Nikon | D5600 | Nikon D5600 دليل مرجعي (التعليمات الكاملة)

Nikon D5600 دليل مرجعي (التعليمات الكاملة)
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻲ‬
‫• ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻗﺴﻢ "ﻷﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ"‬
‫)ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.(xiii‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪Ar‬‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﻙ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪ .‬ﻣﺘﺼﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺣ ﹰﺒﺎ ﺑﻚ ﻓﻲ ‪ - SnapBridge‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﹸﺜﺮﻱ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺘﻚ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﺗﹸﺰﻳﻞ ‪ SnapBridge‬ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺟﺰ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ®Bluetooth‬ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ )‪ (BLE‬ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺼﺺ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻄﻬﺎ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻚ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺗﻚ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﺛﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﻭﺣﻴﺜﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ SnapBridge‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ!‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻨﺰﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ SnapBridge‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯﻙ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻤﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﺻﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫®‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺁﻳﻔﻮﻥ® ﺃﻭ ﺁﻳﺒﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺁﻳﺒﻮﺩ ﻟﻤﺲ® ﺃﻭ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺫﻛﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻧﺪﺭﻭﻳﺪ ™‪ .‬ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ SnapBridge‬ﹸﻣﺘﻮﻓﱢﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺠﺎﻧ ﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ®Apple App Store‬ﻭ ‪™Google Play‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪http://snapbridge.nikon.com‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ‪،SnapBridge‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻤﻨﻄﻘﺘﻚ )‪.(xxi 0‬‬
‫‪N1538 :Model Name D5600‬‬
‫ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ‪…SnapBridge‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯﻳﻦ ‪ -‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺖ ﻣﻀﻰ‬
‫ﺃﺳﻬﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗ ﹴ‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪NIKON IMAGE SPACE‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﹸﺜﺮﻱ ﺻﻮﺭﻙ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫• ﺩﻣﺞ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫‪Nikon D5600, AF-P DX NIKKOR 18–55mm f/3.5–5.6G VR‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺗﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ )ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ(‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪D‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ؛ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ؛ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺨﻂ‬
‫ﺳﻤﻴﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺏ "ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ"‬
‫)‪.(xvi–xiii 0‬‬
‫‪ii‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ ‪xiii ..............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ‪xvii...........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﻭ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ‪) Wi-Fi‬ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ( ‪xxii......................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪1 ..........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪1 ..................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪4 ........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪5 .....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪) R‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ( ‪6 ............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪12 .................................................................................................................................P‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪13 ...............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪15 ................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ‪17 .........................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪23 ......................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪25 ............................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺣﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪26 ......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪26 ...............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪27 .........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪29 ..................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪30 ...............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪33 ..................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪41 .............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬
‫‪42‬‬
‫ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ‪42 ..............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ‪46 ..........................‬‬
‫‪iii‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫‪47‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ "ﺣﺪﺩ ﻫﺪﻓﻚ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ" )‪ i‬ﻭ ‪47 .............................................................................(j‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ‪56 ...............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪57 ............................................................‬‬
‫‪58‬‬
‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ(‬
‫‪ k‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪59 ...............................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ l‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪59 ..................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ p‬ﻃﻔﻞ‪59 .................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ m‬ﺃﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪60 ...................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ n‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪60 ...............................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪60 ....................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ r‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻴﻠﻲ ‪61 ........................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ s‬ﺣﻔﻠﺔ‪/‬ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‪61 .........................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ t‬ﺷﺎﻃﺊ‪/‬ﺛﻠﺞ ‪61 ......................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ u‬ﻏﺮﻭﺏ‪62 .................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ v‬ﺍﻟﻐﺴﻖ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ‪62 .................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ w‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻟﻴﻒ‪62 .......................................................................‬‬
‫‪ x‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻌﺔ‪63 ....................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ y‬ﺃﺯﻫﺎﺭ‪63 ...................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ z‬ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻳﻒ ‪63 ...................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 0‬ﺃﻃﻌﻤﺔ‪64 ...............................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪iv‬‬
‫‪65‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫‪ %‬ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪65 .........................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ S‬ﻣﺸﺮﻕ ﻣﻤﺘﺎﺯ ‪66 ....................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ T‬ﺯﺍﻫﻲ‪66 .................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ U‬ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪66 ..................................................................................................‬‬
‫' ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻌﺒﺔ ‪67 ............................................................................................‬‬
‫( ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪67 .....................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪67 ...................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻇﻠﻴﺔ‪68 ......................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ‪68 ................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺧﺎﻓﺘﺔ‪68 ....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪70 ......................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫‪75‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ‪75 ..........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ( ‪76 ...................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪78 .........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‪79 .................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪82 .....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪82 .........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪87 ..........................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪93 .........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪95 ...............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪98 .........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪98 ....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪100 ................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪101 ...........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ‪101 ...................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪103 .......................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪107 .................................................................................................................ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ‪109 ..................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪115 ...................................................................................‬‬
‫‪v‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫‪118‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪118 ..................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪) P‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ( ‪119 ...................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪) S‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ( ‪121 ...................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪) A‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ( ‪122 .................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪) M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ( ‪123 ............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‪125 .....................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪128 ...........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ‪128 ............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪130 ................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪132 ...........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪134 .............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ ‪136 ........................................‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ‪136 ......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ )‪138 ..................................................................................... (HDR‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪140 ....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪143 .............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪145 .......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪151 ............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪155 ............................................................. Picture Controls‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪155 ................................................... Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪157 .................................................Picture Controls‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪161 ....................‬‬
‫‪vi‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫‪164‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪164 ................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪166 ..............................................................................................................................P‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪168 .............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﻣﻨﻘﻀﻴﺔ ‪171 .................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ‪176 .....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪178 .....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪178 ................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪182 ..............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫‪184‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ‪184 ..............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪185 .......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ ‪186 ...............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪187 ..............................................................................................................................P‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪188 ............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﺮﺑﺔ‪ :‬ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ‪196 ......................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ‪200 ...................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪201 .................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﺩﺓ ‪201 ...............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ‪202 .........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪203 ....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﺮﺩﻳﺔ‪203 ..........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪204 ......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ‪205 ............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪205 ...................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ‪206 ................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ ‪208 .................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ ‪209 .................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪vii‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫‪210‬‬
‫ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪210 ................................................................................................ViewNX-i‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ‪211 .........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ‪214 .....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪214 ............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﻠﻮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪215 ........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪216 .................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ‪218 ...................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪220‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ :‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪220 .....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪220 ...................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ‪221 .....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ‪221 ......................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪221 ...................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪222 ..........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‪222 ......................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪223 .........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪223 .................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪225 ..............................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪225 ....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪227 ...................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪227 ........................................................................................ NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪228 .....................................................................................ISO‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪230 .....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪230 .................................................................................. NR‬‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‪231 .......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ‪231 ............................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‪232 .....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ‪232 ............................................................................... VR‬‬
‫‪viii‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪233 .................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪234 ...........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪235 ......................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :a‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪235 ...............................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :a1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪235 .....................................................................................AF-C‬‬
‫‪ :a2‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪236 ...........................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :a3‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪237 ................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :a4‬ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ‪237 ................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :a5‬ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪238 ............................................... AF‬‬
‫‪ :b‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪239 ...............................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :b1‬ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪239 ...........................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :b2‬ﻋﺮﺽ ‪239 .....................................................................................................ISO‬‬
‫‪ :c‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ‪/‬ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪239 ............................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :c1‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪239 ...................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪240 ...........................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‪241 ...................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ‪241 ..................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d1‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪241 ...................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d2‬ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ‪242 ..................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d3‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪243 .......................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d4‬ﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪243 .................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d5‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ‪245 .......................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :e‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪246 .................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :e1‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪/‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ‪246 ...............................................‬‬
‫‪ :e2‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪251 ...............................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪252 ....................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪252 ...................................................................................................Fn‬‬
‫‪ :f2‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪254 .....................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f3‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ‪255 ....................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f4‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺴﻲ ﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪256 ..............................................................‬‬
‫‪ix‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪257 ..................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪257 ...................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪259 ........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪260 ...............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ‪261 ...................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪262 .................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪262 .............................................................................................(Language‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ ‪263 ..................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪263 ...................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪263 ................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪264 ...................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ‪265 ..................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ‪265 .......................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ‪266 ...................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‪268 ................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪268 .................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‪269 .....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪270 ......................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ‪271 ......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‪271 ...........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ )ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ‪272 .........................................................................‬‬
‫‪272 ...................................................................................................................Wi-Fi‬‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ‪273 .................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪274 ...................................................................................................Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ‪276 ....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‪276 .....................................................................................‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪277 ..................................................................‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪277 .................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪278 .....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪280 ........................................................................................ NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ‪282 .................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ‪283 .....................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪285 ......................................................................................................... D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‪286 .......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪286 ....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‪287 ..................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‪287 ..................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ‪288 .......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ‪288 .....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‪289 .................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪290 .........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪291 .....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪293 .....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪294 ....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪294 .....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪295 ........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪296 ......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ‪298 ....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ‪298 .......................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ m‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‪ O/‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪300 ..................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪300 ..................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ m‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ‪301 ....................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ O‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪301 .....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪xi‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪305‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪305 ......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪305 .............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪308 ...............................................................‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ )‪ (CLS‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪315 ....................................................................‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪321 .................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ‪325 ...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪327 ............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪327 ..........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪327 ........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪328 ..........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ‪333 .......................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ‪338 ..........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻞ ﻭﺇﺻﻼﺣﻪ‪340 ...................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪/‬ﻋﺮﺽ ‪340 .................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ(‪341 ..................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪345 ...................................................................................................... (M ،A ،S ،P‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‪346 ...............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﻭ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ‪) Wi-Fi‬ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ( ‪348 ....................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‪348 ...........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ ‪349 ..................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ‪356 ......................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ f/3.5–5.6G VR‬ﻣﻢ‪369 ............................................ AF-P DX NIKKOR 55–18‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ f/4.5–6.3G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF-P DX NIKKOR 300–70‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ f/4.5–6.3G ED‬ﻣﻢ‪375 ...................................................AF-P DX NIKKOR 300–70‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ f/3.5–5.6G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪380 ................................... AF-S DX NIKKOR 140–18‬‬
‫ﺳﻌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪387 ......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪388 ............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ‪390 ................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪xii‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﻺﺻﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺮﺃ "ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ" ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺮ‪ :‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﻳﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﻳﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﻳﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ‬
‫• ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻮﺍﺩﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻔﻜﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌ ﹼﺪﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﻜﺸﻒ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻘﻮﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺣﺎﺩﺙ ﺁﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺻﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﺧﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻭﺍﺋﺢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﻢ ﻓﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻺﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺟﺎﻓﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻤﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺑﺄﻳﺪﻱ ﻣﺒﺘﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ ﺑﺄﻳﺪﻱ ﻣﺒﺘﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﱠ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺮﻭﻕ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻏﺒﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﻌﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺎﺯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺑﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻳﺮﻭﺳﻮﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
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‫• ﻻ ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻋﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺳﺎﺋﻖ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺣﻮﺍﺩﺙ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﺤﻔﻆ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪ .‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﺨﻄﺮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻨﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺑﺘﻼﻉ ﻃﻔﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻃﺒﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﻟﻒ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﻣﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﻘﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺣﻮﺍﺩﺙ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺣﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺣﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺮ ﹼ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻨﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﻼﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺑﻼﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺛﻘﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻠﻬﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻤﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻮﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺪﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺻﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺴﻪ ﺑﺄﻳﺪﻱ ﻋﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺤﺮﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻀﻤﺔ ﺻﻘﻴﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺣﺮﻳﻘﹰ ﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻔﹰ ﺎ ﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻦ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
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‫• ﺃﻃﻔﺊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻈﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﺤﻈﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﺮﻙ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫• ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﹸ‬
‫ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺣﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺤﺮﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺮ )ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ(‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻔﻜﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﻖ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬‫ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻬﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻔﺮﻃﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻜﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬‫ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺼﺮ ﺩﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻼﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺑﺎﺑﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﺼﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬‫• ﻻ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ EN-EL14a‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﺣﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻄﻒ ﺑﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺸﺮ ﻃﺒﻴ ﹰﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺻﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪xv‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ )ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ(‬
‫• ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﻴ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺑﺘﻠﻊ ﻃﻔﻠﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺸﺮ ﻃﺒﻴ ﹰﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻐﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﻄﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪ .‬ﺟﻔﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻓﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﻤﻨﺸﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻠﺒﻠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ EN-EL14a‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻘﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻋﺰﻝ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﻋﺰﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺸﺘﻌﻞ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻔﺠﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻼﻣﺴﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﺋﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺪﺙ ﺗﻼﻣﺲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻼﺑﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻢ ﻓﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﺸﻄﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺗﻬﻴﺞ ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ‬
‫• ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ‬
‫• ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺩﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ • ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻢ ﺑﺬﻝ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻮﺩ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺩﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺷﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻱ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻲ ﻭﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻴﺒﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺮﺣﺐ ﺑﺈﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺘﻚ )ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ‬
‫• ﺗﺤﺘﻔﻆ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﺧﻄﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺗﻢ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺎﺳﺢ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ‬
‫• ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻴﺪ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ )ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺗﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻜﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻗﺴﺎﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﺍﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻟﺦ(‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﺍﻛﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ "ﻋﻴﻨﺔ" ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺋﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺟﻮﺍﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺻﻜﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻻﺕ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻃﻮﺍﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺬﺍﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻔﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﺒﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺤﻘﻮﻕ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺛﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪ ،‬ﻳﺤﻈﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺘﻠﻚ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﻣﺤﻈﻮﺭﹰﺍ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻻ ﻳﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺬﻭﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺳﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺘﻪ ﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻗﻢ ﺑﻤﺴﺢ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﻴﺊ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻣﻸﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺼﻮﺭ ﻻ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻏﺔ(‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ )‪ .(149 0‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪ < Wi-Fi‬ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ )‪(272 0‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﹰ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻟﻺﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ‪AVC Patent Portfolio License‬‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ‪ AVC PATENT PORTFOLIO LICENSE‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ )‪ (i‬ﺗﺮﻣﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ‪") AVC‬ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ‪ ("AVC‬ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ )‪ (ii‬ﻓﻚ‬
‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﺼﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻣﻴﺰ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ‪ AVC‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﺮﻣﻴﺰﻩ ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻳﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﹰ ﺎ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﻣﺮ ﹼﺧﺺ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ‪ .AVC‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻨﻪ ﻷﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ‪ .L.L.C ،MPEG LA‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ‪http://www.mpegla.com‬‬
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‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﹰ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﻭﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ )ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ( ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺖ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻳﺤﺮﻣﻚ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ‪-‬ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻻ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺷﺮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺮﻳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻮﺯﻉ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
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‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻚ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺖ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻳﺤﺮﻣﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻣﺔ )ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﻔﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻓﺎﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺣﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺿﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺧﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬
‫ﻛﺠﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻬﺪ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ "ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ" ﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‪http://www.nikonusa.com/ :‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﻭﺇﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‪http://www.europe-nikon.com/support/ :‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻗﻴﺎﻧﻮﺳﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‪:‬‬
‫‪http://www.nikon-asia.com/‬‬
‫ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻟﻺﻟﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺄﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻟﻸﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ )‪ ،(FAQs‬ﻭﻧﺼﺎﺋﺢ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺘﻚ‪ .‬ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪http://imaging.nikon.com/ :‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﻭ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ‪) Wi-Fi‬ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺧﺎﺿﻊ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﺋﺢ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﺮ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺨﻀﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﺤﻈﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻀﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﻮﺑﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻳﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻛﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻋﹸ ﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﹸﺤﻈﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ‪ .‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻄﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ D5600‬ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫‪.2014/53/EU‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻲ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪.http://imaging.nikon.com/support/pdf/DoC_D5600.pdf‬‬
‫ﺇﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻣﻊ ﻟﻮﺍﺋﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪AGREE PAR L'ANRT MAROC‬‬
‫‪Numéro d'agrément : MR 11787 ANRT 2016‬‬
‫‪Date d'agrément : 25/04/2016‬‬
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‫ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﻟﻶﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﺒﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺳﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮﻟﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ‬
‫ﹸﻣﻌﺮﱢﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻭﺭ ﻭﺃﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺧﺺ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺧﺺ ﻟﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺈﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻣﺴﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﺠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺧﺺ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻵﻣﻨﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺻﻮﻝ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺼﺮﺡ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﻣﻨﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻣﻨﺢ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻌﺘﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺷﺎﺷﺎﺗﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺠﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺷﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻚ ﻟﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
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‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪237 ،85 ...........................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪80 .............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪104 ،102 ......‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪39 ،34 .....................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪52 ...........................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪134 ،132 ،124 ................................. N/E‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‪165.......................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪164 ،47 ...................‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪4 ..................................................‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪101..............................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪134 ،103 ،101 ...............................Y /M‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺣﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪26 ................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪252....................................................... Fn‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ‪30 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪31 .......................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪79 ،78 ،76 ،75.................................E/s‬‬
‫ﻣﺮﺁﺓ‪330............................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪96 ،30 ..................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ‪323 ،30 ...................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪19 20 21‬‬
‫‪22 23 24‬‬
‫‪28‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪31‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪30‬‬
‫‪29‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ‪169...................................‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ(‪315..................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‪265 ،8 .................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪) R‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ( ‪115 ،9 ،6.........................‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪254 ،200 ،130 ،94 .......................L/A‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪28‬‬
‫‪29‬‬
‫‪30‬‬
‫‪31‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪220 ،115 ،42.....................................G‬‬
‫ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ )‪96 ...................(E‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ‪214 ،211 ....................................USB‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‪170.....................‬‬
‫ﹼ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪324.........................................‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻼﺕ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻼﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫‪36‬‬
‫‪33 34‬‬
‫‪35‬‬
‫‪32‬‬
‫‪47‬‬
‫‪37‬‬
‫‪38‬‬
‫‪48‬‬
‫‪39‬‬
‫‪40‬‬
‫‪46‬‬
‫‪49‬‬
‫‪50‬‬
‫‪51‬‬
‫‪32‬‬
‫‪33‬‬
‫‪34‬‬
‫‪35‬‬
‫‪36‬‬
‫‪37‬‬
‫‪38‬‬
‫‪39‬‬
‫‪40‬‬
‫‪41‬‬
‫‪42‬‬
‫‪42 41‬‬
‫ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪80 ،41 ،5....................‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ‪41 ...................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪184 ،56 ..................................................K‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪187 ،166 ،12............................................P‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ‪43 ،39 ،34 ......................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪) J‬ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ(‪43 ،39 ،34 ...............................‬‬
‫‪) N-Mark‬ﻫﻮﺍﺋﻲ ‪35 ...............................(NFC‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪205 ،57 ....................................................O‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪51 ......................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪325 ،28 ،27 ...................................‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪325 ،28 ،27 ..............‬‬
‫‪44 43‬‬
‫‪43‬‬
‫‪44‬‬
‫‪45‬‬
‫‪46‬‬
‫‪47‬‬
‫‪48‬‬
‫‪49‬‬
‫‪50‬‬
‫‪51‬‬
‫‪45‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪196 ،185 ،43................................... Q/W‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪196 ،185 .................................................X‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺒﺲ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ‪255 ،184 ،56 ،47 ،15 ،13 ................‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﻃﻴﺔ ‪80 ...............................‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ ‪218..............................HDMI‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪28 ،27 ..............‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪325....................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪325 ،28 ،27 ...........................‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪:M‬‬
‫• ‪—P‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ )‪(119 0‬‬
‫• ‪—S‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪(121 0‬‬
‫• ‪—A‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪(122 0‬‬
‫• ‪—M‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ )‪(123 0‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ )‪(65 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪ i‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(47 0‬‬
‫• ‪ j‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻄﻔﺄ( )‪(47 0‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ )‪(58 0‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪11 12 1314 15‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪17 18 20‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪9 10‬‬
‫‪78‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪،d3‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‪243...............‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪236 ،90 ،50 ..................‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪49 ،41 .............................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪46 ...........‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪ %‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ( ‪155 ،65 ..........‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ "ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ"‪27 ..............‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪96 ،50 ..........................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)‪130..........................................................(AE‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪118...........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ( ‪118............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‪65 .................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪151.....................................‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪46 ...‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪77 .......................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪146..................‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪132...........‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪134.............................‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪239 ،107 ...............................ISO‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫"‪) "k‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪ 1000‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ(‪46 ...............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪54 ............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ‪120..............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪124........................‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪132........‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‪237...............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪134............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪132..........‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪228................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ‪349.............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪) R‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ(‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ R‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.R‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪R‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪ i‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪ j‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻄﻔﺄ( ‪47 ....................‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪58 ....................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‪65 .......................‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪7 118...............................M‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪118...........................................‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪124 ،121 ....................‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)‪130..........................................................(AE‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪75 ...............................................‬‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪349..........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ( ‪118............................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪124 ،122 .................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪107.........................................ISO‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪229 ،107 ................. ISO‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪229................‬‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ‪22 .........................................................z‬‬
