Nikon | D600 | Nikon D600 دليل المستخدم

Nikon D600 دليل المستخدم
‫ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻱ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻛﻠﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ )ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺰ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻌﺎﺕ( ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺧﻄﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻮﺭﺑﻮﺭﻳﺸﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﻮﻧﻎ ﻛﻮﻧﻎ‬
‫)‪SB2G01(1X‬‬
‫‪6MB1541X-01‬‬
‫‪Ar‬‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫‪Ar‬‬
‫ﺷﻜﺮﺍ ﹰ ﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻚ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺴﺔ )‪ (SLR‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪D‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ؛ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ؛ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺨﻂ ﺳﻤﻴﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻴﺐ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 18‬ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺏ "ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ" )‪.(xix–xviii 0‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻦ ﺗﻌﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭﻙ ﻓﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪x 0 ..........................................‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪ i‬ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﻭﺟﻮﺍﺏ‪ii 0 .....................................‬‬
‫‪ i‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪iv 0 .............................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ‪338 0 ...........................................................‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪ i‬ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ‪322 0 .................................................‬‬
‫‪ i‬ﺍﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻭﺇﺻﻼﺣﻬﺎ‪316 0 .................‬‬
‫‪ X‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪ s‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫‪35 0‬‬
‫‪ x‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪49 0‬‬
‫‪ y‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪57 0‬‬
‫‪ #‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫‪73 0‬‬
‫‪ $‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ U1‬ﻭ‪U2‬‬
‫‪81 0‬‬
‫‪ k‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪83 0‬‬
‫‪ d‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪89 0‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪97 0‬‬
‫‪ S‬ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫‪105 0‬‬
‫‪ Z‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪109 0‬‬
‫‪ r‬ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫‪115 0‬‬
‫‪ J‬ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪129 0‬‬
‫‪ l‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪143 0‬‬
‫‪ t‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫‪151 0‬‬
‫‪ I‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫‪177 0‬‬
‫‪ Q‬ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫‪193 0‬‬
‫‪ U‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫‪207 0‬‬
‫‪ n‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪285 0‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﻭﺟﻮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻬﺮﺱ "ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﺏ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﺳﻬﻠﺔ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ )ﻭﺿﻊ ‪(i‬؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ )ﻭﺿﻊ ‪(S‬؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺆﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ )ﻭﺿﻊ ‪(A‬؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ )"ﻟﻤﺪﺓ"( ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪(M‬؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ C‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ(؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ )‪ 1‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ(؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺩﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ؟‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫‪112‬‬
‫‪137‬‬
‫‪147–143 ،35‬‬
‫‪95–93‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪177 ،46‬‬
‫‪184–179‬‬
‫‪213‬‬
‫‪205–204‬‬
‫‪188‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ؟‬
‫‪ii‬‬
‫‪100–97‬‬
‫‪101‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ؟‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪83 ،6‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺄﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ؟‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪83 ،6‬‬
‫‪85‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ "ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ"؟‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪57‬‬
‫‪168‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻋﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺘﺎﻣﻪ؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ؟‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪49‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ؟‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪39–35‬‬
‫‪45–40‬‬
‫‪76‬‬
‫‪77‬‬
‫‪79‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻠﻲ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺩﺋﺔ )ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ(؟‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪191–189 ،47‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ "ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ"؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﺴﺦ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪RAW (NEF‬؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻣﻌﺎ ﹰ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺯﻳﺘﻴﺔ؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ؟‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻏﻼﻕ؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﻋﺮﻑ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ؟‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪279–261‬‬
‫‪264‬‬
‫‪271‬‬
‫‪270–269‬‬
‫‪275‬‬
‫‪69‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪20–18‬‬
‫‪253 ،27‬‬
‫‪16–12‬‬
‫‪228‬‬
‫‪33‬‬
‫‪229 ،62 ،55‬‬
‫‪258‬‬
‫‪253 ،27‬‬
‫‪250 ،31‬‬
‫‪221 ،214 ،151‬‬
‫‪322 ،18‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﻃﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ؟‬
‫‪195–193‬‬
‫‪203–196‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﻱ؟‬
‫‪203 ،198‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ؟‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ؟‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪ (Speedlights‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ؟‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻲ؟‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻲ؟‬
‫ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﻐﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ؟‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﻧﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ؟‬
‫ﺃﻳﻦ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ؟‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪334‬‬
‫‪285‬‬
‫‪292‬‬
‫‪298–297‬‬
‫‪86‬‬
‫‪300‬‬
‫‪iii‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪(207 0‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫‪ND600‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ؟‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ ‪RGB‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ( ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(؟‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻛﺎﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪DPOF‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ؟‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪(214 0‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪2‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪(93 0‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻧﻌﻢ‬
‫ﻻ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ‬
‫‪ RAW‬ﻓﺘﺢ ‪ JPEG - 1‬ﻓﺘﺢ ‪2‬‬
‫)‪ JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﺟﻴﺪ‬
‫)‪ JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫)‪ JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫)‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫)‪(95 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻂ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫)‪(115 0‬‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻃﻊ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻏﺎﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ < ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪ .(249 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ D600‬ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ < ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪iv‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺮﻕ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ‪1‬‬
‫‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺣﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫‪sRGB‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪Adobe RGB‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ‪2‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪HDR‬‬
‫‪HDR‬‬
‫)ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ( ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫‪NR‬‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫‪ISO‬‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)‪(105 0‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺘﺄﺧﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻘﺾ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺕ × ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ )ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﻭ‪ 1‬ﻭ‪2‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ (3‬ﺃﻭﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )‪(219 0‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻌﻢ‬
‫ﻻ‬
‫‪ a‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪ a1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫‪AF-C‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪ a2‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫‪AF-S‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪) 5‬ﻃﻮﻳﻞ(‬
‫‪ a3‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ ‪4‬‬
‫‪) 3‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ(‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪) 1‬ﻗﺼﻴﺮ(‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ a4‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ‬
‫‪ a5‬ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻻ ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ‬
‫‪ a6‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ 11‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫‪ a7‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫‪v‬‬
‫‪ b‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ 1/3‬ﺧﻄﻮﺓ‬
‫‪ b1‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫‪ 1/2‬ﺧﻄﻮﺓ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫‪ b2‬ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ‪ 1/3‬ﺧﻄﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ 1/2‬ﺧﻄﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‬
‫‪ b3‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺳﻬﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫‪b4‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫‪b5‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ 8 ‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 12 ‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 15 ‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 20 ‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﻧﻌﻢ‬
‫ﻻ‬
‫‪c5‬‬
‫‪vi‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫‪d2‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪d3‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫‪ISO‬‬
‫‪d4‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫‪d5‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ‪CL‬‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫‪ c‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ‪/‬ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ c1‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪ c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ‪ 4‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫‪ 6‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫‪ 10‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫‪ 5‬ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬
‫‪ 10‬ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬
‫‪ 30‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫‪ c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫‪ c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫‪ 5‬ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬
‫‪ 10‬ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬
‫‪ 15‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫‪ d‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫‪ d1‬ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ‬
‫‪d6‬‬
‫‪d7‬‬
‫‪d8‬‬
‫‪d9‬‬
‫‪d10‬‬
‫‪d11‬‬
‫‪d12‬‬
‫‪d13‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻐﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ ISO/ISO‬ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪ 5‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪100–1‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫‪LCD‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮﻱ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪) LR6‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﻠﻮﻳﺔ ‪(AA‬‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪MB-D14‬‬
‫‪) HR6‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪(Ni-MH AA‬‬
‫‪) FR6‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ‪(AA‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪MB-D14‬‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭﻻ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫‪ e‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫‪ e1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 1/160‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 1/125‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 1/100‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 1/80‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 1/60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 1/60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ e2‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ 1/30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 1/15‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 1/8‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 1/4‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 1/2‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﺎﻥ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫‪ 8‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫‪ 15‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ e3‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪TTL‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫‪e3‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ *‬
‫‪e4‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪e5‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫‪e6‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪e7‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪TTL‬‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫‪ f‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ f2‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫‪f3‬‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪WB‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ADL‬‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫‪ < MTR‬ﺗﺤﺖ < ﻓﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺖ < ‪ < MTR‬ﻓﻮﻕ‬
‫* ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪.SB-400‬‬
‫‪ f‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ f1‬ﺯﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ )ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪FV‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ(‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻄﻔﺄ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫‪NEF (RAW) +‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺑﻨﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺴﺮﻋﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪FV‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ(‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻄﻔﺄ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫‪NEF (RAW) +‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺑﻨﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺴﺮﻋﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫‪vii‬‬
‫‪ f‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ f4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪f5‬‬
‫‪f6‬‬
‫‪f7‬‬
‫‪f8‬‬
‫‪f9‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻧﻌﻢ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﻻ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪MB-D14 4‬‬
‫‪ g‬ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪ g1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫‪g2‬‬
‫‪viii‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ(‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪FV‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫‪ g‬ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪ g3‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪g4‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ(‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪(249 0‬‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ(‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪FV‬‬
‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ(‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ(‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪HDMI‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪(Language‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪2‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪U1‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪U2‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ‪U1‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ‪U2‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻵﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ 50‬ﻫﺮﺗﺰ‬
‫‪ 60‬ﻫﺮﺗﺰ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫‪GPS‬‬
‫ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪2 Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫–‬
‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻖ ﻧﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ GPS‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫–‬
‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻠﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ(‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺩﻗﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺷﻐﻞ‪/‬ﻭﻗﻒ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪2‬‬
‫–‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪1‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﺼﻐﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺟﻨﺐ ‪2‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻭﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪ N‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ J‬ﺃﻭ ‪ (b) c‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ O‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ )‪(280 0‬‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮﺓ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ J‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪.Eye-Fi‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪(261 0‬‬
‫‪D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‬
‫–‬
‫–‬
‫–‬
‫ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻲ ﺩﺍﻛﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻓﺎﺗﺢ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻋﻢ‬
‫–‬
‫–‬
‫–‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫–‬
‫–‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫–‬
‫–‬
‫–‬
‫–‬
‫–‬
‫–‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫–‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ *‬
‫ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺗﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫–‬
‫–‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫* ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (Q) O‬ﻣﺮﺗﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ix‬‬
‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﻭﺟﻮﺍﺏ‪ii ...............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪iv .....................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ‪xviii .............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ‪xx ..............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺓ ‪xxiv ..............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪1.............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪1......................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪5...........................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ‪6................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪7.......................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪8.........................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪9...................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪12...................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪17.............................................................................................................................BM-14‬‬
‫ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪18......................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪19..................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪21...................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪21..................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪23.....................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺭﻛﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪25........................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ‪27................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪29..............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪31.........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪33..............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫‪35‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺄﺳﻠﻮﺏ "ﺻﻮﺏ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ" )ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ i‬ﻭ ‪35........................................................................................(j‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪ :1‬ﺷﻐﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪35...................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪ :2‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ i‬ﺃﻭ ‪36........................................................................................................................ j‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪ :3‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪37...............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪ :4‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪38....................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪ :5‬ﺻﻮﺭ ‪38.....................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ )ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ(‪40..................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ k‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪41.......................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ l‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪41..........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ p‬ﻃﻔﻞ‪41.........................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ m‬ﺃﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪41...........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ n‬ﻣﻘﺮﺏ‪42........................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﻠﻴﺔ ‪42............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ r‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻴﻠﻲ‪42.................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ s‬ﺣﻔﻠﺔ‪/‬ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‪42.................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ t‬ﺷﺎﻃﺊ‪/‬ﺛﻠﺞ ‪43..............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ u‬ﻏﺮﻭﺏ‪43.........................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ v‬ﺍﻟﻐﺴﻖ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ‪43.........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ w‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻟﻴﻒ‪43...............................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ x‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻌﺔ‪44............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ y‬ﺃﺯﻫﺎﺭ‪44...........................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ z‬ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻳﻒ ‪44...........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 0‬ﺃﻃﻌﻤﺔ ‪44......................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻇﻠﻴﺔ ‪45..............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪45.........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺧﺎﻓﺘﺔ‪45............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ‪46.................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪47.......................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪49‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ‪51.....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪53.....................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ‪55.................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ‪55........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪57‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‪60...............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪61.......................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪62...................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪63..................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪65...................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪67..........................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ‪69.........................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪69......................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ‪72...................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪xi‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫‪73‬‬
‫‪ :P‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ‪75................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :S‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪76......................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :A‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ‪77....................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪78................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‪79..................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ U1‬ﻭ‪U2‬‬
‫‪81‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ‪81...............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪82..........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ‪82.....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪83‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪83................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪85..........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪88.........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪89‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪89....................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪93............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪93.......................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪95......................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪96.....................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪97‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪97.......................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪97............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪99.............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪101 ...........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪102 .........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪103 .......................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫‪105‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪107 ............................................................................................................ISO‬‬
‫‪xii‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪109‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪109 ..............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪110 ....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪112 ...............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪115‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪117 ........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪120 ...................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ‪121 ...........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪129‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪129 ............................................................................................................................................. Picture Controls‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪129 .................................................................................................................................. Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ‪131 ................................................................................................................................Picture Controls‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪134 ..................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪136 ..........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ‪137 ...................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪137 ..................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ )‪139 ........................................................................................................................(HDR‬‬
‫‪143‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪143 ..............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪144 ....................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪148 .................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪149 ......................................................................................................................................FV‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫‪151‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪151 .......................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪153 .............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪160 .......................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪164 ...............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ‪168 ...............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪172 ...................................................................................................................CPU‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ GPS‬ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪175 ......................................................................................................................................GP-1‬‬
‫‪xiii‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫‪177‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪177 ..........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪179 ............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ‪185 ...........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‪186 ....................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﺮﺑﺔ‪ :‬ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ‪187 ........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‪188 ................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ‪189 ..........................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ ‪189 .............................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪190 ...................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪193‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ‪193 ..........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪193 .......................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪194 ...............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪196 .......................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ‪196 ..............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﻠﻮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪197 .....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ‪199 ..............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪ :DPOF‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪202 ....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‪204 ......................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫‪207‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ :‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪207 ................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪207 ..............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪208 .................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ‪209 ..............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(‪209 ................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪212 ...........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‪212 .................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‪212 ..............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪213 ............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪214 ....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪214 ......................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪215 ............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ‪216 ...........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‪217 .............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪217 .............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‪218 .....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪) NR‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ(‪218 ......................................‬‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ ‪218 ...............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪xiv‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪219 ...........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪221 ..............................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :a‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪221 .....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :a1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪221 .............................................................................................................................AF-C‬‬
‫‪ :a2‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪221 ............................................................................................................................. AF-S‬‬
‫‪ :a3‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ ‪222 .......................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :a4‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪222 ........................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :a5‬ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪222 .............................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :a6‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪223 ...................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :a7‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪223 .........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :b‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪224 .....................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :b1‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪224 ............................................................................................................... ISO‬‬
‫‪ :b2‬ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪224 ...................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :b3‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺳﻬﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪225 .....................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :b4‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ‪226 ..................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :b5‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪226 ..........................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :c‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ‪/‬ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪226 ..................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :c1‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪226 ...........................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪227 .................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ ‪227 ...........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪228 .........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :c5‬ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪228 ........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ‪228 ........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d1‬ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ ‪228 .........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d2‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪229 ...............................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d3‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ‪229 ...............................................................................................................................ISO‬‬
‫‪ :d4‬ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪229 .......................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d5‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ‪229 ..................................................................................................................... CL‬‬
‫‪ :d6‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪230 ..........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d7‬ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪230 ...........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d8‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪231 ................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d9‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪231 ............................................................................................................................. LCD‬‬
‫‪ :d10‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪231 .........................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d11‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮﻱ‪231 ....................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d12‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪232 .....................................................................................................................MB-D14‬‬
‫‪ :d13‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪233 ................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :e‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪234 .......................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :e1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪234 ........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :e2‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪235 ............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :e3‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪236 .................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :e4‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪240 .....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :e5‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ‪241 .......................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :e6‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪241 .......................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :e7‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪241 ....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪xv‬‬
‫‪ :f‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪241 ..........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f1‬ﺯﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ( ‪241 .....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f2‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪242 ...........................................................................................................................................Fn‬‬
‫‪ :f3‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ‪244 ...................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪244 ...........................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f5‬ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪245 ..................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f6‬ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ‪246 ..............................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f7‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪246 ...................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f8‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ ‪246 ................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f9‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪247 ....................................................................................................................... MB-D14 4‬‬
‫‪ :g‬ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ‪247 ...........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :g1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪247 ..........................................................................................................................................Fn‬‬
‫‪ :g2‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪248 ..................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :g3‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪248 ............................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :g4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪248 ........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪249 ..............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪250 ................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪250 ........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪251 ...........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‪252 ........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪253 .........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪253 .....................................................................................................................................(Language‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪253 .......................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪254 ..................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪255 .....................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ‪256 ...........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪257 ............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‪258 ...............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪259 ........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪260 ...........................................................................................................................................Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‪260 .............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪261 .............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ‪262 .......................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪264 ................................................................................................................................................. D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪264 ............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ‪265 .........................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪266 .................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‪267 .........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪268 ...................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪269 .............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪271 ................................................................................................................................NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ‪272 .............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‪273 ...............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ‪274 ..........................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‪274 ..........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ‪274 .............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪275 .............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪xvi‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪275 .............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ‪275 ...............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﺼﻐﺮ‪276 .................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪277 .................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ‪279 ...............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ O‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪ m/‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‪280 .....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ‪283 .............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪285‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪285 ........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪292 ......................................................................................................(Speedlights‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ )‪ (CLS‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪293 ......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪297 ............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪299 ..............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪300 ..............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪300 .............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ‪300 ..........................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪301 ..........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫"ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻵﻥ"‪301 ..........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫"ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ" ‪302 ....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ‪303 ..............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ‪306 ............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪309 .............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪312 ........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪315 ............................................................................................................. (P‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻭﺇﺻﻼﺣﻬﺎ‪316 .......................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪316 .................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ(‪317 .....................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪319 ...................................................................................................................................... (M ،A ،S ،P‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ‪320 .................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‪321 ..............................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ‪322 ....................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‪326 ........................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ‪334 ..............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺳﻌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪335 ........................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪337 .....................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ‪338 ..............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪xvii‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﺑﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﺨﻄﺮ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻗﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﻳﺪﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻤﻜﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻻ ﺗﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻻ ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺑﺼﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻤﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻛﻦ ﺣﺬﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻚ ﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻌﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﻄﺄ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺤﻔﻆ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﺨﻄﺮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻨﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺑﺘﻼﻉ‬
