345 Turner Road SE, Salem, OR 97302, U.S.A.
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SO40 9LR U.K.
Garmin Corporation, No. 68, Zhangshu 2nd Road, Xizhi District, New Taipei City, Taiwan
Web Site Address: www.garmin.com
Except as expressly provided herein, no part of this manual may be reproduced, copied,
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single copy of this manual and of any revision to this manual onto a hard drive or other electronic
storage medium to be viewed for personal use, provided that such electronic or printed copy
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further that any unauthorized commercial distribution of this manual or any revision hereto is
strictly prohibited.
Garmin® is a registered trademark of Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. This trademark may not be
used without the express permission of Garmin.
August, 2019
190-02072-00 Rev. J
Printed in the U.S.A.
Warnings, Cautions & Notes
BATTERY WARNINGS:
If these guidelines are not followed, the lithium-ion battery may experience
a shortened life span or may present a risk of damage to the device, fire,
chemical burn, electrolyte leak, and/or injury.
• Do not leave the battery exposed to a heat source or in a high
temperature environment. To help prevent damage, store the battery
out of direct sunlight.
• For maximum battery longevity, store within a temperature range of
-4˚F to 68˚F (from -20˚C to 20˚C).
• Do not use a sharp object to remove the battery.
• Do not disassemble, puncture, damage, or incinerate the device or
battery.
• Keep the battery away from children.
• Only replace the battery with the approved replacement from Garmin.
Using another battery presents a risk of fire or explosion. To purchase
a replacement battery, see you Garmin dealer or the Garmin website.
• Contact your local waste disposal department to dispose of the device
and battery in accordance with applicable local laws and regulations.
WARNING: To reduce the risk of unsafe operation, carefully review and
understand all aspects of the G5 Install Manual & Pilot's Guide documentation
and the Pilot’s Operating Handbook of the aircraft. Thoroughly practice basic
operation prior to actual use. During flight operations, carefully compare
indications from the G5 to all available flight displays. For safety purposes,
always resolve any discrepancies.
WARNING: The altitude calculated by the G5 internal GPS receiver is
geometric height above Mean Sea Level and could vary significantly from the
altitude displayed by pressure altimeters. Always use the pressure altitude
display, when available, for determining or selecting aircraft altitude.
WARNING: The United States government operates the Global Positioning
System and is solely responsible for its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS
system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy and performance
of all GPS equipment.
G5 Electronic Flight Instrument Pilot's Guide for Non-Certified Aircraft
190-02072-00 Rev. J
Warnings, Cautions & Notes
WARNING: For safety reasons, the G5 operational procedures must be learned
on the ground.
WARNING: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals
known to the State of California to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive
harm. This Notice is being provided in accordance with California Proposition
65. If you have any questions or would like additional information, please
refer to our website at www.garmin.com/prop65
CAUTION: The display uses a lens with a special coating that may be sensitive
to certain oils, waxes, and abrasive cleaners. CLEANERS CONTAINING
AMMONIA WILL HARM THE ANTI-REFLECTIVE COATING. It is very important
to clean the lens using a clean, lint-free cloth and a cleaner that is specified
as safe for anti-reflective coatings. Avoid any chemical cleaners or solvents
that can damage plastic components.
CAUTION: The G5 does not contain any user-serviceable parts. Repairs should
only be made by an authorized Garmin service center. Unauthorized repairs
or modifications could result in permanent damage to the equipment and
void both the warranty and the authority to operate this device under FAA,
FCC, and other applicable regulations.
NOTE: This manual may not be used to install the G5 in a type-certificated
aircraft.
NOTE: The term LRU, as used throughout this manual is an abbreviation for
Line Replaceable Unit. LRU is used generically in aviation for a product (such
as a GSA 28 or GMC 307) that can be readily "swapped out" (usually as a
single component) for troubleshooting/repair.
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G5 Electronic Flight Instrument Pilot's Guide for Non-Certified Aircraft
Warnings, Cautions & Notes
NOTE: The G5 has a very high degree of functional integrity. However, the
pilot must recognize that providing monitoring and/or self-test capability for
all conceivable system failures is not practical. Although unlikely, it may be
possible for erroneous operation to occur without a fault indication shown by
the G5. It is thus the responsibility of the pilot to detect such an occurrence
by means of cross-checking with all redundant or correlated information
available in the cockpit.
NOTE: All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen
images of the G5 display, are subject to change and may not reflect the most
current G5 functionality.
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the display to appear dim or
blank.
G5 Electronic Flight Instrument Pilot's Guide for Non-Certified Aircraft
190-02072-00 Rev. J
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
Hereby, Garmin declares that this product is in compliance with the Directive 2014/53/EU. The full
text of the EU declaration of conformity is available at the following internet address www.garmin.
com/compliance.
FCC
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following
two conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must
accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital
device pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates,
uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and if not installed and used in accordance with
the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is
no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment
does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by
turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by
one of the following measures:
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
• Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the
receiver is connected.
• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
LICENSE AGREEMENT AND WARRANTY
Contact Garmin
Contact Garmin if you have any questions while using the G5 at www.flygarmin.com.
Software License Agreement
BY USING THE DEVICE, COMPONENT OR SYSTEM MANUFACTURED OR SOLD BY GARMIN
(“THE GARMIN PRODUCT”), YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS
OF THE FOLLOWING SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT. PLEASE READ THIS AGREEMENT
CAREFULLY. Garmin Ltd. and its subsidiaries (“Garmin”) grants you a limited license to use
the software embedded in the Garmin Product (the “Software”) in binary executable form
in the normal operation of the Garmin Product. Title, ownership rights, and intellectual
190-02072-00 Rev. J
G5 Electronic Flight Instrument Pilot's Guide for Non-Certified Aircraft
property rights in and to the Software remain with Garmin and/or its third-party providers.
You acknowledge the Software is the property of Garmin and/or its third-party providers and
is protected under the United States of America copyright laws and international copyright
treaties. You further acknowledge the structure, organization, and code of the Software are
valuable trade secrets of Garmin and/or its third-party providers and the Software in source
code form remains a valuable trade secret of Garmin and/or its third-party providers. You
agree not to reproduce, decompile, disassemble, modify, reverse assemble, reverse engineer, or
reduce to human readable form the Software or any part thereof or create any derivative works
based on the Software. You agree not to export or re-export the Software to any country in
violation of the export control laws of the United States of America.
Aviation Limited Warranty
All Garmin avionics products are warranted to be free from defects in materials or workmanship
for the earlier of: 2 years or 800 flight hours from the date of purchase for new TSO remotemount and TSO panel-mount products; 1 year or 400 flight hours from the date of purchase
for new Non-TSO remote-mount* and Non-TSO panel-mount*, portable products and any
purchased newly-overhauled products; 6 months or 200 flight hours for factory repaired or
newly-overhauled products exchanged through a Garmin Authorized Service Center. Within
the applicable period, Garmin will, at its sole option, repair or replace any components that
fail in normal use. Such repairs or replacement will be made at no charge to the customer
for parts or labor, provided the customer shall be responsible for any transportation cost. This
Limited Warranty does not apply to: (i) cosmetic damage, such as scratches, nicks and dents;
(ii) consumable parts, such as batteries, unless product damage has occurred due to a defect
in materials or workmanship; (iii) damage caused by accident, abuse, misuse, water, flood, fire,
or other acts of nature or external causes; (iv) damage caused by service performed by anyone
who is not an authorized service provider of Garmin; or (v) damage to a product that has been
modified or altered without the written permission of Garmin. In addition, Garmin reserves
the right to refuse warranty claims against products or services that are obtained and/or used
in contravention of the laws of any country.
This Limited Warranty also does not apply to, and Garmin is not responsible for, any degradation
in the performance of any Garmin navigation product resulting from its use in proximity to any
handset or other device that utilizes a terrestrial broadband network operating on frequencies
that are close to the frequencies used by any Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) such
as the Global Positioning Service (GPS). Use of such devices may impair reception of GNSS
signals.
G5 Electronic Flight Instrument Pilot's Guide for Non-Certified Aircraft
190-02072-00 Rev. J
THE WARRANTIES AND REMEDIES CONTAINED HEREIN ARE EXCLUSIVE AND IN LIEU OF
ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING ANY
LIABILITY ARISING UNDER ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE. THIS WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC
LEGAL RIGHTS, WHICH MAY VARY FROM STATE TO STATE.
IN NO EVENT SHALL GARMIN BE LIABLE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER RESULTING FROM THE USE, MISUSE OR INABILITY TO
USE THE PRODUCT OR FROM DEFECTS IN THE PRODUCT. SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW THE
EXCLUSION OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THE ABOVE LIMITATIONS
MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
Garmin retains the exclusive right to repair or replace (with a new or newly-overhauled
replacement product) the product or software or offer a full refund of the purchase price at
its sole discretion. SUCH REMEDY SHALL BE YOUR SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDY FOR ANY
BREACH OF WARRANTY.
Online Auction Purchases: Products purchased through online auctions are not eligible for
warranty coverage. Online auction confirmations are not accepted for warranty verification.
To obtain warranty service, an original or copy of the sales receipt from the original retailer is
required. Garmin will not replace missing components from any package purchased through
an online auction.
International Purchases: A separate warranty may be provided by international distributors
for devices purchased outside the U.S. depending on the country. If applicable, this warranty
is provided by the local in-country distributor and this distributor provides local service for
your device. Distributor warranties are only valid in the area of intended distribution. Devices
purchased in the U.S. or Canada must be returned to the Garmin service center in the U.K., the
U.S., Canada, or Taiwan for service.
*All new G3X units, including Non-TSO remote-mount or Non-TSO panel-mount, are warranted
to be free from defects in materials or workmanship for the earlier of: 2 years or 800 flight
hours from the date of purchase.
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G5 Electronic Flight Instrument Pilot's Guide for Non-Certified Aircraft
Part Number
190-02072-00
Rev
Date
A April, 2016
Change Summary
Initial release.
Description
Production Release.
B
April, 2016
Updates to Installation Manual section.
C
September, 2016
Added interconnect drawings, various updates
D
December, 2016
Added autopilot trim and speed annunciations.
E
May, 2017
Added GMU 11 info, various updates
F
June, 2017
Added Declaration of Conformity for RED compliance
G
October, 2017
H
July, 2019
J
August, 2019
Removed Installation Manual section
Updated AFCS Status Display throughout
Added Electronic Stability & Protection (ESP)
Added support for multiple navigation sources
Added 'Unable to Charge Battery' indication
Added ability to configure Sky Pointer or Ground Pointer
Other miscellaneous updates for Software Version 4.10
Added GPS Roll Steering (GPSS) functionality throughout.
Added Section where G3X Touch Integration was highlighted
Added GTN 507 functionality
Added GAD 13 functionality
Updated throughout to reflect Software version 6.10.
Corrected various clerical errors
G5 Electronic Flight Instrument Pilot's Guide for Non-Certified Aircraft
190-02072-00 Rev. J
Table of Contents
Section 1 System Overview................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Bezel Overview................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 microSD™ Cards.................................................................................................................... 2
1.3 Applying System power.................................................................................................... 2
1.4 Operation............................................................................................................................. 3
1.4.1 G5 Annunciations........................................................................................................ 3
1.4.2 G5 Attitude................................................................................................................. 3
1.4.3 G5 Heading................................................................................................................ 4
1.4.4 Backlight Intensity....................................................................................................... 4
1.5 Accessing Functionality.................................................................................................... 5
1.5.1 Pages.......................................................................................................................... 5
1.5.2 Menu.......................................................................................................................... 6
1.6 G3X Touch Integration...................................................................................................... 6
1.7 System Messages............................................................................................................... 7
Section 2 Flight Instruments................................................................................................. 9
2.1 PFD Page.............................................................................................................................. 9
2.1.1 Airspeed Indicator..................................................................................................... 10
2.1.2 Attitude Indicator...................................................................................................... 12
2.1.3 Altimeter................................................................................................................... 14
2.1.4 Turn Rate Indicator.................................................................................................... 16
2.1.5 Heading/Ground Track (PFD Page)............................................................................. 17
2.1.6 Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)..................................................................................... 19
2.1.7 PFD Pitch Attitude Offset........................................................................................... 19
2.1.8 Battery Status Indicator............................................................................................. 20
2.2 HSI Page............................................................................................................................. 21
2.2.1 Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............................................................................ 23
2.3 Navigation......................................................................................................................... 26
2.3.1 Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)................................................................................ 26
2.3.2 Vertical Deviation Indicator and VNAV Indicator......................................................... 28
2.3.3 Course Selection (Optional)....................................................................................... 30
Section 3 Automatic Flight Control System (Optional)........................................ 31
3.1 AFCS System Architecture.............................................................................................. 31
3.1.1 G5 AFCS Configuration............................................................................................. 31
3.1.2 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Operation........................................................................ 32
3.1.3 Flight Control............................................................................................................ 32
3.1.4 Pitch Axis and Trim.................................................................................................... 32
3.1.5 Roll Axis.................................................................................................................... 33
3.1.6 Yaw Axis................................................................................................................... 33
3.1.7 Control Wheel Steering (CWS) (Optional)................................................................... 33
3.1.8 G5 AFCS Status Box.................................................................................................. 34
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i
Table of Contents
3.2 AFCS Operation................................................................................................................. 34
3.2.1 AFCS PRE-FLIGHT Actions (Standalone Installation).................................................... 36
3.2.2 GMC 305/307/507 AFCS Controls............................................................................. 36
3.2.3 Engaging the Autopilot.............................................................................................. 40
3.2.4 Flight Director Operation........................................................................................... 42
3.2.5 Flight Director Modes................................................................................................ 45
3.3 AFCS Alerts (Optional)..................................................................................................... 64
3.3.1 Status Alerts.............................................................................................................. 64
3.3.2 Speed Alerts.............................................................................................................. 65
Section 4 Additional Features............................................................................................ 67
4.1 Electronic Stability & Protection (ESP)........................................................................ 67
4.1.1 Roll Engagement....................................................................................................... 69
4.1.2 Pitch Engagement..................................................................................................... 70
4.1.3 Airspeed Protection................................................................................................... 71
4.2 GPS Steering (GPSS)........................................................................................................ 72
4.2.1 GAD 29/29B (Optional)............................................................................................. 72
4.2.2 Gad 13 (Optional)..................................................................................................... 75
Index................................................................................................................................................... 77
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
The G5 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) features a bright, sunlight
readable 3.5" LCD color display, sized to fit a standard 3-1/8" instrument cutout. The
G5 can be used as a primary EFIS attitude indicator, or Directional Gyro / Horizontal
Situation Indicator (DG/HSI) display, or as a fully integrated back-up flight instrument
for the G3X/G3X Touch, or other Experimental Amateur Built and Light Sport Aircraft
(EAB/LSA) glass cockpits. When configured, the G5 provides stand-alone or back-up
autopilot control, allowing coupled GPS approaches to be flown, or continued, in the
event of a primary display loss. In the case of aircraft power loss, the optional battery
back-up sustains the G5 flight display with up to 4 hours of emergency power. A dual
G5 installation offers reversionary display capability plus the added redundancy of dual
Air Data and Attitude Heading Reference Systems (ADAHRS) and back-up batteries.