‫‪9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪20 269.................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪272.................................Wi-Fi‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪274...............................Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ‪21 273............................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ‪271............................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ‪255.............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ‪22 231......‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪23 241................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪243..................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪232 ،32 ........................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪246............................‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪318...................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪46 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪151.....................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪87 .....................................................‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪236 ،90 ........................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪124........................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪132..........‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪154...........................‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪152............................... ADL‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‬
‫‪46 ....................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪146..................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫"‪) "k‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪ 1000‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ(‪46 ...............................‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺴﺢ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ R‬ﻣﺮﺗﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ )ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 8‬ﹴ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .(240‬ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﻏﺒﺖ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ )‪ (265 0‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪ .(47 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ R‬ﻟﻠﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪R‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ )‪(164 0‬‬
‫*‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫*‬
‫*‬
‫*‬
‫* ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻃﺔ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺺ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪q‬‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪u‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫‪ q‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪ w‬ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ < ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ؛ ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(89 0‬‬
‫‪ e‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ‬
‫‪ r‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ‬
‫‪ t‬ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ y‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫‪ u‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ 10‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪،65 ،58 ،47‬‬
‫‪118‬‬
‫‪169‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪169‬‬
‫‪169‬‬
‫‪169‬‬
‫‪49‬‬
‫‪o !0‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪!1‬‬
‫‪!2‬‬
‫‪!3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬
‫‪ i‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫‪!0‬‬
‫‪!1‬‬
‫‪!2‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ "ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ"‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ )ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻟﻸﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪83‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪89‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ !3‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺳﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪168‬‬
‫‪165‬‬
‫‪124‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﺪ ﺗﻨﺎﺯﻟﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(10 0‬ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (240 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ 5‬ﹴ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺷﻚ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ(‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪11‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،P‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ P‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(98 0‬‬
‫• ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(100 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(151 0‬‬
‫• ‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ( )‪(138 0‬‬
‫• ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ )‪(136 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪(140 0‬‬
‫• ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪(107 0) ISO‬‬
‫• ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪(155 0) Picture Control‬‬
‫• ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪(82 0‬‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(87 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ )‪(128 0‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪(104 ،102 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪(134 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪(132 0‬‬
‫‪ 12‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪180°‬‬
‫‪180°‬‬
‫‪90°‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‪ :‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺗﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻣﺴﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻣﺴﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻤﺎ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪13‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﻄﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 14‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺤﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺲ ﻭﺍﺳﺤﺐ ﺑﺈﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ‬
‫ﺣﺮﱢﻙ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻌﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﻓﺮﻗﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮﺑﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪15‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻟﻠﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻏﻄﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﹸﻣﺼﻨﱠﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻟﻤﺴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻷﻇﺎﻓﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﺗﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﻃﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺄﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺭﺍﺣﺔ ﻳﺪﻙ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻳﻠﻤﺲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﺕ ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺔ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻌﻚ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﺻﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺴﻘﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪ .(263 0‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 16‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ(‪ .‬ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )‪.(6 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ )‪ ،(65 ،58 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺭﻣﺰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ x‬ﺃﻭ ‪ y‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ ،M‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ w‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭ ﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪ x‬ﻭ‪ ،y‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻗﻬﻤﺎ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ 1‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪17‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪ ،(12 0‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ z‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﹸﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ u‬ﺃﻭ ‪ v‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ 0‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪.4‬‬
‫‪ 18‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ )‪ (MF‬ﻛﻮﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ(‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.83‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪7‬‬
‫ﻣﺸﻴﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻩ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ‬
‫ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻈﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ )‪ (7‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪19‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ 3‬ﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ )‪ (76 0‬ﻭﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ )‪ ،(79 0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 10‬ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ؛ ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‪ .(241 0 ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﻠﻮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ ،1‬ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 20‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ )‪ ،(65 ،58 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺭﻣﺰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ x‬ﺃﻭ ‪ y‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ ،M‬ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪ x‬ﻭ‪ ،y‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻗﻬﺎ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ 1‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪21‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ z‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )‪ .(166 ،12 0‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﹸﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ u‬ﺃﻭ ‪ v‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ 0‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪.4‬‬
‫‪ 22‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪.(184 ،56 0‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺲ ﻭﺍﺳﺤﺐ ﻟﻠﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﻟﻺﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﻣﺮﺭ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻟﻠﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﻟﻺﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺇﻳﻤﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻭﺇﻳﻤﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫)‪.(196 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪23‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ "ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ" ﻭﺻﻮﻻ ﹰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ )‪ ،(185 0‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺇﻳﻤﺎﺀﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 12‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 80‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫‪ 24‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﺮﻣﺰ‬
‫‪ .(1‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻺﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ 1‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻙ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺭﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪/‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺷﺮﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪.1‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪25‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺣﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺭﻛﺐ ﺣﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻎ ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺣﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺈﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﻗﺎﺑﺲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﻗﺎﺑﺲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺋﻂ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻭ‪ 50‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ‪ xvi–xiii‬ﻭ‪ 337–333‬ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 26‬ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫‪) OFF‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‪ .‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﺑﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺭﻫﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺛﻼﺙ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺷﻬﺮ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﻔﺪﺓ ﻭﺗﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ‪27‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻹﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺢ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺤﺒﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪16GB‬‬
‫ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻹﺧﺮﺍﺟﻬﺎ )‪ .(q‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺪ )‪.(w‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺳﺎﺧﻨﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﺨﺮﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﺄﺻﺎﺑﻌﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺄﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻠﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﻘﻄﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻟﺼﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻬﻴﺊ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 28‬ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ‪29‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪.AF-P DX NIKKOR 55–18 f/3.5–5.6G VR‬‬
‫ﻓﻚ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺟﺴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻓﻚ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ )ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ )ﻋﺪﺳﺔ(‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﻤﺤﺎﺫﺍﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 30‬ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺤﺐ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻤﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺤﺐ )‪ ،(q‬ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ )‪.(w‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺤﺐ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺴﺤﻮﺑﺔ؛ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺳﺤﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻓﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻟﻔﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )‪ (q‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ )‪ .(w‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﻏﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ‪ A-M‬ﻭ‪ M/A-M‬ﻭ‪A/M-M‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ ،A-M‬ﺣﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪) A‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ M/A-M‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،A/M-M‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ M/A‬ﺃﻭ ‪.(A/M‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.305‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ‪31‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ )‪(VR‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟـ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ‪ VR‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪،(232 0‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ ،ON‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪ .‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺳﺤﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺤﺐ‬
‫ﻟﺴﺤﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺴﺤﺐ )‪ (q‬ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ "‪) "L‬ﻗﻔﻞ(‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ )‪ .(w‬ﺍﺳﺤﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺬﺭ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺤﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 32‬ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺎﺗﻒ ﺫﻛﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻟﻮﺣﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﻘﱠﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ SnapBridge‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺎﺗﻔﻚ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﻲ )"ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ" ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ( ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﱠ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻲ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﻭ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪ .Wi-Fi‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ .SnapBridge‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯﻙ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪ .‬ﺗﹸﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 2.0‬ﻣﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ .SnapBridge‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ‪) SnapBridge‬ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ (pdf‬ﹸ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪http://downloadcenter.nikonimglib.com‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ‪33‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ‬
‫ﱠ‬
‫ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ :‬ﺷﻐﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺯﺭ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪) J‬ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ(‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻳﻤﻴﻦ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﻳﺴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺃﺳﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪ (Language‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 34‬ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ :‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﻻ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ )‪.(40 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻭﺟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﻧﺪﺭﻭﻳﺪ ﻣﻊ ﺩﻋﻢ ‪ :NFC‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﱡ ﻖ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ‪ NFC‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣ ﹺﺪﺙ ﻣﻼﻣﺴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ (N-Mark) H‬ﻭﻫﻮﺍﺋﻲ ‪ NFC‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺷﻐﱢﻞ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ ،SnapBridge‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .7‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻇﻬﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺗﻨﺰﻳﻞ ‪ ،SnapBridge‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺜﺒﻴﺘﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ‪ iOS‬ﻭﺃﻧﺪﺭﻭﻳﺪ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ :NFC‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ J‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﺰﺍﻭﺟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ‪35‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ :‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻬﺰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‬
‫ﱢ‬
‫ﱠ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪SnapBridge‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) Pair with camera‬ﻣﺰﺍﻭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﹸﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺑﻊ "‪) "Pair with camera‬ﻣﺰﺍﻭﺟﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺰﺍﻭﺟﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪ iOS‬ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳ ﹸﺘﻘﺪﱠﻡ ﻟﻬﻢ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻭﺟﺔ ﺃﻭﻻ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﱢﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) Understood‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﹸﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻣﻠﺤﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ )ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ 36‬ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﺤﻘﱠﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﻳﻌﺮﺿﺎﻥ ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻤﺎ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﱠﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺖ ﺧﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭﺍﺕ ‪ iOS‬ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﹸ‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻱ ﺭﻗﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.8‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ J‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻧﻘﺮ ‪) PAIR‬ﻣﺰﺍﻭﺟﺔ(‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ )ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ‪37‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪ :‬ﺃﻛﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻭﺟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) OK‬ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ( ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺴﺆﺍﻝ "ﻫﻞ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺗﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ؟" ﺛﻢ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ‪) Auto link options‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( <‬
‫‪) Synchronize location data‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ( ﻓﻲ ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪SnapBridge‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫• ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺗﺰﺍﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬
‫ﱠ‬
‫ﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪" :‬ﻫﻞ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ؟" ﺛﻢ ﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ‪) Auto link options‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( < ‪Synchronize clocks‬‬
‫)ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ( ﻓﻲ ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪. SnapBridge‬‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪ .‬ﺃﻱ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻄﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪ 38‬ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺯﺭ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪) J‬ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ(‬
‫‪ 4‬ﻳﺴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻳﻤﻴﻦ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺃﺳﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪ (Language‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ‪39‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ G‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ J‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫‪q‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ )ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ‪ 24‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ(‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ <‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 40‬ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﺰﻉ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‪ .‬ﻛﻦ ﺣﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻚ ﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻌﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻇﺎﻓﺮﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺟﺎﻫﺰﺓ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻵﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 47‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ‪41‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.G‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪ :D‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪(220 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :C‬ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪(223 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :A‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )‪(233 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :B‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪(257 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :N‬ﻳﻨﻘﺢ )‪(277 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :O/m‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ؛‬
‫‪(300 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺭﻣﻮﺯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ )‪(43 0‬‬
‫‪ 42‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫❚❚ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺯﺭ ‪ J‬ﻟﺘﺼﻔﺢ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :1‬ﻳﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪ :J‬ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‬
‫‪ :2‬ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻓﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ :4‬ﻟﻺﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
‫‪ :3‬ﻳﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺭﻣﺰ ‪) d‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ(‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ d‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺻﻒ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ .(Q) W‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ (Q) W‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(Q) W‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ ‪43‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 44‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺑﻨﺪ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺪ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﺒﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪.G‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻏﺎﻟ ﹰﺒﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ،J‬ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ )‪.(52 0‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ ‪45‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ R‬ﻭﺍﻓﺤﺺ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪R‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،R‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﻔﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺠﺐ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫‪K‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﺟﻬﺰ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪ ﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻔﺪﺕ ﺷﺤﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ‪ 1000‬ﺑﺎﻵﻻﻑ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻑ "‪."k‬‬
‫‪ 46‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ "ﺣﺪﺩ ﻫﺪﻓﻚ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ" )‪ i‬ﻭ ‪(j‬‬
‫ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻌﻲ ‪ i‬ﻭ ‪.j‬‬
‫‪ i‬ﻭ ‪ j‬ﻭﺿﻌﺎﻥ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﻠـ "ﺣﺪﺩ ﻫﺪﻓﻚ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ" ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺍﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.j‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ i‬ﺃﻭ ‪.j‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )ﻣﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ(‪ .‬ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ(‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ‪47‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺟﻬﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﻣﻘﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻳﺪﻙ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻨﻰ ﻭﺍﺣﻤﻞ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﻴﺪﻙ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻤﻢ ﻣﺮﻓﻘﻴﻚ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ﺻﺪﺭﻙ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺴﻚ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻳﺪﻙ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻨﻰ ﻭﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﻴﺪﻙ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ )ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻲ(‬
‫ﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ )ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫‪ 48‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻜﺘﺸﻒ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﻭﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺃﻱ ﻭﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺯﻭﻡ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻳﻜﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻸ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺼﻐﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ )ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻷﻃﻮﺍﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ‪49‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺼﺪﺭ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ‬
‫)ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﹰﺎ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﻭﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (I‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪) I‬ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.86‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﺗﻮﻣﺾ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺧﻀﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺘﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺧﻀﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﺴﺘﻮﻣﺾ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 50‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺨﺮﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﹴ‬
‫ﺗﻔﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻄﻔﺊ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﺗﻜﺘﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ‪51‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﻳﻀﻐﻂ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﻳﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﻬﺪ )ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ i‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،j‬ﺳﺘﺤﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻭﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ c‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬
‫‪ d‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺪﻥ‬
‫‪ e‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺔ‬
‫‪f‬‬
‫ﻟﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ Z‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ i‬ﺃﻭ ‪ j‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﺗﺤﺖ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‬
‫‪b‬‬
‫ﻣﻄﻔﺄ(‬
‫‪ 52‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ )ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺛﻤﺎﻥ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪.(240 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ )ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ(‬
‫ﺳﺘﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ‪ 10‬ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.(240 0 ،‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 8.3‬ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .X‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺗﺼﻔﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ (Q) W‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪X‬‬
‫ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ‪53‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،i‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ )‪.(101 0‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪ .(M‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ؛‬
‫ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﺪﻩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻏﻼﻕ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺒﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻧﻘﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 54‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻨﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻮﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﻀﺎ ﹰﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻭﻣﻀﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺧﺎﻃﻒ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻘﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬
‫ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﺪﻭﺭ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻫﺪﻑ ﻳﺘﺤﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻘﻴﺎ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ )‪ ،(268 0‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ )ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻬﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻧﻨﺼﺤﻚ ﺑﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻴﺪﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺄﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪.(80 0‬‬
‫‪HDMI A‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ‪ ،HDMI‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ‪ ،HDMI-CEC‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ < HDMI‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪ (219 0‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ‪55‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.K‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪K‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 56‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.O‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪K‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .O‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ O‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺭﺟﻊ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪O‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ )‪.(206 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ‪57‬‬
‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ(‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ "ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ"‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﺒﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.47‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ h‬ﻭﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ k‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ t‬ﺷﺎﻃﺊ‪/‬ﺛﻠﺞ‬
‫‪ l‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
‫‪ u‬ﻏﺮﻭﺏ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫‪ p‬ﻃﻔﻞ‬
‫‪ v‬ﺍﻟﻐﺴﻖ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‬
‫‪ m‬ﺃﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ w‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻟﻴﻒ‬
‫‪ n‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ‬
‫‪ x‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻌﺔ‬
‫‪ o‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ y‬ﺃﺯﻫﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ r‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻴﻠﻲ‬
‫‪ z‬ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻳﻒ‬
‫‪ s‬ﺣﻔﻠﺔ‪/‬ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‬
‫‪ 0‬ﺃﻃﻌﻤﺔ‬
‫‪ 58‬ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ(‬
‫‪ k‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﻌﻴ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻌﻴﻢ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻀﻔﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺇﺣﺴﺎﺳﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪ l‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻟﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺮﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ p‬ﻃﻔﻞ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻟﻸﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺑﺲ ﻭﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻟﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻌﻮﻣﺔ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﻈﻬﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ( ‪59‬‬
‫‪ m‬ﺃﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺠﻤﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ n‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺰﻫﻮﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 60‬ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ(‬
‫‪ r‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻴﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺭﻉ ﻭﻻﻓﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ s‬ﺣﻔﻠﺔ‪/‬ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‬
‫ﻳﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ t‬ﺷﺎﻃﺊ‪/‬ﺛﻠﺞ‬
‫ﻳﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ( ‪61‬‬
‫‪ u‬ﻏﺮﻭﺏ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻭﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ v‬ﺍﻟﻐﺴﻖ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻏﺮﻭﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ w‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻟﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻟﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 62‬ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ(‬
‫‪ x‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﺑﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ y‬ﺃﺯﻫﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﺗﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻫﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻬﺎ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﺯﻫﺎﺭ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ z‬ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻳﻒ‬
‫ﻳﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﻟﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻸ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻷﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻳﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ( ‪63‬‬
‫‪ 0‬ﺃﻃﻌﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺮﻗﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﻃﻌﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (Y) M‬ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪.(103 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 64‬ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ q‬ﻭﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪%‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪T‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫'‬
‫ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺮﻕ ﻣﻤﺘﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺯﺍﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻌﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫(‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻇﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺧﺎﻓﺘﺔ‬
‫‪ %‬ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻡ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ ﻭﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ‪65‬‬
‫‪ S‬ﻣﺸﺮﻕ ﻣﻤﺘﺎﺯ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺣﻴﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ T‬ﺯﺍﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺖ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺼﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺣﻴﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ U‬ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﺗﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺼﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻪ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪.(70 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 66‬ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫' ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻌﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻭﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻟﻮ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻌﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪.(71 0‬‬
‫( ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻟﻤﺠﺴﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ )ﺩﻳﻮﺭﺍﻣﺎ(‪ .‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 45‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻩ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ 30p/1080 × 1920‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪.(72 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪.(73 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ‪67‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻇﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻇﻠﻴﺔ ﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﻣﻠﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻮﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺧﺎﻓﺘﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﺧﺎﻓﺘﺔ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻣﻀﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﺎﺭﺯﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 68‬ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫‪NEF (RAW) A‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻣﺘﺎ ﹰﺣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ %‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ T‬ﻭ‪ U‬ﻭ' ﻭ( ﻭ‪ .3‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ )‪JPEG + NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ .JPEG‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫)‪ JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ‪ JPEG‬ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪NEF‬‬
‫)‪ (RAW‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻛﺼﻮﺭ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ U‬ﻭ(‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻞ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻋﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ‪69‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ‪ U‬ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﻤﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﺳﻤﻜﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺳﻤﻜﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 70‬ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫❚❚ ' ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻌﺒﺔ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺻﻔﺎ ﹰﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻓﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ‪71‬‬
‫❚❚ ( ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
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‫‪3‬‬
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‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺆﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻹﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﺆﻗ ﹰﺘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ .X‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ (Q) W‬ﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺆﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪3‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 72‬ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ‪ 3‬ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻈﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ )ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ؛ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ(‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.X‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (Q) W‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ‪73‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪7‬؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻀﻢ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺗﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺃﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ‪ 3‬ﻭ‪ 4‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺃﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪) O‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ O‬ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ؛ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻌﻢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ؛ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 74‬ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ(‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،(E) s‬ﺛﻢ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(E) s‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫!‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‪ :‬ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺑﻄﻲﺀ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪.(76 0‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ‪ :‬ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪.(76 0‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ :‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(78 0‬‬
‫‪E‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ )‪.(79 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (E) s‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺣﺮﺭ ﺯﺭ ‪ (E) s‬ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪75‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ(‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﻦ ! )ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ( ﻭ‪) 9‬ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.(E) s‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(E) s‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ! )ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ( ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪) 9‬ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ( ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 76‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 100‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،M‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺣﺪ‬
‫)ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪ 4‬ﹴ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻔﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺳﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .357‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻤﺘﻠ ﹰﺌﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ؛ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪j‬‬
‫)‪ (47 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪.(102 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪77‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺻﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺻﻔﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.(E) s‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(E) s‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) J‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ‪) J‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ( ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 78‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬
‫ﹴ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.(E) s‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(E) s‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪) E‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ‪) E‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ( ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪79‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺜﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ ﻭﺳﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺻﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺸﺮ ﹴ‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﺻﻴﻚ ﺑﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻴﺪﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺄﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (322 0‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ‪،‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﻃﻴﺔ )‪ (q‬ﻭﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ )‪ .(w‬ﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻃﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﻃﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 80‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (Y) M‬ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ‪ M‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪ .(54 0‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ(‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ؛ ‪.(241 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪81‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ( ﺃﻭ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ )‪ .(95 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫)‪ (90 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(93 0‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪:‬‬
‫‪AF-A‬‬
‫‪AF-S‬‬
‫‪AF-C‬‬
‫‪MF‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺛﺎﺑ ﹰﺘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﹸﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪ (235 0 ،AF-C‬ﻟﻠﺴﻤﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪.(95 0‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﻳﻦ ‪ AF-S‬ﻭ ‪ AF-C‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪ S‬ﻭ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪.M‬‬
‫‪ 82‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﹸﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫‪AF-S‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﹸﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ‬
‫‪ AF-F‬ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ MF‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪.(95 0‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺰﺯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻢ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ U‬ﻭ' ﻭ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪83‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،P‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪.J‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪ 84‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ AF-C‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ AF-A‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﺑﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪AF-C‬؛ ‪ (235 0‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫‪ AF-C‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ ،AF-A‬ﺗﻮﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )ﺑﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻋﺮﺽ( ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،AF-S‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(I‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ )ﺗﺴﺮﻱ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ‪ .(342 0 ،‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺳﺎﺧﻨﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﻗﺼﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪85‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (I‬ﻭﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ )‪ (95 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (93 0‬ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﻪ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻗﻔﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺗﻬﻴﻤﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﻓﺬ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺎﻃﺤﺔ ﺳﺤﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﻰ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﻘﻞ ﺯﻫﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺘﻘﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 86‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫‪c‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫‪ J‬ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ 9‬ﻧﻘﺎﻁ(‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫‪ K‬ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ 21‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ(‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫‪ L‬ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪ AF-A‬ﻭ‪،AF-C‬‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ )‪ ،(90 0‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺳﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 9‬ﻧﻘﺎﻁ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺅﻭﻥ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﻕ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﺎﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 21‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻼﻋﺒﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺍﺓ‬
