Garmin | GNS 530W | Garmin GNS 530W Pilot's Guide Addendum, Garmin Optional Displays

Garmin GNS 530W Pilot's Guide Addendum, Garmin Optional Displays
400W / 500W Series
Garmin Optional Displays
Pilot’s Guide Addendum For:
• GDL 69/69A XM Satellite Datalink
• GDL 88 ADS-B Transceiver
• GTX 330/330D TIS
• GTX 335/345
• Garmin TAWS (GPS 500W & GNS 530W)
• Garmin HTAWS (Helicopter Installations)
• Terrain Proximity (Helicopter Installations)
• Garmin GTS 8XX Series TAS
• Connext
Foreward
This Pilot’s Guide Addendum is written for:
• Garmin GPS 400W, GNC 420W/420AW, and GNS 430W/430AW Main System Software Version 2.00, 3.00, 3.30, 4.00, 5.00,
5.10, 5.20, 5.30, or later
• Garmin GPS 500W & GNS 530W/530AW Main System Software Version 2.00, 3.00, 3.30, 4.00, 5.00, 5.10, or later
• GTX 330/330D Main Software Version 4.05
• GDL 69/69A Main Software Version 3.02 or later
Some differences in operation may be observed when comparing the information in this manual to earlier or later software versions.
© 2016 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All Rights Reserved.
Garmin International, Inc., 1200 East 151st Street, Olathe, KS 66062, U.S.A.
Tel. 913/397.8200 or 800/800.1020
Fax 913/397.8282
Garmin AT, Inc., 2345 Turner Rd., S.E., Salem, Oregon 97302, U.S.A.
Tel: 503/581.8101
Fax: 503/364.2138
Garmin (Europe) Ltd., Liberty House, Bulls Copse Road, Hounsdown Business Park, Southampton, SO40 9RB, U.K.
Tel. +44 (0) 37 0850 1243
Fax +44 (0) 23 8052 4004
Garmin Singapore Pte. Ltd., 46 East Coast Road, #05-06 Eastgate, Singapore 428766
Tel : (65) 63480378
Fax : ( 65 ) 63480278
Except as expressly provided herein, no part of this addendum may be reproduced, copied, transmitted, disseminated, downloaded,
or stored in any storage medium, for any purpose without the express prior written consent of Garmin. Garmin hereby grants permission to download a single copy of this manual and of any revision to this manual onto a hard drive or other electronic storage medium
to be viewed and to print one copy of this manual or of any revision hereto, provided that such electronic or printed copy of this manual
or revision must contain the complete text of this copyright notice and provided further that any unauthorized commercial distribution
of this manual or any revision hereto is strictly prohibited. Information in this document is subject to change without notice. Garmin
reserves the right to change or improve its products and to make changes in the content without obligation to notify any person or organization of such changes or improvements.
Garmin® is a registered trademark, and GTX™ and GDL™ are trademarks of Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries and may not be used without
the express permission of Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. Sirius and XM are trademarks of SiriusXM Radio Inc.
The screen display examples shown in this addendum are taken from the GNS 430W and GNS 530W. TIS and Weather Data Link
Display Interface functionality is the same for the 400W and 500W Series Units. TIS Traffic Display and Weather Data Link are available only
when the 400W/500W units are configured with the GTX 330 Mode S Transponder and GDL 69/69A Data Link Transceiver, respectively.
January 2016 190-00356-30
Revision M
190-00356-30 Rev M
Introduction
Warnings and Cautions
WARNING: Terrain data are obtained from third party sources. Garmin is not able to independently verify the accuracy of this
data which should be used only as an aid for situational awareness. Terrain data must not be used as the sole basis for decisions or maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Terrain data must not be used for navigation.
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather information
shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing weather data for data link
transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product may be significantly older than the indicated
weather product age.
CAUTION: Use the 400W/500W Series Units at your own risk. To reduce the risk of unsafe operation, carefully review and
understand all aspects of the Owner’s Manual and the Flight Manual Supplement, and thoroughly practice basic operation
prior to actual use.
CAUTION: The Global Positioning System is operated by the United States government, which is solely responsible for its
accuracy and maintenance. The system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy and performance of all GPS
equipment. Although Garmin 400W/500W Series Units are precision electronic NAVigation AIDS (NAVAID), any NAVAID can be
misused or misinterpreted and therefore become unsafe.
CAUTION: The Jeppesen database incorporated in the Garmin 400W/500W Series Units must be updated regularly in order to
ensure that its information is current. Updates are released every 28 days. A database information packet is included in your
Garmin 400W/500W Series Unit package. Pilots using an out-of-date database do so entirely at their own risk.
CAUTION: The Weather Data Link, TIS, TAWS, HTAWS, and TERRAIN information contained in this Pilot’s Guide Addendum is
not intended to replace the documentation that is supplied with the applicable Garmin 400W/500W Series Unit and the GTX
330 Transponder. The user must know how to operate the 400W/500W Series Unit and be knowledgeable of the information in
the 400W/500W Pilot’s Guide.
TIS CAUTION: TIS is NOT intended to be used as a collision avoidance system and does not relieve pilot responsibility to “see
and avoid” other aircraft. TIS should not be used for avoidance maneuvers during IMC or other times when there is no visual
contact with the intruder aircraft. TIS is intended only to assist in visual acquisition of other aircraft in VMC. Avoidance maneuvers are not recommended, nor authorized, as a direct result of a TIS intruder display or TIS alert.
While TIS is a useful aid to visual traffic avoidance, it has some system limitations that must be fully understood to ensure
proper use. Many of these limitations are inherent in secondary radar surveillance. In other words, the information provided by
TIS will be no better than that provided to ATC.
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information. Always confirm
TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE: For software version 4.00 and later: when configured for helicopters (the helicopter icon will be displayed), black, circular or oblong “cutouts” will be displayed on the Terrain Page around airports and heliports, to enhance viewing of the information displayed for those locations. The Terrain legend (shown in the lower right of the display on the Terrain Page) defines the
color black as -500 ft. However, this does not apply to the black cutouts surrounding the airports and heliports. The cutouts are
for display purposes only and do not affect the performance of HTAWS.
190-00356-30 Rev M
i
Introduction
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Part One:
Traffic Information Service (TIS) Interface....................1
Section 1: TIS Operation and Symbology.....................1
TIS Operation.............................................................................1
How TIS differs from TCAS..........................................................2
TIS Limitations...........................................................................2
Improving TIS.............................................................................3
TIS Symbology...........................................................................3
Cell Movement (CELL MOVE)...................................................21
Winds Aloft..............................................................................22
Winds Aloft Altitude...........................................................23
Section 3: XM AUX Pages.............................................23
XM Information Page ..............................................................23
XM WX Timestamps.................................................................24
Section 4: SiriusXM Satellite Radio Audio..................25
Selecting categories............................................................26
Selecting channels..............................................................26
XM Audio Menu......................................................................27
Add to Presets List...................................................................27
Enter Channel Number.............................................................28
Display Channel In List.............................................................28
Display Artist In List.................................................................29
Display Title In List...................................................................29
Enable/Mute Audio Output.......................................................30
Change Volume.......................................................................30
Section 2: Control and Display......................................5
TIS Traffic Display Status and Pilot Response...............................5
Traffic Ground Track ..................................................................6
Traffic Warning Window.............................................................6
Traffic Page................................................................................6
Traffic Page Display Range.........................................................6
Map Page..................................................................................7
Configuring TIS Traffic Data on the Map Page........................7
Highlighting TIS Traffic Using Map Page Panning.........................8
Section 3: TIS Operational Procedures.........................9
Introduction...............................................................................9
Power-Up Test............................................................................9
Manual Override......................................................................10
Flight Procedures.....................................................................10
After Landing...........................................................................10
Part Three:
TAWS Interface..............................................................31
Section 1: Introduction................................................31
Overview.................................................................................31
Operating Criteria....................................................................31
Limitations...............................................................................31
Section 2: TAWS Operation..........................................32
TAWS Alerting.........................................................................32
Baro-Corrected Altitude...........................................................32
Power Up................................................................................32
TAWS Page..............................................................................32
Inhibit Mode............................................................................33
External TAWS Inhibit Control.............................................34
TAWS Manual Test...................................................................34
TAWS Symbols.........................................................................34
General Database Information..................................................36
Database Versions....................................................................36
Database Updates...................................................................37
Terrain/Obstacle Database Areas of Coverage...........................37
Part Two:
XM Radio Interface.......................................................11
Section 1: Introduction................................................11
Overview.................................................................................11
SiriusXM Satellite Radio Pages.................................................11
XM NAV Pages...................................................................11
XM WPT Pages...................................................................12
XM AUX Pages...................................................................12
Section 2: SiriusXM Weather........................................12
Weather Product Age...............................................................13
SiriusXM Weather....................................................................14
NEXRAD U.S. and Canadian Coverage................................15
NEXRAD Intensity...............................................................15
NEXRAD Abnormalities.......................................................15
NEXRAD Limitations...........................................................16
SiriusXM Weather METARs.......................................................17
Textual METAR Page...........................................................18
Textual METAR/TAF Code...................................................19
TAF Page............................................................................19
TFR Information.......................................................................19
Lightning (LTNG)......................................................................21
ii
Section 3: TAWS Alerts.................................................38
190-00356-30 Rev M
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance..........................................38
Premature Descent Alerting (PDA)............................................39
Excessive Descent Rate Alert (EDR)...........................................40
Negative Climb Rate After Takeoff Alert (NCR)..........................40
“Five-Hundred” Aural Alert......................................................42
TAWS Not Available Alert.........................................................42
TAWS Failure Alert...................................................................42
TAWS Alert Summary...............................................................42
Pilot Actions............................................................................44
Introduction
Table of Contents
Part Four:
HTAWS Interface............................................................45
Part Six:
Garmin GTS 8XX Series
Interface.........................................................................63
Overview.................................................................................45
Limitations...............................................................................45
Introduction.............................................................................63
GTS 8XX Series Description......................................................63
Power-up Self-Test...................................................................63
User-initiated Test....................................................................64
Voice Announcements..............................................................64
Switching Between Standby and Operating Modes...................64
Altitude Display Mode..............................................................65
Traffic Page..............................................................................65
Traffic Warning Window...........................................................66
Traffic Page Display Range.......................................................66
Configuring Traffic Data on the Map Page.................................67
Highlighting Traffic Data Using Map Panning............................68
Monitoring Traffic.....................................................................68
Failure Response......................................................................68
Description of Traffic Advisory Criteria.......................................68
Section 1: Introduction................................................45
Section 2: HTAWS Operation.......................................46
HTAWS Alerting.......................................................................46
Baro-Corrected Altitude...........................................................46
Power Up................................................................................46
HTAWS Page............................................................................46
Page Menu.........................................................................47
Inhibit Mode............................................................................48
External HTAWS Inhibit Control...........................................48
Reduced Protection Mode........................................................48
Mute Active Caution................................................................49
HTAWS Manual Test.................................................................50
HTAWS Legend........................................................................50
HTAWS Symbols.......................................................................51
Airport/Heliport Terrain “Cutouts”............................................52
General Database Information..................................................52
Database Versions....................................................................52
Database Updates...................................................................53
Terrain Database Areas of Coverage.........................................54
Obstacle Database Areas of Coverage......................................54
Part Seven:
Garmin ADS-B Interface................................................69
Section 1: Introduction................................................69
Section 2: FIS-B Weather..............................................70
Section 3: HTAWS Alerts..............................................54
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance..........................................55
Voice Call Out Aural Alert.........................................................55
HTAWS Not Available Alert.......................................................56
HTAWS Failure Alert.................................................................56
HTAWS Alert Summary.............................................................56
Pilot Actions............................................................................57
Voice Call Out Selection......................................................58
Part Five:
Terrain Proximity Interface..........................................59
Flight Information Services (FIS) Description..............................70
Graphical Weather Display.......................................................70
NEXRAD............................................................................70
NEXRAD Description................................................................71
NEXRAD Abnormalities.......................................................71
NEXRAD Limitations...........................................................71
NEXRAD Intensity...............................................................72
NEXRAD Options................................................................72
Continental US NEXRAD (CONUS)......................................72
Regional NEXRAD..............................................................73
Graphical METARs..............................................................73
Introduction.............................................................................59
Displaying Terrain Proximity......................................................59
Terrain Proximity 120° Arc or 360° Rings..................................60
Terrain Proximity Aviation Data.................................................60
Terrain Proximity Legend..........................................................61
Terrain Proximity Limitations....................................................62
System Status..........................................................................62
190-00356-30 Rev M
iii
Introduction
Table of Contents
Section 3: Traffic...........................................................75
Introduction.............................................................................75
Power-Up Self-Test...................................................................75
User-initiated Test....................................................................76
Altitude Display Mode..............................................................76
Switching Between Standby and Operating Modes...................77
Traffic Page..............................................................................78
Traffic Alert Pop-Up..................................................................79
Traffic Page Display Range.......................................................80
Configuring Traffic Data on the Map Page.................................80
Highlighting Traffic Data Using Map Panning............................81
ADS-B Status...........................................................................82
Pressure Altitude Report (PALT RPT)....................................82
Anonymous (ANON) Mode.................................................82
Failure Response......................................................................82
RYAN TCAD.............................................................................83
Setting Altitude Display Mode.............................................83
TCAD Traffic Page Menu.....................................................83
Ryan TCAD Setup...............................................................84
Traffic Watch......................................................................84
Part Eight:
Garmin Connext Interface............................................85
Section 1: Introduction................................................85
Starting with Connext..............................................................85
Section 2: Bluetooth Status.........................................86
Pairing Your Devices.................................................................86
Editing the Bluetooth Name.....................................................86
View Device Details..................................................................87
Auto-Reconnect.......................................................................87
To toggle the auto-reconnect status: ..................................87
Unpair Device..........................................................................87
Method 1...........................................................................87
Method 2...........................................................................88
Section 3: Device Configuration.................................88
Section 4: Flight Plan Import......................................89
Importing a Flight Plan with Connext.......................................90
Viewing the Connext Flight Plan Import Page...........................90
Deleting a Pending Flight Plan..................................................91
Delete All Pending Flight Plans.................................................91
View User Waypoint List...........................................................91
iv
190-00356-30 Rev M
Part One: Section 1
TIS Operation and Symbology
Part One:
Traffic Information Service
(TIS) Interface
• Your aircraft must be equipped with a Mode S
data link transponder.
• You must be within range of a Mode S radar that
provides the TIS service. Not all Mode S ground
radars provide TIS service.
Section 1: TIS Operation and
Symbology
• The “intruder” aircraft must be equipped with a
transponder, and that transponder must be turned
on. Aircraft that are not equipped with operating
transponders will not be visible to the Mode S
surveillance radar.
TIS Operation
NOTE: Part One of this Addendum assumes the
user has experience operating the 400W/500W
Series units and the Garmin GTX 3xxTransponder.
The Traffic Information Service (TIS) provides a graphic
display of traffic advisory information in the cockpit for
non-TCAS (Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System)
equipped aircraft. TIS is a ground-based service providing
relative location of all ATCRBS (Air Traffic Control Radar
Beacon System) Mode A and Mode C transponderequipped aircraft within a specified service volume. The
TIS ground sensor uses real-time track reports to generate
traffic notification. TIS Traffic display is available to aircraft
equipped with a Mode S Data Link such as a Garmin GTX
3xx Transponder. TIS Traffic from a GTX 3xx Transponder
can then be displayed on a Garmin 400W/500W Series
unit. Surveillance data includes all transponder-equipped
aircraft within the coverage volume. Aircraft without an
operating transponder are invisible to TIS. TIS displays
up to eight traffic targets within seven nautical miles
horizontally from 3000 feet below to 3500 feet above
the requesting aircraft.
• The “intruder” aircraft must be within the TIS
coverage volume for your aircraft. TIS displays
up to eight traffic targets within seven nautical
miles horizontally from the requesting aircraft,
and from 3,000 feet below to 3,500 feet above
the requesting aircraft.
• Both your aircraft and the intruder aircraft must
be visible to the Mode S surveillance radar on the
ground.
Always remember that TIS cannot alert you to
the presence of aircraft that are not equipped with
transponders, nor can it alert you to aircraft that may be
nearby, but obscured from the ground surveillance radar
by intervening terrain.
The TIS is a ground-based service that displays nearby
aircraft on your 400W/500W-series display. For the TIS
feature to inform you of a nearby aircraft’s presence,
several conditions must be met:
190-00356-30 Rev M
7.0 NM
3,500 ft
3,000 ft
TIS Coverage Volume (not to scale)
1
Part One: Section 1
TIS Operation and Symbology
How TIS differs from TCAS
The main difference between TIS and TCAS is the
source of surveillance data. TCAS uses an airborne
interrogator with a one-second update rate, while TIS uses
the terminal Mode S ground interrogator and its Data Link
to provide about a five-second update rate. The range
accuracy of TIS and TCAS is similar.
on the underside of the aircraft) and the ground-based
radar antenna, the signal may be temporarily interrupted.
Other limitations and anomalies associated with TIS are
described in the AIM, Sections 4-5-6 and 4-5-8.
TIS Limitations
NOTE: This section on TIS Limitations is not comprehensive. Garmin recommends the user review
the TIS Limitations section of the Aeronautical
Information Manual, Sections 4-5-6 and 4-5-8.
TIS is NOT intended to be used as a collision avoidance
system and does not relieve the pilot of responsibility to
“see and avoid” other aircraft. TIS should not be used for
avoidance maneuvers during IMC or other times when
there is no visual contact with the intruder aircraft. TIS
is intended only to assist in visual acquisition of other
aircraft in VMC. No recommended avoidance maneuvers
are provided for, nor authorized, as a direct result of a TIS
intruder display or TIS advisory.
While TIS is a useful aid to visual traffic avoidance, it
has some system limitations that must be fully understood
to ensure proper use. Many of these limitations are
inherent in secondary radar surveillance. In other words,
the information provided by TIS will be no better than
that provided to ATC. TIS will only display aircraft with
operating transponders installed.
TIS relies on surveillance of the Mode S radar, which
is a “secondary surveillance” radar similar to the ATCRBS.
TIS operation may be intermittent during turns or other
maneuvering. TIS is dependent on two-way, “line-ofsight” communication between the aircraft and the Mode
S radar. Whenever the structure of the client aircraft
comes between the transponder antenna (usually located
2
Garmin is not responsible for Mode S geographical coverage. Operation of the ground
stations is the responsibility of the FAA. Refer
to the Aeronautical Information Manual for a
Terminal Mode S Radar Site Map covering the
U.S.
NOTE: TIS will be unavailable at low altitudes in
many areas of the U.S., particularly in mountainous regions. Also, when flying near the “floor”
of radar coverage in a particular area, intruders
below the client aircraft may not be detected by
TIS.
TIS information is collected one radar scan prior to
the scan during which the uplink occurs. Therefore, the
surveillance information is approximately five seconds old.
In order to present the intruders in a “real time” position,
the TIS ground station uses a “predictive algorithm” in its
tracking software. This algorithm uses track history data to
extrapolate intruders to their expected positions consistent
with the time of display in the cockpit. Occasionally,
aircraft maneuvering will cause this algorithm to induce
errors in the 400W/500W display. These errors primarily
affect relative bearing information and traffic target track
vector (it will lag); intruder distance and altitude will
remain relatively accurate and may be used to assist in
“see and avoid.” Some of the more common examples of
these errors follow:
190-00356-30 Rev M
Part One: Section 1
TIS Operation and Symbology
• When client or intruder aircraft maneuvers excessively or abruptly, the tracking algorithm may
report incorrect horizontal position until the
maneuvering aircraft stabilizes.
• When a rapidly closing intruder is on a course that
crosses the client aircraft course at a shallow angle
(either overtaking or head on) and either aircraft
abruptly changes course within ¼ NM, TIS may
display the intruder on the opposite side of the
client than it actually is.
These are relatively rare occurrences and will be
corrected in a few radar scans once the course has
stabilized.