System Overview
Section 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 BEZEL OVERVIEW
AFCS
Additional Features
microSD™ Card Slot
Power/Backlight
Selection Knob
Ambient Light
Sensor
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G5 Electronic Flight Instrument Pilot's Guide for Non-Certified Aircraft
Index
Figure 1-1 G5 Bezel Overview
1
System Overview
System Overview
Power Button
microSD™ Card
Slot
Press to turn unit ON. Press and hold for 5 seconds to turn
unit OFF. Once on, press to adjust the backlight.
Insert microSD card to update software and log data.
Press to access the Menu.
From the Menu, press to select the desired menu item.
Press
Press to accept the displayed value when editing numeric data
or selecting from a list.
Flight Instruments
AFCS
Press
Selection Knob
1.2
From the Main Menu, turn the Selection Knob to move the
cursor to the desired menu item.
From the PFD Page, rotate to adjust the barometric setting.
Turn
From the HSI Page, rotate to adjust the heading or track bug.
Turn to select the desired value when editing numeric data or
selecting from a list.
microSD™
CARDS
Index
Additional Features
NOTE: The G5 has no internal databases.
T he G5 data card slot uses micro Secure Digital (SD) cards. The microSD™ card can
be used for software updates and data logging. The maximum supported card size is
32GB.
Installing an microSD™ Card:
1)
Insert the microSD™ card in the microSD™ card slot with the card contacts
facing down (the card should be flush with the face of the bezel).
2)
To eject the card, gently press on the microSD™ card to release the spring
latch.
1.3 APPLYING SYSTEM POWER
During system initialization, the G5 displays the message ‘ALIGNING’ over the
attitude indicator. The G5 should display valid attitude typically within the first minute
of power application. The G5 can align itself both while taxiing and during level flight.
2
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System Overview
NOTE: Refer to the Installation portion of this manual for information on
configuring the G5.
1.4.1 G5 ANNUNCIATIONS
Flight Instruments
When a G5 function fails, a red 'X' is typically displayed over the instrument(s) or
data experiencing the failure. Upon applying power to the G5, certain instruments
remain invalid as equipment begins to initialize. All instruments should be operational
within one minute of power being applied. If any instrument remains flagged, and it
is not likely an installation related problem, the G5 should be serviced by a Garminauthorized repair facility .
System Overview
1.4 OPERATION
AFCS
1.4.2 G5 ATTITUDE
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G5 Electronic Flight Instrument Pilot's Guide for Non-Certified Aircraft
3
Index
The G5 calculates aircraft attitude using information from its built-in inertial sensors.
Any failure of the inertial sensors results in loss of attitude and information (indicated
by a red 'X' over the PFD attitude display). If the G5 senses the attitude solution is
valid, but not yet within the internal accuracy limits, "ALIGNING" is displayed. The G5
can align itself both while taxiing and during level flight.
The G5 will also use GPS and airspeed data to provide the most accurate attitude
information. If none of these additional sources of information are available, attitude
calculations will still be valid but accuracy may be slightly affected.
Additional Features
Figure 1-2 G5 Failure Annunciations
System Overview
AFCS
Flight Instruments
System Overview
1.4.3 G5 HEADING
Magnetic heading is available in a standalone installation with a magnetometer,
and when the G5 is configured as a backup in a G3X/G3X Touch system and the G5
is receiving magnetic heading data from an ADAHRS unit. If magnetic heading input
data is not available, the G5 will display GPS-derived ground track instead.
The G5 corrects for shifts and variations in the Earth’s magnetic field by applying
the Magnetic Field Variation Database. The Magnetic Field Variation Database is
derived from the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). The IGRF is a
mathematical model that describes the Earth’s main magnetic field and its annual
rate of change. The database is updated approximately every 5 years via a software
update. Failure to update this database could lead to erroneous heading information
being displayed to the pilot.
If the G5 senses the magnetic heading measurement is valid, but possibly outside of
the internal accuracy limits, the numeric heading is displayed in yellow.
If the GAD 29B fails, VFR will be displayed in amber text and GPSS will be displayed
in amber text, if GPSS mode is selected.
Figure 1-3 GAD 29B Fail (Amber VFR)
Figure 1-4 GAD 29B Fail (Amber GPSS)
When set to Auto, the backlight is automatically adjusted according to ambient
light conditions. When set to Manual, the backlight level is set by the pilot.
Adjusting backlight intensity:
1) While the unit is turned on, press the Power Button.
2) Turn the Selection Knob to adjust the backlight intensity.
3) Press the Selection Knob to close the backlight page.
Setting the backlight intensity to automatic or manual:
1) While the unit is turned on, press the Power Button.
2) Press the Power Button to toggle between Auto and Manual.
Index
Additional Features
1.4.4 BACKLIGHT INTENSITY
3)
4
Press the Selection Knob to close the backlight page.
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System Overview
1.5.1 PAGES
NOTE: The G5 will automatically return to the PFD Page when the aircraft
enters an unusual attitude (if enabled in the system configuration). Refer to
the Installation Manual section for more information.
Flight Instruments
When a single G5 is installed, the G5 has two main pages, the HSI Page and the PFD
Page. The HSI Page can be accessed from the PFD Page (unless it has been disabled
in configuration).
System Overview
1.5 ACCESSING FUNCTIONALITY
AFCS
Figure 1-5 PFD Page
Figure 1-6 HSI Page
NOTE: The G5 can be configured to display either the PFD or HSI page (if
allowed by the current system configuration) when power is applied. Refer
to the Installation Manual section for more information.
Additional Features
Displaying the HSI page from the PFD page:
1) From the PFD Page press the Selection Knob to display the Menu.
2) Use the Selection Knob to select HSI.
Index
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5
System Overview
Press the Selection Knob to access the G5 Menu. Navigate the menu by rotating the
Selection Knob and make selections by pressing the Selection Knob.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
1.5.2 MENU
Figure 1-7 PFD Page Menu
Figure 1-8 HSI Page Menu
The G5 provides a litany of flight deck integration options, and one of the more
popular pairings includes a G5 with a G3X Touch.
Additional Features
AFCS
1.6 G3X TOUCH INTEGRATION
Figure 1-9 G5 with G3X Touch - Panel Example
Index
NOTE: For further details on integrating the G3X Touch with a G5, please
refer to the G3X Touch Pilot's Guide and Installation Manual.
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System Overview
A message [!] indicator appears in the left corner of PFD and MFD Page to alert the
pilot of any status messages. The message [!] indicator flashes when there is a new
message that has not been viewed.
System Overview
1.7 SYSTEM MESSAGES
Flight Instruments
Message [!] Indicator
Figure 1-10 Message Indicator - PFD
Viewing messages on the PFD and MFD Page:
Press the Selection Knob to display the Menu. The Message Menu Option
will appear.
2)
If necessary, turn the Selection Knob to highlight the Message Menu
Option.
3)
Press the Selection Knob to select Message. A list of messages is
displayed.
Additional Features
Figure 1-11 Message Indicator - PFD - Menu
AFCS
1)
Figure 1-12 Message Indicator - PFD
Table 1-1 System Messages
190-02072-00 Rev. J
Comments
Aircraft power has been removed from the G5.
Battery has a critical fault condition and the unit is
about to power off to avoid damage to the battery.
Battery has a fault condition - unit needs service..
Battery charger has a fault condition - unit needs service.
G5 Electronic Flight Instrument Pilot's Guide for Non-Certified Aircraft
7
Index
Message
External Power Lost
Critical battery fault!
Powering off...
Battery fault
Battery charger fault
System Overview
System Overview
Table 1-1 System Messages
Message
Low battery
Hardware fault
Power supply fault
Flight Instruments
Unit temperature limit
exceeded
Network address conflict
Communication error
AFCS
Factory calibration data
invalid
Magnetic field model
database out of date
Magnetometer Hardware
fault
Using external GPS data
Comments
Battery charge level is low
Unit has a hardware fault - unit needs service.
Unit power supply fault detected - unit needs
service.
Unit is too hot or too cold
Another G5 with the same address is detected on
the network (most commonly a wiring error on one
of the units)
General communication error (most commonly
appears in conjunction with Network Address
Conflict message)
Unit calibration data not valid - unit needs service.
Index
Additional Features
Internal magnetic field database is out of date software update required
The magnetometer has detected a fault - unit needs
service. Heading data may not be available.
GPS data from another network LRU is being used.
The unit's internal GPS receiver is enabled, but
unable to establish a GPS fix
Not receiving RS-232 data
The G5 is not receiving RS-232 data from the GPS
navigator - system needs service.
Not receiving ARINC 429 data The G5 is not receiving ARINC 429 data from the
navigation source - system needs service.
GPS receiver fault
The G5 on-board GPS receiver has a fault.
ARINC 429 interface
The G5 ARINC 429 port is receiving information
configuration error
from an incorrect source - system needs service.
Servo clutch fault
An autopilot servo is reporting a clutch monitor fault
Software version mismatch
The G5 attitude indicator and the G5 HSI units have
difference software. Cross fill of baro, heading, and
altitude bugs, is disabled.
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Flight Instruments
2.1 PFD PAGE
The G5 PFD Page displays a horizon, airspeed, attitude, altitude, vertical speed,
heading, and course deviation information. The following flight instruments and
supplemental flight data are displayed on the PFD Page.
29 28
26
25
24
23 22
21
20 19
Flight Instruments
27
18
1
2
17
4
16
5
15
6
14
7
13
8
12
9
11
AFCS
3
1
Airspeed Indicator
11 Slip/Skid Indicator
21 Selected Vertical Speed
2
Attitude Indicator
12 Turn Rate Indicator
22 Navigation Course
3
Pitch Scale
13 Altimeter Barometric Setting
23 Vertical Speed Mode
4
Current Airspeed
14 Selected Vertical Speed
5
Command Bars
15 Vertical Speed Indicator
Current Heading or Ground
24 Track
6
Aircraft Symbol
16 Current Altitude
7
V-speed Reference
17
8
Course Deviation Indicator
18 Altimeter
9
Ground Speed (GS)
19 Selected Altitude
25 Auto Pilot Mode
26 Rate of Turn Triangles
27 GPS Mode
Index
10 Outside Air Temperature
Additional Features
10
Vertical Speed Bug
28 Battery Status
29 True Airspeed
20 Altitude Select Mode
Figure 2-1 G5 PFD Flight Instruments
190-02072-00 Rev. J
System Overview
Section 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
G5 Electronic Flight Instrument Pilot's Guide for Non-Certified Aircraft
9
Flight Instruments
NOTE: The G5 Vspeed Reference values depend upon the aircraft’s specific
system configuration and may vary from the examples discussed in this
section.
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a rolling number gauge using a moving
tape. The numeric labels and major tick marks on the moving tape are marked at
intervals of 10 knots. Speed indication starts at 30 knots, with 60 knots of airspeed
viewable at any time. The actual airspeed is displayed inside the black pointer. The
pointer remains black until reaching never-exceed speed (VNE), at which point it turns
red.
A color-coded (red, white, green, yellow, and red/white “barber pole”) speed range
strip is located on the moving tape. The colors denote flaps operating range, normal
operating range, caution range, and never-exceed speed (VNE). A red range is also
present for low speed awareness.
The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical, magenta line, extending up or down on the
airspeed scale, shown to the right of the color-coded speed range strip. The end of
the trend vector corresponds to the predicted airspeed in 6 seconds if the current rate
of acceleration is maintained. If the trend vector crosses VNE, the text of the actual
airspeed display changes to yellow. The trend vector is absent if the speed remains
constant or if any data needed to calculate airspeed is not available due to a system
failure.
Additional Features
AFCS
Flight Instruments
System Overview
2.1.1 AIRSPEED INDICATOR
Airspeed Color Ranges
Index
Actual Airspeed
Airspeed Trend Vector
Vspeed References
Ground Speed
Figure 2-2 Airspeed Indicator
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Flight Instruments
NOTE: Mach number data is only available when the G5 is installed as part
of a G3X/G3X Touch system and is receiving air temperature data from an
ADAHRS.