‫ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪87‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ f‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪ AF-A‬ﻭ‪ ،AF-C‬ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ )‪.(90 0‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺗﻘﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻜﺘﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪) d‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ( ﻭ‪) f‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ( ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ AF-S‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻏﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺭﻓﻊ ﺃﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 88‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ‪ i‬ﻭ‪ j‬ﻭ(‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ 7‬ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻜﺘﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺻﻔﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺟﺔ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﺪﻑ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ؛ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﹰ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪89‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻫﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻫﺪﻓﻚ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺤﺮﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻐﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺤﺠﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺄﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﺗﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ %‬ﻭ‪ U‬ﻭ' ﻭ‪.3‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻫﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻫﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻴﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 90‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،P‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪S‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪ M‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪91‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ )‪ .(305 0‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧ ﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪/‬‬
‫• ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﺑﻄﻮﻝ ﺣﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﺒﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻻﻓﺘﺔ ﻧﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻣﺪ )ﻧﺠﻤﻲ( ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ ﺁﺧﺮ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫• ﻳﺘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺄﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ )ﻣﺜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻒ ﻧﻮﺍﻓﺬ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻃﺤﺔ ﺳﺤﺎﺏ(‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻙ‬
‫‪ 92‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪ AF-A‬ﻭ‪ AF-S‬ﻭ‪ ،(82 0) AF-C‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(86 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪) e‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ(‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(87 0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (I‬ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ( ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﻮﻟﺖ ﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (L) A‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬
‫)‪.(130 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪93‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪ AF-A‬ﻭ ‪) AF-C‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﺒﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‪ :‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ )‪ ،(q‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪(w) (L) A‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﻈﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﹰ ﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،(L) A‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﻓﻌﺖ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(L) A‬‬
‫‪) AF-S‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ( ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻭﻳﻈﻞ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﹰ ﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻏﻠﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪) (L) A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﹰ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﹰ ﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫‪ (L) A‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﹰ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪ 94‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ )‪.(86 0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ‪ A-M‬ﺃﻭ ‪ M/A-M‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،A/M-M‬ﻓﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫‪A-M‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪M/A-M‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺧﺘﺮ ‪) MF‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ( ﻟـ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(82 0‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﻣﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪AF-P‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ (305 0) AF-P‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (I‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )ﺃﻭ ﺳﺘﻮﻣﺾ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ( ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻦ ﻳﺠﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪95‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ )ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺃﻡ ﻻ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ(‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ .(I‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫‪ ،86‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﹰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ؛ ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ‪) M/A‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ‪) A/M‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪/‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ((‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) MF‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ؛ ‪ .(82 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ )‪ (E‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺷﻔﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪ 46.5‬ﻣﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 46.5‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ 96‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ X‬ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪.(53 0‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪X‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪97‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺸﻐﻠﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﻳﺤﺪﺩﺍﻥ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻛﺒﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺄﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫)‪.(387 0‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ )ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫)‪JPEG + NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺟﻴﺪ‬
‫)‪JPEG + NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫)‪JPEG + NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫)‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ‪ :‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ NEF/‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ‪ :‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ‪ :‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﹸﺤﻔﻆ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪ RAW‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬
‫‪ NEF‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪ 4 : 1‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ )ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺟﻴﺪﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪ 8 : 1‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ )ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪ 16 : 1‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ )ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪JPEG + NEF (RAW) A‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ )‪ JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻄﺖ ﺑﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﹸ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ NEF‬ﻭ ‪ JPEG‬ﹰ‬
‫‪ 98‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،P‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺻﻮﺭ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻳﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻟـ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ )‪ .(100 0‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪ ،(151 0‬ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ )‪ ،(138 0 ،(HDR‬ﻭﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫)‪ (243 0‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ )‪.JPEG + NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺻﻴﻎ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﺴﺦ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪ (280 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪.(210 0) Capture NX-D‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪99‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻜﺴﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ #‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ‪ $‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺃﻭ ‪ %‬ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ #‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ $‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫‪ %‬ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ )ﺑﻜﺴﻞ(‬
‫‪4000 × 6000‬‬
‫‪3000 × 4496‬‬
‫‪2000 × 2992‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ )ﺳﻢ( *‬
‫‪33.9 × 50.8‬‬
‫‪25.4 × 38.1‬‬
‫‪16.9 × 25.3‬‬
‫* ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ‪ 300‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺑﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻮﺻﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻜﺴﻞ ﻣﻘﺴﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺑﻌﺔ )ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺑﻌﺔ؛ ‪ 1‬ﺑﻮﺻﺔ = ‪ 2.54‬ﺳﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،P‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪ 100‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻀﺎﺀﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ i‬ﻭ‪ k‬ﻭ‪ p‬ﻭ‪ n‬ﻭ‪ o‬ﻭ‪ s‬ﻭ‪ w‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ T‬ﻭ‪ U‬ﻭ'‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،(Y) M‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(Y) M‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪101‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪) No‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪ :‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﻪ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺪﻓﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻭﻳﻀﻲﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.o‬‬
‫• ‪) Njo‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ +‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ(‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ "ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ"‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪.o‬‬
‫• ‪) Njr‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ‪ +‬ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ(‪ :‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺨﺺ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.o‬‬
‫• ‪) Nr‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ(‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.o‬‬
‫• ‪) j‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻄﻔﺄ(‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )‪.(6 0‬‬
‫‪ 102‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﻭ‪ ،0‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺭﻓﻌﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ (Y) M‬ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(Y) M‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻓﻼﺵ )ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،(Y) M‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(Y) M‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪103‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪) N‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ(‪ :‬ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪) Nj‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ(‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ "ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ"‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.0‬‬
‫• ‪) Njp‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ‪ +‬ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ(‪ :‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺨﺺ "ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ" ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﺑﻄﺎﺀ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ S‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ M‬ﻭ‪.0‬‬
‫• ‪) Np‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ(‪ :‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺨﺺ "ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ" ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﺑﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎ‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﻭ‪.0‬‬
‫• ‪) Nt‬ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ‪ +‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ(‪ :‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺨﺺ "ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ"‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﺑﻄﺎﺀ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎ‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﻭ‪.0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﹰ‬
‫• ‪) Nq‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ(‪ :‬ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺃﺷﻌﺔ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺧﻠﻒ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪.0‬‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 104‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺧﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﹰﺍ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺕ ﻧﻘﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .312‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ ﻫﻮ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 0.6‬ﻡ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻛﺮﻭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﻭﺟﻴﺰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪105‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻘﻴﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪' ،U ،T ،S ،0 ،w ،s ،n ،p ،i‬‬
‫‪ 1/60–1/200‬ﺙ‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫‪ 1/30–1/200‬ﺙ‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫‪ 1–1/200‬ﺙ‬
‫‪A ،S ،P‬‬
‫‪ 30–1/200‬ﺙ‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪ 30–1/200‬ﺙ‪) Bulb ،‬ﻓﺘﺢ(‪) Time ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ(‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ )ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺆ ‪ (ISO‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬
‫‪12800 6400 3200 1600 800 400 200 100‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪5.6‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪2.8‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1.4‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪16 11‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪5.6‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪2.8‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪32‬‬
‫‪22 16 11‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪5.6‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪2.8‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪32 22 16 11‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪5.6‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪32 22 16 11‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪5.6‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪32 22 16 11‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪32 22 16 11‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪32 22 16‬‬
‫‪ 106‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬
‫‪8.5–1.0‬‬
‫‪6.0–0.7‬‬
‫‪4.2–0.6‬‬
‫‪3.0–0.6‬‬
‫‪2.1–0.6‬‬
‫‪1.5–0.6‬‬
‫‪1.1–0.6‬‬
‫‪0.7–0.6‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﻀﻮﺀ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ‪ .‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻗﻞ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﻀﻮﺀ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ‬
‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑ ﹰﺔ ﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ‬
‫‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ ،M‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪.(228 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪% ،j ،i‬‬
‫‪M ،A ،S ،P‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ 25600–100‬ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪EV 1/3‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ؛ ‪ 25600–100‬ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪EV 1/3‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.ISO‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،P‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪107‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.ISO‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪ 108‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺒﻘﹰ ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ )‪.(262 0‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‪ .‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪109‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺪﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻭﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺪﺀ‪:‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻵﻥ‪ .‬ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫• ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪ 110‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺎ )ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﻓﺎﺻﻼ ﹰ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﻧﻲ( ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫• ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫• ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪) M‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺻﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ M‬ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪111‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 3‬ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .2‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ؛ ﻭﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻐﺮﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ؛ ﻟﺬﺍ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ "‪) Bulb‬ﻓﺘﺢ(" ﺃﻭ "‪) Time‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ(" ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪ M‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺻﻔﺮﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 112‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﻻﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻵﻥ‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪،‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭ ﻭﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺆﻗ ﹰﺘﺎ ﻭﺣﺪﺩ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪113‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺨﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ‪ :‬ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ AF-A ،AF-S‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ‪ AF-C‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩ ‪ a1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪AF-C‬؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻧﻔﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻈﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻧﺸﻂ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ (113 0‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻧﻨﺼﺤﻚ ﺑﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻴﺪﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺄﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (322 0‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪.(80 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ؛ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،J‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ )‪ (151 0‬ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ )‪HDR‬؛‬
‫‪.(138 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 114‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 117‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ )ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﻣﻤﻴﺰﺓ‬
‫ﻭ‪ R‬ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺧﻀﺮﺍﺀ(‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪R‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪M ،A ،S ،P‬‬
‫‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‬
‫‪M ،A ،S ،P‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫‪M ،A ،S ،P‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫‪M ،A ،S ،P‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫‪M ،A ،S ،P‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫‪M ،A ،S ،P‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﹰ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪98‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪151‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪138‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪136‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪1‬‬
‫‪140‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪107‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﺪﻟﺔ ‪2‬‬
‫‪158‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪115‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺧﻼﻑ ‪%‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪/‬ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪3، 2، 1، 0، x، n‬‬
‫‪w ،m‬‬
‫‪z، y، v، u، t، s، r، o، p، l، k، j، i‬‬
‫‪M، A، S، P، 3، '، U، T، S،‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪/‬ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪z، y، x، v، u، t، s، o، p، l، k‬‬
‫‪P، 3، 2، 1، 3، '، U، T، S، %، w، r، m‬‬
‫‪M، A، S،‬‬
‫‪0 ،n‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫‪M، A، S، P‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪'، T، S، w، n، p، k، i‬‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪M، A، S، P‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪M، A، S، P، h‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪M، A، S، P، %، h‬‬
‫‪ 116‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪AF-A‬‬
‫‪AF-S‬‬
‫‪82‬‬
‫‪83‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ(‬
‫‪87‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ‬
‫‪89‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪128‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ +‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻄﻔﺄ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ‬
‫‪،102‬‬
‫‪104‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪134‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪132‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪w ،m‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺧﻼﻑ ‪ i‬ﻭ‪j‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺮﻥ‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫‪ 14‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬
‫‪90‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪254‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪120‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ‬
‫'‬
‫ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫(‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪227‬‬
‫‪241‬‬
‫‪75‬‬
‫‪70‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪71‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪72‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪73‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪117‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ ،A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪ M‬ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺴﻊ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ )‪ (119 0‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪ (121 0‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪ (122 0‬ﻣﻌﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻼ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ "‪) Bulb‬ﻓﺘﺢ(" ﺃﻭ "‪Time‬‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪(123 0‬‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ(" ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 118‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪) P‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ(‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻮﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺮﻣﺞ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.P‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪119 M‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺮﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،P‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ )"ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺮﻥ"(‪ .‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ )ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ( ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ )ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ( ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ‪(R) U‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻏﻠﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 120‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪) S‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻚ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ‬
‫"ﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﺪ" ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪،‬‬
‫‪ 1/1600‬ﺙ( ﺗﺠﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻮﺵ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻴﺌﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪1 ،‬ﺙ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.S‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪121 M‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪) A‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ )ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺆﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ(‪ .‬ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ )ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ (f/5.6‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮﺓ )ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪ (f/22‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻠﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.A‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ )ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻐﺮ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ )ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺒﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ 122‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪) M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ "‪Bulb‬‬
‫)ﻓﺘﺢ(" ﻭ"‪) Time‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ(" ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻟﻸﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪.(125 0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪123 M‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ(‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ )ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ(‪ .‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (N) E‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ )ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ‪ /‬ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻐﺮ ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﻐﺮ ‪ /‬ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺒﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(N) E‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ (305 0) CPU‬ﻭﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺧﻼﻑ "‪) Bulb‬ﻓﺘﺢ(" ﺃﻭ "‪Time‬‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ("‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﻔﺮﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﹴ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ‬
‫‪EV 2‬‬
‫‪EV 1/3‬‬
‫‪ 124‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺿﻮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪) Bulb‬ﻓﺘﺢ( )‪ :(A‬ﻳﻈﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﻮ ﹰﺣﺎ ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪) A :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ‪ 35‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ؛ ‪(126 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪f/25 :‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ)‪ (323 0‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ )‪.(324 0‬‬
‫• ‪) Time‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ( )&(‪ :‬ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻈﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻔﺘﻮ ﹰﺣﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﹴ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻧﻨﺼﺤﻚ ﺑﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻴﺪﻙ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺑﺄﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (322 0‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪ .(80 0‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ( ﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ "ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ"‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪ NR‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪.(230 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪125 M‬‬
‫❚❚ ‪) Bulb‬ﻓﺘﺢ(‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ‪) Bulb‬ﻓﺘﺢ(‬
‫)‪.(A‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺴﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 126‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫❚❚ ‪) Time‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ(‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫"‪) Time‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ(" )&(‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.3‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪127 M‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫‪ L‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ )ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ( ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ‪.×1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻏﻤﻖ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫‪ N‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ؛ ﻭﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،P‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ 128‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪) e‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ( ﻟـ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪ ،(87 0‬ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪129 M‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ‪) M‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ( ﻭ ‪) N‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ( ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪i‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪.j‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (L) A‬ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(L) A‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪ AE-L‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (L) A‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﹰ ﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 130‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ؛‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ‬
‫‪(120 0‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪131 M‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻏﻤﻖ)‪ .(358 0‬ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻏﻤﻖ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ‪) M‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ( ﺃﻭ ‪) N‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ(‬
‫)‪.(128 0‬‬
‫‪EV -1‬‬
‫‪EV +1‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (N) E‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(N) E‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪EV –0.3‬‬
‫‪ 132‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪EV +2‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ .±0‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﻦ ‪ h‬ﻭ‪ ،%‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﻦ ‪ h‬ﻭ‪ ،%‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )‪.(12 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪M‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،M‬ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.151‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪133 M‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻳﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻐﻴﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻄﻮ ﹰﻋﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ )‪.(360 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (Y) M‬ﻭﺍﺯﺭ ‪ (N) E‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻏﻤﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ .±0‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،h‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،h‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(Y) M‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(N) E‬‬
‫‪EV –0.3‬‬
‫‪ 134‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫‪EV +1‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )‪.(12 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﹰ‬
‫‪ Creative Lighting System‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ )‪CLS‬؛ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .(315‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪135 M‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺎﻓﻆ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬
‫ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﺸﻤﺲ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑـ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪M‬؛ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪) L‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ؛ ‪.(128 0‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ ! :‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ Y :‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،P‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ 136‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.(359 0) J‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting D‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﻊ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮ ﺃﻭ ﻇﻼﻝ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻫﺎﻻﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺗﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting” A‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ" ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ "‪"D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﻳﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪ (285 0‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟـ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.151‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪137 M‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ )‪(HDR‬‬
‫ﺗﺠﻤﻊ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ )‪ (HDR‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﻴﻦ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ HDR‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ‪) L‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ( )‪ .(128 0‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ .NEF (RAW‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ‪ ،HDR‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﺘﺎ ﹰﺣﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫)ﻏﺎﻣﻖ(‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬
‫)ﺳﺎﻃﻊ(‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ HDR‬ﻣﺪﻣﻮﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،P‬ﺛﻢ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ‪) HDR‬ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻊ( ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ 138‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ‪ v‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ S‬ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ T‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ U‬ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ 6‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ‪ 6‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ u‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﻴﻦ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ”‪ “l u‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺩﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ؛ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪HDR‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ؛ ﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪ HDR‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺁﺧﺮ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻑ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪.M‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪HDR‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﺺ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺤﺮﻛﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‪ .‬ﹰ‬
‫ﻇﻼﻝ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻫﺎﻻﺕ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪139 M‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻈﻢ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ‪:‬‬
‫‪v‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻃﻊ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻏﺎﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.141‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺒﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻴﻮﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪G‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫ﻗﺲ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬
‫‪ L‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫)‪.(145 0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،P‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪.J‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ 140‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ ،(223 0‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪ (143 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪.(145 0‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ )‪ I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ( ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪141 M‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻮﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﹸ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻫﻲ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺠﺐ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﺘﺴﺒﻬﺎ ﺟﺴﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺨﻴﻦ ﻹﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ K 5500–5000‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻴﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻊ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺻﻔﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻣﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺯﺭﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ "ﺑﺮﻭﺩﺓ" )ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻴﻼ ﹰ ﻟﻸﺯﺭﻕ( ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ "ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺩﻓ ﹰﺌﺎ" )ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻴﻼ ﹰ ﻟﻸﺣﻤﺮ(‬
‫]‪[K‬‬
‫‪10000‬‬
‫‪8000‬‬
‫‪!1‬‬
‫‪q‬‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫‪u‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫‪!0‬‬
‫‪!1‬‬
‫‪6000‬‬
‫‪!0‬‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫‪5000‬‬
‫‪tyu i‬‬
‫‪4000‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪3000‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫‪q‬‬
‫‪) I‬ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ(‪K 2700 :‬‬
‫‪) J‬ﺳﺎﻃﻊ(‪) I/‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ(‪K 3000 :‬‬
‫‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ(‪K 3700 :‬‬
‫‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ(‪K 4200 :‬‬
‫‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻧﻬﺎﺭﻱ(‪K 5000 :‬‬
‫‪) H‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ(‪K 5200 :‬‬
‫‪) N‬ﻓﻼﺵ(‪K 5400 :‬‬
‫‪) G‬ﻏﺎﺋﻢ(‪K 6000 :‬‬
‫‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ(‪K 6500 :‬‬
‫‪) I‬ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺯﺋﺒﻖ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ(‪K 7200 :‬‬
‫‪) M‬ﺍﻟﻈﻞ(‪K 8000 :‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.151‬‬
‫‪ 142‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ "ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ" ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻇﻼﻝ ﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪2‬‬
‫)ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪2‬؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺒﺮﻱ )‪-(A‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ )‪ (B‬ﺑﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ‪ 0.5‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺧﻀﺮ )‪-(G‬ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ )‪ (M‬ﺑﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ‪ .0.25‬ﻳﺘﻤﺎﺷﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ )ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ( ﻣﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻲ )ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ ﻟﻤﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 5‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 0.05‬ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺧﺮﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪143 M‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪) B‬ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ( ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ "ﺩﺍﻓﺊ" ﻣﺜﻞ ‪) J‬ﺳﺎﻃﻊ( ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ "ﺃﺑﺮﺩ" ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺯﺭﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺯﺭ ‪ 2‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ .‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ‪ u‬ﺃﻭ ‪ v‬ﺃﻭ ‪ x‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .y‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ 0‬ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻳﺮﺿﻴﻚ‪.‬‬
‫‪" A‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩ"‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺗﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻩ ‪ K 1000‬ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ K 3000‬ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺑﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ .K 6000‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ‪ ،6 10‬ﻫﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺎﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺒﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪) K 3000–K 4000‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 83=(K 1000‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩ‬
‫• ‪) K 6000-K 7000‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 24=(K 1000‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩ‬
‫‪ 144‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺤﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﻈﻼﻝ‬
‫ﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﺎﻥ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )‪.(149 0‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺳﻠﻂ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪145 M‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻌﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺪﺓ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻣﺾ ‪ (L) D‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﻗﺲ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ‪ ،‬ﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻸ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 146‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ a‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ b a‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺭﺟﻊ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 5‬ﻭﻗﺲ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪147 M‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ؛ ‪.(240 0‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ؛‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ EV 1‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ؛ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ M‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪.(124 0) ±0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻃﺮﻕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ( ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺒﻮﻁ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )‪ ،(140 0‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻟﻠﺰﺭ ‪ ،(252 0) Fn‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻭﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﺡ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺩﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 148‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪) 2‬ﻟﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺤﻮﻱ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪149 M‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺯﺭ ‪.X‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 150‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ )‪(ADL‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ "ﻳﺼﺤﺢ" ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﻟﻔﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻭﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ‪ :3‬ﺗﻢ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ‪ :2‬ﺗﻢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ‪ :1‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﺪﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ‬
‫‪ m‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪WB‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫! ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ADL‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ‪) e2‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪151 M‬‬
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‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،P‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
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‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ‬
‫‪ 0.3‬ﻭ‪) EV 2‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﺃﻭ ‪ 1‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪3‬‬
‫)ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ (WB‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) ADL‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪.(ADL‬‬
‫‪ 152‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﺳﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻃﺮﺡ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﺿﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ "ﻳﺼﺤﺢ" ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ :WB‬ﺳﺘﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻧﺴﺦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ ﻭﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ :ADL‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ )‪136 0‬؛ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺿﺒﻂ ‪D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺆﻗ ﹰﺘﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﻞ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪153 M‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ )‪.(v > w > x‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،ADL‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺧﻂ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ OFF‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .(152 0) 3‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ )‪ .(115 0‬ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺧﻼﻑ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪.M‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،(P‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،(S‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ .(M‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟـ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫< ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (228 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ ،A‬ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺘﻨﻮﻳﻊ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ؛ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،M‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻻ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻨﻮﻳﻊ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 154‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Controls‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﺗﺪﺭﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻟﺘﺘﻤﺎﺷﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻏﺮﺿﻚ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻷﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬
‫‪ Q‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﺟﻴ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻻﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪ R‬ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺒﺮﺯ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ S‬ﻣﺸﺮﻕ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺸﺮﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ T‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺸﺮﺓ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫‪ e‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﻣﻠﻤﺲ ﻧﺎﻋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ f‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺗﻨﺒﺾ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪ q‬ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪155 M‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture‬‬
‫‪.Controls‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،P‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫)‪ .(223 0‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ )‪ ،(25 0‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 156‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Controls‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﹰ ﺎ )‪ (161 0‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻼﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .2‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻋ ﹼﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪ .(158 0) 0.25‬ﻛﺮﺭ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺔ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.O‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺧﺮﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Controls‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻨﺠﻤﺔ )"*"(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪157 M‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫)ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫)ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻟﻐﻴﺮ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ(‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫)ﻛﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪(Picture Controls‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻧﻘﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺨﻔﺾ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻀﺨﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻌﻴﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ(‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ )‪.(161 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ A‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺪﺩ ‪ A‬ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻇﻼﻝ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻫﺎﻻﺕ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻛﻨﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺪﺩ ‪ A‬ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺈﺷﺮﺍﻕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ A‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﺎﺓ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )‪.(160 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫‪ 158‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )‪.(160 0‬‬
‫‪) "A" D‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ X‬ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ (A‬ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Custom Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ ،(161 0‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ )‪.(163 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ‪ j‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺮﺟﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺄﺳﺴﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪،Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻣﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺯﺭ ‪ 2‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 2‬ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .157‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻗﻪ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ )ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ(‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪159 M‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ )ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺗﺤﺎﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ Y‬ﺃﺻﻔﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ‬