‫ﻃﻔﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻃﺒﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻻ ﺗﻔﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻟﻺﺻﺎﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﻋﻄﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﺼﻠﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﻓﻨﻲ ﻣﺆﻫﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻠﻜﺴﺮ‬
‫ﻭﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺋﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺴﻘﻮﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺤﺎﺩﺙ ﺃﺧﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺤﺺ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻻ ﺗﻼﻣﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺎﺣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﻣﻼﻣﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﺤﺮﻭﻕ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﻋﻄﻞ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺍﻧﺒﻌﺎﺙ ﺩﺧﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺍﺋﺤﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ )ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ(‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻭﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ ‪ A‬ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺳﺎﺋﻖ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺣﻮﺍﺩﺙ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺧﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﺭ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺤﺮﻭﻕ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻺﺻﺎﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﻼﻣﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻳﺴﺘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺤﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻺﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺴﻮﺭ ﻭﺗﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻳﺴﺘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺳﻂ ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﻌﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻂ ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﻌﺎﻝ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻻ ﺗﻀﻊ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺭﻗﺒﺔ ﺭﺿﻴﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻃﻔﻞ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻒ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺭﻗﺒﺔ ﺭﺿﻴﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻃﻔﻞ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺿﻪ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻨﺎﻕ‪.‬‬
‫‪xviii‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﺘﺒﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺮﻭﻕ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻴﻦ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺼﻴﺒﻪ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺑﺼﺎﺭ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﻮﺧﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺬﺭ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‬
‫• ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺟﺎﻓﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﺟﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﻛﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﺘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺪﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺻﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﺘﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺪﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻮﻱ ﻛﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﻌﻨﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻞ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺛﻘﻴﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺨﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻠﻬﺐ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺯﻝ ﻭﻇﻬﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻜﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ‬
‫ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺤﺺ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﺑﺄﻳﺪﻱ ﻣﺒﺘﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺻﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻓﻮﻟﻄﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﻮﻧﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﺮﻳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ )ﻗﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ( ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﻔﻜﻜﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺼﻠﻪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻔﺮﻃﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻐﻤﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺭﻛﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻨﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺨﺰﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻼﺋﺪ ﺃﻭ ‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺃﺳﻼﻙ ﺑﻤﻘﺒﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺩﺑﺎﺑﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻷﺳﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ‬
‫• ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﺮﻳﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻐﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺠﺔ‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺘﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺧﺰﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ ﻭﺟﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺳﺎﺧﻨﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﺰﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺗﺮﻛﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪xix‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ‬
‫• ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ • ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺩﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻱ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺷﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻱ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻲ • ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻢ ﺑﺬﻝ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻮﺩ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺩﻗﺔ ﻭﻛﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻴﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺮﺣﺐ ﺑﺈﺭﺳﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺘﻚ‬
‫• ﺗﺤﺘﻔﻆ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺗﻢ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺎﺳﺢ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﹰ‬
‫• ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻴﺪ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ )ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺗﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻜﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻗﺴﺎﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﺍﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻟﺦ(‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺗﻢ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ »ﻋﻴﻨﺔ« ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﺍﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺋﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺟﻮﺍﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺻﻜﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻃﻮﺍﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺬﺍﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﺒﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺛﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺳﻴﻘﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺒﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺍﺋﻂ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺧﺮﻕ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻻ ﻳﺤﺬﻑ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺬﻭﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺳﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺘﻪ ﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﻴﺊ‬
‫ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻣﻸﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺼﻮﺭ ﻻ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭ ﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ(‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ) ‪ .(121 0‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻺﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺪﻣﻴﺮ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ‪AVC Patent Portfolio License‬‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ‪ AVC PATENT PORTFOLIO LICENSE‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺑﻐﺮﺽ )‪ (i‬ﺗﺮﻣﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﻭﻓﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ‪") AVC‬ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ‪ ("AVC‬ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ )‪ (ii‬ﻓﻚ ﺗﺮﻣﻴﺰ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ‪ AVC‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﺮﻣﻴﺰﻩ ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻳﻤﺎﺭﺱ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎ ﺷﺨﺼ ﹰﻴﺎ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﻣﺮﺧﹼ ﺺ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ‪ .AVC‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻨﻪ ﻷﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ‪ .L.L.C ،MPEG LA‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫‪http://www.mpegla.com‬‬
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‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﹰ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﻭﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ )ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ(‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺖ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻳﺤﺮﻣﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ‪-‬ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻻ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺷﺮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺮﻳﺐ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻮﺯﻉ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻚ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺖ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻳﺤﺮﻣﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻭ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺩﻭﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺼﺢ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻔﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﺯﻉ ﺃﺻﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ‬
‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﻣﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻛﻞ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻤﺲ ﺃﻋﻮﺍﻡ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ(‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺤﺺ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻬﻨﻲ ﻣﺤﺘﺮﻑ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﺤﺺ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻣﺔ )ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﻔﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻓﺎﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺣﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬
‫ﻛﺠﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻬﺪ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ "ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ" ﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‪http://www.nikonusa.com/ :‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﻭﺇﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‪http://www.europe-nikon.com/support/ :‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻗﻴﺎﻧﻮﺳﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‪http://www.nikon-asia.com/ :‬‬
‫ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻟﻺﻟﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺄﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻟﻸﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ )‪ ،(FAQs‬ﻭﻧﺼﺎﺋﺢ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺘﻚ‪ .‬ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪http://imaging.nikon.com/ :‬‬
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‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻚ‪ .‬ﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ‬
‫‪BS-1‬‬
‫• ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻃﻲ ‪DK-21‬‬
‫• ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺟﺴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪BF-1B‬‬
‫• ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ‪BM-14‬‬
‫• ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪D600‬‬
‫• ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪) EN-EL15‬ﻣﻊ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ(‬
‫• ﺷﺎﺣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪MH-25‬‬
‫)ﻳﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ‪(.‬‬
‫• ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ‪AN-DC8‬‬
‫• ﻛﺒﻞ ‪ USB‬ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪UC-E15‬‬
‫• ﻗﺮﺹ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ViewNX 2‬‬
‫• ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ )ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ(‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ‪DK-5‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﺑﺈﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺛﻘﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪xxiv‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻣﻨﺢ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻌﺘﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺷﺎﺷﺎﺗﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺠﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺷﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻚ ﻟﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪1‬‬
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‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪83 ،6 .............................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪5 ...............................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪5 ...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺛﻘﺐ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪83 ،6 .........................................‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ( ‪292...............‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪292.........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪1 ...........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪39 ،38 .................................................................‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻹﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 10‬ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪E‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪112...............................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ ‪151..............................................................‬‬
‫‪ 11‬ﺯﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‪58 ......................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 12‬ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪Z/Q‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ‪109.............................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪31 .......................................................‬‬
‫‪ 13‬ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪103............................................. (E‬‬
‫‪ 14‬ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪7 ...........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ(‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪143....................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺮﺁﺓ‪303 ،88 ..................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪328................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪26 ...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪M/Y‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪143......................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪148.................................................................‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪158 ،156 ،153 ..........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺃﺷﻌﺔ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ )ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻲ(‪86 ..................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ‪65 ،58 .............................................................‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺻﻮﺕ‪298 ،61 ........................................................‬‬
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‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ‪204 ،196 ،194 .................................HDMI/USB‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻔﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﻲ ‪298...........................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪26 ....................................................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪100 ،98 ،51 ............................‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪103 ،97 ...............................‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ‪61 ...............................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‪61 ....................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ‪USB‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ‪194..........................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪196...........................................................‬‬
‫‪ 18‬ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ‪ HDMI‬ﺑﻄﺮﻑ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ ‪204.................................................‬‬
‫‪ 19‬ﻣﻨﻔﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﻲ ‪298 ،175 ............................................‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪LCD‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻧﺤﻮ ‪ D‬ﻟﺘﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ )ﺿﻮﺀ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪ ،(LCD‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ ،ON‬ﺳﻴﻈﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺳﺖ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻮ ‪ D‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ(‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪223...........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪86 ...........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪145..............................................‬‬
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‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ‪245 ،12 ...................................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‪248 ،244 ،77 ،60 ...................................‬‬
‫‪ Fn‬ﺯﺭ )ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ( ‪242 ،174 ،149 ،92............................................‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪23 ............................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪23 ................................................‬‬
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‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪297.....................................................MB-D14‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪299.............................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪103 ،26 ...................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺒﺲ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ‪298 ،25 .................................................................‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ(‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪33 ..............................................................‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ ﻋﻴﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﻃﻲ‪86 ................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪O/Q‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ‪189 ،47 .............................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪31 ........................................................‬‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪K‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‪177 ،46 .............................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 5‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪9 ......................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪57 ،49 .................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪46 ..........................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪177...........................................................‬‬
‫‪ 6‬ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪207 ،18 .........................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 7‬ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪c/b‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪261 ،69 ........................................................................‬‬
‫‪129 ،50 ......................................................... Picture Control‬‬
‫‪ 8‬ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪L/U‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪18 .............................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‪188...............................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪120 ،117 ،115 ....................................................‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪X/T‬‬
‫ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪187......................................................................‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‪/‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪95 ،93 ......................................................‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪W/S‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪/‬ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪186 ،185 ..................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪105...................................................................ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪107...................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ ‪151...............................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ‪33 .................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪A‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪244 ،110 ،102 .......‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪245 ،12 .................................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ‪19 ..................................................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪) J‬ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ(‪241 ،19 ..................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪101....................................................‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪29 ...................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻂ ﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺴﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪250 ،53 .......................................................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ‪49 ...........................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻸﻓﻼﻡ ‪57 .....................................................‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪57 ،49 ............................................................................... a‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺃﺷﻌﺔ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ )ﺧﻠﻔﻲ(‪86 ...................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪38 ،29 ....................................‬‬
‫ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺔ ‪67 .....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪) R‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ( ‪11 ،9 ................................................................‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪—P‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ )‪(75 0‬‬
‫• ‪—S‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪(76 0‬‬
‫• ‪—A‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪(77 0‬‬
‫• ‪—M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪(78 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ ﺑﺄﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺻﻮﺏ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ j‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻄﻔﺄ( )‪(35 0‬‬
‫• ‪ i‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(35 0‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ )‪(40 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﱢﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻙ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ U1‬ﻭ‪(81 0) U2‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ (285 0) CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ .M‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪.CPU‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ‬
‫)‪.(83 0‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪CL‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺑﻄﻲﺀ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪CH‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪E‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪.ML-L3‬‬
‫‪MUP‬‬
‫ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪120........................................................‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪78 ،76 ....................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪112.........................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪148...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪118.............................................‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪120 ،115 ..........................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪121................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪153...............................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪156.......................... WB‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ‪165.................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪172.............(CPU‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪233..................................................... MB-D14‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪35 ........................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪144...........................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪97 .................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪95 ...........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪93 ............................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪118.................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪115...........................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﻗﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪288 ،73 .......................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺭﻗﻢ ‪78 ،77 ..................................................................(f‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻔﺎﺕ(‪288 ،73 ...................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪156 ،154 ........................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪158......................... ADL‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ‪165................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫)ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪174................................. (CPU‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‪195..........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪96 ،30 .................................. (1‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪96 ،30 .................................. (2‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪105........................................................... ISO‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪108..............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪166...............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ‪170............................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﹺ‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪153.......................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪156.............................................................. WB‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪158............................................................. ADL‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪158 ،156 ،153 .........................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪112........................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪148..........................................................‬‬
‫"‪) "K‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1000‬ﻟﻘﻄﺔ(‪36 ...‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪36 ..........................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ‪335 ،84 ،38 ....................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪105.......................................................................ISO‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪122.................‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪138....................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ‪170.........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﹺ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪174....................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‪195.............................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪205.................................................... HDMI-CEC‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪28‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ‪109..................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪234...........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ‪75 ..............................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪99 .................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪100....................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪99 .......................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪140............................................................................ HDR‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪161.......................................‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪229.........................................................(d2‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪222 ،101 ،38..............................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪99 ..................................‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪179 ،37 ،33 ................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪103 ،102 ،38.............................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ‪109..................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪110................................(AE‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪78 ،76 ....................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪97 .................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺭﻗﻢ ‪78 ،77 ..................................................................(f‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻔﺎﺕ(‪288 ،73 ...................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪148..........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪112........................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪105........................................................... ISO‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪105.......................................................................ISO‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪138....................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪99 ..................................‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪149...............................................FV‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪234...........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﻗﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪288 ،73 .......................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪78 ........................................................‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪112......................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ‪243..........................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 18‬ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪35 .........................................‬‬
‫‪ 19‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪153.......................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪156.............................................................. WB‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪158............................................................. ADL‬‬
‫‪ 20‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪108..............................................‬‬
‫‪ 21‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪36 ..........................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪335 ،84 ،38 ..............................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪122....................‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪112.........................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪148...........................................................‬‬
‫‪) "K" 22‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1000‬ﻟﻘﻄﺔ(‪36 ...‬‬
‫‪ 13‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪231 ،39 .................................................‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺘﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﻔﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻴﺪ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ R‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪R‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪78 ........................................................‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪112......................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪153..............................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪156......................................................................WB‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪140............................................................................ HDR‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ‪140...........................HDR‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪35 ............................................................‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪232.............................................MB-D14‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪232..................................................... MB-D14‬‬
‫"‪) "K‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1000‬ﻟﻘﻄﺔ(‪36 ...‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ‪36 .........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ‪170.........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﹺ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪174....................................................................‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪242.............................................................................Fn‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪244.............................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪85 ............................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪218..............‬‬
‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪96 ................................................................2‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪115...........................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪118.................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪100...............‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪101..................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪100....................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪100.....................................................‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪93 ............................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪95 ...........................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪144...........................................................................‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪73 ،40 ،35 .............................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ‪75 ..............................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪234...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪78 ،76 ....................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪112.........................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪148...........................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪153...............................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪156.......................... WB‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪172.............(CPU‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪120 ،115 ..........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪120........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﻗﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪288 ،73 .......................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺭﻗﻢ ‪78 ،77 ..................................................................(f‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻔﺎﺕ(‪288 ،73 ...................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪155 ،154 ........................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪158......................... ADL‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫)ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪174................................. (CPU‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪83 ،6 ........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪229.....................................................‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪32‬‬
‫‪33‬‬
‫‪34‬‬
‫‪35‬‬
‫‪36‬‬
‫‪37‬‬
‫‪38‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪28‬‬
‫‪29‬‬
‫‪30‬‬
‫‪31‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪90 ............................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ‪109..................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‪217.........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ "ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ"‪253 ،28 ...................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪253.......................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ‪256.......................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪153.......................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪156.............................................................. WB‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪158............................................................. ADL‬‬
‫‪39‬‬
‫‪40‬‬
‫‪41‬‬
‫‪42‬‬
‫‪43‬‬
‫‪44‬‬
‫‪45‬‬
‫‪46‬‬
‫‪47‬‬
‫‪48‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪138............................................................. ADL‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪162.......................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ "ﺻﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ"‪228.........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪112........................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪148..........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪149...............................................FV‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪166...............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ‪170............................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﹺ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪175.................................................................GPS‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‪244..............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‪218.....................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪138....................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‪218..........................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ‪65 ........................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪97 .................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪260.............................................................Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪105........................................................... ISO‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪105.......................................................................ISO‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪108..............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪130.........................................................Picture Control‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻹﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ R‬ﻣﺮﺗﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﻐﻠﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ‪ 10‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪ .(228 0‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d8‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.(231 0 ،‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ R‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪R‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ‪65 ........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‪218......................................................‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ‪137...............................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ‪218................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‪244..............................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪242.............................................................................Fn‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪244.............................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪85 ............................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪218.........................................‬‬
‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪96 ................................................................2‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺢ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d4‬ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ؛ ‪.(229 0‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﻤﻔﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪M/Y‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪E‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪Z/Q‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪L/U‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪X/T‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‪/‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪W/S‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ )‪h‬؛ ‪.(40 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪h‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫❚❚ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(93 0‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(95 0‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(98 0‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)‪.(100 0‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.(105 0) ISO‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)‪.(107 0‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪P‬؛ ‪.(75 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪P‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ‪M‬؛‬
‫‪.(78 ،76 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪M‬؛ ‪.(78 ،77 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ )ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪M‬؛‬
‫‪.(109 0‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(Q) Z‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪P‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪M‬؛ ‪.(112 0‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪E‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪/‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ )ﻭﺿﻊ ‪P‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪M‬؛ ‪.(153 0‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪M‬؛ ‪.(154 0‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪S‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪M‬؛ ‪.(115 0‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﻳﻀﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ )‪،(117 0‬‬
‫ﻳﻀﺒﻂ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )‪ ،(120 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪ (121 0‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻓﻼﺵ )‪.(144 0‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(Y) M‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻝ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪M‬؛ ‪.(148 0‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(Y) M‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪BM-14‬‬
‫ﻣﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﻜﻲ ﺷﻔﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺣﻤﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪ (q‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻧﻘﺮﺓ )‪.(w‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻟﻔﻚ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺟﺬﺏ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.G‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪ :D‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪(207 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :C‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪(214 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :A‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )‪(219 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :B‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪(249 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :N‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪(261 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :O/m‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ )ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ؛ ‪(280 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺭﻣﻮﺯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ d‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .(U) L‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻭﺻﻒ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ J‬ﻟﺘﺼﻔﺢ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ :J‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻓﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻺﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻳﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.G‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﹰ ﻟﻪ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ،J‬ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ )‪.(39 0‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪) EN-EL15‬ﻣﺮﻓﻘﺔ(‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ MH-25‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻭ ‪ 35‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺑﺲ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ؛ ﻻ ﺗﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ‪) CHARGE‬ﺷﺤﻦ( ﺑﺒﻂﺀ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺷﺤﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‬
‫‪ D‬ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺟﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪°35–5‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺷﺤﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪°0‬ﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪°60‬ﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ‪) CHARGE‬ﺷﺤﻦ( ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﻟﻤﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻳﺊ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺧﻠﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ )‪ .(q‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ )‪ (w‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻳﺊ ‪ ° 90‬ﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ )‪ .(e‬ﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻳﺊ‪ ،‬ﺍﻋﻜﺲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ‬
‫‪° 90‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.OFF‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﹰ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺗﺠﻮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ )‪ (q‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﻓﺘﺢ )‪ (w‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ )‪ ،(q‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪.(w‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺗﺠﻮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺤﺒﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
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‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ‪ xix–xviii‬ﻭ ‪ 308–306‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪°0‬ﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪°40‬ﻡ؛ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺔ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪°0‬ﻡ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪°15‬ﻡ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ‪°45‬ﻡ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪°60‬ﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ‪) CHARGE‬ﺷﺤﻦ( )ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ( ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻭﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺭﻛﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺰﺋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ )ﻗﺼﺮ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ(؛ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺇﺗﻼﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺭﻛﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﻞ ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺷﺤﻨﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪°5‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪ (255 0‬ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺳﺎﺧﻨﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﻴﻦ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺎﺣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ MH-25‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺪﻝ ﺍﻻﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻮﻅ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺸﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻱ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL15‬ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪EN-EL15‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EN-EL15‬ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺈﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻤﺜﻼ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ )‪ .(35 0‬ﻳﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺗﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪.(255 0‬‬
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‫ﺭﻛﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪.AF-S NIKKOR 120-24 f/4G ED VR‬‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ‪(287 0) CPU‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪(103 ،26 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪) ON/OFF‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ(‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪(103 ،55 0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ ﻭﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺟﺴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
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‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺟﻌﻞ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺤﺎﺫﻳﺔ ﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪ .(q‬ﺍﺣﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﺓ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻧﻘﺮﺓ )‪.(w‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ A-M‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،M/A-M‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) A‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﺃﻭ ‪) M/A‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻓﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻟﻔﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )‪ (q‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ )‪.(w‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻭﺣﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ )‪ ،(287 0‬ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻟﻬﺎ )ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(f‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪.(89 0) DX‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻐﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ )ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻞ ‪ UTC‬ﻓﺎﺭﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،UTC‬ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ( ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ ﻣﻐﻠﻖ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‪ 1 ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪ (253 0) (Language‬ﻭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ‪.(175 0) GPS‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ )‪ (253 0‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﹰ‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EP-5B‬ﻭﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪ .(297 0) EH-5b‬ﻳﻮﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ Y‬ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻨﻔﺪﺓ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻄﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺩﻗﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺰﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﺑﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﺩﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻄﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪28‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪) (SD) Secure Digital‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ؛ ‪ .(334 0‬ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ 1‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪(2‬؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺳﺘﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺧﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪.(30 0) 1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﹰ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﻙ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺎﺭﺝ )‪ (q‬ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ )‪.(w‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﻐﻠﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪16GB‬‬
‫ﺍﻣﺴﻚ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺩﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻮﻳﻒ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻧﻘﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻤﺖ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.31‬‬
‫‪16GB‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻹﺧﺮﺍﺟﻬﺎ )‪ .(q‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺪ )‪.(w‬‬
‫‪29‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL15‬ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ S‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬
‫ﻓﺘﻠﻌﺐ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ؛‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ 1‬ﻣﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟـ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪(96 0) 2‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ 2‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ 1‬ﻣﻤﺘﻠﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪2‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ )ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻤﺘﻠﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺪﺙ ﺧﻄﺄ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ )‪.(324 0‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ D‬ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺳﺎﺧﻨﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﹰ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺨﺮﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﻚ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﺄﺻﺎﺑﻌﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺄﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻠﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﻘﻄﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻟﺼﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻬﻴﺊ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪30‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺃﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﻱ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻳﻬﺎ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻱ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ )‪.(193 0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ (Q) O‬ﻭ‪.(Q) Z‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ (Q) O‬ﻭ‪ (Q) Z‬ﻣﻌﺎ ﹰ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪) C‬ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺴﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪(30 0) 1‬؛‬
‫ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ 2‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ C‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ )ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﺖ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺃﻱ ﺯﺭ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ (Q) O‬ﻭ‪.(Q) Z‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(Q) O‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(Q) Z‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ (Q) O‬ﻭ‪ (Q) Z‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ (Q) O‬ﻭ‪ (Q) Z‬ﻣﻌﺎ ﹰ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ C‬ﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺨﺮﺝ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪31‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫‪16G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ SD‬ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ "‪ "lock‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ(‪ .‬ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﻙ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ "ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 250‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪32‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺩﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﻟﺘﻼﺀﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺑﺼﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺷﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺣﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﻛﻦ ﺣﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻚ‬
‫ﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻌﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻇﺎﻓﺮﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)‪AF-S‬؛ ‪ ،(97 0‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ )‪ ،(99 0‬ﺛﻢ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ )‪ ،(101 0‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻫﺪﻑ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪.(297 0‬‬
‫‪33‬‬
X
34
‫‪s‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺄﺳﻠﻮﺏ "ﺻﻮﺏ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ" )ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ i‬ﻭ ‪(j‬‬
‫ﻳﺼﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪) i‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻊ "ﺻﻮﺏ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ" ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺣﻴﺚ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ j‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻄﻔﺄ(‪.‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪ :1‬ﺷﻐﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺷﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺳﺘﻀﻲﺀ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ *‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ *‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫‪K‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫ﺟﻬﺰ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﱢ‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻟﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫* ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻤﻮﺻﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EP-5B‬ﻭﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ‪ .EH-5b‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ V‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻬﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻐﻄﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(301 0‬‬
‫‪35‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1000‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ‬
‫ﻣﺌﺔ؛ ﻣﺜﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ‪ 2000‬ﻭ ‪ 2099‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ‪ .(K 2.0‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ .(30 0) 1‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪،A‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ n‬ﺃﻭ ‪ j‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫)‪ (29 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪.(189 ،47 0‬‬
‫‪ s‬ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪ :2‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ i‬ﺃﻭ ‪j‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻨﻮﻉ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﻊ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ .j‬ﻭﺇﻻ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.i‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ‪j‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ‪i‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﻣﺰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ )ﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻘﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪36‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪ :3‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺟﻬﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺴﻚ ﻗﺒﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻳﺪﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻨﻰ ﻭﺍﺣﻤﻞ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﻴﺪﻙ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﻨﺪ ﻣﺮﻓﻘﻴﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺟﺬﻋﻚ ﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﻚ ﻭﻗﺪﻡ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻗﺪﻣﻴﻚ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻧﺼﻔﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻱ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻃﻮﻟﻲ‬
‫)ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،j‬ﺗﻘﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ؛ ﻳﻨﺼﺢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺯﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻠﺊ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ )ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺑﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺑﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻗﺼﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫‪37‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪ :4‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (I‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.98‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ )”‪“t‬؛ ‪ (84 0‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪ :5‬ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺨﺮﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻨﻄﻔﺊ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺗﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫‪38‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ 6‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.(227 0 ،‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،i‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪ .(M‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ؛ ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﺍ ﹰ ﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻧﻘﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪39‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ )ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ(‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ "ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ"‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻣﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ‪.39-35‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪h‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ h‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .R‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫‪40‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻴﻠﻲ‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
‫ﻃﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺃﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺮﺏ‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪p‬‬
‫‪m‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻠﺔ‪/‬ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‬
‫ﺷﺎﻃﺊ‪/‬ﺛﻠﺞ‬
‫ﻏﺮﻭﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺴﻖ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻟﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺯﻫﺎﺭ‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪u‬‬
‫‪v‬‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻳﻒ‬
‫ﺃﻃﻌﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻇﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺧﺎﻓﺘﺔ‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‬
‫‪ k‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ p‬ﻃﻔﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﻌﻴ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺗﻴﻠﻴﻔﻮﺗﻮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻌﻴﻢ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻀﻔﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺇﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻟﻸﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺑﺲ ﻭﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺸﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻌﻮﻣﺔ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﻈﻬﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ l‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
‫‪ m‬ﺃﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻟﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﺸﺮﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ ﻭﺿﻮﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺠﻤﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ ﻭﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ )‪،6 0‬‬
‫‪.(83‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫‪41‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫‪42‬‬
‫‪ n‬ﻣﻘﺮﺏ‬
‫‪ r‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻴﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻘﺮﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺰﻫﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺮﺍﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺭﻉ‬
‫ﻭﻻﻓﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ ﻭﺿﻮﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ s‬ﺣﻔﻠﺔ‪/‬ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﻔﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ t‬ﺷﺎﻃﺊ‪/‬ﺛﻠﺞ‬
‫‪ v‬ﺍﻟﻐﺴﻖ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ ﻭﺿﻮﺀ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻏﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ ﻭﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ u‬ﻏﺮﻭﺏ‬
‫‪ w‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻟﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻭﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻕ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ ﻭﺿﻮﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫‪43‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫‪44‬‬
‫‪ x‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻌﺔ‬
‫‪ z‬ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻳﻒ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﺑﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻉ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ؛ ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﻟﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻠﺊ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻷﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻳﻒ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ؛ ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ y‬ﺃﺯﻫﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ 0‬ﺃﻃﻌﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﺗﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻫﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ؛ ﻳﻨﺼﺢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺯﺍﻫﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻃﻌﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪.(143 0‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻇﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺧﺎﻓﺘﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻇﻠﻴﺔ ﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ؛ ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺔ ﺗﺒﺮﺯ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ؛ ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﻣﻠﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻮﺀ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ‪.‬‬
‫‪45‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.K‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪K‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻭ‪.(179 0) 3‬‬
‫‪1/ 12‬‬
‫‪NIKON D600‬‬
‫‪85mm‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪F5. 6‬‬
‫‪1/ 125‬‬
‫‪0, 0‬‬
‫‪N OR‬‬
‫‪ORMAL‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬
‫‪6016x4016‬‬
‫‪100ND600 DSC_0001. JPG‬‬
‫‪15 / 04 / 2012 10: 02: 28‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ ،(212 0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺜﻮﺍﻥ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 178‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪46‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .(Q) O‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺬﻭﻓﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .(Q) O‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (Q) O‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.K‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(Q) O‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ )‪ ،(190 0‬ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ )‪ ،(191 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ )‪ ،(190 0‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪47‬‬
s
48
‫‪x‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﺯﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪) C‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ‬
‫ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻃﻲ ﻭﻏﻄﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ DK-5‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪.(86 0‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.a‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ‬
‫ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﺮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪a‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.51‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻮﻣﺾ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺧﻀﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻀﻲﺀ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺧﻀﺮ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻮﻣﺾ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﻊ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ؛ ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ(‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(110 0‬؛‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ ،M‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪.(78 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪49‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ a‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ؛ ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺩﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻭﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ( ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺩﺍﻓﺌﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻅ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻄﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ(‪:‬‬
‫• ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،a‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺃﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪) Picture Control‬ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ (b) c‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ .Picture Controls‬ﻇﻠﻞ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪.(129 0) Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(b) c‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻸﻓﻼﻡ )‪ (57 0‬ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪50‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ AF‬ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.55‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﹸﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫‪AF-S‬‬
‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫‪AF-F‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﹸﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ AF‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ .AF-S‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻴﻠﻲ ﻛﻮﻧﻔﻴﺮﺗﺮ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺧﻀﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﻟﺤﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬
‫• ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﺒﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻻﻓﺘﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫• ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﻳﺴﻨﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻣﺪ )ﻧﺠﻤﻲ( ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ ﺃﺧﺮ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫• ﻳﺘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺄﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ )ﻣﺜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻒ ﻧﻮﺍﻓﺬ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺎﻃﺤﺔ ﺳﺤﺎﺏ(‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻙ‬
‫‪51‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪:‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ؛‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﺻﻔﺮ ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺝ )ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 35‬ﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﹰ ﺑﺤﺪ‬
‫! ﺃﻗﺼﻰ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻫﺪﻑ؛ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ؛ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﹰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬
‫‪ $‬ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ %‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ‪.‬‬
‫&‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻫﺪﻑ‪ :‬ﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﺳﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺤﺮﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺤﺠﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺄﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﺗﻤﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ AF‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪52‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪er‬‬
‫‪q‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫‪u‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪ q‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪56‬‬
‫‪ w‬ﻣﺮﺷﺪ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪51‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪52‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪49‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ e‬ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫‪ r‬ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ t‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫‪ y‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫‪ u‬ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،(U) L‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪) A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻃﺒﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻂ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ )‪.(4 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪78‬‬
‫‪53‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﻣﺴﻨﻨﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﻠﻮﻧﺔ ﻭﺗﻤﻮﺝ ﻭﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻣﻀﺔ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺘﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻤﺖ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﻮﻫﻠﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺻﺎﻋﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺧﺎﻃﻒ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻘﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﻳﺴﻨﺖ ﻭﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ )‪ ،(252 0‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪54‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ ،M‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ .(112 0) EV ±5‬ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪ EV +3‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ EV –3‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻹﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.R‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ )‪(258 0‬‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ )‪ ،(103 0‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ × 19‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ .(T) X‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺗﺼﻔﺢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ )ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (S) W‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻔﺢ‬
‫‪55‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،CPU‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪ .(172 0‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A‬ﻭ‪M‬‬
‫)‪(73 0‬؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﻤﺪﺓ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪53 0‬؛ ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺪ ﺗﻨﺎﺯﻟﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺏ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺣﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪—c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ < ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ؛ ‪ 5—228 0‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻻﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻻ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺳﻴﻐﻠﻖ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪56‬‬
‫‪HDMI A‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ‪ HDMI‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ‪ ،HDMI-CEC‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ < HDMI‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪(205 0‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﺯﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪) 1‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻸﻓﻼﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.a‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻟﻮ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻪ ﻟﻴﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﺮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪a‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪0‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ (61 0) 0‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ )ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪(78 ،77 0 ،‬؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪) Picture Control‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪M‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ‪ (129 0 ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )‪ .(217 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ ،M‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪ (115 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(51 0‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(52 0‬‬
‫‪57‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 3‬ﻭ ‪ 4‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ‪) 49‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .(51‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫—‬
‫‪A ،S ،P‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ ،M‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ‪ 100‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ Hi 2‬ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪1/25‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭ‪1/4000‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ؛ ‪ .(65 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﺿﺎ ﻟﻠﻀﻮﺀ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻔﺮﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻛﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺮﺝ ﻭﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻔﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)‪ (110 0‬ﺃﻭ )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ (A‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻩ ﺑﺤﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ‪ EV ±3‬ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫‪ EV 1/3‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪ .(112 0‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﹰ؛ ﻻ ﺗﻐﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ ﻗﺪ ﻳﹸﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪.‬‬
‫‪58‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻫﻮ ‪ 4‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ )ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ‪(65‬؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ )‪.(334 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﻏﺒﺖ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ؛ ‪ .(248 ،247 0‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ )ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ( ﻭﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺺ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ‪ .9 : 16‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺘﻪ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ؛ ﻳﻮﺻﻰ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ A‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ M‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(248 ،247 0‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻓﺤﺺ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ‪ –5‬ﻭ ‪ ،EV +5‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ –3‬ﻭ ‪ +3‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪A‬؛ ‪.(112 0‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻟﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ )‪ .(53 0‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺳﻴﻐﻠﻖ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ a‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪59‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) g1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪،(247 0 ،Fn‬‬
‫‪) g2‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪ (248 0 ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪) g3‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪،(248 0 ،‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻹﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ .(68 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 20‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻭﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ )‪ .(65 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .55‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻠﻌﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ J‬ﻭ‪ Fn‬ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﻭ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f1‬ﺯﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ(؛ ‪) g1 ،(241 0‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬؛ ‪(247 0‬‬
‫ﻭ‪) g2‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ؛ ‪ (248 0‬ﻭ‪) g3‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،(248 0 ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ )ﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ(‪ .‬ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) g4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ؛ ‪ (248 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪60‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪ty‬‬
‫‪q‬‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪u‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬
‫‪ q‬ﺭﻣﺰ "ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ"‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫‪ w‬ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ‬
‫‪ e‬ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ r‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ‪.‬‬
‫‪62‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ؛ ﻋ ﹼﺪﻝ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﹰ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮﻯ )‪ (L‬ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻨﻰ )‪ (R‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ME-1‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ ﺃﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪62‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫‪62‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ )ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪ t‬ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ(‬
‫‪ y‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪58‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪65‬‬
‫‪ u‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪62‬‬
‫‪ i‬ﻣﺮﺷﺪ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪62‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ ‪ ME-1‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(298 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ؛ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﻮﺧﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺬﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ‪.‬‬
‫‪61‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﻭﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻔﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ )‪(61 0‬؛ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،(U) L‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻹﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.R‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ )‪(258 0‬‬
‫‪62‬‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ ،(89 0‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪ (57 0‬ﻫﻲ ‪ .9 : 16‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ < ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ‪ DX‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ ،DX‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ 1.5× (24 × 16) DX‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ < ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ‪ FX‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ .1.0× (36 × 24) FX‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪a‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ‪.DX‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ )ﺳﻢ(‪* .‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ )ﺑﻜﺴﻞ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪28.6 × 50.9‬‬
‫‪3376 × 6016‬‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪FX‬‬
‫‪21.4 × 38.2‬‬
‫‪2528 × 4512‬‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫)‪ 20.0 × 35.5‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫‪14.3 × 25.5‬‬
‫‪1688 × 3008‬‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫‪18.8 × 33.3‬‬
‫‪2224 × 3936‬‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪DX‬‬
‫‪14.1 × 24.9‬‬
‫‪1664 × 2944‬‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫)‪ 13.2 × 23.5‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫‪9.4 × 16.7‬‬
‫‪1112 × 1968‬‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫* ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ‪ 300‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺑﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻮﺻﺔ ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻞ ﻣﻘﺴﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺑﻌﺔ )ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺑﻌﺔ؛ ‪ 1‬ﺑﻮﺻﺔ =‬
‫‪ 2.54‬ﺳﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ(‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪.(93 0‬‬
‫‪63‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪HDMI‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ‪ ،(204 0) HDMI‬ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﻋﺒﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪ .HDMI‬ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪ HDMI‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻖ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ؛ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪ HDMI‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .R‬ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ‪ ،HDMI-CEC‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻟـ ‪ < HDMI‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪.(205 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﺳﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) g4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،(248 0 ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ (298 0) MC-DC2‬ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﻳﺴﻨﺖ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻓﻘﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‪ .(252 0 ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﻣﺴﻨﻨﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﻠﻮﻧﺔ ﻭﺗﻤﻮﺝ‬
‫ﻭﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻣﻀﺔ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺘﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻤﺖ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﻮﻫﻠﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺻﺎﻋﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺧﺎﻃﻒ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ( ﻭﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )‪ (55 0‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ؛ ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺩﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻭﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺑﻘﻊ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ( ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺩﺍﻓﺌﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻅ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻄﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ(‪:‬‬
‫• ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،a‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺃﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪64‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪1/o‬‬
‫‪2/p‬‬
‫‪3/q‬‬
‫‪4/r‬‬
‫‪5/s‬‬
‫‪6/t‬‬
‫‪7/u‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ )ﺑﻜﺴﻞ(‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ*‬
‫‪ 30‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪1080 × 1920‬‬
‫‪ 25‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪1080 × 1920‬‬
‫‪ 24‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪1080 × 1920‬‬
‫‪ 60‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪720 × 1280‬‬
‫‪ 50‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪720 × 1280‬‬
‫‪ 30‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪720 × 1280‬‬
‫‪ 25‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪720 × 1280‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺑﺖ )ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ(‬
‫)★ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪/‬ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ(‬
‫)★ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪/‬ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ(‬
‫‪12/24‬‬
‫‪ 20‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪/‬‬
‫‪ 29‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪ 59 .‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪8/12‬‬
‫‪ 29‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪ 59 .‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪/‬‬
‫‪ 29‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪ 59 .‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫* ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺟﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻟﻺﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﻼﻡ ‪ 60p‬ﻭ‪ 50p‬ﻭ‪ 30p‬ﻭ‪ ،25p‬ﻭ‪ 24p‬ﻫﻮ ‪ 59.94‬ﻭ‪ 50‬ﻭ‪ 29.97‬ﻭ‪ 25‬ﻭ‪ 23.976‬ﺇ‪/‬ﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫• ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ ‪ ME-1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ؛ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ؛ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ ،2‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.J‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺋﻴﺔ )ﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ(‪.‬‬