Improving TIS
Users of TIS can render valuable assistance in the
correction of malfunctions by reporting their observations
of undesirable performance. Reporters should identify
the time of observation, location, type and identity of
aircraft, and describe the condition observed; the type
of transponder processor and software in use can also be
useful information. Since TIS performance is monitored
by maintenance personnel other than ATC, it is suggested
that malfunctions be reported in the following ways:
TIS Symbology
TIS traffic is displayed on the 400W/500W Series unit
according to TCAS symbology, graphically displayed on
a dedicated graphical page (Traffic Page; see below), and
on the moving Map Page. A Traffic Advisory (TA) symbol
appears as a solid yellow circle (or half circle on the outer
range ring if the traffic is outside the range of the dedicated
Traffic Page). Proximity Advisories (PA) are displayed as a
solid diamond, and other traffic is displayed as an open
diamond. PA and other traffic is normally displayed in
white, or it may be alternatively configured for display
in cyan. When configured for cyan, the traffic page range
rings and markings are displayed in white. Altitude
deviation from own aircraft altitude is displayed above the
target symbol if traffic is above own aircraft altitude, and
below the symbol if they are below own aircraft altitude.
Altitude trend is displayed as an up arrow (> +500 ft/min),
down arrow (< -500 ft/min), or no symbol if less than
500 ft/min rate in either direction.
• By telephone to the nearest Flight Service Station
(FSS) facility.
• Traffic Advisories (TA)—Yellow
• P r o x i m i t y A d v i s o r i e s ( PA ) — W h i t e
(may be configured as Cyan)
• Other—White (may be configured as Cyan)
• By FAA Form 8000-7, Safety Improvement Report,
a postage-paid card designed for this purpose.
These cards may be obtained at FAA FSSs, General
Aviation District Offices, Flight Standards District
Offices, and General Aviation Fixed Based Operations.
190-00356-30 Rev M
3
Part One: Section 1
TIS Operation and Symbology
The TIS audio alert is generated from the
GTX 3xx whenever the number of Traffic Advisories on the 400W/500W display increases
from one scan to the next. Limiting Traffic
Advisories only reduces the “nuisance” alerting
due to proximate aircraft. For example, when
the first Traffic Advisories appears on the TIS
display, the user is alerted audibly. So long as
a single aircraft remains on the TIS display, no
further audio alert is generated. If a second (or
more) aircraft appears on the display, a new
audio alert is sounded.
If the number of Traffic Advisories on the TIS
display decreases and then increases, a new
audio alert is sounded. The TIS audio alert is
also generated whenever TIS service becomes
unavailable. The volume, pitch, and duration
of the audio alert (including the choice between
a male or female voice) is configured during
installation.
Traffic Advisory (TA)—This symbol is generated when traffic
meets the advisory criteria described in TIS Operational Procedures.
Own Aircraft
Traffic Ground Track is indicated
on the 400W/500W display by a
“target track vector”, a short line
displayed in 45-degree increments.
This vector shows the flight direction of the traffic.
“Other” Traffic—This symbol represents
traffic detected within the selected display
range that does not generate a TA.
The following TIS audio alerts are available:
• “Traffic” —TIS traffic alert is received.
• “Traffic Not Available” — TIS service is not
available or out of range.
4
190-00356-30 Rev M
Part One: Section 2
TIS Controls and Display
Section 2: Control and Display
TIS Traffic Display Status and Pilot Response
• STBY — When the 400W/500W displays STBY
in the upper right hand corner of the display the
TIS system is in standby mode and cannot display
traffic data.
• OPER — When the 400W/500W displays OPER
in the upper right hand corner of the display the
TIS system is in operational mode and available
to display traffic on the Traffic or Map Page.
• AGE — If traffic data are not refreshed within
6 seconds, an age indicator (e.g., “AGE 00:06”)
is displayed in the lower right corner of the display (when displaying traffic). The pilot should
be aware that the quality of displayed traffic is
reduced in this condition.
• TRFC CST — If data are still not received between
six and twelve seconds, the “TRFC CST” (traffic
coasting) banner located above the AGE timer will
indicate that displayed traffic is held even though
the data are not current. The pilot should be aware
that the quality of displayed traffic is reduced in
this condition.
to “coast” (for the time period after 12 seconds
from the last receipt of a TIS message). The pilot
should be aware that traffic may be present but
not shown.
Traffic Page displaying “TRFC RMVD” banner.
• UNAVAIL — After a 60 second period elapses with
no data, TIS is considered to be unavailable. This
state is indicated by the text “UNAVAIL”. The pilot
should be aware that “UNAVAIL” could indicate
a TIS coverage limitation due to a line-of-sight
situation, a low altitude condition, no TIS service,
or a result of flying directly over the radar site
providing coverage (cone of silence).
• NO DATA — “NO DATA” is displayed when no
data are being received from the GTX 3xx. The
pilot should be aware that this status may be a
normal mode of operation in a dual transponder
installation where the GTX 3xx with TIS is not
the selected transponder. The GTX 3xx may not
be powered on.
• DATA FAIL — “DATA FAIL” is displayed when
data are being received from GTX 3xx, but there
was a failure detected in the data stream. The pilot
should see the dealer for corrective action.
Traffic Age Indication showing “traffic coasting”.
• TRFC RMVD — If data are still not received after
twelve seconds, the “TRFC RMVD” banner will
indicate that traffic has been removed from the
display due to the age of the data being too old
190-00356-30 Rev M
• FAILED — “FAILED” is displayed when the
GTX 3xx has indicated it has failed. The pilot
should see the dealer for corrective action.
5
Part One: Section 2
TIS Controls and Display
Traffic Ground Track
Traffic Page
Traffic ground track is indicated in the 400W/500W
display by a “target track vector”, a short line displayed
in 45° increments, extending in the direction of target
movement.
TIS Traffic data are displayed on two 400W/500W
Series unit pages, the Traffic Page and the Map Page.
The 500W Series unit can also be configured to display
a traffic thumbnail window below the VLOC frequency
window. Unlike other forms of traffic, TIS traffic does
not require heading data to be valid on the map. The only
difference between TIS and other traffic data occurs on the
Traffic Page. If heading is available, then the traffic data
are compensated and displayed as heading-up. If it’s not
available, the Traffic Page is a track-up display. It is labeled
on the upper portion of the Traffic Page.
Traffic Page Display Range
Various display ranges can be selected for optimal
display of TIS traffic information.
Traffic Target Track Vector.
To change the display range on the Traffic Page:
Traffic Warning Window
When the unit is on any page (other than the NAV
Traffic Page or when a TAWS/Terrain, or Dead Reckoning
pop-up is displayed) and a traffic threat is imminent, the
Traffic Warning Window is displayed. The Traffic Warning
Window shows a small thumbnail map which can take
the user to the Traffic Page by pressing ENT, or go back to
the previous page by pressing CLR.
Traffic Warning Window
NOTE: The Traffic Warning Window is disabled
when the aircraft ground speed is less than 30
knots or when an approach is active.
6
190-00356-30 Rev M
Press RNG to zoom through the range
selections which are: 12/6 NM, 6/2 NM, and
2 NM.
Part One: Section 2
TIS Controls and Display
Map Page
TIS traffic is displayed on the Map Page in addition to
the Traffic Page.
From the Map Page you can display traffic in a
thumbnail format in any of the top three (400W Series)
or four (500W Series) data fields on the right side of the
Map Page.
The Map Page displaying traffic.
Thumbnail Traffic displayed on the
GNS 430W.
NOTE: The thumbnail will display traffic
coasting “TRFC CST” or traffic removed
“TRFC RMVD” in the lower right when TIS
messages have been missed.
Configuring TIS Traffic Data on the Map Page
To configure TIS traffic on the Map Page:
1.
Turn the small right knob to select the Map
Page.
2.
Press the MENU key.
Turn the small right knob to select “Setup
Map?”
3.
4.
5.
To display Thumbnail Traffic on the Map Page:
The flashing cursor highlights the GROUP field.
Turn the small right knob to select “Traffic” and
press ENT.
Turn the large right knob to select the desired
Traffic group option. Turn the
small right knob to select the
desired option and press ENT.
Repeat the step for Traffic Symbol
and Traffic Label.
1.
Turn the small right knob to select the Map
Page.
2.
Press the MENU key and display the Page Menu.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select “Change
Fields?” and press ENT.
4.
Select one of the top three (400W Series) or four
(500W Series) configurable fields. Select “TRFC”
from the Select Field Type List and press ENT. Note
that the thumbnail range defaults to 6 NM and
cannot be changed.
Press CLR to return the Map
Page.
The Traffic group selection menu allows the user to
choose from the following:
• All trfc - All traffic is displayed on the Map
Page.
• TA/PA - Only traffic advisories and proximity
advisories are displayed on the Map Page.
• TA only - Only traffic advisories are displayed on
the Map Page.
190-00356-30 Rev M
7
Part One: Section 2
TIS Controls and Display
Highlighting TIS Traffic Using Map Page
Panning
Another Map Page feature is panning, which allows
you to move the map beyond its current limits without
adjusting the map scale. When you select the panning
function — by pressing the small right knob — a
target pointer will flash on the map display. A window
also appears at the top of the map display showing the
latitude/longitude position of the pointer, plus the bearing
and distance to the pointer from your present position.
Displaying traffic range and altitude separation using the Map Panning feature.
To activate the panning feature and pan the map
display:
1.
Press the small right knob to activate the panning
target pointer.
2.
Turn the small right knob to move up (turn
clockwise) or down (counterclockwise).
3.
Turn the large right knob to move right (turn
clockwise) or left (counterclockwise).
4.
To cancel the panning function and return to your
present position, press the small right knob.
When the target pointer is placed on traffic, the traffic
range and altitude separation are displayed.
8
190-00356-30 Rev M
Part One: Section 3
TIS Operational Procedures
Section 3: TIS Operational Procedures
the GTX 3xx has failed. The “DATA FAIL” message indicates data are being received from the
GTX 3xx but a failure was detected in the data
stream. The “NO DATA” message indicates that
data are not being received from the GTX 3xx.
Introduction
TIS warns the user with voice and visual traffic
advisories whenever it predicts an intruder to be a threat
(see illustration). Voice and visual data are sent from the
GTX 3xx. The user should not start evasive maneuvers
using information from the 400W/500W display or on
a traffic advisory only. The display and advisories are
intended only for assistance in visually locating the traffic,
due to the lack in resolution and coordination ability. The
flight crew should attempt to visually acquire the intruder
aircraft and maintain a safe separation in accordance with
the regulatory requirements and good operating practice.
If the flight crew cannot visually acquire the aircraft, they
should contact ATC to obtain any information that may
assist concerning the intruder aircraft. Based on the above
procedures, minor adjustment to the vertical flight path
consistent with air traffic requirements are not considered
evasive maneuvers.
NOTE: “NO DATA” may be a normal mode of
operation in a dual transponder installation
where the GTX 3xx with TIS is not the selected
transponder.
• UNAVAIL — When a 60 second period elapses
with no data, TIS is considered to be unavailable.
This state is indicated by the text “UNAVAILABLE”
(500W Series) and “UNAVAIL” (400W Series).
The pilot should be aware that “UNAVAIL” could
indicate a TIS coverage limitation due to a line-ofsight situation, a low altitude condition, no TIS
service, or a result of flying directly over the radar
site providing coverage (cone of silence).
Intruder Aircraft
Power-Up Test
0.5 NM
The TIS interface performs an automatic test during
power-up.
+ 500 ft
• If the system passes the power-up test, the Standby
Screen appears on the Traffic Page.
• If the system passes the power-up test and the
aircraft is airborne (as determined by system
configuration at the time of installation, see your
installer for detailed criteria information), traffic
is displayable on the Traffic Page in operating
mode.
• If the system fails the power-up test, the “NO
DATA”, “DATA FAIL”, or “FAILED” message
is displayed. See your installer for corrective
action if the “DATA FAIL”, or “FAILED” message
is displayed. The “FAILED” message indicates
This area within 34 seconds
- 500 ft
Conditions for Traffic Advisories
The following condition causes TIS to display a Traffic
Advisory (TA) on the 400W/500W Series unit:
• The intruder aircraft approaches your aircraft on
a course that will intercept (defined by a 0.5 NM
horizontal radius and a relative altitude of ± 500
feet) your course within 34 seconds.
190-00356-30 Rev M
9
Part One: Section 3
TIS Operational Procedures
Manual Override
The user can manually switch between standby (STBY)
and operating (OPER) mode of operation to manually
override automatic operation.
To place the display into operating mode from the
standby mode (to display TIS traffic):
1.
Turn the cursor on and highlight “STBY”.
2.
Turn the small right knob to select
“OPER?”.
3.
Press ENT to confirm.
To place the display into standby mode from
operating mode (to stop displaying TIS traffic):
1.
Turn the cursor on and highlight “OPER”.
2.
Turn the small right knob to select “STBY?”
3.
Press ENT to confirm.
“DATA FAIL” Message
The “NO DATA” message indicates that data
are not being received from the GTX 330.
NOTE: This may be a normal mode of operation in a dual transponder installation where
the GTX 330 with TIS is not the selected
transponder.
Flight Procedures
Once the aircraft is airborne (determined by system
configuration at the time of installation) the system
switches from standby mode to operating mode. The
400W/500W Series unit displays OPER in the upper right
hand corner of the display and begins to display traffic on
the Traffic or Map Page.
The TIS Traffic Advisory (TA) should alert the crew to
use additional vigilance to identify the intruding aircraft.
Any time the traffic symbol becomes a yellow circle or a
voice warning is announced, conduct a visual search for
the intruder. If successful, maintain visual contact to ensure
safe operation. See Section 2: Control and Display for a
description of pilot responses to TIS display messages.
After Landing
Once the aircraft is “ground-borne” (determined by
system configuration at the time of installation) the system
switches from operating mode to standby mode. The
400W/500W Series unit displays “STBY”. As described
previously, both the standby and operating modes can be
manually overridden by the display controls.
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190-00356-30 Rev M
Part Two: Section 1
XM Radio Introduction
Part Two:
XM Radio Interface
Section 1: Introduction
Follow the GDL 69/69A XM Satellite Radio Activation
Instructions (190-00355-04) enclosed with your GDL
69/69A unit to activate the XM products.
The latest subscription information is available at:
http://www.garmin.com/xm/
Overview
The GDL 69 is a remote sensor that receives
broadcast weather data from a data service of SiriusXM
Satellite Radio Inc. The GDL 69A is similar to the GDL
69, but also receives audio entertainment broadcasts from
another service of SiriusXM Satellite Radio. The 400W
and 500W series units serve as the display and control
head for your remotely mounted GDL 69/69A radio.
Before the GDL 69/69A can be used, the unit must
be activated by SiriusXM Satellite Radio with a service
subscription through SiriusXM Satellite Radio. Please note
that the GDL 69 is a weather data link. The GDL 69A is a
weather data link and audio receiver. The data link service
and the audio entertainment services must be activated
separately.
Your GDL 69 or GDL 69A is shipped with one or two
radio hardware identifications, respectively. These IDs
serve as identification codes for your SiriusXM Satellite
Radio-equipped GDL 69/69A and are needed in the
activation process. The ID(s) is (are) attached to the
Activation Instructions and printed on a label on the back
of the unit. The IDs can also be retrieved through your
unit in the SiriusXM Satellite Radio Information page of
the Aux function. Contact your dealer or customer service
if you are unable to locate the radio hardware IDs.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio Pages
To reach the SiriusXM Satellite Radio pages:
1.
From any page, press and hold CLR to select
the Default NAV Page. (You may skip this step
if you are already viewing any of the main
pages.)
2.
Turn the large right knob to select the AUX
page group. “AUX” appears in the lower right
corner of the screen.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select the
SiriusXM Audio, SiriusXM Satellite Radio
Information, or XM WX Timestamps pages.
XM Weather page is displayed in the NAV page group.
The XM Audio function pages are displayed in the AUX
page group.
XM NAV Pages
When a GDL 69 or GDL 69A is installed, the following
XM-related pages appear in the NAV group of pages:
Weather and/or audio data from your GDL 69/69A are
provided by SiriusXM Satellite Radio, a company separate
and independent from Garmin Corporation. Have your
radio hardware IDs ready before contacting SiriusXM
Satellite Radio. During the process, you can select services
for subscription. Keep in mind that the GDL 69 has no audio
capability, audio services will not be available with the unit.
190-00356-30 Rev M
• Map Page. The Map page (the second page in the
NAV page group) becomes capable of displaying
weather data and the boundaries of areas with
Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs).
• XM Weather Page. The XM Weather page is inserted
in the NAV page group, immediately before the
Terrain page. This page is like the map page, but
can show NEXRAD weather data, colored flags
showing which airports have METARs (current
weather observations—Meteorological Aerodrome
Reports), Lightning (LTNG) reports, Cell Movement, or Winds Aloft.
11
Part Two: Section 2
XM Weather
Section 2: SiriusXM Weather
XM WPT Pages
When a GDL 69 or GDL 69A is installed, two SiriusXM
Weather-related pages are added to “airport” pages in the
WPT page group:
• Textual METAR Page. The Textual METAR
page shows the text of the most recent METAR
(Meteorological Aerodrome Report) that has been
received for an airport.
• TAF Page. The TAF page shows the text of the
most recent TAF (Terminal Aerodrome Forecast)
that has been received for an airport.
XM AUX Pages
The SiriusXM Weather Function is capable of displaying
graphical weather information through the SiriusXM
Satellite Radio Service when activated in the optional
installation of the GDL 69/69A. Next Generation Weather
Radar (NEXRAD), METARs symbols (METAR), Lightning
(LTNG), Cell Movement (CELL MOVE), and Winds Aloft
(WINDS) are displayed on the NAV pages. The types of
products available depend on the subscription service
with XM Satellite Radio.
Once you have activated an aviation weather service
from SiriusXM Weather, the 400W/500W series unit can
display the following aviation-related data:
When a GDL 69 or GDL 69A is installed, the following
XM pages appear in the AUX group of pages:
• XM Audio Page (GDL 69A only). See Section 4
below for a description of this page.
• XM Information Page. This page contains information that you will use when activating your XM
satellite radio subscription. It also reports the GDL
69/69A’s software version number. SiriusXM Satellite Radio and SiriusXM Weather subscriptions are
sold separately.
• XM Weather Timestamp Pages. This page show
timestamp data for the most recently received XM
weather data.
• NEXRAD. An indication of the intensity of
weather radar echoes from the National Weather
Service’s network of NEXRAD (NEXt generation
RADar) sites can be shown on the SiriusXM
Weather Page and can optionally be overlaid on
the Map page. (Both these pages are in the NAV
page group.) Canadian Radar may also be available.
• Radar Coverage. Whenever NEXRAD is shown, a
cross-hatch pattern indicates the limits of NEXRAD
radar coverage. The cross-hatched area shows
where NEXRAD information is unavailable.
• Lightning (LTNG). When enabled, lightning
strikes and cells are shown as yellow “+” signs.
Lightning information indicates the location of
cloud-to-ground lightning strikes.
• Cell Movement (CELL MOVE). When enabled,
Cell Movement shows the storm cells identified
by the ground-based system. The movement
is depicted by an arrow. The tip of the arrow
represents where the cell is expected to be in
10 minutes from the time the cell location was
determined.
12
190-00356-30 Rev M
Part Two: Section 2
XM Weather
• Winds Aloft (WINDS). The Winds Aloft
selection provides the pilot with wind speed
and direction. The winds at a given altitude
are selected in the Winds Aloft Alt below the
WINDS selection. The selected altitude is shown
along with the product time.
• Textual Meteorological Aerodrome Reports
(METARs). When you zoom in to show the airport symbol associated with the colored flag for a
graphical METAR, and move the Map Pointer to
highlight that airport, you can then press ENT to
see the Textual METAR page for that airport. The
Textual METAR page is one of the airport pages
of the WPT page group.
• Graphical Meteorological Aerodrome Reports
(METARs). The XM Weather page (in the NAV
page group) can show colored flags to indicate
the level of current weather conditions at those
airports for which textual METAR reports are
available. The flags are color-coded to indicate
the severity of the current weather at the airport:
cyan for VFR conditions, green for Marginal VFR
conditions, yellow for IFR conditions, or magenta
of Low IFR conditions.
• Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAFs). A TAF
page is added among the airport pages of the
WPT page group. The TAF page differs from the
Textual METAR page in that it describes forecast
future weather conditions rather than current
conditions.
• Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs). The
boundaries of areas with TFRs are outlined in
yellow on the Map and XM Weather pages of
the NAV page group. In the 500W-series, TFR
boundaries are also shown on the NAV main
page. You can obtain more information about a
TFR by bringing up the map cursor, moving the
map cursor to within the yellow outlined area,
and pressing the ENT key.