‫‪ O‬ﺑﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻨﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ R‬ﺃﺣﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻌﻢ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ G‬ﺃﺧﻀﺮ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ )ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 3‬ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪ .0.25‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪) B&W‬ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ )ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﻑ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻹﺻﺒﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻟﻤﺴﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ(‪ .‬ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪ x‬ﺃﻭ ‪.y‬‬
‫‪ 160‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ ،2‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪5‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture‬‬
‫‪ Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 158‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ .O‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪161 M‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ )‪ C-1‬ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ (C-9‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻤﺎ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﻦ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺼﻪ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ( ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ؛ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .7‬ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺷﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪.O‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺃﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺣﺮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.X‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ X‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture‬‬
‫‪.Control‬‬
‫‪ 162‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ < Picture Control‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ < Picture Control‬ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺭﻣﺰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫‪ Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﹰ ﺎ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﺮﻣﺰ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺮﺩﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪ C-1‬ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ C-9‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺻﻔﻪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ )‪ C-1‬ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ (C-9‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ )‪ 1‬ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ (99‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A ،S ،P‬ﻭ ‪163 M‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺭﻣﺰ ‪0‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ (11 0) 0‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ‪ E‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ ،(307 ،305 0) PC-E NIKKOR‬ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻸﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ M‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫)‪.(123 ،122 0‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 164‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ )‪،(2 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﺬﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺤﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ i‬ﻭ‪ ،j‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (130 0) (L) A‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫)ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ h ،P ،S ،A‬ﻭ‪ (%‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻟﺔ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ EV ±3‬ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪ EV 1/3‬ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (N) E‬ﻭﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ )‪132 0‬؛ ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪﹺ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﺧﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ )ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ‪165‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪R‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪:P‬‬
‫• ﺣﺠﻢ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺩﺓ )‪(168 0‬‬
‫• ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ )‪(169 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪(140 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪* (132 0‬‬
‫• ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪(155 0) Picture Control‬‬
‫• ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ )‪(169 0‬‬
‫• ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪(82 0‬‬
‫• ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(87 0‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫* ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ "ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ" ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ < ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ )‪ (169 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.M‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪ (19 0‬ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻫﻲ ‪ 4‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ )ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ‪(168‬؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ )‪.(324 0‬‬
‫‪ 166‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻘﻴﺎ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ )ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻘﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﻣﺴﻨﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ؛ ‪ .(268 0‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﻘﻌﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﻠﻮﻧﺔ ﻭﺗﻤﻮﺝ ﻭﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺘﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻤﺖ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻭﻣﻀﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺧﺎﻃﻒ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎ؛ ﻻ ﺗﻐﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻗﺪ ﻳﹸﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻣﺎﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫)‪ (169 0‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ‪167‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ (170 0‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪1920×1080 L‬؛ ‪60p‬‬
‫‪ 10‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫‪1920×1080 M‬؛ ‪50p‬‬
‫‪1920×1080 N‬؛ ‪30p‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫‪1920×1080 O‬؛ ‪25p‬‬
‫‪ 20‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫‪1920×1080 P‬؛ ‪24p‬‬
‫‪1280× 720 Q‬؛ ‪60p‬‬
‫‪1280× 720 R‬؛ ‪50p‬‬
‫‪1920×1080 t‬؛ ‪60p‬‬
‫‪ 20‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫‪1920×1080 u‬؛ ‪50p‬‬
‫‪1920×1080 r‬؛ ‪30p‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪1920×1080 s‬؛ ‪25p‬‬
‫‪ 29‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ‪ 59‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪1920×1080 k‬؛ ‪24p‬‬
‫‪1280× 720 l‬؛ ‪60p‬‬
‫‪1280× 720 o‬؛ ‪50p‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﺪﺭﺟﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻟﻺﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﻼﻡ ‪ 60p‬ﻭ‪ 50p‬ﻭ‪ 30p‬ﻭ‪ 25p‬ﻭ‪ 24p‬ﻫﻮ ‪59.94‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ 50‬ﻭ‪ 29.97‬ﻭ‪ 25‬ﻭ‪ 23.976‬ﺇ‪/‬ﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺗﺼﻞ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﺼﻐﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 168‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﺓ ‪2‬‬
‫• ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ‬
‫)‪ (323 ،170 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ؛ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ )ﻻ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،(323 ،170 0 ،‬ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺒﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ(‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ ﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻹﺗﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ .M‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ ‪ 1/4000‬ﺙ؛ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ 1/30 :‬ﺙ ﻟﻤﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ‪ 24p‬ﻭ‪ 25p‬ﻭ‪ 30p‬ﻭ‪ 1/50‬ﺙ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﺪﻝ ‪ 50p‬ﻭ‪ 1/60‬ﺙ ﻟﻤﻌﺪﻝ ‪ .60p‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻊ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻈﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻴﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻄﻬﻤﺎ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻄﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻻ ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ < ISO‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪.(228 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ‪169‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ ،2‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪HDMI A‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ‪ ،HDMI‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ‪ ،HDMI-CEC‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ < HDMI‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪ (219 0‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 170‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﻣﻨﻘﻀﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺨﺺ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪.(168 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﻣﻨﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ؛ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺴﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﹰﺍ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(140 0‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‪ .‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻴﺪﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪.(80 0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ‪171‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﻀﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﻭﺇﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪:‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺎ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺎﺻﻼ ﹰ ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫• ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪ 172‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 7‬ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ‬
‫‪ 59‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ( ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫• ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺼﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ‪) M‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ M‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺏ ﺑﺪﺀ ﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 3‬ﹴ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﻗﺴﻤﺔ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﻭﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻗﺴﻤﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪.(168 0‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ‪ 48‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪ ،24p‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺪﺗﻪ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪ 20‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪/‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ‪173‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺯﻳﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻢ ﻓﺼﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺘﺨﻄﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﻤﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﹴ‬
‫ﹺ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ‪ AF-S‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ‪ AF-A‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪ (AF-C‬ﻓﻲ ‪) AF-C‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﻣﻨﻘﻀﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﻀﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ )‪ (65 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪،9 0‬‬
‫‪ (47‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ )‪ (164 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ )‪ & (0 125‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ )‪ (79 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ )‪ (151 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ )‪ ،(138 0 ،HDR‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺎ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ )‪(109 0‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻐﺮﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺻﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ HDMI‬ﻣﺘﺼﻞ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻭﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 174‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺳﻮﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ R‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﻄﻔﺊ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( < ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ K‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺳﺘﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭ ﺇﻏﻼﻗﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ‪175‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ )‪ .(184 0‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ‪ a‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ؛ ﻳﹸﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ‪a‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺭﺟﺎﻉ‪/‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ‪/‬ﺍﻹﺭﺟﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ‪ ×2‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ ×4‬ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫‪ ×8‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪×16‬؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺘﻪ )ﻳﺸﺎﺭ ﻟﻺﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ h‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ .(i‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺭﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺭﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺨﻄﻰ ‪ 10‬ﹴ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﻗﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻄﻲ ‪ 10‬ﹴ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 176‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪(Q) W/X‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ‪/ K‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ X‬ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪(Q) W‬‬
‫ﻟﺨﻔﻀﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ K‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 1‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ‪177‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ f‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ‬
‫‪ g‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ JPEG‬ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﺆﻗ ﹰﺘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺭﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻒ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ ،176‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻺﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﻗ ﹰﺘﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 178‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،P‬ﺛﻢ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.9‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ‪179‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺃﻛﺪ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺽ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺭﺟﺎﻉ )ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻄﻲ ‪ 10‬ﹴ‬
‫ﻟﻸﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﻗﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ (L) A‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ )‪ (w‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫)‪ (x‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺘﺎﻣﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .5‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.9‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺸﺄ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.1‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) J‬ﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺣﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .(1‬ﻟﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 9‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 180‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻛﻤﻠﻒ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺮﺭﺓ ﺑﺪﻻ ﹰ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺘﺎﻣﻲ‬
‫ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 7‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (L) A‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .6‬ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﺘﺎﻣﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪4‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﺘﺎﻣﻲ ﻭﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 7‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (L) A‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.6‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ‪181‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ JPEG‬ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﺆﻗ ﹰﺘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪،176‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻮﻗﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‪ .‬ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،P‬ﺛﻢ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺸﺊ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 182‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ )‪ (98 0‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﻳﻨﻘﺼﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(188 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ‪183‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ .K‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪K‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪ 184‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ 4 ،‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻋﻜﺴﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ )‪.(188 0‬‬
‫‪/K‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ K‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ 1‬ﻟﻺﺷﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻠﻢ )‪.(176 0‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ "ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﻤﺎﺫﺝ" ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ‪ 12‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ‪ 80‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.(Q) W‬‬
‫‪(Q)W‬‬
‫‪(Q)W‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪/K‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ K‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ‪185‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (Q) W‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫‪ 80‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫‪(Q)W‬‬
‫‪(Q)W‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪(Q)W‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪/‬ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (Q) W‬ﺃﻭ ‪ J‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ (Q) W‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ 80‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪ X‬ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ‪/‬ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫• ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﻳﻈﻠﻞ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻳﻈﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫• ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪ 186‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫‪/K‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ K‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ P‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‪ :‬ﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪.(201 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ(‪ :‬ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪ (277 0‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ )ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ(‪ :‬ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫)‪ .(178 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ P‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﺆﻗ ﹰﺘﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻺﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‪/‬ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ(‪ :‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ P‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ P‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ‪187‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ "ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ" ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ ‪ RGB‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻟـ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ .(221 0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪.(269 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ ‪RGB‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪ 188‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫‪12 3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫❚❚‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‪200 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪279 ........................................‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪203 ......................................‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪227 .............................................‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪98 .............................................‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪100 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪262 ،40 .................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ‪262 ،40 ...............................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪225 ...........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‪201 .................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ *‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ—ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ‪ 2 225 ........................‬ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫* ﺗﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻣﻀﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ )ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ‪189‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ ‪RGB‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ )ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ(‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ )ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ‪ .(RGB‬ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ )ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ(‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ‬
‫‪ 5‬ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪140 ............................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪143 ..........‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ )ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ(‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪145 .............................‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.X‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ X‬ﻭ ‪ (Q) W‬ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻭﺗﻨﻘﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻲ ﻟﻴﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 190‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﻓﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻫﻲ ﻛﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺑﻤﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺎﺗﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﺒﺪﻝ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ‪191‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ‪6 128......................................................‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪118 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪7 118.....................................................‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪118 ،65 ،58 ،47 .....................‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪8 107..................................... 1 ISO‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪9 132....................‬‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪314 ...........................................‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪ 5‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪82 ..................................‬‬
‫‪ VR‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ( ‪232 ،32 ....... 2‬‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪315 ،246.....................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪246 ....................................... 2‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪104 ،102...................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪246 ....................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪134 .......................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪ 11‬ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ 12 140 ............................................‬ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪230 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪13 143 ..........‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪145 .............................‬‬
‫‪155..............................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪* Picture Control‬‬
‫* ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 192‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪ 14‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ‪ 17 231 ........‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ‪231 .................‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ 18‬ﺳﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪277 ........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪230 .................................................‬‬
‫‪ 19‬ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪260 ....................................‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting 15‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ‪136 ................................‬‬
‫‪) HDR 16‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ( ‪138 ...............‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪ 20‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭ *‪ 21 261 .........................................‬ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ * ‪261 ..........................‬‬
‫* ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ‪193‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫‪123 4‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪56‬‬
‫‪16 17 18 19 20‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪28‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪25 24‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪203 ......................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‪200 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪279 ........................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪260 ........................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‪269 ..............................‬‬
‫ﺗﹸﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(191 0‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪98 .............................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪100 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪227 .............................................‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪262 ،40 .................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ‪262 ،40 ...............................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪225 ...........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‪201 .................................................‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪28‬‬
‫‪14 13 12 11‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ‪128 ......................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪118 ،65 ،58 ،47 .....................‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪118 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪118 .....................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪107 ..................................... 1 ISO‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪314 ...........................................‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ‪136 ................................‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪155 .................................Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪230 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪104 ،102...................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪140 ............................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪143 ..............‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪145 .................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪134 .......................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪246 ....................................... 2‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪132 ....................‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.ISO‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 194‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫❚❚ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺰﻭﻳﺪ ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﻭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ GPS‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﻭ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻓﻪ )‪ .(269 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ‪195‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﺮﺑﺔ‪ :‬ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ X‬ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫‪(Q) W/X‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺺ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ 196‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ X‬ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ‪) ×33‬ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ( ﺃﻭ ‪) ×25‬ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ( ﺃﻭ ‪) ×13‬ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ(‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (Q) W‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺗﺼﻔﺢ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺈﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﺻﻔﺮ‪ .‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ‪ 100%‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺺ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ P‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ )‪.(198 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﺘﺸﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ P‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ )‪ .(199 0‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﹰﺍ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﺨﻄﻂ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ ‪ ،(190 0) RGB‬ﺳﻴﺘﺎﺡ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪) P‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺗﺎﺣﺔ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺯﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪/K‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ K‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ‪197‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻗﺺ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻟﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.P‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻭﺗﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.P‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 198‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫❚❚ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ P‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ X‬ﺃﻭ ‪ (Q) W‬ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ‪199‬‬
‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (L) A‬ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ P‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ‪ O‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )‪ .(259 0‬ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻇﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(L) A‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(L) A‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ ،(221 0‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (L) A‬ﻭﺍﺯﺭ ‪ O‬ﹰ‬
‫‪ 200‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺻﻨﹼﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺬﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻻﺣﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻓﻲ ‪ ViewNX-i‬ﻭ ‪ .Capture NX-D‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ P‬ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻔﹰ ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻤﺲ ﻧﺠﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ) ﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻛﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺬﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻻﺣﻖ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ‪201‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻳﺼﻨﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (X‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺮ ﻭﺣﺘﻰ ﺧﻤﺲ ﻧﺠﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ )‬
‫ﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺬﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻻﺣﻖ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 202‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﺮﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻇﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ P‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻺﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‪/‬ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻺﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‪/‬ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ &‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻛﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺗﻴﻦ ‪ 2‬ﻭ ‪.3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ‪203‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻺﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ( ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ (Q) W‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ )ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .(X‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ &‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻺﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﻞ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .2‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 204‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .O‬ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ O‬ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪.O‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪O‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ O‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ O‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪.K‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.(186 0) O‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ‪205‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻹﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ Q‬ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ n‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫‪ R‬ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ )‪.(207 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺤﺬﻑ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫)‪.(221 0‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (Q) W‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ )ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ .(X‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ .O‬ﻛﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.J‬‬
‫‪ 206‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(Q) W‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﺎ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺻﻮﺍﺏ‪ .‬ﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ؛ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ‪207‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﺢ )‪.(221 0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪/‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ 2 ،‬ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ )‪.(188 0‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺭﻓﻊ‪/‬ﺍﺧﻔﺾ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ X‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ‪ (Q) W/X‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (Q) W‬ﻟﺨﻔﻀﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪K‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫‪ 208‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺪﺓ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .2‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺻﻮﺍﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ :‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺪﺓ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ‪209‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ViewNX-i‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻧﺰﻝ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ‪ViewNX-i‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ‪ .‬ﻳﻠﺰﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﻳﺐ‬
‫ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻤﻨﻄﻘﺘﻚ‪.‬‬
‫‪http://downloadcenter.nikonimglib.com/‬‬
‫‪Capture NX-D A‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Capture NX-D‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻟﻨﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫)‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭﺍﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﻎ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺗﻨﺰﻳﻞ ‪ Capture NX-D‬ﻣﻦ‪:‬‬
‫‪http://downloadcenter.nikonimglib.com/‬‬
‫‪ 210‬ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻚ ﻗﻤﺖ ﺑﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ ‪.(210 0) ViewNX-i‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪.USB‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ‬
‫‪) USB‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ( ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺛﻢ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺎﺕ ‪USB‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ‪ USB‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺑﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻚ ﻛﺎﺑﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻼﺕ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪211‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﻜﻮﻥ ‪ Nikon Transfer 2‬ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪.ViewNX-i‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪.Nikon Transfer 2‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ USB‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪Windows 7 A‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ Nikon Transfer 2‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺗﺤﺖ ‪) Import pictures and videos‬ﺍﺳﺘﻴﺮﺍﺩ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ‪) Change program‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫‪ Nikon Transfer 2‬ﻭﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) OK‬ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻧﻘﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﺰﺩﻭ ﹰﺟﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ Windows 10 A‬ﻭ ‪Windows 8.1‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ Windows 10‬ﻭ ‪Windows 8.1‬‬
‫ﻃﻠﺐ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ‬
‫‪ Nikon Transfer 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪.Nikon Transfer 2‬‬
‫‪OS X A‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺷﻐﻞ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ‪Nikon Transfer 2‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪) Image Capture‬ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﻣﻊ ‪ (OS X‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ Nikon Transfer 2‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻔﺘﺢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 212‬ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪) Start Transfer‬ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪) Start Transfer‬ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ(‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ USB‬ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫‪.ViewNX-i‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪213‬‬
‫ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻃﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪(365 0) PictBridge‬‬
‫ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪) USB‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ(‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻼﺕ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﺮﺣﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪.PictBridge‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪ (98 0) NEF (RAW‬ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫)‪.(280 0‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺧﺘﺮﺕ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ PictBridge‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d4‬ﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ؛ ‪،(243 0‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺮﺗﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﻗﺺ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺒﻌﺖ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 214‬ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﻠﻮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ X‬ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪.(Q) W‬‬
‫)‪196 0‬؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ K‬ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ(‪ .‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺛﻤﺎﻥ ﺻﻮﺭ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ X‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻤﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ؛ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ )ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ‪.(99‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺗﺄﻃﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺑﻴﻀﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ‬
‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻗﺺ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﻟﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﻳﻘﺘﺺ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .2‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺺ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ X‬ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ (Q) W‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺑﺄﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪215‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻺﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪.PictBridge‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ G‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪.PictBridge‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪(X‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪ .‬ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻔﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ .(Q) W‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ X‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (Q) W‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻬﺮﺱ‪ :‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .3‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 256‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻭﻝ ‪ 256‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 3‬ﺻﻐﻴﺮﹰﺍ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻬﺮﺱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 216‬ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻋ ﹼﺪﻝ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 2‬ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.215‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻺﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪217‬‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻂ ﻋﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ )‪ (HDMI‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ )‪(324 0‬‬
‫ﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺄﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ‪ .‬ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﹰ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺼﻞ‬
‫ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪.HDMI‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ )ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺮﻑ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪(HDMI‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ‪ ،HDMI‬ﺛﻢ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.K‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ؛ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ )ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ( ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 218‬ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻣﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪ ،HDMI‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫‪ < HDMI‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫)‪ .(258 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ < HDMI‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪(258 0‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ‪ HDMI-CEC‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﻗﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﺑﺪﻻ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﺯﺭ ‪ J‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ‪HDMI-CEC‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ‪) HDMI-CEC‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻂ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ‪ HDMI‬ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ‪ ،HDMI-CEC‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ) ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪60p/50p 1920×1080 A‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪ 60p‬ﺃﻭ ‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪ 50p‬ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ <‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺗﻨﻮﻳﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻭ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ‪ HDMI‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ < HDMI D‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﻨﺴﺐ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪ 60p‬ﺃﻭ ‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪ .50p‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑـ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪219‬‬
‫ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ :‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪) D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻺﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‬
‫‪ D 220‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ :‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫—‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﺎﻥ‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪206‬‬
‫‪221‬‬
‫‪221‬‬
‫‪221‬‬
‫‪222‬‬
‫‪222‬‬
‫‪208‬‬
‫‪202‬‬
‫‪204‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪D5600‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍﺯ ‪ D5600‬ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ (225 0‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ .(188 0‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺻﻮﺍﺏ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.D‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ :‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪221‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ViewNX-i‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮﻫﺎ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ .(210 0) Capture NX-D‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ )ﻋﺮﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ °90‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬
‫ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ °90‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﻜﺲ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫"ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ" )ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻃﻮﻟﻲ( ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﺟﻞ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ(‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D 222‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ :‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪) C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫‪M ،A ،S ،P‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪DSC‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ 14‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫—‬
‫‪sRGB‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪225‬‬
‫‪225‬‬
‫‪227‬‬
‫‪98‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪227‬‬
‫‪107‬‬
‫‪228‬‬
‫‪140‬‬
‫‪141‬‬
‫‪155‬‬
‫‪161‬‬
‫‪230‬‬
‫‪136‬‬
‫‪138‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪223‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪w ،m‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪NR‬‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ‪* VR‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫‪230‬‬
‫‪231‬‬
‫‪231‬‬
‫‪232‬‬
‫‪232‬‬
‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪110‬‬
‫‪110‬‬
‫‪111‬‬
‫‪111‬‬
‫‪ 5‬ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 25‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫‪172‬‬
‫‪172‬‬
‫‪173‬‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪60p‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫* ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ C 224‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪75‬‬
‫‪168‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ W‬ﺃﻭ ‪ X‬ﺃﻭ ‪ Y‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪ : W‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﻓﺎﺭﻍ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ : X‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﻣﻤﺘﻠﺊ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ : Y‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 999‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻗﻢ ‪ .9999‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺧﺮﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ )ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ .(G‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻤﺘﻠﺊ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪225‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ‪ 999‬ﻭﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 999‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻗﻢ ‪ ،9999‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻻﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺸﺄ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻗﻢ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ ،999‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺮﻗﻢ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ 999‬ﻭﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ 999‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ C 226‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺩﺋﺔ "_‪ "DSC‬ﺃﻭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ‪ ،"_DSC" ،(230 0) Adobe RGB‬ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ )ﻣﺜﻞ‪ .("DSC_0001.JPG" ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﺑﺪﻻ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ "‪ "DSC‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺃﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.162‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ".NEF" :‬ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻭ"‪ ".JPG‬ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫‪ ،JPEG‬ﻭ "‪ ".MOV‬ﻟﻸﻓﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭ "‪ ".NDF‬ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺯﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ ،JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫‪ NEF‬ﻭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫( ‪ 12‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫) ‪ 14‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﻌﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ‪ 12‬ﺑﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ ﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﻌﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ‪ 14‬ﺑﺖ‪،‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ‪ 12‬ﺑﺖ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪227‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.(107 0) ISO‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ‬
‫‪ P‬ﻭ ‪ S‬ﻭ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ ،M‬ﺳﺘﻈﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫)‪ .(107 0‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ؛ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .(ISO 100‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻻ ﹰ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ؛ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﻦ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ ،A‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﹴ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ )‪ 30-1/2000‬ﺙ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ؛ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﻦ ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ ،M‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ ،(CPU‬ﻓﺴﺘﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ .(2‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ C 228‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ‪ISO AUTO‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪ .ISO-A‬ﺗﻮﻣﺾ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺒﻴﻦ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﻣﻊ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻴﺌﺔ )ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ ،(315‬ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪229‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑـ ‪sRGB‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻸﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ ،Adobe RGB‬ﺑﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻊ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﹰﺎ ﻟﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪.sRGB‬‬
‫‪Adobe RGB A‬‬
‫ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ Adobe RGB‬ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ‪ ViewNX-i‬ﻭ ‪ Capture NX-D‬ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﺘﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪NR‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻳﺘﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ؛ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ "‪ "l m‬ﻓﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺒﻄﺊ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺳﺘﻘﻞ ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ C 230‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫"ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ(‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﻭ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫"ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ" ﻫﻮ ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ‪ E‬ﻭ ‪) D‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪.(PC‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﺿﻮﺣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺿﺒﺎﺏ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ )‪ (164 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ‪.FX‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪231‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬
‫)ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﺺ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ(‪ .‬ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺎ ﹰﺣﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫‪ G‬ﻭ‪ E‬ﻭ‪) D‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ ،PC‬ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ(؛ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.287‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ‪VR‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻤﻪ‪ .‬ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺴﺮﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫)‪ .(372 0‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻟﺘﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟـ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ‪.VR‬‬
‫‪ C 232‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪) A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )‪(235 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪233‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫‪a1‬‬
‫‪a2‬‬
‫‪a3‬‬
‫‪a4‬‬
‫‪a5‬‬
‫‪b‬‬
‫‪b1‬‬
‫‪b2‬‬
‫‪c‬‬
‫‪c1‬‬
‫‪c2‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪AF-C‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪* AF‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ‪/‬ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫‪d1‬‬
‫‪d2‬‬
‫‪d3‬‬
‫‪d4‬‬
‫‪d5‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪e1‬‬
‫‪e2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪/‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪235‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫‪235‬‬
‫‪236‬‬
‫‪237‬‬
‫‪237‬‬
‫‪238‬‬
‫‪ 1/3‬ﺧﻄﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪239‬‬
‫‪239‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ 10 :‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ؛ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪1 :‬‬
‫‪239‬‬
‫‪240‬‬
‫‪241‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪241‬‬
‫‪242‬‬
‫‪243‬‬
‫‪243‬‬
‫‪245‬‬
‫‪TTL‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪246‬‬
‫‪251‬‬
‫‪ A 234‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪f‬‬
‫‪f1‬‬
‫‪f2‬‬
‫‪f3‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫‪ f4‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺴﻲ ﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪U :‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪U :‬‬
‫‪252‬‬
‫‪254‬‬
‫‪255‬‬
‫‪256‬‬
‫* ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :a‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ :a1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪AF-C‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ AF-C‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪ ،(82 0‬ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻰ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫) ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ( ﺃﻭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ G‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪ F‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪235‬‬
‫‪ :a2‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 39 #‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫‪ 11 A‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 11‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻪ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A 236‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪ :a3‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻻ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫)ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﺟﻰ ﺍﻻﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.(342‬‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :a4‬ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ )‪95 0‬؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪ ،M‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻡ ﻻ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪237‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ ‪ f/5.6‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ .(86 0‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :a5‬ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪AF‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻤﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ "ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ" )‪ .(M/A‬ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺃﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A 238‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪ :b‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ :b1‬ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :b2‬ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﺪﻻ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :c‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ‪/‬ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ :c1‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪239‬‬
‫‪ :c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻀﻴﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ( ﻭﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ( ﻭﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ( ﻭﻃﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻣﺪﺓ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ )ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ(‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﻗﺼﺮ ﻟﻺﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺼﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ D‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪ E‬ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‬
‫‪ F‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ )ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪/‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫‪ 5‬ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫‪ 20‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺼﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ 8‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫‪ 10‬ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫‪ 5‬ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫‪ 20‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫‪ 20‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 10‬ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬
‫ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻦ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫‪.USB‬‬
‫‪ A 240‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪ :c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )ﻣﻦ ‪ 1‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪9‬؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪ ،1‬ﻓﺴﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺑﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 4‬ﹴ‬
‫‪ :d‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫‪ :d1‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﺴﻂ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﺘﺄﺧﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 1‬ﺙ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪241‬‬
‫‪ :d2‬ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻣﻠﻒ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻳﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ‪ ،9999‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻱ ﻣﻦ ‪.0001‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ 0001‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ 999‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻣﻠﻒ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﻓﺎﺭﻍ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.0001‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ‪ 999‬ﻭﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 999‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻗﻢ ‪ ،9999‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d2‬ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ( ﺛﻢ ﻫﻴﺊ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A 242‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪ :d3‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪.(5 0‬‬
‫‪ :d4‬ﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺘﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪ a‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫‪b‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫‪c‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻄﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪15 . 10 . 2016‬‬
‫‪15 . 10 . 2016 10 :02‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﺨﺘﻢ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ d‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ )‪ .(262 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﺺ ﺃﺧﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪ .(277 0‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫)‪.JPEG + NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪243‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻣﺮﺕ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻧﻤﻮ ﻃﻔﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻌﺪ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻴﺪ ﻣﻴﻼﺩ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫‪02 / 15 . 10 . 2016‬‬
‫‪02 / 19 . 10 . 2016‬‬
‫)ﻣﺘﺒﻖ ﻳﻮﻣﺎﻥ(‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ‬
‫ﹴ‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ )ﻣﻀﻰ ﻳﻮﻣﺎﻥ(‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻚ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻟﻠﺨﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺗﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻭﺃﺩﺧﻞ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪ A 244‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ،2‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :d5‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫)‪ ،(V‬ﻓﺴﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﻴﻢ‬
‫)‪ (W‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪245‬‬
‫‪ :e‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ :e1‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪/‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪ S‬ﻭ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ .M‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ SB-500‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-400‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-300‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻳﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪TTL 1‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ‪) 12‬ﻣﺘﺮ‪° 20 ،ISO 100 ،‬ﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺎ ﹰﺣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ‪ SB-500‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ SB-500‬ﻛﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫)‪.(247 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ Y‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ‪ 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A 246‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪TTL‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫)‪ (101 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪.(315 0‬‬
‫• ﻓﻼﺵ ﻗﻮﻱ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫‪-2016‬ﺑﻜﺴﻞ ‪ RGB‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ؛ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺒﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻗﻮﻱ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ‪ SB-500‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ SB-500‬ﻛﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺷﺔ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺘﻴﻦ )‪ A‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ (B‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ )‪.(315 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪247‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ )ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ .i-TTL‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ +3.0‬ﻭ‪ EV -3.0‬ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫‪TTL‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪.EV 1/3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻀﻲﺀ ﺳﻮﻯ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ؛ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫––‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﹸﺼﺪﺭ ﻓﻼﺷﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪.A‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ .i-TTL‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ +3.0‬ﻭ‪ EV -3.0‬ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫‪TTL‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪.EV 1/3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ؛ ‪ .(315 0‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ‬
‫‪%A‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ +3.0‬ﻭ‪ EV -3.0‬ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪.EV 1/3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻀﻲﺀ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫––‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ .B‬ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪B‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ A‬ﺑﺎﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ ‪ .4-1‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻠﺘﺎ‬
‫ﻗﻨﺎﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺘﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A 248‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ – –‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪.A‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪.A‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪.B‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪.B‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ ،SB-500‬ﻓﺎﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ‪.3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪249‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ A: 10‬ﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ B: 7‬ﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫‪ ° 60‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫)‪ ،SB-500‬ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻄﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .4‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺘﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ‪ M‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ – – ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ < ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A 250‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﹸﻀﺎﻑ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ (Y) M‬ﻭ‪ (N) E‬ﻭﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ A‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ B‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ Y‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ‪ ±0‬ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ TTL‬ﺃﻭ ‪.%A‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﻧﻮﺍﻓﺬ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻮ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ )ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ(‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ (TTL‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ )ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ ،(%A‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﻓﻼﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ )ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ( ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺭ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﺘﺠﻪ‬
‫ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺣﺪ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﺘﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :e2‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺃﻭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ( ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺳﺎﺭﻳﹰﺎ )‪.(151 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪251‬‬
‫‪ :f‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ :f1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‪/‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪v‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ )‪.(98 0‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.(107 0) ISO‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ m‬ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ ،P‬ﻭ‪ ،S‬ﻭ‪ ،A‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪.(140 0 ،‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫!‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ )ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ ،P‬ﻭ‪ ،S‬ﻭ‪ ،A‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪.(136 0 ،‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫‪HDR $‬‬
‫‪) HDR‬ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ ،P‬ﻭ‪ ،S‬ﻭ‪ ،A‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪.(138 0 ،‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫& )‪ + NEF (RAW‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .Fn‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ % :‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ T‬ﻭ‪ U‬ﻭ' ﻭ( ﻭ‪.3‬‬
‫‪ A 252‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ )ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ(‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪) ADL‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ ،P‬ﻭ‪ ،S‬ﻭ‪ ،A‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪،‬‬
‫‪.(151 0‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫"‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(87 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫'‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪c‬‬
‫‪Wi-Fi‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪.(272 0) Wi-Fi‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪253‬‬
‫‪ :f2‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺯﺭ ‪.(L) A‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(L) A‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫‪C‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫‪E‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫‪.(L) A‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.(L) A‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،(L) A‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻔﻼ ﹰ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪F‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.(L) A‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.(L) A‬‬
‫‪ A 254‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪ :f3‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ "‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ" ﻫﺬﻩ ﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ؛ ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﺣﺮﻙ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻟﻠﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻴﺰﺓ ‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﺎﻡ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺟﻬﻚ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ‪) e‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ( ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﻙ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ‪Fn‬‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(90 0‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﻙ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻳﺴﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻤﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ (107 0) ISO‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﺮﻛﻪ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪) (228 0‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ISO‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﺣﺮﻙ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫!‬
‫)ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ؛ ‪.(136 0‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪255‬‬
‫‪$‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫"‬
‫'‬
‫‪%‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻙ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ‪) HDR‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‬
‫‪HDR‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ؛ ‪.(138 0‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﻙ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ )ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ( ﺃﻭ ﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺑﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪) ADL‬ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ؛‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪.(151 0‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺣﺮﻙ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(87 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻙ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﺎﻥ ‪ A‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ؛ ‪.(123 ،122 0‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ Fn D‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﻴﺰﺓ ‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﺳﻮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ )‪(263 0‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ )‪.(265 0‬‬
‫‪ :f4‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺴﻲ ﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫)ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ( ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫)ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ(‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪ A 256‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪) B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪1 (Language‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫—‬
‫‪262‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫‪263‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪263‬‬
‫‪263‬‬
‫‪263‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻐﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪AUTO/SCENE/EFFECTS‬‬
‫‪P/S/A/M‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻡ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪259‬‬
‫‪260‬‬
‫‪261‬‬
‫‪262‬‬
‫‪264‬‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫‪265‬‬
‫‪265‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ ﻭﻭﻗﻒ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫‪328‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪257‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ‪2‬‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫‪HDMI‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪ GPS‬ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‬
‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ )ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫‪Wi-Fi‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪3 Eye-Fi‬‬
‫‪ B 258‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪330‬‬
‫‪266‬‬
‫‪268‬‬
‫‪268‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫‪219‬‬
‫ﻻ‬
‫—‬
‫‪269‬‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻧﻌﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫‪270‬‬
‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﺯﺭ ‪ 4‬ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫—‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪270‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫—‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫‪271‬‬
‫‪271‬‬
‫‪272‬‬
‫‪272‬‬
‫‪273‬‬
‫‪274‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪276‬‬
‫‪276‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪.Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﻱ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻳﻬﺎ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ )‪.(211 0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻻ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺨﺮﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪259‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺿﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻓﻲ ‪ ViewNX-i‬ﺃﻭ ‪.Capture NX-D‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪ .(193 0‬ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .162‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 36‬ﺣﺮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻹﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺑﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪J‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ‪.‬‬
‫‪ B 260‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻣﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻛﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺿﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪ ViewNX-i‬ﺃﻭ ‪.Capture NX-D‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .162‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻻﺳﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 36‬ﺣﺮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪ :‬ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫‪ .162‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻻﺳﻢ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 54‬ﺣﺮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻖ ﻧﺴﺦ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻹﺭﻓﺎﻕ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻖ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .2‬ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﺡ ﺑﻪ ﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻖ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺒﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺠﻢ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪261‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(40 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ )ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻖ ﺃﻭ ‪ (UTC‬ﻭﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻭﺩ‬
‫ﺫﻛﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪(Language‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ B 262‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﻀﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ )ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻓﻘﻂ( ﻟﻜﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺪﺩ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻐﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻐﻤﺔ )ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ( ﻟﻸﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻘﻀﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫)‪ ،(15 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺃﻗﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪263‬‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )‪ .(6 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻴﻎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﻟﻸﻭﺿﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪.M‬‬
‫ﻛﻼﺳﻴﻜﻲ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ‪ AUTO/SCENE/EFFECTS‬ﺃﻭ ‪ P/S/A/M‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪ B 264‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻡ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.R‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪265‬‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫‪) Capture NX-D‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑـ‬
‫‪.(Capture NX-D‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ CPU‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﻄﻮﻝ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ‪ 50‬ﻣﻢ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺯﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺪﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.G‬‬
‫• ﺑﺪﺀ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ "‪ "rEF‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ "‪"rEF‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻊ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ B 266‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻋﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﻣﺢ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺳﻨﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻋﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﻣﺢ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻴﺪ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻸ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻼﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ؛ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻼﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺳﺠﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻲ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺍﻛﻦ‬
‫ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺪﻓﹰﺎ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮ ﻭﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.1‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪267‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫)‪ (55 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ )‪ .(164 0‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﺖ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺟﺮﺏ ﻛﻼ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﻳﻦ ‪ 50‬ﻭ ‪ 60‬ﻫﺮﺗﺰ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺎ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪ M‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ )ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ( ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ < ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ )‪ (169 0‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺻﻮﺭ )ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ B 268‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪ GPS‬ﺃﻭ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺫﻛﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﻭﺩﻣﺠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺘﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،GPS‬ﻓﺴﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ .GPS‬ﻻ‬
‫ﺫﻛﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ‪ GPS‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‬
‫)ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ‪ GPS‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫• ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺳﻴﻈﻞ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪ .GPS‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭ ‪ ،(240 0‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ GP-1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،GP-1A‬ﺳﺘﻈﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ GPS‬ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ؛ ﻭﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻛﻲ ﺗﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪.GPS‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺒﻴﻨﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪.GPS‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪269‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺳﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ )‪.(324 ،323 0‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ y‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫‪ z‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ AF-S‬ﻭ‪.AF-F‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬
‫‪ =4‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺯﺭ ‪ 4‬ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (L) A‬ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫)‪.(254 0‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ a‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ B 270‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻟﺘﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﻟﻮﺻﻼﺕ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﻭ ‪Wi-Fi‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻼﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﺑﻔﻚ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻹﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻵﺗﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪:‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫• ﺳﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺿﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻭﺭ ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﺡ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺼﺮﺡ ﺑﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﺑﺄﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺿﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﺠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﺡ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪271‬‬
‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ )ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ )ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ(‪ .‬ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1000‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻟـ ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ < ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻟـ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪Wi-Fi‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪) Wi-Fi‬ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻼﺕ ‪.Wi-Fi‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Wi-Fi‬ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Wi-Fi‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ B 272‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺰﺍﻭﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻭﺟﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺰﺍﻭﺟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪273‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪) Eye-Fi‬ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﺒﺮ ‪ ،Eye-Fi‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻟـ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ )‪ (271 0‬ﻭﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ <‬
‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ )‪.(273 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ Eye-F‬ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ g‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪(275 0) Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( < ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ < ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﹰ‬
‫)‪ (240 0‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪.Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ ،Eye-Fi‬ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﱢﻊ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ ،Eye-Fi‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ‪Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ )‪(271 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪ .Eye-Fi‬ﻻﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪ ،Eye-Fi‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻟـ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻟـ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪.Eye-Fi‬‬
‫‪ B 274‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ ،Eye-Fi‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﺰ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪ :d‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻤﻜ ﱠﻦ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ :e‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﻤﻜ ﱠﻦ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪) f‬ﺛﺎﺑﺖ(‪ :‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﻤﻜ ﱠﻦ؛ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪) f‬ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻙ(‪ :‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﻤﻜ ﱠﻦ؛ ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ :g‬ﺧﻄﺄ — ﻻ ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ .Eye-Fi‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ (‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﺤﺪﺙ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻟﻠﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻱ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻛﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺁﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ( ﻻ ﻳﻮﻣﺾ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪.Eye-Fi‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ؛ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﱢﻊ ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫‪ Eye-Fi‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪275‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ B 276‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪) N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪j‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫(‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫)‬
‫‪m‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫‪D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪280‬‬
‫‪282‬‬
‫‪283‬‬
‫‪285‬‬
‫‪286‬‬
‫‪286‬‬
‫‪287‬‬
‫‪287‬‬
‫‪288‬‬
‫‪288‬‬
‫‪289‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫‪q‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪g‬‬
‫‪u‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫)‬
‫‪f‬‬
‫‪p‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ *‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪290‬‬
‫‪291‬‬
‫‪293‬‬
‫‪294‬‬
‫‪294‬‬
‫‪295‬‬
‫‪296‬‬
‫‪298‬‬
‫‪178‬‬
‫‪298‬‬
‫* ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‪ P‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ‪277‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪) J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺯﺭ ‪.(X‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪،(98 0) JPEG + NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ‪.RAW‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.G‬‬
‫‪ N 278‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ "ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ" ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫)‪ ،(188 0‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪.Z‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ )‪ ،(184 0‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ،P‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻭﺣﺪﺩ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ < ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﻭﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻛﺼﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ‪279‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ )‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ )ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺯﺭ ‪ .(X‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪J‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ N 280‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ‪.JPEG‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﻴﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪ ،(291 0‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(98 0‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(100 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪(140 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪(132 0‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫)‪(155 0‬‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ )‪(231 0‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )‪(230 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ )‪(231 0‬‬
‫‪(285 0) D-Lighting‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ‪ EXE‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪.G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ‪281‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ؛ ﺃﻧﺸﺊ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ X‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪.‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪ (Q)W‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ (Q) W‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺺ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻤﻠﻒ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ )ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 198‬ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻗﺺ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪ N 282‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ‪283‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪ (Q) W‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ )ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺯﺭ ‪ .(X‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ .1‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(Q) W‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ N 284‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫‪D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫‪) D-Lighting‬ﺗﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ‪(U‬‬
‫‪) D-Lighting‬ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ‪(M‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ "ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ"‬
‫ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .2‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬
‫ﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺎﻛﺲ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫)ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .(222 0 ،‬ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻮﺓ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺗﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺿﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻢ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ‪285‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺑﺼﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﺀﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪J‬‬
‫ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ "ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ" ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺃﻛﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺄﺛﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ؛ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ N 286‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻌﺪﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺧﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺑﺤﺠﻢ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 0.25‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‪ 4 ،‬ﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻗﺼﻬﺎ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻄﻴﻠﺔ(‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺑﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﺃﻗﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺻﻨﻊ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﺼﺤﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ؛ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.(232‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻞ‪ 4 ،‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺧﻞ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﻧﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺟﺰﺀ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ(‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ‪ E‬ﻭ‪) D‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ ،PC‬ﻭﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ(؛ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ‪287‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺗﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﺼﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ(‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻄﺖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ )ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﻘﺘﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ(‪4 ،‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻠﻪ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ N 288‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺯﺭﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺑﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﻇﻼﻝ ﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ "ﺩﺍﻓﺌﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﻧﺠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﻳﻦ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ X‬ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﻔﻆ‪ :‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺧﺎﻓﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪4‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ‪289‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺩﺍﻛﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻓﺎﺗﺢ )ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺩﺍﻛﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻓﺎﺗﺢ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪3 ،‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ N 290‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺗﻴﻦ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ؛‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪ RAW‬ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻅ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ؛ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪100 ،98 0‬؛ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ(‪ .‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ )‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪1‬؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫)‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ‪291‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ‪ .‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺯﺭ ‪ .X‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ .1‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ 2‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ ،J‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻢ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ 2‬ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ‪ 0.1‬ﻭ ‪ .2.0‬ﻛﺮﺭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪1.0‬؛ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ 0.5‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ‪ 2.0‬ﻟﻤﻀﺎﻋﻔﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻮﺩ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪) J‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻔﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‪ .‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﻔﻆ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪4‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.(Q) W‬‬
‫‪ N 292‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺍﻛﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺩﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺖ )‪ .(227 0‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ .1‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ؛ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪،‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻛﺄﺳﺎﺱ ﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪J‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ‪293‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﺗﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺼﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 4‬ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻤﻜﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫ﺳﻤﻜﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺗﻢ ﺭﺳﻤﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻗﻼﻡ ﻣﻠﻮﻧﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻫﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺃﺭﻓﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﻤﻚ‪ .‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ‬
‫ﺳﻤﺎﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪J‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ N 294‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻤﺠﺴﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ )ﺩﻳﻮﺭﺍﻣﺎ(‪ .‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺆﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺈﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﺻﻔﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺑﺆﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (Q) W‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫‪(Q)W‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪3‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪3‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ‪295‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.(X‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻫﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (L) A‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻈﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ )ﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ؛‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ(‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .X‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (Q) W‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ N 296‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(L) A‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪7‬؛ ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻀﻢ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺗﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺃﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ‪5–3‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻮﻥ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪) O‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ O‬ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ؛ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻌﻢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ‪297‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ P‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ )ﻣﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ (Z‬ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ،P‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫‪ N 298‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺯﺭ ‪ .X‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫‪ D‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨ ﹰﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ‬
‫ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻓﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻢ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ )‪.(200 0‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ‪299‬‬
‫‪ m‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‪ O/‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻀﻢ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ‪ 20‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻀﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 20‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻼﻫﻤﺎ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ )ﺇﻣﺎ ‪ m‬ﺃﻭ ‪.(O‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ‪ O‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ ﺃﻭ ‪ m‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ m 300‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‪ O/‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫‪ m‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ m‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺁﺧﺮ ‪ 20‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﹰﺍ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ .O‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ O‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ O‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ O‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ ﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 20‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ ﻭﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﺑﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
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‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪ m‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‪ O/‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ ‪301‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺑﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪J‬‬
‫ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ‪ 4-1‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺻﻮﺍﺏ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪.V‬‬
‫‪ m 302‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‪ O/‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫❚❚ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺻﻮﺍﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ؛‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ m‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‪ O/‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ ‪303‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺗﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ‪3-2‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ m 304‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‪ O/‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻭﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻣﺎﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺖ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ AF-S‬ﻭ‪ AF-P‬ﻭ‪AF-I‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ AF-S‬ﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺑـ ‪ ،AF-S‬ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ AF-P‬ﺑـ ‪ ،AF-P‬ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪AF-I‬‬
‫ﺑـ ‪ .AF-I‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(AF‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫‪) MF‬ﻣﻊ‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ AF‬ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ( ‪ M MF‬ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻟﻮﻥ‬
‫‪1z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪AF-I NIKKOR ،AF-P ،AF-S‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ AF NIKKOR‬ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪1z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪D‬‬
‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪3 ،2 PC-E NIKKOR‬‬
‫‪1z‬‬
‫‪4z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z z‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪1z‬‬
‫‪— 5 ،3 PC NIKKOR 19 f/4E ED‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔ ✔‬
‫✔‬
‫‪6 PC Micro 85‬‬
‫‪1z‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪f/2.8D‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪1z‬‬
‫‪7z‬‬
‫‪7z‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ‪AF-S / AF-I‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z z‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ AF NIKKOR‬ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫‪1z‬‬
‫‪8z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z z‬‬
‫✔‬
‫)ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪(F3AF‬‬
‫‪1z‬‬
‫‪9z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪AI-P NIKKOR‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ )‪.(128 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪305‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﻘﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻟـ ‪ PC-E NIKKOR 24 f/3.5D ED‬ﺑﺠﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺠﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺠﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ f/5.6‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪AF 85–28 f/3.5–4.5 ،AF 70–35 f/2.8 ،AF 200–80 f/2.8‬‬
‫)ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ AF 85–28 f/3.5–4.5‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (I‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺆﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ ‪ f/5.6‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 306‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ D‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪IX NIKKOR‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪.IX NIKKOR‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ‪ E‬ﻭ‪D‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ‪ ،CPU‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ‪ E‬ﻭ‪ D‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ‪ E‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪E‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪D‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻬﺎ )ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ‪ 2016 RGB‬ﺑﻜﺴﻞ ﻟﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪ E‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،D‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ )ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ‪II‬؛ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ‪ ،II‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪307‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ .M‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪ .CPU‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪CPU‬؛ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ" ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ AI‬ﺃﻭ ‪ AI‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ‪NIKKOR‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ‪E‬‬
‫‪Medical NIKKOR 120 f/4‬‬
‫‪Reflex NIKKOR‬‬
‫‪PC NIKKOR‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪AI‬‬
‫ﻣﻠﺤﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻔﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪6 PB-6‬‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬
‫‪ PK‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 11A‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 12‬ﺃﻭ ‪13‬؛ ‪(PN-11‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫‪AF‬‬
‫‪) MF‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ(‬
‫‪MF‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪1z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪2z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪4z‬‬
‫‪5z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪3 ،2 z‬‬
‫‪2z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪1z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪2z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪1z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪2z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪2z‬‬
‫‪2z‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ ‪ f/5.6‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ f/5.6‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺮﻛﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺭﺃﺳﻲ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ 308‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ D‬ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪:D5600‬‬
‫• ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ‪TC-16A AF‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪AI‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪،800 f/8 ،600 f/5.6 ،400 f/4.5) AU-1‬‬
‫‪(1200 f/11‬‬
‫• ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ )‪(OP 10 f/5.6 ،8 f/8 ،7.5 f/5.6 ،6 f/5.6‬‬
‫• ‪2.1 f/4‬‬
‫• ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺗﻤﺪﻳﺪ ‪K2‬‬
‫• ‪) 600–180 f/8 ED‬ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻞ ‪(174180–174041‬‬
‫• ‪) 1200–360 f/11 ED‬ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻞ ‪(174127–174031‬‬
‫• ‪) 600–200 f/9.5‬ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻞ ‪(300490–280001‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪AF 200 ،AF 80 f/2.8) F3AF‬‬
‫‪ ،f/3.5 ED‬ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪(AF Teleconverter TC-16‬‬
‫• ‪) PC 28 f/4‬ﺭﻗﻢ ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻞ ‪ 180900‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ(‬
‫• ‪) PC 35 f/2.8‬ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻞ ‪(906200–851001‬‬
‫• ‪) PC 35 f/3.5‬ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ(‬
‫• ‪) Reflex 1000 f/6.3‬ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ(‬
‫• ‪) Reflex 1000 f/11‬ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻞ ‪(143000–142361‬‬
‫• ‪) Reflex 2000 f/11‬ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻞ ‪(200310–200111‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪309‬‬
‫ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬D
،‫ ﻡ؛ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ‬3.0-0.5 ‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻪ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ‬
‫ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬.‫ ﻣﻢ ﻭﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬200–18 ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
:‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
AF-S NIKKOR 24–14 f/2.8G ED •
AF-S NIKKOR 300–28 f/3.5–5.6G ED VR •
AF-S DX NIKKOR 300–55 f/4.5–5.6G ED VR •
AF-S VR Zoom-Nikkor 200–70 f/2.8G IF-ED •
AF-S NIKKOR 200–70 f/2.8G ED VR II •
AF-S Zoom-Nikkor 200–80 f/2.8D IF-ED •
AF-S NIKKOR 400–80 f/4.5–5.6G ED VR •
AF-S VR Nikkor 200 f/2G IF-ED •
AF-S NIKKOR 200 f/2G ED VR II •
AF-S VR Zoom-Nikkor 400–200 f/4G IF-ED •
AF-S NIKKOR 400–200 f/4G ED VR II •
‫ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬310
‫ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬،‫ﻡ‬1 ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
:‫ﻭﺗﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‬
AF-S DX NIKKOR 24–10 f/3.5–4.5G ED •
AF-S NIKKOR 35–16 f/4G ED VR •
AF-S Zoom-Nikkor 35–17 f/2.8D IF-ED •
AF-S DX Zoom-Nikkor 55–17 f/2.8G IF-ED •
AF-S NIKKOR 35–18 f/3.5–4.5G ED •
AF-S DX NIKKOR 105–18 f/3.5–5.6G ED VR •
AF-S DX VR Zoom-Nikkor 200–18 f/3.5–5.6G IF-ED •
AF-S DX NIKKOR 200–18 f/3.5–5.6G ED VR II •
AF-S DX NIKKOR 300–18 f/3.5–5.6G ED VR •
AF-S DX NIKKOR 300–18 f/3.5–6.3G ED VR •
AF-S NIKKOR 20 f/1.8G ED •
AF-S NIKKOR 70–24 f/2.8G ED •
AF-S VR Zoom-Nikkor 120–24 f/3.5–5.6G IF-ED •
AF-S NIKKOR 120–24 f/4G ED VR •
AF-S NIKKOR 28 f/1.8G •
AF-S Zoom-Nikkor 70–28 f/2.8D IF-ED •
AF-S NIKKOR 35 f/1.4G •
AF-S NIKKOR 200–70 f/4G ED VR •
AF-S NIKKOR 85 f/1.4G •
AF-S NIKKOR 85 f/1.8G •
AF-S VR Micro-Nikkor 105 f/2.8G IF-ED •
311 ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ D‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺄﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺑﺆﺭﻳﺔ ‪ 300–18‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻃﻮﺍﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺒﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻲ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺠﺐ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺎﻗﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻇﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻫﻮ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 0.6‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪AF-S DX NIKKOR 24–10 f/3.5–4.5G ED‬‬
‫‪AF-S DX Zoom-Nikkor 24–12 f/4G IF-ED‬‬
‫‪AF-S NIKKOR 35–16 f/4G ED VR‬‬
‫‪AF-S DX NIKKOR 85–16 f/3.5–5.6G ED VR‬‬
‫‪f/2.8D IF-ED‬‬
‫‪AF-S Zoom-Nikkor 35–17‬‬
‫‪f/2.8G IF-ED‬‬
‫‪AF-S DX Zoom-Nikkor 55–17‬‬
‫‪f/3.5–4.5G ED‬‬
‫‪f/3.5–4.5D IF-ED‬‬
‫‪ 312‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪AF-S NIKKOR 35–18‬‬
‫‪AF Zoom-Nikkor 35–18‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫‪ 24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 85–24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 28‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 28‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 55–45‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 28‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 35–28‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ 1.5‬ﻡ‬
‫‪ 1.0‬ﻡ‬
‫‪ 1.0‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ 1.0‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ 1.5‬ﻡ‬
‫‪ 1.0‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ 1.5‬ﻡ‬
‫‪ 1.0‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ 1.0‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ ﻡ‬1.0
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ ﻡ‬1.0
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ ﻡ‬2.5
‫ ﻡ‬1.0
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ ﻡ‬2.0
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ ﻡ‬1.0
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ ﻡ‬1.0
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ ﻣﻢ‬18
‫ ﻣﻢ‬55–24
‫ ﻣﻢ‬18
‫ ﻣﻢ‬70–24
‫ ﻣﻢ‬18
‫ ﻣﻢ‬24
‫ ﻣﻢ‬105–35
‫ ﻣﻢ‬18
‫ ﻣﻢ‬135–24
‫ ﻣﻢ‬24
‫ ﻣﻢ‬140–35
‫ ﻣﻢ‬24
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ ﻣﻢ‬200–35
‫ ﻡ‬1.0
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ ﻡ‬1.5
‫ ﻡ‬2.5
‫ ﻡ‬1.0
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ ﻡ‬1.0
‫ ﻡ‬1.5
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ ﻡ‬1.0
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ ﻡ‬1.5
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ ﻡ‬1.5
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ ﻡ‬1.5
‫ ﻡ‬1.0
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ ﻣﻢ‬300–35
‫ ﻣﻢ‬300–35
‫ ﻣﻢ‬20
‫ ﻣﻢ‬24
AF Zoom-Nikkor 35–20 f/2.8D IF
‫ ﻣﻢ‬28
‫ ﻣﻢ‬35
AF-S NIKKOR 24 f/1.4G ED
‫ ﻣﻢ‬24
‫ ﻣﻢ‬35
AF-S NIKKOR 70–24 f/2.8G ED
‫ ﻣﻢ‬70–50
‫ ﻣﻢ‬24
AF-S VR Zoom-Nikkor 120–24 f/3.5–5.6G IF-ED
‫ ﻣﻢ‬120–28
‫ ﻣﻢ‬24
AF-S NIKKOR 120–24 f/4G ED VR
‫ ﻣﻢ‬120–28
‫ ﻣﻢ‬35
AF-S Zoom-Nikkor 70–28 f/2.8D IF-ED
‫ ﻣﻢ‬70–50
‫ ﻣﻢ‬28
‫ ﻣﻢ‬35
AF-S NIKKOR 300–28 f/3.5–5.6G ED VR
‫ ﻣﻢ‬300–50
313 ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ ﻭ‬AF-P DX NIKKOR 55–18 f/3.5–5.6G VR
AF-P DX NIKKOR 55–18 f/3.5–5.6G
AF-S DX Zoom-Nikkor 70–18
f/3.5–4.5G IF-ED
AF-S DX NIKKOR 105–18
f/3.5–5.6G ED VR
AF-S DX Zoom-Nikkor 135–18
AF-S DX NIKKOR 140–18
f/3.5–5.6G
IF-ED
f/3.5–5.6G ED VR
f/3.5–5.6G
،IF-ED
AF-S DX NIKKOR 200–18 f/3.5–5.6G ED VR II
AF-S DX NIKKOR 300–18 f/3.5–5.6G ED VR
AF-S DX NIKKOR 300–18 f/3.5-6.3G ED VR
AF-S NIKKOR 20 f/1.8G ED
AF-S DX VR Zoom-Nikkor 200–18
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪،AF-S VR Zoom-Nikkor 400–200 f/4G IF-ED‬‬
‫‪AF-S NIKKOR 400–200 f/4G ED VR II‬‬
‫‪f/3.5D ED‬‬
‫‪* PC-E NIKKOR 24‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫‪ 200‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 250‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 300‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ 4.0‬ﻡ‬
‫‪ 3.0‬ﻡ‬
‫‪ 2.5‬ﻡ‬
‫‪ 3.0‬ﻡ‬
‫* ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪f/2.8G ED‬‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ،AF-S NIKKOR 24–14‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪35‬ﻣﻢ ﻫﻲ ‪ 24 × 36‬ﻣﻢ‪ .‬ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﺿﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ ،D5600‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻴﺾ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ‪ 15.6 × 23.5‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 1.5‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ .D5600‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ D5600‬ﺑﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ‪35‬ﻣﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪ 1.5‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪35‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫)‪ 24 × 36‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(D5600‬‬
‫)‪ 15.6 × 23.5‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪35‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(D5600‬‬
‫‪ 314‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ )‪ (CLS‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻄﻮﺭ )‪ (CLS‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪CLS‬‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺑﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬
‫‪2z 2z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‪4‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪3z‬‬
‫‪3z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪7z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪SB-600‬‬
‫— — —‬
‫— — —‬
‫— — —‬
‫‪— 5z z‬‬
‫— — —‬
‫— ‪z 5z‬‬
‫— ‪— 5z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪5z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪5z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪SB-500‬‬
‫‪z 2z z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪5z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪6z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪SB-400‬‬
‫‪z z z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪SB-300‬‬
‫‪SU-800‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ‪i-TTL‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ‪1‬‬
‫‪ i-TTL‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ ‪i-TTL‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪SLR‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ %A‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪TTL‬‬
‫‪ GN‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫‪ M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫‪ RPT‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫‪i-TTL i-TTL‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫]‪[A:B‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫‪ %A‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪TTL‬‬
‫‪ M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫‪ RPT‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪SB-R200‬‬
‫‪SB-5000‬‬
‫‪SB-910، SB-900،‬‬
‫‪SB-800‬‬
‫‪SB-700‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪:CLS‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪315‬‬
‫‪SB-5000‬‬
‫‪SB-910، SB-900،‬‬
‫‪SB-800‬‬
‫‪SB-700‬‬
‫‪SB-600‬‬
‫‪SB-500‬‬
‫‪SU-800‬‬
‫‪SB-400‬‬
‫‪SB-R200‬‬
‫‪SB-300‬‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺑﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫‪i-TTL i-TTL‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫]‪[A:B‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪— — — — — — — 7z 8z‬‬
‫‪A/ A‬‬
‫‪ %‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪TTL‬‬
‫‪— — z — z z z z z‬‬
‫‪ M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫‪— — — — z z z z z‬‬
‫‪ RPT‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﻬﺎ‬
‫— — — — — — — — —‬
‫ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )ﻓﻼﺵ(‬
‫‪z z — — z z z z z‬‬
‫— — — — ‪— — — — z‬‬
‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ‪(LED‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪— — — 9z — z z z z‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬
‫‪— z — — z z z z z‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫— — — — ‪z z — — z‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪z — — — z — z 10 z z‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﹰ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ A/%A‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺅﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ "‪ "A‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪.CPU‬‬
‫‪ 4‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ "‪ "A‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪.CPU‬‬
‫‪ 5‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(246 0‬‬
‫‪ 6‬ﺗﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 7‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ "‪ "A‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 8‬ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ %A‬ﻭ ‪ A‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 10‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ ‪ SB-900‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z z z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z z z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ ‪ Speedlight‬ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ ‪ :SU-800‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪ ،CLS‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ SU-800‬ﻛﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ SB-5000‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-910‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-900‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-800‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﺃﻭ ‪SB-600‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-500‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-R200‬ﻓﻲ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪SU-800‬‬
‫ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 316‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫❚❚ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ TTL‬ﻭﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ M‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺪﱠﺭ ﺑـ ‪1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪،SB-80DX‬‬
‫‪،2 SB-27 ،SB-30‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪،SB-28 ،SB-28DX‬‬
‫‪،SB-22 ،SB-22S‬‬
‫‪،SB-25 ،SB-26‬‬
‫‪،SB-16B ،SB-20‬‬
‫‪1 SB-50DX‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪SB-24‬‬
‫‪SB-15‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪TTL‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪ M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪ G‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪ REAR‬ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ‪4‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،A ،S ،P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،M‬ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ TTL‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) A‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪.(TTL‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ AF-S VR Micro-Nikkor 105 f/2.8G IF-ED‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ AF-S Micro NIKKOR 60 f/2.8G ED‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 4‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪،SB-23‬‬
‫‪،3 SB-29‬‬
‫‪،3 SB-21B‬‬
‫‪3 SB-29S‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪AS-15‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪) AS-15‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ‪ 250‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻊ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻘﻂ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪317‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ‪ Speedlight‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻔﺼﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺩﻋﻢ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ‪ ،CLS‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ SLR‬ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪.CLS‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ SB-80DX‬ﻭ‪ SB-28DX‬ﻭ‪ SB-50DX‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ D5600‬ﻓﻲ ﻓﺌﺔ‬
‫"ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪ j‬ﻭ‪ %‬ﻭ‪ ،3‬ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 100‬ﻭ‪ .12800‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺧﻄﻮﻁ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺪﺙ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺿﺎﺀ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ )ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪ CLS‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﺟﻰ ﺍﻻﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪ SC 17‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 28‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 29‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.i-TTL‬‬
‫ﻧﻨﺼﺤﻚ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،i-TTL‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﻴﻦ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﺡ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﻧﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ SB-5000‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-910‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ SB-900‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-800‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-600‬ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ ‪ Speedlight‬ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ‬
‫‪ SU-800‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ Y‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 318‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ SB-5000‬ﻭ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ ‪ SB-900‬ﻭ ‪ SB-800‬ﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﻭ ‪ SB-600‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ SB-500‬ﻭ‪ SB-400‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ‪ SB-5000‬ﻭ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ ‪SB-900‬‬
‫ﻭ ‪ SB-800‬ﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﻭ ‪ SB-600‬ﻭ ‪ SU-800‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪ :SB-5000‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ 49-24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ 135-24‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 69–50‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 135–70‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫• ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ ‪ :SB-900‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ 135-17‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 19-17‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 105-20‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 135-106‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫• ‪ SB-800‬ﻭ ‪ SB-600‬ﻭ ‪ :SU-800‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺿﻮﺀ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ 105-24‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 34-24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 49-35‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 105-50‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪319‬‬
‫• ‪ :SB-700‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ 135-24‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 135-24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (I‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 320‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ D5600‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫• ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ :(26 0) EN-EL14a‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺷﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ EN-EL14a‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺋﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺰﺋﺔ ﻭﻣﻤﺜﻠﻲ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪.EN-EL14‬‬
‫• ﺷﺎﺣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ :(26 0) MH-24‬ﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EN-EL14a‬ﻭ‬
‫‪.EN-EL14‬‬
‫• ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ ،EP-5A‬ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ‪ :EH-5b/EH-5c‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﺰﻭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺓ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ‪ EH-5a‬ﻭ ‪ .(EH-5‬ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EP-5A‬ﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺤﻮﻝ ‪ EH-5c‬ﺃﻭ ‪ EH-5b‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ EH-5a‬ﺃﻭ ‪EH-5‬؛ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 325‬ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ :BS-1‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻳﺤﻤﻲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ D5600‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﻱ ‪ C-PL‬ﺃﻭ ‪ C-PL II‬ﺑﺪﻻ ﹰ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪ NC‬ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻒ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ( ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪،X0 ،R60 ،O56 ،Y52 ،Y48 ،Y44) ×1‬‬
‫‪،B8 ،B2 ،A12 ،A2 ،ND400 ،ND8S ،ND8 ،ND4S ،ND4 ،ND2S ،C-PL ،X1‬‬
‫‪ .(B12‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪321‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ • ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ‪ :(80 0) DK-5‬ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ :DK-20C‬ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﻘﻮﺓ ‪،–3 ،–4 ،–5‬‬
‫‪ ،+2 ،+1 ،+0.5 ،0 ،–2‬ﻭ ‪ +3‬ﻡ‪ –1‬ﺩﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ )‪ –1‬ﻡ‪ .(–1‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ )‪ –1.7‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ +0.5‬ﻡ‪ .(–1‬ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺮ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺒﺮ ‪ :DG-2‬ﺗﻜﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺒﺮﺓ ‪ DG-2‬ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﺪﻗﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ )ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ(‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ‪ DG-2‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﺪ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪ (265 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ‪ :DK-22‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ‪ DK-22‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺒﺮﺓ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪ .DG-2‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ ‪ :DR-6‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ DR-6‬ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﺰﻭﺍﻳﺎ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ(‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫‪ DR-6‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﺪ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 322‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ :Camera Control Pro 2‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺐ ﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ؛ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻳﺐ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ xxi‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺒﺤﺚ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ‪Message Center 2‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺜﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻚ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺣﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ‪/BF-1B‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ‪ :BF-1A‬ﻳﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻭﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ • ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ‪/WR-R10‬ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ‪ :WR-T10‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ ،WR-R10‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪.(270 0) WR-T10‬‬
‫• ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ‪ :(270 0) WR-1‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ WR-1‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ‪ WR-1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ WR-R10‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .WR-T10‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ‪ WR-1‬ﺑﻄﺮﻑ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻛﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ WR-1‬ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫• ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺳﺘﺮﻳﻮ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪(170 0) ME-1‬‬
‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ‬
‫• ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ ‪(170 0) ME-W1‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪323‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻃﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺎﺑﻼﺕ ‪USB‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﺑﻼﺕ ‪HDMI‬‬
‫)‪(218 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ D5600‬ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻄﺮﻑ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺼﺺ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ WR-1‬ﻭ‪،WR-R10‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪ ،(125 0) MC-DC2‬ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬
‫‪ ،(269 0) GP-1/GP-1A‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻤﺤﺎﺫﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ‪ H‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ‪ F‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪(214 ،211 0) UC-E20 USB‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ :HC-E1 HDMI‬ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ HDMI‬ﺑﻤﻮﺻﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ C‬ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ A‬ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﺄﺟﻬﺰﺓ ‪.HDMI‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪ SD‬ﻭ‪ SDHC‬ﻭ‪ ،SDXC‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ SDHC‬ﻭ‪ SDXC‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪ .UHS-I‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻔﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ‪ SD‬ﻓﺌﺔ ‪ 6‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺑﻄﺄ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪ .‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﻗﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﺯﺭ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻨﺎ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﻟﺘﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 324‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺟﻬﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪(q‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ )‪.(w‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪.EP-5A‬‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ ﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺟﺎﻧ ﹰﺒﺎ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺃﻏﻠﻖ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪325‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ‪.EH-5b/EH-5c‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻤﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺑﻤﻘﺒﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺑﻤﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ )‪ (e‬ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﻤﻘﺒﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ )‪ .(r‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ P‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 326‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺧﺰﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﻑ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻔﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻄﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺧﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺟﺎﻑ ﺟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺘﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺮﺍﺕ ﻛﺎﻓﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪60%‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻛﻬﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﻮ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪° 50‬ﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪° -10‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺍﻛﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﻣﺴﺤﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ‬
‫ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺟﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﺊ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺠﺎﻧﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﻼﺡ ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻣﺒﻠﻠﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﹰ ﺑﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻘﻄﺮ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬
‫ﺟﻔﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻫﺎﻡ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻠﻒ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻐﻄﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺴﺮ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﺿﺒﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﺃﺳﻲ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺳﺎﺋﻞ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺼﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﺿﻒ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺤﺮﺹ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺼﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺴﺢ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺢ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺷﻤﻮﺍﻩ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻛﺤﻮﻻ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺨﻔﻒ ﺩﻫﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻃﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪327‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺸﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺒﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﻤﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻵﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫❚❚ ”ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻵﻥ“‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻵﻥ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﺳﺘﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺛﻢ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪ 1 .‬ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 328‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫❚❚ ”ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ“‬
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‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ ﻭﻭﻗﻒ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻳﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ )‪ (330 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺮ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪329‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪ ،(328 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﺋ ﹴﺬ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻴﻖ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻭﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺼﺢ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﻓﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﺤﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻇﻠﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) 2‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ H‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺃﻗﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 330‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
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‫‪7‬‬
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‫ﺍﻓﺤﺺ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺴﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻓﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺤﺜﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺴﺎﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪.8‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﻧﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﺮﺷﺎﺓ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺷﻌﻴﺮﺍﺗﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﻓﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻮﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﺳﺘﻐﻠﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺭﻗﻴﻖ ﻭﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻔﺪﺕ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ ﻭﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﻚ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺧﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺘﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺺ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪331‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻠﺘﺼﻖ ﺟﺴﻢ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻏﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻬﺎ )ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺯﻳﺖ ﺗﺸﺤﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺴﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ( ﺑﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻠﺘﺼﻘﺔ ﺑﺤﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ‪ .‬ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺟﺴﻢ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .328‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪،‬‬
‫)‪ (330 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻓﻨﻲ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺛﺮﺓ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻭ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺩﻭﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺼﺢ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻔﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﺯﻉ ﺃﺻﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﻣﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻤﺴﺔ ﺃﻋﻮﺍﻡ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ(‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺤﺺ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻬﻨﻲ ﻣﺤﺘﺮﻑ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﺤﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 332‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﻘﻄﻪ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺟﺎﻓﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺼﻴﺒﻪ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻏﻤﺮﻩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﺻﺪﺃ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻒ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺻﻼﺣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺊ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺪﻓﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﻜﺜﻒ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺜﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺔ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻴﺲ ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﻴ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺨﺰﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﻮﻟﺪ ﺇﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﻛﻬﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻗﻮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫ﺷﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﻮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺰﻧﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ‬
‫ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﺶ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﻄﺄ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﻨﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻵﺧﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﻤﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪333‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪ :‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺍﻛﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﻣﺴﺤﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺟﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﺊ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﻼﺡ ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻣﺒﻠﻠﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﹰ ﺑﻤﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﻴﻒ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺟﻔﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻣﻌﺮﺿﺘﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﺿﺒﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﺃﺳﻲ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺳﺎﺋﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺼﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺿﻒ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺤﺮﺹ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ" )‪ (330 ،328 0‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ :‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺭﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻤﺴﻪ ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﻪ ﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﻗﻮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺧﺪﺵ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﻮﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻤﺰﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻔﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻄﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺧﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺟﺎﻑ ﺟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﻝ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺮﻳﺐ ﻭﺧﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻴﺲ ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺠﻔﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﺨﺰﻥ ﻋﺒﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻴﺲ ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻔﻔﺔ ﺗﻔﻘﺪ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻣﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺞ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻔﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻄﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ‪ .‬ﺷﻐﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ ﻭﺟﺎﻑ‪ .‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 334‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ؛ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﻜﺴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،99.99%‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ‪ 0.01%‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﻘﻮﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ )ﺑﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺯﺭﻗﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻀﺮﺍﺀ( ﺃﻭ ﻣﻄﻔﺄﺓ ﹰ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﻜﺴﻞ ﻣﻀﻴﺌﺔ ﹰ‬
‫)ﺳﻮﺩﺍﺀ(‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻄﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺴﺤﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻠﺪ ﺷﻤﻮﺍﻩ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻺﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺴﻮﺭ ﻭﺗﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻳﺴﺘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻤﻮﺝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﺝ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻧﻤﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ ﻭﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻧﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻷﻗﻤﺸﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﻓﺬ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﻤﻮﺝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﺮﻳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﺳﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ‪ xvi–xiii‬ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺣﻦ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻔﺮﻃﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺭﻛﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺿﺌﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻔﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻐﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺧﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻓﺮﻏﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺧﺰﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ‪° 15‬ﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪° 25‬ﻡ )ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺩﺓ(‪ .‬ﻛﺮﺭ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻛﻞ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪335‬‬
‫• ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺮﺭ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻘﺼﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻏﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺰﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪° 5‬ﻡ–‪° 35‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪°0‬ﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪°40‬ﻡ؛ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻄﻮﻝ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪°0‬ﻡ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪°15‬ﻡ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ‪°45‬ﻡ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪°60‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﺸﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪°0‬ﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪°60‬ﻡ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ‪) CHARGE‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ( ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻭﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺭﻛﺒﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺰﺋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺷﺤﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺭﻛﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﺪﻝ ﺍﻻﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻮﻅ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺸﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪.EN-EL14a‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻘﻢ ﺑﺘﻘﺼﻴﺮ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﻮﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﺗﻼﻓﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 336‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫• ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺟﻬﺰ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﺷﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﺣﺠﺰ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻟﻬﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﺰﻭﻡ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺗﺪﻓﺌﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺤﻦ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻋﺰﻝ‬
‫ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﻋﺎﺯﻝ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪337‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻄﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture‬‬
‫‪Control‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‬
‫‪NR‬‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫)ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫)ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪/‬ﻓﻴﻠﻢ(‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪/‬ﻓﻴﻠﻢ(‬
‫‪ 338‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪j i‬‬
‫— —‬
‫— —‬
‫‪P، S،‬‬
‫‪A، M‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪k،‬‬
‫‪p،‬‬
‫‪n،‬‬
‫‪o،‬‬
‫‪s،‬‬
‫‪w،‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪1z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪l،‬‬
‫‪m،‬‬
‫‪r،‬‬
‫‪t،‬‬
‫‪u،‬‬
‫‪v،‬‬
‫‪x،‬‬
‫‪S،‬‬
‫‪y،‬‬
‫‪3 ( ' U T % z‬‬
‫‪1z 1z 1z 1z 1z — 1z‬‬
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‫‪1،‬‬
‫‪2،‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
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‫‪z z z z z z‬‬
‫‪z z‬‬
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‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z z‬‬
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‫‪z z‬‬
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‫‪z z‬‬
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‫‪z z z z z z‬‬
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‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z z z z z z z z z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
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‫‪z z‬‬
‫‪3z‬‬
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‫—‪2‬‬
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‫‪3z 3z‬‬
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‫‪3z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ :a3‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ :e1‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪/‬ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ :e2‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪P، S،‬‬
‫‪A، M‬‬
‫‪j i‬‬
‫— —‬
‫— —‬
‫— —‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
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‫‪k،‬‬
‫‪p،‬‬
‫‪n،‬‬
‫‪o،‬‬
‫‪s،‬‬
‫‪w،‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫—‬
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‫‪z‬‬
‫‪l،‬‬
‫‪m،‬‬
‫‪r،‬‬
‫‪t،‬‬
‫‪u،‬‬
‫‪v،‬‬
‫‪1،‬‬
‫‪x،‬‬
‫‪2،‬‬
‫‪S،‬‬
‫‪y،‬‬
‫‪3 3 ( ' U T % z‬‬
‫— — — — — — — —‬
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‫‪— — — — — — — z‬‬
‫‪z z z‬‬
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‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.0‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.w‬‬
‫ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ x‬ﻭ‪ y‬ﻭ‪.z‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪339‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻞ ﻭﺇﺻﻼﺣﻪ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﺸﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺯﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪/‬ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺭﻛﺒﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﻝ ﺛﻢ ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﻨﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪ .(41 0‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺆﺩ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺰﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (82 0 ،AF-S‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ )‪ ،(87 0 ،c‬ﻭﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻫﺪﻓﹰﺎ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪.(322 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺩﺍﻛﻦ‪ :‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪.(27 ،26 0‬‬
‫ﺗﹸﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ؛ ‪.(240 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺃﺻﺒﻌﻚ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ )‪ (265 0‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ )‪.(26 0‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﻭﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪ :‬ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 340‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﻇﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺨﺺ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻄﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ(‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻐﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﺒﺪﺀ‪ :‬ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻤﺘﻠﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻟﻬﺎ )‪.(351 ،27 0‬‬
‫• ﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )‪ (268 0‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(27 0‬‬
‫• ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ )‪.(54 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(50 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﻊ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‪.(307 0) f-‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.(308 0) M‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ )‪.(101 ،77 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪.95%‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪ AF-S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ AF-P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ :AF-I‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ AF-S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ AF-P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ AF-I‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(95 ،93 ،86 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪ :‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪.(95 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ‬
‫‪ (L) A‬ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ AF-C‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.(93 0) AF-A‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪341‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪ e‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ )ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ؛ ‪ :(88 0‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺁﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ )‪.(53 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪.(95 ،82 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ AF-C‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (82 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ .AF-A‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ .AF-S‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ‪) e‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ( ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ‬
‫)‪.(90 ،87 0‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a3‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.(237 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ؛ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺗﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ )‪.(99 0) NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺣﺴﺐ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ )‪.(230 0‬‬
‫‪ 342‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ‬
‫• ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﺾ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.ISO‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪ NR‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪.(230 0‬‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺪﺙ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻓﻲ ‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪.(231 0‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻄﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻟـ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ (155 0) Picture Control‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﺘﻄﺮﻓﺔ ﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪.(158 0) Picture Control‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ ،%‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻛﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ .(75 0‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪343‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ < ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ )‪.(263 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪ (78 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ )‪.(164 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ MF‬ﺃﻭ ‪ AF-C‬ﻛﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻳﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪.(82 0) AF-A‬‬
‫ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻟﻄﺨﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻧﻈﻒ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(328 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪،99 0‬‬
‫‪.(243‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ :‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ <‬
‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ )‪.(169 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻪ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫• ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺃﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﻓﺌﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﻄﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ "ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ" )ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ( ﻭﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )‪ (53 0‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ؛ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺑﺤﺠﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ )‪ .(168 0‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ؛ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 344‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ )‪.(268 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻣﻀﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻨﺪ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪(M ،A ،S ،P‬‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ :CPU‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.(308 0) M‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ S‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ "‪) Bulb‬ﻓﺘﺢ(" ﺃﻭ "‪) Time‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ(" ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ :M‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ )‪.(121 0‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺗﻮﻣﺾ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ‬
‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ )‪.(106 0‬‬
‫• ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ < ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ )‪.(169 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ )‪.(140 0‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﻝ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪.(155 0) Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ :‬ﻫﺪﻑ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻇﻼﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ )‪.(147 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪345‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ :‬ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪.(149 0) D5600‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ‪ :‬ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ ‪ JPEG+NEF‬ﻟﺠﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(98 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ :‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪A‬‬
‫)ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺁﺧﺮ )‪.(159 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ )‪.(130 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ .M‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ )‪،118 0‬‬
‫‪.(132‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻮﻫﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ( ﻓﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ )‪.(230 0‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ :NEF (RAW‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(98 0) JPEG + NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺠﻠﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﺍﺯﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴ ﱠ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪.(221 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ "ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻴﺔ" )ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻴﺔ( ﺑﺎﺗﺠﺎﻩ "ﻋﺮﺿﻲ" )ﺃﻓﻘﻲ(‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ )‪.(222 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ )‪.(222 0‬‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(221 0‬‬
‫• ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(222 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺤﻤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﺯﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ )‪.(200 0‬‬
‫• ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ )‪.(350 0‬‬
‫‪ 346‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(279 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪ .NEF (RAW‬ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻭﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ .(210 0) Capture NX-D‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪.(280 0) NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ (218 0) HDMI‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ‪:HDMI-CEC‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ < HDMI‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪.(219 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ HDMI-CEC‬ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪ :‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﺎﺭﺉ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Capture NX-D‬ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(266 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺃﻭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ‪.(210 0) Capture NX-D‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪347‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﻭ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ‪) Wi-Fi‬ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻑ ‪ SSID‬ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ(‪:‬‬
‫• ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(271 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ < ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪ Wi-Fi‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﺛﻢ ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻪ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺬﺭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ :NFC‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ :‬ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺄﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ SnapBridge‬ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(262 ،40 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻨﺪ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )‪.(338 ،277 ،27 0‬‬
‫‪ 348‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻣﺾ ‪ d‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﻭ ‪ s‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.(Q) W‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺃﻛﺒﺮ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ )ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪F/s‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫• ﺭﻛﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ NIKKOR‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪.IX‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ ،CPU‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪F‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺤﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺳﺤﺐ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻣﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺤﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻟﺘﻤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪d/s‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺃﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺃﻋﺪ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪27 ،26‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪321‬‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺃﻋﺪ ﺷﺤﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺄﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺼﻤﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪307‬‬
‫‪307‬‬
‫‪123‬‬
‫‪31‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪349‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪ .‬ﺍﻗﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺛﻢ ﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪ d/k‬ﺃﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺷﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﻬﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻭﺃﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪331‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫‪S/s‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ "ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫(‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪(/k‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫‪ 350‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪262 ،40‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ )ﻣﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ(‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ "ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫‪324‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪259‬‬
‫• ﻫﻴﺊ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺗﺎﻟﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪205 ،27‬‬
‫• ﺧﻄﺄ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫• ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪274‬‬
‫• ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻓﻲ ﺑﺚ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪ .Eye-Fi‬ﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺑﺚ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪(/k‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ )ﻣﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ(‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ "ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪T‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻣﻤﺘﻠﺌﺔ‬
‫—‬
‫‪j/A/s‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫●‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﻫﺪﻑ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﻫﺪﻑ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻇﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻫﻴﺊ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺃﺩﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺃﻗﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ‪ ND‬ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪:‬‬
‫‪ S‬ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ )ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ(‬
‫‪ %‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺁﺧﺮ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪:‬‬
‫‪ S‬ﺍﺧﻔﺾ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ )ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ(‬
‫‪259 ،27‬‬
‫‪98‬‬
‫‪205‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪،86 ،50‬‬
‫‪95‬‬
‫‪107‬‬
‫‪321‬‬
‫‪121‬‬
‫‪122‬‬
‫‪65 ،4‬‬
‫‪107‬‬
‫‪101‬‬
‫‪121‬‬
‫‪122‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪351‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ "ﻓﺘﺢ"‬
‫‪A/s‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪S‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﹼ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ "ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ"‬
‫‪&/s‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪S‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ "ﻓﺘﺢ"‬
‫‪A/s‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫• ﹼ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪HDR‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ "ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ"‬
‫‪&/s‬‬
‫• ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪.HDR‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪HDR‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺟﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫—‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﻟﻺﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ‬
‫‪ 352‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫—‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪،121‬‬
‫‪123‬‬
‫‪،124‬‬
‫‪125‬‬
‫‪138‬‬
‫‪109‬‬
‫‪175‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﺮﺟﻰ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺿﺎﺀ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻋﺎﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺣﺎﻭﻝ‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ‬
‫• ﹼ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪.ISO‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ 18‬ﻣﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻃﻮﻻ ﹰ ﺑﺆﺭﻳﹰﺎ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪N/s‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪ SB-400‬ﺃﻭ ‪ :SB-300‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺘﻴﺖ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺗﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﺯﺩ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻩ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪O‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪101‬‬
‫‪،106‬‬
‫‪،107‬‬
‫‪122‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪344‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪353‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻳﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺻﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫—‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪ 354‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻗﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫)‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬
‫)‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺃﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪221 ،27‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪278‬‬
‫‪278‬‬
‫‪178‬‬
‫‪280‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺤﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻔﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻣﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻔﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ )ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﻭﺭﻕ‬
‫—‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺸﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﻭﺭﻕ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺮ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺮ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫—*‬
‫—*‬
‫—*‬
‫—*‬
‫—*‬
‫—*‬
‫* ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪355‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫❚❚ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪D5600‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﻜﺴﻞ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﻜﺴﻞ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﻜﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺑﻜﺴﻞ(‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ 356‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﻛﺲ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ‪) F‬ﺑﺄﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪(AF‬‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ‪DX‬؛ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ ×1.5‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪FX‬‬
‫‪ 24.2‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ‪ 15.6 × 23.5 CMOS‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 24.78‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪(Capture NX-D‬‬
‫• ‪) 4000 × 6000‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮ(‬
‫• ‪) 3000 × 4496‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ(‬
‫• ‪) 2000 × 2992‬ﺻﻐﻴﺮ(‬
‫• )‪ 12 :NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 14‬ﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻁ‬
‫• ‪ :JPEG‬ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ‪ JPEG-Baseline‬ﻣﻊ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺟﻴﺪ‬
‫)‪ ،(4 : 1‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ )ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ‪ ،(8 : 1‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ )ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ‪ 16 : 1‬ﺿﻐﻂ(‬
‫• )‪ :JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺑﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﺢ؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ؛ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Controls‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪ (Secure Digital) SD‬ﻭ‪ UHS-I‬ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫‪ SDHC‬ﻭ‪SDXC‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪،Exif 2.3 ،DCF 2.0‬‬
‫‪PictBridge‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺩﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺁﺓ ﻋﺎﻛﺴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﺧﻤﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺑﻌﺎﻛﺲ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ 95%‬ﺃﻓﻘﻲ ﻭ‪ 95%‬ﺭﺃﺳﻲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‬
‫‪ ×0.82‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ )ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ 50‬ﻣﻢ ‪ f/1.4‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪ –1.0 ،‬ﻡ‪(–1‬‬
‫‪ 17‬ﻣﻢ )‪ –1.0‬ﻡ‪–1‬؛ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‬
‫‪ +0.5-–1.7‬ﻡ‪–1‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ‪ BriteView‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ B‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻻﻣﻌﺔ ‪Mark VII‬‬
‫ﺍﺭﺗﺪﺍﺩ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺗﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻴﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ AF-S‬ﻭ‪ AF-P‬ﻭ ‪.AF-I‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺭﺃﺳﻲ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫‪ 30 - 1/4000‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ‪ 1/3‬ﺃﻭ ‪EV 1/2‬؛ ‪) Bulb‬ﻓﺘﺢ(‪،‬‬
‫‪) Time‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ(‬
‫‪ 1/200=X‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ؛ ﺗﺰﺍﻣﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ‬
‫‪) 8‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ(‪) ! ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ(‪) 9 ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‪) J ،‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ(‪) E ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ(‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻡ‬
‫• !‪ :‬ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 3‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫• ‪ :9‬ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 5‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ JPEG‬ﻭ ‪ 12‬ﺑﺖ ‪ (NEF/RAW‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ 14‬ﺑﺖ ‪(NEF/RAW‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺰﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺑﺄﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪،(AF-C‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪10‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪ 20 ،‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ؛ ‪ 9-1‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ 5 ،‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﹴ‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪357‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ )‪ ،ISO 100‬ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪° 20 ،f/1.4‬ﻡ(‬
‫ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ 358‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ TTL‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ‪RGB‬‬
‫‪ 2016‬ﺑﻜﺴﻞ‬
‫• ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ‪II‬‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ‪ E‬ﻭ‪ ،(D‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ‪II‬‬
‫)ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ(‬
‫• ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 75%‬ﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻄﺮ‬
‫‪ 8‬ﻣﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫• ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻄﺮ ‪ 3.5‬ﻣﻢ )ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 2.5%‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ( ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫• ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪EV 20–0 :‬‬
‫• ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪EV 20–2 :‬‬
‫‪CPU‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪ i‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ؛ ‪ j‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻄﻔﺄ(؛ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺮﻥ )‪(P‬؛ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪(S‬؛‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪(A‬؛ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪(M‬؛ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ )‪ k‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ؛ ‪ l‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ؛ ‪ p‬ﻃﻔﻞ؛ ‪ m‬ﺃﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ؛‬
‫‪ n‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ؛ ‪ o‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﻠﻴﺔ؛ ‪ r‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻴﻠﻲ؛‬
‫‪ s‬ﺣﻔﻠﺔ‪/‬ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ؛ ‪ t‬ﺷﺎﻃﺊ‪/‬ﺛﻠﺞ؛ ‪ u‬ﻏﺮﻭﺏ؛ ‪ v‬ﺍﻟﻐﺴﻖ‪/‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ؛ ‪ w‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻟﻴﻒ؛ ‪ x‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻌﺔ؛‬
‫‪ y‬ﺃﺯﻫﺎﺭ؛ ‪ z‬ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻳﻒ؛ ‪ 0‬ﺃﻃﻌﻤﺔ(؛ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫)‪ %‬ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﻠﻴﺔ؛ ‪ S‬ﻣﺸﺮﻕ ﻣﻤﺘﺎﺯ؛ ‪ T‬ﺯﺍﻫﻲ؛ ‪ U‬ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ؛‬
‫' ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻌﺒﺔ؛ ( ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ؛ ‪ 3‬ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ؛‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻇﻠﻴﺔ؛ ‪ 2‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ؛ ‪ 3‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺧﺎﻓﺘﺔ(‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻄﻪ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ –5‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ EV +5‬ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ‪ 1/3‬ﺃﻭ ‪ EV 1/2‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﻭ‪ h‬ﻭ‪%‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﻬﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪(L) A‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪) ISO‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫‪ 25600 – ISO 100‬ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪ .EV 1/3‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺑﻪ(‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫‪ Y‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ Z ،‬ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‪ P ،‬ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ‪ Q ،‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‪،‬‬
‫‪ R‬ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‪ ! ،‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪Multi-CAM‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ 4800DX‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ‪ ،TTL‬ﻭ ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ )ﺑﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ 9‬ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻣﺪﺓ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ‪ 3–0.5‬ﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ(‬
‫‪° 20 ،ISO 100) EV +19 - –1‬ﻡ(‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ :(AF‬ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)‪(AF-S‬؛ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(AF-C‬؛ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ AF-S/AF-C‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(AF-A‬؛ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪ :(MF‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 39‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 11‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ؛ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 9‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 21‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ )ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪(L) A‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪359‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ‬
‫‪Creative Lighting System‬‬
‫)‪ (CLS‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫‪ 360‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ : ' ،U ،T ،S ،w ،s ،o ،n ،p ،k ،i‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ :0 ،M ،A ،S ،P‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ 12 ،12‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )ﻡ‪° 20 ،ISO 100 ،‬ﻡ(‬
‫‪ :TTL‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫‪ 2016 RGB‬ﺑﻜﺴﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻗﻮﻱ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻄﻪ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ -3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ EV +1‬ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ‪ 1/3‬ﺃﻭ ‪ EV 1/2‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﻭ‪h‬‬
‫ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺷﺤﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ؛‬
‫ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ‪ ISO 518‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻔﻞ ﺃﻣﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ‪ CLS‬ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪) AS-15‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ(‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﻃﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ )‪ 7‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ(‪ ،‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼﺵ‪،‬‬
‫ﻏﺎﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‪ ،‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ADL‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ :(AF‬ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)‪(AF-S‬؛ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(AF-F‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪(MF‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻫﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫)ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﻬﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ i‬ﻭ ‪j‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ TTL‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ )ﺑﻜﺴﻞ( ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ • ‪1080 × 1920‬؛ ‪) 60p‬ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻲ(‪24p ،25p ،30p ،50p ،‬‬
‫• ‪720 × 1280‬؛ ‪50p ،60p‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻟﻺﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﻼﻡ ‪ 60p‬ﻭ‪ 50p‬ﻭ‪30p‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ ،25p‬ﻭ‪ 24p‬ﻫﻮ ‪ 59.94‬ﻭ‪ 50‬ﻭ‪ 29.97‬ﻭ‪ 25‬ﻭ‪ 23.976‬ﺇ‪/‬ﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ .‬ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻛﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ★‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫‪MOV‬‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫‪ H.264/MPEG-4‬ﺗﺸﻔﻴﺮ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ‬
‫‪ PCM‬ﺧﻄﻲ‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫‪25600–ISO 100‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫‪ 8.1‬ﺳﻢ‪-3.2/‬ﺑﻮﺻﺔ )‪ ،(2 : 3‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ‪ 1037‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫)‪ 1036800 = 3 × 480 × 720‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪ TFT LCD‬ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﻳﺎ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ ،°170‬ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ ،100%‬ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪361‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫‪USB‬‬
‫ﺧﺮﺝ ‪HDMI‬‬
‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ‪/‬ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ )ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ(‬
‫‪ 362‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ )‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 12‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 80‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ( ﻣﻊ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﻗﺺ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻭﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪ 36‬ﺣﺮﻓﹰﺎ(‬
‫‪ USB‬ﻓﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ‪ USB‬ﻣﺼﻐﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺑﻤﺪﺧﻞ ‪ USB‬ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ‪ HDMI‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪C‬‬
‫ﱢ‬
‫• ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪WR-R10 ،WR-1 :‬‬
‫)ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ(‬
‫• ﺃﺳﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪) MC-DC2 :‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ(‬
‫• ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ‪GP-1/ :GPS‬‬
‫‪) GP-1A‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ(‬
‫ﻣﻘﺒﺲ ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ ﺑﺴﻦ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ )ﻗﻄﺮ ‪ 3.5‬ﻣﻢ(؛ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ ‪ ME-1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ‪IEEE 802.11g ،IEEE 802.11b :‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ 2462–2412 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﻫﺮﺗﺰ )ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ ‪(11–1‬‬
‫• ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ‪ 6.6 :‬ﺩﻳﺴﻴﺒﻞ ﻣﻠﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻁ )ﺇﻳﺮﺏ(‬
‫• ﺗﻮﺛﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ‪WPA2-PSK ،‬‬
‫• ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﺍﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪4.1‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ‪ 2480–2402 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﻫﺮﺗﺰ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ 2480–2402 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﻫﺮﺗﺰ‬
‫• ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ )‪(EIRP‬‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ‪ 4.6 :‬ﺩﻳﺴﻴﺒﻞ ﻣﻠﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻁ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ 4.6 :‬ﺩﻳﺴﻴﺒﻞ ﻣﻠﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻁ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 10‬ﻡ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫‪NFC‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺒﺲ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺒﺲ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫)ﻋﺮﺽ × ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ × ﻋﻤﻖ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪ NFC Forum‬ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪3‬‬
‫‪ 13.56‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﻫﺮﺗﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻐﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻐﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺴﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ(‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻬﻮﻟﻨﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻠﻨﺪﻳﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻧﺪﻭﻧﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﻳﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻟﻨﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻐﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻐﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﺯﺍﻳﻞ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻣﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻠﻮﻏﻮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻳﻼﻧﺪﻳﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻭﻛﺮﺍﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺘﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪EN-EL14a‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪EH-5b/EH-5c‬؛ ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪) EP-5A‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ(‬
‫‪ 1/4‬ﺑﻮﺻﺔ )‪(ISO 1222‬‬
‫‪ 70 × 97 × 124‬ﻣﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‬
‫‪ 465‬ﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ؛‬
‫‪ 415‬ﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ )ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫‪° 0‬ﻡ–‪° 40‬ﻡ‬
‫‪ 85%‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ )ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻜﺜﻴﻒ(‬
‫• ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ (CIPA‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻬﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻧﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﱠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮﻳﱠﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺠﻢ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪363‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺷﺎﺣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪MH-24‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫)ﻋﺮﺽ × ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ × ﻋﻤﻖ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ‪ 240–100‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‪ 60/50 ،‬ﻫﺮﺗﺰ‪ 0.2 ،‬ﺃﻣﺒﻴﺮ ﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ‪ 8.4‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‪ 0.9/‬ﺃﻣﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪EN-EL14a‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻭ‪ 50‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ‪° 25‬ﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‬
‫‪° 0‬ﻡ–‪° 40‬ﻡ‬
‫‪ 97 × 26 × 70‬ﻣﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ‬
‫‪ 96‬ﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ m‬ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ p ،‬ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ q ،‬ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ‪) II‬ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻝ‪(.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ‪EN-EL14a‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫)ﻋﺮﺽ × ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ × ﻋﻤﻖ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‬
‫‪ 7.2‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‪1230/‬ﻣﻠﻠﻲ ﺃﻣﺒﻴﺮ‪/‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫‪ 0°‬ﻡ –‪ 40°‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ‪ 14 × 53 × 38‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 49‬ﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻔﻆ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 364‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ DCF‬ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪ :2.0‬ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪ (DCF‬ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ Exif‬ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪ :2.3‬ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪) Exif‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ‬
‫ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ( ﺍﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪ ،2.3‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪.Exif‬‬
‫‪ :PictBridge‬ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﺃﻭﻻ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :HDMI‬ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻂ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﺍﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺇﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﻸﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫‪ HDMI‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻜﺎﺑﻞ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪365‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ IOS‬ﻫﻲ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪ ،Cisco Systems, Inc.‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ Windows .‬ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪ Microsoft‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ Mac‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ OS X‬ﻭ‪ ®Apple‬ﻭ‪ ®App Store‬ﻭﺷﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪ Apple‬ﻭ‪ ®iPhone‬ﻭ‪ ®iPad‬ﻭ‪ ®iPod touch‬ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪ .Apple Inc‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺪ ‪ Android‬ﻭ‪Google Play‬‬
‫ﻭﺷﻌﺎﺭ ‪ Google Play‬ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪ .Google LLC‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪ Android‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻭﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ Google‬ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ ‪ .3.0‬ﺷﻌﺎﺭ ‪ PictBridge‬ﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪ SD‬ﻭ ‪ SDHC‬ﻭ ‪ SDXC‬ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪،LLC. HDMI ،SD-3C‬‬
‫ﻭﺷﻌﺎﺭ ‪ HDMI‬ﻭ ‪ High-Definition Multimedia Interface‬ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪.HDMI Licensing LLC‬‬
‫ﺗﹸﻌﺪ ‪ Wi-Fi‬ﻭﺷﻌﺎﺭ ‪ Wi-Fi‬ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ‪Wi-Fi Alliance.‬‬
‫‪ N-Mark‬ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪ NFC Forum، Inc.‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ‪ ®Bluetooth‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻣﻤﻠﻮﻛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ‪ .Bluetooth SIG, Inc‬ﻭﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺧﻴﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺘﺞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻚ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻤﺎﻟﻜﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪Use of the Made for Apple badge means that an accessory has been‬‬
‫‪designed to connect specifically to the Apple products identified‬‬
‫‪in the badge, and has been certified by the developer to meet‬‬
‫‪Apple performance standards. Apple is not responsible for the‬‬
‫‪operation of this device or its compliance with safety and regulatory‬‬
‫‪standards. Please note that the use of this accessory with an Apple‬‬
‫‪product may affect wireless performance.‬‬
‫‪ 366‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪.(276 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ‪(FreeType2) FreeType‬‬
‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺧﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ © ‪ 2012‬ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ‪The FreeType Project‬‬
‫)‪ .(http://www.freetype.org‬ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ‪) MIT‬ﺣﺮﻑﺑﺎﺯ(‬
‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺧﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ © ‪ 2016‬ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ‪The Harfbuzz Project‬‬
‫)‪ .(http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/HarfBuzz‬ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪367‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫‪ 368‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ f/3.5–5.6G VR‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-P DX NIKKOR 55–18‬‬
‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻤﺖ ﺑﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺠ ﱠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪ f/3.5–5.6G VR‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF-P DX NIKKOR 55–18‬ﹸ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺴﺤﺐ‪9 31.....................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪30..............................‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ‪307 ..........................................CPU‬‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪95.................................‬‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‪49..................................................‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺤﻮﺑﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺮﻱ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ SLR‬ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫‪ DX‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ؛ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ‪ SLR‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ D3‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ D2‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪D1‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ D700‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ D300‬ﻭ‪ D200‬ﻭ‪ D100‬ﻭ‪ D90‬ﻭ‪ D80‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ D70‬ﻭ‪ D60‬ﻭ‪D50‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ D40‬ﻭ‪ D7000‬ﻭ‪ D5100‬ﻭ‪ D5000‬ﻭ‪ D3200‬ﻭ‪ D3100‬ﻭﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ D3000‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ D5‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪D4‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ D810‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ D800‬ﻭ‪ Df‬ﻭ‪ D750‬ﻭ‪ D610‬ﻭ‪ D600‬ﻭ‪ D7200‬ﻭ‪D7100‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ D5500‬ﻭ‪ D5300‬ﻭ‪ ،D3300‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺤﺪﺙ ﻵﺧﺮ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪369‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(82 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫)‪ .(82 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫)ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻤﺖ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(؛ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﹸﻌﺮﻑ ﺑـ‬
‫"ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ" )‪ .(M/A‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ )ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ .(95 0‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻭﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ؛ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻲ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ D5200‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻻﻧﻘﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‪ .‬ﺃﻋﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻤﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻭﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺤﺮﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 370‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ‪ 0.6‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻓﺔ )ﻇﻼﻝ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﻴﻖ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺄﻛﻤﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ 1.0‬ﻡ‬
‫‪ 18‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪D3300/D3400/D5200/D5300/D5500/D5600‬‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ 24‬ﻭ‪ 35‬ﻭ‪ 45‬ﻭ‪ 55‬ﻣﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪371‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ )‪(VR‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ‪ AF-P DX NIKKOR 55–18 f/3.5–5.6G VR‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ‪ VR‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ .(232 0‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺴﺮﻱ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 4.0‬ﻭﻗﻔﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ‪Camera and Imaging) CIPA‬‬
‫‪Products Association‬؛ ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ(؛ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ FX‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ FX‬ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ؛ ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ DX‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ .DX‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫• ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻄﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺃﺳﻬﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺴﻼﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻗﻮﺳﻲ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﹸﻨﺼﺢ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻚ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻓﻪ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 372‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫• ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻲ ‪ 55‬ﻣﻢ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪LC-55A‬‬
‫• ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﻟﺒﻴﺔ ‪ 55‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ ‪LF-4‬‬
‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪CL-0815‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪HB-N106‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﺫﹺ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )●( ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ) (‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ q‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )‪ (w‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻣﺤﺎﺫﺍﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ● ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )‪.(—‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻚ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺴﻜﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺗﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻹﻣﺴﺎﻙ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻨﻒ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪373‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G AF-P DX‬ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ‪F‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫‪ 55–18‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪f/3.5–5.6‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫‪ 12‬ﻋﻨﺼﺮﹰﺍ ﻓﻲ ‪ 9‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ )ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺷﺒﻪ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻭﻳﺔ(‬
‫‪´50 °28 – °76‬‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﻣﻠﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮﻱ )‪(55 ،45 ،35 ،24 ،18‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺯﻭﻡ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺯﻭﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﺤﺮﻙ ﺧﻄﻮﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺴﻼﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺑﻤﻠﻒ ﺻﻮﺗﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫)‪(VCMs‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ‪ 0.25‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ )‪ (96 0‬ﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫‪) 7‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻏﺸﺎﺀ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ(‬
‫ﺷﻔﺮﺍﺕ ﺣﺎﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺣﺎﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫• ﻃﻮﻝ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ‪ 18‬ﻣﻢ‪f/3.5–22 :‬‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫• ﻃﻮﻝ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ‪ 55‬ﻣﻢ‪f/5.6–38 :‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺣﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫‪ 55‬ﻣﻢ )‪ 0.75=P‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ‪ 64.5‬ﻣﻢ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻗﻄﺮ × ‪ 62.5‬ﻣﻢ )ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺴﺤﻮﺑﺔ(‬
‫‪ 205‬ﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬
‫‪ 374‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ f/4.5–6.3G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF-P DX NIKKOR 300–70‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ f/4.5–6.3G ED‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-P DX NIKKOR 300–70‬‬
‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻤﺖ ﺑﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺠ ﱠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪AF-P DX NIKKOR‬‬
‫‪ f/4.5–6.3G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪ 300–70‬ﺃﻭ ‪ f/4.5–6.3G ED‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-P DX NIKKOR 300–70‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﹸ‬
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‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪8 95.................................‬‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‪9 49..................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪30..............................‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ‪307 ..........................................CPU‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺤﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺼﺮﻳﹰﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ‪ SLR‬ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ DX‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ؛ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ‪ SLR‬ﻭﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ SLR‬ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪ D3‬ﻭﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪ D2‬ﻭﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪ D1‬ﻭ‪ D700‬ﻭﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪ D300‬ﻭ‪ D200‬ﻭ‪ D100‬ﻭ‪D90‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ D80‬ﻭﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪ D70‬ﻭ‪ D60‬ﻭ‪ D50‬ﻭﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪ D40‬ﻭ‪ D7000‬ﻭ‪ D5100‬ﻭ‪ D5000‬ﻭ‪D3200‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ D3100‬ﻭ‪ .D3000‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ D5‬ﻭﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪D4‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪ D810‬ﻭﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪ D800‬ﻭ‪ Df‬ﻭ‪ D750‬ﻭ‪ D610‬ﻭ‪ D600‬ﻭ‪ D7200‬ﻭ‪ D7100‬ﻭ‪D5500‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ D5300‬ﻭ‪ ،D3300‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺤﺪﺙ ﻵﺧﺮ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪375‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(82 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺩﻋﻢ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﺎﻫﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﻗﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ‪.f/5.6‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ .(82 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﹰ ﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ )ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺯﺭ ‪ AF-ON‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﹰ ﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ "ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ" )‪ .(M/A‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﺄﻧﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﹰ ﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ )ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪ AF-ON‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﹰ ﺎ( ﻣﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺳﻴﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )‪ .(95 0‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻣﺪﺓ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺷﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻲ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ D5200‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻻﻧﻘﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‪ .‬ﺃﻋﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻤﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻭﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺤﺮﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 376‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ )ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪f/4.5–6.3G ،VR‬‬
‫‪ ED VR‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫‪AF-P DX NIKKOR 300–70‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ‪ AF-P DX NIKKOR 300–70 f/4.5–6.3G ED VR‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ‪VR‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ .(232 0‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻣﺘﻰ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ‬
‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 4.0‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻣﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ‪ VR‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫)‪ ،Camera and Imaging Products Association (CIPA‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪FX‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ FX‬ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ DX‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ .DX‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫• ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻀﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺎ‪ .‬ﻻ‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻄﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺃﺳﻬﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺴﻼﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻗﻮﺳﻲ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻚ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﻨﺎ ﹰﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪377‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺓ‬
‫• ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻲ ‪ 58‬ﻣﻢ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪LC-58‬‬
‫• ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ‬
‫❚❚ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺑﺒﺮﻏﻲ ‪ 58‬ﻣﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ ‪LF-4‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪CL-1020‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪HB-77‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﺫﹺ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )●( ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ) ( ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ q‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )‪ (w‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻣﺤﺎﺫﺍﺓ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ●‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )‪.(—‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻚ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺴﻜﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺗﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻹﻣﺴﺎﻙ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻨﻒ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻜﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ )‪.(—‬‬
‫‪ 378‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G AF-P DX‬ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ‪F‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫‪ 300–70‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪f/4.5–6.3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫‪ 14‬ﻋﻨﺼﺮﹰﺍ ﻓﻲ ‪ 10‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ )ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪(ED‬‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪´20 °5 – ´50 °22‬‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﻣﻠﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮﻱ )‪(300 ،200 ،135 ،100 ،70‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺯﻭﻡ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺯﻭﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﺤﺮﻙ ﺧﻄﻮﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺴﻼﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺑﻤﻠﻒ ﺻﻮﺗﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫) ‪(VCMs) AF-P DX NIKKOR 300–70‬‬
‫‪ f/4.5–6.3G ED VR‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ‪ 1.1‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ )‪ (96 0‬ﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫‪) 7‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻏﺸﺎﺀ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ(‬
‫ﺷﻔﺮﺍﺕ ﺣﺎﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺣﺎﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫• ﻃﻮﻝ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ‪ 70‬ﻣﻢ‪f/4.5–22 :‬‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫• ﻃﻮﻝ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ‪ 300‬ﻣﻢ‪f/6.3–32 :‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺣﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫‪ 58‬ﻣﻢ )‪ 0.75=P‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻗﻄﺮ ‪ 72‬ﻣﻢ × ‪ 125‬ﻣﻢ )ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻔﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ(‬
‫• ‪ 415 :AF-P DX NIKKOR 300–70 f/4.5–6.3G ED VR‬ﺟﺮﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬
‫• ‪ 400 :AF-P DX NIKKOR 300–70 f/4.5–6.3G ED‬ﺟﺮﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪379‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ f/3.5–5.6G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S DX NIKKOR 140–18‬‬
‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻤﺖ ﺑﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺠ ﱠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪ f/3.5–5.6G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF-S DX NIKKOR 140–18‬ﹸ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‪10 49..................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪11 95.................................‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪30..............................‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺸﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ‪307 ..........................................CPU‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫‪95 ،31.....................................................A-M‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ‪382 ....................................................‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺣﺼﺮﻳﹰﺎ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪.DX‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ A-M‬ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ )‪.(95 ،82 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪AF-S DX NIKKOR 140-18 f/3.5–5.6G ED VR‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (AF-S‬ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ‪ A-M‬ﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،A‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 380‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ‪ 0.6‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻓﺔ )ﻇﻼﻝ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﻴﻖ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻇﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺄﻛﻤﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ 1.0‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ 2.5‬ﻡ‬
‫‪ 1.0‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫‪/D7000/D7100/D7200‬‬
‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪D100/D200/D300‬‬
‫‪ 18‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 140–24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 18‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 140–35‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪/D5000/D5100/D5200/D5300/D5500/D5600‬‬
‫‪/D3000/D3100/D3200/D3300/D3400‬‬
‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪/D60/D70‬ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪D40‬‬
‫‪ 24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 1.0‬ﻡ‬
‫‪ 140–35‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪D50/D80/D90‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪381‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ )‪(VR‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ON‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺴﺮﻱ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 4.0‬ﻭﻗﻔﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ )ﺣﺴﺒﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ 140‬ﻣﻢ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪D300s‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ ،(CIPA‬ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ(‪ .‬ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫• ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻄﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺃﺳﻬﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺴﻼﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻗﻮﺳﻲ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻠﺼﻠﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻄﻼﹰ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺤﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ OFF‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.ON‬‬
‫‪ 382‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫• ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻲ ‪ 67‬ﻣﻢ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪LC-67‬‬
‫• ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﻟﺒﻴﺔ ‪ 67‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ ‪LF-4‬‬
‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺔ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺮﻧﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪CL-1018‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪HB-32‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﺫﹺ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )●( ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ) (‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ q‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )‪ (w‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻣﺤﺎﺫﺍﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ● ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )‪.(—‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻚ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺴﻜﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺗﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻹﻣﺴﺎﻙ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻨﻒ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪383‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G AF-S DX‬ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ‪F‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫‪ 140–18‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪f/3.5–5.6‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ‬
‫‪ 17‬ﻋﻨﺼﺮﹰﺍ ﻓﻲ ‪ 12‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ )ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ ED‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺷﺒﻪ ﻛﺮﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ(‬
‫‪´30 °11 – °76‬‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﻣﻠﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮﻱ )‪(140 ،70 ،50 ،35 ،24 ،18‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺯﻭﻡ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺯﻭﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ‪(IF) Internal Focusing‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﺤﺮﻙ ﻣﻮﺟﻲ‬
‫ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻭﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺴﻼﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺑﻤﻠﻒ ﺻﻮﺗﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫)‪(VCMs‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ‪ 0.45‬ﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ )‪ (96 0‬ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫‪) 7‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻏﺸﺎﺀ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ(‬
‫ﺷﻔﺮﺍﺕ ﻏﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻏﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫• ﻃﻮﻝ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ‪ 18‬ﻣﻢ‪f/3.5–22 :‬‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫• ﻃﻮﻝ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ‪ 140‬ﻣﻢ‪f/5.6–38 :‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺣﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫‪ 67‬ﻣﻢ )‪ 0.75 = P‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 78‬ﻣﻢ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻗﻄﺮ × ‪ 97‬ﻣﻢ )ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻔﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬
‫‪ 490‬ﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻔﻆ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 384‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫• ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ‪.CPU‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻟﻠﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ‬
‫ﻭﺑﺼﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﺑﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﺿﻒ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ‬
‫ﻗﻄﻨﻴﺔ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻨﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺗﻠﻄﺦ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ ﺑﺄﺻﺎﺑﻌﻚ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﺑ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻣﺬﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﻋﻀﻮﻳﹰﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺨﻔﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺰﻳﻦ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻳﺪ )‪ (NC‬ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻤﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ ﻭﺟﺎﻑ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻔﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﺃ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺨﺰﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﻧﺎﻓﺘﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺮﺍﺕ ﻛﺎﻓﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺟﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﺻﺪﺃ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺗﻠﻒ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺻﻼﺣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪385‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻭﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻮﻓﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻛﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﻐﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺸﻐﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ‬
‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﻘﻞ ﺃﺯﻫﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ" )‪.(86 0‬‬
‫‪ 386‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫‪ SanDisk Extreme Pro 95 MB/s SDHC UHS-I‬ﺳﻌﺔ ‪ 16‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪،NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‪ 14 ،‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫)‪،NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‪ 12 ،‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ‪1‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ‪2‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪ 26.3‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪428‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪ 21.3‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪511‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ 13.4‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 8.0‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 4.1‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 6.8‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 4.1‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 2.1‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 2.6‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 1.9‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 1.2‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪929‬‬
‫‪1500‬‬
‫‪2900‬‬
‫‪1800‬‬
‫‪3000‬‬
‫‪5600‬‬
‫‪3500‬‬
‫‪5700‬‬
‫‪10300‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ .ISO 100‬ﻳﻘﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ )‪ (230 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ )‪ (232 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ )‪.(243 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪387‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻭﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﺪﺓ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪1230) EN-EL14a‬ﻣﻠﻠﻲ ﺃﻣﺒﻴﺮ‪/‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫• ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ )ﻃﺒﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪ 970 :(1 CIPA‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ‬
‫• ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ‪ 70‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪2 1080/60p‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ‪° 23‬ﻡ )‪° ±2‬ﻡ( ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪ AF-P DX NIKKOR 55–18 f/3.5–5.6G VR‬ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﻯ ﻭﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻛﻞ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ؛ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ؛‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺒﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ؛ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺘﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺗﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪° 23‬ﻡ )‪° ±2‬ﻡ( ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ AF-P DX NIKKOR 55–18 f/3.5–5.6G VR‬ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩﻫﺎ ‪ ،Camera and Imaging Products Association) CIPA‬ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ(‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻞ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 20‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺠﻢ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ؛ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻌﺖ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 388‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫• ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫• ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫• ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ‪) Wi-Fi‬ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ( ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪) VR‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ( ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪VR‬‬
‫• ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪.AF-P‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪:EN-EL14a‬‬
‫• ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻸﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﻔﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﺖ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪389‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ‬
‫‪) i‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪47 ،4 ..............................................‬‬
‫‪) j‬ﻭﺿﻊ )ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻓﻼﺵ( ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪47 ،4 ......................‬‬
‫‪) h‬ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ(‪58 ،4 ...........................................‬‬
‫‪) k‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ( ‪59.............................................‬‬
‫‪) l‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ( ‪59................................................‬‬
‫‪) p‬ﻃﻔﻞ( ‪59...............................................................‬‬
‫‪) m‬ﺃﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ(‪60.................................................‬‬
‫‪) n‬ﻣﻘﺮﺏ( ‪60..............................................................‬‬
‫‪) o‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﻠﻴﺔ(‪60...................................‬‬
‫‪) r‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻴﻠﻲ(‪61.......................................‬‬
‫‪) s‬ﺣﻔﻠﺔ‪/‬ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ(‪61.......................................‬‬
‫‪) t‬ﺷﺎﻃﺊ‪/‬ﺛﻠﺞ(‪61.....................................................‬‬
‫‪) u‬ﻏﺮﻭﺏ( ‪62...............................................................‬‬
‫‪) v‬ﺍﻟﻐﺴﻖ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ(‪62................................................‬‬
‫‪) w‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻟﻴﻒ( ‪62.....................‬‬
‫‪) x‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻌﺔ(‪63..................................................‬‬
‫‪) y‬ﺃﺯﻫﺎﺭ(‪63.................................................................‬‬
‫‪) z‬ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻳﻒ(‪63..................................................‬‬
‫‪) 0‬ﺃﻃﻌﻤﺔ( ‪64.............................................................‬‬
‫‪) q‬ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ( ‪65 ،4 ..................................‬‬
‫‪) %‬ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﻠﻴﺔ(‪65.......................................................‬‬
‫‪) S‬ﻣﺸﺮﻕ ﻣﻤﺘﺎﺯ(‪66...................................................‬‬
‫‪) T‬ﺯﺍﻫﻲ(‪66...............................................................‬‬
‫‪) U‬ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(‪70 ،66 .........................................‬‬
‫' )ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻌﺒﺔ(‪71 ،67 ....................................‬‬
‫( )ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ(‪72 ،67 ............................................‬‬
‫‪) 3‬ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪73 ،67 ..........................................‬‬
‫‪) 1‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻇﻠﻴﺔ( ‪68....................................................‬‬
‫‪) 2‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ(‪68...............................................‬‬
‫‪) 3‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺧﺎﻓﺘﺔ( ‪68..................................................‬‬
‫‪) P‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ(‪119 ،118 ،4.........................‬‬
‫‪) S‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟـﻮﻳــﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‪121 ،118 ،4....................‬‬
‫‪) A‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪ -‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‪122 ،118 ،4......................‬‬
‫‪) M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪123 ،118 ،4..................................................‬‬
‫‪) U‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺮﻥ( ‪120 ...................................................‬‬
‫‪) 8‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ(‪75.......................................................‬‬
‫! )ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ(‪76 ،75 ...............................‬‬
‫‪ 390‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪) 9‬ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ( ‪76 ،75 ....................................‬‬
‫‪) E‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ(‪79 ،75 ...............................................‬‬
‫‪) J‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ(‪78 ،75 .............................‬‬
‫‪) c‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪87..............‬‬
‫‪) d‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ(‬
‫‪87‬‬
‫‪) e‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ(‪88.....................‬‬
‫‪) f‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ(‪88......................................‬‬
‫‪) 6‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ( ‪89................‬‬
‫‪) 7‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ( ‪89.......................‬‬
‫‪) 8‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ(‪89...........................‬‬
‫‪) 9‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻫﺪﻑ(‪90..........................‬‬
‫‪) L‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ(‪128 .....................................‬‬
‫‪) M‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ( ‪128 ...........................‬‬
‫‪) N‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ( ‪128 .............................................‬‬
‫‪) o‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪102 .......................................‬‬
‫‪) j‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ(‪104 ،102 .....................‬‬
‫‪) p‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ( ‪104 ،102 ..........................‬‬
‫‪) q‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ(‪104 .......................‬‬
‫‪) Y‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ( ‪134 ........................................‬‬
‫‪) E‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ( ‪132 ........................‬‬
‫‪) e‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ‪151 ...........‬‬
‫‪) f‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪151 ...................................(WB‬‬
‫‪) g‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪151 ................................. (ADL‬‬
‫‪) d‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ(‪43......................................................‬‬
‫‪) m‬ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ(‪140 ...............................................‬‬
‫‪) L‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪145 ..................................‬‬
‫‪) I‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ(‪96 ،93 ،50 ......................‬‬
‫‪) N‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ(‪318 ،54 ،5 ...................‬‬
‫‪) a‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ(‪164 ،47 .......................................‬‬
‫‪) t‬ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ( ‪387 ،77 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪187 ،166 ،12 .......................................................P‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪115 ،6 ................................................................ R‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪230 ....................................................... Adobe RGB‬‬
‫‪235 ،82 ............................................................. AF-C‬‬
‫‪83........................................................................AF-F‬‬
‫‪C‬‬
‫‪V‬‬
‫‪210 ...................................................Capture NX-D‬‬
‫‪219 ..................................................................... CEC‬‬
‫‪315 ......................................................................CLS‬‬
‫‪210 ............................................................ViewNX-i‬‬
‫‪W‬‬
‫‪D‬‬
‫‪140 .......................................................................WB‬‬
‫‪xxii، 272 ...........................................................Wi-Fi‬‬
‫‪285 ..........................................................D-Lighting‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ‪136 ............................................‬‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪290 ..........................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪155 . (Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻺﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪204 .......................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻺﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‪/‬ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪203 .....‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪216 ...................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪52............................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ‪178 .................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ‪322 ،41 .....................‬‬
‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪161 ............................Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ )ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪272 ..........................‬‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‪266 ....................‬‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ )ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ(‪303 ..............................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻓﺎﺗﺢ‪290 ..............................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ‪290 .......................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪365 .................................................... Exif 2.3‬‬
‫ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‪276 ........................................‬‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ )ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ( ‪301 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪52 ،50 ......‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪52 ،51 ............................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ(‪75......................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ‪235 ،225 ،115 ........................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪235 .......................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪225 ...............................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪168 ...................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ ‪169 .....................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪338 ....................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﻓﻼﻡ‪164 ......................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪228 ................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪49 ،41 ......‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‪271 ............................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‪300 .................................................‬‬
‫‪361 ...................................................................H.264‬‬
‫‪365 ،218 ...........................................................HDMI‬‬
‫‪219 ......................................................... HDMI-CEC‬‬
‫‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ( ‪138 ...........................‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‪231 ........................................................‬‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪228 ،107 ...........................................‬‬
‫‪247 ،246 ...........................................................i-TTL‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪98...................................................................... JPEG‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ‪98.......................................................‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ‪98..............................................................‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‪98.............................................................‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫)‪280 ،227 ،98 ........................................ NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪212 ..............................................Nikon Transfer 2‬‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫‪365 ،214 ................................................. PictBridge‬‬
‫‪R‬‬
‫‪230 ،190 ............................................................RGB‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪i، 33 ...................................................... SnapBridge‬‬
‫‪230 ...................................................................sRGB‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪391‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪233 ............................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ ‪120 ....................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪262 ...................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ‪231 .............................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪247 ................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ‪246 ................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ‪219 ................................HDMI‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺴﻲ ﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪256 ....................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‪222 .......................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪97-82 .................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‪209 ،201 ....................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‪221 ،189 ...................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ ‪262 ،40 ........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪282 ،168 ،100 ...............................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ‪215 .............................................PictBridge‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‪160 ،158 .........................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪122 ........................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺤﺐ‪32 ،31 ...‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ‪262 ،40 .........................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪143 ..........................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪314 .......................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪305 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪124 ،122 ،118 ...............................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪215 ............................................... PictBridge‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ‪321 ............................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ‪262 ....................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ ‪262 .....................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ‪241 ،79 ،75.......................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ‪127 ،125 ..........................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪265 ،8 ....................‬‬
‫ﺏ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ )‪217 ،216 ........................(PictBridge‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪323 ....................... Camera Control Pro 2‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪،155 ....Picture Control‬‬
‫‪157‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪364 ،321 ،27 ،26............................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪27......................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪387 ،324 ،259 ،27 ............................‬‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ‪xxii، 273 .........................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺗﺒﺔ )ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ( ‪304 ...........................................‬‬
‫‪ 392‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻲ ﺩﺍﻛﻦ‪290 ..............................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪192 ....................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‪269 ،195 .............................................‬‬
‫ﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ )‪215 ............................. (PictBridge‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ‪76.........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪270 .........................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪78 ،75 ......................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‪182 ،178 .................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‪287 ،232 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‪232 ......................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪228 ....................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ ‪288 .......................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪274 ....................................................Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪77........................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪222 ...........................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪291 .....................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪96 ،30 ،1 .........................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪235 ،94–82 ..................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪82..................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪235 ،94–82 ..................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪87.......‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪88......................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪87......................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‪89......................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪90..................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪89...................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ‪89................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪95 ،83 ..............................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪227 .........................................NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪242 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪227 ....................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪184 .................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪251 ،151 ......................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪) ADL‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ‪151 ...........‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪) WB‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ‪151 ............‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪151 ................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪151 ...............................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪286 .....................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪251 ،151 .........................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪293 ......................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪109 ...........................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ‪171 .................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‪287 ...................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ‪132 ،130 ،128 ...................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪230 ...................................NR‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪88................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪260 ................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ‪367 ،276 ............................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪132 .................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪134 ...................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪252 .......................................................... Fn‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪255 ...........................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪254 ...........................‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪283 ......................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ‪268 ،167 .......................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪382 ،377 ،372 ،232 ،32 ....................‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ‪232 ................................ VR‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ‪104 ،102 ................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ‪169 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ(‪140 .........................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ‪298 .....................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪296 ،73 ................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻴﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‪218 ...............................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪328 ................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‪286 ........................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ‪282 ،198 .........................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪178 ......................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪259 .........................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪140 ........................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪294 ،70 ............................................‬‬
‫ﺝ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪269 ............................................................GPS‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪98..........................................................‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪168 ........................................................‬‬
‫ﺡ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪168 ..................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ )‪215 ...........................(PictBridge‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪100 ......................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ‪205 .....................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪205 ........................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪206 ..............................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪206 ..................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪228 ،107 ...................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪182 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪261 ،193 .............................................‬‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪380 ،375 ،369 ،95 .................‬‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪238 .......AF‬‬
‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪200 .......................................................‬‬
‫ﺥ‬
‫ﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪243 .........................................................‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ ‪263 ...................................................‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪221 .......................................‬‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪239 ...................................‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩ‪144 ......................................‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪142 .................................................‬‬
‫ﺩﻗﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪365 ،218 ....................................................‬‬
‫ﺯ‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪314 ........................................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪252 ..................................................................... Fn‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪239 ،130 ،93 ،52 ،51 .......................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‪165 ..................................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪130 ..................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪254 ،130 ،94 ..................................‬‬
‫ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ‪196 ...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‪199 .............................................................‬‬
‫ﺱ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻃﻊ )ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ(‪140 .........................................‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪123 ،121 ،118 ....................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ‪393‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪228 ............................................‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪357 ،106 ...............................‬‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪263 .................................................‬‬
‫ﺳﻌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪387 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺳﻠﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪324 ،125 ...........................‬‬
‫ﺵ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺣﻦ‪364 ،321 ،26 ...................................................‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‪263 ،184 ،13 ..................................................‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪357 ........................................‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪15...........................................‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪265 ............................‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ‪13...........................................‬‬
‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪243 ،9 ..................................................‬‬
‫ﺹ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ )ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ( ‪100 ........................................‬‬
‫ﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪173 ،111 ...........................‬‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪13......................................................‬‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ )ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪.(Picture Control‬‬
‫‪155‬‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪262 ،40 ...............................................‬‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪264 ....................................‬‬
‫ﺽ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪157 .........................Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ( ‪145 ،140 ..........‬‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ( ‪140 ............‬‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ )ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ(‪289 ...........................‬‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪،237 ،85.....‬‬
‫‪310‬‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ‪...‬‬
‫‪310 ،237 ،85‬‬
‫ﻁ‬
‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪214 ..................................................................‬‬
‫ﻅ‬
‫ﻇﻞ )ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ(‪140 ..............................................‬‬
‫‪ 394‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻉ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ )ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ(‪289 ........................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪244 ،243 ................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ‪388 ......................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ )‪215 ..................................(PictBridge‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪46...............‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪236 ...................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‪369 ،305 ،30 ..................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪305 .........................................................CPU‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪308 .......................CPU‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪307 ............................................. D‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪307 ..............................................E‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪307 .............................................G‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ‪239 ............................................................ ISO‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪184 ............................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ ‪186 .....................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪208 .....................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪264 ،6 ............................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ‪243 ..............................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ‪185 ...........................................‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‪380 ،375 ،369 ،30 ...........................‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ‪96........................................‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪263 ،160 ،15 ....................‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ‪288 ......................................................‬‬
‫ﻍ‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪19..........................................................‬‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟـﻮﻳــﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