‫‪66‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪ .(177 0‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺷﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺭﺟﺎﻉ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ‪ ×2‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ ×4‬ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫‪ ×8‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪×16‬؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺘﻪ )ﻳﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ‬
‫‪ h‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ .(i‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺭﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻄﺔ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺭﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺭﺟﺎﻉ‪/‬ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ‪ 10‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ‪ 10‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﻟﻸﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﻄﻲ ﻟﻸﻣﺎﻡ‪/‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫‪/(T) X‬‬
‫‪(S) W‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪(b) c‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫‪K/‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (T) X‬ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‪ (S) W ،‬ﻟﻠﺨﻔﺾ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 69‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪67‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪p‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ )‪ (60 0‬ﺑﺮﻣﺰ ‪ p‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪2‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺻﻮﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫‪68‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻳﺤﻔﻆ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ JPEG‬ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ K‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪K‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ ،67‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪J‬‬
‫ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻺﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪4‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ )‪ .(67 0‬ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (b) c‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(b) c‬‬
‫‪69‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ؛ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺭﺟﺎﻉ )ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ‪ 10‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﻟﻸﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻒ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ؛ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ(‪ .‬ﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺪﺀ )‪ (w‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ )‪ (x‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.(U) L‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪:J‬‬
‫• ﺣﻔﻆ ﻛﻤﻠﻒ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ :‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﺭﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.5‬‬
‫• ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ 9‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪70‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 5‬ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪.(261 0‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫‪71‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ JPEG‬ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪67‬؛ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (b) c‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(b) c‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺸﺊ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺟﻴﺪﺓ )‪ (93 0‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ 9‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﻳﻨﻘﺼﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(179 0‬‬
‫‪72‬‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ CPU‬ﺑﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )‪ ،(287 0‬ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ )ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.(f‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ‪) A‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ( ﻭ ‪) M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻱ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪(285 0) CPU‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪ (172 0‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،CPU‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ f‬ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ )‪ ،F‬ﻣﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ (FA‬ﻭﻳﺠﺐ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻋﺪﺩ ‪ f‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪73‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺑﻄﺎﺀ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺇﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺛﺎﺑ ﹰﺘﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺠﻤﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺗﻨﻌﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻳﺸﻮﺵ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫?‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫‪74‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ‬
‫)‪ 1/1600‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫)‪ 1/6‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ(‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ )‪(f/22‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ )‪(f/5.6‬‬
‫)ﺗﺬﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ،f‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺻﻐﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪(.‬‬
‫‪ :P‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﹰ ﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺪﻣﺞ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻮﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ ،P‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ )"ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ"(‪ .‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﻳﻤﻴﻨﺎ ﹰ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ )ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ‪ f‬ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ( ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ "ﺗﺠﻤﺪ" ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﻟﻠﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ )ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ‪ f‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ( ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺗﺸﻮﺵ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪ U‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻏﻠﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 315‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ" ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.39‬‬
‫‪75‬‬
‫‪ :S‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺃﻧﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ "ﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﺪ" ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪ 1/1600‬ﺙ(‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ )‪ 1/6‬ﺙ(‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ "‪ "v‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ‪ 1/4000‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 323‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ "‪ "A‬ﺃﻭ "‪ "%‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪76‬‬
‫‪ :A‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺃﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ‪ .‬ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ )ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ‪ f‬ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ( ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪ (147 0‬ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﻮﺵ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻭﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪ .‬ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮﺓ )ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ‪ f‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ(‬
‫ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻤﻖ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﻗﺼﻴﺮ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ )‪(f/5.6‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ )‪(f/22‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ (S‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫)ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ ،(M‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪—e5‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ ‪ SB-900‬ﻭ ‪ SB-800‬ﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ (293 0) SB-600‬ﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 241‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪77‬‬
‫‪ :M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ "‪ "v‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ ‪ 1/4000‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ )‪ .(79 0 ،A‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪AF Micro NIKKOR‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺃﺧﺬ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻓﺘﺢ "‪ "bulb‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ "‪ ،"time‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﻔﺮﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻛﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺺ ‪) b2‬ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،(224 0 ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺼﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ‪ EV 1/3‬ﺃﻭ ‪) EV 1/2‬ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ 1/3‬ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺺ ‪ .(b2‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻌﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪EV 1/3‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪EV 2‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻜﺲ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f8‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ‪.(246 0 ،‬‬
‫‪78‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ :(A) Bulb‬ﻳﻈﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺒﻞ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﻱ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪.(298 0) MC-DC2‬‬
‫• ‪ :(%) Time‬ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪ .(298 0) ML-L3‬ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ .ML-L3‬ﻳﻈﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﻦ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ 35 :‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪f/25 :‬‬
‫ﺟﻬﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻱ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻃﻲ ﻭﻏﻄﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ .(86 0) DK-5‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL15‬ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EH-5b‬ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪ .EP-5B‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ(‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ؛ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‬
‫‪ NR‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪.(218 0‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.M‬‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪79‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪.A‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ "‪ ،(%) "time‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬
‫)‪ (85 0‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪) Bulb‬ﻓﺘﺢ(‪ :‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪) Time‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ(‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ ML-L3‬ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪) Bulb‬ﻓﺘﺢ(‪ :‬ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪) Time‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ(‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ ML-L3‬ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﻦ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪80‬‬
‫‪$‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ U1‬ﻭ‪U2‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻟﻸﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ U1‬ﻭ ‪ U2‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﱢ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻋ ﹼﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ U1‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.U2‬‬
‫ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،(P‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ S‬ﻭ ‪ ،(M‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫)ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ ،(M‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ (214 0‬ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ )‪) (219 0‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻦ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺤﻔﻆ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ ،Picture Control‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫‪$‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ U1‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ U2‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪81‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪ 2‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.4‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ U1‬ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ ،U1‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ U2‬ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.U2‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ U1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ U2‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪$‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ‪ U1‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ‪.U2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪82‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ‪ U1‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ‪ U2‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪CL‬‬
‫‪CH‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪E‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪MUP‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ 5-1‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪1 .‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ‪) d5‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ‪ .(229 0 ،CL‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 5.5‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ 2.‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ :‬ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻻ ﺗﻄﻘﻄﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻤﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻄﻘﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﹸﺤﺪﺛﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻫﺪﺃ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻱ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪) d1‬ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ؛ ‪.(228 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫)‪.(85 0‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪.(85 0) ML-L3‬‬
‫ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺗﻴﻠﻴﻔﻮﺗﻮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EN-EL15‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪ d5‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EN-EL15‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ )ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ‪ f‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ( ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ )ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ( ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(107 ،105 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪83‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺣﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 100‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ )‪.(t00‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﺗﺘﺴﻊ ﻟﺤﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 28‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﺘﻐﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻨﻄﻔﺊ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﹸﻏﻠﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻃﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻔﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺳﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪ (49 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(57 0‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫‪84‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻀﻐﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d6‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ .(230 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻀﻐﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.335‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ ML-L3‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪ (298 0‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺇﻟﻲ ‪ E‬ﻭﺿﻊ )ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ( ﺃﻭ ‪ 4‬ﻭﺿﻊ )ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﺖ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ %‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺘﺄﺧﺮ‬
‫‪$‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫& ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪.ML-L3‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪.ML-L3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ML-L3‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺴﺒﺒﻪ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪85‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻃﻲ )‪ (q‬ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪ DK-21‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ‪DK-5‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ )‪ .(w‬ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻧﺰﻉ ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻃﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺜﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺑﻌﺸﺮ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ‪ 5‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ML-L3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼﺕ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺔ ﺗﺤﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪ (4 ،2 0‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ .ML-L3‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ML-L3‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ؛ ﺳﻴﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ؛ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) g4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪،‬‬
‫‪ ،(248 0‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺴﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺃﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪86‬‬
‫ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻃﻲ‬
‫‪DK-21‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪DK-5‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﻐﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺯﻝ ﻟﻠﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ ،P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،A‬ﺃﻭ ‪ M‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،0‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (Y) M‬ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ‪ M‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪ .(143 0‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ML-L3‬ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ؛ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺤﻪ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻭﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺺ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ؛ ‪.(227 0‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻪ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻟﻦ ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻱ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺤﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻌﻮﺩ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪A A‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻠﺔ )ﻓﺘﺢ( ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ‪ A‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪.M‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ؛ ‪ .(227 0‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻘﻀﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c5‬ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ؛ ‪.(228 0‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ‪) d1‬ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ؛ ‪.(228 0‬‬
‫‪87‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻲ ‪.MUP‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫)‪ .(298 0‬ﺗﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ ML-L3‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.85‬‬
‫‪88‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻭﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ(‪ .‬ﺑﻔﻀﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ 24 × 35.9) FX‬ﻣﻢ( ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻭﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺯﻭﺍﻳﺎ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺘﻴﺤﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ )‪ ،(135‬ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻗﺺ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ DX‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ .DX‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 335‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪.DX‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ .DX‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪DX‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ DX‬ﻣﺼﻤﻤﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ DX‬ﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪35‬ﻣﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪) 1.0× (36 × 24) FX‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ (FX‬ﻓﻲ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ ،DX‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻈﻠﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻼﺣﻆ ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﻮﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪89‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪ DX‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ DX‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(91 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪(36×24) FX‬‬
‫×‪1.0‬‬
‫‪) c‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪(FX‬‬
‫‪(24×16) DX‬‬
‫‪1.5× a‬‬
‫)ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪(DX‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ FX‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪ 24.0 × 35.9‬ﻣﻢ(‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪ NIKKOR‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ‪ 15.7 × 23.5‬ﻣﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ .DX‬ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪35‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺮﺏ ﻓﻲ ‪.1.5‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪DX‬‬
‫)‪(16 × 24‬‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪DX‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪FX‬‬
‫)‪(24 × 36‬‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪FX‬‬
‫×‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺺ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ DX‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a4‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.(222 0 ،‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 63‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪90‬‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪DX‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻀﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻋ ﹼﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ (214 0‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪.(90 0‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫‪91‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻷﺣﺪ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )‪ .(219 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺰﺭ ‪) Fn‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ ،f2‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ (242 0 ،Fn‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﺰﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ ،f3‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪.(244 0 ،‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪.(90 0‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ FX‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ "‪ "24 - 36‬ﻭﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ DX‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ‬
‫"‪."16 - 24‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ DX‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(95 0‬‬
‫‪92‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺸﻐﻠﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﻳﺤﺪﺩﺍﻥ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻛﺒﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺄﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )‪.(335 0‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻭ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ )ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫)‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪NEF‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺗﹸﺤﻔﻆ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪ Raw‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1:4‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ )ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ(‪* .‬‬
‫‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1:8‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ )ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ(‪* .‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1:16‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ )ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ(‪* .‬‬
‫)‪+NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ‬
‫)‪+NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪ JPEG/NEF‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ JPEG‬ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫)‪+NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ JPEG‬ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫* ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺿﻐﻂ ‪.JPEG‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ JPEG‬ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (T) X‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪.(214 0‬‬
‫‪93‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺿﻐﻂ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪.JPEG‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ O‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫‪ P‬ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺗﹸﻀﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪ < NEF (RAW‬ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫‪ N‬ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ NEF‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻮﻏﺎﺭﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﻜﺴﻲ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 40%–20%‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ O‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻁ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ NEF‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻮﻏﺎﺭﻳﺘﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻋﻜﺴﻲ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 55%–35%‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪ < NEF (RAW‬ﻋﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ 12 q‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫‪ 14 r‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﻌﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ‪ 12‬ﺑﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﻌﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ‪ 14‬ﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ ﹰ ﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ‪ 12‬ﺑﺖ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺻﻮﺭ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪) Capture NX 2‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ؛ ‪ (298 0‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪) ViewNX 2‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﺔ ‪ ViewNX 2‬ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ(‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻻ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫)‪NEF (RAW‬؛ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ )ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ‪ (#‬ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .95‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﺴﺦ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪.(271 0‬‬
‫‪JPEG+NEF A‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ )‪ JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﺪﺭﺟﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺘﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺘﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﹸ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪< 2‬‬
‫‪ RAW‬ﻓﺘﺢ ‪ JPEG - 1‬ﻓﺘﺢ ‪ ،2‬ﻓﻠﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ‪.JPEG‬‬
‫‪94‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ #‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ‪ $‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺃﻭ ‪ %‬ﺻﻐﻴﺮ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪:(89 0 ،‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪1.0× (36 × 24) FX‬‬
‫)ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪(FX‬‬
‫‪1.5× (24 × 16) DX‬‬
‫)ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪(DX‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ )ﺑﻜﺴﻞ(‬
‫‪4016 × 6016‬‬
‫‪3008 × 4512‬‬
‫‪2008 × 3008‬‬
‫‪2624 × 3936‬‬
‫‪1968 × 2944‬‬
‫‪1312 × 1968‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ )ﺳﻢ(‪* .‬‬
‫‪34.0 × 50.9‬‬
‫‪25.5 × 38.2‬‬
‫‪17.0 × 25.5‬‬
‫‪22.2 × 33.3‬‬
‫‪16.7 × 24.9‬‬
‫‪11.1 × 16.7‬‬
‫* ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ‪ 300‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺑﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻮﺻﺔ ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻜﺴﻞ ﻣﻘﺴﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺑﻌﺔ )ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺑﻌﺔ؛ ‪ 1‬ﺑﻮﺻﺔ=‪ 2.54‬ﺳﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (T) X‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫)‪.(214 0‬‬
‫‪95‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ 2‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ .2‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪ )ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ 2‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ ،(1‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺮﺗﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ 1‬ﻭﻣﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ ،(2‬ﻭ‪ RAW‬ﻓﺘﺢ ‪ JPEG - 1‬ﻓﺘﺢ ‪) 2‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪ NEF/RAW‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ JPEG + NEF/RAW‬ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ 1‬ﻭﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻧﺴﺦ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪.(2‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫‪" A‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ" ﻭ "‪ RAW‬ﻓﺘﺢ ‪ JPEG - 1‬ﻓﺘﺢ ‪"2‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺘﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ < ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪.(65 0‬‬
‫‪96‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺼﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ( ﺃﻭ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ )‪ .(103 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ )‪ (101 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ )‪.(102 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.AF‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺰﺯ‬
‫‪AF-A‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻙ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﹸﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫‪ AF-S‬ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫)ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ؛ ‪.(221 0‬‬
‫‪AF-C‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (100 0‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﺘﻨﺒﺄ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺤﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻁ )ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ؛ ‪.(221 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ AF-C‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،AF-A‬ﺳﺘﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻳﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﹰ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﺘﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﻨﺒﺄ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪97‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪AF-A‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫‪AF-S‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫‪AF-C‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (I‬ﻭﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ )‪ (103 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ )‪ (102 0‬ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﻪ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻗﻔﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺗﻬﻴﻤﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻒ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﻓﺬ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺎﻃﺤﺔ ﺳﺤﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺧﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﻘﻞ ﺯﻫﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺘﻘﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪ .(221 0 ،AF-C‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a2‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪ .(221 0 ،AF-S‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 51‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪98‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪101‬؛ ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.101‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪ AF-A‬ﻭ‪ ،AF-C‬ﺳﺘﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 9‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺋﻴﻦ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﻕ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﺎﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 21‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ‬‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻼﻋﺒﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺍﺓ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ‬‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .101‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ AF-A‬ﻭ‪ ،AF-C‬ﺗﺘﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻐﺎﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻷﺧﺮ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻻﻋﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺲ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻏﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺃﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻜﺘﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪،(287 0) D‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺟﻴﺪ ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ؛ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ AF-C‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪ ،AF-A‬ﺗﻈﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪99‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺸﻐﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 9‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ *‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 21‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ *‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ *‬
‫ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫* ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a3‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ‪ .(222 0 ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 52‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ●‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ J‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻏﻼﻕ )‪ (L‬ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ؛ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻰ ﺗﻀﻲﺀ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a4‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪،‬‬
‫‪ .(222 0‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ "ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ"‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a5‬ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .(222 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a6‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .(223 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،J‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ f1‬ﺯﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ(؛ ‪.241 0‬‬
‫‪101‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(98 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(99 0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (I‬ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪ AF-A‬ﻭ‪ AF-C‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ )‪ ،(q‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (w‬ﻟﻐﻠﻖ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫)ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ AE-L‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺒﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺎ ﹰ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺭﻓﻌﺖ ﺃﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪ :AF-S‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﹰ ﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ‬
‫ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪) A AE-L/AF-L‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ(‪.‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪ (AF-S‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑﻘﻴﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c1‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ (226 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﻘﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ (244 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪102‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ (non-AF NIKKOR‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ )‪.(98 0‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ :AF-S‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ :AF‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪ(‬
‫ﻭﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.M‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪AF‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ AF‬ﻣﻊ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ M‬ﻭﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .AF‬ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪ f/5.6‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺃﻡ ﻻ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ(‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ .(I‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ ،98‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﹰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ؛ ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ )‪(E‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻓﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪ 46.5‬ﻣﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫‪ 46.5‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪103‬‬
N
104
‫‪S‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫"ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ "ISO‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣﻦ ‪ ISO 100‬ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫‪ ISO 6400‬ﻓﻲ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ‪ .EV 1/3‬ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ‪ 0.3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ EV 1‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ ﺃﺩﻧﻰ ‪ ISO 100‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ 0.3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ EV 2‬ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ ISO 6400‬ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ ،AUTO‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻛﺎﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻗﻞ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﻀﻮﺀ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (S) W‬ﺛﻢ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪105‬‬
‫‪) AUTO A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ ،A ،S ،P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ M‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ AUTO‬ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺁﺧﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،A ،S ،P‬ﺃﻭ ‪.M‬‬
‫‪Hi 0.3–Hi 2 A‬‬
‫ﺗﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ‪ Hi 0.3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ Hi 2‬ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ EV 2–0.3‬ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪) ISO 6400‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﺎﻓﺊ ‪.(ISO 8000–25600‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺿﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮﻁ(‪.‬‬
‫‪Lo 0.3–Lo 1 A‬‬
‫ﺗﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ‪ Lo 0.3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ Lo 1‬ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ EV 1–0.3‬ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪) ISO 100‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﺎﻓﺊ ‪ .(ISO 80–50‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻪ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ؛ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ‬
‫ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ISO 100‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪.(214 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ،ISO‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺺ ‪) b1‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬؛ ‪.(224 0‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،(S) W‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d3‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ‪ISO‬؛ ‪ .(229 0‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.218‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪106‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫)ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ < ISO‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻼﺋﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ(‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻋ ﹼﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .G‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪) J‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺒﻘﻰ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ISO 100‬؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ،ISO‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪ ،A‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ )‪ 1–1/2000‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ؛ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ؛ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ‬
‫‪ S‬ﻭ‪ ،M‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪CPU‬؛ ﻳﻜﺎﻓﺊ ‪ 1/30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،(CPU‬ﺳﺘﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪2‬؛ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ(‪ .‬ﻗﻴﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪107‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪ .ISO-AUTO‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻮﻣﺾ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ( ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .(218‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺠﺎﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .(234 0 ،‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻴﺌﺔ )ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ ،(293‬ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (S) W‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫‪ ISO-AUTO‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.ISO‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫‪108‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪Z‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫)ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ ،A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪) M‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺣﻴﺰ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﹰ ﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،(287 0) D‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫)ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ‪II‬؛ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫‪ ،II‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ(‪ .‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،CPU‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪(173 0‬؛ ﻭﺇﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ ،CPU‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ ،b4‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪،‬‬
‫‪Z‬‬
‫‪226 0‬؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،CPU‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ‪ 12‬ﻣﻢ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ؛ ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ )ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ( ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ‪* .×1‬‬
‫ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻄﺮ ‪ 4‬ﻣﻢ )ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 1.5%‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ(‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ )ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ‬
‫‪b‬‬
‫ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ(‪ .‬ﺗﻀﻤﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻋﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺘﺎﻣﻪ‪* .‬‬
‫* ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻗﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،CPU‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪.(173 0) CPU‬‬
‫‪Z‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (Q) Z‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) b5‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.(226 0 ،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(Q) Z‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪109‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﻟﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪ I‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫‪ AE-L‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪Z‬‬
‫‪110‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻁ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺳﺔ ﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻄﺮ ‪-4‬ﻣﻢ ﻣﺘﻤﺮﻛﺰﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺳﺔ ﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻄﺮ ‪-12‬ﻣﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ؛ ‪(75 0‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c1‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،(226 0 ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.(244 0 ،‬‬