2.1.1.2 VSPEED REFERENCE
Flight Instruments
The airspeed indicator can optionally be configured to display VNE adjusted for true
airspeed or maximum Mach number (MMO). This is useful in aircraft where true
airspeed or Mach number must be kept below a certain limit. If configured, the G5
can display VNE based on TAS or Mach in addition to IAS, which will cause the displayed
value for VNE to be reduced at high altitudes. A solid red band is used between the TAS
or Mach limit and the actual indicated value for VNE.
System Overview
2.1.1.1 VNE ADJUSTED FOR TRUE AIRSPEED OR MACH
NUMBER (OPTIONAL)
Vspeed references including VNE, Vno, Vso, Vs1, Vfe, Va, Vx, Vy, VYse, Vg, Vr, can be configured
to display on the G5, refer to the Installation Manual section for more information.
AFCS
When airspeed is present, the Vspeeds configured are displayed at their respective
locations to the right of the airspeed scale, otherwise the Vspeeds are displayed at the
bottom of the airspeed indicator in cyan.
Additional Features
Vspeed References
Index
Figure 2-3 Vspeed References
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11
Flight Instruments
Flight Instruments
System Overview
2.1.2 ATTITUDE INDICATOR
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a
white horizon line. The Attitude Indicator displays the pitch (indicated by the yellow
symbolic aircraft on the pitch scale), roll, and slip/skid information.
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Pitch markings occur at 2.5˚ intervals
through all pitch ranges. Refer to the Installation Manual section to configure the
pitch scale.
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚
and 60˚ and minor tick marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the
zero. Angle of bank is indicated by the position of the pointer on the roll scale.
Slip/skid is indicated by the location of the ball.
9
8
1
2
7
AFCS
3
4
6
Additional Features
5
Figure 2-4 Attitude Indicator
1
Roll Pointer
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
Aircraft Symbol
5
Slip/Skid Indicator
6
Land Representation
7
Pitch Scale
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
Index
Flight Director
Figure 2-5 Attitude Indicator with
Flight Director (Single Cue)
12
Figure 2-6 Attitude Indicator with
Flight Director (Dual Cue)
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Flight Instruments
2.1.2.1 ATTITUDE CONFIGURATION
The Ground Pointer configuration displays both the roll arc and the pitch scale
anchored to the horizon and the roll pointer beneath the roll arc pointing to the
present roll angle.
Sky Pointer
Ground Pointer
Flight Instruments
The Sky Pointer configuration displays the pitch scale moving with the horizon, but
the roll arc remains fixed and centered in the display. The roll pointer beneath the roll
arc moves with the horizon and in the opposite direction of aircraft roll.
System Overview
The roll (bank angle) indication may be configured to be a Ground Pointer (default)
or a Sky Pointer. Refer to the G5 Installation Manual for configuration information.
AFCS
Figure 2-7 Ground
Pointer Configuration
Figure 2-8 Sky Pointer
Configuration
The Standard Rate Turn Bank Angle Pointers are green pointers displayed on the roll
scale that shows the bank angle that is needed for a standard rate turn.
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Index
Displaying the standard rate turn bank angle pointers:
1) With the full screen PFD displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Touch More Options....
3) Touch
in the Standard Rate Turn Bank Angle Pointers group to
display the Standard Rate Turn Bank Angle Pointers options.
4) Touch Show.
Additional Features
2.1.2.2 STANDARD RATE TURN BANK ANGLE POINTERS
13
Flight Instruments
System Overview
Standard Rate Turn Bank Angle Pointers
AFCS
Flight Instruments
Figure 2-9 Standard Rate Turn Bank Angle Pointers
2.1.3 ALTIMETER
The Altimeter displays 400 feet of barometric altitude values at a time on a rolling
number gauge using a moving tape. Numeric labels and major tick marks are shown
at intervals of 100 feet. Minor tick marks are at intervals of 20 feet. The current
altitude is displayed in the black pointer.
The Selected Altitude is displayed above the Altimeter in the box indicated by a
selection bug symbol. A bug corresponding to this altitude is shown on the tape; if
the Selected Altitude exceeds the range shown on the tape, the bug appears at the
corresponding edge of the tape.
The Selected Altitude is synchronized between the G5 and the other displays in a
G3X/G3X Touch system.
Setting the selected altitude:
Rotate the ALT SEL Knob on the GMC 307 or 507.
Additional Features
Or
1) Press the Selection Knob to display the Menu.
2) Select Altitude and use the Selection Knob to change the Selected
Altitude.
Index
Syncing to the current altitude:
Press the ALT SEL Knob on the GMC 307 or 507.
Or
1) Press the Selection Knob to display the Menu.
2) Select Altitude and press and hold the Selection Knob to sync the Selected
Altitude to the current altitude
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Flight Instruments
Selected Altitude
System Overview
Current Altitude
Flight Instruments
Selected Altitude Bug
Barometric Setting
Figure 2-10 Altimeter
2.1.3.1 BAROMETRIC PRESSURE
AFCS
The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury
(inhg), hectopascals (hPa), or millibars. Configuration settings such as barometric
pressure are synchronized between the G5 and the other displays in a G3X/G3X Touch
system.
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
2.1.3.2 ALTITUDE ALERTING
The Altitude Alerting function provides the pilot with a visual alert when approaching
the Selected Altitude. Whenever the Selected Altitude is changed, the Altitude Alerter
is reset. The following will occur when approaching the Selected Altitude:
Additional Features
When on the PFD page, turn the Selection Knob to set the barometric
pressure.
• Passing within 1,000 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude (shown
above the Altimeter) flashes for 5 seconds.
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15
Index
• When the aircraft passes within 200 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected
Altitude flashes for 5 seconds to indicate the aircraft is approaching the selected
altitude.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
• After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the pilot flies outside the deviation band
(±200 Feet of the Selected Altitude), the Selected Altitude changes to yellow text
on a black background, flashes for 5 seconds.
Flight Instruments
Selected Altitude Indicates
Deviation of ±200 feet From
Current Altitude
Current Altitude
Figure 2-11 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciation
The Turn Rate Indicator is located at the bottom of the PFD Page. Tick marks to
the left and right of the displayed heading denote standard turn rates (3 deg/sec).
A magenta Turn Rate Trend Vector shows the current turn rate. A standard-rate turn
is shown on the indicator by the trend vector stopping at the standard turn rate tick
mark.
Index
Additional Features
AFCS
2.1.4 TURN RATE INDICATOR
Turn Rate
Trend Vector
Turn Rate Indicator (Standard Rate Tick Marks)
Figure 2-12 Turn Rate Indicator
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Flight Instruments
2.1.5 HEADING/GROUND TRACK (PFD PAGE)
When displaying the Selected Heading, a cyan bug on the tape corresponds to the
Selected Heading. When displaying Ground Track, a magenta bug is displayed on the
tape. The heading bug turns hollow when GPSS is selected.
Additional Features
Syncing to the current heading or ground track:
Press the HDG Knob on the GMC 307 or HDG/TRK Knob on the GMC
507.
Or
1) Press the Selection Knob to display the Menu.
2) Select Heading or Track and press and hold the Selection Knob to sync
the selected heading or ground track to the current heading or ground
track.
AFCS
Adjusting the selected heading or ground track:
Use the HDG Knob on the GMC 307 or HDG/TRK Knob on the GMC 507.
Or
1) Press the Selection Knob to display the Menu.
2) Select Heading or Track and use the Selection Knob to change the
Selected Heading or Track.
Flight Instruments
A Heading/Ground Track Tape is displayed at the top of the PFD Page and displays
numeric labels every 10°. Major tick marks are at 5° intervals and minor tick marks
at 1° intervals. The current track is represented by a magenta triangle. The Heading/
Ground Track Tape also displays the navigation course.
System Overview
NOTE: Heading is displayed if heading data is available from a magnetometer
via the CAN network. Otherwise, Ground Track is displayed.
Index
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17
Flight Instruments
Flight Instruments
System Overview
Selected Heading Bug
Current
Heading
Ground Track Tape
Figure 2-13 PFD Page - Selected Heading
Additional Features
AFCS
Current
Selected Ground
Ground Track
Track Bug
Index
Figure 2-14 PFD Page - Selected Ground Track
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Flight Instruments
2.1.6 VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
System Overview
The Vertical Speed Indicator displays the aircraft vertical speed using a non-moving
tape with minor tick marks every 100 feet. The current vertical speed is displayed
using a white arrow along the tape. From the Air Data Page in configuration mode,
the Vertical Speed Indicator can be configured to display ± 1500 fpm, ± 2000 fpm, or
± 3000 fpm (refer to the Installation Manual section for more information).
Flight Instruments
Current Vertical Speed
AFCS
Figure 2-15 Vertical Speed Indicator
2.1.7 PFD PITCH ATTITUDE OFFSET
The Pitch attitude offset function allows the yellow aircraft symbol on the attitude
indicator to be adjusted up or down much like the aircraft on a mechanical attitude
indicator. The pitch attitude can be adjusted as much as ± 5°. The pitch offset is
synchronized between the G5 and the other displays in a G3X/G3X Touch system. This
function can be disabled in configuration mode.
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19
Index
Changing the PFD pitch attitude offset:
1) From the PFD Page, press the Selection Knob to display the Menu.
2) Select Pitch and use the Selection Knob to select the desired Pitch Offset.
Additional Features
NOTE: PFD Pitch Attitude Offset can be configured as disabled in configuration
mode.
Flight Instruments
Flight Instruments
System Overview
Centering the PFD pitch attitude offset:
1) From the PFD Page, press the Selection Knob to display the Menu.
2) Select Pitch and press and hold the Selection Knob to center the Pitch
Offset.
Figure 2-16 Pitch Offset
Additional Features
AFCS
2.1.8 BATTERY STATUS INDICATOR
NOTE: If a battery is not present, and the system has not been configured
for a battery, there will not be any battery indications displayed.
3:15
41%-100%
1:31
21%-40%
0:38
0%-20%
When the G5 is powered by the battery, the estimated time until the battery is empty
is displayed. Otherwise, the current charge level of the battery in percent is displayed
as a numeric value.
Index
When the G5 is connected to external power and the battery is being charged, a
lightning bolt symbol appears over the battery icon.
92%
20
Charging
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Flight Instruments
Other battery indications:
BATT
Battery fault.
2.2 HSI PAGE
NOTE: The HSI Page can be configured as disabled in configuration mode.
1
13
2
12
Flight Instruments
Battery is not present (appears only when the battery status field
has been configured to always appear).
NO BATT
System Overview
Battery charger hardware fault, or temperature too high/low to
safely charge the battery. The system is running on external power
but cannot charge the battery.
AFCS
3
4
5
11
6
10
Additional Features
7
9
8
1 Battery Status Indicator
6 Heading Bug
11 Rotating Compass Rose
2 Wind Speed and Direction
7 Bearing Pointer
12 Current Heading
3 Navigation Source
8 Desired Track
13 Distance To Waypoint
4 Aircraft Symbol
9 Selected Heading/Ground
5 GPS CDI Scale
10 Bearing Pointer
Track
Index
Figure 2-17 Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) - Normal
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21
System Overview
Flight Instruments
1
2
12
3
10
11
4
8
5
6
7
1 Wind Speed and Direction
5 GPS CDI Scale
9 Aircraft Symbol
2 Heading Bug
6 Desired Track
10 Bearing Pointer
3 Bearing Pointer
7 Selected Heading/Ground
11 Current Heading
4 Navigation Source
8 Rotating Compass Rose
12 Distance To Waypoint
AFCS
Flight Instruments
9
Track
Figure 2-18 Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) - Expanded
Table 2-2 Annunciations
Nav Source Annunciations
Additional Features
3
GPS/
GPS1/
GPS2
VLOC/
VLOC1/
VLOC2
VOR/
VOR1/
VOR2
5
Index
LOI
DR
LOC/
LOC1/
LOC2
11
GPS CDI Scale Annunciations
LP
LPV
LNAV
LNAV/VNAV LNAV+V
APR
TERM
ENR
OCN
VFR (0.25nm, 1.25nm, 5.00nm)
Navigator Messages Annunciations
Loss of GPS Integrity
GPS Dead-Reckoning Mode
MSG
WPT
Pending Nav Message
Waypoint Arrival
NOTE: The VFR CDI Scale is displayed when the G5 is connected to a GPS
navigator via RS-232 only, or if ARINC 429 GPS navigation data is unavailable.
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Flight Instruments
2.2.1 HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
Flight Instruments
Displaying the HSI page from the PFD page:
1) From the PFD Page press the Selection Knob to display the Menu.
2) Select HSI.
System Overview
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) on the HSI Page displays a rotating compass
card in a heading-up orientation. Letters indicate the cardinal points and numeric
labels occur every 30˚. Major tick marks are at 10˚ intervals and minor tick marks at
5˚ intervals. The current track is represented on the HSI by magenta triangle and a
dashed line. The HSI also presents course deviation, bearing, and navigation source
information.
2.2.1.1 BEARING POINTER
AFCS
A bearing pointer can be displayed on the HSI for NAV (VOR) and GPS sources. The
bearing pointer is cyan. The bearing pointer never overrides the CDI and is visually
separated from the CDI by a white ring (shown when the bearing pointer is selected
but not necessarily visible due to data unavailability).
Additional Features
Bearing
Pointer
Figure 2-19 HSI Page with Bearing Pointer
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Index
Enabling/disabling the bearing pointer:
1) From the HSI Page, press the Selection Knob to display the Menu.
2) Turn the Selection Knob to highlight Setup.
23
3)
Turn the Selection Knob to highlight Bearing Pointer 1 or Bearing
Pointer 2.
4)
Turn the Selection Knob to highlight None or GPS.