Weather Product Age
The age of the displayed weather product—or the
effective time of Winds Aloft predictions—is shown in the
upper right corner of the display. For example, if NEXRAD
is displayed, “0:05” indicates that the data are five minutes
old. If Winds Aloft predictions are being displayed, “10:00”
indicates the effective time for the displayed prediction is
10:00 AM.
The data for each XM Weather product are updated
regularly from the GDL 69/69A. XM Weather products
expire after the following intervals:
Product
METARs
NEXRAD/Radar Coverage
TFRs
TAFs
Lightning
SCITs
Winds Aloft Predictions
Expiration Interval
90 minutes
30 minutes
60 minutes
60 minutes
30 minutes
30 minutes
90 minutes
When the age of the displayed XM Weather product
reaches one half of its expiration time, the color of the
displayed time changes from green to amber. Expired XM
Weather products are never displayed. In the unlikely
event that the data should expire before a fresh update
is received, the time will be dashed out and the data
removed from the display.
190-00356-30 Rev M
NOTE: Product age for individual reports of
XM AIRMETs, SIGMETs, City Forecasts, County
Warnings, Cell Movement and TFRs are not
provided by XM Weather Service.
13
Part Two: Section 2
XM Weather
Product age indication for XM Icing Potential
and Turbulence is not included on the weather
map. The valid time for these products is
displayed on the weather map in place of the
generation time.
“Hide CN NEXRAD?) appears, NEXRAD radar
data are already enabled; just press MENU
again to exit the Page Menu.)
The valid time indication for XM Freezing Level,
Winds Aloft and Canada Winds Aloft is not displayed. Instead, the generation time for these
is displayed.
SiriusXM Weather
The National Weather Service’s network of WSR88D Doppler weather surveillance radars—also called
NEXRAD, for Next Generation Radar—has greatly
improved the detection of meteorological events such as
thunderstorms, tornados, and hurricanes. An extensive
network of NEXRAD weather radars provides almost
complete coverage of the continental United States, Alaska,
and Hawaii. The unobstructed range of each NEXRAD is
up to 250 nautical miles.
NOTE: US and Canadian radar may not be displayed simultaneously.
To display NEXRAD weather on the XM Weather
page:
1.
With the XM Weather page (the third page of
the NAV page group) displayed, look at the
upper left corner of the page. Under the page
title (“XM Weather”) either “NEXRAD-US,”
“NEXRAD-CN,” or another weather product
appears. If the word is “NEXRAD-US” or
“NEXRAD-CN,” do nothing; NEXRAD weather
is already being displayed.
2.
If the word in the upper left corner of the
page is another weather product (rather than
“NEXRAD-US” or “NEXRAD-CN”), press the
small right (CRSR) knob to highlight that
word. Then turn the small right knob to
change to “NEXRAD-US” or “NEXRAD-CN.”
3.
Press the small right knob again to
bring down the cursor (that is, to stop the
blinking highlighting of “NEXRAD-US” or
“NEXRAD-CN”) and retain the selection.
When enabled, composite data from all the NEXRAD
radar sites in the United States is shown. This data are
composed of the maximum reflectivity from the individual
radar sweeps. Canadian radar may also be displayed.
The display is color-coded to indicate the weather level
severity. Information about with sites are operational or
off-line is also available.
To display NEXRAD weather on the Map page:
1.
With the Map page (second page of the NAV
page group) displayed, press the MENU key.
The Page Menu for the Map page appears.
NEXRAD is also available on the Nav 1 page
of the 500W series.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Display
US NEXRAD?” or “Display CN NEXRAD?,” and
then press ENT. (If “Hide US NEXRAD?” or
14
190-00356-30 Rev M
Part Two: Section 2
XM Weather
3.
Press ENT to display the NEXRAD Intensity
Legend.
4.
Turn the large or small knob to scroll through
the full table. Press CLR to return to the normal
view.
NEXRAD U.S. and Canadian Coverage
SW Version 3.30 adds the ability to display Canadian
NEXRAD on the moving map pages and the XM Weather
page. The display has been modified to specify whether
the NEXRAD displayed is U.S. or Canadian.
NEXRAD Intensity
Colors are used to identify the different NEXRAD echo
intensities (reflectivity) measured in dBZ (decibels of Z).
“Reflectivity” is the amount of transmitted power returned
to the radar receiver. Reflectivity (designated by the letter
Z) covers a wide range of signals (from very weak to very
strong). So, a more convenient number for calculations
and comparison, a decibel (or logarithmic) scale (dBZ), is
used. The dBZ values increase as the strength of the signal
returned to the radar increases. There are seven gradations
for rain, two gradations for mixed rain and snow, and two
gradations for snow.
NEXRAD Abnormalities
There are possible abnormalities regarding displayed
NEXRAD images. Some, but not all, causes of abnormal
displayed information include:
• Ground Clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes, when the radar antenna points
directly at the sun
• Military aircraft deploy metallic dust which can
cause alterations in radar scans
To display the NEXRAD Intensity Legend:
1.
While viewing the XM Weather page, press the
MENU key to display the Page Menu.
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which
may cause shadows
2.
Turn the large or small knob to select “Display
legend?”
• Scheduled maintenance may put a radar off-line
190-00356-30 Rev M
15
Part Two: Section 2
XM Weather
NEXRAD Limitations
XM Weather Label and NEXRAD Source
U.S.
Certain limitations exist regarding the NEXRAD
radar displays. Some, but not all, are listed for the user’s
awareness:
• NEXRAD base reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine cloud layers or
precipitation characteristics (hail vs. rain, etc).
• NEXRAD base reflectivity is sampled at the
minimum antenna elevation angle. An individual
NEXRAD site cannot depict high altitude storms
at close ranges, and has no information about
storms directly over the site.
XM Weather Label and NEXRAD Source
Canada
• Neither NEXRAD weather data nor the age of the
NEXRAD weather data are displayed at a zoom
range of less than 10 NM. The resolution of displayed NEXRAD data is 2 kilometers. Therefore,
when zoomed in on the display, each square block
is 2 kilometers. The intensity level reflected by the
square will be the highest level sampled within
the 2 kilometer square area.
NOTE: The only weather products available for
Canada are Canadian NEXRAD, METARS, and
TAFs. METARS and TAFs will be shown when
available.
16
190-00356-30 Rev M
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas
of hazardous weather. Information contained
within data link weather products may not accurately depict current weather conditions.
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services
to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
information. Always confirm TFR information
through official sources such as Flight Service
Stations or Air Traffic Control.
Part Two: Section 2
XM Weather
SiriusXM Weather METARs
SiriusXM Weather METARs (Meteorological Aerodrome
Reports) are available on the XM Weather page. When
enabled (that is, when “METAR” is shown in the upper
left corner of the page), airports with METAR information
above a certain severity level are marked with colored
flags on the display. Refer to the XM Weather legend for
a description of the color code. The update rate is every
12 minutes.
SW Version 5.00 adds the ability to display Canadian
METARs and TAFs.
To display the METAR Legend:
1.
Press the MENU key to display the Page
Menu.
2.
Turn the large or small right knob to select
“Display legend?”
3.
Press ENT to display the METAR symbols
legend. Press the CLR key to remove the
METAR Symbols legend.
To display METARs on the XM Weather page:
1.
While viewing the XM Weather page, check
the upper left corner to see whether “METAR”
or another weather product is displayed in the
upper left corner.
2.
If another weather product (rather than
“METAR”) is shown, press the small right
(CRSR) knob to highlight the product name,
such as “NEXRAD”. Turn the small right knob
to change to “METAR,” and press that small
right knob again to bring down the cursor
(stop the highlighting) and retain the “METAR”
selection.
3.
Now, colored flags will be displayed at those
airports that have METARs above a certain
severity level. (If there are no colored flags
visible, you may have to search a wider
area—zoom out with the RNG key—before
you see some METAR flags.)
190-00356-30 Rev M
17
Part Two: Section 2
XM Weather
XM Weather METAR Symbols
VFR - Ceiling > 3000 ft and
Cyan
visibility > 5 statute miles
MVFR (Marginal VFR) Green
Ceiling 1000 to 3000 ft, and/
or visibility 3 to 5 statute
miles
IFR - Ceiling 500 to 1000 ft,
Yellow
and/or visibility 1 to 3
statute miles
LIFR (Low IFR) - Ceiling less
Magenta
than 500 ft and/or visibility
less than 1 statute mile
4.
Press ENT to display the METAR text. With
“Done?” highlighted, press ENT to return to
the map view.
Textual METAR Page
When the GDL 69/69A is installed, a Textual METAR
page is added among the APT (airport) pages of the WPT
page group. This page can be accessed from the XM
Weather page as well as from the WPT page group.
To display Textual METARs from the Nav XM
Weather page:
1.
While viewing the Nav XM Weather page, press
the MENU key to display the Page Menu.
2.
Turn the large or small right knob to highlight
“Show Map Pointer?” and then press ENT.
To view any airport’s Textual METAR page:
3.
18
Turn the large or small right knob to move
the Map Pointer to highlight an airport with a
METAR flag.
1.
If not viewing the WPT page group, press CLR
and turn the large right knob to select the
WPT page group.
2.
Turn the small right knob until the Textual
METAR page appears.
190-00356-30 Rev M
Part Two: Section 2
XM Weather
TAF Page
When a GDL 69/69A is installed, the TAF (Terminal
Aerodrome Forecast) page is inserted into the WPT page
group, immediately after the Textual METAR page.
This page shows a text message giving a weather
forecast for a particular airport. The format is similar to
that used for METARS, but describes a weather forecast
rather than current weather at the particular airport.
3.
To select another airport, press the small right
(CRSR) knob to highlight the airport ID (in the
“APT” field).
4.
Turn the small and large right knobs to edit
the airport identifier for the desired airport.
Then, press ENT to confirm the airport name.
5.
Press the small right (CRSR) knob again to
remove the cursor (that is, to stop highlighting
the APT field).
Textual METAR/TAF Code
The current airport weather reports on the Textual
METAR page (and the airport weather forecasts on the TAF
page, too) use a rather cryptic format originally devised for
teleprinters. You can find information about this format in
an FAA publication, Aviation Weather Formats: METAR/
TAF, which can be downloaded from the FAA Web site.
You may see the following codes, which differ
slightly from the codes described in the FAA publication
referenced above, at the start of a METAR on the Textual
METAR page:
• SA = METAR — a standard hourly METAR
report.
• SP = SPECI — a Special Report inserted between
regular hourly METARs to provide late-breaking
weather news.
TFR Information
Areas with TFRs (Temporary Flight Restrictions) are
shown outlined in yellow on the NAV main page of the
500W-series and on the Map and XM Weather page of
both the 400W and 500W-series. More information about
Temporary Flight Restrictions can be seen on the TFR
Information page, which can be accessed from the Map
page or the XM Weather page.
1a. With the Map page (the second page of the
NAV page group) displayed, press the small
right knob to bring up the map pointer.
or
1b. With the XM Weather page (the third page
of the NAV page group) displayed, press the
MENU key to bring up the Page Menu. Then,
turn the large right knob to highlight “Show
Map Pointer” and press ENT to bring up the
map pointer.
190-00356-30 Rev M
19
Part Two: Section 2
XM Weather
2.
3.
4.
20
Turn the large and small right knobs to move
the map pointer to the yellow boundary of a
TFR region. When the map pointer is within
the TFR region, its boundary will be highlighted
with a wider yellow line.
5.
Press ENT when done viewing the TFR
Information page.
The fields of the TFR Information page are as follows:
Press ENT. The first item is the pop-up Page
Menu will be “Review TFR?”.
Press ENT again to see the TFR Information
page.
190-00356-30 Rev M
• Type. A brief description of the reason for the
temporary flight restriction appears here. Some
examples of the text that might appear here are:
“Fire,” “Miscellaneous,” “National Security Area,”
“Natural Disaster,” and “Sports Event.”
• Facility/NOTAM. This filed contains a code
for the name of the FAA facility that issued the
NOTAM (Notice to Airmen) announcing the TFR,
followed by the NOTAM number. For instance,
“ZSE 6/9507” would mean NOTAM number
6/9507 from the Seattle ARTCC (KZSE).
NOTE: The full text of the NOTAM may be
obtained from a local FSS or from the FAA web
site, using the contents of this field as a reference
to locate the particular NOTAM. However, the
information shown on the TFR Information page
is sufficient to let you comply with the Temporary
Flight Restriction by avoiding the affected area.
• Active Time. This field is for the beginning and
ending times of the temporary flight restriction.
It may be blank, in which case the TFR is active
“until further notice.”
• Vert Limits. This field gives the upper and lower
limits of the airspace to which the TFR applies.
Part Two: Section 2
XM Weather
Lightning (LTNG)
To view XM Weather Cell Movement:
When enabled, lightning strikes and cells are shown.
Lightning information indicates the location of cloud-toground lightning strikes. Lightning strikes are noted by
yellow plus (+) signs.
1.
While viewing the XM Weather page, check the
upper left corner to see whether “CELL MOVE”
or another weather product is displayed.
2.
If another weather product (rather than “CELL
MOVE”) is shown, press the small right
(CRSR) knob to highlight the product name,
such as “NEXRAD”. Turn the small right knob
to change to “CELL MOVE,” and press that
small right knob again to bring down the
cursor (stop the highlighting) and retain the
“CELL MOVE” selection.
To view XM Weather Lightning Strikes:
1.
While viewing the XM Weather page, check
the upper left corner to see whether “LTNG”
or another weather product is displayed.
2.
If another weather product (rather than
“LTNG”) is shown, press the small right
(CRSR) knob to highlight the product name,
such as “NEXRAD”. Turn the small right knob
to change to “LTNG,” and press that small
right knob again to bring down the cursor
(stop the highlighting) and retain the “LTNG”
selection.
To view XM Weather Cell Movement details:
Cell Movement (CELL MOVE)
When enabled, Cell Movement shows the storm cells
identified by the ground-based system. The movement
is depicted by an arrow. The tip of the arrow represents
where the cell is expected to be in 10 minutes from the
time the cell location was determined. Cell Movement is
noted by a yellow box with an arrow showing reported the
direction of travel.
1.
While viewing the XM Weather page with Cell
Movement active, activate the Map Pointer by
pressing the MENU key, highlighting “Show
Map Pointer,” and press ENT.
2.
Turn the large right knob to move the cursor
left and right. Turn the small right knob to
move the cursor up and down.
3.
Move the cursor into the Cell Movement
symbol to view details about the Cell.
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Part Two: Section 3
XM Weather
Winds Aloft
The Winds Aloft selection provides the pilot with
a graphic display of predicted winds at any one of 15
selectable altitudes. The winds at a given altitude are
selected in the Winds Aloft Alt selection. The selected
altitude is shown along with the product effective time.
Winds Aloft predictions are updated every hour and are
made available via the GDL 69/69A at a more frequent
interval.
The display includes:
• Wind barbs, representing wind speed, and direction
For example, a vertically oriented wind barb with a
pennant, two long lines and a short line at its upper end
would denote a 75-knot wind blowing from the north.
To view XM Weather Winds Aloft:
1.
While viewing the XM Weather page, check the
upper left corner of the display. If a weather
product other than “WINDS” is shown, press
the small right (CRSR) knob to highlight the
product name. Turn the small right knob until
“WINDS” is displayed.
2.
Turn the large right knob to move the
cursor down to the Altitude field, then use the
small right knob to select an altitude from
ground level up to 42,000 feet (in 3,000-foot
increments). Note that you can move up
and down the atmosphere, comparing wind
predictions at different altitudes.
• The selected altitude
• The effective time for the prediction.
Winds Aloft are represented by meteorological symbols
known as “wind barbs”. A wind barb consists of an arrowlike line that indicates the direction in which the wind is
blowing, with marks (“barbs”) along one side of the line
to indicate wind speed. The barbed end of the symbol
points in the direction from which the wind is coming.
Barbs, which are used singly and in combinations, have
the following values:
22
• A short line:
5 knots
• A long line:
10 knots
• A pennant (triangle):
50 knots
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Part Two: Section 3
XM Aux Pages
3.
When done, press the small right (CRSR)
knob again to remove the cursor (remove
highlighting from the altitude field).
Winds Aloft Altitude
The Winds Aloft Altitude selection provides the pilot
with the ability to select any wind altitude from the ground
up to 42,000 feet in 3,000 foot increments. When no data
are shown at a given altitude, the data for that altitude has
not been received. Wait for the next update. The selected
altitude is depicted below the WINDS label.
To change the XM Weather Winds Aloft altitude:
1.
With the “WINDS” product selected, turn the
large right knob to highlight the altitude
value.
Section 3: XM AUX Pages
When a GDL 69 (or GDL 69A) is installed, three (or
four) pages are inserted into the 500W/500W’s AUX page
group. Here we discuss the two pages that are inserted
regardless of whether the SiriusXM Satellite Radio receiver
is a GDL 69 or GDL 69A:
• XM Information Page. This page contains information that you will use when activating your
SiriusXM Satellite Radio satellite radio subscription.
• XM Weather Timestamp Pages. These pages
show timestamp data for the most recently
received XM weather data.
The other AUX page, which is installed only if the
SiriusXM Satellite Radio receiver is a GDL 69A, is the XM
audio page.
XM Information Page
The XM Information page in the AUX page group is the
page you will refer to when activating your subscription to
the SiriusXM Satellite Radio services.
2.
Turn the small right knob to change the
value.
3.
When done, press the small right (CRSR)
knob again to remove the cursor (remove
highlighting from the altitude field).
• Audio ID. The Audio ID contains the eightcharacter identification code of the XM Audio
radio built into the GDL 69A. Provide this ID to
SiriusXM Satellite Radio when activating an SiriusXM Satellite Radio audio subscription. (In the
case of a GDL 69, this field shows eight hyphens
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Part Two: Section 4
XM Audio
•
•
•
•
instead of an audio ID, because the GDL 69 is a
data-only receiver.)
Audio Signal. The Audio Signal field indicates the
signal strength of the GDL 69A’s audio signal. (In
the case of a GDL 69, this field shows “antenna”
rather than a signal strength indication.)
Data ID. The Data ID field contains the eightcharacter ID code of the XM data radio built
into the GDL 69 or GDL 69A. Provide this ID
to SiriusXM Satellite Radio when activating your
XM aviation data subscription.
Data Signal. The Data Signal field displays an
indication of the XM data signal strength.
Service Class. Once you have activated your
SiriusXM Satellite Radio service, the Service Class
field will show the XM subscription plan you have
purchased. Typical values would be “Aviator LT” or
“Aviator.” Currently, the 400W and 500W-series
only support a subset of the Aviator LT service
from SiriusXM Satellite Radio.
Product
US NEXRAD
Aviator LT
Aviator
•
•
•
•
•
CN NEXRAD
Radar Coverage
Precipitation Type
(at surface)
TFRs
METARs
TAFs
US Winds Aloft
Cell Movement
Lightning
•
•
•
•*
•*
NOTE: If an unrecognized service class is
detected, “Activated” will be displayed along
with a service class code.
• GDL 69 Version. This field shows the version
number of the software in your GDL 69 or GDL
69A XM radio receiver.
XM WX Timestamps
The XM WX Timestamp pages, like the XM Information
page, is added to the 400W/500W’s AUX page group
when a GDL 69/69A is installed. These pages display date/
time stamps showing when the various items of SiriusXM
Weather data were most recently downloaded.
•
•
•
•
•
•
* Canadian METARs and TAFs are not available in
the Aviator LT service.
24
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Part Two: Section 4
SiriusXM Satellite Radio Audio
Each of these time stamps is a date-time group in
“DDHHMMZ” format, where:
Section 4: SiriusXM Satellite Radio
Audio
• DD is the day of the month
• HH is the hour of the day
• MM is the minute of the hour
• Z is a time zone designator indicating that the date
and time are for standard time on the Greenwich
meridian: that is, UTC (Coordinated Universal
Time).
Audio entertainment is available through the SiriusXM
Satellite Radio Service when activated in the optional
installation of the GDL 69A. The 400W and 500W series
units serve as the display and control head for your
remotely mounted GDL 69A. SiriusXM Satellite Radio
allows you to enjoy a variety of radio programming over
long distances without having to constantly search for
new stations. Based on signal from satellites, coverage
far exceeds land-based transmissions. When enabled, the
SiriusXM Satellite Radio audio entertainment is accessible
in the AUX function.
The information on the SiriusXM Satellite Radio display
is composed of four areas: the Active channel, available
Channels, Category of the highlighted channel, and the
Volume setting. The Active Channel window shows the
Channel Name and Number, Artist, Song Title, Category,
and provides an indication of signal strength. A bar graph
next to the antenna symbol describes the signal strength.
Maximum signal strength is shown by three full bars.
Category name
Channel Name
Channel
number
Slider
Pointer showing
current selection
being played
Artist name
Audio output (enabled or disabled)
Song title
Channel
number
Signal strength
indicator
Channel name
XM Audio Page Description
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Part Two: Section 4
SiriusXM Satellite Radio Audio
The XM Audio page allows you to control the functions
of the SiriusXM Satellite Radio Audio receiver in the
GDL 69A, such as, category and channel selection, artist
selection, and volume. Pressing the MENU key displays
the Page Menu selections.
3.
Press ENT to select the highlighted category.
The first channel in the selected category will
now be highlighted and the current song being
played in that channel will be shown in the
lower window.
Selecting categories
4.
Turn the large right knob counterclockwise
to move the highlight back up to the
category name window.
1.
Press the small right (CRSR) knob to
highlight the category names. The categories
will be listed below in numeric order.
2.
Turn the small right knob to scroll through
the list of categories. Categories are shown in
the upper section of the display. The channels
for each category are shown in the list below
the category title.
26
Selecting channels
1.
Press the small right (CRSR) knob to highlight
the category names.
2.
Turn the large right knob clockwise, or press
ENT, to move the highlight into the channel
selections.
3.
Turn the small right knob to highlight a
channel.
4.
Press ENT to select the highlighted channel
for listening. A triangle will point to the song
currently being played.
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Part Two: Section 4
SiriusXM Satellite Radio Audio
XM Audio Menu
The XM Audio Menu provides choices for selecting a
channel, displaying the channel, artist, or title, enabling
audio output, and controlling the volume.
1.
2.
While viewing the XM Audio page, press the
MENU key.
3.
Turn the large right knob clockwise to move
the highlight into the presets list. Turn the
small right knob to highlight the position
where you want to place the preset.
4.
Press ENT to replace the previous preset
channel with the newly selected channel.
Turn the large or small right knobs to
highlight the choices. Press the ENT key to
make a selection.
Add to Presets List
Up to fifteen channels may be saved as presets to easily
return to your favorite channels.
1.
While viewing the XM Audio page, selected
the desired channel.
2.
While the desired channel is highlighted, press
the MENU key. With “Add to Presets List?”
highlighted, press ENT.
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Part Two: Section 4
SiriusXM Satellite Radio Audio
Enter Channel Number
Display Channel In List
You may directly select a specific channel by using the
“Enter Channel Number” item from the Page Menu.
Channels can be shown in a list of channels in the
middle pane by using the “Display Channel In List” item
from the Page Menu.
1.
While viewing the XM Audio page, press the
MENU key. Turn the large right knob to
highlight “Enter Channel Number.”
2.
Turn the large right knob to move the
highlight and the small right knob to select
a number.
3.
Press the ENT key to make a selection.
The selected channel will now play and is
displayed in the window at the bottom of
the display.
28
1.
While viewing the XM Audio page, press the
MENU key. Turn the large right knob to
highlight “Display Channel In List.”
2.
Press the ENT key.
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Part Two: Section 4
SiriusXM Satellite Radio Audio
Display Artist In List
Display Title In List
The name of the artists in the range of displayed
channels can be shown in the middle pane by using the
“Display Artist In List” item from the Page Menu.
The Titles of the songs in the range of displayed
channels can be shown in the middle pane by using the
“Display Title In List” item from the Page Menu.
1.
While viewing the XM Audio page, press the
MENU key. Turn the large right knob to
highlight “Display Artist In List.”
1.
While viewing the XM Audio page, press the
MENU key. Turn the large right knob to
highlight “Display Title In List.”
2.
Press the ENT key.
2.
Press the ENT key.
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Part Two: Section 4
SiriusXM Satellite Radio Audio
Enable/Mute Audio Output
Change Volume
The Enable/Mute Audio Output selection of the Page
Menu allows you to toggle the audio output On or Off.
When Audio Output is muted, a green slash will cross
over the music symbol in the song pane.
The XM Audio volume may be changed in two ways:
directly with the Range keys or through the Page Menu.
1.
While viewing the XM Audio page, press the
MENU key. Turn the large right knob to
highlight “Enable Audio Output” or “Disable
Audio Output.”
2.
Press the ENT key to perform the highlighted
action. Pressing the CLR key toggles the
audio output.
1.
While viewing the XM Audio page, press the
MENU key. Turn the large right knob to
highlight “Change Volume.”
2a. Press the ENT key and then turn the small
right knob to change the volume.
or
2b. Press the Range keys to adjust the volume.
30
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Part Three: Section 1
TAWS Introduction
Part Three:
TAWS Interface
Section 1: Introduction
NOTE: Either the TERRAIN, TAWS (500W-series
only), HTAWS, or Terrain Proximity functionality
will be available via the Terrain page, depending
on the installed hardware and configuration.
Overview
Garmin’s Terrain Awareness Warning System (TAWS)
is an optional feature (500W-series only) to increase
situational awareness and aid in reducing controlled
flight into terrain. Garmin TAWS satisfies TSO-C151b
Class B requirements for certification. Class B TAWS is
required for all Part 91 aircraft operations with six or
more passenger seats and for Part 135 turbine aircraft
operations with six to nine passenger seats (FAR Parts
91.223, 135.154).
TAWS provides visual and aural annunciations
when terrain and obstacles are within the given altitude
threshold from the aircraft.
NOTE: TAWS-enabled units can be identified by
observing the power-up screens. TAWS-enabled
units will display “TAWS” after the model
number. TAWS-enabled units can also be identified by going to the Terrain page and checking
the upper left-corner for “TAWS.”
Operating Criteria
Garmin TAWS requires the following to operate
properly:
• The system must have a valid 3D GPS position
solution
• The system must have a valid terrain/obstacle/
airport terrain database
Limitations
NOTE: The data contained in the terrain and
obstacle databases comes from government
agencies. Garmin accurately processes and
cross-validates the data, but cannot guarantee
the accuracy and completeness of the data.
TAWS displays terrain and obstructions relative
to the altitude of the aircraft. Individual obstructions
may be shown if available in the database. However, all
obstructions may not be available in the database and
data may be inaccurate. Never use this information for
navigation.
Terrain information is based on terrain elevation data
contained in a database that may contain inaccuracies.
Terrain information should be used as an aid to situational
awareness. Never use it for navigation or to maneuver to
avoid terrain.
Garmin TAWS satisfies TSO-C151b Class B
requirements for certification
TAWS uses terrain and obstacle information supplied
by government sources. The data undergoes verification
by Garmin to confirm accuracy of the content, per TSOC151b. However, the displayed information should never
be understood as being all-inclusive.
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Part Three: Section 2
TAWS Operation
Section 2: TAWS Operation
from the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude. This
variation results in the aircraft’s true altitude differing from
the baro-corrected altitude.
TAWS Alerting
TAWS uses information provided from the GPS receiver
to provide a horizontal position and altitude. GPS altitude
is derived from satellite measurements. GPS altitude is
converted to a mean sea level (MSL)-based altitude (GSL
altitude) and is used to determine TAWS alerts. GSL
altitude accuracy is affected by factors such as satellite
geometry, but it is not subject to variations in pressure and
temperature that normally affect pressure altitude devices.
GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to
determine MSL altitude. Therefore, GPS altitude provides
a highly accurate and reliable MSL altitude source to
calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
TAWS utilizes terrain and obstacle databases that are
referenced to mean sea level (MSL). Using the GPS position
and GSL altitude, TAWS displays a 2-D picture of the
surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position
and altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the GPS position
and GSL altitude are used to calculate and “predict”
the aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding
terrain and obstacles. In this manner, TAWS can provide
advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain conditions.
Detailed alert modes are described later in this section.
Power Up
During power-up of the 500W Series unit, the terrain/
obstacle database versions are displayed along with a
disclaimer to the pilot. At the same time, TAWS self-test
begins. During this self-test all external TAWS annunciator
lamps are lighted for a visual check by the pilot that they
are operating. TAWS gives the following aural messages
upon test completion:
• “TAWS System Test, OK”, if the system passes the test
• “TAWS System Failure”, if the system fails the test
A test failure is also annunciated visually for TAWS,
as shown in the TAWS Alert Summary table.
TAWS Page
The TAWS Page is in the NAV group of pages (see
the 500W Series Pilot’s Guide for detailed information
regarding page groups and pages).
Baro-Corrected Altitude
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived
by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude
can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight
path. However, because actual atmosphere conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the
International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values),
it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
32
The TAWS Page
To display the TAWS Page, select the NAV group
and turn the small right knob until the TAWS Page is
displayed. Terrain information, aircraft ground track,
and GPS-derived MSL altitude are displayed on the page.
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Part Three: Section 2
TAWS Operation
Altitude is shown in increments of 20 feet or in increments
of 10 meters, depending on unit configuration. The
“GSL” above the MSL altitude display reminds the pilot
that altitude is GPS-derived. The TAWS Page has two
selectable view settings:
1 NM, 2 NM, 5 NM, 10 NM, 25 NM, 50 NM,
100 NM.
Aviation information such as airports, VORs, and other
navaids can be turned on or off on the TAWS Page.
To show or hide aviation information:
1.
Press MENU.
2.
Select “Show (or Hide) Aviation Data?” and
press ENT. Pressing the CLR key when the
TAWS Page is displayed can also be used to
toggle aviation information on or off.
120˚ Viewing Angle on the TAWS Page
• 360˚ View—View from above aircraft depicting
surrounding terrain on all sides
• 120˚ View—View of terrain ahead of and 60˚ to
either side of the aircraft flight path
NOTE: The TAWS Page gives a “Track Up” display orientation, as indicated by the “TRK” label
shown on the display. This is the only orientation
available for the TAWS Page.
Aviation Data
To show or hide Legend:
1.
Press MENU.
2.
Select “Show (or Hide) Legend?” and press
ENT.
To display a 120˚ view:
1.
Select the TAWS Page and press MENU. Select
“View 120˚?”.
2.
Press ENT. The TAWS Page displays the 120˚
view. To change to a 360˚ view, repeat step 1,
select “View 360˚?”, and press ENT.
Seven display ranges are available, allowing for a more
complete view of the surrounding area.
To change the display range:
Select the TAWS Page and press up or down
on the RNG key to select the desired range:
Select Show/Hide Legend
Inhibit Mode
TAWS provides an “inhibit mode”. This mode is
designed to deactivate PDA/FLTA aural and visual alerts
when they are deemed unnecessary by the aircrew. Flying
VFR into an area where unique terrain exists could cause
190-00356-30 Rev M
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Part Three: Section 2
TAWS Operation
the system to annunciate a nuisance alert. Pilots should use
discretion when inhibiting the TAWS system and always
remember to enable the system when appropriate. Only
the PDA and FLTA alerts are disabled in the inhibit mode.
See section 3 for more information on TAWS alerts.
TERRAIN configured units will restore the “inhibit
state” at startup to the last pilot-selected setting. TAWS
configured units will always start up with TAWS alerts
uninhibited.
2.
Press ENT. The PDA/FLTA alerts are functional
again.
External TAWS Inhibit Control
An optional installation is allowed for providing an
external TAWS Inhibit switch. Pressing the external TAWS
Inhibit switch toggles the TAWS inhibit on and off in the
same manner as using the Page Menu selection.
TAWS Manual Test
Garmin TAWS provides a manual test capability which
verifies the proper operation of the aural and visual
annunciations of the system prior to a flight.
“Test TAWS” selection
To manually test the TAWS system:
To inhibit PDA and FLTA alerts:
1.
Select the TAWS Page and press MENU.
“Inhibit Terrain?” is selected by default.
2.
Press ENT. The PDA/FLTA alerts are inhibited.
The
annunciation is displayed in
the terrain annunciator field whenever TAWS
is inhibited.
To enable PDA and FLTA alerts:
34
Select the TAWS Page and press MENU.
2.
Select the “Test TAWS?” option.
3.
Press ENT to confirm the selection.
An aural message is played giving the test results:
• “TAWS System Test, OK” if the system passes the
test
Inhibiting Terrain
1.
1.
Select the TAWS Page and press MENU.
“Enable Terrain?” is selected by default.
• “TAWS System Failure” if the system fails the test
NOTE: TAWS System Testing is disabled when
ground speed exceeds 30 knots so as not to
impede TAWS alerting.
TAWS Symbols
The symbols and colors in the following figure and
table are used to represent obstacles and potential impact
points on the TAWS Page. TAWS uses yellow and red
to depict terrain information relative to aircraft altitude.
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Part Three: Section 2
TAWS Operation
Each color is associated with an alert severity level. Terrain
graphics and visual annunciations also use these color
assignments.
NOTE: If an obstacle and the projected flight path
of the aircraft intersect, the display automatically
zooms in to the closest potential point of impact
on the TAWS Page.
The zoom range of obstacles (on the TAWS and NAV
pages) is controlled by the NAV map’s “Setup Map” menu
option in the “Terrain” group under the “Obstacles”
option. Obstacles can be shown up to the maximum
zoom range on the TAWS page. However, obstacles are
ALWAYS shown on the TAWS page at 10 NM and below.
Gray/White obstacles are shown on the Nav Map pages,
but not on the TAWS page.
Potential Impact Point
Alert Level
WARNING (Red)
CAUTION (Yellow)
TAWS Alert Coloring and Symbology
Potential Impact Point
Terrain above or
within 100 ft
below the aircraft
altitude (Red)
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Unlighted Obstacle
1000 ft
Terrain between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the
aircraft altitude (Yellow)
Terrain more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude (Black)
TAWS Terrain Colors
Obstacle Symbol
Unlighted Obstacle
< 1000 ft
AGL
Lighted Obstacle
> 1000 ft < 1000 ft > 1000 ft
AGL
AGL
AGL
Color
Obstacle Location
Red
Obstacle at or within 100 ft below current aircraft altitude
Yellow
Obstacle between 100 ft and 1000 ft below current aircraft
altitude
TAWS Obstacle Colors and Symbology
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Part Three: Section 2
TAWS Operation
General Database Information
Database Versions
Garmin TAWS uses terrain and obstacle information
supplied by government sources. The data undergoes
verification by Garmin to confirm accuracy of the content,
per TSO-C151b. However, the displayed information
should never be understood as being all-inclusive.
Pilots must familiarize themselves with the appropriate
charts for safe flight.
The version and area of coverage of each terrain/obstacle
database is shown on the Terrain Database Versions Page,
located in the AUX Page Group. Databases are checked for
integrity at power-up. If a database is found to be missing
and/or deficient, the TAWS system fails the self-test and
displays the TAWS system failure message.
NOTE: The data contained in the terrain and
obstacle databases comes from government
agencies. Garmin accurately processes and
cross-validates the data, but cannot guarantee
the accuracy and completeness of the data.
The terrain/obstacle databases are contained on a
datacard which is inserted in the right-most slot of the
400W/500W Series units.
Terrain Database Information
36
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Part Three: Section 2
TAWS Operation
Database Updates
Terrain/obstacle databases are updated periodically
with the latest terrain and obstacle data. Visit the Garmin
website to check for newer versions of terrain/obstacle
databases. Compare database cycle numbers to determine
if a newer version is available.
The database update process includes either
reprogramming or replacing the database card and
inserting the updated card in the right card slot on
the unit front panel. The terrain/obstacle database
may be downloaded via the internet and the card
reprogrammed using a USB programmer available
from Garmin. Contact Garmin at 800-800-1020 or at
www.garmin.com for more information.
To update your terrain/obstacle databases:
1.
Acquire a new terrain data card from
Garmin.
2.
Turn off the power to the 500W Series unit.
3.
Remove the old terrain data card and insert the
new card into the right-most slot of the 500W
Series unit.
4.
Turn on the 500W Series unit and verify that
the TAWS system passes self-test.
Terrain/Obstacle Database Areas of
Coverage
The following describes the area of coverage available
in each database. Regional definitions may change without
notice.
Database
Coverage Area
Latitudes: N75° to S60°
Longitudes: W180° to E180°
Worldwide (WW) Cycle 09T1 and later:
Latitudes: N90° to S90°
Longitudes: W180° to E180°
Limited to the United States plus
United States (US) some areas of Canada, Mexico,
Caribbean, and the Pacific.
Alaska, Austria, Belgium, Canada*,
Caribbean*, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hawaii, Iceland,
US/Europe
Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
Mexico*, Netherlands, Norway,
Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, United
Kingdom, United States
* Indicates partial coverage
NOTE: It is very important to note that not all
obstacles are necessarily charted and therefore
may not be contained in the Obstacle Database.
190-00356-30 Rev M
37
Part Three: Section 2
TAWS Alerts
Section 3: TAWS Alerts
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet
parameters that are set within TAWS software algorithms.
TAWS alerts typically employ either a CAUTION or a
WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an alert
is issued, visual annunciations are displayed. Aural alerts
are simultaneously issued. Annunciations appear in a
dedicated field in the lower left corner of the display.
TAWS Annunciation Field
NOTE: TAWS Caution Alerts are displayed as
constant black text on a yellow background;
TAWS Warning Alerts are displayed as constant
white text on a red background.
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
The unit will issue terrain alerts not only when the
aircraft altitude is below the terrain elevation but also
when the aircraft is projected to come within minimum
clearance values of the terrain. This alerting, called Forward
Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA), is also provided for
obstacles. Any potential impact points are depicted on the
display. There are 2 levels of severity for FLTA alerts. They
are cautionary (amber) and warning (red) in nature and
are described in further detail below.
TAWS Annunciation Field
Annunciations are color-coded according to the TAWS
Alert Summary table. Pop-up terrain alerts can also
appear during an alert, but only when the TAWS Page
is not displayed. There are two options when an alert
is displayed:
To acknowledge the pop-up alert and return to
the currently viewed page:
Press the CLR button.
To acknowledge the pop-up alert and quickly
access the TAWS Page:
Press the ENT button.
CAUTION—Estimated potential impact in approximately 30 seconds after a FLTA Caution pop-up alert and annunciation. FLTA
caution alerts are accompanied by the aural message “Caution
Terrain; Caution Terrain” OR “Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”.
Similarly, a “Caution Obstacle; Caution Obstacle” or “Obstacle
Ahead; Obstacle Ahead” alert is also provided. The time to an
alert can vary with conditions, therefore there is no guarantee
of a 30 second caution alert being issued.
NOTE: To further capture the attention of the
pilot, TAWS issues aural (voice) messages that
accompany visual annunciations and pop-up
alerts. Some aural messages are configurable
during installation of the system. For a summary
of aural messages, see the TAWS Alert Summary
table.
38
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Part Three: Section 3
TAWS Alerts
Phase of Flight
En Route
Terminal
Approach
Departure
Level Flight
700 ft.
350 ft.
150 ft.
100 ft.
Descending
500 ft.
300 ft.
100 ft.
100 ft.
Minimum TERRAIN Clearance Values for FLTA Alerts
NOTE: During the final approach phase of flight,
FLTA alerts are automatically inhibited when the
aircraft is below 200 feet AGL while within 0.5
NM of the approach runway or is below 125 feet
AGL while within 1.0 NM of the runway.
Premature Descent Alerting (PDA)
The TAWS system issues a Premature Descent Alert
(PDA) when the system detects that the aircraft is
significantly below the normal approach path to a runway.
PDA begins when the aircraft is within 15 NM of the
destination airport.
PDA ends when the aircraft is either:
• 0.5 NM from the runway threshold
OR
• is below an altitude of 125 feet AGL while
within 1.0 NM of the threshold.
700
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
WARNING— Estimated potential impact in approximately
15 seconds after a FLTA warning pop-up alert. FLTA warning
pop-up alerts are accompanied by the aural message “Terrain,
Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up” or “Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain
Ahead, Pull Up”. Similarly, a “Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull
Up” or “Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
alert is also provided. The time to an alert can vary with conditions, therefore there is no guarantee of a 15 second warning
alert being issued.
600
500
400
300
PDA Alerting Area
200
100
Runway 1
Threshold
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Distance From Destination Airport (nm)
CAUTION — The above annunciation and pop-up
terrain alert are displayed during a PDA alert. For
TAWS, the PDA alert is accompanied by the aural
message “Too Low, Terrain”.
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39
Part Three: Section 3
TAWS Alerts
Excessive Descent Rate Alert (EDR)
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate alert
is to provide suitable notification when the aircraft is
determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain at an
excessive speed. The parameters for the alert as defined by
TSO-C151b are shown in the Descent Rate graph.
WARNING—The annunciation and pop-up terrain alert
are accompanied by the aural message “Pull Up”.
6000
5500
Negative Climb Rate After Takeoff Alert (NCR)
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
5000
4500
E"
4000
K
IN
"S
3500
The purpose of the Negative Climb Rate After Takeoff
alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”) is
to provide suitable alerts to the pilot when the system
determines that the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon
terrain) after takeoff. The aural message “Don’t Sink” is
given for NCR alerts, accompanied by an annunciation
and a pop-up terrain alert on the display.
T
RA
3000
2500
2000
1500
"PULL UP"
1000
NOTE: NCR alerting is only active when
departing from an airport and when the following conditions are met:
• The height above the terrain is less than 700
feet
• The distance from the departure airport is
2 NM or less
• The heading change from the heading at the
time of departure is less than 110 degrees
500
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
Descent Rate
10000
12000
Excessive Descent Rate Graph
Excessive Descent Rate Severity Levels
The NCR alerting parameters as defined by TSO-C151b
are shown in the Negative Climb Rate Alert Criteria figures
below. The NCR alert is issued when the altitude loss and
height are within the range in the first figure, or when the
sink rate (negative vertical speed) and height are within
the range in the second figure.
CAUTION—The annunciation and pop-up terrain alert
are accompanied by the aural message “Sink Rate”.
40
190-00356-30 Rev M
Part Three: Section 3
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
TAWS Alerts
1000
800
600
400
“DON’T SINK”
200
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
Altitude Loss (Feet)
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
“DON’T SINK”
300
200
100
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
Sink Rate (Feet Per Minute)
Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Alert Criteria
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41
Part Three: Section 3
TAWS Alerts
“Five-Hundred” Aural Alert
The purpose of the aural alert message “Five-Hundred”
is to provide an advisory alert to the pilot that the aircraft
is five-hundred feet above terrain. When the aircraft
descends within 500 feet of terrain, the aural message “Fivehundred” is generated. There are no display annunciations
or pop-up alerts that accompany the aural message.
TAWS Not Available Alert
Garmin TAWS requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution
along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should
the navigation solution become degraded, or if the aircraft
is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation “TER
N/A” is generated in the annunciation window. When the
GPS signal is re-established and the aircraft is within the
database coverage area, the “TER N/A” annunciation is
removed.
No GPS Position
TAWS Failure Alert
TAWS continually monitors several system-critical
items, such as database validity, hardware status, and GPS
status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the
aural message “TAWS System Failure” is issued along with
the “TER FAIL” annunciation.
“TERRAIN NOT AVAILABLE” Display
TAWS FAILED Display
TAWS Alert Summary
The aural alert voice gender is configurable to be either
male or female. Also, there are different alert text phrases
available for several of the alerts, as shown below. See your
Garmin installer for further information on configuring
the alert system.
Position Outside Terrain Database Coverage
42
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Part Three: Section 3
TAWS Alerts
TAWS Alerts Summary
TAWS
Annunciation
Pop-Up Alert
Aural Message
Description
None
“TAWS System Failure”
TAWS has failed
None
None
TAWS has been inhibited by flight crew
None
“Terrain Not Available”
TAWS not available
“Sink Rate”
Excessive Descent Rate Caution
“Pull Up”
Excessive Descent Rate Warning
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
Caution for Terrain
or
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”
or
or
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
Warning for Terrain
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
or
or
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
Caution for Obstacle
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”
or
or
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
Warning for Obstacle
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull
Up”
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
Premature Descent Alert Caution
“Don’t Sink”
Negative Climb Rate Caution
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
500 ft. AGL Altitude Callout
NOTE: TAWS Caution Alerts are displayed as constant black text on a yellow background; TAWS Warning Alerts are
displayed as constant white text on a red background.
190-00356-30 Rev M
43
Part Three: Section 3
TAWS Alerts
Pilot Actions
If a TAWS warning and associated aural are received,
the pilot should immediately respond to the aural and pull
up with maximum power and climb rate unless the terrain
or obstacle is clearly identified visually and determined to
not be a safety of flight factor. Reference FAR 91.223.
A TAWS caution indicates terrain or obstacle nearby.
If possible visually locate the terrain or obstacle for
avoidance. A TAWS warning may follow a TAWS caution
unless the aircraft’s path towards the terrain or obstacle is
changed.
NOTE: Display of terrain and obstacles on the
display is supplemental data only. Maneuvering
solely by reference to the terrain and obstacle
data is not recommended or authorized.
44
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Part Four: Section 1
HTAWS Introduction
Part Four:
HTAWS Interface
Operating Criteria
Garmin HTAWS requires the following to operate
properly:
Section 1: Introduction
• The system must have a valid 3D GPS position
solution
NOTE: Either the TERRAIN, TAWS (500W-series
only), HTAWS, or Terrain Proximity functionality
will be available via the Terrain page, depending
on the installed hardware and configuration.
Overview
Garmin’s Helicopter Terrain Awareness Warning
System (HTAWS) is an optional feature to increase
situational awareness and aid in reducing controlled
flight into terrain. Garmin TAWS satisfies TSO-C194
requirements for certification.
HTAWS provides visual and aural annunciations when
terrain and obstacles are a hazard to the aircraft.
• The system must have a valid terrain/obstacle
database.
Limitations
NOTE: The data contained in the terrain and
obstacle databases comes from government
agencies. Garmin accurately processes and crossvalidates the data, but cannot guarantee the
accuracy and completeness of the data.
HTAWS displays terrain and obstructions relative
to the flight path of the aircraft. Individual obstructions
may be shown if available in the database. However, all
obstructions may not be available in the database and
data may be inaccurate. Never use this information for
navigation.
Terrain information is based on terrain elevation data
contained in a database that may contain inaccuracies.
Terrain information should be used as an aid to situational
awareness. Never use it for navigation or to maneuver to
avoid terrain.
HTAWS Page with Terrain Alert
NOTE: HTAWS-enabled units can be identified
by observing the power-up screens. HTAWSenabled units will display “HTAWS” after the
model number. HTAWS-enabled units can also
be identified by going to the Terrain page and
checking the upper left-corner for “HTAWS.”
HTAWS uses terrain and obstacle information supplied
by government sources. The data undergoes verification
by Garmin to confirm accuracy of the content. However,
the displayed information should never be understood as
being all-inclusive.
190-00356-30 Rev M
45
Part Four: Section 2
HTAWS Operation
Section 2: HTAWS Operation
the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude. This variation
results in the aircraft’s true altitude differing from the barocorrected altitude.
HTAWS Alerting
HTAWS uses information provided from the GPS
receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude.
GPS altitude is derived from satellite measurements. GPS
altitude is converted to a mean sea level (MSL)-based
altitude (GSL altitude) and is used to determine HTAWS
alerts. GSL altitude accuracy is affected by factors such
as satellite geometry, but it is not subject to variations in
pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure
altitude devices. GSL altitude does not require local
altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. Therefore,
GPS altitude provides a highly accurate and reliable MSL
altitude source to calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
HTAWS utilizes terrain and obstacle databases that are
referenced to mean sea level (MSL). Using the GPS position
and GSL altitude, HTAWS displays a 2-D picture of the
surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position
and altitude of the aircraft. The GPS position and GSL
altitude are used to calculate and “predict” the aircraft’s
flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and
obstacles. In this manner, HTAWS can provide advanced
alerts of predicted dangerous terrain conditions. Detailed
alert modes are described later in this section.
Power Up
During power-up of the unit, the terrain/obstacle
database versions are displayed along with a disclaimer
to the pilot. At the same time, HTAWS self-test begins.
HTAWS gives the following aural messages upon test
completion:
• “HTAWS System Test, OK”, if the system passes the test
• “HTAWS System Failure”, if the system fails the test
A test failure is also annunciated visually for HTAWS, as
shown in the HTAWS Alert Summary table.
HTAWS Page
The HTAWS Page is in the NAV group of pages (see
the Pilot’s Guide for detailed information regarding page
groups and pages).
Baro-Corrected Altitude
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived
by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude
can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight
path. However, because actual atmosphere conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the
International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values),
it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read from
46
HTAWS Page
To display the HTAWS Page, select the NAV group
and turn the small right knob until the HTAWS Page
is displayed. Terrain information, aircraft ground track,
and GPS-derived MSL altitude are displayed on the page.
190-00356-30 Rev M
Part Four: Section 2
HTAWS Operation
Altitude is shown in increments of 20 feet or in increments
of 10 meters, depending on unit configuration. The “GSL”
above altitude display in the top right corner of the display
reminds the pilot that altitude is GPS-derived.
To display 120˚ or 360˚ view:
1.
Select the HTAWS Page and press MENU. Select
“View 120˚?” or “View 360˚?”.
2.
Press ENT. The HTAWS Page displays the
selected view. Repeat step 1 to select the
alternate view, and press ENT.
Page Menu
The HTAWS page menu provides options to acknowledge
caution alerts, reduce protection, or inhibit alerting. The
acknowledge caution alert functionality suppresses the
issuance of caution aural messages, while still displaying
the visual annunciations, but allows warnings to remain
annunciated both visually and aurally.
Seven display ranges are available, allowing for a more
complete view of the surrounding area.
To change the display range:
Select the HTAWS Page and press up or down
on the RNG key to select the desired range:
1 NM, 2 NM, 5 NM, 10 NM, 25 NM, 50 NM,
100 NM.
The HTAWS Page has two selectable view settings:
Aviation information such as airports, VORs, and other
navaids can be turned on or off on the HTAWS Page.
To show or hide aviation information:
1.
Press MENU.
2.
Select “Show (or Hide) Aviation Data?” and
press ENT. Pressing the CLR key when the
HTAWS Page is displayed can also be used to
toggle aviation information on or off.
120˚ Viewing Angle on the HTAWS Page
• 360˚ View—View from above aircraft depicting
surrounding terrain on all sides.
• 120˚ View—View of terrain ahead of and 60˚ to
either side of the aircraft flight path.
NOTE: The HTAWS Page gives a “Track Up” display orientation, as indicated by the “TRK” label
shown on the display. This is the only orientation
available for the HTAWS Page.
190-00356-30 Rev M
Aviation Data
47
Part Four: Section 2
HTAWS Operation
Inhibit Mode
To inhibit HTAWS alerts:
HTAWS provides an “inhibit mode”. This mode is
designed to deactivate aural and visual alerts when they
are deemed unnecessary by the aircrew. Pilots should use
discretion when inhibiting the HTAWS system and always
remember to enable the system when appropriate. VCO’s
are not inhibited in Inhibit Mode. See section 3 for more
information on HTAWS alerts. When alerting is inhibited,
all FLTA aural and visual alerting is suppressed. HTAWS
should only be inhibited when in visual contact with
terrain and when the pilot can be assured of maintaining
clearance from terrain and obstacles. When conducting en
route operations and operations from published airports
and heliports HTAWS should be operated in Normal mode.
HTAWS configured units will always start up with HTAWS
alerts uninhibited.
1.
Select the HTAWS Page and press MENU.
“Inhibit HTAWS?” is selected by default.
2.
Press ENT. The HTAWS alerts are inhibited. The
annunciation is displayed in the
terrain annunciator field whenever HTAWS is
inhibited.
NOTE: When the ground speed falls below 30
knots HTAWS will automatically display the
“TAWS INHB” annunciation. This indicates that
HTAWS is no longer providing CFIT protection.
This automatic “TAWS INHB” cannot be removed
by menu option selection. In fact, the menu option
can still list the “Inhibit HTAWS” option when
HTAWS is automatically inhibited due to speed.
If the pilot selects any mode on the Menu while
the unit is Auto-Inhibited because it is less than
30 knots then the unit will enter that mode once
ground speed exceeds 30 knots. Hence the presence of these selections on the Menu.
External HTAWS Inhibit Control
An optional installation is allowed for providing an
external HTAWS Inhibit switch. Pressing the external
HTAWS Inhibit switch toggles the HTAWS inhibit on and
off in the same manner as using the Page Menu selection.
Inhibiting HTAWS
48
Reduced Protection Mode
The Reduce Protection (RP) functionality allows
operating with a reduction in the alerting thresholds,
and suppresses visual and aural annunciation of caution
alerts. Reduced protection allows low level operations
and landings off airport with a minimum number of alerts
while continuing to provide protection from terrain and
obstacles. Reduced Protection should only be selected
when operating in visual contact with the terrain as alerting
times are significantly less than in normal mode. There is
support for an external RP Mode switch and an external
Mute Caution switch.
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Part Four: Section 2
HTAWS Operation
Mute Active Caution
When an HTAWS Caution occurs, the “Mute Active
Caution?” selection will be available on the Page Menu.
NOTE: 1) Selecting this only mutes the caution
that is presently active - if the caution goes
away, then the next caution will be heard, 2) It
does not mute warnings, only cautions., 3) Mute
Caution functionality via a remote switch may be
installed.
To mute a caution:
1.
Select the HTAWS Page and press MENU. Turn
the large or small right knob to highlight
“Mute Active Caution?”.
2.
Press ENT. The caution will be muted.
Reducing HTAWS Protection
To reduce protection:
1.
2.
Select the HTAWS Page and press MENU. Turn
the large or small right knob to highlight
“Reduce Protection?”.
Press ENT. Protection is reduced. The “RP
Mode” annunciation is displayed in the terrain
annunciator field whenever protection is
reduced.
To unmute active caution:
To enable full protection:
1.
Select the HTAWS Page and press MENU. Turn
the large or small right knob to highlight
“Enable Full Protection?”.
“Enable Full Protection” selection
2.
Mute HTAWS Caution
1.
Select the HTAWS Page and press MENU. Turn
the large or small right knob to highlight
“Unmute Active Caution?”.
2.
Press ENT. The active cautions will be
unmuted.
Press ENT. Full protection is functional again.
190-00356-30 Rev M
49
Part Four: Section 2
HTAWS Operation
HTAWS Manual Test
HTAWS Legend
1. Select the HTAWS Page and press
Garmin HTAWS provides a manual test capability
MENU. Turn the large or small
which verifies the proper operation of the aural and visual
right knob to highlight “Hide
annunciations of the system prior to a flight.
Legend?” or “Show Legend?.”
“Test HTAWS” selection
To manually test the HTAWS system:
1.
Select the HTAWS Page and press MENU.
2.
Select the “Test HTAWS?” option.
3.
Press ENT to confirm the selection.
2.
HTAWS Test Display
HTAWS Display with Legend
An aural message is played giving the test results:
• “HTAWS System Test, OK” if the system passes
the test
• “HTAWS System Failure” if the system fails the
test
NOTE: HTAWS System Testing is disabled when
ground speed exceeds 30 knots so as not to
impede HTAWS alerting.
50
Press ENT. The legend will be hidden or shown
as selected.
Color
Red
Description
Terrain is more than 250 ft above the aircraft.
Orange
Terrain is between 0 ft and 250 ft above the aircraft.
Yellow
Terrain is between 250 ft and 0 ft below the aircraft.
Green
Terrain is between 250 ft and 500 ft below the aircraft.
Black
Terrain is more than 500 ft below the aircraft.
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Part Four: Section 2
HTAWS Operation
HTAWS Symbols
The symbols and colors in the following figures and table are used to represent obstacles and potential impact points
on the HTAWS Page. Each color is associated with a height above terrain.
Obstacles are ALWAYS shown on the TAWS page at 10 NM and below.
NOTE: If an obstacle or terrain cell and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the display automatically zooms in to the closest potential point of impact on the HTAWS Page.
Red
Terrain is more than 250 ft
above the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude +250 ft
Orange Terrain is between 250 ft and 0 ft
above the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude
Terrain is between 0 ft and 250 ft
Yellow below the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude -250 ft
Green
Terrain is between 250 ft and 500 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Black
Terrain more than 500 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude -500 ft
HTAWS Terrain Altitude Colors and Symbology
Unlighted Obstacle
Obstacle Symbol
< 1000 ft
AGL
Lighted Obstacle
> 1000 ft < 1000 ft > 1000 ft
AGL
AGL
AGL
Obstacle
Color
Red
Obstacle Location
Obstacle is at or above current aircraft altitude
Yellow
Obstacle is between 250 ft and 0 ft below current aircraft
altitude
White
Obstacle is 250 ft, or more, below current aircraft altitude
HTAWS Obstacle Colors and Symbology
190-00356-30 Rev M
51
Part Four: Section 2
HTAWS Operation
Obstacle is at or above the aircraft altitude (Red)
250 ft
250 ft
Obstacle is between 250 ft and 0 ft
below the aircraft altitude (Yellow)
Obstacle is 250 ft, or more,
below the aircraft altitude (Gray)
HTAWS Obstacle Altitude Colors and Symbology
Potential Impact Point
Alert Level
WARNING (Red)
NOTE: The cutouts are for display purposes only
and do not affect the performance of HTAWS.
General Database Information
CAUTION (Yellow)
HTAWS Alert Coloring and Symbology
Airport/Heliport Terrain “Cutouts”
For software version 4.00 and later: when configured
for helicopters (the helicopter icon will be displayed),
black, circular or oblong “cutouts” will be displayed on
the Terrain Page around airports and heliports, to enhance
viewing of the information displayed for those locations.
The Terrain legend (shown in the lower right of the
display on the Terrain Page) defines the color black as
-500 ft. However, this does not apply to the black cutouts
surrounding the airports and heliports.
Garmin HTAWS uses terrain and obstacle information
supplied by government sources. The data undergoes
verification by Garmin to confirm accuracy of the content.
However, the displayed information should never be
understood as being all-inclusive. Pilots must familiarize
themselves with the appropriate charts for safe flight.
NOTE: The data contained in the terrain and
obstacle databases comes from government
agencies. Garmin accurately processes and crossvalidates the data, but cannot guarantee the
accuracy and completeness of the data.
The terrain/obstacle databases are contained on a
datacard which is inserted in the right-most slot of the
400W/500W Series units.
Airport and Heliport Cutouts
52
Database Versions
The version and area of coverage of each terrain/obstacle
database is shown on the Terrain Database Versions Page,
located in the AUX Page Group. Databases are checked for
integrity at power-up. If a database is found to be missing
and/or deficient, the HTAWS system fails the self-test and
displays the HTAWS system failure message.
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Part Four: Section 3
HTAWS Alerts
Database Updates
Terrain/obstacle databases are updated periodically
with the latest terrain and obstacle data. Visit the Garmin
website to check for newer versions of terrain/obstacle
databases. Compare database cycle numbers to determine
if a newer version is available.
The database update process includes either
reprogramming or replacing the database card and
inserting the updated card in the right card slot on
the unit front panel. The terrain/obstacle database
may be downloaded via the internet and the card
reprogrammed using a USB programmer available
from Garmin. Contact Garmin at 800-800-1020 or at
www.garmin.com for more information.
To update your terrain/obstacle databases:
Terrain Database Information
To function properly HTAWS requires the use of
databases specific to helicopters and HTAWS. The databases
required are:
1.
Acquire a new terrain data card from Garmin.
2.
Turn off the power to the unit.
3.
Remove the old terrain data card and insert the
new card into the right-most slot of the unit.
4.
Turn on the unit and verify that the HTAWS
system passes self-test.
• 6 arc-second Terrain Database
• Helicopter Obstacle Database
• Helicopter Aviation Database including Heliports
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53
Part Four: Section 3
HTAWS Alerts
Terrain Database Areas of Coverage
Section 3: HTAWS Alerts
The following describes the area of coverage available
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters
in each database. Regional definitions may change without that are set within HTAWS software algorithms. HTAWS
notice.
alerts employ either a CAUTION or a WARNING alert
severity level. When an alert is issued, visual annunciations
Database
Coverage Area
are displayed. Aural alerts are simultaneously issued.
Latitudes:
0°
to
N90°
Annunciations appear in a dedicated field in the lower left
Americas - North Longitudes: W180° to W30°
corner of the display.
Americas - South
Atlantic - North
Atlantic - South
Pacific - North
Pacific - South
Latitudes: N30° to S90°
Longitudes: W180° to W30°
Latitudes: 0° to N90°
Longitudes: W30° to E90°
Latitudes: N30° to S90°
Longitudes: W30° to E90°
Latitudes: 0° to N90°
Longitudes: E60° to E180°
Latitudes: N30° to S90°
Longitudes: E60° to E180°
HTAWS Annunciation Field
HTAWS Annunciation Field
Obstacle Database Areas of Coverage
Annunciations are color-coded according to the HTAWS
The following describes the area of coverage available
Alert
Summary table. Pop-up terrain alerts will occur if an
in each database. Regional definitions may change without
HTAWS
alert is activated while not on the HTAWS page.
notice.
There are two options when an alert is displayed:
Database
Coverage Area
To acknowledge the pop-up alert and return to the
United States (US)
US/Europe
Limited to the United States plus some
areas of Canada, Mexico, Caribbean,
and the Pacific.
Alaska, Austria, Belgium, Canada*,
Caribbean*, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Estonia, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Hawaii, Iceland, Ireland,
Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Mexico*,
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
United Kingdom, United States
currently viewed page:
Press the CLR button.
To acknowledge the pop-up alert and quickly
access the HTAWS Page:
Press the ENT button.
* Indicates partial coverage
NOTE: It is very important to note that not all
obstacles are necessarily charted and therefore
may not be contained in the Obstacle Database.
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190-00356-30 Rev M
NOTE: To further capture the attention of the
pilot, HTAWS issues aural (voice) messages that
accompany visual annunciations and pop-up
alerts. Some aural messages are configurable
during installation of the system. For a summary
of aural messages, see the HTAWS Alert Summary
table.
Part Four: Section 3
HTAWS Alerts
NOTE: HTAWS Caution Alerts are displayed as
constant black text on a yellow background;
HTAWS Warning Alerts are displayed as constant
white text on a red background.
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
The unit will issue terrain alerts not only when the
aircraft altitude is below the terrain elevation but also when
the aircraft is projected to come within minimum clearance
values of the terrain. This alerting, called Forward Looking
Terrain Avoidance (FLTA), is also provided for obstacles.
The FLTA functionality looks ahead of the aircraft using
GPS position information and the terrain and obstacle
databases to provide alerts when the predicted flight path
does not clear the terrain or obstacle by the required
clearance. The amount of clearance required varies
depending on position relative to airports and heliports, in
order to reduce the occurrence of nuisance alerting.
Any potential impact points are depicted on the display.
There are 2 levels of severity for FLTA alerts. They are
cautionary (amber) and warning (red) in nature and are
described in further detail below.
FLTA CAUTION—Estimated potential impact in approximately
30 seconds after a caution pop-up alert and annunciation. FLTA
caution alerts are accompanied by the aural message “Caution
Terrain; Caution Terrain” OR “Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”.
Similarly, a “Caution Obstacle; Caution Obstacle” or “Obstacle
Ahead; Obstacle Ahead” alert is also provided. The time to an
alert can vary with conditions, therefore there is no guarantee
of a 30 second caution alert being issued.
FLTA WARNING— Warning pop-up alerts are issued 15 seconds
prior to an estimated potential impact in normal mode and
approximately 10 seconds in RP Mode. FLTA warning alerts are
accompanied by the aural message “Warning - Terrain, Terrain” .
Similarly, a “Warning - Obstacle, Obstacle” alert is also provided.
The time to an alert can vary with conditions, therefore there is
no guarantee of a 15/10 second warning alert being issued.
The alerts are annunciated visually through the
annunciator status bar, a pop-up alert box, and the red and
yellow X’s on the HTAWS page. The alerts are annunciated
aurally through a voice message indicating the potential
threat, such as “Caution - Terrain, Terrain” or “Warning Obstacle, Obstacle”.
Voice Call Out Aural Alert
The purpose of the Voice Call Out aural alert messages
are to provide an advisory alert to the pilot that the aircraft
is between 500 feet and 100 feet above terrain in 100 foot
increments. When the aircraft descends within the selected
distance from the terrain, the aural message for the selected
distance is generated. There are no display annunciations
or pop-up alerts that accompany the aural message.
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55
Part Four: Section 3
HTAWS Alerts
HTAWS Not Available Alert
Garmin HTAWS requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution
along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should the
navigation solution become degraded, or if the aircraft is
out of the database coverage area, the annunciation “TAWS
N/A” is generated in the annunciation window. When the
GPS signal is re-established and the aircraft is within the
database coverage area, the “TAWS N/A” annunciation is
removed.
No GPS Position
HTAWS Failure Alert
HTAWS continually monitors several system-critical
items, such as database validity, hardware status, and GPS
status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the
aural message “HTAWS System Failure” is issued along with
the “TAWS FAIL” annunciation.
“TAWS NOT AVAILABLE” Display
HTAWS FAILED Display
HTAWS Alert Summary
Position Outside Terrain Database Coverage
56
The aural alert voice gender is configurable to be either
male or female. See your Garmin installer for further
information on configuring the alert system.
190-00356-30 Rev M
Part Four: Section 3
HTAWS Alerts
Pilot Actions
If a HTAWS warning and associated aural are received, the pilot should immediately maneuver the rotorcraft in
response to the alert unless the terrain or obstacle is clearly identified visually and determined by the pilot not to be a
factor to the safety of the operation.
A HTAWS caution alert indicates terrain or obstacle nearby. If possible visually locate the terrain or obstacle for avoidance.
A HTAWS warning alert may follow a HTAWS caution unless the aircraft’s path towards the terrain or obstacle is changed.
NOTE: Display of terrain and obstacles on the display is supplemental data only. Maneuvering solely by reference to the terrain and obstacle data is not recommended or authorized.
HTAWS Alerts Summary
HTAWS
Annunciation
None
Pop-Up Alert
Aural Message
Description
None
“HTAWS System Failure”
HTAWS has failed
None
None
HTAWS has been inhibited by the crew,
or the aircraft groundspeed has fallen
below 30 knots (automatic inhibiting).
None
“HTAWS Not Available”
HTAWS not available.
“Caution - Terrain, Terrain”
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
Caution for Terrain
“Warning - Terrain, Terrain”
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
Warning for Terrain
“Caution - Obstacle, Obstacle”
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
Caution for Obstacle
“Warning - Obstacle, Obstacle”
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
Warning for Obstacle
None
None
Alerting thresholds are reduced. Visual
and aural annunciation of caution alerts
are suppressed.
None
“Five Hundred”
HTAWS provides optional 500 ft through
100 ft (in 100 ft increments) altitude call
out alerts.
“Four Hundred”
“Three Hundred”
“Two Hundred”
“One Hundred”
NOTE: HTAWS Caution Alerts are displayed as constant black text on a yellow background; HTAWS Warning Alerts are displayed
as constant white text on a red background.
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57
Part Four: Section 3
HTAWS Alerts
Voice Call Out Selection
The Voice Call Out (VCO) selection is available where
HTAWS is installed. The VCO functionality provides a
voice annunciation of the aircraft’s height above terrain or
the nearest airport, heliport, runway, or helipad when that
threshold is first crossed. The available call outs include
“Five Hundred” through “One Hundred” in one hundred
foot intervals. The voice call outs can be enabled and
disabled through the Voice Call Out Selection option on
the AUX - SETUP 2 page.
To select the Voice Call Out choices, in the Setup 2 page
select the Voice Call Out Selection item and then select the
desired options.
1.
2.
58
3.
Turn the small right knob to highlight the
desired VCO value.
4.
Press ENT. The values above the selected value
will be disabled.
Select “Voice Callout Selection” from the Setup
2 Page and press ENT.
The flashing cursor highlights the VCO
selection.
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Part Five
Terrain Proximity
Part Five:
Terrain Proximity Interface
NOTE: Either the TERRAIN, TAWS (500W-series
only), HTAWS, or Terrain Proximity functionality
will be available via the Terrain page, depending
on the installed hardware and configuration. .
Introduction
Garmin Terrain Proximity is an optional non-TSOcertified terrain awareness feature of the 400W/500W
series available in helicopter configurations to increase
situational awareness and help reduce controlled flight
into terrain (CFIT). Terrain Proximity is available in the
Nav page group Terrain pages. Terrain Proximity depicts
nearby terrain and obstacles relative to the aircraft altitude,
however it does not provide any alerts.
Terrain Proximity requires the following to operate
properly:
• The system must have a valid 3-D GPS position
solution.
• The system must have a valid terrain database.
Displaying Terrain Proximity
The Terrain Proximity page is in the Map page group.
1.
Turn the large right knob to the Map
function.
2.
Then, the small right knob to the Terrain
Proximity page.
Terrain Proximity uses information provided from the
GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude.
GPS altitude is derived from satellite measurements. GPS
altitude is converted to a Mean Sea Level (MSL)-based
altitude (GSL altitude) and is used to provide terrain
coloring that depicts terrain elevation relative to the aircraft.
GSL altitude accuracy is affected by factors such as satellite
geometry, but it is not subject to variations in pressure and
temperature that normally affect pressure altitude devices.
GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to
determine MSL altitude.
Terrain Proximity Page
Terrain Proximity utilizes terrain and obstacle databases
that are referenced to mean sea level (MSL). Using the GPS
position and GSL altitude, Terrain Proximity displays a 2-D
picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to
the position and altitude of the aircraft. In this manner,
Terrain Proximity increases awareness of the aircraft
proximity to terrain and obstacles.
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59
Part Five
Terrain Proximity
Terrain Proximity 120° Arc or 360° Rings
Terrain Proximity Aviation Data
Select the 120º Arc or 360º rings overlay for the Terrain
Proximity page with the Page Menu.
Select the display of Aviation data on the Terrain
Proximity page. The Page Menu selections allow you to
hide or show aviation data overlay on the Terrain Proximity
page.
1.
Press the MENU key to display the Page Menu.
The “View 120°” or “View 360°” option will
be highlighted.
1.
Press the MENU key to display the Page Menu
and turn the small right knob to highlight the
Aviation Data selection.
Select 120° View
2.
Press the ENT key to accept the displayed
selection. Repeat these steps to toggle between
the two selections.
Select “Show Aviation Data”
2.
120° View Selected
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190-00356-30 Rev M
Press the ENT key to accept the displayed
selection. Repeat these steps to toggle between
the two selections.
Part Five
Terrain Proximity
Terrain Proximity Legend
2.
Select the display of the Terrain color legend on the
Terrain Proximity page from the Page Menu.
1.
Press the ENT key to accept the displayed
selection. Repeat these steps to toggle between
the two selections.
Press the MENU key to display the Page Menu
and turn the small right knob to highlight the
Legend selection.
Select “Show Legend”
Terrain Legend Shown in Lower Right Corner
Red
Terrain is more than 250 ft
above the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude +250 ft
Orange Terrain is between 250 ft and 0 ft
above the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude
Terrain is between 0 ft and 250 ft
Yellow below the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude -250 ft
Green
Terrain is between 250 ft and 500 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Black
Terrain more than 500 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Aircraft Altitude -500 ft
Terrain Proximity Terrain Colors
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Part Five
Terrain Proximity
Unlighted Obstacle
> 1000 ft < 1000 ft > 1000 ft
AGL
AGL
AGL
Obstacle Symbol
< 1000 ft
AGL
Lighted Obstacle
Color
Red
Obstacle Location
Obstacle is at or above current aircraft altitude
Yellow
Obstacle is between 250 ft and 0 ft below current aircraft
altitude
White
Obstacle is 250 ft, or more, below current aircraft altitude
Terrain Proximity Obstacle Coloring and Symbology
Terrain Proximity Limitations
NOTE: The data contained in the terrain and
obstacle databases comes from government
agencies. Garmin accurately processes and crossvalidates the data but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
Terrain Proximity displays terrain and obstructions
relative to the altitude of the aircraft. Individual obstructions
may be shown if available in the database. However, all
obstructions may not be available in the database and
data may be inaccurate. Never use this information for
navigation or to maneuver to avoid obstacles.
System Status
Terrain Proximity information is based on terrain
elevation information in a database that may contain
inaccuracies. Terrain Proximity information should be
used as an aid to situational awareness. Never use it for
navigation or to maneuver to avoid terrain.
The Terrain Proximity system continually monitors
several system-critical items, such as Terrain Proximity
database validity, hardware status, and GPS status. The
Terrain Proximity page will post the message “NO DATA”
when the terrain database is not available.
Terrain Proximity uses terrain and obstacle information
supplied by government sources. The displayed information
should never be understood as being all-inclusive.
A blue cross-hatching pattern is shown when out of the
area of coverage, but no system message is posted.
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Part Six
GTS 800 Interface
GTS 8XX Series Description
Part Six:
Garmin GTS 8XX Series
Interface
Please refer to the GTS 8XX Series Pilot’s Guide for
a complete description of the GTS 8XX Series Traffic
system.
Introduction
The Garmin GTS 8XX Series unit is a Traffic Advisory
System (TAS - GTS 800 and GTS 820) or Traffic Alert and
Collision Avoidance System (TCAS I - GTS 850). The GTS
8XX Series enhances flight crew situational awareness by
displaying traffic information for transponder-equipped
aircraft. The GTS 8XX Series also provides visual and
aural traffic alerts including voice announcements to assist
in visually acquiring traffic. The GTS 800 and GTS 820
are TAS systems, the GTS 850 is a TSO-approved TCAS I
system. The GTS 8XX uses active interrogations of Mode
A/C/S transponders to provide Traffic Advisories.
Traffic Page showing GTS 8XX series traffic
near the 40 NM mile range, at
10 o’clock above.
Power-up Self-Test
Check for the following test criteria on the Traffic Page
during power-up:
The Standby Screen appears when the
GTS 8XX series passes the power-up test.
NOTE: when the system is in standby, the
GTS 8XX series does not transmit, interrogate, or track intruders aircraft.
1.
If the GTS 8XX series unit passes the power-up
test and your aircraft has both a squat switch
and is on the ground, the Standby Screen is
displayed (see sidebar).
2.
If the GTS 8XX series unit passes the power-up
test and your aircraft has both a squat switch
and is airborne, the Traffic Page is displayed
on the 6-NM display range and in the normal
altitude display mode.
3.
If the GTS 8XX series unit passes the power-up
test and your aircraft does not have a squat
switch, the Standby Screen is displayed.
4.
If the display indicates that the GTS 8XX series
unit has failed, please refer to the failure
response section in the GTS 8XX Series Pilot’s
Guide on actions to take.
190-00356-30 Rev M
63
Part Six
GTS 800 Interface
Voice Announcements
To begin tracking intruder aircraft:
1.
Press the cursor knob and highlight STBY.
2.
Turn the small right knob to select OPER.
3.
Press ENT to confirm operating mode and begin
tracking intruder aircraft.
See the GTS 8XX Series Pilot’s Guide for information on
voice announcements.
Switching Between Standby and Operating
Modes
The unit must be in operating mode for traffic to
be displayed. The ability to switch out of standby into
operating mode on the ground is especially useful for
scanning the airspace around the airport before takeoff.
To switch into Operating Mode from Standby
Mode:
Operating Mode is confirmed by the display
of “OPER” in the upper right-hand corner of
the Traffic Page.
1.
Press the cursor knob and highlight
“STBY”. Turn the small right knob to select
“OPER?”.
2.
Press ENT to confirm and place the GTS 8XX
series unit in operating mode.
NOTE: The FAILED message occurs when the
system detects an error and prohibits further
traffic display operation as long as this message
stays on the screen.
NOTE: The GTS 8XX series unit switches out of
standby into the 6-NM display range. If your aircraft has a squat switch and you do not manually
switch out of standby, the GTS 8XX series unit
will automatically switch out of standby 8 to 10
seconds after takeoff.
User-initiated Test
NOTE: A user-initiated test can only be performed
when in standby or failed mode.
In addition to the power-up test, the GTS 800 series unit
performs a continuous self-test. This continuous self-test is
performed several times per minute. A user-initiated test of
the GTS 8XX series unit interface can also be performed.
To perform a user-initiated test:
1.
1.
Press the cursor knob and highlight
“OPER”.
2.
Turn the small right knob to select
“STBY?”.
3.
Press ENT to confirm and place the GTS 8XX
series unit in standby mode.
Turn the small right knob to select the Traffic
Page.
2.
From the Traffic Page, press MENU to display
the Page Menu.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select “Self Test?”
and press ENT.
64
To switch into Standby Mode from the Traffic Page:
190-00356-30 Rev M
NOTE: If your aircraft has a squat switch, STBY
is not displayed while you are airborne but will
go into standby 24 seconds after landing. This
delay allows the GTS 8XX series unit to remain
in the operating mode during a touch-and-go
maneuver.
Part six
GTS 800 Interface
Altitude Display Mode
3.
The GTS 8XX has four altitude display modes: Normal
(±2,700 feet, Above (-2,700 feet to +9,000 feet), Below
(-9,000 feet to +2,700 feet), and Unrestricted (±9,900
feet). The GTS 8XX continues to track up to 30 intruder
aircraft within its maximum surveillance range, regardless
of the altitude display mode selected.
The selected altitude display mode is displayed in the
upper left-hand corner of the Traffic page.
Note that confirmation is not required. The
mode is changed immediately when using the
small right knob. Turn the cursor off when
selection is made.
Traffic Page
Traffic can be displayed both on the Map Page (only if
heading is available) and on the Traffic Page.
Traffic
Altitude Display Mode
Operating Mode
Display Range
Traffic Advisory
(with no bearing information)
The name of the selected altitude display mode (ABV: look up,
NRM: normal, BLW: look down, or UNR: unrestricted) is displayed
in the upper left-hand corner of the Traffic Screen. The GTS 8XX
series continues to track up to 30 intruder aircraft within its
maximum surveillance range, regardless of the altitude display
mode selected.
Traffic Page
+9,900 ft
+9,000 ft
2.
With each turn of the knob, the screen changes
to display the traffic detected within the selected
altitude display range. The 400W/500W Series
screen also displays unrestricted traffic (UNR)
having a range of maximum specified by the
GTS 8XX series unit Pilot’s Guide. Please refer
to the GTS 8XX series unit Pilot’s Guide for
information regarding altitude display ranges.
0 ft
Drawing Not to Scale
Above (ABV)
0 ft
Normal (NRM)
Below (BLW)
From the Traffic Page, turn the cursor on,
highlight the current mode and turn the small
right knob to cycle through the options.
Unrestricted (UNR)
1.
+2,700 ft
+2,700 ft
To change the Altitude Display Mode:
-2,700 ft
-9,000 ft
-9,900 ft
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Altitude Display Modes
65
Part Six
GTS 800 Interface
TAS Symbol
Traffic Type
Description
The hollow white (may be configured as cyan) diamond represents traffic detected within
the selected display range that does not meet the criteria for a TA or a PA and does not
pose an immediate collision threat.
Proximity Advisories (PA) are displayed as solid white (may be configured as cyan)
Proximity
diamonds. PA’s are defined as traffic within 6 NM, within 1200 feet of vertical separation,
Advisory (PA)
and are not a Traffic Advisory (TA)
A Traffic Advisory (TA) is generated when the GTS 8XX predicts that an intruder aircraft
Traffic
may pose a collision threat. A solid yellow circle represents an intruder aircraft that meets
Advisory (TA) the TA criteria as described in the TA Alerting Conditions section. A TA consists of the traffic
symbol and an aural alert (e.g., “traffic, 12 o’clock, high, 3 miles”).
Out-ofThis solid yellow half circle appears (on the outer range ring) under the same conditions
Range Traffic and has the same urgency as a TA. Its appearance differs from the TA only to signify that
Advisory
the intruder is outside of the current range of the Traffic page.
Other Traffic
Symbol
TAS/TCAS Symbology
Traffic Warning Window
NOTE: GTS 8XX series unit data is only displayed
on the Map Page if suitable aircraft heading data
is available. See the Garmin 400W or 500W Series
Installation Manuals available at your authorized
Garmin service center for details.
When the unit is not on the traffic page and a traffic
threat is imminent, the Traffic Warning Window is
displayed. The Warning Window shows a small map and
can display the Traffic Page (if the user presses ENT) or
return to the previous page (if the user presses CLR).
Traffic Page Display Range
You can change the display range on the Traffic Page at
any time.
Press the RNG Key to cycle through the
following range options:
•
GTS 800 - 2 NM, 2 and 6 NM, 6 and 12 NM, 12 and
24 NM.
•
GTS 820 and 850 - 2 NM, 6 NM, 12 NM, 24 NM,
and 40 NM.
Traffic Warning Window
NOTE: The Traffic Warning Window is disabled
when the aircraft ground speed is less than 30
knots or when an approach is active, unless the
unit is configured for helicopter operation as noted
by the helicopter ownship icon.
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190-00356-30 Rev M
Part Six
GTS 800 Interface
Configuring Traffic Data on the Map Page
NOTE: Proximity Advisories (PA) are displayed as solid white diamonds (may be configured as cyan). The GTS 800 shows these
PAs as “other” (hollow diamonds). PAs are
defined as traffic within the 6.0-NM range, with
± 1200 feet of altitude separation, and not a traffic
advisory (TA).
Traffic is only displayed on the Map Page if aircraft
heading data is available. When heading is not available,
Traffic Advisories are displayed as non-bearing banners on
the Map Page.
The traffic label is the altitude separation above or
below the symbol and the vertical speed sense arrow to
the right of the symbol. From the Map Page, you can
display traffic in a thumbnail format in any of the top
three data fields (top four fields on the 500W Series)
on the right side of the Map Page.
Selections for configuring traffic data are
made from the Map Setup Menu on the Map
Page.
To configure traffic on the Map Page:
1.
Turn the small right knob to select the Map
Page.
2.
Press MENU to display the Page Menu. Turn
the small right knob to select “Setup Map?”
and press ENT.
3.
4.
5.
The flashing cursor highlights the GROUP field.
Turn the small right knob to select Traffic and
press ENT.
Turn the large right knob to select the desired
Traffic group option. Turn the small right knob
to select the desired option and press ENT.
Repeat the step for Traffic Symbol and Traffic
Label.
Return to the Map Page by pressing CLR.
When a Traffic Advisory is active, the “Traffic” banner is displayed in the lower right corner of the Map Page.
To display Thumbnail Traffic on the Map Page
1.
Turn the small right knob to select the Map
Page.
2.
Press MENU to display the Page Menu.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select “Change
Fields?” and press ENT.
4.
Select one of the top three fields (top four
fields on the 500W Series). Select TRFC from
the Select Field Type List and press ENT. Note
that the thumbnail range defaults to 6 NM and
cannot be changed.
The Traffic group allows the operator to choose
which traffic is displayed (all traffic, traffic and proximity
advisories, or traffic advisories only). The traffic symbol is
the symbol used to depict the type of traffic:
190-00356-30 Rev M
67
Part Six
GTS 800 Interface
Highlighting Traffic Data Using Map Panning
Another map page function is panning, which allows
you to move the map beyond its current limits without
adjusting the map scale. When you select the panning
function—by pressing the small right knob—a target
pointer flashes on the map display. A window also appears
at the top of the map display showing the latitude/longitude
position of the pointer, plus the bearing and distance to the
pointer from your present position.
When the target pointer is placed on traffic, the traffic
range and altitude separation are displayed. The traffic is
identified as:
TA: Traffic Advisory, PA: Proximity Advisory,
TRFC: Other Traffic
Monitoring Traffic
See the information in the GTS 8XX Series Pilot’s
Guide regarding monitoring traffic on the display and the
corresponding actions to take.
Failure Response
Errors indicated by a “FAILED” message on the screen
prevent continued use of the GTS 8XX Series unit. Please see
the GTS 8XX Series Pilot’s Guide for detailed information
on Failure Response.
Description of Traffic Advisory Criteria
For a description of Traffic Advisory criteria and display
interpretation, please see the GTS 8XX Series Pilot’s
Guide.
When the target pointer is placed on traffic,
the traffic range and altitude separation are
displayed.
To select the panning function and pan the map
display:
1.
Press the small right knob to activate the
panning target pointer.
2.
Turn the small right knob clockwise to move
up, or turn it counterclockwise to move down.
3.
Turn the large right knob clockwise to move
right, or turn it counterclockwise to move left.
4.
To cancel the panning function and return to
your present position, press the small right
knob.
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190-00356-30 Rev M
The GTS 8XX Series Pilot’s Guide contains
detailed information on traffic advisory and
display interpretation.
Part Seven: Section 1
ADS-B Interface: Introduction
Part Seven:
Garmin ADS-B Interface
Section 1: Introduction
The GNS has the ability to display ADS-B information
from a variety of compatible Garmin sources. This includes
ADS-B traffic information, FIS-B weather products, and
traffic information from TIS-B as well as legacy TCAS/
TCAD systems. The display output will vary slightly
depending on the specific devices connected and the
operating environment. Refer to specific device operating
manuals for more detailed information.
190-00356-30 Rev M
69
Part Seven: Section 2
ADS-B Interface: FIS-B Weather
Section 2: FIS-B Weather
Flight Information Services (FIS) Description
Review the Limitations section in the front of this guide
for the limitations that apply to the FIS-B data.
The FIS-B Function is based on a ground-to-air data
link and requires that the appropriate ground systems
are broadcasting weather data and the aircraft is within
reception range of the Ground Broadcast Transceiver
(GBT). Low flying aircraft may not receive FIS-B weather
updates due to terrain blocking the GBT broadcast.
The Flight Information Services (FIS) function provides
text and graphic weather information for aircraft equipped
with a compatible device. No subscription is required for
FIS-B services.
FIS-B weather data reception requires line-of-site
communication between the receiver and the ADS-B
ground station. Incomplete Regional and/or CONUS
NEXRAD imagery displayed on the MAP and FIS-B
Weather Pages of the affected products is an indicator of
poor FIS-B reception.
FIS-B Weather Legend
A cyan checkerboard pattern indicates that no data is
available for that area.
After weather data is received, the GNS will display
that Region NEXRAD data for 30 minutes and CONUS
NEXRAD for 60 minutes. After the expiration time the data
will be removed, “NXRD: N/A” will be displayed.
Graphical Weather Display
NEXRAD
Graphical weather data is overlaid on the map
indicating the precipitation (intensity) detected by ground
based radar for a specific area. The colors indicating
increasing levels of rainfall progresses from green for
light precipitation to red for heavy precipitation. FIS-B
weather does not differentiate between liquid and frozen
precipitation. Precipitation data is color coded as follows:
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UAT FIS-B Graphic Weather Info with the GDL 88
(or similar device)
Part Seven: Section 2
ADS-B Interface: FIS-B Weather
Affected Areas
Any area in the continental United States (CONUS) or
Alaska where the distance from ADS-B ground stations
or the combined effect of distance and low altitude is
sufficiently great to cause poor reception. A good source
of information for ground station coverage can be found at
http://www.faa.gov/nextgen/flashmap/
Reception will improve in some affected areas as
the FAA completes the NextGen ADS-B ground station
infrastructure. However, due to line-of-sight broadcast
characteristics, operators with properly installed and
functioning equipment may still receive incomplete FIS-B
data when signal reception is limited by the distance from
ground stations combined with a low altitude.
The example below displays an area where FIS-B data is
degraded due to poor reception:
NEXRAD Description
WSR-88D weather surveillance radar or NEXRAD
(NEXt generation RADar) is a Doppler radar system that
has greatly improved the detection of meteorological
events such as thunderstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes.
An extensive network of NEXRAD stations provides
almost complete radar coverage of the continental United
States, Alaska, and Hawaii. The unobstructed range of
each NEXRAD is 124 nautical miles. The update rate is
2.5 minutes for Regional NEXRAD and 15 minutes for
CONUS NEXRAD.
NEXRAD Abnormalities
There are possible abnormalities regarding displayed
NEXRAD images. Some, but not all, causes of abnormal
displayed information include:
• Ground Clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes, when the radar antenna points directly
at the sun
• Military aircraft deploy metallic dust which can
cause alterations in radar scans
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which
may cause shadows
• Scheduled maintenance may put a radar off-line
Example of Areas Where FIS-B Reception Is Incomplete
NEXRAD Limitations
Certain limitations exist regarding the NEXRAD
radar displays. Some, but not all, are listed for the user’s
awareness:
• The (high resolution) Regional NEXRAD “pixels”
are 1.5 minutes (1.5 nautical miles = 2.78 km)
wide by 1 minute (1 nautical miles = 1.852 km)
tall. The (medium resolution – 5 times larger than
high resolution) CONUS NEXRAD “pixels” are 7.5
minutes (7.5 nautical miles = 13.89 km) wide by 5
minutes (5 nautical miles = 9.26 km) wide. Above
60 degrees of latitude the block widths double to
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ADS-B Interface: FIS-B Weather
3 minutes/nautical miles for Regional (no CONUS
above 60 degrees). The intensity level reflected by
the pixel will be the highest level sampled within
the area covered by each pixel.
NEXRAD Intensity
Colors are used to identify the different NEXRAD echo
intensities (reflectivity) measured in dBZ (decibels of Z).
“Reflectivity” is the amount of transmitted power returned
to the radar receiver. Reflectivity (designated by the letter
Z) covers a wide range of signals (from very weak to very
strong). So, a more convenient number for calculations
and comparison, a decibel (or logarithmic) scale (dBZ), is
used. The dBZ values increase as the strength of the signal
returned to the radar increases. There are three gradations
for precipitation intensity.
To select CONUS NEXRAD, REGION NEXRAD, or
graphic METARs on the Nav Weather page:
1.
In the NAV group, turn the small right knob
to the FIS-B Weather page.
2.
Press the small right knob to activate
selection.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select CONUS
NEXRAD, REGION NEXRAD, or METARs.
4.
Press the small right knob to save the
displayed selection.
To select CONUS NEXRAD or REGION NEXRAD on
the Nav Map pages:
1.
In the NAV group, turn the small right knob
to the Nav Map page (Nav page 2).
NEXRAD Options
2.
Press the MENU key.
When selected for display, NEXRAD precipitation
intensity information is shown. Composite data from
all of the NEXRAD radar sites in the United States for
the selected area is shown. This data is composed of the
maximum reflectivity from the individual radar sweeps.
The display of the information is color-coded to indicate
the weather level severity. Information about which sites
are operational or off-line is also available (see coverage
below). Refer to the legend for a description of the color
code.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select Display
CONUS NEXRAD or Display RGN NEXRAD.
4.
Press the ENT key to save the displayed
selection.
The NEXRAD option has selections of Regional,
CONUS, or Combined NEXRAD. CONUS NEXRAD
includes a composite of available NEXRAD radar imagery
across the 48 states. Regional NEXRAD is a composite of
available NEXRAD radar imagery in a local area, showing a
more detailed image than CONUS NEXRAD.
Continental US NEXRAD (CONUS)
The Display CONUS NEXRAD selection shows NEXRAD
radar information for the entire continental United States.
Outside of NEXRAD
Coverage
Aircraft Position
NEXRAD Weather
NEXRAD Coverage
Weather Page With CONUS NEXRAD Displayed
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Part Seven: Section 2
ADS-B Interface: FIS-B Weather
Regional NEXRAD
The Display RGN NEXRAD selection shows NEXRAD
radar information for the region near the aircraft location.
Regional NEXRAD is a higher resolution display of the
weather data.
METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that
provide them.
Page Function Label
Select Region
NEXRAD, CONUS
NEXRAD, or METAR
Outside of NEXRAD
Coverage
NEXRAD Weather
Aircraft Position
1.
Press MENU to display the Page Menu. Turn
the large or small right knob to highlight
“Display Legend?”
2.
Press the ENT key to display the METAR
legend.
NEXRAD Coverage
Weather Page With Region NEXRAD Display
Graphical METARs
When selected for display, graphic METARs
(METeorological Aviation Reports) are shown as colored
flags at airports that provide METAR reports. Refer to the
Legend for a description of the color code. The update rate
is every five minutes and there is a 90 minute expiration
time.
NOTE: If both a GDL 69 and ADS-B device are
interfaced to the GNS then the textual METARS
and TAF pages will show the most recent data and
the source of the data will be indicated (FIS-B or
XM).
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Part Seven: Section 2
ADS-B Interface: FIS-B Weather
Textual METARs:
Terminal Area Forecast (TAF)
1.
In the WPT group, turn the small right knob to
the FIS-B Textual METAR page. Textual METARS
for the flight plan destination airport are shown
by default.
2.
To select a different airport, press the small
right knob to activate the cursor. The Airport
ident will blink.
3.
Turn the small or large right knob to select
the desired airport.
4.
Press the small right knob again to turn the
selection cursor off.
5.
When more text is available than can be
displayed, a scroll bar will be shown on the
right side of the display. Press the small right
knob to activate the cursor and turn the large
right knob to scroll the text display.
74
1.
In the WPT group, turn the small right knob to
the TAF page. TAFs for the flight plan destination
airport are shown.
2.
To select a different airport, press the small
right knob to activate the cursor. The Airport
ident will blink.
3.
Turn the small right knob to start airport
selection. Use the small and large right knobs
to select the desired airport.
4.
Press the small right knob again to turn the
selection cursor off.
5.
When more text is available than can be
displayed, a scroll bar will be shown on the
right side of the display. Press the small right
knob to activate the cursor and turn the large
right knob to scroll the text display.
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Part Seven: Section 3
ADS-B Interface: Traffic
Section 3: Traffic
Introduction
The GDL 88 or ADS-B may receive traffic from several
sources including external sources (ADS-B, ADS-R, and
TIS-B) and onboard sources (TAS/TCAS) and creates a
single, fused traffic picture to provide to the flight crew.
Using relative altitude, relative bearing, range, directionality,
ground track, and other identifying information
(ICAO address, flight ID, call sign, tail number), the
GDL 88 or ADS-B should determine when tracks from
multiple sources represent a single traffic target, selects the
most accurate position source for the target, and sends the
data to the display.
ADS ON – in green
ADS INC – in green
ADS TEST – in white
ADS OFF – in white
ADS N/A – in white
ADS FAIL – in yellow
ADS ON - ADS-B is functioning.
ADS N/A. If the ADS-B with TCAD/TCAS or ADS-B is configured
on the GNS and the ADS-B reports invalid heading, invalid track,
and a valid GPS position, the ADS-B will be indicated as N/A (not
available).
ADS FAIL - ADS-B system has failed.
The Standby Screen appears when the
ADS-B passes the power-up test.
Power-Up Self-Test
Check for the following test criteria on the Traffic Page
during power-up:
1. If the GDL 88/ADS-B series unit passes the
power-up test, the Traffic Page is displayed
on the 6-NM display range and in the normal
altitude display mode.
2. If the display indicates that the GDL 88/ADS-B
series unit has failed, please refer to the failure
response section in the Pilot’s Guide for actions
to take.
ADS INC - ADS Incomplete. When the GNS display an ADS
operating mode of ADS-INC, this means that the aircraft is either not
receiving data from the ground stations or is not on the address list for
the ground stations. In either case the traffic picture observed by the
pilot on the GNS display does not include some or all targets observed
by ATC and is thus incomplete. Other participating ADS-B traffic will
be displayed, TCAS/TCAD traffic (if installed) will be displayed, and
targets sent by ground stations to other aircraft may be displayed.
NOTE: The FAILED message occurs when the
system detects an error and prohibits further
traffic display operation as long as this message
stays on the screen.
ADS TEST - ADS-B self-test is running.
ADS OFF - ADS-B function is turned off.
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Part Seven: Section 3
ADS-B Interface: Traffic
Altitude Display Mode
User-initiated Test
NOTE: A user-initiated test can only be performed
when in standby or failed mode.
To perform a user-initiated test:
1.
In the Nav page group, turn the small right
knob to select the Traffic Page.
2.
From the Traffic Page, press MENU to display
the Page Menu.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select “Self Test?”
and press ENT.
The altitude filter will change the traffic displayed to
include only those targets within the vertical limits of the
selected filter. There are four altitude display filters: Normal
(±2,700 feet), Above (-2,700 feet to +9,000 feet), Below
(-9,000 feet to +2,700 feet), and Unrestricted (±9,900 feet).
The selected altitude display filter is displayed in the upper
left-hand corner of the Traffic page. The GDL 88 continues
to track up to 30 intruder aircraft within its maximum
surveillance range, regardless of the altitude display filter
selected and will display up to eight intruders.
The name of the selected altitude display filter (ABV: look up,
NRM: normal, BLW: look down, or UNR: unrestricted) is displayed
in the upper left-hand corner of the Traffic Screen.
To change the Altitude Display Mode:
76
1.
From the Traffic Page, turn the cursor on,
highlight the current filter and turn the small
right knob to cycle through the options.
2.
With each turn of the knob, the screen changes
to display the traffic detected within the
selected altitude display range.
3.
Note that confirmation is not required. The
mode is changed immediately when using the
small right knob. Turn the cursor off when
selection is made.
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Part Seven: Section 3
ADS-B Interface: Traffic
Switching Between Standby and Operating
Modes
NOTE: Whenever switching out of Standby mode,
the ADS-B unit goes to the 6-NM display range.
If your aircraft has a squat switch and you do not
manually switch out of standby, the ADS-B unit
will automatically switch out of standby 8 to 10
seconds after takeoff.
The GDL 88/ADS-B must be in operating mode for
traffic to be displayed. The ability to switch out of standby
into operating mode on the ground is especially useful for
observing the airspace around the airport before takeoff.
To switch into Standby Mode:
To switch into Operating Mode:
To set the mode to Operating when the GDL 88/ADS-B
is not connected to either TCAD or TCAS:
1.
Press the cursor knob and highlight “ADS
OFF”. Turn the small right knob to select “ADS
ON?”.
2.
Press ENT to confirm and place the
GDL 88/ADS-B series unit in operating mode.
3.
Press the cursor knob to exit the menu option
and view the updated mode.
To set the mode to Operate on the GNS units connected
to a GDL 88/ADS-B with TCAD or TCAS, the pilot will
need to place either or both the GDL 88 (ADS) and TCAS/
TCAD the Operating mode.
NOTE: If no heading source is installed then the
GDL 88/ADS-B and a TCAS/TCAD cannot both
commanded ON while on the ground.
To set the mode to Standby when ADS-B unit is not
connected to either TCAD or TCAS:
1.
Press the cursor knob and highlight “ADS
ON”. Turn the small right knob to select “ADS
OFF?”.
2.
Press ENT to confirm and place the ADS-B unit
in Standby mode.
Press the cursor knob to exit the menu option
and view the updated mode.
To set the mode to Standby on the GNS units connected
to an ADS-B unit with TCAD or TCAS, the pilot will
need to place either or both ADS and TCAS/TCAD to the
Standby modes.
1. Press the cursor knob and highlight “TCAD
OPER” or “TCAS OPER”. Turn the small
right knob to select “TCAS STBY?” or “TCAD
STBY?”.
3.
2.
Press ENT to confirm.
1.
Press the cursor knob and highlight “TCAD
STBY” or “TCAS STBY”. Turn the small right
knob to select “TCAS OPER?” or “TCAD
OPER?”.
3.
Change the ADS to Standby mode, if it is not
already set. Turn the small right knob to select
“ADS OFF?”.
2.
Press ENT to confirm.
4.
Press ENT to confirm.
3.
Change the ADS to Operational mode, if it is
not already set. Turn the small right knob to
select “ADS ON?”.
5.
Press the cursor knob to exit the menu option
and view the updated mode.
4.
Press ENT to confirm.
5.
Press the cursor knob to exit the menu option
and view the updated mode.
190-00356-30 Rev M
NOTE: If your aircraft has a squat switch, STBY
is not displayed while you are airborne but will go
into standby 24 seconds after landing. This delay
allows the ADS-B unit to remain in the operating
mode during a touch-and-go maneuver.
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Part Seven: Section 3
ADS-B Interface: Traffic
Traffic Page
Traffic can be displayed both on the Traffic Page and
Nav Map page(s). When using TCAD or TCAS, traffic
can only be displayed on a Nav Map page if heading is
available.
+2,700 ft
+2,700 ft
0 ft
0 ft
Drawing Not to Scale
Operating Mode
Above (ABV)
Orientation Source (TRK or HDG)
Is Received From the GDL 88
+9,000 ft
Normal (NRM)
Traffic
+9,900 ft
Below (BLW)
Altitude Display Mode
Traffic Off-Scale (Map Page)
Unrestricted (UNR)
When interfaced to a GDL 88 or ADS-B Datalink
Sensor, GNS 400W/500W series units can display ADS-B
and TIS-B traffic on the Traffic and Nav Map Pages. When
using TCAD or TCAS, ADS-B and TIS-B traffic may be
overlayed on the Map Page, but only if a valid heading
source is provided.
-2,700 ft
-9,000 ft
-9,900 ft
Altitude Display Modes
ADS ON – in green
ADS INC – in green
ADS TEST – in white
ADS OFF – in white
ADS N/A – in white
ADS FAIL – in yellow
Display Range
Traffic Page
Traffic
Traffic Banner
Traffic Target
Track Vector
Traffic With GDL 88/ADS-B
Display Range
Traffic Advisory
(with no bearing information)
Traffic On Map Page
78
The vectors extending from the traffic targets display how
the traffic target is moving relative to the ground. The vector
length is fixed and provides no indication of how a target
is moving relative to the ownship and does not provide an
indication of the threat posed by the target.
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Part Seven: Section 3
ADS-B Interface: Traffic
ADS ON – in green
ADS INC – in green
ADS TEST – in white
ADS OFF – in white
ADS N/A – in white
ADS FAIL – in yellow
TCAS/TCAD modes:
TCAS STBY – in white
TCAS OPER – in green
TCAS FAIL – in yellow
TCAS TEST – in white
Traffic With GDL 88/ADS-B With TCAS
ADS ON – in green
ADS INC – in green
ADS TEST – in white
ADS OFF – in white
ADS N/A – in white
ADS FAIL – in yellow
Traffic With GDL 88/ADS-B With TCAS Operating and ADS-B
Failed
The yellow FAIL indication is shown in the center of the
screen only when both ADS and TCAS/TCAD have failed.
TCAD modes:
TCAD STBY – in white
TCAD OPER – in green
TCAD FAIL – in yellow
TCAD TEST – in white
TCAD APR – in green
TCAD GND – in green
Traffic With GDL 88/ADS-B With TCAD
If the GDL 88 is configured (not integrated with TCAD/
TCAS system) and it reports invalid heading, invalid track,
and valid GPS position, “UNAVAIL” will be displayed in
the center of the page.
Traffic Failed
Traffic Alert Pop-Up
When the unit is not on the traffic page and a traffic
threat is imminent, the Traffic Alert Pop-Up is displayed.
The Traffic Alert Pop-Up shows a small map and can
display the Traffic Page (if the user presses ENT) or return
to the previous page (if the user presses CLR).
Traffic With GDL 88/ADS-B and Invalid Heading or Track
If either TCAS or ADS is in failed state, valid data may
still be available. Intruders may still be displayed from the
operational device.
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Traffic Alert Pop-Up
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Part Seven: Section 3
ADS-B Interface: Traffic
NOTE: The Traffic Alert Pop-Up is displayed only
in normal operating conditions when the aircraft
is airborne and there is no terrain alerting or dead
reckoning alert.
NOTE: The Traffic Alert Pop-Up is disabled when
the aircraft ground speed is less than 30 knots
or when an approach is active, unless the unit is
configured for helicopter operation as noted by
the helicopter ownship icon.
NOTE: Traffic data will be shown on the Traffic
and Nav Map pages even without heading. When
using TCAD or TCAS, ADS-B unit traffic data is only
displayed on the Map Page if suitable aircraft
heading data is available. See the Garmin 400W
or 500W Series Installation Manuals available at
your authorized Garmin service center for details.
Traffic Page Display Range
You can change the display range on the Traffic Page at
any time.
Press the RNG Key to cycle through the
following range options (Inner Ring/Outer Ring):
• None/1 NM, 1/2 NM, 2/6 NM, 6/12 NM, 12/24 NM,
and 24/40 NM.
Configuring Traffic Data on the Map Page
When using TCAD or TCAS, GDL 88/ADS-B series unit
traffic data is only displayed on the Map Page if suitable
aircraft heading data is available.
When a Traffic Advisory is active, the “Traffic” banner is displayed in the lower right corner of the Map Page.
To configure traffic on the Map Page:
1.
Turn the small right knob to select the Map
Page.
2.
Press MENU to display the Page Menu. Turn
the small right knob to select “Setup Map?”
and press ENT.
3.
The flashing cursor highlights the GROUP field.
Turn the small right knob to select Traffic and
press ENT.
4.
Turn the large right knob to select the desired
Traffic group option. Turn the small right knob
to select the desired option and press ENT.
Repeat the step for Traffic Symbol and Traffic
Label.
5.
Return to the Map Page by pressing CLR.
The Traffic group allows the operator to choose
which traffic is displayed (all traffic, traffic and proximity
advisories, or traffic advisories only). The traffic symbol is
the symbol used to depict the type of traffic:
NOTE: Proximity Advisories (PA) are displayed as solid white diamonds (may
be configured as cyan). PAs are defined as
traffic within the 6.0-NM range, with
± 1200 feet of altitude separation, and not a traffic
advisory (TA).
Selections for configuring traffic data are made from the Map
Setup Menu on the Map Page.
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Part Seven: Section 3
ADS-B Interface: Traffic
From the Map Page, you can display traffic in a
thumbnail format in any of the top three data fields (top
four fields on the 500W Series) on the right side of the
Map Page.
When the target pointer is placed on traffic,
the traffic range and altitude separation are
displayed.
To display Thumbnail Traffic on the Map Page:
To select the panning function and pan the map
display:
1.
Turn the small right knob to select the Map
Page.
2.
Press MENU to display the Page Menu.
1.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select “Change
Fields?” and press ENT.
Press the small right knob to activate the
panning target pointer.
2.
4.
Select one of the top three fields (top four
fields on the 500W Series). Select TRFC from
the Select Field Type List and press ENT. Note
that the thumbnail range defaults to 6 NM and
cannot be changed.
Turn the small right knob clockwise to move
up, or turn it counterclockwise to move down.
3.
Turn the large right knob clockwise to move
right, or turn it counterclockwise to move left.
4.
To cancel the Panning function and return to
your present position, press the small right
knob.
Highlighting Traffic Data Using Map Panning
The Panning, function allows you to view more
information about traffic by highlighting the traffic symbol
with the panning target pointer. The pointer will move from
one target to another if left active as the traffic list provided
by the ADS-B is resorted as targets change priority.
When the target pointer is placed on traffic, the traffic
range and altitude separation are displayed. The traffic is
identified as:
TA: Traffic Advisory, PA: Proximity Advisory,
TRFC: Other Traffic
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Part Seven: Section 3
ADS-B Interface: ADS-B Status
ADS-B Status
Anonymous (ANON) Mode
The ADS-B Status page displays information about the
ADS-B operating status and lists active faults, as well as
selections for output to the ADS-B unit.
The Anonymous Mode, when armed, will replace the
Flight ID with a temporary randomized number for privacy
while the position information will still be provided. The
call sign will be sent as “VFR.” To enable Anonymous
Mode, the Squawk Code on the installed transponder must
be set to the VFR code and the Anonymous Mode must be
armed. Anonymous mode may not be available depending
on the specific installation.
ADS-B STATUS page menu allows Arming/Disarming Anon mode
and turning Pressure Altitude Reporting On/Off.
Pressure Altitude Report (PALT RPT)
The ADS-B unit requires the use of an ownship pressure
altitude for transmission of required ADS-B Out data values
and to calculate the vertical separation and vertical closure
from target aircraft.
1.
Turn the large knob to select AUX group.
2.
Turn the small knob to select the ADS-B Status
page.
3.
Press MENU to display the menu.
4.
Turn the small or large right knob to highlight
the desired choice and then press ENT.
1.
Turn the large knob to select AUX group.
2.
Turn the small knob to select the ADS-B Status
page.
3.
Press MENU to display the menu.
Turn the small or large right knob to highlight
the desired choice and then press ENT.
Failure Response
Errors indicated by a “FAILED” message on the screen
prevent continued use of the ADS-B unit. If the unit is
configured (not integrated with TCAD/TCAS system) and
reports an invalid heading, invalid track, and valid GPS
position, “UNAVAIL” will be displayed in the center of the
page. See the ADS-B Status page for information on Failure
Response.
4.
ADS-B STATUS page, lists some of the problems with the ADS-B,
that might cause the failure.
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Part Seven: Section 3
ADS-B Interface: Ryan TCAD Traffic
RYAN TCAD
TCAD Traffic Page Menu
Ryan TCAD is a system that provides audio and visual
alerts for traffic near your aircraft. The information from
this system can be interfaced through the ADS-B unit to
the GNS 400W/500W series. Operating instructions and
details on the modes of operation are described in the Ryan
TCAD operator’s handbooks.
1.
Press MENU to display the page menu. Turn
the small or large right knob to highlight
the desired choice of commands to send to the
Ryan TCAD.
2.
With the TCAD Approach (APR) Mode selected,
pressing ENT toggles between Enabled and
Disabled.
3.
With TCAD GND Mode selected, pressing ENT
toggles between Enter and Exit GND mode.
4.
Select Setup? and press ENT to reach the Setup
page.
5.
Select Self Test? and press ENT to start the Self
Test process. Self Test is also performed on unit
start up.
Setting Altitude Display Mode
The TCAD has four altitude display modes: Normal
(±2,700 feet), Above (-2,700 feet to +9,000 feet), Below
(-9,000 feet to +2,700 feet), and Unrestricted (±9,900
feet). The GDL 88 continues to track up to 30 intruder
aircraft within its maximum surveillance range, regardless
of the altitude display mode selected.
The selected altitude display mode is displayed in the
upper left-hand corner of the Traffic page.
1.
While viewing the Traffic page, press the small
right knob to activate the cursor and highlight
the current mode. Turn the small right knob
to cycle through the options.
2.
With each turn of the knob, the screen changes
to display the traffic detected within the selected
altitude display range. The 400W/500W Series
screen also displays unrestricted traffic (UNR)
having a maximum range available.
3.
Press ENT to confirm and save the selected
value.
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Part Seven: Section 3
ADS-B Interface: Ryan TCAD Traffic
Ryan TCAD Setup
1.
From the Nav group Traffic page, press the
MENU key. Turn the small right knob to
highlight “Setup?” and then press ENT.
2.
The RYAN TCAD Setup screen will now be
displayed and the Baro Pressure selection will
be activated for selection. Turn the small knob
to select a numeric value and turn the large
right to move the cursor and then press ENT
to save the selected value.
3.
4.
The Ground/Field Elevation value is now
activated for selection. Turn the small knob to
select a numeric value and turn the large right
to move the cursor and then press ENT to save
the selected value.
Traffic
Information
Traffic
Watch
Window
1.
In the Aux group, select “Data Field
Configuration” from the Setup 1 Page.
2.
Turn the small right knob to select the desired
data field option. The following options are
available:
3.
Press ENT to accept the selection.
The Volume field is now activated for selection.
Turn the small knob to select a numeric value
and turn the large right to move the cursor
and then press ENT to save the selected value.
Traffic Watch
If your 400W/500W-series unit is connected to other
equipment providing traffic alert information (e.g., L3
SKYWATCH™ or RYAN TCAD), a traffic alert pop-up is
provided to display traffic information. This allows you
to monitor traffic conditions from ANY page and quickly
identify traffic hazards.
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Part Eight: Section 1
Connext: Introduction
Part Eight:
Garmin Connext Interface
Section 1: Introduction
Garmin ConnextTM is Garmin’s in-cockpit wireless
connectivity system that provides access to weather
updates, text/voice communications, and other datasharing capabilities both in the air and on the ground.
Flight Stream 210 is one of the Garmin Connext™ flight
connectivity solutions. It is a small remotely mounted
wireless gateway that, when connected to your GNS
430W/530W series navigator, enables compatible tablets
and smart phones to stream information to and from that
navigator via Bluetooth®. This allows you to use your
mobile device’s touchscreen as a cockpit interface. With
Flight Stream 210 and a compatible personal electronic
device (PED) you can transfer flight plans from your PED
to your GNS 430W/530W, plus you can display highquality GPS and AHRS attitude information on your PED
using Garmin Pilot, or other appropriate app. Traffic
(TIS-B) and subscription-free graphical weather (FIS-B)
from a GDL 88, or Sirius/XM weather from a GDL 69, can
also be shared between the GNS and your PED.
Starting with Connext
To get ready to use Connext, you must do the
following:
• Install Garmin Pilot, or other appropriate app,
on your PED.
• Have Flight Stream 210 installed in your aircraft
and connected to the GNS.
• Pair your PED to Flight Stream 210 using the
Bluetooth utilities on your PED and GNS.
GNS 400W/500W
Flight Stream
Bluetooth Connection
Power and Data
Portable Electronic
Device
Flight Stream 210
Connext System
NOTE: Garmin Connext features are available in
GNS software version 5.20, and later.
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85
Part Eight: Section 2
Connext: Bluetooth Status
Section 2: Bluetooth Status
3.
On the GNS Bluetooth Status page, a pop-up will
prompt you to Allow or Deny pairing. Press ENT
to pair the devices.
4.
After the units have paired, on the portable
electronic device use Garmin Pilot (or other
app) to connect to the GNS.
5.
After pairing, the device names will show up
in the Paired Devices section of the Bluetooth
Status page. A filled-in square next to the device
name signifies that the device is paired. An
empty square signifies a device that is available
(i.e., powered-up and in-range), but not paired.
From the Bluetooth Status page, the pilot can change
the Flight Stream Bluetooth name manage, paired devices,
and determine if the portable electronic device is connected
and communicating with Flight Stream.
NOTE: If the pilot removes a paired device from
this page by selecting “Unpair Device,” the device
will have to be paired again before transferring
data.
Pairing Your Devices
Before your GNS can interact with your PED, you
must first “pair” them.
NOTE: New devices can only be paired with Flight
Stream when the Bluetooth Status page is displayed
on the GNS.
The pairing must be initiated from the PED. Pop-ups
will be displayed on the PED and GNS to confirm the
pairing.
1.
2.
86
On the GNS, go to the Aux - Connext page and
select Bluetooth Status.
On the portable electronic device, go to the
Settings - Bluetooth page. Select the Flight
Stream device name.
In the above example, Amelia’s tablet is paired
while Wilbur’s phone is not.
Editing the Bluetooth Name
The name of the Bluetooth connection can be edited on
the Bluetooth Status page.
1. While viewing the Bluetooth Status page, press
the small right knob to activate the cursor.
2. Use the small and large right knobs to edit
the name and then press ENT.
190-00356-30 Rev M
Part Eight: Section 2
Connext: Bluetooth Status
View Device Details
The Device Details page shows information about the
selected device.
1. While viewing the Bluetooth Status page, press
the small right knob to activate the cursor.
Turn the large right knob to select the desired
device and press ENT.
2.
4.
To Disable Auto-Reconnect, turn the small right
knob to select “Disable Auto-Reconnect?” and
press ENT.
Press ENT to return to the Menu.
Auto-Reconnect
The Auto-Reconnect function, when enabled, causes
the GNS to automatically reconnect with the selected PED
whenever it comes in range. PEDs are set to Auto-Reconnect
by default. When this setting is disabled, the pilot must
manually initiate the connection from the device.
To toggle the auto-reconnect status:
1.
2.
While viewing the Bluetooth Status page, press
the small right knob to activate the cursor.
Turn the large right knob to select the desired
device and press ENT.
Unpair Device
This function will unpair the selected PED so that
the GNS will no longer communicate with it. If the pilot
removes a paired device from this page by selecting
“Unpair Device,” the device will have to be paired again
before transferring data.
NOTE: If pairing is removed from either the PED
or GNS, it must also be removed from the other
device before a new pairing to that same device
can be established again. That is, pairing must be
removed from both devices before re-pairing can
occur.
Press MENU and then turn the small right
knob to select either “Enable Auto-Reconnect?”
or “Disable Auto-Reconnect?”.
Method 1
1.
3.
While viewing the Bluetooth Status menu for
a device, turn the small right knob to select
“Unpair Device?” and press ENT.
Press ENT to enable Auto-Reconnect or push
the CRSR to not make a selection.
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87
Part Eight: Section 3
Connext: Device Configuration
2.
Turn the small right knob to select “Yes?” to
Unpair the device and then press ENT.
Section 3: Device Configuration
The Device Configuration page shows the name of
the connected device, software version of the device,
description of the device, and whether flight plan import
in enabled.
NOTE: Turning Flight Plan Imports off will disable the ability of the GNS to receive flight plans
from the Flight Stream 210. This could be desirable
if, for example, there are repeated erroneous attempts by a portable electronic device application
to send flight plans to the GNS.
Method 2
1.
While viewing the Bluetooth Status page, press
the small right knob to activate the cursor.
2.
Turn the small right knob to select the desired
device and press CLR.
88
1.
In the Aux page group, turn the small right
knob to reach the Connext page.
2.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor. Then, turn the small right knob to select
“Device Configuration.” Press ENT to display
the Connext Device Configuration page.
190-00356-30 Rev M
Part Eight: Section 4
Connext: Flight Plan Import
3.
Turn the small right knob to select the Flight
Plan Import status of “Enabled” or “Disabled.”
Press ENT to select the desired setting.
Section 4: Flight Plan Import
When the GNS is interfaced with Flight Stream 210,
flight plans can be wirelessly imported into the GNS from
supported apps, such as Garmin Pilot. The imported flight
plans can then be activated or stored in the flight plan
catalog once they have been previewed by the pilot.
NOTE: Flight plans with over 100 waypoints are
truncated at 100 waypoints. The last waypoint in
the imported/uploaded flight plan may not be the
destination airport.
NOTE: Whenever a User Waypoint is imported, it
is compared against the existing waypoints in the
User Waypoint catalog. New waypoints—that is,
waypoints whose locations do not already exist
in the catalog—are added to the catalog with a
derived name of CX###, where ### represents
the lowest available number in the catalog (e.g.,
CX001 or CX357). If the User Waypoint catalog
already contains a waypoint with the same
location, the existing name is retained. In either
case, the imported name is discarded.
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Part Eight: Section 4
Connext: Flight Plan Import
Importing a Flight Plan with Connext
3.
When a flight plan is sent to the GNS from a PED
using Connext, a message will appear on the GNS. After
importing the flight plan, you can Activate, Store, or Scroll
through that flight plan.
1.
2.
A message will appear on the GNS when a flight
plan has been sent using Connext. Press FPL
to go to the Connext Flight Plan Import page
or press MSG to view the Message list.
Viewing the Connext Flight Plan Import Page
Pending flight plans available through Connext will be
shown. After a flight plan is imported, it will not be shown
in the list.
1. Press the FPL key to enter Flight Plan mode and
The list of pending flight plans from Connext
then turn the small right knob to reach the
will be shown. Press the small right knob to
Connext FPL Import page.
activate the cursor and then turn the small
If there are any pending FPLs pressing the FPL
right knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
key will default to the Connext FPL Import page.
Then, press ENT to preview the flight plan or
press CLR to remove the flight plan.
2.
90
After selecting a flight plan, the Flight Plan
Preview page will be shown with prompts to
activate, store, or scroll through the selected
flight plan. Turn the large right knob to
highlight the desired action and press ENT.
190-00356-30 Rev M
Press the Menu key to display the Page Menu.
Turn the small right knob to select the desired
option and press ENT.
Part Eight: Section 4
Connext: Flight Plan Import
Deleting a Pending Flight Plan
View User Waypoint List
The Delete Pending Flight Plan option deletes the
currently highlighted flight plan.
The View User Waypoint List option displays all of the
User Waypoints in the User Waypoint list.
1.
While viewing the Connext FPL Import menu,
turn the small right knob to select “Delete
Pending Flight Plan?”.
1.
While viewing the Connext FPL Import menu,
turn the small right knob to select “View User
Waypoint List?”.
2.
Press ENT to delete the pending flight plan and
return to the Connext FPL Import page.
2.
Press ENT to View the User Waypoint List.
Delete All Pending Flight Plans
The Delete All Pending Flight Plan option deletes all of
the pending flight plans in the list.
1.
While viewing the Connext FPL Import menu,
turn the small right knob to select “Delete All
Pending Flight Plans?”.
2.
Press ENT to delete all pending flight plans and
return to the Connext FPL Import page.
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190-00356-30 Rev M
© 2016 Garmin Corporation
Garmin International, Inc.
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Tel. 913/397.8200 or 866/739.5687
Fax 913/397.8282
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Tel. 503/581.8101 or 800/525.6726
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Fax (65) 63480278
www.garmin.com
https://fly.garmin.com/fly-garmin
Part Number: 190-00356-30 Revision M
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