‫‪Z‬‬
‫‪111‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫)ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻟﺠﻌﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺍﻛﻨﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ )‪ .(109 0‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪) EV –5‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ( ﻭ ‪) EV +5‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ( ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪ .EV 1/3‬ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻋﺎ ﹰ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻗﺘﺎﻣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪EV -1‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ E‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪EV +1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪E‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫‪EV ±0‬‬
‫)ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ E‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻁ(‬
‫‪Z‬‬
‫‪EV -0.3‬‬
‫‪EV +2.0‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪ ،±0.0‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ‪ 0‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻭﺳﻂ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫)ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻓﻘﻂ( ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ E‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻙ ﻟﻠﺰﺭ ‪ .E‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.E‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ .±0‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪112‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪M‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،M‬ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ؛ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e4‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ (240 0 ،‬ﻟﺤﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) b2‬ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .(224 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،E‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪) b3‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺳﻬﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .(225 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.153‬‬
‫‪Z‬‬
‫‪113‬‬
Z
114
‫‪r‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫)ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺧﻼﻑ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ ،M‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﻌﻈﻢ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ؛ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪،M‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ v‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺇﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ‬
‫‪ J‬ﺳﺎﻃﻊ‬
‫‪ I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻧﻬﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺯﺋﺒﻖ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ H‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪ N‬ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ G‬ﻏﺎﺋﻢ‬
‫‪ M‬ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‬
‫‪ K‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪* .‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫‪K 8000–3500‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .D‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻊ‪.‬‬
‫‪K 3000‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ‪:‬‬
‫‪K 2700‬‬
‫‪K 3000‬‬
‫‪K 3700‬‬
‫‪K 4200‬‬
‫‪K 5000‬‬
‫‪K 6500‬‬
‫• ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ )ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻧﻬﺎﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻧﻬﺎ )ﻋﻠﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪K 5400‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪K 7200‬‬
‫‪K 5200‬‬
‫‪K 6000‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺒﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻴﻮﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪K 8000‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪K 10000–2500‬‬
‫‪ L‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ )‪.(120 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻛﻤﺮﺟﻊ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪.(121 0‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫* ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ )ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ (U) L‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪115‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪،(214 0‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪ (117 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪ .(121 0‬ﻳﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺇﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻨﺘﺠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻊ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﻮﺩﻳﻮ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﻮﺩﻳﻮ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻫﻲ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻮﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﹸ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﺘﺴﺒﻬﺎ ﺟﺴﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺨﻴﻦ ﻹﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ K 5500–5000‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻴﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺃﻗﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻊ‪ ،‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺻﻔﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ‪ .‬ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺯﺭﻕ‪ .‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻼﺋﻢ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪) H‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ(‪K 5200 :‬‬
‫• ‪) I‬ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ(‪K 2700 :‬‬
‫• ‪) N‬ﻓﻼﺵ(‪K 5400 :‬‬
‫• ‪) J‬ﺳﺎﻃﻊ(‪/‬‬
‫‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ(‪K 3000 :‬‬
‫• ‪) G‬ﻏﺎﺋﻢ(‪K 6000 :‬‬
‫• ‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ(‪K 3700 :‬‬
‫• ‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ(‪K 6500 :‬‬
‫• ‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ(‪K 4200 :‬‬
‫• ‪) I‬ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺯﺋﺒﻖ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ(‪K 7200 :‬‬
‫• ‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻧﻬﺎﺭﻱ(‪K 5000 :‬‬
‫• ‪) M‬ﺍﻟﻈﻞ(‪K 8000 :‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ WB‬ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e6‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،(241 0 ،‬ﺳﺘﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ "ﻳﺼﺤﺢ" ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺠﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫)‪.(156 0‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪116‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ "ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ" ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻇﻼﻝ ﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﺛﻢ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .G‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .2‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .2‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.125‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺒﺮﻱ )‪-(A‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ )‪ (B‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺃﺧﻀﺮ )‪-(G‬ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ‬
‫)‪ .(M‬ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ )ﻋﻨﺒﺮﻱ‪-‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ( ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 5‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻲ‬
‫)ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‪-‬ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ( ﻟﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ ﻟﻤﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻧﻲ )‪ (CC‬ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﻀﺮ )‪(G‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺒﺮﻱ )‪(A‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺯﺭﻕ )‪(B‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ )‪(M‬‬
‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ‬
‫×‬
‫‪117‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻤﺔ )"‪("E‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ‪) K‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ( ﻭ‪) L‬ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ )‪ (A‬ﻋﻨﺒﺮﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ )‪ (B‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ )‪117 0‬؛ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ K‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،L‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .(117‬ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺳﺖ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻫﻴﻦ؛ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 5‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ )‪ .(119 0‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ‬
‫)‪ .(A‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ )‪ .(B‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ‪ ،0‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻤﺔ )"‪ ("E‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪118‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪) B‬ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ(‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ "ﺩﺍﻓﺊ" ﻣﺜﻞ ‪) J‬ﺳﺎﻃﻊ( ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ "ﺃﺑﺮﺩ" ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺯﺭﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪" A‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ"‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻩ ‪ K 1000‬ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ K 3000‬ﺃﻛﺒﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ K 6000‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ‪ ،6 10‬ﻫﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺎﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺒﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪) K 3000-K 4000‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻩ ‪ 83 = (K 1000‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ‬
‫• ‪) K 6000–K 7000‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻩ ‪ 24 = (K 1000‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪119‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪) K‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ( ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﻳﺴﻨﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) N‬ﻓﻼﺵ( ﺃﻭ ‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ( ﻟﺘﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‪ .‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻭﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺗﺤﻞ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪120‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺤﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﻈﻼﻝ ﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻣﻦ ‪ d-1‬ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ .d-4‬ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﻴﻦ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(121 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )‪.(124 0‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺳﻠﻂ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺘﻮﺩﻳﻮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻛﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ EV 1‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ؛ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ ،M‬ﻋﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪.(78 0) ±0‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) L‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ L‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪ ،(57 ،49 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪HDR‬‬
‫)‪ (139 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ )‪ ،(160 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) g4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪،‬‬
‫‪.(248 0‬‬
‫‪121‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪ d-1‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ (d-4‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪L‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ D‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺳﺖ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﻗﺲ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ‪ ،‬ﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻸ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﻘﻴﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﺗﺨﺰﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .3‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻤﻴﺎ )‪ ،(127 0‬ﻓﺴﻮﻑ ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ‪ 3‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪122‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ‬
‫‪ C‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺳﺖ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ‬
‫‪ a‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ b a‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺳﺖ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 5‬ﻭﻗﺲ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪c2‬‬
‫)ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.(227 0 ،‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ ،K 5200‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪123‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) L‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ( ﻟـ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ )‪ d-1‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ (d-4‬ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.(S) W‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪124‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ )‪ ،(253 0‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪،4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(T) X‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ D‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.1‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ؛ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ )‪.(178 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ )‪(d-1–d-4‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﺃﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.117‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪125‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻭﺻﻔﻲ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﺘﺔ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﻮﻥ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) L‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.(S) W‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪126‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.135‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻲ ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) L‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.(S) W‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪127‬‬
r
128
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪Picture Controls‬‬
‫)ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ ،A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪ ،M‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ Q‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪ R‬ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ S‬ﻣﺸﺮﻕ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺸﺮﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺗﺒﺮﺯ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ T‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺸﺮﺓ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﻣﻠﻤﺲ ﻧﺎﻋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ e‬ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ f‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺗﻨﺒﺾ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.(b) c‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪.Picture Controls‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(b) c‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪129‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ .(134 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﻔﻆ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺩﻳﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ )‪.(136 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪.R‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ)‪.(214 0‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪130‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ‪Picture Controls‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )‪ (134 0‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻼﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫)‪ (129 0‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻋ ﹼﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ )‪ (132 0‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﺮﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺔ ﻣﻌﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(Q) O‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻨﺠﻤﺔ )"‪.("E‬‬
‫‪131‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫)ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫)ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫)ﻛﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪(Picture Controls‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪ -2‬ﻭ ‪ +2‬ﻟﺨﻔﺾ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻀﺨﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻌﻴﺪ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ(‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺸﺮﻕ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺇﺷﺮﺍﻗﺎ‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪Picture Controls‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ A‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪) 0‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ( ﻭ ‪) 9‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ A‬ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ -3‬ﻭ ‪) +3‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻻ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫"ﻣﻤﺴﻮﺣﺔ" ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ -1‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺃﻗﻞ‪ +1 ،‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺈﺷﺮﺍﻕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ A‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ -3‬ﻭ ‪) +3‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺗﻘﻠﻞ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﺗﺰﻳﺪﻩ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺔ )ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ‪ (-3‬ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻗﺮﻣﺰﻳﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﺎﺀ ﺧﻀﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﺻﻔﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ )ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ (+3‬ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﺯﺭﻗﺎﺀ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﻣﺰﻳﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺎﻛﻲ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪) Off‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‪ ،‬ﺃﺻﻔﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﻀﺮ )‪.(133 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪) B&W‬ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ(‪،‬‬
‫‪) Sepia‬ﺑﻨﻲ ﺩﺍﻛﻦ(‪) Cyanotype ،‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻓﺎﺗﺢ( )ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﺸﻮﺏ ﺑﺎﻷﺯﺭﻕ(‪) Red ،‬ﺃﺣﻤﺮ(‪Yellow ،‬‬
‫)ﺃﺻﻔﺮ(‪) Green ،‬ﺃﺧﻀﺮ(‪) Blue Green ،‬ﺃﺧﻀﺮ ﻣﺰﺭﻕ(‪) Blue ،‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ(‪) Purple Blue ،‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻗﺮﻣﺰﻱ(‪Red ،‬‬
‫‪) Purple‬ﻗﺮﻣﺰﻱ ﻣﺤﻤﺮ( )‪.(133 0‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪) "A" D‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪ D‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺄﺳﺴﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪132‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (S) W‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 2‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 131‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﻟﻮﻥ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ(‪ .‬ﺣﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (S) W‬ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﻣﻮﺯ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ‪ ،Picture Control‬ﻭﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺮﺟﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ )ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ(‬
‫ﺗﺤﺎﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪Y‬‬
‫‪O‬‬
‫‪R‬‬
‫‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻔﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺣﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺧﻀﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺘﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﻌﻢ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﺿﻮﺣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ )ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 3‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪) B&W‬ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ(‪.‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪133‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .G‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪134‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ ،2‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 5‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻝ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 132‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .(Q) O‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﻆ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )‪C-1‬‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ (C-9‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪Picture Controls‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﻦ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺼﻪ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ(‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎﹰ؛‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .7‬ﻟﻨﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (S) W‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .2‬ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(Q) O‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺃﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺣﺮﻑ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.(T) X‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (T) X‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ < Picture Control‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture‬‬
‫‪.Control‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ < Picture Control‬ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture‬‬
‫‪ Control‬ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺭﻣﺰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﺮﻣﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ‬
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‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ‪Picture Control Utility‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ ViewNX 2‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﺜﻞ‪ Capture NX 2‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﺤﻤﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ D600‬ﺛﻢ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪ C-1‬ﺣﺘﻰ ‪C-9‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻢ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪Picture Control‬؛ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪J‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ )‪C-1‬‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ (C-9‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ )‪ 1‬ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ (99‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 99‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪Picture‬‬
‫‪ Controls‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪ (129 0‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺃﺳﻤﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ 1‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪.2‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫)ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺗﺤﺎﻓﻆ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﺸﻤﺲ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‬
‫)‪.(109 0‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻣﻐﻠﻖ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ Y :‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting" D‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ" ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ "‪"D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻀﺒﻂ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪137‬‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .G‬ﻇﻠﻞ ‪D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪Y‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،M‬ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ Y‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ Q‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting D‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO Hi 0.3‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ADL‬ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e6‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،(241 0 ،‬ﺳﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ )‪ .(158 0‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻭﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.242‬‬
‫‪138‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ )‪(HDR‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ )‪ (HDR‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ HDR‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ )‪109 0‬؛ ﻣﻊ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،CPU‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ‪ .(EV 2‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ .NEF (RAW‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ )‪ (57 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫)‪ (153 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ )‪ (160 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺾ )‪ (168 0‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪HDR‬‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪.A‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ )ﻗﺎﺗﻢ(‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ )ﺳﺎﻃﻊ(‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ HDR‬ﻣﺪﻣﻮﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ( ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪139‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ HDR‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫• ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ ،HDR‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ 6‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫)ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪ HDR‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.HDR‬‬
‫• ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ HDR‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ HDR‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ HDR‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ‪ k‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪140‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻟﻘﻄﺘﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﹼﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﺑﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ l k‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭ ‪ l u‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺩﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ؛ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ HDR‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪HDR‬؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ‪ HDR‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ k‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪.HDR‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪HDR‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﺺ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺤﺮﻛﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻇﻼﻝ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻫﺎﻻﺕ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻛﻨﺔ؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ( ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ HDR‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ HDR‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫‪141‬‬
J
142
‫‪l‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ )‪ (GN‬ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ ﻫﻮ ‪) 12‬ﻣﺘﺮ‪° 20 ،ISO 100 ،‬ﻡ( ﻭﻳﻮﻓﺮ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪ 24‬ﻣﻢ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪ 16‬ﻣﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ .DX‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﻟﻤﻠﺊ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ i‬ﻭ‪ k‬ﻭ‪ p‬ﻭ‪ n‬ﻭ‪ o‬ﻭ‪ s‬ﻭ‪w‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻓﻼﺵ )‪.(144 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ M ،A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (Y) M‬ﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻓﻼﺵ )ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪ S‬ﻭ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ؛ ‪.(144 0‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(Y) M‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﺘﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪143‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪:‬‬
‫‪w ،s ،n ،p ،k ،i‬‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪+‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪+‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪+‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪+‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪j‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪j‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪M ،S‬‬
‫‪A ،P‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪+‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪+‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ *‬
‫* ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ S‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻓﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (Y) M‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(Y) M‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﺍ ﹰ ﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻧﻘﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪144‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪w ،n ،p ،k ،i‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪+‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫‪M ،A ،S ،P ،0‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪+‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺠﻤﻊ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺳﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﺰ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪) AUTO‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪ :‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻭﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪) Y‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ(‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ "ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ"‪.‬‬
‫• ‪) j‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪) SLOW‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ(‪ :‬ﺗﻘﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪) REAR‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ(‪ :‬ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺷﻌﺔ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺧﻠﻒ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻨﻰ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ؛‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺑﺆﺭﻳﺔ ‪ 300–24‬ﻣﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ 300–16) FX‬ﻣﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪DX‬؛ ‪ .(288 0‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻫﻮ ‪ 0.6‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺯﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻛﺮﻭ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 100‬ﻭ‪ .6400‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ‪ ،6400‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ )‪ ،(83 0‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪145‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪ 1/60–1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫‪w s p ،k ،*A ،*P ،i‬‬
‫‪0 ،n‬‬
‫‪ 1/125–1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫‪ 1-1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪*S‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫‪ 30–1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪*M‬‬
‫‪ 30–1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪A ،‬‬
‫* ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 1/4000‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ ‪ SB-900‬ﻭ ‪ SB-800‬ﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﻭ ‪ SB-600‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪1/250‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﺃﻭ ‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﻓﻲ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .(234 0 ،‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪1/250‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﻣﻀﺎﺕ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺔ )ﻧﺒﻀﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ( ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻧﺒﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ‪ RGB 2016‬ﺑﻜﺴﻞ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻭﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،D‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ؛‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ .(172 0‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ؛ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺒﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻓﻼﺵ ‪i-TTL‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e3‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪،‬‬
‫‪ .(236 0‬ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪146‬‬
‫‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(234 0‬‬
‫‪i-TTL‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫—‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫—‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ )ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺆ ‪ (ISO‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪1.4‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪2.8‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5.6‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪2.8‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5.6‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬
‫‪1600‬‬
‫‪800‬‬
‫‪400‬‬
‫‪5.6‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪2.8‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪5.6‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪5.6‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪32‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪32‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪32‬‬
‫‪3200‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪32‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‬
‫‪m‬‬
‫‪8.5–0.7‬‬
‫‪6.0–0.6‬‬
‫‪4.2–0.6‬‬
‫‪3.0–0.6‬‬
‫‪2.1–0.6‬‬
‫‪1.5–0.6‬‬
‫‪1.1–0.6‬‬
‫‪0.8–0.6‬‬
‫‪6400‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪32‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻫﻮ ‪ 0.6‬ﻣﺘﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ ،P‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺃﻗﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (f‬ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ،ISO‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪:‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪2.8‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪3.5‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ‪:‬‬
‫‪1600‬‬
‫‪800‬‬
‫‪400‬‬
‫‪5.6‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3200‬‬
‫‪7.1‬‬
‫‪6400‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ‬
‫ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 149‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪ (FV‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺗﻤﺖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺗﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .(234 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪e2‬‬
‫)ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .(235 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e3‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪.(236 0 ،‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 292‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪147‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫)ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ‪ EV –3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ EV +1‬ﺑﺄﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،EV 1/3‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻋﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (Y) M‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻋﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻗﺘﺎﻣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(Y) M‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪ ،±0.0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ Y‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .(Y) M‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(Y) M‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ .±0.0‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪EV ±0‬‬
‫)ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (Y) M‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻁ(‬
‫‪EV -0.3‬‬
‫‪EV +1.0‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ‪ SB-900‬ﻭ‪ SB-800‬ﻭ‪ SB-700‬ﻭ‪ SB-600‬ﻭ‪ SB-400‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ .SB-R200‬ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ ‪ SB-900‬ﻭ ‪ SB-800‬ﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﻭ ‪ SB-600‬ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ؛ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) b2‬ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪،‬‬
‫‪ .(224 0‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e4‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .(240 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.153‬‬
‫‪148‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪FV‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺿﻤﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻑ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪:FV‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ FV‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ FV‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f2‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪.(242 0 ،Fn‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪ S‬ﻭ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ M‬ﻭ ‪ ،0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .(Y) M‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ i‬ﻭ‪ p ،k‬ﻭ‪ n‬ﻭ‪ o‬ﻭ‪ s‬ﻭ‪ ،w‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪..‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(Y) M‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪ (M‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .Fn‬ﺳﻴﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻧﺒﻀﺔ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻭﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ (e) FV‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪149‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪.FV‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪.FV‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ .FV‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺭﻣﺰ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ (e) FV‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ FV‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ FV‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ TTL‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e3‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪.(236 0 ،‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ FV‬ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ FV‬ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪ TTL‬ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ( ﻧﺒﻀﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪ AA‬ﻭﻧﺒﻀﺎﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪ .A‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e3‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ (236 0 ،‬ﺳﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ TTL‬ﺃﻭ ‪.AA‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻘﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ FV‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫)ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪i-TTL‬‬
‫‪AA‬‬
‫‪i-TTL‬‬
‫‪AA‬‬
‫‪) A‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ(‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ‪-5‬ﻣﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺯﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ ،FV‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f3‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪ (244 0 ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.(244 0 ،‬‬
‫‪150‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ (S) W‬ﻭ‪ E‬ﻣﻌﺎ ﹰ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ )ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﻣﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺧﻀﺮﺍﺀ(‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪E‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ‬
‫‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‬
‫‪M ،A ،S ،P‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪3 ،2 ،1 ،0 ،x ،n‬‬
‫‪w ،m‬‬
‫‪M ،A ،S ،P ،z ،y ،v ،u ،t ،s ،r ،o ،p ،l ،k ،j ،i‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ < ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪0 :G-M ،0 :A-B‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ‪1‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪93‬‬
‫‪95‬‬
‫‪115‬‬
‫‪117‬‬
‫‪139‬‬
‫‪) AUTO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ‪2‬‬
‫‪107‬‬
‫‪164‬‬
‫‪AF-A‬‬
‫‪97‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫‪99‬‬
‫‪105‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪151‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪/‬ﻓﻴﻠﻢ(‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪M ،A ،S ،P ،3 ،2 ،1 ،w ،r ،m‬‬
‫‪n، 0‬‬
‫‪z ،y ،x ،v ،u ،t ،s ،o ،p ،l ،k ،j ،i‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ(‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪4 Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪w ،n ،p ،k ،i‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫‪M ،A ،S ،P ،0‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪FV‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺮﻥ‬
‫‪NEF (RAW) +‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪152‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪AF-S‬‬
‫‪51‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬
‫ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﺪﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪+‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪+‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ‪5‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪52‬‬
‫‪101‬‬
‫‪109‬‬
‫‪110 ،102‬‬
‫‪153‬‬
‫‪129‬‬
‫‪148‬‬
‫‪112‬‬
‫‪231‬‬
‫‪144‬‬
‫‪149‬‬
‫‪160‬‬
‫‪75‬‬
‫‪242‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫)ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﻳﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ )‪ (ADL‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ "ﻳﺼﺤﺢ" ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪ i-TTL‬ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ؛ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ‪ 146‬ﻭ ‪ 236‬ﻭ ‪ (294‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺃﻭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﻔﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e6‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .G‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪e6‬‬
‫)ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻼﺵ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،D‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ D‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )ﻛﻤﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ(؛ ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪.M‬‬
‫‪153‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ D‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) b2‬ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .(224 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻨﻔﺬ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e7‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪.(241 0 ،‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪ ،(112 0‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪.EV 5‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ‪ y‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ‪ z‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪ x‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﹸﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ‪:‬‬
‫‪(y) EV 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﹸﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ‪:‬‬
‫‪(z) EV -1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﹸﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ‪:‬‬
‫‪(x) EV +1‬‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ D‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ M‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪154‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎ ﹰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 2‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 153‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ( < ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ )‪(227 0‬؛‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ( < ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻣﺘﻸﺕ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،(P‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،(S‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫)ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ .(M‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ < ISO‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(107 0‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ ،A‬ﺳﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻌﺪﻱ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ؛ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،M‬ﺳﺘﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﺛﻢ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻤﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪155‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.115‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ WB‬ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ e6‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،D‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ D‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )ﻛﻤﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ(؛‬
‫ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪.W‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،D‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ‪ 5) 1‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ؛ ‪ ،(119 0‬ﺃﻭ ‪2‬‬