5)
Press the Selection Knob to enable or disable the Bearing Pointer.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
Flight Instruments
Additional Features
AFCS
Figure 2-20 HSI Page - Bearing Pointer Setup
Figure 2-21 Bearing Pointer Selection
Index
2.2.1.2 COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
The HSI contains a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) with a Course Pointer. The
course pointer (GPS or VLOC) points in the direction of the selected course.
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer
along a lateral deviation scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the
course deviation data is not valid, the CDI is not displayed.
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
The CDI is capable of displaying multiple sources of navigation (GPS, VLOC, or both)
depending on the external navigator(s) configured (refer to the G5 Installation Manual
Section for more information). Color indicates the current navigation source: magenta
(for GPS) or green (for VOR and LOC). The full-scale limits for the CDI are defined by a
GPS-derived distance when coupled to GPS. When coupled to a VOR or localizer (LOC),
the CDI has 10 degrees full scale deflection each direction.
HEADING/GROUND TRACK (HSI PAGE)
NOTE: Heading is displayed if heading data is available from a magnetometer
via the CAN network and/or if you have a GMC 507 configured. Otherwise,
Ground Track is displayed.
Additional Features
Syncing to the current heading or ground track from the HSI page:
Press the HDG Knob on the GMC 307 or HDG/TRK Knob on the GMC
507.
Or
From the HSI Page, press and hold the Selection Knob to sync to the current
heading or ground track.
AFCS
Adjusting the selected heading or ground track from the HSI page:
Use the HDG Knob on the GMC 307 or HDG/TRK Knob on the GMC 507.
Or
From the HSI Page, turn the Selection Knob to adjust the selected heading
or ground track.
Flight Instruments
The Selected Heading or Ground Track is shown to the right of the HSI. The cyan
bug (heading) or magenta bug (ground track) on the compass rose corresponds to the
Selected Heading or Ground Track.
Index
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25
2.3 NAVIGATION
A G5 installed as part of a G3X/G3X Touch system with multiple navigation sources
will display data from the primary navigation source, as configured. If the navigation
source is a GNS/GTN unit, both GPS and VLOC data can be displayed. Displayed
navigation information is also dependent upon the selection on the navigation
configuration page.
2.3.1 COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
The PFD Page displays the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) below the slip/skid
indicator. The HSI Page displays the CDI on the Horizontal Situation Indicator.
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right along a lateral deviation
scale to display the aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data
is not valid, the CDI is not displayed.
The CDI is capable of displaying multiple sources of navigation (GPS, VLOC, or both)
depending on the external navigator(s) configured (refer to the G5 Installation Manual
Section for more information). Color indicates the current navigation source: magenta
(for GPS) or green (for VOR and LOC). The full-scale limits for the CDI are defined by a
GPS-derived distance when coupled to GPS. When coupled to a VOR or localizer (LOC),
the CDI has the same angular limits as a mechanical CDI.
Additional Features
AFCS
Flight Instruments
System Overview
Flight Instruments
Course
Deviation
Indicator
Index
Figure 2-22 Course Deviation Indicator (PFD Page)
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
Course
Deviation
Indicator
Additional Features
Changing the navigation source on the G5 (GPS, VOR, LOC, or
VLOC):
1) From the PFD Page, press the Selection Knob to display the Menu.
2) Turn the Selection Knob to select Source.
3) Press the Selection Knob to cycle through available navigation sources.
Index
Navigation
Source
Figure 2-24 Navigation 'Source' Menu Option (PFD Page)
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AFCS
Changing the navigation source on the external navigator (GPS,
VOR, LOC, or VLOC):
Use the associated external navigator to toggle between GPS and VOR/LOC
source types. Refer to the appropriate external navigator Pilot's Guide for
more information.
Flight Instruments
Figure 2-23 Course Deviation Indicator (HSI Page)
27
Flight Instruments
System Overview
2.3.2 VERTICAL DEVIATION INDICATOR AND VNAV
INDICATOR
Flight Instruments
NOTE: An external navigator must be configured to receive glideslope and/
or glidepath vertical deviation indications.
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
AFCS
Figure 2-25 Vertical Deviation
Indicator Position (PFD Page)
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Figure 2-26 Vertical Deviation
Indicator Position (HSI Page)
The Vertical Deviation (Glideslope) Indicator (VDI) appears to the left of the altimeter
whenever an ILS frequency is tuned in the active NAV field of an external navigator.
A green diamond acts as the VDI Indicator, like a glideslope needle on a conventional
indicator. If a localizer frequency is tuned and there is no glideslope signal, “NO GS”
is annunciated.
Index
Additional Features
2.3.2.1 GLIDESLOPE - ILS SOURCE
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
Vertical Deviation Indicator
Flight Instruments
Figure 2-27 Vertical Deviation Indicator
Figure 2-28 Vertical Deviation
(Glideslope-ILS Source) - PFD
Indicator (Glideslope-ILS Source) - HSI
2.3.2.2 GLIDEPATH - GPS SOURCE
Additional Features
Vertical
Deviation
Source
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
G5 Electronic Flight Instrument Pilot's Guide for Non-Certified Aircraft
Index
Figure 2-29 Vertical Deviation Indicator (Glidepath-GPS Source)
190-02072-00 Rev. J
AFCS
The Vertical Deviation (Glidepath) Indicator (VDI) also appears to the left of the
altimeter during a GPS approach. The glidepath is analogous to the glideslope for
GPS approaches supporting WAAS vertical guidance (LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LPV). The
Glidepath Indicator appears on the G5 as a magenta diamond. If the approach type
downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is annunciated.
29
Flight Instruments
The magenta chevron (VNAV Indicator) to the left of the altimeter on the Vertical
Deviation Scale displays the VNAV profile.
VNAV
Indicator
Flight Instruments
System Overview
2.3.2.3 VNAV INDICATOR
Figure 2-30 VNAV Indicator
2.3.3 COURSE SELECTION (OPTIONAL)
AFCS
When the G5 is receiving VOR, LOC, or GPS data, a Course menu option is displayed.
Additional Features
Setting the course for a VOR or localizer:
1) From the PFD Page, press the Selection Knob to display the Menu.
2) Select Course and use the Selection Knob to adjust the course.
Figure 2-31 VLOC Course on PFD Page
Index
Setting the OBS course:
1) From the PFD Page, press the Selection Knob to display the Menu.
2) Select Course and use the Selection Knob to adjust the course.
Refer to the G5 Installation Manual for information on configuring multiple
navigation sources.
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AFCS
NOTE: The aircraft documentation always supersedes the information in this
Pilot’s Guide.
NOTE: A GMC controller is required for G5 AFCS functionality.
3.1 AFCS SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
The G5 can be configured as a standalone unit or as a backup unit for a G3X/G3X
Touch system.
When configured as a standalone unit with a GMC controller and GSA servos:
•
GP mode requires ARINC 429 data from an IFR navigator.
•
VNAV mode requires RS-232 data from a portable GPS or GTN unit.
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Index
The G5 supports the following modes: LVL, PIT, ROL, HDG (for installations with a
magnetometer), TRK (for installations without a magnetometer or with a GMC
507), GPS, VS, IAS, ALT, ALTS, GP, TO/GA (with a GMC 507) and VNAV.
Additional Features
3.1.1 G5 AFCS CONFIGURATION
AFCS
An Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) is typically comprised of two major
components: A flight director (FD) and autopilot servos. The flight director provides
pitch and roll commands to the autopilot servos. These pitch and roll commands
are displayed on the PFD Page as Command Bars. When the flight director is active
the pitch and roll commands can be hand-flown by the pilot or when coupled with
the autopilot, the autopilot servos drive the flight controls to follow the commands
issued by the flight director. The flight director operates independently of the autopilot
servos, but in most cases the autopilot servos can not operate independent of the flight
director.
Flight Instruments
NOTE: Refer to the appropriate aircraft documentation for emergency
procedures.
System Overview
Section 3 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL
SYSTEM (OPTIONAL)
AFCS
AFCS
Flight Instruments
System Overview
When configured as a backup unit for a G3X/G3X Touch system:
•
The G5 supports the following modes: LVL, PIT, ROL, HDG, TRK (if available on
the G3X), GPS, VS, VNAV, IAS, ALT, ALTS, TO, GA, and GP.
•
GP mode requires ARINC 429 data from an IFR navigator.
•
TRK mode is selected using the HDG Key on the GMC 305/307, or TRK Key on
the GMC 507.
3.1.2 AUTOPILOT AND YAW DAMPER OPERATION
The autopilot servos and optional yaw damper operate the flight control surfaces
to provide automatic flight control. The autopilot controls the aircraft pitch and roll
attitudes following commands received from the flight director. Pitch, Roll, and Yaw
(if installed) autotrim provides trim commands to each servo to relieve any sustained
effort required by the servo(s). Autopilot operation is independent of the optional yaw
damper.
The optional yaw damper reduces Dutch roll tendencies, coordinates turns, and
provides a steady force to maintain directional trim. It can operate independently
of the autopilot and may be used during normal hand-flight maneuvers. Yaw rate
commands are limited to 6 deg/sec by the yaw damper.
Index
Additional Features
3.1.3 FLIGHT CONTROL
Pitch and roll commands are provided to the servos based on the active flight
director modes. Yaw commands are provided by the yaw servo. Servo motor control
limits the maximum servo speed and torque. This allows the servos to be overridden
in case of an emergency.
3.1.4 PITCH AXIS AND TRIM
The autopilot pitch axis uses pitch rate to stabilize the aircraft pitch attitude during
flight director maneuvers. Flight director pitch commands are rate and attitude-limited,
combined with pitch damper control, and sent to the pitch servo motor. The pitch servo
measures the output effort (torque) and optionally provides this signal to the pitch trim
motor. The pitch servo commands the pitch trim motor to reduce the average pitch
servo effort.
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AFCS
3.1.5 ROLL AXIS
3.1.6 YAW AXIS
3.1.7 CONTROL WHEEL STEERING (CWS) (OPTIONAL)
In most scenarios, releasing the CWS Button reengages the autopilot with a new
reference, when configured. Refer to (Vertical Modes) and (Lateral Modes) for Control
Wheel Steering behavior in each mode.
Additional Features
The AP Disconnect and CWS are, in most configurations, the same button, where
the AP Disconnect can be configured to also provide CWS functionality. The pilot
can interrupt ESP by pressing and holding the Autopilot Disconnect / Control Wheel
Steering (AP DISC/CWS) switch. Upon releasing the AP DISC/CWS switch, ESP force
will again be applied. ESP can also be overridden by overpowering the servo’s torque
limit.
AFCS
Control Wheel Steering allows the aircraft to be hand-flown without disengaging the
AFCS. Press and hold the autopilot CWS Button (if equipped) to temporarily disengage
the pitch and roll servos from the flight control surfaces and hand-fly the aircraft.
The G5 autopilot control is synchronized to the aircraft attitude during Control Wheel
Steering. The green ‘AP’ annunciation is temporarily replaced by a white ‘CW’ for the
duration of Control Wheel Steering maneuvers.
Flight Instruments
The yaw damper uses yaw rate and roll attitude to dampen the aircraft’s natural
Dutch roll response. It also uses lateral acceleration to coordinate turns and reduce
or eliminate the need for the pilot to use rudder pedal force to maintain coordinated
flight during climbs and descents.
System Overview
The autopilot roll axis uses roll rate to stabilize aircraft roll attitude during flight
director maneuvers. The flight director roll commands are rate- and attitude-limited,
combined with roll damper control, and sent to the roll servo motor.
Index
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33
AFCS
The AFCS status box displays autopilot (AP) and flight director (FD) mode
annunciations on the PFD Page.
A green autopilot (AP) status is displayed when the autopilot (AP) is engaged.
Lateral modes are displayed on the left, and vertical modes are displayed on the right.
Armed modes are displayed in white and active in green.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
3.1.8 G5 AFCS STATUS BOX
Active
Armed
AFCS
Active
Autopilot
Status
Additional Features
Figure 3-1 Autopilot Status Box
3.2 AFCS OPERATION
NOTE: When the G5 is configured as part of a G3X/G3X Touch system, the
G5 can be used to drive the autopilot and flight director only when all GDUs
are removed from the network.
The AFCS provides the following main operating functions:
Index
• Flight Director (FD) — The flight director function provides pitch and roll
commands needed to guide the aircraft toward the active reference selected by
the pilot. These pitch and rolls commands are displayed on the G5 PFD Page as
Command Bars. When the flight director is active the pitch and roll commands can
be hand-flown by the pilot. When the autopilot is engaged the autopilot servos
drive the flight controls to follow the commands issued by the flight director.
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AFCS
• Manual Electric Trim (MET) — The optional Manual Electric Trim uses the
same servo as the auto-trim function and allows the pilot to command trim via
a trim switch when the autopilot is not engaged. The MET function does not
preclude the use of the aircraft’s basic mechanical trim system.
installing and configuring the G5 Integrated Autopilot Interface.
Additional Features
NOTE: Refer to the G5 Installation Manual Section for information on
AFCS
• Electronic Stability & Protection (ESP) (GFC 500) — The ESP function
provides a soft barrier to keep the aircraft within the desired operating envelope
when the autopilot is not engaged. When the AFCS senses the aircraft is near
the defined operating limit in pitch attitude, roll attitude, high airspeed, or low
airspeed, the ESP function will automatically engage one or more servos to nudge
it back to the nominal operating envelope. While ESP utilizes the same sensors,
processors, and actuators as the AFCS autopilot it is a separate mutually exclusive
function. ESP can be easily overpowered by the pilot and can be disabled using
the AP DISC / TRIM INT Button.
Flight Instruments
• Yaw Damper (YD) — The optional Yaw Damper function provides Dutch Roll
damping, assists in turn coordination, and provides a steady force to help maintain
directional trim. If installed the YD comes on when the autopilot is engaged. It
can be turned on/off independent of the autopilot and may be used during normal
hand-flying maneuvers.
System Overview
• Autopilot (AP) — The autopilot function is provided by servo actuators which
move the flight control surfaces in response to flight director steering commands,
aircraft attitude, and airspeed. The optional pitch auto-trim function serves to
relieve any sustained effort required by the pitch servo to keep the aircraft in trim.
Index
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35
3.2.1 AFCS PRE-FLIGHT ACTIONS (STANDALONE
INSTALLATION)
To ensure the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) is operating properly prior to
flight, perform the following Garmin recommended preflight checks.
Before takeoff checklist:
1) Autopilot - ENGAGE (if configured, using AP/CWS Button, or AP Key on
mode controller)
2) Flight controls - CHECK (verify autopilot can be overpowered in both pitch
and roll)
3) AP DISC button - PRESS (verify autopilot disengages)
4) Yaw damper - OFF (if installed) (verify yaw damper disengages)
5) Flight director - SET FOR TAKEOFF (select IAS or VS mode or push FD Key to
turn off the flight director)
6) Flight controls - CHECK (verify autopilot servos are disengaged from pitch,
roll, and yaw controls, and all controls move freely)
7) Elevator trim control - SET FOR TAKEOFF
AFCS
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AFCS
3.2.2 GMC 305/307/507 AFCS CONTROLS
Additional Features
The GMC 305/307/507 AFCS Control Units have the following controls:
Index
Table 3-1 AFCS Controls
1
HDG Key
2
NAV Key
3
AP Key
4
LVL (Level) Key
5
NOSE UP/DN
Wheel
IAS Key
6
36
Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode. In GMC 507
installations without a magnetometer, the HDG Key has
no function.
Selects/deselects Navigation Mode. Cancels GP Mode if
GPS Mode is either active or armed.
Engages/disengages the autopilot
Engages the autopilot (if the autopilot is disengaged) in
level vertical and lateral modes
Adjusts the vertical mode reference in Pitch Hold, Vertical
Speed, Indicated Airspeed, and Altitude Hold modes
Selects/deselects Indicated Airspeed Mode
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AFCS
7
ALT Key
8
9
VNV or VNAV Key Selects/deselects Vertical Path Tracking Mode for Vertical
Navigation Mode.
VS Key
Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode
10
YD Key (if installed) Engages/disengages the yaw damper
11
FD Key
12
APR Key
Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode
System Overview
Flight Instruments
Activates/deactivates the flight director only
Pressing once turns on the director in the default vertical
and lateral modes. Pressing again deactivates the
flight director and removes the Command Bars. If the
autopilot is engaged, the key is disabled.
Selects/deselects Approach Mode
HDG or HDG/TRK Adjusts the Heading Bug*
Knob
14 ALT SEL Knob
Adjusts the Altitude Bug*
13
TRK Key
Selects/deselects Track Mode**
AFCS
15
*GMC 307/507 only ** GMC 507 only
2
3
4
Active
Mode
12
11
10
5
6
7
9
8
Index
1
Figure 3-2 GMC 305 AFCS Control Unit
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Additional Features
NOTE: Active Mode is represented by the LED indicator above the key.
This LED flashes when the mode is armed, then steadies when the mode
is activated.
37
AFCS
12
3
4
5
1
2
11
10
6
14
Flight Instruments
System Overview
13
9
7
8
Figure 3-3 GMC 307 AFCS Control Unit
15
12
3
4
2
11
10
5
14
6
AFCS
13
1
9
8
7
Index
Additional Features
Figure 3-4 GMC 507 AFCS Control Unit
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AFCS
Table 3-2 Other AFCS Controls
Index
39
Additional Features
G5 Electronic Flight Instrument Pilot's Guide for Non-Certified Aircraft
AFCS
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Flight Instruments
CWS/AP DISC Button An AP DISC/CWS Button is typically located on the pilot’s
(Autopilot Disconnect) control stick. This button combines the functions of
Autopilot Disconnect and Control Wheel Steering. (Note:
the Control Wheel Steering function can be disabled in
configuration mode, which causes the button to perform
the Autopilot Disconnect function only)
Press and release the AP DISC/CWS Button to disengage
the autopilot.
Pressing and holding the AP DISC/CWS Button when
the autopilot is engaged will temporarily disengage the
pitch and roll servos and interrupt autotrim operation.
The pilot can then hand-fly the aircraft to a new attitude
and release the AP DISC/CWS button to re-engage the
autopilot servos and synchronize the flight director to the
aircraft’s new attitude. The ability to use Control Wheel
Steering may be disabled in configuration mode if desired.
If the configuration supports it, pressing and holding the
AP DISC/CWS button while the autopilot is not engaged
will cause the autopilot to engage. If the flight director
was previously off, the default FD modes (PIT and ROL)
will be selected. The ability to engage the autopilot using
the CWS button may be disabled in configuration mode if
desired.
TO/GA Button
Selects flight director Takeoff or Go Around Mode (only
(Takeoff/Go Around)
applies to a G5 installed as part of a G3X/G3X Touch
system or a GMC 507).
MET Switch
Used to command manual electric trim for any properly
(Manual Electric Trim) configured servo (pitch, roll, or yaw).
System Overview
The following AFCS controls are located separately from the G5 and GMC
305/307/507 AFCS Control Unit:
AFCS
Additional Features
AFCS
Flight Instruments
System Overview
3.2.3 ENGAGING THE AUTOPILOT
An initial press of the AP Key on the GMC unit will activate the flight director and
engage the autopilot in the default PIT and ROL modes (some modes may require an
external navigator):
Table 3-3 Autopilot Modes
Control
Modes Selected
Lateral
Vertical
Mode/Annunciation
Mode/Annunciation
CWS Button (if configured,
Roll Hold
press and hold)
ROL
Pitch Hold
PIT
HDG
Heading
HDG
Pitch Hold
PIT
NAV
Navigation
GPS
Pitch Hold
PIT
ALT
Roll Hold
ROL
Altitude Hold
ALT
VS
Roll Hold
ROL
Vertical Speed
VS
VNAV
Roll Hold
ROL
Vertical Navigation VNAV
APPR
Approach
GPS
Glidepath
GP
Navigation and Approach Modes must have an active GPS course to activate the
autopilot.
3.2.3.1 ENGAGING THE AUTOPILOT (GMC 305/307/507)
An initial press of the AP Key on the GMC 305/307 will activate the flight director
and engage the autopilot in the default PIT and ROL modes.
Index
3.2.3.2 DISENGAGING THE AUTOPILOT
The autopilot is manually disengaged by pressing the autopilot disconnect button,
typically on the control stick or yoke, or by pressing the AP Key on the GMC unit.
Manual disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow ‘AP’ annunciation.
Cancel the aural alert by pressing and releasing the AP/CWS Button again.
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AFCS
Automatic disengagement is indicated by a flashing red ‘AP’ annunciation. Automatic
disengagement occurs due to:
• System failure
System Overview
NOTE: Aural alert only available via G3X or GMC 507.
• Invalid sensor data
• Detection of a GDU display on the CAN network (when installed as part of a G3X/
G3X Touch system).
3.2.3.3 DISENGAGING THE AUTOPILOT WHEN A
MALFUNCTION IS SUSPECTED
Flight Instruments
• Inability to compute default autopilot modes
If an autopilot failure or trim failure is suspected to have occurred, perform the
following steps:
Firmly grasp the control wheel.
2)
Press and hold the AP DISC Switch. The autopilot will disconnect and
power is removed from the trim motor. Power is also removed from all
primary servo motors and engaged solenoids. Note the visual alerting
indicating autopilot disconnect.
3)
Retrim the aircraft as needed. Substantial trim adjustment may be needed.
4)
Pull the appropriate circuit breaker(s) to electrically isolate the servo and
solenoid components.
5)
Release the AP DISC Switch.
AFCS
1)
Additional Features
CAUTION: If power is not removed from the servos, and the CWS function is
enabled, the AP will reengage after the switch is released.
3.2.3.4 OVERPOWERING AUTOPILOT SERVOS
the autopilot automatic trim to run to an out-of-trim condition. Therefore, any
application of pressure or force to the controls should be avoided when the
autopilot is engaged.
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Index
CAUTION: A small amount of pressure or force on the pitch controls can cause
System Overview
AFCS
In the context of this discussion, “overpowering” refers to any pressure or force
applied to the pitch controls when the autopilot is engaged. Overpowering the
autopilot during flight will cause the autopilot’s automatic trim to run, resulting in an
out-of-trim condition or cause the trim to hit the stop if the action is prolonged. In
this case, larger than anticipated control forces may be required after the autopilot is
disengaged.
NOTE: Refer to the Installation Manual section for AFCS setup information.
The flight director function provides pitch and roll commands to the pilot and
autopilot, which are displayed on the PFD Page. With the flight director active, the
aircraft can be hand-flown to follow the path shown by the Command Bars. The
flight director has the following maximum commands: pitch (-15°, +20°) and roll (30°)
angles.
3.2.4.1 ACTIVATING THE FLIGHT DIRECTOR
An initial press of a key listed in the table below (when the flight director is not
active) activates the flight director in the listed modes. The flight director may be
turned off and the Command Bars removed from the display by pressing the FD Key
again. The FD Key is disabled when the autopilot is engaged.
Additional Features
AFCS
Flight Instruments
3.2.4 FLIGHT DIRECTOR OPERATION
Table 3-4 Flight Director Activation
Control Pressed
Modes Selected
PIT
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
TO/GA Button
Takeoff (on-ground)
Go Around (in-air)
TO
GA
Takeoff (on-ground)
Go Around (in-air)
TO
GA
ALT Key
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Altitude Hold
ALT
VS Key
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Vertical Speed
VS
VNV or VNAV Key
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Vertical Navigation*
VNAV
Index
ROL
Vertical
Pitch Hold (default)
42
FD Key
Lateral
Roll Hold (default)
AP Key
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AFCS
Table 3-4 Flight Director Activation
System Overview
Control Pressed
Modes Selected
IAS Key
Lateral
Roll Hold (default)
IAS
APR Key
Approach**
GPS
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
NAV Key
Navigation**
GPS
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
HDG Key
Heading Select
HDG
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
LVL Key
Level Hold
LVL
Level Hold
LVL
*Must be receiving VNAV data from a GPS navigator.
**The selected navigation receiver must have an active GPS course before NAV or APR Key press
activates flight director.
3.2.4.2 COMMAND BARS
AFCS
Upon activation of the flight director, Command Bars are displayed in magenta on
the PFD Page. If the aircraft is being flown by hand, the command bars are displayed
hollow. The Command Bars do not override the Aircraft Symbol. The Command Bars
move together vertically to indicate pitch commands and bank left or right to indicate
roll commands.
Flight Instruments
ROL
Vertical
Indicated Airspeed
Hollow Command Bars
Additional Features
Figure 3-5 Command Bars - Hollow (Pilot Hand Flying)
Index
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AFCS
Flight Instruments
System Overview
Solid Command Bars
Figure 3-6 Command Bars - Solid (Auto Pilot Engaged)
AFCS
Aircraft Symbol Only
Additional Features
Figure 3-7 Command Bars - Absent (Invalid or Missing Data)
Index
Flight Director
Figure 3-8 Flight Director (Dual Cue)
If the attitude information being sent to the flight director becomes invalid or
unavailable, the Command Bars are removed from the display.
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AFCS
3.2.5 FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODES
3.2.5.1 FLIGHT DIRECTOR ALTITUDE CONTROLS
CAUTION: The following settings change the flight director operation. Before
changing these settings become familiar with how these changes affect the
use of the flight director.
Additional Features
The flight director is automatically disabled if the attitude information required to
compute the default flight director modes becomes invalid or unavailable.
AFCS
If the information required to compute a flight director mode becomes invalid or
unavailable, the flight director automatically reverts to the default mode for that
axis and the key on the GMC is disabled. A flashing yellow mode annunciation and
annunciator light indicate loss of sensor or navigation data required to compute
commands. When such a loss occurs, the system automatically begins to roll the wings
level (enters Roll Hold Mode) or maintain the pitch angle (enters Pitch Hold Mode),
depending on the affected axis. The flashing annunciation stops when the affected
mode key is pressed or another mode for the axis is selected. If after 10 seconds no
action is taken, the flashing annunciation stops.
Flight Instruments
Armed modes are annunciated in white and active in green in the AFCS Status Box.
Under normal operation, when the control for the active flight director mode is pressed,
the flight director reverts to the default mode(s) for the axis(es). Automatic transition
from armed to active mode is indicated by the white armed mode annunciation moving
to the green active mode field and flashing for 10 seconds.
System Overview
Flight director modes are normally selected independently for the pitch and roll axes.
Unless otherwise specified, all mode keys are alternate action (i.e., press on, press off).
In the absence of specific mode selection, the flight director reverts to the default pitch
and/or roll modes.
NOTE: Refer to the Installation Manual for AFCS setup information.
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Index
The Flight Director Altitude Controls allow the user to select Normal or Simplified.
When Altitude Controls are set to Normal, the following additional selections
appear:
•
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AFCS
•
Normal: The flight director enters Altitude Hold (ALT) Mode.
•
Sync Selected Altitude: The flight director enters Altitude Hold (ALT)
Mode and the Selected Altitude (Altitude Bug) changes to the current
aircraft altitude.
ALT Mode User Up/Down Action: Determines the behavior of the flight
director when the flight director is in Altitude Hold (ALT) Mode and the user
moves the pitch wheel on the GMC control unit, or touches Nose Up or Nose
Down on the AFCS display. The following two options are available:
•
Normal: Adjusts the Target Altitude in 10-foot increments, up to ±200 feet
from the original Target Altitude.