‫)‪ 10‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 15) 3‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ(‪ .‬ﺗﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ B‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ A‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ )‪.(117 0‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 1‬ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪156‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪1B‬‬
‫‪1A‬‬
‫‪1B ،1A‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫‪B1/0‬‬
‫‪A1/0‬‬
‫‪B1/A1/0‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺅﻩ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ‪ n‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪j‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ D‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ W‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪ .NEF (RAW‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫)‪ JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﺟﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ )‪ JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ )‪ JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ‪-‬ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪،‬‬
‫‪ .(117 0‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‪-‬ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ )‪ ،(85 0‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ( < ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫)‪.(227 0‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪157‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ADL‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ‪D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.137‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪.ADL‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ADL‬ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ e6‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،D‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻘﻄﺘﻴﻦ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺿﺒﻂ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺿﺒﻂ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ D‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )ﻛﻤﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ(؛‬
‫ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪.d‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪158‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ‪ y‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ‪ 0‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ‪ 1‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ )ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ D‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ‪ d‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ADL‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎ ﹰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 2‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 158‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ( < ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ )‪(227 0‬؛‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ( < ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻣﺘﻸﺕ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪159‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫)ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪ RAW‬ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻅ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻨﺘﺠﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺧﻼﻝ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻟﺘﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ .(227 0 ،‬ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ .c2‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪160‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫• ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪6‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫)ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫• ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫)ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ‪ n‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺩﻣﺠﻬﺎ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪161‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.J‬‬
‫• ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﹰ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1/2‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﻴﻦ‪ 1/3 ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ(‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﻛﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ )‪ ،(83 0‬ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ(‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ؛ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 3‬ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ ،161‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺳﺘﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ( < ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ )‪(227 0‬؛ ﺇﻻ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ( < ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ؛ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ )ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.(163‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ n‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫)ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ؛ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ n‬ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪162‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻟﻴﻌﻜﺲ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ )‪(151 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﻔﺪﺓ‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺒﺪﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻌﻴﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(162 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺳﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ( ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺄﻭﻝ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫)ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﻛﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ( ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﹰ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ )‪ (E‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ )‪ (4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ MUP‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﻦ )‪.(253 0‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EN-EL15‬ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EH-5b‬ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪) EP-5B‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺭﺍ ﹰ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .2‬ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ 3‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ؛ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪.3‬‬
‫• ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪4‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪3‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪164‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﻧﻲ؛‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .4‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪) 4‬ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻣﻀﺮﻭﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ(‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺻﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ؛‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪/‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪) J‬ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺑﺪﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ .(J‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 3‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻵﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .2‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻭﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﹰ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﺘﺢ ‪ A‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻈﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻧﺸﻂ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪(167 0‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻃﻲ ﻭﻏﻄﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪.(86 0) DK-5‬‬
‫‪165‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪) bulb‬ﻓﺘﺢ(‪ (79 0 ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪ (49 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺾ )‪ (168 0‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫)‪ (57 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) g4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.(248 0 ،‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺳﺘﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪) CH‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 5.5‬ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪) S‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ( ﻭ ‪) CL‬ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻃﺌﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺺ ‪) d5‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ‪،CL‬‬
‫‪(229 0‬؛ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،J‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺠﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ADL‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﻟﺠﻬﺎ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ Q‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ )ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻤﺪﺓ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪166‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ J‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫• ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ < ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫• ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ )ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ(‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ )‪ ،(E‬ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ )‪ (4‬ﺃﻭ ‪MUP‬‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.164‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺃﻱ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ < ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫• ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ )‪(151 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪(214 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ )‪(153 0‬‬
‫• ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ (139 0) HDR‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ )‪(163 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺳﺘﺘﺨﻄﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﻤﺎﻥ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪ :‬ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ AF-S‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ‬
‫ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪) AF-A‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪167‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ‬
‫ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪.(65 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ( ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪(78 0‬؛ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﺽ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ .(115 0‬ﻧﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺺ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ )‪(57 0‬؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺾ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EH-5b‬ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EP-5B‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪.EN-EL15‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪168‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 3‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ‪ 5‬ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﻭﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪ 25‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.5‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﻧﻲ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺎﺋﻖ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻫﻮ ‪7‬‬
‫ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ‪ 59‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪) J‬ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.(J‬‬
‫ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺾ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ 3‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .4‬ﻳﻀﻲﺀ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻐﺮﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺻﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ )‪ (4‬ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ <‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ )‪.(65 0‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪169‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﻀﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪ ،(57 ،49 0‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪ (79 0) A‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫)‪ (153 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻊ )‪ (HDR، 0 139‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ )‪ (160 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫)‪.(164 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺳﺘﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ )‪ (4‬ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻗﺴﻤﺔ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﻭﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻗﺴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ < ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ‪ 48‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ‪1920 × 1080‬؛‬
‫‪ 24‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺙ ‪ ،p‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺪﺗﻪ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﺪﺓ ﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﺴﺠﻞ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ‪ 20‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻃﻲ ﻭﻏﻄﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪.(86 0) DK-5‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺾ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ Q‬ﻭﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺾ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ )ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﺎﺋﻖ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪c2‬‬
‫)ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،(227 0 ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﻨﻘﻀﻲ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺾ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺾ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪170‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺾ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺾ ﹰ‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺪﺀ < ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ J‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫• ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫• ﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫• ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ USB‬ﺃﻭ ‪HDMI‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ‬
‫• ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ )‪ (4‬ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ U1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ U2‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ U1‬ﺃﻭ ‪U2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺾ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺾ ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻱ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺳﺘﺘﺨﻄﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ AF-S‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪AF-A‬؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺘﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ K‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﺜﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ .(212 0‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺾ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d1‬ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ‪،‬‬
‫‪.(228 0‬‬
‫‪171‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪.CPU‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺍﻵﻟﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪(294 0‬‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻢ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻧﺠﻤﺔ( ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪) AA‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻢ ﺳﺮﺩ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻧﺠﻤﺔ( ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪(Reflex-NIKKOR‬‬
‫• ﻳﺤﺴﻦ ﺩﻗﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ ‪ i-TTL‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ SLR‬ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪172‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺴﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ .CPU‬ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪:CPU‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪.CPU‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪.9‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻠﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ( ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 6‬ﻭ ‪ 4000‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ f/1.2‬ﻭ ‪.f/22‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻃﻮﻝ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ .CPU‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻛﺄﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﻳﻦ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪173‬‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪:CPU‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﱢ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f2‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ (242 0 ،Fn‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪) f3‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪.(244 0 ،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪174‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ GPS‬ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪GP-1‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ GPS‬ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪) GP-1‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ( ﺑﻤﻨﻔﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪(298 0‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،GP-1‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،GP-1‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﺘﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫‪.GP-1‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ‪ GPS‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪.GP-1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪227 0 ،‬؛ ﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺤﺼﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪ ،GPS‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪.GP-1‬‬
‫• ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،GP-1‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ )‪ (UTC‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺒﻴﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪.GP-1‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ GPS‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺒﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪.GPS‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻖ )‪(UTC‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ GPS‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻖ ‪ UTC‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪n‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪:n‬‬
‫• ‪) n‬ﺛﺎﺑﺖ(‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ .GP-1‬ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪.(183 0) GPS‬‬
‫• ‪) n‬ﻓﻼﺵ(‪ :‬ﺗﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ GP-1‬ﻋﻦ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﻻ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪.GPS‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺭﻣﺰ‪ :‬ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻼﻡ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪ GPS‬ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ GP-1‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ n‬ﻻ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪.GPS‬‬
‫‪175‬‬
t
176
‫‪I‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .K‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪K‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(Q) O‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪K‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(b) c‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ "ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻴﺔ" )ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ( ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻃﻮﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪.(212 0‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ ،(212 0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻟﺤﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 4‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ )ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﹰ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪177‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ 4 ،‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻋﻜﺴﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪.(179 0‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫‪(S) W‬‬
‫‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫‪(Q) O‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 185‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 187‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (Q) O‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(188 0) (U) L‬‬
‫‪ K /‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺭﺍ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫‪J/(b) c‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪ .(261 0‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ 1‬ﻟﻺﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﺳﻴﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫)‪.(67 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ D‬ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ (207 0‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫)‪ (261 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ )‪.(125 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪) c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.(228 0 ،‬‬
‫‪178‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ "ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ" ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﻣﺨﻄﻂ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ ‪ RGB‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻟـ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫)‪ .(209 0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪ GPS‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪ GPS‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪1/ 12‬‬
‫‪1/ 12‬‬
‫‪NIKON D600‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪85mm‬‬
‫‪F5. 6‬‬
‫‪:N‬‬
‫‘‪: 3 5º 3 5. 9 7 1‬‬
‫‪:E‬‬
‫‘‪: 1 3 9º 4 3. 6 9 6‬‬
‫‪: 3 5m‬‬
‫‪: 15 / 04 / 2012‬‬
‫‪: 01 : 15 : 00‬‬
‫‪1/ 125‬‬
‫‪L A T I T UD E‬‬
‫‪L ONG I T U D E‬‬
‫‪A L T I T UD E‬‬
‫) ‪T I M E (U T C‬‬
‫‪0, 0‬‬
‫‪N OR‬‬
‫‪ORMAL‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬
‫‪6016x4016‬‬
‫‪N OR‬‬
‫‪ORMAL‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬
‫‪6016x4016‬‬
‫‪100ND600 DSC_0001. JPG‬‬
‫‪15 / 04 / 2012 10: 02: 28‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫‪100ND600 DSC_0001. JPG‬‬
‫‪15 / 04 / 2012 10: 02: 28‬‬
‫‪N I KON D600‬‬
‫‪100-1‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪GPS‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ‬
‫‪100-1‬‬
‫‪: , 1 / 1 25 , F 5 . 6‬‬
‫‪: , 100‬‬
‫‪: 0. 0 , +1 / 6‬‬
‫‪: 8 5 mm‬‬
‫‪: 85‬‬
‫‪/ 1. 4‬‬
‫‪:S‬‬
‫‪:‬‬
‫‪:‬‬
‫‪:‬‬
‫‪100-1‬‬
‫‪RGB‬‬
‫‪RGB‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ ‪RGB‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫‪100-1‬‬
‫‪M T R , S P D, A P .‬‬
‫‪E X P . MO D E , I S O‬‬
‫‪F O C A L L E NG T H‬‬
‫‪L ENS‬‬
‫‪A F / VR‬‬
‫‪F L ASH T YP E‬‬
‫‪S Y N C MO D E‬‬
‫‪,‬‬
‫‪N I KON D600‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫‪1/ 12‬‬
‫‪OR AL‬‬
‫‪N ORM‬‬
‫‪6016x4016‬‬
‫‪100ND600 DSC_0001. JPG‬‬
‫‪15 / 04 / 2012 10: 02: 28‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‪188..........................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪261........................................................................‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪101........................................................ 2 ،1‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪33 .............................. 1‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻺﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪93 .............................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪95 ............................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪89 ...................................................................... 3‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪253 ،27 .................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪253 ،27 ................................................................‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪178 ،46 ..................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪215...........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪216.............................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪.(209 0‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ AF-S‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،AF-A‬ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﻢ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﻗﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ AF-C‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ‪ ،AF-A‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪) FX‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ‪DX‬؛ ‪.(89 ،63 0‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪179‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪100-1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻴﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪-‬ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ‪215......................................................2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪1‬‬
‫‪RGB‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺗﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻣﻀﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻴﺌﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﻔﺮﻁ(‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (S) W‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪RGB‬‬
‫)ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ(‬
‫‪R‬‬
‫)ﺃﺣﻤﺮ(‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫)ﺃﺯﺭﻕ(‬
‫‪G‬‬
‫)ﺃﺧﻀﺮ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪) FX‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ‪DX‬؛ ‪.(89 ،63 0‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ ‪RGB‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪100-1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪RGB‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻴﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪-‬ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ‪215......................................................2‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪115...........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪120................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪117.........................................‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪121............................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪1‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ )ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ‪ .(RGB‬ﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ )ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ(‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ )ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ(‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ )ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ(‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺗﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻣﻀﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻴﺌﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﻔﺮﻁ(‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (S) W‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪RGB‬‬
‫)ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ(‬
‫‪R‬‬
‫)ﺃﺣﻤﺮ(‬
‫‪G‬‬
‫)ﺃﺧﻀﺮ(‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫)ﺃﺯﺭﻕ(‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪) FX‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ‪DX‬؛ ‪.(89 ،63 0‬‬
‫‪180‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .(T) X‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ (T) X‬ﻭ‪ (S) W‬ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻭﻣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻲ ﻟﻴﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﻓﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻫﻲ ﻛﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺑﻤﺪﻯ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺎﺗﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﻨﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪181‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪M T R , S P D, A P .‬‬
‫‪E X P . MO D E , I S O‬‬
‫‪: , 1 / 4 0 0 0 , F 2. 8‬‬
‫‪: , H i 0. 3,‬‬
‫‪: + 1. 3, +5 / 6‬‬
‫‪F O C A L L E N G T H : 8 5 mm‬‬
‫‪: 85‬‬
‫‪L ENS‬‬
‫‪/ 1. 4‬‬
‫‪: S / VR -O n‬‬
‫‪A F / VR‬‬
‫‪: B u i l t - i n , C MD‬‬
‫‪F L ASH T YP E‬‬
‫‪: S L OW‬‬
‫‪S Y N C MO D E‬‬
‫‪, : M : T T L , +3. 0 A : T T L , +3. 0‬‬
‫‪C : --‬‬‫‪B : ---‬‬
‫‪100-1‬‬
‫‪N I KON D600‬‬
‫‪: AU T O 1 , 0 , 0‬‬
‫‪: s RGB‬‬
‫‪: S T ANDARD‬‬
‫‪:0‬‬
‫‪:3‬‬
‫‪:0‬‬
‫‪:0‬‬
‫‪:0‬‬
‫‪:0‬‬
‫‪100-1‬‬
‫‪W H I T E B A L AN C E‬‬
‫‪CO L OR S P A C E‬‬
‫‪P I C T UR E C T R L‬‬
‫‪Q U I C K AD J U S T‬‬
‫‪S HA R P E N I NG‬‬
‫‪C ON T R A S T‬‬
‫‪B R I GH T N E S S‬‬
‫‪S A T U R A T I ON‬‬
‫‪HU E‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪N I KON D600‬‬
‫‪: H I I S O, N O R M‬‬
‫‪: N O R MA L‬‬
‫‪: A U T O, H I G H‬‬
‫‪: N O R MA L‬‬
‫‪: D - L I GH T I NG‬‬
‫‪WARM F I L T E R‬‬
‫‪C Y ANO T Y P E‬‬
‫‪TR I M‬‬
‫‪: SPR I NG HAS COME .‬‬
‫‪100-1‬‬
‫‪NO I S E R E D U C .‬‬
‫‪A C T . D - L I GH T .‬‬
‫‪HD R‬‬
‫‪V I GN E T T E C T R L‬‬
‫‪R E T OU C H‬‬
‫‪COMMENT‬‬
‫‪N I KON D600‬‬
‫‪: N I KON TARO‬‬
‫‪AR T I S T‬‬
‫‪: N I K ON‬‬
‫‪CO P Y R I GHT‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪182‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪N I KON D600‬‬
‫‪100-1‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ‪109...................................................................................‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪74 ............................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪28 74 .......................................................................................‬‬
‫‪29‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪73 ،40 ،35 ..............................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪105..................................................................... 1 ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪112.....................................................‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ‪226.......................................2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪291 ،288 ،172 ........................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪172........................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪103 ،97 .........................................................‬‬
‫‪ VR‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ( ‪3‬‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪292 ،143 ....................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪237...............................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪144............................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪295 ،294 ،236 .................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪148.......................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪89 ...................................................................... 4‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪-‬ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ‪215...................................................... 4‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪115............................................................................‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪120.................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪117..........................................‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪121.............................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪217..........................................................................‬‬
‫‪129..................................................................... Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ‪132.......................................................................... 5‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪135......................... 6 Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‪132.....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ‪132.........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ‪132.....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪132............................................................................7‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ‪132................................................................... 8‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪132............................................................................. 7‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ‪133 ،132 ......................................................................... 8‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‪218.......................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪218..........................................‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ‪137................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ‪139............................HDR‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ‪139..........................................................................HDR‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ‪218.................................................‬‬
‫ﺳﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪261........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪253....................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭ ‪256........................................................................ 9‬‬
‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ‪256..........................................................9‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) b5‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ (226 0 ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻷﻱ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪) VR‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪) FX‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ‪DX‬؛ ‪.(89 ،63 0‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺨﺼﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.256‬‬
‫❚❚‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪* GPS‬‬
‫‪:N‬‬
‫‘‪: 3 5º 3 5. 9 7 1‬‬
‫‪:E‬‬
‫‘‪: 1 3 9º 4 3. 6 9 6‬‬
‫‪: 3 5m‬‬
‫‪: 15 / 04 / 2012‬‬
‫‪: 01 : 15 : 00‬‬
‫‪100-1‬‬
‫‪L A T I T UD E‬‬
‫‪L ONG I T U D E‬‬
‫‪A L T I T UD E‬‬
‫) ‪T I M E (U T C‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻖ )‪(UTC‬‬
‫‪N I KON D600‬‬
‫* ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪183‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫‪NIKON D600‬‬
‫‪85mm‬‬
‫‪1/ 4000 F2. 8‬‬
‫‪Hi 0. 3‬‬
‫‪+ 1. 0‬‬
‫‪SLOW‬‬
‫‪–1. 3‬‬
‫‪85mm‬‬
‫‪0, 0‬‬
‫‪1/ 12‬‬
‫‪1/ 4000 F2. 8‬‬
‫‪Hi 0. 3‬‬
‫‪+ 1. 0‬‬
‫‪SLOW‬‬
‫‪–1. 3‬‬
‫‪0, 0‬‬
‫‪N OR‬‬
‫‪ORMAL‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬
‫‪6016x4016‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‪188........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪261......................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﹸﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(181 0‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪93 ...........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪95 ..........................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪89 .................................................................... 1‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪216...........................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪253 ،27 ...............................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪215.........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪253 ،27 ..............................................................‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪178 ،46 ................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ‪109.................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪73 ،40 ،35 ............................................................‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪74 ..........................................................................‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪28‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪74 .....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪105................................................................... 2 ISO‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪291 ،288 ،172 ......................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪175................................................................GPS‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪253......................................................‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ‪137..............................................................‬‬
‫‪129................................................................... Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪217........................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪144..........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪115..........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪120...............................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪117........................................‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪121...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪148.....................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪237.............................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪112...................................................‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻎ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪ ) FX‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ‪ (DX‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ )‪.(89 ،63 0‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.ISO‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪184‬‬
‫‪100ND600 DSC_0001. JPG‬‬
‫‪15 / 04 / 2012 10: 02: 28‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ "ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ" ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ‪ 72‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(S) W‬‬
‫‪(S) W‬‬
‫‪( S) W‬‬
‫‪(T) X‬‬
‫‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫‪(S) W‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (S) W‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (T) X‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻟﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ ،(187 0‬ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ )‪ ،(189 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫)‪.(188 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫‪(Q) O‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 189‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 188‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪K/‬‬
‫‪(b) c‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺭﺍ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪.(261 ،69 0‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪185‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (S) W‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ 72‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫‪(S) W‬‬
‫‪(S) W‬‬
‫‪(T) X‬‬
‫‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪/‬ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪(S) W‬‬
‫‪(T) X‬‬
‫• ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﻳﻈﻠﻞ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻳﻈﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ‪/‬ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ( ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫‪(Q) O‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪186‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (S) W‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ 72‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪K/‬‬
‫‪(b) c‬‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ )‪.(189 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 188‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺭﺍ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫ﹲﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ )‪.(261 ،69 0‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﺮﺑﺔ‪ :‬ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺃﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (T) X‬ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫‪/(T) X‬‬
‫‪(S) W‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ )ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ (35‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺈﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻔﺢ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (T) X‬ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ‪×38‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ )ﺻﻮﺭ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪) ×28 ،(2 : 3/24 × 36‬ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ( ﺃﻭ ‪) ×19‬ﺻﻮﺭ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ(‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺗﺼﻔﺢ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ؛ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺈﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﺻﻔﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪(U) L‬‬
‫‪K/‬‬
‫‪( b) c‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 188‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺭﺍ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪.(261 ،69 0‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪187‬‬
‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (Q) O‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )‪.(250 ،31 0‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻇﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(U) L‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ .P‬ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻇﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(U) L‬‬
‫?‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ (Q) O‬ﻣﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪188‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(Q) O‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻴﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (Q) O‬ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻇﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(Q) O‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(Q) O‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬
‫)ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ(‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (Q) O‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .(Q) O‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.K‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(Q) O‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(186 0) (Q) O‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(212 0‬‬
‫‪189‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻹﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ Q‬ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ n‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ )‪.(191 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺤﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ R‬ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺬﻑ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫)‪ .(207 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫?‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬؛‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪،D‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ ،1‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.(178‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (S) W‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ .O‬ﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ؛ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(S) W‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪190‬‬
‫?‬
‫?‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫?‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫?‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫?‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .(S) W‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (S) W‬ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫?‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ .M‬ﻛﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ‪ 2‬ﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ؛ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪،‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫?‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫?‬
‫‪191‬‬
I
192
‫‪Q‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬
‫ﻳﺼﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ USB‬ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ UC-E15‬ﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ‪ .ViewNX 2‬ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EN-EL15‬ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EH-5b‬ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪) EP-5B‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ ViewNX 2‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ "‪ "Nikon Transfer 2‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ ViewNX 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ ViewNX 2‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺣﺎﺳﺐ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺄﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪ :Windows‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺒﺘﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪Windows XP‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ Windows Vista‬ﻭ‪ Windows 7‬ﻭ‪Windows 8‬؛ ﻭﺍﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭﺍﺕ ‪-32‬ﺑﺖ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ‪Windows XP‬‬
‫• ‪) Mac OS X :Macintosh‬ﺍﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 10.6‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 10.7‬ﺃﻭ ‪(10.8‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ xxiii‬ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺑﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺑﻼﺕ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻼﺕ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﻏﻠﻖ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ USB‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪Windows‬‬
‫ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ ،ViewNX 2‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) All Programs‬ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ( < ‪) Link to Nikon‬ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ( ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪) Windows‬ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺇﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ(‪.‬‬
‫‪193‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ USB‬ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪.UC-E15‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪.USB‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ USB‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺎﺕ ‪USB‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ؛ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ‪ USB‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪) Start Nikon Transfer 2‬ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪.(Nikon Transfer 2‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪.Nikon Transfer 2‬‬
‫‪Windows 7 A‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ Nikon Transfer 2‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺗﺤﺖ ‪) Import pictures and videos‬ﺍﺳﺘﻴﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ(‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) Change program‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ؛ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪Import file using Nikon Transfer 2‬‬
‫)ﺍﺳﺘﻴﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ (Nikon Transfer 2‬ﻭﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪OK‬‬
‫)ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻧﻘﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺟﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) Import file‬ﺍﺳﺘﻴﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ(‪.‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪194‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫?‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ‪) Start Transfer‬ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ )ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫‪ ،Nikon Transfer 2‬ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ ViewNX 2‬ﺃﻭ ‪ Nikon Transfer 2‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫‪) ViewNX 2 Help‬ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪ (ViewNX 2‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪) Help‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ((‪.‬‬
‫‪) Start Transfer‬ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ(‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ USB‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ‪ Nikon Transfer 2‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪Camera Control Pro 2 A‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪) Camera Control Pro 2‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ؛ ‪ (298 0‬ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ Camera Control Pro 2‬ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻭﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﻭﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ )‪ (c‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪195‬‬
‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻃﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪ (333 0) PictBridge‬ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ USB‬ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪.UC-E15‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﻛﺒﻞ ‪.USB‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﻭﺻﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ USB‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻼﺕ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺎﺕ ‪USB‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ؛ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ‪ USB‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﺣﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺒﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪.PictBridge‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪196‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪ USB‬ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL15‬ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EH-5b‬ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ‪ .EP-5B‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪ USB‬ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.(217 0) sRGB‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪ (93 0) NEF (RAW‬ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﺴﺦ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪.(271 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 325‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﻠﻮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪187 0‬؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ K‬ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ(‪ .‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺳﺖ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .(S) W‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬؛ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪،D‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ ،1‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.178‬‬
‫?‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪.PictBridge‬‬
‫?‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪197‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻋ ﹼﺪﻝ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ )ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ( ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪J‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ )ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ )ﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ‪ ،(99‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺪﻋﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ )ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺤﺪﻭﺩ )ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ( ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪J‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ )ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﺧﺘﻢ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ )ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ( ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺪﻋﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻗﺺ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ .J‬ﻟﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻳﻘﺘﺺ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻳﻘﺘﺺ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ (T) X‬ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ (S) W‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺑﺄﺣﺠﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻺﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫?‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪198‬‬
‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪.PictBridge‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪) PictBridge‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 3‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.(196‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ )‪ :(DPOF‬ﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻩ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪ DPOF‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ .(202 0‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.3‬‬
‫• ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻬﺮﺱ‪ :‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ (93 0) JPEG‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .4‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 256‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻭﻝ‬
‫‪ 256‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫?‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪199‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ )‪(DPOF‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪ ،2‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﻋﺒﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ؛ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،D‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪،1‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .178‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .(T) X‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (S) W‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .1‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ Z‬ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .1‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،(S) W‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪3‬‬
‫‪ :3 1 + (S) W‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ )ﺣﺘﻰ ‪99‬؛ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ ‪ .(1‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫?‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ :(T) X‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪،2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪ .‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ .(S) W‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (T) X‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫?‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪:(T) X‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫?‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪:(S) W‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪.PictBridge‬‬
‫?‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﻋ ﹼﺪﻝ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪) 198‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻬﺮﺱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻺﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪201‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪ :DPOF‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪ DPOF‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ "ﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ" ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫‪ PictBridge‬ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ‪.DPOF‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫‪ DPOF‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪ DPOF‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪) 2‬ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ؟(‪.‬‬
‫?‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﺧﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ D‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .(1‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(T) X‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .1‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ Z‬ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .1‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،(S) W‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ )ﺣﺘﻰ ‪99‬؛ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪3‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ ‪ .(1‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :3 1 + (S) W‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ :(T) X‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫?‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪202‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ )ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪.(5‬‬
‫• ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻛﻤﻞ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫?‬
‫‪ D‬ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪DPOF‬‬
‫ﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ‪ ،PictBridge‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ )‪ (DPOF‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ PictBridge‬ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ "ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ" ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻭﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ )‪ .(199 0‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪ DPOF‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪ USB‬ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ؛ ﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪ PictBridge‬ﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪.‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪ DPOF‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪ (93 0) NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﺴﺦ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪.(271 0‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺃﺧﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪203‬‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ HDMI‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ C‬ﺑﻄﺮﻑ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ )ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ( ﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﹰ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪.HDMI‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ HDMI‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ )ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺮﻑ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪(HDMI‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪.HDMI‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.K‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EH-5b‬ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ‪) EP-5B‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ( ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ )‪ .(179 0‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ ‪ ME-1‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (298 0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻪ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ‪ HDMI‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻮﺻﻠﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪) HDMI‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﻮﺻﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ؛ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪204‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪HDMI‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ HDMI‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪ (249 0‬ﻓﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ‪) HDMI-CEC‬ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻂ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ‪-‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ‪ HDMI‬ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺨﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ‪ .HDMI‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪< HDMI‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺗﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪ HDMI-CEC‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻻ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ J‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ HDMI A‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ‪ HDMI‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ HDMI‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪ .(57 ،49 0‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻭﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺧﺮﺝ ‪ HDMI‬ﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ < ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ .(65 0‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬
‫‪ HDMI‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ؛ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) 1080i‬ﻣﺘﺸﺎﺑﻚ( ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ < HDMI‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪.(65 0‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ‪HDMI-CEC‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ‪ ،HDMI-CEC‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ( ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪205‬‬
Q
206
‫‪U‬‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ :‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪) D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪190‬‬
‫‪207‬‬
‫‪208‬‬
‫‪209‬‬
‫‪209‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪212‬‬
‫‪212‬‬
‫‪212‬‬
‫‪213‬‬
‫‪202‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪DPOF‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 312‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ )‪:(177 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ND600‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍﺯ ‪ D600‬ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪207‬‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻹﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .2‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪L‬؛ ﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .2‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ؟ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻹﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪208‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬؛ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ ،178‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ D‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (1‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (S) W‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪R‬؛ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ (S) W‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫)‪ .(179 0‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ L‬ﺑﺠﺎﻧﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ؛ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺴﺦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(؟‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪209‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪210‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ( ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﺮﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (S) W‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫)ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .((T) X‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪.L‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 7‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ‬
‫)‪ ،(215 0‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(؟ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ J‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ‪ .‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻱ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ )‪ .(202 0‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪211‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.K‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ S‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ T‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺬﻭﻓﺔ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺬﻭﻓﺔ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻳﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ U‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻛﺎﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻳﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻋﻜﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ "ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻴﺔ" )ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻴﺔ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪212‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ "ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻴﺔ" )ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ( ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ )‪ (254 0‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ "ﻋﺮﺿﻲ" )ﺃﻓﻘﻴﺎ ﹰ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ "ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻴﺔ" )ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻴﺔ( ﺑﺸﻜﻞ "ﻋﺮﺿﻲ" )ﺃﻓﻘﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ )‪ .(207 0‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪.(208 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺪﺓ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ 2 ،‬ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﻄﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ؛ ‪0‬‬
‫‪.(179‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‪/‬ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﺭﻓﻊ‪/‬ﺍﺧﻔﺾ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﻟﻺﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ /(T) X‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (T) X‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ (S) W (S) W‬ﻟﺨﻔﻀﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪G‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪K‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪213‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪) C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪2‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻂ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪214‬‬
‫‪215‬‬
‫‪216‬‬
‫‪96‬‬
‫‪93‬‬
‫‪95‬‬
‫‪89‬‬
‫‪94‬‬
‫‪94‬‬
‫‪115‬‬
‫‪129‬‬
‫‪134‬‬
‫‪217‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪NR‬‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪217‬‬
‫‪137‬‬
‫‪139‬‬
‫‪218‬‬
‫‪218‬‬
‫‪218‬‬
‫‪105‬‬
‫‪85‬‬
‫‪160‬‬
‫‪164‬‬
‫‪168‬‬
‫‪65‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.309‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ )‪.(312 0‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪214‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .2‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ W‬ﺃﻭ ‪ X‬ﺃﻭ ‪ Y‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪ : W‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﻓﺎﺭﻍ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ :X‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﻣﻤﺘﻠﺊ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ : Y‬ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 999‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ‪ .9999‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺑﺮﻣﺰ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﻢ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪.(96 0) 2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺧﺮﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ .(G‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻤﺘﻠﺊ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ‪ 999‬ﻭﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 999‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻗﻢ ‪ ،9999‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻻﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺸﺄ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺮﻗﻢ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ ،999‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺮﻗﻢ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ 999‬ﻭﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ 999‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺪﺓ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪215‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺄﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺩﺋﺔ "_‪ "DSC‬ﺃﻭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫‪ ،"_DSC" Adobe RGB‬ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ )ﻣﺜﻞ‪ .("DSC_0001.JPG" ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﺑﺪﻻ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ "‪ "DSC‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺃﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.135‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ".NEF" :‬ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻭ"‪ ".JPG‬ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ ،JPEG‬ﻭ"‪ ".MOV‬ﻟﻸﻓﻼﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭ"‪ ".NDF‬ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺯﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪ ،JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ NEF‬ﻭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪216‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﺺ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ(‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ ‪) D‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪،PC‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ(؛ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ ،DX‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺪﺭﻫﺎ ‪(90 0) 1.5× (24×16) DX‬؛ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﺣﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.274‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ sRGB‬ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ "ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ‪ "،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ Adobe RGB‬ﺑﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ‬
‫ﻭﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺳﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ sRGB‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪ Adobe RGB‬ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﻤﻮﺫﺟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ sRGB‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ ،ExifPrint‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺰﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻛﺸﺎﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪Adobe RGB‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺸﺮﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﻀﻊ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻮﻥ ‪ Adobe RGB‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ‪DCF‬؛ ﺳﺘﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ‬
‫‪ DCF‬ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ‪ ،DCF‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ‪) ViewNX 2‬ﻣﺮﻓﻖ( ﻭ ‪) Capture NX 2‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ( ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﺘﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪217‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫"ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﻛﺎﻥ" ﻫﻮ ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ ‪) D‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ DX‬ﻭ ‪ .(PC‬ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﺿﻮﺣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﻭ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺿﺒﺎﺏ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ )‪ (57 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ )‪ (160 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪.(89 0) DX‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪NR‬‬
‫)ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ‪ 1‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻳﺘﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ؛ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ "‪ "l m‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺒﻄﺊ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺳﺘﻘﻞ ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ "ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ(‪ ،‬ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻭﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ‪ ISO 2500‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪ .‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻩ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﻔﺬ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪218‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪) A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫)‪(221 0‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪219‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫‪231‬‬
‫‪d9‬‬
‫‪ a‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪231‬‬
‫‪d10‬‬
‫‪221‬‬
‫‪ a1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪AF-C‬‬
‫‪231‬‬
‫‪d11‬‬
‫‪221‬‬
‫‪ a2‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪AF-S‬‬
‫‪222‬‬
‫‪ a3‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ‬
‫‪232‬‬
‫‪d12‬‬
‫‪222‬‬
‫‪ a4‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪233‬‬
‫‪d13‬‬
‫‪222‬‬
‫‪ a5‬ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪223‬‬
‫‪ a6‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪234‬‬
‫‪e1‬‬
‫‪223‬‬
‫‪ a7‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪235‬‬
‫‪e2‬‬
‫‪ b‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪236‬‬
‫‪e3‬‬
‫‪224‬‬
‫‪ b1‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫‪240‬‬
‫‪e4‬‬
‫‪224‬‬
‫‪ b2‬ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪241‬‬
‫‪e5‬‬
‫‪ b3‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺳﻬﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪225‬‬
‫‪241‬‬
‫‪e6‬‬
‫‪226‬‬
‫‪ b4‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫‪241‬‬
‫‪e7‬‬
‫‪226‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ b5‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫‪f‬‬
‫‪ c‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ‪/‬ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪f1‬‬
‫‪241‬‬
‫‪226‬‬
‫‪ c1‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫‪242‬‬
‫‪f2‬‬
‫‪227‬‬
‫‪ c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫‪244‬‬
‫‪f3‬‬
‫‪227‬‬
‫‪ c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫‪244‬‬
‫‪f4‬‬
‫‪228‬‬
‫‪ c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫‪245‬‬
‫‪f5‬‬
‫‪228‬‬
‫‪ c5‬ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫‪246‬‬
‫‪f6‬‬
‫‪ d‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫‪246‬‬
‫‪f7‬‬
‫‪228‬‬
‫‪ d1‬ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ‬
‫‪246‬‬
‫‪f8‬‬
‫‪229‬‬
‫‪ d2‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪247‬‬
‫‪ f9‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪MB-D14 4‬‬
‫‪229‬‬
‫‪ d3‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ‪ISO‬‬
‫‪ g‬ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪229‬‬
‫‪ d4‬ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫‪247‬‬
‫‪ g1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫‪229‬‬
‫‪ d5‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ‪CL‬‬
‫‪248‬‬
‫‪ g2‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫‪230‬‬
‫‪ d6‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫‪248‬‬
‫‪ g3‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪230‬‬
‫‪ d7‬ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫‪ g4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫‪248‬‬
‫‪231‬‬
‫‪ d8‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .309‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ ،(313 0‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻧﺠﻤﺔ ﺑﺠﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪221‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪220‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪LCD‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮﻱ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪MB-D14‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ(‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ )‪.(313 0‬‬
‫‪ :a‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ :a1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪AF-C‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ AF-C‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪ ،(97 0‬ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ( ﺃﻭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ )ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ G‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪ F‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(I‬‬
‫ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ AF-C‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :a2‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪AF-S‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ AF-S‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪ ،(97 0‬ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ )ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ( ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﻰ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ G‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪ F‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(I‬‬
‫ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (I‬ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪AF-S‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪221‬‬
‫‪ :a3‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺄﻗﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ AF-C‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪ AF-A‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪.(97 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪) 5 C‬ﻃﻮﻳﻞ(‬
‫( ‪4‬‬
‫‪) 3 D‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ(‬
‫) ‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻔﺎﺟﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺣﺠﺒﺖ ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺗﻤﺮ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪) 1 E‬ﻗﺼﻴﺮ(‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻮﺭ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻠﻲ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :a4‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ )‪.(90 0‬‬
‫‪ :a5‬ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ "ﻳﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ" ﻣﻦ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺣﺎﻓﺘﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪222‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ "ﻳﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ" ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻳﻤﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ )‪ (q‬ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ )‪.(w‬‬
‫‪q‬‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﺄﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻨﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :a6‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ 39 #‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 11 A‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 11‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻪ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :a7‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻻ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎﻥ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ AF-S‬ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (97 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪.AF-A‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(99 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻪ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 3.0–0.5‬ﻡ؛ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ‪ 200–24‬ﻣﻢ ﻭﺍﻧﺰﻉ‬
‫ﻗﻠﻨﺴﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .309‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 290‬ﺑﺨﺼﻮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪223‬‬
‫‪ :b‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ :b1‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ .ISO‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻣﻜﻦ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :b2‬ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪224‬‬
‫‪ :b3‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺳﻬﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ E‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪ .(112 0‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ‪ 0‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪.±0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ(‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ )ﻻ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(E‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺑﺄﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻄﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ E‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) b3‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺳﻬﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪) f5‬ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ( < ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ )‪.(245 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ < ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ ISO/ISO‬ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻞ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺺ ‪) b3‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺳﻬﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ( ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺺ ‪) d3‬ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ISO/ISO‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻞ(‪ .‬ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻴﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ؛ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪225‬‬
‫‪ :b4‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﻄﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ )‪ (‬ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 8‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 12‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 15‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 20‬ﻣﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ 12‬ﻣﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ ،CPU‬ﺑﻐﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪ .(172 0‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪.CPU‬‬
‫‪ :b5‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﻣﻦ ‪ +1‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ EV –1‬ﻓﻲ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪.EV 1/6‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻃﺎﻟﻤﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﻣﺰ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫)‪ ،(E‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪ (112 0‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :c‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ‪/‬ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ :c1‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪226‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ :c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺃﻗﺼﺮ ﻟﺘﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪.(85 0‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪.1‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪227‬‬
‫‪ :c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )ﻋﺮﺽ؛ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ 10‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ( ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ؛‬
‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ 4‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ(‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ )ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ؛ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ(‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ؛ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ 10‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ )ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ؛ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ 10‬ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ(‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺃﻗﺼﺮ ﻟﺘﺄﺧﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :c5‬ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻈﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ )‪ .(85 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﻗﺼﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :d‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫‪ :d1‬ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻐﻤﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ AF-S‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪AF-A‬؛ ‪ ،(97 0‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺧﺮ )‪ ،(85 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ )‪ ،(85 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﻀﻲ‬
‫)‪ ،(168 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺘﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ )‪ .(32 0‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ )‪ (57 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺼﻤﺖ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪J‬؛ ‪ ،(83 0‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) 3‬ﻋﺎﻟﻲ(‪) 2 ،‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ(‪) 1 ،‬ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ( ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ )ﺻﺎﻣﺖ(‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ c‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻐﻤﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪228‬‬
‫‪ :d2‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪.(8 0‬‬
‫‪ :d3‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ ISO/ISO‬ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ ISO/ISO‬ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ A‬ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :d4‬ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫)‪.(11 0‬‬
‫‪ :d5‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ‪CL‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪) CL‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ( )‪83 0‬؛‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻺﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ(‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪229‬‬
‫‪ :d6‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻀﻐﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪.100‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ ،d6‬ﺳﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ )‪.(t00‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 335‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :d7‬ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻣﻠﻒ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻳﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ‪ ،9999‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻱ ﻣﻦ ‪.0001‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ 0001‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 999‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻣﻠﻒ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﻓﺎﺭﻍ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.0001‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ‪ 999‬ﻭﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 999‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻗﻢ ‪ ،9999‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d7‬ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ( ﺛﻢ ﻫﻴﺊ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪230‬‬
‫‪ :d8‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(v‬ﺳﻴﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )‪ (9 0‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻂ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ )‪w‬؛ ﺧﻂ ﺃﺳﻮﺩ( ﺃﻭ ﻣﻀﻲﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺘﺎﻡ )‪x‬؛ ﺧﻂ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻣﻊ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫‪ :d9‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪LCD‬‬
‫ﻣﻀﻲﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺘﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ )ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪(LCD‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻧﺤﻮ ‪ .D‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻀﻲﺀ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺎ )‪ .(39 0‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺘﻰ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪ :d10‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﻟﺘﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :d11‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪ (c‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪231‬‬
‫‪ :d12‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪MB-D14‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻔﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ MB-D14‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ ،AA‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪.EN-EL15‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮﻩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻠﻮﻳﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪ AA‬ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪.LR6‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪) LR6 1‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﻠﻮﻳﺔ ‪(AA‬‬
‫‪) HR6 2‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪(Ni-MH AA‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮﻩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ Ni-MH‬ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪ AA‬ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪.HR6‬‬
‫‪) FR6 3‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ‪(AA‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮﻩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪ AA‬ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪.FR6‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪AA‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪ AA‬ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪° 20‬ﻡ ﻭﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻭﻇﺮﻭﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ؛ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪AA‬؛ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺳﻌﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺃﻱ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪ AA‬ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪232‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﺟﻬﺰ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﹼ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :d13‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺳﺘﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ MB-D14‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ‪ EH-5b‬ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ EP-5B‬ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،MB-D14‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ s‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ MB-D14‬ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪MB-D14‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻮﻋﺐ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ MB-D14‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EN-EL15‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﺖ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫‪ AA‬ﻗﻠﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،Ni-MH‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ )ﻣﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪EN-EL15‬؛ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪ AA‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪MB-D14‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪MB-D14‬‬
‫‪$‬‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪EN-EL15‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪AA‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪233‬‬
‫‪ :e‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ :e1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ )‪ .(294 0‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،A‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪FP‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ )‪ .(294 0‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،A‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪FP‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ 1/60-‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،M‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻠﻲ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻤﻜﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺢ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪) X‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ( ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺗﺪﻋﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻊ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ "‪ "FP‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ )‪.(295 0‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪234‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﺃﻭ ‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪،‬‬
‫‪ ،(234 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ )‪ (294 0‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻱ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ )ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ‪ 1/4000‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ‬