•
Select VS Mode: The flight director changes from Altitude Hold (ALT)
Mode to Vertical Speed (VS) Mode and initiates a climb or descent.
Subsequent vertical speed adjustments are in increments of 100 fpm. The
Default Vertical Speed that is used for the initial climb or descent is set
using a pair of fields that appear when Select VS Mode is selected.
When Altitude Controls are set to Simplified, Altitude Hold (ALT) Mode behavior
differs in the following ways:
NOTE: With Altitude Controls set to Simplified, the user will not be able to
pre-select a new altitude while ALT mode is already active.
Index
Additional Features
AFCS
•
ALT Mode User Select Action: Determines the behavior of the flight director
when the user selects Altitude Hold Mode by pressing the ALT Key on the GMC
or touching the ALT Key on the display. The following two options are available:
46
•
Selecting Altitude Hold (ALT) Mode causes the Selected Altitude (Altitude Bug)
to change to the current aircraft altitude.
•
There is no longer a difference between the Selected Altitude (Altitude Bug) and
the Target Altitude for Altitude Hold (ALT) Mode.
•
After Altitude Hold (ALT) Mode captures the Selected Altitude, subsequent
changes to the Selected Altitude will cause ALT Mode to climb or descend
towards the new Selected Altitude.
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AFCS
Subsequent vertical speed adjustments are in increments of 100 fpm, with
the exception the user cannot adjust the target vertical speed to a value
that would cause the aircraft to fly away from the Selected Altitude.
•
Unlike Select VS Mode described previously, this option does not switch
to VS mode. Instead, it displays a vertical speed bug.
•
The initial vertical speed used for climb or descent towards the new altitude
is determined by the Default Vertical Speed fields as described previously.
3.2.5.2 VERTICAL MODES
AFCS
The table lists the vertical modes with their corresponding controls and annunciations.
The mode reference is displayed next to the active mode annunciation for Altitude
Hold, Vertical Speed, and Indicated Airspeed modes. The NOSE UP/DN Wheel can be
used to change the vertical mode reference while operating under Pitch Hold, Vertical
Speed, Indicated Airspeed, or Altitude Hold modes. Increments of change of values for
each of these references using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel, are also listed in the table.
Flight Instruments
When Altitude Hold (ALT) Mode has captured the Selected Altitude, the vertical
speed bug is removed and vertical speed adjustments have no effect.
System Overview
•
•
Table 3-5 Flight Director Vertical Modes
Description
Pitch Hold
Holds the current aircraft pitch
attitude; may be used to climb/
descend to the Selected Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Capture
Captures the Selected Altitude
Altitude
Hold
Holds the current Altitude
ALT Key
ALT
Vertical
Speed
Maintains the current aircraft
vertical speed; may be used to
climb/descend to the Selected
Altitude
VS Key
VS
(default)
PIT
*
ALTS
Reference
Change
Increment
0.5°
10 ft
Index
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Control Annunciation
100 fpm
G5 Electronic Flight Instrument Pilot's Guide for Non-Certified Aircraft
Additional Features
Vertical
Mode
47
AFCS
Index
Additional Features
AFCS
Flight Instruments
System Overview
Table 3-5 Flight Director Vertical Modes
Vertical
Mode
Description
Control Annunciation
Indicated
Airspeed
(IAS)
Maintains the current aircraft
airspeed in IAS while the aircraft
is climbing/descending to the
Selected Altitude
IAS Key
IAS
Vertical
Navigation
Captures and tracks descent legs
of an active vertical profile
VNV or
VNAV Key
VNAV
VNAV
Target
Altitude
Capture
Captures the Vertical Navigation
(VNAV) Target Altitude
**
ALTV
Glidepath
Captures and tracks the SBAS
glidepath on approach
APR Key
GP
Takeoff
Commands a constant pitch
angle and wings level on-ground
in preparation for takeoff
Reference
Change
Increment
1 kt
TO
GA Button
Commands a constant pitch
Go Around
GA
angle and wings level in the air
* ALTS armed automatically when PIT, VS, IAS, or GA active, and under VNAV when Selected Altitude
is to be captured instead of VNAV Target Altitude
** ALTV armed automatically under VNAV when VNAV Target Altitude is to be captured instead of
Selected Altitude
3.2.5.2.1 Pitch Hold Mode (PIT)
When the flight director is activated (FD Key pressed) or when the autopilot is
activated, Pitch Hold Mode is selected by default. Pitch Hold Mode is indicated as the
active vertical mode by the green ‘PIT’ annunciation. This mode may be used for climb
or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter), since Selected Altitude
Capture Mode is automatically armed when Pitch Hold Mode is activated.
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AFCS
Pitch Hold Mode Active
Selected Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Flight Instruments
Changing the pitch reference:
When operating in Pitch Hold Mode, the pitch reference can be adjusted by
using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel.
Or
Hold the Control Wheel Steering (CWS) Button (if configured), establish the
desired pitch attitude, then release the CWS Button.
System Overview
In Pitch Hold Mode, the flight director maintains a constant pitch attitude. The pitch
reference is set to the aircraft pitch attitude at the moment of mode selection. If the
aircraft pitch attitude exceeds the flight director pitch command limitations, the flight
director commands a pitch angle equal to the nose-up/down limit.
AFCS
Additional Features
Pitch Hold & Selected Altitude Capture Modes
3.2.5.2.2 Selected Altitude Capture Mode (ALTS)
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed with activation of the
following modes:
• Takeoff/Go Around
• Vertical Speed
• Vertical Navigation
Index
• Pitch Hold
• Indicated Airspeed
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AFCS
Flight Instruments
System Overview
The white ‘ALTS’ annunciation indicates Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed.
Figure 3-9 Selected Altitude Capture Mode (Armed)
As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions
to Selected Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic
transition is indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds
and the appearance of the white ‘ALTS’ annunciation.
At 50 feet from the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions
from Selected Altitude Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and holds the reference altitude.
As Altitude Hold Mode becomes active, the white ‘ALTS’ annunciation moves to the
active vertical mode field and flashes green for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic
transition.
Setting the selected altitude:
Use the ALT SEL Knob on the GMC 307 or 507 to adjust the selected
altitude.
Additional Features
AFCS
Or
1) Press the Selection Knob to display the Menu.
2) Select Altitude and use the Selection Knob to change the Selected
Altitude.
Syncing to the current altitude:
Press the ALT SEL Knob on the GMC 307 or 507.
Or
1) Press the Selection Knob to display the Menu.
2) Select Altitude and press and hold the Selection Knob to sync the Selected
Altitude to the current altitude
Changing the Selected Altitude while Selected Altitude Capture Mode is active
causes the autopilot to revert to Pitch Hold Mode with Selected Altitude Capture Mode
armed for the new Selected Altitude.
Index
3.2.5.2.3 Altitude Hold Mode (ALT)
Altitude Hold Mode can be activated by pressing the ALT Key; the AFCS maintains
the current aircraft altitude (to the nearest 10 feet) as the Altitude Reference. Altitude
Hold Mode active is indicated by a green ‘ALT’ annunciation in the G5 Autopilot Status
Box.
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AFCS
Changing the Altitude Reference
• The Altitude Reference can be adjusted up or down in 10-foot increments
by rolling the NOSE UP/DN Wheel. Using this method, up to 200 feet of
altitude change can be commanded. To change the Altitude Reference by
more the 200 feet, use the CWS Button (if configured) as described below,
or climb/descend using another vertical mode (PIT, VS) to capture the desired
Selected Altitude.
AFCS
• If the aircraft is configured with a CWS Button, pressing the CWS Button
allows the aircraft to be hand-flown to a new Altitude Reference. When the
CWS Button is released at the desired altitude, the new altitude is established
as the Altitude Reference.
Flight Instruments
When operating in Altitude Hold Mode, the Altitude Reference can be adjusted in
the following ways:
System Overview
Altitude Hold Mode is automatically armed when in Selected Altitude Capture Mode.
Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically transitions to Altitude Hold Mode when
within 50 feet of the Selected Altitude. In this case, the Selected Altitude becomes the
Altitude Reference.
Altitude Hold Mode Active
3.2.5.2.4 Vertical Speed Mode (VS)
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Index
In Vertical Speed Mode, the flight director acquires and maintains a Vertical Speed
Reference. Current aircraft vertical speed (to the nearest 100 fpm) becomes the Vertical
Speed Reference at the moment of Vertical Speed Mode activation. This mode may be
used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter) since
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Vertical Speed Mode is
selected.
Additional Features
Figure 3-10 Altitude Hold Mode
When Vertical Speed Mode is activated by pressing the VS Key, ‘VS’ is annunciated
in green in the Autopilot Status Box. The Vertical Speed Reference is also displayed
below the Vertical Speed Indicator. A Vertical Speed Reference Bug corresponding to
the Vertical Speed Reference is shown on the indicator.
Vertical Speed Reference
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AFCS
Vertical Speed
Reference Bug
Vertical Speed
Reference
AFCS
Figure 3-11 Vertical Speed Reference on PFD Page
Changing the Vertical Speed Reference
The Vertical Speed Reference may be adjusted in the following ways:
Additional Features
• Use the NOSE UP/DN Wheel to adjust the Vertical Speed Reference in
increments of 100 fpm.
• Press the CWS Button (if configured) and hand-fly the aircraft to a new
Vertical Speed Reference. When the CWS Button is released, the aircraft’s
vertical speed (to the nearest 100 fpm) is established as the new Vertical
Speed Reference.
Vertical Speed Mode Active
Index
Figure 3-12 Vertical Speed Mode
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AFCS
3.2.5.2.5 Indicated Airspeed Mode (IAS)
Engine power must be adjusted to allow the autopilot to fly the aircraft at a pitch
attitude corresponding to the desired flight profile (climb or descent) while maintaining
the Airspeed Reference.
Flight Instruments
The Airspeed Reference is set to the current airspeed upon mode activation. Indicated
Airspeed Mode is indicated by a green ‘IAS’ annunciation in the Autopilot Status Box.
The Airspeed Reference is also displayed as a cyan bug corresponding to the Airspeed
Reference along the airspeed tape.
System Overview
Indicated Airspeed Mode is selected by pressing the IAS Key on the GMC.
This mode acquires and maintains the Airspeed Reference (IAS) while climbing or
descending. When Indicated Airspeed Mode is active, the flight director continuously
monitors Selected Altitude and current airspeed and altitude.
Changing the Airspeed Reference
AFCS
The Airspeed Reference (shown in both the Autopilot Status Box and above the
Airspeed Indicator) may be adjusted by using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel.
Indicated Airspeed
Reference
Additional Features
Indicated Airspeed
Reference Bug
Figure 3-13 Indicated Airspeed Reference on PFD Page
Index
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AFCS
Flight Instruments
System Overview
3.2.5.2.6 Vertical Navigation Mode (VNAV)
NOTE: If another vertical mode is touched while VNAV Mode is selected,
VNAV Mode reverts to armed.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button (if equipped and supported) while VNAV
Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft
back to the descent path upon release of the CWS Button.
Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Mode is available for enroute/terminal cruise and descent
operations any time that VNAV input data is being received.
Vertical Navigation Mode Active
Figure 3-14 Vertical Navigation Mode
Index
Additional Features
AFCS
Activating vertical navigation mode:
1) When a flight plan is active, VNAV data is valid, and the VNV Key (GMC 305) or
VNAV Key is selected (GMC 307/507), VNAV mode is armed in preparation for
descent path capture. ‘VNAV’ is annunciated in white in the G5 Autopilot Status
Box. If applicable, the appropriate altitude capture mode is armed for capture of the
VNAV Target Altitude (ALTV) or the Selected Altitude (ALTS), whichever is greater.
2) When a descent leg is captured (i.e., vertical deviation becomes valid), VNAV Mode
is activated and tracks the descent profile. An altitude capture mode (ALTS or ALTV)
is armed as appropriate.
3) When approaching the VNAV Target Altitude (or Selected Altitude) the system
automatically transitions to ALTS or ALTV Mode with ALT Mode armed.
If the altimeter’s barometric setting is adjusted while VNAV mode is active, the
autopilot increases/decreases the descent rate by up to 500 fpm to re-establish the
aircraft on the descent path (without commanding a climb). For large changes, it may
take several minutes for the aircraft to reestablish on the descent path. If the change
is made while nearing the VNAV waypoint, the aircraft may not reestablish on the
descent path in time to level off at the NVAV Target Altitude. In this case, the autopilot
will revert to Pitch Hold mode upon passing the VNAV waypoint, and Selected Altitude
Capture (ALTV) mode will be automatically armed.
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AFCS
3.2.5.2.7 Automatic Reversion to Pitch Hold Mode
• The aircraft does not level off at the selected altitude.
• Vertical deviation exceeds 200 feet during an overspeed condition.
Following a reversion to Pitch Hold Mode, VNAV Mode becomes armed to
allow for possible profile recapture.
3.2.5.2.8 VNAV Target Altitude Capture Mode (ALTV)
At 50 feet from the VNAV Target Altitude, the AFCS automatically transitions from
VNAV Target Altitude Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and selects the VNAV target
altitude as the new Autopilot Altitude Reference. As Altitude Hold Mode becomes
active, the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes
green for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic transition.
Additional Features
As the aircraft nears the VNAV Target Altitude, AFCS automatically transitions to
VNAV Target Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic
transition is indicated by the green ‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds
and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation.
AFCS
VNAV Target Altitude Capture is analogous to Selected Altitude Capture Mode and
is armed automatically after the VNV Key (GMC 305) or VNAV (GMC 307/507) is
selected if the VNAV Target Altitude is to be intercepted before the Selected Altitude.
The annunciation ‘ALTV’ indicates the VNAV Target Altitude is to be captured. Refer to
Section 2.3 (Vertical Navigation) for more information on setting up the VNAV target
altitude.
Flight Instruments
• Vertical deviation becomes invalid (the Deviation Indicator is removed
from the PFD Page).
System Overview
Several situations can occur while VNAV Mode is active which cause the
AFCS to revert to Pitch Hold Mode:
Index
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System Overview
AFCS
3.2.5.2.9 Glidepath Mode (GP) (with external WAAS enabled
IFR navigator ONLY)
Glidepath Mode is used to track a WAAS or other satellite-based augmentation
system SBAS generated glidepath. When Glidepath Mode is armed, ‘GP’ is annunciated
in white in the Autopilot Status Box.
Selecting glidepath mode:
Flight Instruments
1)
2)
3)
AFCS
NOTE: Some RNAV (GPS) approaches provide a vertical descent angle as an
aid in flying a stabilized approach. These approaches are NOT considered
Approaches with Vertical Guidance (APV). Approaches that are annunciated
on the HSI as LNAV or LNAV+V are considered Non-precision Approaches
(NPA) and are flown to an MDA even though vertical glidepath (GP)
information may be provided.
WARNING: When flying an LNAV approach (with vertical descent angle)
with the autopilot coupled, the aircraft will not level off at the MDA even if
the MDA is set in the altitude preselect.
Upon reaching the glidepath, the flight director transitions to Glidepath Mode and
begins to capture and track the glidepath.
Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured:
• The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF).
• Vertical deviation is valid.
• The CDI is at less than full-scale deviation.
• Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended.
Glidepath Mode Active
Index
Additional Features
EXTERNAL NAVIGATOR: Ensure a GPS approach with vertical guidance
(LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LNAV +V) is loaded into the active flight plan. The active
waypoint must be part of the flight plan (cannot be a direct-to a waypoint
not in the flight plan).
Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source.
Press the APR Key.
Figure 3-15 Glidepath Mode
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AFCS
NOTE: TO and GA modes are only available when the G5 is configured as a
backup unit in a G3X/G3X Touch system.
Takeoff Mode provides an attitude reference during rotation and takeoff. This mode
can be selected only while on the ground by pushing the TO/GA Button. The flight
director Command Bars assume a wings-level, pitch-up attitude.
Flight Instruments
Pressing the TO/GA Button while in the air activates the flight director in a wingslevel, pitch-up attitude, allowing the execution of a missed approach or a go around.
Go Around Mode arms the Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically, and attempts
to modify the aircraft attitude (i.e., with the NOSE UP/DN Wheel). This will result in
reversion to Pitch and Roll Hold modes.
AFCS
Go Around and Takeoff modes are coupled pitch and roll modes and are annunciated
as both the vertical and lateral modes when active. In these modes, the flight director
commands a constant set pitch attitude and keeps the wings level. The GA Switch
is used to activate both modes. The mode entered by the flight director depends on
whether the aircraft is on the ground or in the air.
System Overview
3.2.5.2.10 Go Around (GA) and Takeoff (TO) Modes
3.2.5.3 LATERAL MODES
Table 3-6 Flight Director Lateral Modes
Lateral Mode
Control
Roll Hold
(default)
Description
Holds the current aircraft roll
attitude or rolls the wings level,
depending on the commanded
bank angle
Annunciation
ROL
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HDG Key
Captures and tracks the Selected
Heading
Index
Heading
(G5 stand-alone and
G3X installations
require an optional
magnetometer
Additional Features
The following table lists the lateral modes and respective control(s) and annunciation.
Refer to the vertical modes section for information regarding Takeoff and Go Around
Modes.
HDG
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AFCS
System Overview
Table 3-6 Flight Director Lateral Modes
Lateral Mode
Track
(GMC 305/307 only)
Track
Flight Instruments
(GMC 507 only)
Navigation, GPS
Approach, GPS
Takeoff
Captures and tracks the selected
navigation source (GPS)
Captures and tracks the selected
APR Key
navigation source (GPS)
Commands a constant pitch angle
and wings level on-ground in
TO/GA Button preparation for takeoff
Commands a constant pitch angle
and wings level in the air
NAV Key
Annunciation
TRK
GPS
GPS
TO*
GA*
* TO and GA modes are only available when the G5 is installed.
The CWS Button (if configured) does not change lateral references for HDG or NAV
modes. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading/Course upon
release of the CWS Button.
3.2.5.3.1 Roll Hold Mode (ROL)
NOTE: If Roll Hold Mode is activated as a result of a mode reversion, the
flight director rolls the wings level.
When the flight director is activated or switched, Roll Hold Mode is selected by
default. This mode is annunciated as ‘ROL’ in the Autopilot Status Box. The current
aircraft bank angle is held, subject to the bank angle condition.
Figure 3-16 Roll Hold Mode Annunciation
Index
Additional Features
AFCS
Go Around
Control
Description
TRK Button/
Softkey (On the Captures and tracks the Selected
G3X Touch/G3X)
Ground Track
TRK Key
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AFCS
Table 3-7 Roll Hold Mode Responses
System Overview
Bank Angle
< 6°
6 to 20°
> 20°
Flight Director Response
Rolls wings level
Maintains current aircraft roll attitude
Limits bank to 20°
Changing the Roll Reference
Hold the CWS Button (if configured), establish the desired bank angle, then
release the CWS Button.
3.2.5.3.2 Heading Select Mode (HDG)
AFCS
NOTE: HDG mode is available in a standalone installation with a magnetometer
and when the G5 is configured as a backup in a G3X/G3X Touch system and
the G5 is receiving magnetic heading data from an ADAHRS unit.
Flight Instruments
When operating in Roll Hold Mode, the roll reference can be adjusted in the following
ways:
Heading Select Mode is activated by pressing the HDG Key. Heading Select Mode
acquires and maintains the Selected Heading. The Selected Heading is shown by a
cyan bug on the HSI and in the box on the bottom right of the HSI.
Additional Features
Changing the selected heading:
1) Press the Selection Knob to display the Menu.
2) Select Heading and use the Selection Knob to change the Selected
Heading.
Or
Rotate the HDG Knob (GMC 307 or 507).
Activating heading mode:
Press the HDG Key on the GMC.
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Index
Holding the CWS Button (if configured) and hand-flying the aircraft does not change
the Selected Heading. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading
upon release of the CWS Button.
Turns are commanded in the same direction as Selected Heading Bug movement,
even if the bug is turned more than 180˚ from the present heading (e.g., a 270˚ turn
to the right). However, Selected Heading changes of more than 330˚ at a time result
in turn reversals.
Figure 3-17 Heading Mode Annunciation
3.2.5.3.3 Track Mode (TRK)
Track Mode is activated by pressing TRK Key on the GMC 507 or the TRK
Button/Softkey on the G3X Touch/G3X. Track Mode acquires and maintains the
Selected Ground Track. The Selected Ground Track is displayed as a magenta bug on
the HSI and in the box on the bottom right of the HSI.
Changing the selected ground track:
1) Press the Selection Knob to display the Menu.
2) Select Track and use the Selection Knob to change the Selected Ground
Track.
AFCS
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AFCS
Index
Additional Features
Or
Rotate the HDG Knob on the GMC 307 or HDG/TRK Knob on the GMC
507.
Activating track mode:
Press the TRK Key on the GMC 507 or the TRK Button/Softkey on the G3X
Touch/G3X.
Holding the CWS Button (if configured) and hand-flying the aircraft does not change
the Selected Ground Track. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected
Ground Track upon release of the CWS Button.
Turns are commanded in the same direction as Selected Ground Track Bug movement,
even if the bug is turned more than 180˚ from the present heading (e.g., a 270˚ turn
to the right). However, Selected Ground Track changes of more than 330˚ at a time
result in turn reversals.
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AFCS
System Overview
Figure 3-18 Track Mode Annunciation
3.2.5.3.4 Navigation Mode (GPS)
NOTE: When intercepting a flight plan leg, the flight director gives commands
to capture the active leg at approximately a 45° angle to the track between
the waypoints defining the active leg. The flight director does not give
commands to fly to the starting waypoint of the active leg.
Figure 3-19 Navigation Mode Annunciation
Additional Features
If the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) shows greater than one dot when the NAV
Key is pressed, the selected mode is armed. If the CDI is less than one dot, Navigation
Mode is automatically captured when the NAV Key is pressed. The armed annunciation
appears in white to the left of the active roll mode.
AFCS
Pressing the NAV Key selects Navigation Mode. Navigation Mode acquires and
tracks the navigation source. The flight director follows GPS roll steering commands
when GPS is the navigation source. Navigation Mode can also be used to fly nonprecision GPS approaches where vertical guidance is not required.
Flight Instruments
NOTE: The navigation receiver must have an active GPS course for the flight
director to enter Navigation Mode.
If Navigation Mode is active and either of the following occur, the AFCS reverts to
Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level):
Index
• Active navigation source manually switched
• Active flight plan is deleted
• GPS reception is lost
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AFCS
Flight Instruments
System Overview
3.2.5.3.5 Approaches without Vertical Guidance
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have an active GPS course for
the flight director to enter Approach Mode.
Press the NAV Key to arm/activate GPS (LNAV only) lateral mode. The lateral
mode acquires and tracks the selected navigation source, depending on the loaded
approach. Press NAV when the CDI is greater than one dot to arm the selected mode
(annunciated in white). Press NAV when the CDI deviation is less than one dot to
activate, capture and track the selected navigation source.
Table 3-8 Approach without Vertical Guidance
Example
LNAV
AFCS
VOR
LOC
BC
Control
Lateral Mode
Approach, GPS
VOR Approach
Capture/Track
NAV Key LOC Approach
Capture/Track
BC Approach
Capture/Track
Annunciation
GPS
Description
VOR
Captures and tracks
the selected navigation
source (GPS, VOR, LOC,
BC)
LOC
BC
Additional Features
3.2.5.3.6 GPS Approach without Vertical Guidance
A GPS approach without vertical guidance (LNAV) is flown using GPS NAV Mode.
Index
Selecting a GPS Approach without vertical guidance:
1) EXTERNAL NAVIGATOR: Ensure a GPS approach without vertical guidance
(LNAV) is loaded into the active flight plan.
2) EXTERNAL NAVIGATOR: Ensure the ‘GPS’ indication is showing in the
lower-left corner. If not, press the CDI Key.
3) EXTERNAL NAVIGATOR: Select and activate the GPS approach using the
PROC Key.
4) Press the NAV Key.
5) Adjust the aircraft’s pitch axis as required.
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AFCS
3.2.5.3.7 GPS Approaches with Lateral + Vertical Guidance
Example
LPV,
LNAV/
VNAV,
LNAV+V
Control
APR Key
Modes
Annunciation
Lateral:
GPS
GPS
Vertical:
Glidepath
GP
Description
Captures and tracks the
lateral portion of a GPS
approach
Captures and tracks a
WAAS approach glidepath
AFCS
NOTE: To cancel Glidepath (GP) Mode without cancelling GPS Mode, Press
NAV once. Pressing it a second time cancels GPS Mode.
Flight Instruments
Table 3-9 Lateral + Vertical Approaches
System Overview
Press the APR Key to arm/activate both lateral and vertical modes for approach.
When Glidepath (GP) Mode is armed for a GPS approach with vertical guidance, GPS
Mode is automatically armed. Press the APR Key when the CDI is greater than one
dot to arm the selected modes (annunciated in white). Press the APR Key when the
CDI deviation is less than one dot to activate, capture and track the selected navigation
source.
When Glidepath (GP) Mode is armed for a GPS approach with vertical guidance, GPS
Mode is automatically armed.
4)
Additional Features
Selecting a GPS approach with vertical guidance:
1) EXTERNAL NAVIGATOR: Ensure a GPS approach with vertical guidance
(LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V) is loaded into the active flight plan.
2) EXTERNAL NAVIGATOR: Ensure the ‘GPS’ indication is showing in the
lower-left corner. If not, press the CDI Key.
3) EXTERNAL NAVIGATOR: Select and activate the GPS approach using the
PROC Key.
Press the APR Key.
Level Mode is coupled in pitch and roll modes and is annunciated as LVL in both the
vertical and lateral modes when active. Pressing the LVL Key engages the autopilot in
Level vertical and lateral modes. Level Mode does not track altitude or heading. When
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Index
3.2.5.3.8 Level Mode
the LVL Key is pressed all armed and active modes are cancelled and the autopilot
and flight director revert to LVL mode for pitch and roll. While in level mode, all other
modes are available by pressing the corresponding key.
Level mode as activated by ESP is limited by altitude. ESP will not be able to activate
Level mode until the aircraft climbs above 2000 feet AGL. ESP will be locked out of
automatically activating Level mode after the aircraft descends below 1500 feet AGL
as well. Also note that Level mode as activated by ESP is different than manually
selected Level mode. Manually selected Level mode is not limited by altitude at all.
NOTE: If AGL height data is unavailable (i.e., GPS altitude or terrain data is
unavailable), automatic engagement of Level mode is not supported.
3.3 AFCS ALERTS (OPTIONAL)
Index
Additional Features
AFCS
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AFCS
Figure 3-20 AFCS Alerts
3.3.1 STATUS ALERTS
If the commanded operation cannot be achieved due to the limitations configured,
the following messages can be displayed over the pitch scale. The annunciation is
removed once the condition is resolved.
Alert Condition
Annunciation
Up-elevator Trim Required
TRIM UP
Down-elevator Trim Required
TRIM DOWN
Description
The autopilot does not have the
required elevator authority to
reach the desired flight condition.
Table 3-10 Status Alerts
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AFCS
3.3.2 SPEED ALERTS
Max Speed
Annunciator
System Overview
If the remote autopilot unit supports speed alerts and the airspeed limitations
configured have been reached, the following messages can be displayed in the upper
left corner. The annunciation is removed once the condition is resolved.
Flight Instruments
Current
Airspeed
Figure 4-1 ESP Engaged - High Airspeed
AFCS
Min Speed
Annunciator
Figure 4-2 ESP Engaged - Low Airspeed
Alert Condition Annunciation
MAXSPD
Low speed
Protection
MINSPD
Table 3-11 Speed Alerts
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Index
High speed
Protection
Description
Autopilot Overspeed Protection mode is
active. Autopilot will raise the nose to limit the
aircraft's speed.
Autopilot Underspeed Protection mode is active.
Autopilot will lower the nose to prevent the
aircraft's speed from decreasing..
Additional Features
Current
Airspeed
AFCS
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AFCS
Index
Additional Features
Blank Page
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Additional Features
4.1 ELECTRONIC STABILITY & PROTECTION (ESP)
WARNING: Do not assume ESP will provide stability protection in all
circumstances. There are in-flight situations that can exceed the capabilities
of ESP technology.
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Index
When ESP has been engaged for more than fifteen seconds (cumulative; not
necessarily consecutive seconds) of a 30-second interval, the autopilot can be
configured to engage with the flight director in Level Mode, bringing the aircraft into
level flight. If configured, an aural “Autopilot” alert is played and the flight director
mode annunciation will indicate ‘LVL’ for vertical and lateral modes.
Additional Features
As the aircraft deviates further from the normal attitude and/or airspeed, the
force increases proportionally (up to an established maximum) to encourage control
movement in the direction necessary to return to the normal attitude and/or airspeed
range.
AFCS
When selected, ESP engages automatically when the aircraft approaches or exceeds
one or more predetermined airspeed or attitude limitations. Stability protection
for each flight axis is provided by the autopilot servos, which apply force to the
appropriate control surface(s) to discourage pilot control inputs that would cause the
aircraft to exceed the normal or "protected" flight envelope. This is perceived by the
pilot as resistance to control movement in the undesired direction when the aircraft
approaches a steep attitude, and/or the airspeed is below the minimum or above the
maximum configured airspeed.
Flight Instruments
Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) is a feature that is intended to monitor the
aircraft and provide guidance for the pilot to adjust pitch and/or power in order to
maintain proper airspeed and bank angle, when necessary, to discourage operating
the aircraft at potentially unsafe attitudes and/or airspeeds. If enabled, this feature
will automatically arm when the aircraft is above 500 feet AGL and the autopilot is not
engaged, and disarm when below 200 feet AGL.
System Overview
Section 4 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Level mode as activated by ESP is limited by altitude. ESP will not be able to activate
Level mode until the aircraft climbs above 2000 feet AGL. ESP will be locked out of
automatically activating Level mode after the aircraft descends below 1500 feet AGL
as well. Also note that Level mode as activated by ESP is different than manually
selected Level mode. Manually selected Level mode is not limited by altitude at all.
NOTE: If AGL height data is unavailable (i.e., GPS altitude or terrain data is
unavailable), automatic engagement of Level mode is not supported.
ESP is enabled or disabled from the PFD Page Menu.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
Additional Features
Enabling/Disabling ESP:
1) From the PFD Page, press the Selection Knob to display the Menu.
2) Turn the Selection Knob to highlight ESP.
3) Press the Selection Knob to enable or disable ESP.
Additional Features
AFCS
ESP Roll Engagement Indication
(ESP NOT Engaged)
Touch To
Enable/
Disable ESP
PDF Page Menu
Index
Figure 4-3 AFCS (ESP Enabled)
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Additional Features
4.1.1 ROLL ENGAGEMENT
Flight Instruments
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45º) (Configurable)
System Overview
When ESP is available, Roll Limit Indicators displayed on the roll scale are configurable
between 45º and 60º right and left, indicating where ESP will engage. As roll attitude
exceeds the configured limit, ESP will engage and the Roll Limit Indicators will move
to 15º less than the configured ESP bank limit. The Roll Limit Indicator now indicates
where ESP will disengage as roll attitude decreases.
AFCS
Additional Features
Figure 4-4 ESP Roll Engagement Indication
(ESP Enabled but NOT Engaged)
ESP Disengage (30º)
ESP Engage (45º)(Configurable)
(15º < Configured Bank Limit)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 35º
Index
Figure 4-5 Roll Increasing to ESP Engagement
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Once engaged, the torque applied by ESP is at its maximum when bank angle is
15º more than the configured bank limit, and tapers to the minimum applied torque
when the bank angle is 15º less than the configured bank limit. The force increases
as roll attitude increases and decreases as roll attitude decreases. The applied force is
intended to encourage pilot input to return the airplane to a more normal roll attitude.
When beyond 15º of the configured bank limit, the maximum torque is held until the
aircraft returns inside the protected envelope.
0º
3
20º
10º
º
10º
20º
Minimum
ESP Torque
(30°)
Configured
Bank Limit
(45°)
30
º
90º
Maximum
ESP Torque
(60°)
90º
AFCS
75º
75º
60º
60
º
45
0º
º
Minimum ESP
Torque(30°)
Configured
Bank Limit
(45°)
Maximum
ESP Torque
(60°)
45
Flight Instruments
System Overview
Additional Features
Figure 4-6 ESP Roll Operating Range When Engaged
(Force Increases as Roll Increases & Decreases as Roll Decreases)
Additional Features
4.1.2 PITCH ENGAGEMENT
ESP pitch engagement is configurable between 10º and 25º nose-up and between
5º and 25º nose-down. Once engaged, the torque applied by ESP is at its maximum
when pitch is 5º more than the configured nose-up and nose-down pitch limits, and
tapers to the minimum applied torque when pitch is 5º less than the configured noseup and nose-down pitch limits. When beyond 5º of the configured pitch limit, the
maximum torque is held until the aircraft returns inside the protected envelope.
Index
The opposing force increases or decreases depending on the pitch angle and the
direction of pitch travel. This force is intended to encourage movement in the pitch axis
in the direction of the normal pitch attitude range for the aircraft.
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Additional Features
40˚
40˚
35˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
45˚
25˚
25˚
20˚
20˚
15˚
15˚
10˚
10˚
5˚
5˚
0˚
0˚
5˚
5˚
10˚
10˚
Minimum ESP Torque (5°)
Configured Pitch ESP Limit (20°)
25˚
25˚
Maximum ESP Torque (25°)
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
15˚
20˚
AFCS
15˚
20˚
40˚
Flight Instruments
Minimum ESP Torque (10°)
50˚
45˚
System Overview
Maximum ESP Torque (25°)
Configured Pitch Limit (20°)
50˚
35˚
40˚
45˚
45˚
50˚
50˚
4.1.3 AIRSPEED PROTECTION
NOTE: If AGL height data is unavailable (i.e., GPS altitude or terrain data is
unavailable), low-airspeed protection is not supported.
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Index
An airspeed below the minimum configured airspeed or above maximum configured
airspeed will result in ESP applying force to raise or lower the nose of the aircraft.
When the high or low airspeed condition is remedied, ESP force is no longer applied.
Additional Features
Figure 4-7 ESP Pitch Operating Range When Engaged
(Force Increases as Pitch Increases & Decreases as Pitch Decreases)
System Overview
Additional Features
4.2 GPS STEERING (GPSS)
NOTE: This section is only applicable to non-Garmin autopilots.
When installed with the appropriate interfaces, the G5 can interface to some thirdparty autopilot systems.
Flight Instruments
4.2.1 GAD 29/29B (OPTIONAL)
The GAD 29B (optional) is an adapter that converts digital heading and course
data into analog signals used by analog autopilot systems. The GAD 29B is installed
remotely between the G5 and an existing autopilot. The analog signals from the GAD
29B mimic those of spinning-mass heading gyros that provide data to the autopilot
and allow the gyro to be replaced by the G5 and GAD 29B combination. The GAD 29B
is also used to interface certain Garmin IFR navigators with the G5.
AFCS
The GAD 29B sends analog information about the G5’s heading bug to a third-party
analog autopilot, allowing it to operate in HDG mode and follow the G5 heading bug.
The navigation course selected on the G5 is also sent to the analog autopilot,
enabling proper operation of the autopilot’s NAV mode.
Index
Additional Features
NOTE: If multiple navigators are configured, course data is sent by the GAD
29B for navigator #1 only.
Figure 4-8 GAD 29B (Optional)
GPS Steering (GPSS) provides roll command signals calculated by the GPS navigator
to the autopilot in order to allow the aircraft to anticipate turns, make smooth
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Additional Features
Some autopilots have built-in support for GPS Steering (GPSS) commands from
a GPS navigator. These autopilots receive digital GPSS commands directly from the
navigator. Refer to the Airplane Flight Manual and autopilot system documentation
for instructions on how to use the autopilot's GPSS function.
NOTE: If multiple navigators are configured, GPSS emulation is supported
for navigator #1 only.
NOTE: GPSS commands are not sent to the autopilot when a VLOC source is
displayed on the HSI.
AFCS
Wpt 2
Flight Plan Leg 2
Flight Plan Leg 1
Wpt 3
Aircraft
Present
Position
Additional Features
Wpt 1
Turn Anticipation
Curve
Flight Instruments
For older autopilots that do not have built-in support for digital GPSS signals, GPSS
functionality may be emulated using the analog heading bug output of the G5 and
GAD 29B, by operating the autopilot in HDG mode and selecting GPSS from the G5
menu.
System Overview
transitions when passing waypoints, and fly leg types such as procedure turns and
holding patterns.
Figure 4-9 GPSS Turn Anticipation
Enabling/Disabling GPSS Mode:
1) Press the Selection Knob to display the Menu.
2) Turn the Selection Knob to select GPSS.
3) Press the Selection Knob to enable/disable GPSS Mode.
Index
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When GPSS is selected on the G5, the heading bug will change to a hollow outline,
and a crossed-out heading bug symbol appears on the G5 indicating the autopilot is
not coupled to the heading bug. The heading bug is still controllable and may still be
used for reference.
When the G5 and GAD 29B are providing analog GPSS emulation, GPSS turn
commands from the navigator are converted into a heading error signal to the
autopilot. When the autopilot is operated in HDG mode, the autopilot will fly the turn
commands from the GPS navigator. If the GPSS data is invalid (for example, if there is
not active GPS leg) or the selected HSI source on the G5 is not GPS, the annunciated
"GPSS" text will turn amber and a zero turn command will be sent to the autopilot.
GPSS Enabled Hollow Heading Bug
GPSS Enabled
Hollow Heading Bug
AFCS
Flight Instruments
System Overview
Additional Features
GPSS Menu Option
Figure 4-11 GPSS Enabled (HSI Page)
Index
Additional Features
GPSS Menu Option
Figure 4-10 GPSS Enabled (PFD Page)
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Additional Features
4.2.2 GAD 13 (OPTIONAL)
System Overview
The GAD 13 (optional) is an adapter that converts Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
probe information for use by the G5. When installed appropriately, the GAD 13
communicates OAT, True Airpseed (TAS), and Winds (direction and velocity) to one, or
multiple, G5 units.
True Airspeed
Flight Instruments
Outside Air
Temperature
Figure 4-12 GAD 13 - PFD
AFCS
Wind Velocity
& Direction
Additional Features
Figure 4-13 GAD 13 - HSI
Index
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
Additional Features
Index
Additional Features
AFCS
Blank Page
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Index
H
Airspeed Indicator 10
Altimeter 14–16
Altitude Alerting 15
Altitude Hold Mode (ALT) 50
Approach Mode 62
Attitude and Heading Reference System
(AHRS) 3, 4
Attitude Indicator 12
Automatic Reversion 55
Autopilot 35
Autopilot Disconnect 39
Heading Select Mode 59, 60
Heading Strip 16
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) 25
Barometric setting, Altimeter 13–14,
15–16
Bearing Pointers 23
Command Bars 43
Control Wheel Steering (CWS) 33
D
M
Manual Electric Trim 35
MENU Key 2
Menus 5, 6
Messages
Miscellaneous 7, 64
N
AFCS
C
Integrated Autopilot
Disengaging 40
Engaging 40
Flight Instruments
B
I
Navigation Mode 61–62
NRST Key 2
P
R
Roll Hold Mode 58
Electronic Stability & Protection 35
S
F
Secure Digital (SD) Cards 2
Installing 2
Selected Altitude 48, 49, 51
Selected Altitude Capture Mode 48, 49,
51, 57
Selected Heading 25, 59, 60
Standard Rate Turn Bank Angle Pointers
13
Flight Director 34
Flight director (FD)
Modes, vertical 47–61
Flight Level Change Mode 53
G
Glidepath Mode (GP) 56
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Index
E
Additional Features
Pitch Hold Mode 48
Display
Overview 1
System Overview
A
System Overview
Index
System
Annunciations 3
Functionality 5
Initialization 2
T
Flight Instruments
Takeoff Mode 57
V
Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) 28
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) 19, 26
Vertical Speed Mode 51
Y
Index
Additional Features
AFCS
Yaw Damper 32, 35
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Garmin International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street
Olathe, Kansas 66062, U.S.A.
Garmin AT, Inc.
2345 Turner Road SE
Salem, OR 97302, U.S.A.
Garmin (Europe) Ltd.
Liberty House, Hounsdown Business Park
Southampton, Hampshire SO40 9LR U.K.
Garmin Corporation
No. 68, Zhangshu 2nd Road
Xizhi District, New Taipei City, Taiwan
Contact Garmin Product Support at
www.flygarmin.com
© 2019 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries
190-02072-00 Rev J
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