‫‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ‪ 1/250‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ‬
‫‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 30–1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫—‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ *‬
‫‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫—‬
‫‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫* ﻳﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :e2‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪) A‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ(‪ .‬ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1/60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ 1/60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ( ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪235‬‬
‫‪ :e3‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪TTL 1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪ .(236 0‬ﻻ ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﺒﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻋﻖ )‪.(236 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻛﻔﻼﺵ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ )‪.(237 0‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻭ ‪ 1/128) 1/128‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ(‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ‪) 12‬ﻣﺘﺮ‪° 20 ،ISO 100 ،‬ﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻋﻖ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ 1 ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻛﺄﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻀﻴﺌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻟﻮﻣﻀﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )‪.(146 0‬‬
‫‪" A‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ" ﻭ "ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ"‬
‫ﺗﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ‪ Y‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪236‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪SB-400‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ ،SB-400‬ﻳﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ e3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ SB-400‬ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ TTL‬ﻭ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ ﻭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪" A‬ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ"‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ < ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ "ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ"‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ "ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ"‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬
‫‪15 ،10–2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1/32‬‬
‫‪1/4‬‬
‫‪25 ،20 ،15 ،10–2‬‬
‫‪5–2‬‬
‫‪1/64‬‬
‫‪1/8‬‬
‫‪35 ،30 ،25 ،20 ،15 ،10–2‬‬
‫‪10–2‬‬
‫‪1/128‬‬
‫‪1/16‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻛﻔﻼﺵ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺘﻴﻦ )‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ (B‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ )‪.(294 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ 1 ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ )ﻓﻼﺵ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫‪TTL‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ .i-TTL‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ +3.0‬ﻭ ‪ EV –3.0‬ﺑﺤﺠﻢ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪.EV 1/3‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﺗﻀﻲﺀ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‬
‫––‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻪ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﻧﺒﻀﺎﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪.A‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ‪ 1/1‬ﻭ ‪ 1/128) 1/128‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪TTL‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ .i-TTL‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ +3.0‬ﻭ ‪ EV –3.0‬ﺑﺤﺠﻢ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪.EV 1/3‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ؛ ‪ .(294 0‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪+3.0‬‬
‫‪AA‬‬
‫ﻭ ‪ EV –3.0‬ﺑﺤﺠﻢ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪.EV 1/3‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ‪ 1/1‬ﻭ ‪ /128) 1/128‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻀﻲﺀ‪.‬‬
‫––‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ .B‬ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪B‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ ،A‬ﺑﺄﻋﻠﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ ‪ .4-1‬ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺘﻴﻦ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺿﺒﻄﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻨﺎﺓ‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪237‬‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪238‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ – –‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪.A‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪.A‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪.B‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪.B‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻧﻈﻢ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ° 60‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫‪ 5‬ﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫)ﻓﻼﺵ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ(‬
‫‪ ° 30‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫‪ 10‬ﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﻌﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ° 30‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫‪ 5‬ﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫‪ ° 60‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﹼﻞ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻋ ﹼﺪﻝ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻄﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .4‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﻛﺘﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (Y) M‬ﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ – – ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ<ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻧﺒﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺃﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ (149 0) FV‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪239‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ M‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ – – ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ < ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (Y) M‬ﻭﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ ،A‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ B‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ Y‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪ ±0‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ < ‪ .TTL‬ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ Y‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.M‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻧﻮﺍﻓﺬ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ )ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ(‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ (TTL‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪﺓ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪ ،(AA‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﻓﻼﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻗﺼﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ )ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ‪ f‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺃﺷﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺖ ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ SG-3IR‬ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ‪ SG-3IR‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﻓﻼﺷﺎﺕ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻋﺎ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺣﺪ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺛﻼﺙ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :e4‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ YE‬ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫‪E‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪240‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻛﻼ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :e5‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪ ،(294 0) CLS‬ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪ .(77 0‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :e6‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ .(153 0‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻼﺵ )‪ (j‬ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ )‪(k‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻘﻂ )‪ (l‬ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ (m) WB‬ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪ ،(156 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ (y) ADL‬ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ )‪ .(158 0‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫)‪.JPEG + NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪ :e7‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ < MTR‬ﺗﺤﺖ < ﻓﻮﻕ )‪ (H‬ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 153‬ﻭ ‪ .156‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﺖ < ‪ < MTR‬ﻓﻮﻕ )‪ ،(I‬ﺳﻴﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻧﻰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪.ADL‬‬
‫‪ :f‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ :f1‬ﺯﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ J‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ )‪ J‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ(‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ )‪ K‬ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻧﺸﻄﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ )ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪241‬‬
‫‪ :f2‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪q‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫‪C‬‬
‫‪E‬‬
‫‪F‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪242‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ )‪.(77 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪ .(294 ،149 0‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪.FV‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪FV‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ(‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .Fn‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻄﻔﺄ‬
‫ﻟﻦ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﻘﻔﻼ ﹰ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ADL‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻧﺸﻂ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ CH‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،(CL‬ﺳﺘﻌﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ )‪.(137 0‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫"‪ "RAW‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ NEF (RAW) +‬ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪) Fn‬ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻧﺴﺦ ‪ NEF/RAW‬ﻣﻊ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺑﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ(‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ )‪،NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪.(8 0‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(89 0‬‬
‫‪m‬‬
‫ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ "ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ" )‪.(280 0‬‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺑﻨﺪ‬
‫‪ 6‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫‪v‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺴﺮﻋﺔ‪/‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻓﻲ "ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪ ".‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻜﺜﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫)ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ (M‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ (M‬ﺑﺤﺠﻢ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،EV 1‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) b2‬ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.(224 0 ،‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫‪ w‬ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫‪CPU‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪.(172 0) CPU‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻔﺬ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .K‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮﻩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ )ﺗﻴﻠﻴﻔﻮﺗﻮ( ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ K‬ﺑﻴﺪﻙ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪K‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f2‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،(Fn‬ﻓﺴﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻴﻤﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻴﺴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻸﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻒ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪.(258 0‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪243‬‬
‫‪ :f3‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ .(242 0) Fn‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :f4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪C‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪E‬‬
‫‪F‬‬
‫ﻳﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ(‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪FV‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪244‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪.(294 ،149 0 ،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪.FV‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ :f5‬ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺴﻲ‪ :‬ﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪.MB-D14‬‬
‫• ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺃ( ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪ ،A‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ M‬ﻭﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ S‬ﻭ ‪ .M‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪.MB-D14‬‬
‫• ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ )ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪) EV 1‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﺗﹸﻀﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪.CPU‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﻭﻟﺘﺼﻔﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ( ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻭﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ( ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺗﻪ ﻟﻠﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪.J‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪245‬‬
‫‪ :f6‬ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻌﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ E‬ﺃﻭ ‪ (Y) M‬ﺃﻭ ‪ (S) W‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ (T) X‬ﺃﻭ ‪ (U) L‬ﺃﻭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ‪ (Q) Z‬ﺃﻭ ‪ D‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ )ﻳﻄﺒﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻭﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﻴﻨﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ f2‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ f3‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺛﺮﺓ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺣﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :f7‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ )ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻲ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :f8‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫)‪ ،(W‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫)‪(V‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻘﻴﻢ ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪246‬‬
‫‪ :f9‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪MB-D14 4‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻨﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪.MB-D14‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫‪C‬‬
‫‪E‬‬
‫‪F‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪.MB-D14‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫‪.MB-D14‬‬
‫ﻳﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ( ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ ،MB-D14‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻳﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪.MB-D14‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ MB-D14‬ﻳﺸﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ MB-D14‬ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪FV‬‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪ .(294 ،149 0 ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪.FV‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﻔﺬ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ MB-D14‬ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺺ ‪.(242 0) f2‬‬
‫‪ :g‬ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪ :g1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ )ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻫﻮ ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ(‪.‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫‪C‬‬
‫‪E‬‬
‫‪F‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ )‪ .(60 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ )‪.(59 0‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﻘﻔﻼ ﹰ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪247‬‬
‫‪ :g2‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺫﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،(247 0) Fn‬ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :g3‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺫﺍﺗﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،(247 0) Fn‬ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :g4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ 1‬ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺯﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫‪ C‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ‪) 9 : 16‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.(63‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .a‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺴﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ )‪(298 0‬‬
‫ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻭﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ؛ ﻓﻠﻦ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ ML-L3‬ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ )‪ ،(4‬ﻻ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ )‪ (164 0‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪248‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪) B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪HDMI‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪(Language‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪.(260 0) Eye-Fi‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪250‬‬
‫‪81‬‬
‫‪82‬‬
‫‪250‬‬
‫‪301‬‬
‫‪303‬‬
‫‪251‬‬
‫‪205‬‬
‫‪252‬‬
‫‪253‬‬
‫‪253‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫‪GPS‬‬
‫ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪2 Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪253‬‬
‫‪254‬‬
‫‪255‬‬
‫‪256‬‬
‫‪257‬‬
‫‪175‬‬
‫‪258‬‬
‫‪172‬‬
‫‪259‬‬
‫‪260‬‬
‫‪260‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 314‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪249‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻌﻢ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺗﺤﺬﻑ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ (Q) O‬ﻭ‪ (Q) Z‬ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ )‪.(31 0‬‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻂ )‪.(4 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺃﻗﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.53‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪250‬‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪) Image Dust Off‬ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ( ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Capture NX 2‬‬
‫)ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ؛ ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﺘﻴﺐ ‪.(Capture NX 2‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ CPU‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪ DX‬ﺑﻄﻮﻝ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ‪ 50‬ﻣﻢ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺯﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺪﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.G‬‬
‫• ﺑﺪﺀ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ "‪ "rEF‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ”‪ “rEF‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻋﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﻣﺢ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ 10‬ﺳﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻋﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﻣﺢ ﻭﺟﻴﺪ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻠﺊ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻼﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ؛ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻼﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪251‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺳﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻲ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺍﻛﻦ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺪﻑ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻲ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻭﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.1‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻊ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺷﻄﺮﻧﺞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﻳﺴﻨﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﺖ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮﺏ ﻛﻼ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﻳﻦ ‪ 50‬ﻭ ‪60‬‬
‫ﻫﺮﺗﺰ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ‬
‫ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ )ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ f‬ﺃﻋﻠﻰ(‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪252‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‬
‫)‪.(27 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ Y‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪(Language‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺿﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫‪) ViewNX 2‬ﻣﺮﻓﻖ( ﺃﻭ ‪) Capture NX 2‬ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ؛ ‪ .(298 0‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(182 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‪ :‬ﻳﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .135‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪36‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﻓﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻹﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺑﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪253‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ (177 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪) ViewNX 2‬ﻣﺮﻓﻖ( ﺃﻭ ‪) Capture NX 2‬ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ؛‬
‫‪ .(298 0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ )ﻋﺮﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ °90‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ °90‬ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬
‫ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ "ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻴﺔ" )ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ( ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫)‪.(212 0‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪254‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺸﺤﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺗﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﺤﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻤﺲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪) 0 .‬ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ (k‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ (l) 4‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺻﺎﻟﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺤﻦ ﻭﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪° 5‬ﻡ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ؛ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ‪° 20‬ﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪MB-D14‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ .MB-D14‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪ ،AA‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﺰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ؛ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪255‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ )‪ (182 0‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺿﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪) ViewNX 2‬ﻣﺮﻓﻖ( ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪) Capture NX 2‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ؛ ‪.(298 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‪ :‬ﻳﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .135‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 36‬ﺣﺮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪ :‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .135‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻻﺳﻢ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 54‬ﺣﺮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻖ ﻧﺴﺦ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻹﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻖ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﺡ ﺑﻪ ﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻖ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺒﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺠﻢ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪256‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪96 0) 1‬؛ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ(‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪.D600‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪2‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻂ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )ﻣﻊ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ‪(d-4–d-1‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪NR‬‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪/‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪HDMI‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ )ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪(Language‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫‪GPS‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍﺯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﺳﻢ ‪ .NCSETUPA‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪257‬‬
‫ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﻞ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻣﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻸﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ ﻭﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﻗﺴﻢ ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ ‪.° 5‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻴﺴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻒ‬
‫‪ D‬ﺇﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻖ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻸﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻒ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f2‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬؛ ‪ .(243 ،242 0‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻖ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ‪ 55‬ﻭ ‪.62‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪258‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 12‬ﻧﻮﻉ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ؛ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺩﻗﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)ﺷﻐﻞ‪/‬ﻭﻗﻒ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫• ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﺸﻐﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ :‬ﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ +20‬ﻭ ‪ .–20‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻢ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 12‬ﻧﻮﻉ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ CPU‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺮﻙ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﹰ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺤﺮﻙ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺮﺩ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .(Q) O‬ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴﺰ ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻤﻴﺰ ﻳﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ(‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻤﻴﺰ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻼﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪.(53 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ )ﺗﻴﻠﻲ ﻛﻮﻧﻔﻴﺮﺗﺮ(‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻴﻠﻲ ﻛﻮﻧﻔﻴﺮﺗﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪259‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪) Eye-Fi‬ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ( ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻨﻊ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ ،Eye-Fi‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﺰ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪ :d‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻤﻜ ﱠﻦ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ :e‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﻤﻜ ﱠﻦ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪) f‬ﺛﺎﺑﺖ(‪ :‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﻤﻜ ﱠﻦ؛ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪) f‬ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻙ(‪ :‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﻤﻜ ﱠﻦ؛ ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ :g‬ﺧﻄﺄ — ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ .Eye-Fi‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺭﻣﺰ‬
‫‪ W‬ﻭﺍﻣﺾ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪324‬؛ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪.Eye-Fi‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﹸﺼﺪﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ )‪ ،(324 0‬ﺍﻏﻠﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ ،Eye-Fi‬ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﱢﻊ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ ،Eye-Fi‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻳﺴﻤﺒﺮ ‪ ،2011‬ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ SDHC Pro X2‬ﺳﻌﺔ ‪ 8‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ؛ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﱢﻊ ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺧﺎﺹ )‪(Ad Hoc‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺧﺎﺹ )‪ .(ad hoc‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪c2‬‬
‫)ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ (227 0 ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪260‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪) N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ RAW/NEF‬ﻭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺫﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ ،93‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪264‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫‪264‬‬
‫(‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫‪274‬‬
‫‪265‬‬
‫)‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ‬
‫‪274‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪266‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‬
‫‪267‬‬
‫‪ f‬ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ g‬ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ h‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ‬
‫‪275‬‬
‫‪269‬‬
‫‪ i‬ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﺼﻐﺮ‬
‫‪276‬‬
‫‪ 7‬ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪ 8‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫‪271‬‬
‫‪u‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪277‬‬
‫‪272‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪69‬‬
‫& ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫‪273‬‬
‫‪p‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ ‪2‬‬
‫‪279‬‬
‫‪D-Lighting i‬‬
‫‪ j‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫‪ k‬ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪m‬‬
‫‪ n‬ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪1‬‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫‪268‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪274‬‬
‫‪275‬‬
‫‪275‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪.N‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﺃﻭ ‪ (b) c‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ < ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻛﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫)‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻛﺼﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺑﺄﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪.JPEG‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪261‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪) J‬ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬؛ ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪،178‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ D‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.(1‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻃﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ؛ ‪.(228 0‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪262‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺸﺊ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪.o‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ J‬ﺃﻭ ‪.(b) c‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺸﺊ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪263‬‬
‫‪D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻩ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ "ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ" ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺃﻛﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺃﻧﺸﺊ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺄﺛﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ؛ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫‪ (T) X‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (T) X‬ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ (S) W‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ (S) W‬ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺗﺼﻔﺢ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ؛ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺈﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﺻﻔﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻴﻦ ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺗﻤﺖ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺗﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪264‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ؛ ﺃﻧﺸﺊ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (S) W‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪.‬‬
‫‪(S) W‬‬
‫‪ (T) X‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (T) X‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ‪،1 : 1 ،4 : 5 ،3 : 4 ،2 : 3‬‬
‫ﻭ‪.9 : 16‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺺ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻤﻠﻒ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ‪ :‬ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ )‪JPEG + NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻟﻬﺎ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ JPEG (93 0‬ﺟﻴﺪ؛ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬
‫ﻭﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺹ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪265‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺄﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﻲ ﺩﺍﻛﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻓﺎﺗﺢ )ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻨﻲ ﺩﺍﻛﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻓﺎﺗﺢ؛‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪266‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺯﺭﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺑﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻇﻼﻝ ﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ "ﺩﺍﻓﺌﺔ"‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‬
‫ﻳﹸﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ )ﻣﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺨﻀﺮﺍﺀ )ﻣﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﺎﺀ )ﻣﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ(‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ‪3 ،‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻋﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﻧﺠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ (T) X‬ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﻔﻆ‪ :‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﻧﺎﻋﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪267‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﺎﺀ‬
‫)‪ (181 0‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﻮﺿﺢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .(T) X‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻲ ﻟﻴﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (U) L‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ (T) X‬ﻭ‪ (S) W‬ﻭﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪268‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺗﻴﻦ ﺑﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ؛ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﹰ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪ RAW‬ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻅ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ؛ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪95 ،93 0‬؛ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ(‪ .‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ )‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪1‬؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺼﻮﺭ ‪ NEF‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬؛ ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ ،178‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ D‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ .1‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ 2‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ ،J‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪269‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺍﻛﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ 2‬ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ‪ 0.1‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ .2.0‬ﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‬
‫‪1.0‬؛ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ 0.5‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ‪ 2.0‬ﻟﻤﻀﺎﻋﻔﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ )ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﻔﻆ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 4‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.(S) W‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺩﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻋﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ( ﻭﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ .1‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ؛ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪ .‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫)‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ؛ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪270‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬؛ ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ ،178‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ D‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .(1‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ‪.JPEG‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻄﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ –2‬ﻭ ‪ .EV +2‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬
‫‪.Picture Controls‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(93 0‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(95 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪(115 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪(112 0‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪(129 0) Picture Control‬‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ )‪(218 0‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )‪(217 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ )‪(218 0‬‬
‫‪(264 0) D-Lighting‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪271‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ‪ EXE‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫)ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(G‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﺤﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻐﻂ ‪) 2‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.(3‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪272‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪(S) W‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ )ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬؛ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫‪ ،178‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ D‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .(1‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ .8‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻣﻌﺪﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ )‪ JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﻟﻬﺎ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪JPEG (93 0‬‬
‫ﺟﻴﺪ؛ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪273‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻌﺪﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺧﻤﺲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺑﺤﺠﻢ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 0.25‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺔ(‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ K‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺑﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﺃﻗﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﺼﺤﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺻﻨﻊ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ؛ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .(217‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻠﻲ‪،‬‬
‫‪ 4‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺩﻱ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﻧﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ(‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ K‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﺘﺺ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺸﻮﻩ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻄﺖ ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ DX‬ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪.1.0× (36×24) FX‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪) D‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪PC‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻄﺖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ )ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﻘﺘﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ(‪ 4 ،‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻠﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ K‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪274‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻛﺄﺳﺎﺱ ﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﻮﺩﺓ ﺗﻢ ﺭﺳﻤﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺧﺸﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻫﺖ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺃﺭﻓﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﻤﻚ‪ .‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺳﻤﺎﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ K‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺗﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﺼﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ(‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ K‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪275‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﺼﻐﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻤﺠﺴﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ )ﺩﻳﻮﺭﺍﻣﺎ(‪ .‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺆﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺈﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﺻﻔﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ (S) W‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (S) W‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪3‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪276‬‬
‫‪ (T) X‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫‪K‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬؛ ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ ،178‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ D‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .(1‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻈﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ )ﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ؛ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ(‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .(T) X‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (S) W‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻧﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪277‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪278‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪7‬؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻀﻢ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺗﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ‪ 5-3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ ،(Q) O‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ‪ (Q) O‬ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ J‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ (b) c‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ )ﻣﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ‬
‫‪ (o‬ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ J‬ﺃﻭ ‪.(b) c‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .(T) X‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،K‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ D‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺎﺕ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ‬
‫ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺤﻤﻴﺔ )‪ (188 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﻔﻮﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺋﻬﺎ )‪ (208 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪279‬‬
‫‪ O‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪ m/‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪) O‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﺑﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻟﻬﺎ )ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 20‬ﻋﻨﺼﺮ(‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﺑﺪﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ )‪.(283 0‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺬﻑ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪280‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ )‪ ،(O‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺑﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺃﺿﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺻﻮﺍﺏ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ .V‬ﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ‪ 4-1‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ )‪ ،(O‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺻﻮﺍﺏ